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Sample records for breast carcinoma transition

  1. Regulation of In Situ to Invasive Breast CarcinomaTransition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Min; Carroll, Danielle K.; Weremowicz, Stanislawa; Chen,Haiyan; Carrasco, Daniel; Richardson, Andrea; Bissell, Mina; Violette,Shelia; Gelman, Rebecca S.; Schnitt, Stuart; Polyak, Kornelia

    2007-03-13

    The transition of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinoma is a key event in breast tumor progression that is poorly understood. Comparative molecular analysis of tumor epithelial cells from in situ and invasive tumors has failed to identify consistent tumor stage-specific differences. However, the myoepithelial cell layer, present only in DCIS, is a key distinguishing and diagnostic feature. To determine the contribution of non-epithelial cells to tumor progression, we analyzed the role of myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts in the progression of in situ carcinomas using a xenograft model of human DCIS. Progression to invasion was promoted by fibroblasts, but inhibited by normal myoepithelial cells. The invasive tumor cells from these progressed lesions formed DCIS rather than invasive cancers when re-injected into naive mice. Molecular profiles of myoepithelial and epithelial cells isolated from primary normal and cancerous human breast tissue samples corroborated findings obtained in the xenograft model. These results provide the proof of principle that breast tumor progression could occur in the absence of additional genetic alterations and that tumor growth and progression could be controlled by replacement of normal myoepithelial inhibitory signals.

  2. Regulation of in situ to invasive breast carcinoma transition

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    Polyak, Kornelia; Hu, Min; Yao, Jun; Carroll, Danielle K.; Weremowicz, Stanislawa; Chen, Haiyan; Carrasco, Daniel; Richardson, Andrea; Violette, Shelia; Gelman, Rebecca S.; Bissell, Mina J.; Schnitt, Stuart; Polyak, Kornelia

    2008-05-07

    The transition of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinoma is a key event in breast tumor progression that is poorly understood. Comparative molecular analysis of tumor epithelial cells from in situ and invasive tumors has failed to identify consistent tumor stage-specific differences. However, the myoepithelial cell layer, present only in DCIS, is a key distinguishing and diagnostic feature. To determine the contribution of non-epithelial cells to tumor progression, we analyzed the role of myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts in the progression of in situ carcinomas using a xenograft model of human DCIS. Progression to invasion was promoted by fibroblasts, but inhibited by normal myoepithelial cells. The invasive tumor cells from these progressed lesions formed DCIS rather than invasive cancers when re-injected into naive mice. Molecular profiles of myoepithelial and epithelial cells isolated from primary normal and cancerous human breast tissue samples corroborated findings obtained in the xenograft model. These results provide the proof of principle that breast tumor progression could occur in the absence of additional genetic alterations and that tumor growth and progression could be controlled by replacement of normal myoepithelial inhibitory signals.

  3. Inhibition of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in metastatic breast carcinoma cells by c-Src suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Feng, Renqing

    2010-07-01

    The aberrant activation of c-Src regulates multiple functions during tumor progression. This study was conducted to investigate the role of c-Src suppression in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in human breast carcinoma cells. c-Src suppression by PP2 (a Src-family kinase inhibitor) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) was carried out in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Cell migration was analyzed by wound-healing assay. The transcription and protein levels of EMT markers and transcription factors were evaluated by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The changed cell morphology was photographed by light microscope. c-Src suppression by PP2 or siRNA reversed the mesenchymal-like phenotype in MDA-MB-231 cells. E-cadherin was upregulated in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells after c-Src suppression, whereas vimentin was downregulated in MDA-MB-231 cells. Slug and SIP1 were downregulated after c-Src suppression in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas Twist was unchanged. These results suggest that c-Src suppression by PP2 or siRNA may inhibit EMT through regulation of different transcription factors in breast carcinoma cells that have different metastatic potential.

  4. Breast carcinoma metastases.

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    Bodzin, G A; Staren, E D; Faber, L P

    1998-02-01

    With careful selection of patients, complete resection of pulmonary metastases from breast carcinoma may be a useful therapeutic option. Such a treatment appears to offer a significant survival benefit when compared with medical treatment alone, or with incomplete resection.

  5. [Breast carcinoma in men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigić, B; Balvanović, D; Rac, S; Bilbija, S

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe 8 cases of carcinoma of the male breast treated at the Clinic of Surgery, Clinical Medical Center Banja Luka in the period 1968-1988. In their discussion, the authors review contemporary findings concerning the genesis, evolution and treatment of this carcinoma.

  6. Breast metastases from rectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia; FANG Yu; LI Ang; LI Fei

    2011-01-01

    Metastases to the breast from extramammary neoplasms are very rare, constituting 2.7% of all malignant breast tumours. The most common primary tumor metastatic to the breast is primary breast cancer. Rectal cancer metastasizing to the breast is extremely rare. We report a case of aggressive rectal carcinoma with metastasis to the breast.

  7. Molecular pathology of breast apocrine carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J.E.; Gromova, I.; Gromov, P.;

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that encompasses a wide range of histopathological types including: invasive ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, tubular carcinoma, and apocrine carcinoma among others. Pure apocrine carcinomas represent about 0.5%...

  8. CCL21/CCR7 axis activating chemotaxis accompanied with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zou, Zhigeng; Suo, Ning; Zhang, Zongpu; Wan, Fangzhu; Zhong, Guangxin; Qu, Yan; Ntaka, Kwanele Siphelele; Tian, Hua

    2014-09-01

    Secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC/CCL21) and its receptor CCR7 have been implicated in lymph node metastasis, whereas the mechanism of which remains unclear. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in invasion and migration of cancer cells. We presumed that CCL21/CCR7 axis activates EMT process to induce cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Firstly, the expressions of CCR7 and EMT markers were examined by immunohistochemical staining in the primary breast carcinoma tissues from 60 patients who underwent radical mastectomy. Then, we investigated whether CCL21/CCR7 induces EMT process during mediating cancer cell invasion or migration in vitro. By immunohistolochemistry, high expressions of CCR7, Slug and N-cadherin were seen in 60, 65, and 76.67 % of tumors, respectively, and significantly associated with lymph node metastases as well as clinical pathological stage. Furthermore, the CCR7 expression was significantly correlated to Slug and N-cadherin. In vitro, stimulating breast cancer cell lines 1428, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with CCL21, the invasion and migration of tumor cells were promoted, and simultaneously, EMT phenotype of tumor cells was enhanced, including down-regulation of E-cadherin, up-regulation of Slug, Vimentin and N-cadherin at both protein and mRNA levels. Inversely, knockdown of CCR7 by shRNA suppressed tumor cell invasion, migration and EMT phenotype induced by CCL21. These results indicated that CCL21/CCR7 axis could activate EMT process during chemotaxis of breast carcinoma cells.

  9. DETECTION OF TELOMERASE ACTIVITY IN BREAST CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wentao; Xu Liangzhong; Zhang Taiming; Zhu weiping; Li Xiaomei; Jin Aiping

    1998-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the significance of telomerase activity in breast carcinoma with its respect to axillary lymph node status. Methods: Telomerase activity was analyzed in 88 breast carcinomas and 16benign breast lesions, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. Results: Telomerase activity was detected in 75 (85%) of 88 breast carcinomas (including three breast carcinomas in situ which were all positive for telomerase activity), whereas in benign breast lesions analyzed only 2(12.5%) of 16 cases were positive for telomerase activity. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.001). Besides,telomerase activity was expressed significantly higher in node-positive breast carcinoma (93%) than in nodenegative ones (77%) (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest that telomerase activation plays an important role during breast carcinoma development. It is possible that this enzyme may serve as an early indication of breast carcinoma.

  10. Vitronectin in human breast carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Mads; Offersen, Birgitte Vrou; Christensen, Anni;

    2003-01-01

    We have analysed the occurrence of the extracellular glycoprotein vitronectin in carcinomas and normal tissue of human breast. Immunohistochemical analysis of carcinomas revealed a strong vitronectin accumulation in extracellular matrix (ECM) around some cancer cell clusters and in the subendothe......We have analysed the occurrence of the extracellular glycoprotein vitronectin in carcinomas and normal tissue of human breast. Immunohistochemical analysis of carcinomas revealed a strong vitronectin accumulation in extracellular matrix (ECM) around some cancer cell clusters...... and in the subendothelial area of some blood vessels. In normal tissue, vitronectin had a homogeneous periductal occurrence, with local accumulation much lower than that in the carcinomas. Using a new solid phase radioligand assay, the vitronectin concentrations of extracts of carcinomas and normal breast tissue were...... determined and found to be indistinguishable. Comparison of the vitronectin and the hemoglobin concentrations of the extracts showed that their vitronectin content was not derived from blood contamination. Vitronectin mRNA was undetectable in both carcinomas and normal tissue. We conclude that vitronectin...

  11. Collision tumor with inflammatory breast carcinoma and malignant phyllodes tumor: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Duck; Lee, Seul Kee; Kim, Kyu Sun; Park, Mi Ja; Kim, Joo Heon; Yim, Hyun Sun; Choi, Young Jin

    2014-01-08

    There have been some reports of coincidental presentation of breast carcinoma and phyllodes tumor in the same breast. Most of the cases were carcinoma that arose from a phyllodes tumor with a histologically identified transitional area, and they behaved less aggressively than the usually encountered carcinoma. Collision tumors are rare clinical entities in which two histologically distinct tumor types show involvement at the same site. The occurrence of these tumors in the breast is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of 45-year-old woman who had both invasive ductal carcinoma as the finding of inflammatory carcinoma and a malignant phyllodes tumor in the same breast. There was no evidence of a transitional area between the phyllodes tumor and the invasive ductal carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a collision tumor of inflammatory breast carcinoma coincident with a malignant phyllodes tumor in same breast.

  12. Circumscribed breast carcinoma: Mammographic and sonographic findings

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    Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Yul; Park, Ki Soon; Lee, Ke Sook [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Circumscribe breast cancer is a well demarcated mass with or without a lobulated border simulating a benign tumor like fibroadenoma on mammography or breast US and is reported as approximate 10% of the incidence among primary breast carcinoma(1.2). Pathologically medullary, colloid, papillary, intraductal and rarely invasive ductal carcinomas are included in this group which show the less intense desmoplastic reaction than the scirrhous type cancer, resulting in the most favorable prognosis of all carcinoma of the breast. Among 214 primary breast carcinoma during the past 8 years, we experienced 6 case of pathologically proven circumscribed breast cancer(2 cases of medullary carcinoma, 1 of colloid carcinoma, 1 of intracystic papillary carcinoma, 2 of comedo type intraductal carcinoma). Clinically 2 cases showed bloody nipple discharge from one hole of a unilateral nipple orifice. Mammography showed a well circumscribed nodule with or without partial lobular contour and no pathologic calcification. Breast sonographic findings were a well defined heterogeneous hypoechoic nodule with weak posterior acoustic enhancement. Characteristically a thin dilated lactiferous duct between the mass and the nipple on US could be detected in 2 cases which clinically was accompanied by bloody nipple discharge. Although the mammographic criteria is promising as benign tumor, the possibility of circumscribed as benign tumor, the possibility of circumscribed breast carcinoma must be considered in heterogeneous hypoechoic nodule with weak posterior acoustic enhancement in US, especially in the presence of a dilated lactiferous duct between the mass and the nipple with bloody nipple discharge.

  13. Estrogen receptors in breast carcinoma.

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    Huaman, A

    1979-11-01

    On the basis of estrogen receptor assays, breast carcinomas are presently classified as estrogen-dependent tumors, which respond to endocrine therapy, and autonomous tumors, for which endocrine therapy is useless. This paper presents a short review of the biochemical principles of estrogen dependence, the procedures used to determine estrogen receptors, and the clinical applications of the findings of these assay procedures. Biobhemically, the estroogen dependence of normal breast cells is explained as a biochemical reaction occurring between the circulating estradiol and the breast cell, which occurs in 3 steps: 1) circulating estradiol penetrates the cellular membrane by passive diffusion, followed by 2) combining of estradiol with the estrogen-binding protein (estrophilin) and formation of an estrogen receptor complex which undergoes activation and translocation into the nucleus, to result in 3) the activated steroid receptor which combines with the nuclear charomatin and stimulates ribonucleic acid synthesis for the formation of estradiol binding proteins or estradiol receptors. The cytosol method of Wittliff et al. is described in brief and entails radioactive competitive analysis; the other available laboratory procedure is immunofluorescence of tumor sections. Quantification of estrogen receptor content can be used clinically to decide on ablative endocrine therapy, to determine the effectiveness of anti-estrogen administration, to determine the primary site of metastatic carcinoma, and as a screenng device.

  14. Breast metastasis from carcinoma of gall bladder

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    Ajaz Ahmad Malik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of gall bladder has early lymphatic and haematogenous spread. Most common extra abdominal site of metastasis is the lung. Metastasis to breast from carcinoma of breast is very rare. Our case describes an interesting case of carcinoma of gall bladder metastising to breast. A 50-year-old female presented to our outpatient department with a small nodule on upper outer quadrant of left breast. Patient had a history of cholecystectomy done for symptomatic gall stones 2 years back. Histopathological examination of the gall bladder specimen showed adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder with invasion to lamina propria. No additional treatment was offered to the patient. The breast nodule was excised and sent for histopathological examination. Histopathological examination revealed metastising adenocarcinoma. Patient was subjected to palliative chemotherapy (Gamcitabine and carboplatin. However, patient died of hepatic encephalopathy after 5 months. Our case reports an unusual site of metastasis from carcinoma of gall bladder which is very rare.

  15. STUDY ON NUCLEAR MATRIX PROTEINS FROM HUMAN BREAST CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Qian; ZHANG Shu-qun; CHU Yong-lie; JIA Xiao-li; JIANG Jian-tao

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the marker protein of human breast carcinoma from nuclear matrix proteins (NMPs).Methods NMPs were injected subcutaneously into rabbit to get antiserum, which was used to detect the NMPs specificity for breast carcinoma.Results There was an apparent positive band (100kD) in the NMPs of breast carcinoma, which did not exist in normal breast and other tumors that were detected.Conclusion One or one group of 100kD NMPs were found to be related to human breast carcinoma, which may be involved in the carcinogenesis and development of human breast carcinoma and valuable for breast carcinoma diagnosis.

  16. Breast metastasis from small cell lung carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-ping LUH; Chih KUO; Thomas Chang-yao TSAO

    2008-01-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary neoplasms are very rare. We presented a 66 year-old female with metastasis of small cell lung carcinoma to the breast. She presented with consolidation over the left upper lobe of her lung undetermined after endobronchial or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) biopsy, and this was treated effectively after antibiotic therapy at initial stage. The left breast lumps were noted 4 months later, and she underwent a modified radical mastectomy under the impression of primary breast carcinoma. However, the subsequent chest imaging revealed re-growing mass over the left mediastinum and hilum, and cells with the same morphological and staining features were found from specimens of transbronchial brushing and biopsy. An accurate diagnosis to distinguish a primary breast carcinoma from metastatic one is very important because the therapeutic planning and the outcome between them are different.

  17. Clinicopathological Features of Triple Negative Breast Carcinoma

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    Reddy, Gowry Maram; Pai, Radha R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Breast carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies affecting women in developing countries. Molecular studies of breast carcinoma have classified the tumour based on the immunohistochemical staining into 4 subtypes, such as Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2/neu Positive and Triple Negative Breast Carcinoma (TNBC). TNBCs are reported to have an aggressive behaviour and wide metastasis, leading to selective treatment outcomes. Aim The aim was to study the clinicopathological features such as age, site, tumour size, histopathological type, histologic grade, lymph node status, stage and treatment outcomes of triple negative breast carcinoma. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was conducted on 108 cases of breast carcinoma received during the period of 2 years. The tumour was classified based on immunohistochemical staining into four subtypes. The clinicopathological details, histomorphological and immunohistochemical features of TNBC were studied. Results Of the 108 patients, 34 patients were diagnosed as TNBC. The average age at presentation was 48 years. Most of the cases showed Nottingham Modification of Scarff Bloom-Richardson (NMBR) grade 3 (55.9%) and stage II (67.6%). Ly-mph node metastasis was seen in 50% of cases. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (not otherwise specified) type (91.2%) was the most common histological type. Among the other subtypes, Luminal A carcinoma was the most common (36.1%), followed by TNBC (31.5%) and HER2/neu positive carcinomas (28.7%). Compared to the other types of tumours, TNBC showed the most frequent distant lymph node metastasis (50%) when compared to luminal A (38.5%), luminal B (25%), HER2/neu positive (48.4%). Unlike the other types of tumours, TNBC were mostly high-grade. Conclusion TNBC have an aggressive behaviour compared to other subtypes with higher NMBR grade, nuclear pleomorphism, high mitotic rate and lymph node metastasis. PMID:28273970

  18. CLINICAL STUDY OF EARLY BREAST CARCINOMA

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    Kiran Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the breast is one of the commonest cancers occurring in female and accounts for 1/3rd of all the malignant diseases occurring in them. It is mainly a disease of the developed countries and accounts for 1,00,000 deaths annually. Breast carcinoma is classified as Early breast cancer, Locally advanced breast cancer and Metastatic breast cancer. By definition early stage breast cancer constitutes breast tumors of clinical stages I, IIa and T2N1M0. Early breast cancer is the one diagnosed by mammography. Women when approaches at this stage, they can go for breast conservation surgery. Not all women are candidates for this approach, and some require mastectomy as part of their treatment. AIM To observe the incidence of early breast carcinoma with particular reference to the time taken by the patients to seek medical advice after the symptoms have developed i.e. the average time taken by the patients to seek medical advice, their appropriate management and prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective study was conducted over a period of 2 years from Oct-2012 to Oct-2014 in 30 female patients aged between 25-65 years who were presented with lump in breast of size ≤5cms with or without pain, with or without lymph nodes to the outpatient department. All the patients were thoroughly asked about history, examined clinically, investigated, staged and managed by surgery either Breast Conservation Surgery or Modified Radical Mastectomy. Postoperative complications were recorded and followed up regularly. RESULTS The incidence of early breast cancer in this study was 0.98% with peak age incidence between 40-60 years and duration of symptoms <6 months in 18 patients. Breast Conservation Surgery + axillary dissection + Radiotherapy was done in 23%. Prognosis was good in these patients with no local recurrence and death. CONCLUSION The prognosis of early stage breast carcinoma patients in this study was good. To have long term tumor free and

  19. Mucinous carcinoma of breast: A diagnostic pitfall

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    Magdalene KF, Sapna M, Jeevaraj TR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mucinous carcinoma is also known as mucoid carcinoma, colloid carcinoma, gelatinous carcinoma and mucin producing carcinoma. They are uncommon neoplasms of the breast and the reported incidence varies from 1-4%. Most of the mucinous carcinomas occur in older age group. FNAC can aid in diagnosis of mucinous carcinoma with only a few FNAC studies documented in literature. We present here a 56year old lady with a huge ulcerated breast mass clinically diagnosed as Malignant Phyllodes tumor. An FNAC was done which showed epithelial cell clusters with mild atypia in a background of both bluish violet and pink extracellular material. Spindle shaped cells were noted in the ground substance which led to a diagnosis of a phyllodes tumor with extensive myxoid change. Mastectomy was performed and the histopathological features confirmed a diagnosis of mucinous carcinoma. The tumor had areas showing thick collagenized fibrous septae separating tumor cell clusters and also areas of fibrosis. The pitfall in FNAC diagnosis may be due to the sampling from such an area.

  20. Serum biochemical markers in carcinoma breast.

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    Seth R

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the extensive research for many years throughout the world, the etiopathogenesis of cancer still remains obscure. For the early detection of carcinoma of various origins, a number of biochemical markers have been studied to evaluate the malignancy. AIM: To analyse serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and superoxide dismutase (SOD in carcinoma breast patients. SETTINGS & DESIGN: The serum biochemical markers were estimated in twenty five histopathologically confirmed patients with carcinoma breast and equal number of healthy age- matched individuals served as control. MATERIAL & METHODS: Serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and superoxide dismutase (SOD were estimated and their sensitivity determined. Statistics: Data was analysed with student′s ′t′-test and sensitivity score of these markers was determined. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: The mean serum GGTP, LDH and SOD activities in patients with carcinoma breast were tremendously increased as compared to controls, and a steady increase was observed in their activities from stage I through stage IV as well as following distant metastasis. Serum GGTP, LDH and SOD might prove to be most sensitive biomarkers in carcinoma breast in early detection of the disease.

  1. Melanocyte colonization and pigmentation of breast carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mele, Marco; Laurberg, Tinne; Engberg Damsgaard, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Melanocyte colonization of breast carcinoma by nonneoplastic melanocytes of epidermal origin is a rare and serious condition first described in 1977. We report on the exceptional clinical and pathological features of this migration phenomenon in a 74-year-old patient. Discussion....... The pathogenesis by which melanocyte migration takes place is not known, but a breached basement membrane is considered essential. Conclusion. Histological examination and additional staining of skin are essential to differentiate breast cancer melanosis from malignant melanoma....

  2. Molecular Insights on the Transition of Non-invasive DCIS to Invasive ductal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dihua YU

    2009-01-01

    @@ More than 90% of breast cancer-related deaths are caused by metastasis not primary tumor. To effectively reduce cancer mortality, it is extremely im-portant to predict the risk of, and to intervene in, the critical transition from non-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to life-threatening invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).

  3. Metastatic Breast Carcinoma to the Prostate Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Meghan E; Giannico, Giovanna A; Desouki, Mohamed Mokhtar

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the male breast is an uncommon event with metastases to the breast occurring even less frequently. Prostate carcinoma has been reported as the most frequent primary to metastasize to the breast; however, the reverse has not been previously reported. Herein, we present, for the first time, a case of breast carcinoma metastasizing to the prostate gland. Prostate needle core biopsy revealed infiltrative nests of neoplastic epithelioid cells, demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to be positive for GATA3 and ER and negative for PSA and P501S. A prostate cocktail by IHC study demonstrated lack of basal cells (p63 and CK903) and no expression of P501S. The patient's previous breast needle core biopsy showed strong ER positivity and negative staining for PR and HER2. Similar to the prostate, the breast was negative for CK5/6, p63, and p40. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a broad differential diagnosis and comparing histology and IHC to prior known malignancies in the setting of atypical presentation or rare tumors.

  4. Metastatic Breast Carcinoma to the Prostate Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan E. Kapp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer of the male breast is an uncommon event with metastases to the breast occurring even less frequently. Prostate carcinoma has been reported as the most frequent primary to metastasize to the breast; however, the reverse has not been previously reported. Herein, we present, for the first time, a case of breast carcinoma metastasizing to the prostate gland. Prostate needle core biopsy revealed infiltrative nests of neoplastic epithelioid cells, demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC to be positive for GATA3 and ER and negative for PSA and P501S. A prostate cocktail by IHC study demonstrated lack of basal cells (p63 and CK903 and no expression of P501S. The patient’s previous breast needle core biopsy showed strong ER positivity and negative staining for PR and HER2. Similar to the prostate, the breast was negative for CK5/6, p63, and p40. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a broad differential diagnosis and comparing histology and IHC to prior known malignancies in the setting of atypical presentation or rare tumors.

  5. Eosinophilic mastitis masquerading as breast carcinoma.

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    Garg, M; Kumar, S; Neogi, S

    2012-06-01

    We report the sixth case of Eosinophilic Mastitis, presenting similarly enough to be confused with breast carcinoma. A 50 year old lady presented with a six month history of progressively enlarging asymptomatic breast lump, cough and breathlessness. Clinical examination, mammography and axillary lymphadenopathy suggested malignant disease. Ronchi were heard on chest auscultation. Needle cytology was twice inconclusive and Tru-cut biopsy showed acute on chronic inflammation. Blood investigations revealed significant peripheral eosinophilia. Open biopsy reported eosinophilic mastits, correlating with peripheral eosinophilia and pulmonary symptoms. The patient responded to conservative management. Eosinophilic infiltration of the breast is a rare manifestation of tissue involvement in peripheral eosinophilia. Asthma, Churgh-Strauss Syndrome and hyper-eosinophilic syndromes are associated. Importantly, if a clinically and radiologically malignant breast lump in asthmatic ladies with peripheral eosinophilia is not confirmed on cytology, this entity could be a diagnosis, potentially saving the patient from surgery.

  6. Gestational carcinoma of the female breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallack, M.K.; Wolf, J.A. Jr.; Bedwinek, J.; Denes, A.E.; Glasgow, G.; Kumar, B.; Meyer, J.S.; Rigg, L.A.; Wilson-Krechel, S.

    1983-03-01

    Few neoplastic diseases can equal the amazing complexity and sheer perversity of carcinoma of the breast. No doubt as many decades of research lie ahead in its study as already have passed. Clinicians have long appreciated the special relationship of the disease to gestation. Diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer during pregnancy represent only a small part of this fascinating relationship. Although indispensable as research tools, animal models pertain to the human disease only in limited, ill-defined ways. The etiology of human breast cancer remains unclear; chemical, viral, hormonal, genetic, and immunologic theories have all been put forward as possibilities. Although gestation clearly alters both the initiation and growth of mammary tumors, its exact role in the various theoretical considerations remains a mystery. The obstetrician-gynecologist holds an important front-line position in the war against breast cancer, as does any provider of primary care to women, and, indeed, as do women themselves. Rather than decrease vigilance during pregnancy, the physician should pursue with extra vigor any breast mass discovered in the gravid patient, when the clinical examination is even less reliable than usual. The finding of a breast mass usually necessitates biopsy. Except for the inclusion of specific pregnancy-related problems, such as galactocele, the diagnostic spectrum of breast masses removed during pregnancy does not differ from that in nonpregnant women.

  7. Inflammatory breast carcinoma: pathological or clinical entity?

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    Amparo, R S; Angel, C D; Ana, L H; Antonio, L C; Vicente, M S; Carlos, F M; Vicente, G P

    2000-12-01

    Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) diagnosis is usually based in the presence of typical clinical symptoms (redness and edema in more than 2/3 of the breast), which are not always associated with pathologic characteristics (subdermal lymphatics involvement). Whether exclusively pathologic findings without clinical symptoms are sufficient for IBC diagnosis remains controversial. A retrospective analysis of 163 clinically diagnosed IBC (CIC) either with dermal lymphatics invasion or not, was compared with another group of 99 patients with dermal lymphatics invasion without clinical symptoms (occult inflammatory carcinoma) (OIC). The following clinical and pathological characteristics have been analyzed and compared: age, menopausal status, clinical axillar node involvement, symptoms duration before diagnosis, grade, estrogen receptors, presence of metastases at diagnosis, local recurrence, metastasic dissemination, disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Median age was younger in CIC (52.3 vs. 63.8 years; p Prognosis of CIC patients is poorer, so this two entities should be clearly differentiated when therepeutic results are reported.

  8. Study of serum LDH and GGT levels in carcinoma breast

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeswari, Guddanti; Srinivas, P Satya; Krishna Sai, K. Siva Rama; Suresh, Eadala

    2016-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women next only to cervical cancer. Multiple factors are associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer. For the early detection of carcinoma of breast, a number of biochemical markers have been studied to evaluate the malignancy.Aim: To analyse serum Lactate Dehydrogenase, Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase, liver enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, & ALP) and total proteins in diagnosis of carcinoma breast patients and compared wi...

  9. Breast carcinoma metastasis to the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Marie N.; Von Holstein, Sarah; Hansen, Alastair B.;

    2015-01-01

    A 77-year-old female, with proptosis, reduced eye motility and diplopia which had developed over two to three months and a 69-year-old female with proptosis, oedema of the eyelid, reduced motility and ptosis, which had developed over three weeks, are presented in the present study. Computed tomog...... study aimed to describe two such cases and draw attention to breast carcinomas as a differential diagnosis and the most frequent cause of lacrimal gland metastasis....

  10. Expression of CCR7 and its correlation with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast carcinoma%乳腺癌组织 CCR7的表达及其与上皮间质转化的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蕴; 张肇林; 窦珊珊; 崔利德

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between the expression of CCR7 and clinical parameters in human breast carcinoma and analyze the relationship between CCR 7 and the epithelial‐mesenchymal transition (EMT) .Methods CCR7 ,Slug and N‐cadherin were examined by immunohistochemistry in 56 cases of breast car‐cinoma tissues .The correlation between clinical parameters and CCR7 expression were retrospectively analyzed . Results 1)The expressions of CCR7 in lymph node metastasis group were significantly higher than those in the group that without lymph node metastasis (χ2 = 5 .061 ,P < 0 .05) .2)The expression of CCR7 in human breast cancer increased with the increase of the pathological stage of the patients .3)High expressions of CCR7 ,Slug and N‐cadherin were found in human breast carcinoma and the positive rate was 60 .71% ,66 .07% and 76 .78 % re‐spectively .4)The CCR7 expression was significantly associated to Slug and N‐cadherin( P < 0 .001) .Conclusion CCR7 was closely related to EMT indicators (Slug and N‐cadherin) in human breast carcinoma .CCR7 may play a role in the genesis of EMT in human breast carcinoma and be expected to become the biomarker of cancer metasta ‐sis .%目的:研究趋化因子受体‐7(chemokine receptor 7,CCR7)在乳腺癌组织中的表达及临床意义,并探讨 CCR7与上皮间质转化(epithelial mesenchymal transformation ,EM T )的关系。方法采用免疫组织化学检测 CCR7、EM T 相关标志物转录因子 Slug 和 N‐cadherin 的表达,分析 CCR7与患者病理特征的关系。结果1) CCR7在淋巴结转移组的表达明显高于无淋巴结转移组(χ2=5.061,P<0.05);2)CCR7在人乳腺癌组织的表达随患者病理分期的增加(Ⅰ→Ⅳ)而增加;3)CCR7、Slug 和 N‐cadherin 在人乳腺癌组织中均呈高表达,阳性率分别为60.71%(34/56)、66.07%(37/56)、76.78%(43/56);4)CCR7与 Slug

  11. Glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Paulsen, S M

    1987-01-01

    The light microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of a clear cell carcinoma of the breast have been studied. Both intraductal and invasive components were found. Histochemistry showed large amounts of intracytoplasmic glycogen and sparse neutral mucin in the tumour. The tumour...... was classified as a mucin-containing variant of glycogen-rich, clear cell carcinoma of the breast....

  12. Diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment of early stage breast carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esser, S.

    1979-01-01

    In this thesis the diagnostic work up and minimally invasive surgical treatment of early stage breast carcinoma is studied. Although the surgical treatment of breast carcinoma has improved significantly over the past decades, there is still room for improvement. On the one hand the focus is on early

  13. Biological characteristics of breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine cell differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚根有; 周吉林; 赵仲生; 阮俊

    2004-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate DNA content and expression of c-erbB-2, PS2, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) proteins in breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine (NE) cell differentiation.Methods Chromogranin, c-erbB-2, PS2, and PSA in 131 samples of breast cancer were detected immunohistochemically. Classic Feulgen staining image analysis techniques were used to quantify DNA content in 81 of the breast cancer samples.Results The c-erbB-2 positive rate in breast carcinoma samples containing neuroendocrine cells was 37.5% and the rate of high expression of c-erbB-2 (++ or +++) was 33.3%, both significantly lower than that in breast carcinomas without neuroendocrine cells (62.6% and 68.7%, respectively, P 5c aneuploidy cells, and rate of aneuploidy among cells were all lower than that in NE (-) breast carcinomas (P<0.01). In NE (+) grade I or II breast carcinomas, these indices were also all lower than that in the NE (-) breast carcinoma samples (P<0.01).Conclusion Breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation have a lower rate of malignancy. Neuroendocrine differentiation could serve as a prognostic marker in clinical practice.

  14. The analysis of ultrasonographic findings of breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Hwang, Mi Soo; Park, Bok Hwan [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    We retrospectively analyzed the ultrasonographic findings of 34 cases of breast carcinoma that were confirmed by histopathologic examinations. Most of breast carcinoma have been described with lobulated hypoechoic solid masses, and frequent attenuation of the sound beam on ultrasonogram. In the present study, breast carcinoma showed lobulated or spiculated margin in 91%, in homogenous internal echogenicity in 88%, hypoechogenicity in 79%, smallT/AP ratio (T/AP<1.4) in 88%, disruption of superficial layer in 74%, posterior sonic attenuation in 38%, and echogenic rim in 76%. Although these ultrasonographic findings were rather characteristic for the breast carcinoma, they had been described to be found also in benign lesion in the previous studies. Therefore, we conclude that the ultrasonographic diagnosis of breast carcinoma should be made in connection with the careful physical examination and other imaging techniques

  15. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Pancreatic Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wirth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth-leading cause of cancer death and is characterized by early invasion and metastasis. The developmental program of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is of potential importance for this rapid tumor progression. During EMT, tumor cells lose their epithelial characteristics and gain properties of mesenchymal cells, such as enhanced motility and invasive features. This review will discuss recent findings pertinent to EMT in pancreatic carcinoma. Evidence for and molecular characteristics of EMT in pancreatic carcinoma will be outlined, as well as the connection of EMT to related topics, e.g., cancer stem cells and drug resistance.

  16. Breast Carcinoma With Unrecognized Neuroendocrine Differentiation Metastasizing to the Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lene; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Detlefsen, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    , a second panel revealed positivity for estrogen receptors and GATA3. On review of the lumpectomy specimen, a significant neuroendocrine component was found, leading to the final diagnosis of breast carcinoma with neuroendocrine features metastasizing to the pancreas. Neuroendocrine markers...... are not routinely analyzed in breast tumors. Hence, metastases from breast carcinomas with unrecognized neuroendocrine features may lead to false diagnoses of primary neuroendocrine tumors at different metastatic sites, such as the pancreas....

  17. DUCTAL CARCINOMA IN SITU OF THE BREAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. Methods: Clinicopathological and follow-up data were collected in 52 patients with DCIS. Results: The clinic data showed that 50 patients had signs of breast lumps or/and nipple discharges, 2 patients presented abnormal mammography; 2 patients had lymph node involved; and 14 patients were accompanied with intraductal papillomatosis. All patients were Received surgical therapy. The follow-up data showed 1 patient locally recurred after lumpectomy, and was underwent mastectomy again, then cured. There were no patients died of DCIS. Conclusion: Mastectomy should be a standard surgical mode, and the prognosis of DCIS was favorable, but mammography for screening of asymptomatic women should be strengthened to find DCIS.

  18. Stromal Fibroblasts from the Interface Zone of Triple Negative Breast Carcinomas Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and its Inhibition by Emodin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Yu; Hung, Chao-Ming; Lin, Ying-Chao; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2017-01-01

    “Triple negative breast cancer” (TNBC) is associated with a higher rate and earlier time of recurrence and worse prognosis after recurrence. In this study, we aimed to examine the crosstalk between fibroblasts and TNBC cells. The fibroblasts were isolated from TNBC patients’ tissue in tumor burden zones, distal normal zones and interface zones. The fibroblasts were indicated as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), normal zone fibroblasts (NFs) and interface zone fibroblasts (INFs). Our study found that INFs grew significantly faster than NFs and CAFs in vitro. The epithelial BT20 cells cultured with the conditioned medium of INFs (INFs-CM) and CAFs (CAFs-CM) showed more spindle-like shape and cell scattering than cultured with the conditioned medium of NFs (NFs-CM). These results indicated that factors secreted by INFs-CM or CAFs-CM could induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype in BT20 cells. Using an in vitro co-culture model, INFs or CAFs induced EMT and promoted cancer cell migration in BT20 cells. Interestingly, we found that emodin inhibited INFs-CM or CAFs-CM-induced EMT programming and phenotype in BT20 cells. Previous studies reported that CAFs and INFs-secreted TGF-β promoted human breast cancer cell proliferation, here; our results indicated that TGF-β initiated EMT in BT20 cells. Pretreatment with emodin significantly suppressed the TGF-β-induced EMT and cell migration in BT20 cells. These results suggest that emodin may be used as a novel agent for the treatment of TNBC. PMID:28060811

  19. GATA-3 and FOXA1 expression is useful to differentiate breast carcinoma from other carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Drew G; Siddiqui, Momin T; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Stevens, Keith; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Cohen, Cynthia; Li, Xiaoxian Bill

    2016-01-01

    GATA-3, a member of the GATA family of zinc-finger DNA binding proteins, and FOXA1, a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, are both associated with estrogen receptor expression. Both GATA-3 and FOXA1 are useful markers for breast carcinoma, but their expression in the different breast cancer subtypes and other neoplasms has not been thoroughly evaluated. We examined the expression of GATA-3 and FOXA1 in estrogen receptor-positive, Her2/neu-positive, and triple-negative breast carcinomas as well as in 10 other common carcinomas, including hepatocellular, colonic, pancreatic, gastric, endometrial (endometrioid), lung, prostatic, renal cell, urothelial, and ovarian serous carcinomas. Primary and metastatic melanomas and mesotheliomas were also evaluated. GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining of estrogen receptor-positive breast carcinomas was seen in 96.6% and 96.2%, respectively. In triple-negative breast carcinomas, GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining was seen in 21.6% and 15.9%, respectively. Among the other tumors, GATA-3 staining was only seen in urothelial carcinoma (70.9%) and FOXA1 staining was only seen in prostatic (87.5%), urothelial (5.1%) carcinomas, and mesotheliomas (40.0%). In conclusion, GATA-3 and FOXA1 are excellent breast carcinoma markers; however, their utility is limited in the triple-negative subtype. The utility of FOXA1 in diagnosing prostatic carcinoma and mesothelioma warrants further investigation.

  20. Metaplastic breast carcinoma; melanocytic variant, a very rare tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzegwu, Martin A.; Sule, Emmanuel; Uzoigwe, Joseph; Achi, Franklyn

    2015-01-01

    Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare heterogeneous malignancy, accounting for <1% of all invasive breast carcinomas, in which adenocarcinoma is found to coexist with an admixture of spindle, squamous, chondroid or bone-forming neoplastic cells. Melanocytic variant was first described by Ruffolo et al. in 1997. We report a case of MBC, melanocytic variant, in a 57-year-old Nigerian female who presented with a left breast mass 8 cm in diameter in the upper outer quadrant, hard and gradually increase in size to become painful. Breast examination showed gross asymmetry. Left breast was oedematous and shiny with extensive peau d'orange. No palpable axillary nodes were seen. Chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasound scan showed no involvement. Breast biopsy revealed an invasive metaplastic ductal carcinoma with melanocytic differentiation. PMID:25666364

  1. Re-resection rates and risk characteristics following breast conserving surgery for breast cancer and carcinoma in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryh, C G; Pietersen, C A; Rahr, Hans;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the frequency of re-resections and describe risk characteristics: invasive carcinoma or carcinoma in situ (CIS), palpability of the lesion, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. RESULTS: 1703 breast conserving surgeries were performed: 1575 primary breast conserving surgeries (BCS...

  2. Bioelectric impedance phase angle in breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Worldwide breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life threatening cancer and the leading cause of death in women. Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA affords an emerging opportunity to assess prognosis because of its ability to non invasively assess cell and plasma membrane structure and function by means of phase angle. Aims: To compare the phase angle between patients of breast cancer and their matched control with the help of BIA. Settings and Design: After taking clearance from ethical committee, a total of 34 female cases of histologically proven infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma were included from the surgery IPD, department of surgery. Equal numbers of the matched controls were recruited from the friends and relatives of cases. Materials and Methods: Bio Electrical Impedance Analyzer (BIA BODY STAT QUAD SCAN 4000 was used to measure resistance (R and reactance (Xc by recording a voltage drop in applied current. Phase angle is the ratio of reactance to resistance and is a measure of cell vitality. Statistical analysis used: Unpaired "t" test was applied. Results: In control group, the phase angle showed a mean of 5.479 whereas in test group, it showed a mean value of 4.726. The P value showed a significant difference (P < 0.0001. The smaller the phase angle values were higher was the tumor, nodes, metastases (TNM staging. The phase angles differed significantly from the healthy age matched control values. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that phase angle is a strong predictor of severity of breast cancer and differed significantly between the two groups.

  3. Snail在乳腺癌中的表达及其与上皮-间质转化的关系%Correlation of Snail expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志容; 吴诚义

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究Snail蛋白在乳腺癌组织中的表达,并探讨Snail蛋白及其调控的上皮-间质转化(EMT)与乳腺癌恶性生物学行为的相关性.方法 采用免疫组织化学SP法检测20例正常乳腺组织、60例乳腺癌组织(非特殊性浸润性导管癌)及其中20例乳腺癌癌旁组织中Snail蛋白、上皮标记物E-cadherin蛋白、间质标记物Vimentin蛋白的表达;分析乳腺癌组织中3种蛋白表达强度的相关性,以及Snail蛋白表达与乳腺癌淋巴结转移的关系.结果 ①在正常乳腺组织、乳腺癌癌旁组织、乳腺癌组织中,Snail蛋白表达逐渐递增,其阳性率分别为0、30%、53.3%;Vimentin蛋白表达亦逐渐递增,其阳性率分别为0、40%、63.3%; E-cadherin蛋白表达则逐渐减少,其阳性率分别为100%、75%、56.7%;正常乳腺组织、乳腺癌癌旁组织与乳腺癌组织间3种蛋白的表达差异均具有统计学意义(均P< 0.05).②Snail蛋白表达与Vimentin蛋白表达呈显著正相关(r=0.536、P=0.000); Snail蛋白表达与E-cadherin蛋白表达呈负相关(r=-0.413、P=0.001);3种组织中,E-cadherin和Vimentin蛋白两者的表达差异呈显著负相关(r=-0.526、P=0.000).③Snail蛋白的表达与乳腺癌腋窝淋巴结转移呈正相关,差异有统计学意义(r=0.600、P=0.000).结论 锌指转录因子Snail可能通过参与调控EMT过程从而在乳腺癌的发生和侵袭过程中发挥重要作用,并推动乳腺癌的远处淋巴结转移.%Objective To study the expression of Snail protein in the breast cancer tissues, and to explore the correlation analysis between the Snail protein as well as its controlling epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and malignant biological behavior of breast cancer.Methods Immunohistochemistry SP method was used to detect the expressions of Snail, E-cadherin (epithelial marker), Vimentin (mesenchymal marker) protein in 60 cases of breast cancer tissues (non-specificity of invasive

  4. Comparative evaluation of six cytological grading systems in breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Robinson′s grading system is simple, more objective and reproducible, and demonstrated the best concordance with histological grading. So, Robinson′s system should be used routinely for breast carcinoma aspirates.

  5. Primary epidermoid carcinoma of the breast presenting as a breast abscess and sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pires Damin

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the breast is an extremely rare form of cancer, accounting for approximately 0.04% of all malignant breast tumors. To date, only a limited number of cases of SCC of the breast have been reported, and most of them presented like the usual breast carcinomas. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old woman presented with a large breast abscess and signs of sepsis. After surgical debridement of the lesion, histopathological examination of the abscess capsule revealed the presence of SCC of the breast. The definitive treatment for the tumor consisted of modified radical mastectomy with resection of the residual lesion in the right breast. CONCLUSIONS: This unusual case illustrates how an apparently benign disorder such as a breast abscess might be related to a clinically occult malignancy. A review of the literature on SCC of the breast is presented

  6. Breast imaging findings in women with BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.J.; Evans, A.J. E-mail: aevans@ncht.trent.nhs.uk; Wilson, A.R.M.; Scott, N.; Cornford, E.J.; Pinder, S.E.; Khan, H.N.; Macmillan, R.D

    2004-10-01

    AIM: To document the breast imaging findings of women with BRCA1 and BRCA2-associated breast carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Family history clinic records identified 18 BRCA1 and 10 BRCA2 cases who collectively were diagnosed with 27 invasive breast carcinomas and four ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions. All underwent pre-operative imaging (29 mammogram and 22 ultrasound examinations). All invasive BRCA-associated breast carcinoma cases were compared with age-matched cases of sporadic breast carcinoma. RESULTS: Within the BRCA cases the age range was 26-62 years, mean 36 years. Two mammograms were normal and 27 (93%) abnormal. The most common mammographic features were defined mass (63%) and microcalcifications (37%). Thirty-four percent of women had a dense mammographic pattern, 59% mixed and 7% fatty. Ultrasound was performed in 22 patients and in 21 (95%) indicated a mass. This was classified as benign in 24%, indeterminate in 29% and malignant in 48%. Mammograms of BRCA1-associated carcinomas more frequently showed a defined mass compared with BRCA2-associated carcinomas, 72 versus 36% (73% control group) whilst mammograms of BRCA2-associated carcinomas more frequently showed microcalcification, 73 versus 12% (8% control group; p<0.001). Thirty-six percent of the BRCA2-associated carcinomas were pure DCIS while none of the BRCA1 associated carcinomas were pure DCIS (p=0.004). Of those patients undergoing regular mammographic screening, 100% of BRCA2-associated carcinomas were detected compared with 75% of BRCA1-associated carcinomas. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the imaging findings of BRCA1 and BRCA2-associated carcinomas differ from each other and from age-matched cases of sporadic breast carcinoma.

  7. Genetic predisposition to ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Petridis (Christos); R.H. Brook; V. Shah (Vandna); K. Kohut (Kelly); P. Gorman (Patricia); M. Caneppele (Michele); D. Levi (Dina); E. Papouli (Efterpi); N. Orr (Nick); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); J. Peto (Julian); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); M. Schoemaker (Minouk); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); Q. Wang (Qing); J. Dennis (Joe); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); J. Benítez (Javier); A. González-Neira (Anna); D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); D. Vincent (Daniel); J. Li (Jingmei); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); V. Kristensen (Vessela); A.-L. Borresen-Dale (Anne-Lise); P. Soucy (Penny); J. Simard (Jacques); R.L. Milne (Roger); G.G. Giles (Graham); S. Margolin (Sara); A. Lindblom (Annika); T. Brüning (Thomas); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); M.C. Southey (Melissa); J.L. Hopper (John); T. Dörk (Thilo); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); M. Kabisch (Maria); U. Hamann (Ute); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); A. Meindl (Alfons); H. Brenner (Hermann); V. Arndt (Volker); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); P.A. Fasching (Peter); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); J. Lubinski (Jan); A. Jakubowska (Anna); A.M. Mulligan (Anna Marie); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); P. Devilee (Peter); L. Le Marchand (Loic); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); F. Marme (Federick); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); C.H.M. van Deurzen (Carolien); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); N. Miller (Nicola); M. Kerin (Michael); D. Lambrechts (Diether); O.A.M. Floris; J. Wesseling (Jelle); H. Flyger (Henrik); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); S. Yao (Song); C.B. Ambrosone (Christine); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); T. Truong (Thérèse); P. Guénel (Pascal); A. Rudolph (Anja); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); C. Blomqvist (Carl); K. Czene (Kamila); J.S. Brand (Judith S.); J.E. Olson (Janet); F.J. Couch (Fergus); A.M. Dunning (Alison); P. Hall (Per); D.F. Easton (Douglas); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); S. Pinder (Sarah); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); R. Roylance (Rebecca); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive form of breast cancer. It is often associated with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and is considered to be a non-obligate precursor of IDC. It is not clear to what extent these two forms of cancer share low-risk susceptibilit

  8. Male breast carcinoma and the use of MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Aidan; Smith, Ben; Howlett, David

    2015-01-01

    MRI is well established in the diagnosis of female breast cancer, with an important role as a problem-solving tool in the postoperative breast and in implant evaluation. Little in the literature mentions the use of MRI in male breast cancer, with there is no clear role for its use at present. We present an unusual case of bilateral male breast carcinoma and demonstrate a similar enhancement pattern to that described in female breast cancer; we also suggest other potential applications of MRI ...

  9. The diagnostic utility of the minimal carcinoma triple stain in breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dara S; Liu, Yi-Fang; Pipa, Jennifer; Shin, Sandra J

    2013-01-01

    Pathologists are expected to accurately diagnose increasingly smaller breast carcinomas. Correct classification (ie, lobular vs ductal or in situ vs invasive) directly affects subsequent management, especially when the focus is near a surgical margin or present in a needle core biopsy and is further challenging if the lesion is morphologically ambiguous. We assessed the diagnostic utility of a multiplex, trichromogen immunostain of 3 commonly employed antibodies (CK7, p63, and E-cadherin) developed in our laboratory to evaluate these small lesions. Of the 147 specimens containing minimal (defined as ≤3 mm in size) invasive carcinoma, 81 also contained in situ carcinoma. In each case, the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was prepared with a parallel H&E-stained slide. Observations of staining characteristics in the focus of interest were recorded. The Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was diagnostically useful in all but 1 case. In a case of invasive lobular carcinoma in an excisional biopsy, the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain stained only the surrounding breast tissue (appropriately) and not the focus of interest. Also, a subset of 29 of 81 excisional biopsies had minimal invasive carcinoma located 2 mm or less from the inked surgical margin, in which in all cases the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was fully interpretable despite morphologic distortion due to concomitant cautery artifact and tissue disruption in some cases. The Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain offers an accurate and tissue-conserving method to diagnose small, morphologically problematic foci of breast carcinoma while ideally leaving more tissue for additional adjunctive studies.

  10. GATA3 expression in breast carcinoma: utility in triple-negative, sarcomatoid, and metastatic carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Subhawong, Andrea P; Illei, Peter B; Sharma, Rajni; Halushka, Marc K; Vang, Russell; Fetting, John H; Park, Ben Ho; Argani, Pedram

    2013-07-01

    GATA3 plays an integral role in breast luminal cell differentiation and is implicated in breast cancer progression. GATA3 immunohistochemistry is a useful marker of breast cancer; however, its use in specific subtypes is unclear. Here, we evaluate GATA3 expression in 86 invasive ductal carcinomas including triple-negative, Her-2, and luminal subtypes, in addition to 13 metaplastic carcinomas and in 34 fibroepithelial neoplasms. In addition, we report GATA3 expression in matched primary and metastatic breast carcinomas in 30 patients with known estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Her-2 status, including 5 with ER and/or PR loss from primary to metastasis. Tissue microarrays containing 5 to 10 cores per tumor were stained for GATA3, scored as follows: 0 (0-5%), 1+ (6%-25%), 2+ (26%-50%), 3+ (51%-75%), and 4+ (>75%). GATA3 labeling was seen in 67% (66/99) of primary ductal carcinomas including 43% of triple-negative and 54% of metaplastic carcinomas. In contrast, stromal GATA3 labeling was seen in only 1 fibroepithelial neoplasm. GATA3 labeling was seen in 90% (27/30) of primary breast carcinomas in the paired cohort, including 67% of triple-negative carcinomas. GATA3 labeling was overwhelmingly maintained in paired metastases. Notably, GATA3 was maintained in all "luminal loss" metastases, which showed ER and/or PR loss. In conclusion, GATA3 expression is maintained between matched primary and metastatic carcinomas including ER-negative cases. GATA3 can be particularly useful as a marker for metastatic breast carcinoma, especially triple-negative and metaplastic carcinomas, which lack specific markers of mammary origin. Finally, GATA3 labeling may help distinguish metaplastic carcinoma from malignant phyllodes tumors.

  11. Triple negative breast carcinomas: similarities and differences with basal like carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Enrique; Barnadas, Agusti; Prat, Jaime

    2009-12-01

    The cDNA microarrays allows the classification of breast cancers into 6 groups: luminal A, luminal B, luminal C, normal breast-like, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive, and basal-like. This latter is characterized by the expression of basal cytokeratins (CKs), and frequent negativity for hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. There is a marked parallelism between triple negative breast carcinomas and basal-like carcinoma, but these are not equivalent terms. Estimated concordance is around 80%. CK5 seems to be the best marker for the identification of these tumors. Other good markers to identify these tumors are CK14, CK17, and epidermal growth factor receptor. A subset of triple negative breast carcinomas has myoepithelial differentiation, with positivities for smooth muscle actin, p63, S-100, and CD10 among others. Recent studies suggest that basal like carcinomas are originated from mammary stem cells.

  12. Myoepithelial Carcinoma of the Breast Treated with Surgery and Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Endo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoepithelial carcinoma (malignant myoepithelioma of the breast is a rare tumor, for which only a limited number of reports have been published. Most of the reports emphasized diagnosis and pathology but not biological behavior and treatment. We report a 61-year-old patient with breast myoepithelial carcinoma who developed locoregional and distant metastases and received many chemotherapy regimens. She presented with an elastic hard mass of the left breast. Breast conserving surgery was performed as part of both diagnosis and treatment. From the results of histological and immunohistochemical examinations, this case was considered to be a myoepithelial carcinoma. Fifteen months after the completion of adjuvant radiotherapy, distant metastasis of the left parasternal lymph node metastasis developed. She was treated by further excision and received a total of four regimens of chemotherapy including a combination of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. She received chemotherapy for 20 months after the diagnosis of metastasis.

  13. Diagnostic dilemma of FNA diagnosis of secretory carcinoma of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana C Buch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretory carcinoma (SC is one of the least common types of breast carcinoma. The tumor has distinctive histologic features with prominent secretory activity similar to lactational change and minimal nuclear atypia. As the cytomorphologic features of SC overlaps benign breast lesions with lactational change and apocrine change, the initial diagnosis of SC may be missed on cytology in some cases. A 29-year-old woman presented with a lump in the left breast since 9 months. The fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC suggested proliferative breast disease without atypia. Excision biopsy showed secretory carcinoma. The case is presented to highlight the cytologic features of SC, which may overlap with lactational change and apocrine change.

  14. Metaplastic breast carcinomas display genomic and transcriptomic heterogeneity [corrected]. .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Britta; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Shen, Ronglai; Popova, Tatiana; Schizas, Michail; Natrajan, Rachael; Mariani, Odette; Stern, Marc-Henri; Norton, Larry; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2015-03-01

    Metaplastic breast carcinoma is a rare and aggressive histologic type of breast cancer, preferentially displaying a triple-negative phenotype. We sought to define the transcriptomic heterogeneity of metaplastic breast cancers on the basis of current gene expression microarray-based classifiers, and to determine whether these tumors display gene copy number profiles consistent with those of BRCA1-associated breast cancers. Twenty-eight consecutive triple-negative metaplastic breast carcinomas were reviewed, and the metaplastic component present in each frozen specimen was defined (ie, spindle cell, squamous, chondroid metaplasia). RNA and DNA extracted from frozen sections with tumor cell content >60% were subjected to gene expression (Illumina HumanHT-12 v4) and copy number profiling (Affymetrix SNP 6.0), respectively. Using the best practice PAM50/claudin-low microarray-based classifier, all metaplastic breast carcinomas with spindle cell metaplasia were of claudin-low subtype, whereas those with squamous or chondroid metaplasia were preferentially of basal-like subtype. Triple-negative breast cancer subtyping using a dedicated website (http://cbc.mc.vanderbilt.edu/tnbc/) revealed that all metaplastic breast carcinomas with chondroid metaplasia were of mesenchymal-like subtype, spindle cell carcinomas preferentially of unstable or mesenchymal stem-like subtype, and those with squamous metaplasia were of multiple subtypes. None of the cases was classified as immunomodulatory or luminal androgen receptor subtype. Integrative clustering, combining gene expression and gene copy number data, revealed that metaplastic breast carcinomas with spindle cell and chondroid metaplasia were preferentially classified as of integrative clusters 4 and 9, respectively, whereas those with squamous metaplasia were classified into six different clusters. Eight of the 26 metaplastic breast cancers subjected to SNP6 analysis were classified as BRCA1-like. The diversity of histologic

  15. Tubulolobular carcinoma of the breast: Clinical, mammographic and sonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenhan-Bilgen, Isil [Ege University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)]. E-mail: isilbilgen@hotmail.com; Oktay, Aysenur [Ege University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2006-12-15

    Purpose: To determine and quantitate radiologic characteristics of tubulolobular carcinoma of the breast and to report clinical and pathologic findings. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of records of 2872 women who received a diagnosis of breast carcinoma between January 1988 and January 2006 revealed 26 histopathologically proven tubulolobular carcinoma of the breast. Analysis included history; findings at physical examination, mammography, and sonography (US) at the time of diagnosis and in postoperative follow-up, and histopathological results. Results: At physical examination, palpable mass was present in 85% (n = 22) of the patients. The mammographic findings were mass in 17 (65%), asymmetric focal density in 2 (8%), architectural distortion in 2 (8%) and negative mammograms in 5 (19%) of the 26 patients. US depicted 25 masses in 24 patients, all of which were hypoechoic, with spiculated (n = 13) or microlobulated (n = 12) margins. The cancer was clinically occult in 12% (n = 3), mammographically occult in 19% (n = 5), and radiologically occult in 4% (n = 1) of the patients. Histologically, the mean size of the tumor was 1.7 cm and 18 (69%) patients were node negative. Conclusion: Tubulolobular carcinoma of the breast usually manifests clinically as a firm, immobile mass and mammographically as a spiculated or ill-defined, irregular, isodense mass without microcalcifications. Common findings on sonography include a homogeneously hypoechoic, spiculated or microlobulated mass with posterior acoustic shadowing or normal acoustic transmission. Tubulolobular carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis for breast masses with these imaging features.

  16. Functional screen of paracrine signals in breast carcinoma fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Su

    Full Text Available Stromal fibroblasts actively participate in normal mammary gland homeostasis and in breast carcinoma growth and progression by secreting paracrine factors; however, little is known about the identity of paracrine mediators in individual patients. The purpose of this study was to characterize paracrine signaling pathways between breast carcinoma cells and breast carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF or normal mammary fibroblasts (NF, respectively. CAF and NF were isolated from breast carcinoma tissue samples and adjacent normal mammary gland tissue of 28 patients. The fibroblasts were grown in 3D collagen gel co-culture with T47D human breast carcinoma cells and T47D cell growth was measured. CAF stimulated T47D cell growth to a significantly greater degree than NF. We detected a considerable inter-individual heterogeneity of paracrine interactions but identified FGF2, HB-EGF, heparanase-1 and SDF1 as factors that were consistently responsible for the activity of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts. CAF from low-grade but not high-grade carcinomas required insulin-like growth factor 1 and transforming growth factor beta 1 to stimulate carcinoma growth. Paradoxically, blocking of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloprotease stimulated T47D cell growth in co-culture with NF. The results were largely mirrored by treating the fibroblasts with siRNA oligonucleotides prior to co-culture, implicating the fibroblasts as principal production site for the secreted mediators. In summary, we identify a paracrine signaling network with inter-individual commonalities and differences. These findings have significant implications for the design of stroma-targeted therapies.

  17. Fluctuating asymmetry in dermatoglyphics of carcinoma of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natekar Prashant

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More has been written about the epidemiology of breast cancer than any other form of cancer affecting mankind. The specific breast cancer predisposing genes are BRCA1, BRCA2 and p53. BRCA2, the second breast cancer susceptibility gene, was mapped to chromosome 13q12-q13.The human p53 gene, located on the short arm of chromosome 17, is known to be a tumor suppressor gene that can be inactivated by point mutations. AIMS: To determine the fluctuating asymmetry and to predict the occurrence of carcinoma of breast in females. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rolled finger and palmar prints of 100 female patients of carcinoma of breast were compared with 100 controls. Fluctuating asymmetry measures derived from quantitative parameters (finger ridge counts, a-b ridge counts and palmar angles were analyzed. RESULTS: Fluctuation asymmetry measures were significantly higher in female patients of carcinoma of breast for the thumb (FA = 2.01, subtotal ridge count (FA = 2.10 and for palmar atd angle (FA = 2.01. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that digital dermatoglyphics may have a future role in identifying women at increased risk for breast cancer.

  18. Bilateral multiple extraocular muscle metastasis from breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Murthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare presentation of an initially misdiagnosed case of a pseudotumor, which on histopathology was diagnosed as bilateral breast metastases of lobular carcinoma involving multiple extraocular muscles. A 61-year-old lady presented with external ophthalmoplegia and diplopia. Incisional biopsy was performed using a lid crease approach and the patient received radiotherapy and hormonal therapy. Following prolonged hormonal therapy, complete remission was achieved, with improvement in ocular motility and resolution of diplopia, about 18 months after the initial presentation. Multiple extraocular muscle involvement by breast carcinoma metastasis is very rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis, especially in patients with a prior history of breast carcinoma.

  19. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: multimodality imaging and histopathologic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bo Bae (Department of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)), Email: med20@hanmail.net; Shu, Kwang Sun (Department of Pathology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of))

    2012-02-15

    Background Metaplastic carcinomas are ductal carcinomas that display metaplastic transformation of the glandular epithelium to non-glandular mesenchymal tissue. Metaplastic carcinoma has a poorer prognosis than most other breast cancers, so the differential diagnosis is important. Although many clinical and pathologic findings have been reported, to our knowledge, few imaging findings related to metaplastic carcinoma have been reported. Purpose To investigate whole-breast imaging findings, including mammography, sonography, MRI, and pathologic findings, including immunohistochemical studies of metaplastic carcinomas of the breast. Material and Methods We analyzed 33 cases of metaplastic carcinoma between January 2001 and January 2011. Mammography, ultrasonography, and MRI were recorded retrospectively using the American College of Radiology (ACR) breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon. Immunohistochemical studies of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), p53, and C-erbB-2 were performed. Results The most common mammographic findings were oval shape (37%), circumscribed margin (59%), and high density (74%). The most common sonogfindings were irregular shape (59.4%), microlobulated margin (41%), complex echogenicity (81%), parallel orientation (97%), and posterior acoustic enhancement (50%). Axillary lymph node metastases were noted for 25% of the sonographic examinations. On MRI, the most common findings of margin and shape were irregularity (57% and 52.4%, respectively). High signal intensity was the most common finding on T2-weighted images (57%). Immunohistochemical profile was negative for ER (91%, 29/32) and PR (81%, 26/32). Conclusion Metaplastic carcinomas might display more benign features and less axillary lymph node metastasis than IDC. High signal intensity on T2 MRI images and hormone receptor negativity would be helpful in differentiating this tumor from other breast cancers

  20. Transitional cell carcinoma of the sinonasal tract: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita Mondal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant sinonasal carcinomas are a rare entity comprising less than 1% of all cancers and around 3% of all head and neck malignancies seen in humans. Among these 15-20% are transitional cell carcinoma also known as non keratinizing carcinoma of sinonasal tract. We are reporting the case of a 45 years female with history of nasal obstruction and epistaxis. A contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT was done which showed mucosal thickening in the right nasal cavity. Endoscopy assisted biopsy was taken which revealed non keratinizing carcinoma (transitional type. Very few reported cases of this type of malignancy was found. A possible reason could be multiple synonyms like cylindrical cell carcinoma, Schneiderian carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma.

  1. METASTATIC BREAST CARCINOMA WITH MULTIPLE OSTEOLYTIC LESIONS - A DIAGNOSTIC DILEMMA

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    Aruna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bone is one of the common sites for distant metastasis from breast cancer. About 6% - 10% of breast carcinomas have already spread to distant sites at the time of initial diagnosis. Presence of bone metastasis affects patient’s prognosis and the planning of treatment. We report a case of 32year old female who presented with a subtrochanteric fracture left femur and multiple osteolytic lesions throughout the axial skeleton leading to clinical suspicion of multiple myeloma. Hematological work up suggested a met astatic deposit. Subsequent detailed examination revealed a breast lump in right breast. On core biopsy it was diagnosed as duct cell carcinoma. This report addresses the role of bone marrow examination in arriving at a diagnosis in multiple osteolytic les ions which pose wide differential diagnoses

  2. Solid papillary carcinoma of the breast: A review

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    ZACKARIAH VK CLEMENT

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid papillary carcinoma of breast is a low-grade tumour originating in the ductal epithelium. It is commonly seen in post-menopausal women and account for <1% of all breast cancers. Patients can be asymptomatic, have nipple discharge or present with abnormal mammographic findings. Despite of some radiological features solid papillary carcinoma cannot be accurately diagnosed on imaging alone. The most important characteristic of this tumour is its behaviour and interesting pathological feature of lack of myoepithelial cells at the periphery. Its diagnosis can be challenging and its management is still debated. Management varies from breast conserving surgery to mastectomy. Currently there is no evidence to support the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy. Therefore, accurate diagnosis with adequate local excision with breast conserving surgery is the optimal treatment.

  3. Adhesion molecules in breast carcinoma: a challenge to the pathologist

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    Claudia Rossetti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of adhesion molecules is very important both in the activation of carcinogenesis and in the differentiation of subtypes of breast carcinoma, aiding in diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic choice in these tumors. Therefore, understanding the functions and interrelationships among these molecules is crucial to the pathologist, who often uses these factors as a resource to differentiate tumors and further classify them according to a molecular point of view. Our goal is to describe the applicability and the difficulties encountered by the pathologist in the diagnosis of breast carcinoma, discussing the most commonly used markers of adhesion in routine analyses.

  4. Secretory carcinoma of breast mimicking an abscess: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Bharathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretory carcinoma is a rare type of breast carcinoma usually seen in the young females, and it is also called as "Juvenile carcinoma." We report here a case of secretory carcinoma in an elderly female with an unusual clinical presentation. She had a painful swelling in left breast of 6 cm × 5 cm size for the past 6 months. Skin over the swelling was inflamed and ulcerated. Mammogram findings favored a chronic infected hematoma/abscess. Fine needle aspirate (FNA is a murky fluid admixed with blood and was reported as acute inflammatory lesion. 2 weeks later she developed nipple retraction and an increase in size of the swelling. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC was repeated again from firm areas and in multiple points of swelling. To our surprise, FNA smears revealed dysplastic ductal epithelial cells with minimal atypia. Modified radical mastectomy was planned. Histopathological examination confirmed the mass as secretory carcinoma, a rare variant of ductal carcinoma of the breast. Postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy was started. We report this case to emphasize that FNAC can be repeated in suspicious cases and should be correlated clinico-radiologically to give a preoperative diagnosis.

  5. [Metastatic breast cancer to the stomach: An uncommon evolution of breast carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, C; Talha-Vautravers, A; Hoefler, P; Zirabe, S; Bellocq, J-P; Mathelin, C

    2014-01-01

    Breast carcinoma exceptionally leads to metastatic linitis plastica. Distinguishing a breast cancer metastasis to the stomach from a primary gastric cancer on the basis of clinical and radiological signs is very challenging. Thanks to being cognizant of the previous history of invasive lobular carcinoma and the gastric biopsy followed by immunohistochemical analysis, gastric metastasis can be diagnosed. Despite the use of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, gastric metastasis remains often associated with poor prognosis. We present a case where gastric biopsy allowed a metastatic breast cancer to the stomach to be diagnosed and we discuss its clinical, diagnostic, pathological and therapeutic particularities.

  6. Breast carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum, L M; Lauridsen, M C; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2001-01-01

    Primary carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells is a very rare tumour of the female breast. The clinical course, histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of 61 cases of invasive duct carcinoma with osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells (OMGCs) are reviewed and a new...... in the literature have shown that 86% of patients with these tumours are still alive after 5 years. Histologically, these tumours are invasive ductal carcinomas with OMGCs next to the neoplastic glands and within their lumen. Signs of recent and past haemorrhage are ubiquitously present in the highly vascularized...

  7. EXPRESSION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF p73A IN BREAST CARCINOMA TISSUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xin; SUN Zhi-jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the expression and clinical significance of p73( in breast carcinomas. Methods: The expression of p73( was detected by immunohistochemistry in 41 breast carcinoma tissues, 13 benign breast tumor tissues and 8 normal tissues and 8 normal breast tissues, respectively. Results: The positive expression of p73( was found in 20/41 (48.8%) of breast carcinoma tissues, 1/13 (7.7%) of benign breast tumor tissues. The positive expression rate of p73( in breast carcinoma tissues was significant1y higher than that in benign breast tumor tissues and normal breast tissues (P<0.05). The expression intensity of p73( increased significantly in breast carcinoma tissues compared with benign breast tumor tissues and normal breast tissues (P<0.05). Significant association of the expression of p73( with lymph node metastases and TNM stages of the carcinoma was found (P<0.05). The expression of p73( displayed a positive correlation with p53 (P<0.05). Conclusion: These results suggest that there is an up-regulation of p73( expression in breast carcinoma tissues, which may be implicated in the tumorigenesis of breast carcinoma as a molecular alteration.

  8. [Breast carcinoma: state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozzi, B C

    1996-11-30

    Diagnosis and therapy of breast cancer are briefly reviewed for the general internist. He should know what triple diagnosis, breast-conserving surgery, radiotherapy and adjuvant systemic therapy involve. He should know when to perform a screening mammography, what follow-up examinations after breast cancer are indicated and what dangers loom in metastatic breast cancer. He should know of new therapeutic avenues such as bisphosphonates, new aromatase inhibitors, taxanes, and high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell support. Since advances in the treatment of breast cancer have been achieved mostly through randomized studies, a positive attitude toward such studies and a willingness to take part in them are desirable.

  9. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyuan Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges.

  10. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast presenting as breast abscess : A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Bhandari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive ductal carcinoma, also known as Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma (IDC is the most common form of breast cancer. IDC starts in the breast\\s milk ducts and invades the surrounding breast stroma. Breast cancer usually present as a: swelling of all or parts of breast, skin irritation or dimpling, breast pain, nipple pain or retraction, redness or scaliness or thickening of the nipple or breast skin, nipple discharge other than breast milk, or a lump in the axilla. We present a case of a 40 year old female, with no family history of malignancy, who underwent Incision and Drainage (I and D for Right Breast Abscess 2 months back followed by a non-healing wound at the I and D site, associated with fungating growth and Right axillary lymph node enlargement, diagnosed as IDC with Axillary lymph node metastasis. Immunohistochemical studies showed deficient basement membrane and myoepithelial layer confirming the infiltrative nature. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(4.000: 422-423

  11. Malignant Mesothelioma Mimicking Invasive Mammary Carcinoma in a Male Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mokhtar Desouki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon tumor with strong association with asbestos exposure. Few cases of malignant pleural mesothelioma metastatic to the female breast have been reported. Herein, we presented, for the first time, a case of locally infiltrating malignant pleural mesothelioma forming a mass in the breast of a male as the first pathologically confirmed manifestation of the disease. Breast ultrasound revealed an irregular mass in the right breast which involves the pectoralis muscle. Breast core biopsy revealed a proliferation of neoplastic epithelioid cells mimicking an infiltrating pleomorphic lobular carcinoma. IHC studies showed the cells to be positive for calretinin, CK5/6, WT1, and CK7. The cells were negative for MOC-31, BerEp4, ER, and PR. A final diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma, epithelioid type, was rendered. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a broad differential diagnosis in the setting of atypical presentation with application of a panel of IHC markers.

  12. Control of Breast Carcinoma Angiogenesis by Nutrient Stress Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Wasa M, Souba WW, Abcouwer SF. Regulation of glutamine synthetase dihydroguaiaretic acid and in vitro cytotoxie effects on cancer cells. Cancer Lett...Abcouwer SF: Regulation of androgen-independent prostate cancer. Clinical Cancer Research glutamine synthetase in human breast carcinoma cells and 2000

  13. Myoepithelial carcinoma of the breast with focal rhabdoid features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, Hiroya; Iwaba, Akiko; Kato, Tomoya; Ohe, Rintaro; Maeda, Kunihiko; Matsuda, Mikio; Izuru, Kazuhiko; Morimoto, Kazuhiro; Katagiri, Shigeru; Yamakawa, Mitsunori

    2013-01-01

    Myoepithelial carcinoma of the breast is extremely rare and only 33 cases have been reported in the English literature. Herein, we report a case of myoepithelial carcinoma of the breast with focal rhabdoid features. The patient was a 67-year-old woman, who presented with a lump of the left breast that rapidly grew to 3 cm in diameter within 3 months. Lumpectomy revealed a solid and whitish colored tumor, which was composed mainly of elongated spindle-shaped cells with mild atypia, focal necrosis, and infiltrative margin. In a small area of the lesion, ovoid tumor cells exhibited eccentric nuclei with centrally located nucleoli and plump cytoplasm including round eosinophilic inclusions, resembling a rhabdoid tumor. Immunohistochemically, both types of tumor cells exhibited a myoepithelial phenotype. MIB-1 index was 30%. The cytoplasmic inclusion of the ovoid cells exhibited immunopositivity for both vimentin and cytokeratin. From these findings, this tumor was diagnosed as a myoepithelial carcinoma with focal rhabdoid features. Although rhabdoid features have been reported in some types of malignant and benign tumors, this is the first report of such features in myoepithelial carcinoma of the breast.

  14. Eccentric pericardial effusion after radiation therapy of left breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, B.; Zornoza, J.; Ricks, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    Pericardial damage is one of the consequences of cardiac radiation and may lead to chronic pericarditis and/or tamponade. In three patients treated with radiation for carcinoma of the left breast, the effusions were loculated on the right side of the pericardium resulting in a peculiar cardiac silhouette. The importance of recognizing this entity and possible treatment is stressed.

  15. Transitional cell carcinoma express vitamin D receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Andersen, C B

    1997-01-01

    Recently, vitamin D analogues have shown antineoplastic effect in several diseases. Vitamin D analogues exert its effect by interacting with the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Studies of VDR in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) have not been reported. The purpose of the present study was therefore.......05). Similarly, also tumor grade appeared to be related to the number of cells expressing the receptor. Normal urothlium also expressed VDR but only with low intensity. Our study shows that TCC cells possess the VDR receptor which may make them capable to respond to stimulation with vitamin D, but functional...... studies of vitamin D's effect on TCC cells in vitro are necessary before the efficacy of treatment with vitamin D analogues in TCC can be evaluated in patients....

  16. EXPRESSION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF ERK PROTEIN IN HUMAN BREAST CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀梅; 李柏林; 宋敏; 宋继谒

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of ERK and p-ERK protein in human breast cancer and their corresponding tissue, to assess the significance of ERK signal pathway in tumorigenesis and progression of breast carcinoma. Methods: 40 breast cancer cases were used in S-P immunohistochemistry technique and Western Blot study. Results: The expression of ERK1, ERK2, and p- ERK protein levels increased remarkably in breast cancer tissues in comparison to normal tissues (P<0.01). The expression was upregulated by 1.32-, 1.53-and 4.27-fold, respectively. The overexpressions of ERK1, ERK2, and p- ERK proteins were obviously correlated with clinical stage of breast cancer. Protein levels of ERK and p-ERK were higher in stage III patients than in stage I and stage II patients (P<0.05). These proteins were strongly related with axillary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer, but not correlated with histopathological type and status of ER and PR of breast cancer. Expression of ERK1, and ERK2, protein showed a positive linear correlation. Conclusion: ERK signal transduction pathway is a key factor during human breast tumorigenesis and breast cancer progression.

  17. Clinical and technological transition in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Poortmans, Philip; Marsiglia, Hugo; de las Heras, Manuel; Algara, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This article is a summary of the conference “Clinical and technological transition in breast cancer” that took place in the Congress of the Spanish Society of Radiation Oncology, placed in Vigo (Spain) on June 21, 2013. Hugo Marsiglia and Philip Poortmanns were the speakers, the first discussed about “Clinical and technological transition” and the second about “EORTC clinical trials and protocols”.

  18. Vascular characterisation of triple negative breast carcinomas using dynamic MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Sonia P.; Beresford, Mark J.; Ah-See, Mei-Lin W.; Makris, Andreas [Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Academic Oncology Unit, Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Padhani, Anwar R.; Taylor, N.J.; Stirling, J.J. [Mount Vernon Hospital, Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom); D' Arcy, James A.; Collins, David J. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, CR UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-) breast carcinomas (TNBC) are aggressive tumours with underexplored imaging features. This study investigates whether their vascular characteristics as assessed by dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced (DSC) MRI are distinct from the prognostically more favourable ER+/PR+/HER2- cancers. Patients with primary breast cancer underwent MRI before neoadjuvant chemotherapy and were identified as ER-/PR-/HER2- or ER+/PR+/HER2- from core biopsy specimens. MRI parameters reflecting tissue perfusion, permeability, and extracellular leakage space were measured. Values for inflow transfer constant (K{sup trans}), outflow rate constant (k{sub ep}), leakage space (v{sub e}), area under the gadolinium curve (IAUGC{sub 60}), relative blood volume (rBV) and flow (rBF), and Mean Transit Time (MTT) were compared across receptor status and with known prognostic variables. Thirty seven patients were assessable in total (16 ER-/PR-/HER2-, 21 ER+/PR+/HER2-). Lower v{sub e} (p = 0.001), shorter MTT (p = 0.007) and higher k{sub ep} values (p = 0.044) were observed in TNBC. v{sub e} was lower across all T stages, node-negative (p = 0.004) and low-grade TNBC (p = 0.037). v{sub e} was the best predictor of triple negativity (ROC AUC 0.80). TNBC possess characteristic features on imaging, with lower extracellular space (higher cell density) and higher contrast agent wash-out rate (higher vascular permeability) suggesting a distinctive phenotype detectable by MRI. (orig.)

  19. PAX 2: a novel Müllerian marker for serous papillary carcinomas to differentiate from micropapillary breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivukula, Mamatha; Dabbs, David J; O'Connor, Siobhan; Bhargava, Rohit

    2009-11-01

    Ovarian serous papillary carcinoma, although rarely metastasizing to the breast, is often challenging based on morphology alone, particularly from the micropapillary variant of breast carcinoma. Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, although a specific marker, can be negative in up to 50% of breast carcinomas. Wilm's tumor gene 1 (WT-1) has been identified as a useful marker to differentiate metastatic ovarian serous papillary carcinoma from primary breast carcinoma; however, it has recently been shown in the micropapillary variant of the primary breast carcinoma making it a less specific marker. PAX 2, a nuclear transcription factor, was recently observed in ovarian serous papillary carcinomas. In this study of 89 breast carcinoma cases, 26 micropapillary carcinoma, and 63 nonmicropapillary carcinoma types were retrieved from our pathology archives, represented on a single tissue microarray (TMA) with a 3-fold redundancy (TMA-1, TMA-2). In addition, whole tissue sections of a variety of benign and neoplastic müllerian tissues were surveyed with the PAX 2 immunostain. All cases were stained with rabbit polyclonal PAX 2 antibody and, in addition, the 5 metastatic ovarian serous carcinoma cases were stained with WT-1 as well for comparison. Only nuclear staining was considered positive. All primary breast carcinomas represented on TMA-1 and TMA-2 were entirely negative for PAX 2 100% (89/89), whereas 100% (5/5) of all metastatic ovarian serous carcinomas showed moderate-to-strong staining. PAX 2 expression was comparable with WT-1 as well in the metastatic ovarian serous carcinoma group. We therefore conclude that PAX 2 is a promising new, sensitive, and specific müllerian immunomarker for ovarian serous carcinomas (primary and metastatic).

  20. Genetic predisposition to ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petridis, Christos; Brook, Mark N; Shah, Vandna

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive form of breast cancer. It is often associated with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and is considered to be a non-obligate precursor of IDC. It is not clear to what extent these two forms of cancer share low-risk susceptibility loci...... %) of the 76 known breast cancer predisposition loci showed an association with DCIS in the same direction as previously reported for invasive breast cancer. Case-only analysis showed no evidence for differences between associations for IDC and DCIS after considering multiple testing. Analysis by estrogen...... receptor (ER) status confirmed that loci associated with ER positive IDC were also associated with ER positive DCIS. Analysis of DCIS by grade suggested that two independent SNPs at 11q13.3 near CCND1 were specific to low/intermediate grade DCIS (rs75915166, rs554219). These associations with grade...

  1. Varied presentations of ectopic breast - polymastia, fibroadenoma, and carcinoma arising from ectopic breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Khatib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic breast is a congenital anomaly of the breast which can have varied presentations because of its different sites and pathologies arising from it. Lesions of ectopic breast tissue (EBT are commonly seen due to persistence of embryonic remnants along the milk line. They have also been reported from other sites like face, vulva, and perineum. They are prone to the same physiological and pathological alterations seen in the normal breast. Only 0.3% of breast carcinomas arise in the ectopic breast, whereas only a few cases of fibroadenoma have been reported at this site. We present a case of polymastia in a 21-year-old female in the inframammary region. We report two cases of fibroadenoma and carcinoma arising from EBT in the axilla of a 26 and 45-year females. Fibroadenoma was treated by simple excision while for carcinoma modified radical mastectomy was done followed by radiation and chemotherapy. Patient developed metastasis in the sternum. Carcinoma arising from EBT has a poorer prognosis and needs early diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Secretory Carcinoma in a 79- Year-Old Woman: An Exceptionally Rare Type of Breast Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posso, Veronica; Redrobán, Ligia

    2016-01-01

    Secretory breast carcinoma is an exceptionally rare mammary gland neoplasia described mainly in adult females and children of both sexes, and very rarely in the elderly. It has particular histopathological and immunohistochemical features and a favorable prognosis. We report the case of a 79-year-old Hispanic woman with a palpable breast mass. Currently, the patient is disease free after a followup period of 6 years without local recurrence or axillary lymph-nodes nor distant metastases. PMID:28058101

  3. ASPN and GJB2 Are Implicated in the Mechanisms of Invasion of Ductal Breast Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bàrbara Castellana, Daniel Escuin, Gloria Peiró, Bárbara Garcia-Valdecasas, Tania Vázquez, Cristina Pons, Maitane Pérez-Olabarria, Agustí Barnadas, Enrique Lerma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of progression from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC remains largely unknown. We compared gene expression in tumors with simultaneous DCIS and IDC to decipher how diverse proteins participate in the local invasive process.Twenty frozen tumor specimens with concurrent, but separated, DCIS and IDC were microdissected and evaluated. Total RNA was extracted and microarray analysis was performed using Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Gene 1.0 ST Arrays. Microarray data were validated by quantitative real time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Controls included seven pure in situ carcinomas, eight fragments from normal breast tissue, and a series of mouse breast carcinomas (MMTV-PyMT.Fifty-six genes were differentially expressed between DCIS and IDC samples. The genes upregulated in IDC samples, and probably associated with invasion, were related to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (ASPN, THBS2, FN1, SPARC, and COL11A1, cellular adhesion (GJB2, cell motility and progression (PLAUR, PLAU, BGN, ADAMTS16, and ENPP2, extracellular matrix degradation (MMP11, MMP13, and MMP14, and growth/proliferation (ST6GAL2. qRT-PCR confirmed the expression patterns of ASPN, GJB2, ENPP2, ST6GAL2, and TMBS10. Expression of the ASPN and GJB2 gene products was detected by immunohistochemistry in invasive carcinoma foci. The association of GJB2 protein expression with invasion was confirmed by qRT-PCR in mouse tumors (P < 0.05.Conclusions: The upregulation of ASPN and GJB2 may play important roles in local invasion of breast ductal carcinomas.

  4. X-ray and ultrasound semiotics of mucinous carcinoma of the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Lesko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main epidemiological, clinical and morphological diagnostic features of one of the rare breast cancer form – mucinous carcinoma of the breast. Current scientific data are followed by the results of own research the 9-year period of research.Authors draw attention to the very complex radiology peculiarities of the mucinous carcinoma of the breast.

  5. Genetic Predisposition to In Situ and Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawyer, Elinor; Roylance, Rebecca; Petridis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) accounts for 10-15% of all invasive breast carcinomas. It is generally ER positive (ER+) and often associated with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 70 common polymorphisms that predispose to breast can...

  6. SPECTRUM OF RARE CARCINOMAS IN BREAST A SINGLE INSTITUTE EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijasree

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM : To evaluate the clinico pathological features of Metaplastic carcinomas. METHODS : Data of 11 patients with metaplastic breast carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed in a 3 years period. RESULTS : The patient’s ages ranged from 28 years to 70 years (median 49years. The tumours were 4 to 10cm (median 7cm in size. Patients underwent modified radical mastectomy and one patient underwent lumpectomy. One patient had axillary lymph node metastasis. TNM staging, tumour size and axillary nodal status were significant prognostic factors of survival. CONCLUSIO NS : All the three subtypes of Metaplstic carcinoma are known to behave aggressively and should be differentiated from the low grade fibromatosis - like Metaplastic carcinoma. Which does not metastasise

  7. Reproductive risk factors associated with breast carcinoma in a tertiary care hospital of north India: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Context: Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. In India and other developing countries, breast carcinoma ranks second only to cervical carcinoma among women. But the incidence of breast cancer is on the rise and may become number one cancer in females in near future. Aims: (1) To find out the magnitude of reproductive risk factors of carcinoma breast among the study subjects; and (2) to find out the association of reproductive risk factors with breast carcinoma. Mate...

  8. Simultaneous breast and ovarian metastasis from gallbladder carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanjay Singh; Puneet Gupta; Rahul Khanna; Ajay K Khanna

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gallbladder carcinoma is a common malig-nancy in the Indian subcontinent. It commonly metastasizes through lymphatics, direct invasion, and hematogenous spread. A common extra-abdominal site of metastasis is the lungs. Simultaneous metastasis to breast and ovary is extremely rare. METHOD: This report describes an unusual case of carcinoma gallbladder metastasizing to the breast and ovary at the same time. RESULTS: A 45-year-old woman came to us with complaints of flatulent dyspepsia associated with weight loss and anorexia. Ultrasound of the abdomen revealed hepatomegaly with thick-walled gallbladder with multiple stones and a mass at the fundus, but normal uterus and ovary. Contrast-enhanced computer tomography of the abdomen showed a gallbladder mass infiltrating the liver parenchyma. The patient underwent radical cholecystectomy. Histopathological examination revealed a poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma with mar-gins free from tumor infiltration. One month after surgery she developed a breast lump. Ultrasound of the abdomen for metastatic workup revealed an ovary mass. Simple mastectomy and salphingo-opherectomy were performed, and histopathological examination revealed a metastatic adenocarcinoma. The patient is now on chemotherapy with gemcitabin. CONCLUSION: This is an unusual case of carcinoma of the gallbladder with metastasis to the breast and ovary, which has not been documented before.

  9. Malignant melanoma and breast carcinoma: a bidirectional correlation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ho, W L

    2009-03-05

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and genetic studies have suggested a bidirectional association between breast carcinoma (BC) and malignant melanoma (MM). OBSERVATION: We present a series of patients with MM and BC detected in our department within a span of 6 months, raising concerns for the high associations between the two malignancies. This led us to match the concordance of the two tumours in the National Irish Cancer Registry. CONCLUSION: The national figures provide evidence of a link between BC and MM. We recommend increased awareness among clinicians leading to more detailed surveillance of both second primary tumours. All MM patients with a family history of BC should be referred to a breast clinic. Women above the age of 40 with MM should undergo annual mammography and those less than 40 may be better evaluated with a breast MRI. All breast cancer patients should be made aware of the significance of changing moles and those with suspicious lesions referred to a dermatologist for evaluation.

  10. Malignant melanoma and breast carcinoma: a bidirectional correlation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ho, W L

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and genetic studies have suggested a bidirectional association between breast carcinoma (BC) and malignant melanoma (MM). OBSERVATION: We present a series of patients with MM and BC detected in our department within a span of 6 months, raising concerns for the high associations between the two malignancies. This led us to match the concordance of the two tumours in the National Irish Cancer Registry. CONCLUSION: The national figures provide evidence of a link between BC and MM. We recommend increased awareness among clinicians leading to more detailed surveillance of both second primary tumours. All MM patients with a family history of BC should be referred to a breast clinic. Women above the age of 40 with MM should undergo annual mammography and those less than 40 may be better evaluated with a breast MRI. All breast cancer patients should be made aware of the significance of changing moles and those with suspicious lesions referred to a dermatologist for evaluation.

  11. Mucinous carcinoma of the breast is genomically distinct from invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Suarez, Paula H; MacKay, Alan; Lambros, Maryou B; Natrajan, Rachael; Savage, Kay; Geyer, Felipe C; Weigelt, Britta; Ashworth, Alan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2010-11-01

    Mucinous carcinomas are a rare entity accounting for up to 2% of all breast cancers, which have been shown to display a gene expression profile distinct from that of invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type (IDC-NSTs). Here, we have defined the genomic aberrations that are characteristic of this special type of breast cancer and have investigated whether mucinous carcinomas might constitute a genomic entity distinct from IDC-NSTs. Thirty-five pure and 11 mixed mucinous breast carcinomas were assessed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, HER2, Ki67, cyclin D1, cortactin, Bcl-2, p53, E-cadherin, basal markers, neuroendocrine markers, and WT1. Fifteen pure mucinous carcinomas and 30 grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs were microdissected and subjected to high-resolution microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). In addition, the distinct components of seven mixed mucinous carcinomas were microdissected separately and subjected to aCGH. Pure mucinous carcinomas consistently expressed ER (100%), lacked HER2 expression (97.1%), and showed a relatively low level of genetic instability. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that pure mucinous carcinomas were homogeneous and preferentially clustered together, separately from IDC-NSTs. They less frequently harboured gains of 1q and 16p and losses of 16q and 22q than grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs, and no pure mucinous carcinoma displayed concurrent 1q gain and 16q loss, a hallmark genetic feature of low-grade IDC-NSTs. Finally, both components of all but one mixed mucinous carcinoma displayed similar patterns of genetic aberrations and preferentially clustered together with pure mucinous carcinomas on unsupervised clustering analysis. Our results demonstrate that mucinous carcinomas are more homogeneous between themselves at the genetic level than IDC-NSTs. Both components of mixed mucinous tumours are remarkably similar at the

  12. Invasive Papillary Carcinoma of the Male Breast Misdiagnosed as Fibroadenoma on FNAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Richa; Kumar, Sandip; Khanna, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    Male breast cancers constitute less than 1% of all the breast cancers. Papillary carcinoma is a very rare tumour of the male breast. Due to rarity, Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB) findings of papillary carcinoma in male breast are seldom reported. A 55-year-old male presented with a lump in the left breast of two years’ duration. FNAB was reported as fibroadenoma. Histopathological examination of the excised breast lump revealed invasive papillary carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry showed expression of pancytokeratin, oestrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. Negative immunostaining was seen for HER2, p53, 34βE12, and CD34. Ki-67 proliferative index was 5%. We have discussed cytological findings of invasive papillary carcinoma and its differential diagnoses. Cytopathologists must be aware of cytologic findings of invasive papillary carcinoma of the male breast. PMID:28384872

  13. Histopathological Features of Invasion of Breast Invasive Ductal Carcinoma and Safety of Breast-conserving Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunping LIU; Huaxiong PAN; Zhi LI; Lan SHI; Tao HUANG

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between the extent of tumor invasion and the tu-mor size,axillary lymph nodes metastasis,Her-2 gene overexpression,and histologic grading in breast invasive ductal carcinoma as well as the optimal extent of excision during the breast-serving surgery,the clinical data of 104 patients with breast invasive ductal carcinoma who had received modified radical mastectomy were analyzed.The correlation analysis on invasive extent,which was evaluated by serial sections at an interval of 0.5 cm from 4 different directions taking the focus as the centre,and the tumor size,axillary lymph nodes metastasis,Her-2 gene overexpression,and his-tologic grading was processed.There was a significant correlation between invasive extent and tumor size (r=0.766,P0.05),and histologic grading (r=0.228,P>0.05).The 100% negative rate of infiltration in patients without nipple discharge with tumor size 3 cm was obtained at 1.5,2.0 and 2.5 cm away from the tumor respectively.It is concluded that the performance of breast-serving surgery in patients with breast invasive ductal carcinoma should be evaluated by tumor size in combination with axillary lymph nodes involvement to decide the possibility of breast-serving and the secure excision extent.

  14. Accessory Breast Cancer Occurring Concurrently with Bilateral Primary Invasive Breast Carcinomas: A Report of Two Cases and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Jin-yan; Yang, Cui-cui; Liu, Fang-Fang; Yang, Yi-Ling; Li, Shuai; Li, Wei-Dong; LI, YA-QING; Lang, Rong-gang; Fan, Yu; Paulos, Estifanos; Zhang, Xin-Min; Fu, Li

    2012-01-01

    The development of accessory breast tissue, which is found anywhere along the milk line, is attributed to the failure of milk line remnants to regress during embryogenesis. Primary tumors may arise from any ectopic breast tissue. Accessory breast cancer occurring concurrently with primary invasive breast cancer is extremely rare. Two such cases were reported in this article. One was a 43-year-old Chinese female who exhibited bilateral breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise sp...

  15. Primary lymphoma of the breast involving both axillae with bilateral breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin Gary

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (PHNL of the breast is a rare entity, while secondary involvement of the breast with diffuse disease of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL is more common. However, PNHL is the most frequent haematopoietic tumour of the breast. Diagnostic criteria for PNHL of the breast are presence of technically adequate pathologic specimens, close association of mammary tissue and lymphomatous infiltrate, no prior diagnosis of an extarammamary lymphoma, and no evidence of concurrent widespread disease, except for ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes if concomitant with the primary lesion. Case presentation A 57-year-old woman was recalled because her screening mammograms revealed three separate lesions in her right breast and one in the left. Histology of the lesions confirmed lymphoma in one breast with ductal carcinoma in the other. Conclusion Most of reported cases in literature have been involving the right breast, and almost all the patients were females. NHLs of the breast typically present as unilateral mass; the frequency of bilateral disease at first presentation ranges from 5–25%. Our objective is to report a case of primary lymphoma of the breast involving both axillae with concomitant bilateral primary breast cancer which has not been reported yet to our best of knowledge in literature.

  16. Nodular amyloidosis of the lung and the breast mimicking breast carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Y S; Kuo, S H; Yang, P C; Chen, C L; Luh, K T

    1995-05-01

    Nodular amyloidosis of the breast and lung is a rare condition of unknown aetiology. The disease runs a benign course, but offers a diagnostic problem due to nonspecific histological features. We describe the case of a 56 year old woman with a 5 year history of multiple nodules of both lungs and left breast, clinically mimicking breast carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cytologically proven amyloidosis diagnosed by ultrasound-guided percutaneous transthoracic fine-needle aspiration of pulmonary nodules.

  17. Clinicopathologic and prognostic implications of progranulin in breast carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li-qin; HUANG Hui-lian; PING Jin-liang; WANG Xiao-hong; ZHONG Jing; DAI Li-cheng

    2011-01-01

    Background Progranulin is a newly discovered 88-kDa glycoprotein originally purified from the highly tumorigenic mouse teratoma-derived cell line PC. Its expression is closely correlated with the development and metastasis of several cancers. However, no immunohistochemical evidence currently exists to correlate progranulin expression with clinicopathologic features in breast carcinoma biopsies, and the role of progranulin as a new marker of metastatic risk and prognosis in breast cancer has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic and prognostic implications of progranulin expression in breast carcinoma and its correlation with tumor angiogenesis. Methods Progranulin expression was determined immunohistochemically in 183 surgical specimens from patients with breast cancer and 20 tissue samples from breast fibroadenomas. The tumor angiogenesis-related biomarker, vascular endothelial growth factor was assayed and microvessel density was assessed by counting vascular endothelial cells in tumor tissues labeled with endoglin antibody. The relationship between progranulin expression and the clinicopathologic data were analyzed.Results Progranulin proteins were overexpressed in breast cancer. The level of progranulin expression was significantly correlated with tumor size (P=0.004), lymph node metastasis (P <0.001) and TNM staging (P <0.001). High progranulin expression was associated with higher tumor angiogenesis, reflected by increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression (P<0.001) and higher microvessel density (P=0.002).Conclusion Progranulin may be a valuable marker for assessing the metastasis and prognosis of breast cancer, and could provide the basis for new combination regimens with antiangiogenic activity.

  18. Fusions of Breast Carcinoma and Dendritic Cells as a Vaccine for the Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Dendritic Cells as a Vaccine for the Treatment of Metatastic Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Donald W. Kufe, M.D...COVERED 1 Jul 2008 – 30 Jun 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Fusions of Breast Carcinoma and Dendritic Cells as a Vaccine for the...David Avigan, MD, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, in Support of Proposal, "Fusions of Breast Carcinoma and Dendritic Cells as a

  19. Invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast in a 14-year-old girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joo Yeon; Kim, Yun Ju; Kim, Sung Hun; Kang, Bong Joo [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Byung Joo [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of General Surgery, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Breast cancer is rare in children and adolescents. In particular, there are very few cases of invasive ductal carcinoma in childhood. We report a case of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast in a 14-year-old girl presenting as a palpable mass. While the tumor demonstrated a relatively benign appearance on ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging revealed typical malignant features. Several polymorphisms of single nucleotide variation were observed on gene analysis. The patient underwent breast conserving surgery and received subsequent concurrent chemo-radiation therapy. An awareness that ductal carcinoma of the breast rarely occurs in children is important to detect early stage breast cancer. (orig.)

  20. Histological Grading in Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of the Breast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of histological grading as a prognostic factor in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Methods: According to the Van Nuy's classification, 32 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast were divided into three groups. Results: Low grade (well differentiated, low grade DCIS) 12 patients (37.5%); Intermediate grade, 9 patients (28.1%); High grade (poorly differentiated DCIS) 11 patients (34.4%). Among the high grade DCIS, the histologic subtypes were comedo (9 patients), micropapillary (1 patient) and solid (1 patient). The positive expression of c-erbB-2, p53 and MIB-1 in high grade DCIS was higher than that in intermediate and low grade DCIS. The difference between high grade and low grade DCIS was significant (p<0.05). The expression of ER in high grade DCIS was lower than that in intermediate and low grade DCIS. Conclusions: Histological grading of breast ductal carcinoma in situ may be a good prognostic factor.

  1. Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Breast: A Rare Breast Cancer Subtype - Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Ratti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glycogen-rich clear cell breast carcinoma is a rare histological breast cancer subtype. Its prognosis may vary depending on specific clinical and pathological characteristics such as low grade, strong positivity of estrogen receptor (ER expression and early diagnosis. Case Presentation: We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a bleeding 10-cm-diameter mass in the left breast. The histological examination showed a poorly differentiated tumor with malignant cells characterized by abundant clear cytoplasm. The diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma was based on the histological characteristics of the tumor, and a nonmammary origin was initially ruled out. The tumor was triple negative [i.e. ER, progesterone receptor (PR and HER2 negative]. Four months after the initial locoregional treatment, the patient developed lung and distant lymph node metastases. Conclusions: Glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor. Early diagnosis, absence of lymph node metastases and ER/PR positivity are associated with a better prognosis, as in other common breast cancer subtypes.

  2. Concomitant Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Gallbladder and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Aiello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuroendocrine carcinoma is defined as a high-grade malignant neuroendocrine neoplasm arising from enterochromaffin cells, usually disposed in the mucosa of gastric and respiratory tracts. The localization in the gallbladder is rare. Knowledge of these gallbladder tumors is limited and based on isolated case reports. We describe a case of an incidental finding of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder, observed after cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis, in a 55-year-old female, who already underwent quadrantectomy and sentinel lymph-node biopsy for breast cancer. The patient underwent radiotherapy for breast cancer and six cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide. Eighteen months after surgery, the patient was free from disease. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder has poor prognosis. Because of the rarity of the reported cases, specific prognostic factors have not been identified. The coexistence of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder with another malignancy has been reported only once. The contemporary presence of the two neoplasms could reflect that bioactive agents secreted by carcinoid can promote phenotypic changes in susceptible cells and induce neoplastic transformation.

  3. Anal metastasis from recurrent breast lobular carcinoma: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Puglisi; Emanuela Varaldo; Michela Assalino; Gianluca Ansaldo; Giancarlo Torre; Giacomo Borgonovo

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of isolated gastrointestinal metastasis from breast lobular carcinoma, which mimicked primary anal cancer. In July 2000, an 88-year-old woman presented with infiltrating lobular cancer (pT1/G2/N2). The patient received postoperative radiotherapy and hormonal therapy. Four years later,she presented with an anal polypoid lesion. The mass was removed for biopsy. Immunohistochemical staining suggested a breast origin. Radiotherapy was chosen for this patient, which resulted in complete regression of the lesion. The patient died 3 years after the first manifestation of gastrointestinal metastasis.According to the current literature, we consider the immunohistochemistry features that are essential to support the suspicion of gastrointestinal breast metastasis, and since we consider the gastrointestinal involvement as a sign of systemic disease, the therapy should be less aggressive and systemic.

  4. The mechanism of BRCA1 participate sporadic breast carcinomas genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Min-jie; REN Jie

    2008-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the BRCA1 participated mechanism of genesis and development of sporadic breast cancer through detect the statues of BRCA1 and analysis the relationship with the pathologic and clinic parameters. Methods BRCA1 statues were respectively analyzed in frozen samples or paraffine fixed sporadic breast carcinoma and benign breast tissues by three methods: protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC), the methylation of BRCA 1 promoter by methylation specific PCR (MSP), gene copy number by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results 14.2 % (29/204) cases were detected hypermethylation of BRCA1 promoter in sporadic breast cancer. BRCA1 mean copy number in sporadic breast cancer (1.70±0.14) less than those in benign tissues (2.03±0.08, P<0.05), and in sporadic breast cancer with hypermethylation of BRCA1 (1.62±0.09) significantly less than in those without hypermethylation (1.84±0.26, P<0.05). The loss copy related to the methylation of BRCA1 promoter. There were significant of 41.1% (88/214) cases no BRCA1 nuclei expression in sporadic breast cancers. Loss expression of BRCA1 had significant correlation with higher histological stages, axillary' s lymph nodal metastasis (P<0.01), lower expression of ERα, and overexpression of HER-2 protein( P<0.01). Conclusions There are BRCA 1 methylations, loss BRCA 1 gene copy and loss protein expression in the sporadic breast cancer, the three statues of BRCA1 is correlated to each other;and the loss expression of BRCA1 protein related to part of pathology and clinic parameters.

  5. NIPPLE AREOLA COMPLEX INVOLVEMENT IN EARLY AND LATE CARCINOMA BREAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : The last several decades h ave witnessed significant advances in the surgical management of carcinoma breast. Many have embraced breast conservation as the procedure of choice in carefully selected patients. It provides excellent cosmetic results side by side being oncologically saf e. Recent evidences have shown that involvement of nipple areola complex in breast cancer have been over estimated in the past based on older concept of occult tumor in the region of nipple and areola. Preservation of nipple and areola improves the quality of life and reduces the feeling of mutilation and thus is a logical step in conservative management of breast carcinoma. AIMS: (a To investigate the actual involvement of nipple areola complex clinically and histopathologically. (b To determine the asso ciated risk factors like site, size, distance, grading and lymph node status. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: This was a prospective study over a period of 2008 - 2011 carried out at Department of General Surgery of a tertiary care centre. Total number of patients i ncluded in the study was 54. All patients included in the study had undergone mastectomy for carcinoma of breast (excluding those patients who had clinical involvement of nipple areola complex. RESULTS: Among the patients of the study group majority of br east cancer occurred in age group 41 - 60 years (42.6% while incidence of nipple areola involvement was highest in age group 20 - 40 years. Majority of the patients detected with breast cancer were in stage II (44.4% while incidence of nipple areola involvem ent was highest in stage IV in our study. Mean largest dimension of the tumor was between 2 - 5cms while nipple areola involvement was found to be highest when the tumor is >5cms in largest dimension. Among the cases mean nipple tumor margin distance was bet ween 0 - 4cms while nipple areola involvement was found to be highest when the nipple tumor margin distance was < 2cms. CONCLUSION: It can

  6. Ultrasonographic findings of pure mucinous carcinoma of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seon, Hyun Ju; Park, Jeong Mi; Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Min Yeong; Kim, Hak Hee [University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    To identify the ultrasonographic findings characteristic of pure mucinous carcinoma of the breast. We reviewed the sonographic findings of 18 nodules in 15 patients which were diagnosed as pure mucinous breast carcinoma during surgery from January, 1995 to May, 2003. We analyzed the location, size, shape, orientation, margin, lesion boundary, echo pattern, and posterior acoustic features of the nodules, as well as changes of the surrounding tissue, associated calcification, axillary lymph nodes, and cystic changes in the tumor masses. All the patients were female. We also analyzed the preoperative mammographic findings of the 8 nodules that were available. The upper inner or upper outer quadrants of the breast were the most common involved sites. The longest diameter of the tumors was between 0.6 and 5.4 (mean, 2.1) cm. The ovoid shape was most frequently found(n=14), followed by round (n=2) and, irregular (n=2) shapes. Tumor margins were more commonly well-demarcated(n=10), followed by obscured (n=8) margins. Most lesions had parallel orientations (n=16) and abruptinterfaces (n=12). The internal echogenicity was most commonly complex (n=9) followed by hypoechogenicity(n=6). Most masses showed posterior acoustic enhancement (n=16), associated with posterior acoustic shadowing in 5 cases. Associated architectural distortion was seen in 3 cases. Microcalcification was associated in 3 cases. Enlarged axillary lymph nodes were associated in 2 cases. Nine masses showed cystic change in the mass. On mammography, the masses were mostly well-defined (n=3) or obscured (n=3) or, ovoid (n=6) or of a high density (n=5). On sonography, most mucinous breast carcinoma presented as a well-demarcated ovoid complex echoic mass with cystic change, and these characteristics were associated with posterior acoustic enhancement and abrupt interface.

  7. Syndecan-1 and syndecan-4 are independent indicators in breast carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lendorf, Maria E; Manon-Jensen, Tina; Kronqvist, Pauliina;

    2011-01-01

    overexpression correlates with poor prognosis and aggressive phenotype. Syndecan-4 is expressed in most breast carcinoma cell lines, but its role in malignancy is unclear. A possible relationship between syndecan-1 and syndecan-4 expression and established prognostic factors in breast carcinomas was examined...

  8. Genetic Predisposition to In Situ and Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); R. Roylance (Rebecca); C. Petridis (Christos); R.H. Brook; S. Nowinski (Salpie); E. Papouli (Efterpi); O. Fletcher (Olivia); S. Pinder (Sarah); A. Hanby (Andrew); K. Kohut (Kelly); P. Gorman (Patricia); M. Caneppele (Michele); J. Peto (Julian); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); N. Johnson (Nichola); R. Swann (Ruth); M. Dwek (Miriam); K.-A. Perkins (Katherine-Anne); C. Gillett (Cheryl); R. Houlston (Richard); G. Ross (Gillian); P. de Ieso (Paolo); M.C. Southey (Melissa); J.L. Hopper (John); E. Provenzano (Elena); C. Apicella (Carmel); J. Wesseling (Jelle); S. Cornelissen (Sten); J.N. Keeman; P.A. Fasching (Peter); S.M. Jud (Sebastian); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); M. Kerin (Michael); F. Marme (Federick); A. Schneeweiss (Andreas); C. Sohn (Christof); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); P. Laurent-Puig (Pierre); P. Kerbrat (Pierre); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); S.F. Nielsen (Sune); H. Flyger (Henrik); R.L. Milne (Roger); J.I.A. Perez (Jose Ignacio Arias); P. Menéndez (Primitiva); J. Benítez (Javier); H. Brenner (Hermann); A.K. Dieffenbach (Aida Karina); V. Arndt (Volker); C. Stegmaier (Christa); A. Meindl (Alfons); P. Lichtner (Peter); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); M. Lochmann (Magdalena); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); H.-P. Fischer; Y-D. Ko (Yon-Dschun); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); T.A. Muranen (Taru); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); T. Dörk (Thilo); A. Lindblom (Annika); S. Margolin (Sara); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J. Hartikainen (Jaana); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); D. Lambrechts (Diether); C. Weltens (Caroline); E. van Limbergen (Erik); S. Hatse (Sigrid); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); A. Rudolph (Anja); P. Seibold (Petra); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); S. Volorio (Sara); G.G. Giles (Graham); G. Severi (Gianluca); L. Baglietto (Laura); C.A. McLean (Catriona Ann); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); B.E. Henderson (Brian); F.R. Schumacher (Fredrick); L. Le Marchand (Loic); J. Simard (Jacques); M.S. Goldberg (Mark); F. Labrèche (France); M. Dumont (Martine); V. Kristensen (Vessela); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); S. Kauppila (Saila); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); A.M. Mulligan (Anna Marie); P. Devillee (Peter); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); M. Kriege (Mieke); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); M.E. Sherman (Mark); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); C.H.M. van Deurzen (Carolien); J. Li (Jingmei); K. Czene (Kamila); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); M. Shah (Mitul); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); A. Ashworth (Alan); N. Orr (Nick); M. Schoemaker (Minouk); F.J. Couch (Fergus); B. Hallberg (Boubou); A. González-Neira (Anna); G. Pita (G.); M.R. Alonso (M Rosario); Y. Tessier (Yann); D. Vincent (Daniel); F. Bacot (Francois); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); Q. Wang (Qing); J. Dennis (Joe); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); A.M. Dunning (Alison); P. Hall (Per); D.F. Easton (Douglas); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. García-Closas (Montserrat)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInvasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) accounts for 10-15% of all invasive breast carcinomas. It is generally ER positive (ER+) and often associated with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 70 common polymorphisms that predispose to b

  9. Reactivation of inactive X chromosome in buccal smear of carcinoma of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natekar Prashant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal mucosal smears of 100 female patients of carcinoma of breast were compared with 100 controls matched accordingly. The frequency of Barr bodies was significantly lower in carcinoma of breast patients (menstruating and menopausal women P < 0.001 when compared with controls indicating reactivation of the inactive X chromosome.

  10. CAMK1D amplification implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in basal-like breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Anna; Kim, Young H; Kwei, Kevin A; La Choi, Yoon; Bocanegra, Melanie; Langerød, Anita; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Huntsman, David G; Jeffrey, Stefanie S; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Pollack, Jonathan R

    2008-12-01

    Breast cancer exhibits clinical and molecular heterogeneity, where expression profiling studies have identified five major molecular subtypes. The basal-like subtype, expressing basal epithelial markers and negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2, is associated with higher overall levels of DNA copy number alteration (CNA), specific CNAs (like gain on chromosome 10p), and poor prognosis. Discovering the molecular genetic basis of tumor subtypes may provide new opportunities for therapy. To identify the driver oncogene on 10p associated with basal-like tumors, we analyzed genomic profiles of 172 breast carcinomas. The smallest shared region of gain spanned just seven genes at 10p13, including calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID (CAMK1D), functioning in intracellular signaling but not previously linked to cancer. By microarray, CAMK1D was overexpressed when amplified, and by immunohistochemistry exhibited elevated expression in invasive carcinomas compared to carcinoma in situ. Engineered overexpression of CAMK1D in non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells led to increased cell proliferation, and molecular and phenotypic alterations indicative of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), including loss of cell-cell adhesions and increased cell migration and invasion. Our findings identify CAMK1D as a novel amplified oncogene linked to EMT in breast cancer, and as a potential therapeutic target with particular relevance to clinically unfavorable basal-like tumors.

  11. Matrix-Producing Carcinoma of the Breast: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Rossi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Matrix-producing breast cancer (MPC is a subtype of metaplastic carcinoma of the breast. It is a very rare tumor, which constitutes less than 1% of all malignant mammary tumors. The origin of this tumor is still unclear: there are molecular studies that suggest an origin from myoepithelial cells, whereas other studies underline the neoplastic transformation of a multipotent stem cell. Even the differential diagnosis of MPC and other breast neoplasms (phyllodes tumors and real sarcomas of the breast is not always easy. In the literature, a certain chemoresistance has been demonstrated, and a standard treatment of this tumor does not exist at this time. We report the case of a 44-year-old, premenopausal, female patient with a 6-cm breast lump. Neither imaging nor fine needle aspiration biopsy was crucial in achieving a diagnosis. The patient underwent a simple mastectomy. In consideration of the negative lymph node status, the patient was not subjected to radiotherapy or adjuvant chemotherapy. Moreover, since the receptor status was negative, hormone therapy was not necessary. The patient has been disease free for 4 years now.

  12. Role of cytologic grading in prognostication of invasive breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nazoora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of cytologic features is indispensable in the preoperative diagnosis and grading of infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma (CA in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC material and this method can also provide additional information regarding intrinsic features of the tumor as well as its prognosis. Aim: This study has been done to evaluate comparatively the cytologic and histomorphologic grading of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast with specific reference to lymph node metastasis and its role in prognostication. Materials and Methods: Forty three patients who underwent FNAC and mastectomy for infiltrating ductal carcinoma were cytologically and histologically graded (employing Robinson′s cytologic grading system and Elston′s modification of Bloom-Richardson system, respectively. Statistical analysis was done employing ′z′ test and c2 test to compare the two grading system and to examine the degree of correlation between the cytologic and histologic grades. Multiple regression analysis was done to assess the significance of every cytologic and histologic parameter. All 43 cases, graded cyto-histologically were also evaluated for presence or absence of metastasis to the regional lymph nodes employing c2 test. Results: With histologic grade taken as the standard, cytology was found to be fairly comparable, for grading breast carcinoma (overall sensitivity 89.1%, specificity 100%. Further comparison of the two grading systems by Z-test showed that difference between the cytologic and histologic grading was insignificant in all the three grade (p > 0.05. Of the six parameters studied, cell dissociation, nucleoli and chromatin pattern were the most influential features (p < 0.001. The statistically significant difference (p < 0.001 was found in incidences of axillary lymph node metastatic rate in three cytologic grades (15.4% in grade I vs. 83.3% in grade III as well. Conclusions: Apart from being simple and

  13. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma breast with central necrosis closely mimicking ductal carcinoma in situ (comedo type: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervez Shahid

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we present a series of infiltrative ductal carcinoma breast cases (infiltrative ductal carcinoma with central necrosis so closely mimicking 'DCIS with central comedo necrosis' that on initial morphological analysis these foci of tumors were labeled as DCIS (high grade, comedo. However on further histological work up and by using immunohistochemistry (IHC for myoepithelial markers it was later confirmed that these were foci of infiltrative ductal carcinoma breast with central necrosis. This case series gives the realization that a breast carcinoma may be partly or entirely DCIS like yet invasive. In such a dilemma IHC especially for assessment of myoepithelial lining is very useful to differentiate DCIS comedo from invasive carcinoma with central necrosis.

  14. Invasive Micropapillary Carcinoma in Breast Presented as Hyperechoic Mass with Coarse Macrocalcifications: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Sun; Seo, Bo Kyung; Song, Sung Eun; Kim, Young Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyu Ran [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Ok Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Invasive micropapillary carcinoma is a rare, clinically aggressive variant of invasive ductal carcinoma. Imaging findings of invasive micropapillary carcinoma are not specific, and associated microcalcifications are frequent. Our case presented with unique radiological features: a mass with coarse macrocalcifications on mammography and breast computed tomography and a hyperechoic mass on breast ultrasound. Macrocalcifications and hyperechogenicity are not usual malignant characteristics. We report here on our experience with a 55-year-old woman who had invasive micropapillary carcinoma in the breast with unique radiological and pathological findings.

  15. Staghorn calculi and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis associated with transitional cell carcinoma

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    Chao-Wei Tseng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Untreated staghorn calculi can cause xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP, diminished renal function, and renal malignancy. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the upper urinary tract is associated with kidney stones and chronic infection, but their association with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC has not been proven and has rarely been reported in literature. We present a rare case of staghorn calculi and XGP associated with TCC.

  16. CORRELATION BETWEEN LAMININ AND CATHEPSIN D EXPRESSIONS IN BREAST CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Feng; CHEN Wei-hong; ZHENG Jian-ming; HUANG Ling

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Laminin is a major glycoprotein component of basement membrance which is an important barrier to tumor cells which must be breeched before metastatic spread can occur. Proteolytic enzymes play an important role in mediating the passage of cancer cells through the basement membrane (BM) and extracellular matrix. We compared the patterns of laminin and cathepsin D (CD) expressions in a range of benign and malignant breast lesions to better understand the process of tumor progression. Methods: One hundred and sixty-two cases of breast samples comprising 18 fibroadeomas, 22 cases of fibrocystic disease, 96 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma and 26 carcinomas with intraductal components were evaluated for laminin and cathepsin D expressions by immunohistochemical staining. Results: The prevalence of CD positivity in both neoplastic and stromal cell components were significantly higher in higher histological grade tumors compared to lower grades (P<0.001). Various severity of BM disruption correlated with histological grade of the carcinomas (P<0.001). There was a negative correlation between the laminin expression and CD presence. Conclusion: In the process of cancer cell invasion and metastasis, the basement membrane is disrupted by proteinase secreted by cancer cells, especially by stroma cells of cancer.

  17. Secretory breast carcinomas with ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene belong to the basal-like carcinoma spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laé, Marick; Fréneaux, Paul; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Chouchane, Olfa; Sigal-Zafrani, Brigitte; Vincent-Salomon, Anne

    2009-02-01

    Secretory breast carcinomas (carcinoma. A series of six secretory breast carcinomas were identified in our files. The ETV6 rearrangement was confirmed in all cases by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Immunophenotype was assessed with anti-ER, PR, ERBB2, KIT, EGFR, E-cadherin, vimentin, PS100, smooth muscle actin, basal (CK5/6 and 14), luminal cytokeratins (CK8/18) and p63 antibodies. In situ and invasive components shared the same immunoprofile and were ER, PR, ERBB2 negative with expression of basal cytokeratins. ETV6 gene alterations were present in both in situ and invasive components, highlighting their genetic similarities. The immunoprofile data (triple-negative with expression of basal markers) showed that secretory breast carcinomas with ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene belong to the phenotypic basal-like spectrum of breast carcinomas. These results support the hypothesis that secretory breast carcinomas have immunohistochemical and genetic features that distinguish them from other basal-like tumors of the breast.

  18. Difficulty in Differentiating Breast Fibroadenoma from Carcinoma : A Case Report and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    我喜屋, 亮; 山下, 雅知; 大城, 直人; 慶田, 喜信; 比嘉, 司; 当山, 勝徳; 武島, 正則; 平安山, 英義; 仲間, 健; 新垣, 京子; Gakiya, Akira; Yamashita, Masatomo; Ohshiro, Naoto; Keida, Yoshinobu; Higa, Tsukasa

    1993-01-01

    Fibroadenoma is a commonly found benign tumor of the breast; however carcinoma in a fibroadenoma is rarely encountered. In this paper we described a case of fibroadenoma difficult to differentiate from carcinoma. A 17-year-old woman visited our hospital complaining of a left breast lump. Ultrasonography showed a well-defined and hypoechoic ovoid mass. Excisional biopsy was done and diagnosed as fibroadenoma; however it was difficult to differentiate histologically from carcinoma. The features...

  19. [Radiotherapy of choroid metastases in breast carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowsky, W; Schmid, A P; Dobrowsky, E

    1987-06-01

    From 1975 to 1984, thirteen patients were submitted to radiotherapy for choroid metastases of mammary carcinoma. Bilateral manifestation was found in three cases, thus sixteen eyes have been treated. All irradiations were performed with high voltage equipment. The posterior section of the eye was irradiated with 25 to 50 Gy over 2.5 to 5 weeks. Complete regression was achieved in nine out of sixteen cases, five patients showed an improvement of at least 50%, no considerable effect was found in two cases. The survival is 4 to 48 months (median survival 20 months) from the beginning of radiotherapy. Radiotherapy is a quick, efficient, and sparing treatment in choroid metastases. If applied in due time, it can prevent a visual disorder or amaurosis, thus improving the patients' quality of life.

  20. Distinguishing medullary carcinoma of the breast from high-grade hormone receptor-negative invasive ductal carcinoma: an immunohistochemical approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flucke, U.E.; Flucke, M.T.; Hoy, L.; Breuer, E.; Goebbels, R.; Rhiem, K.; Schmutzler, R.; Winzenried, H.; Braun, M.; Steiner, S.; Buettner, R.; Gevensleben, H.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Medullary carcinomas (MCs) represent a rare breast cancer subtype associated with a rather favourable prognosis compared with invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs). Due to histopathological overlap, MCs are frequently misclassified as high-grade IDCs, potentially leading to overtreatment of MCs. O

  1. Metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the tibia radiologically mimicking osteosarcoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cunningham, Laurence Patrick

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 73-year-old lady with transitional cell carcinoma and no evidence of metastatic disease presenting with gradual weight loss, pretibial swelling and painful weightbearing. Investigations revealed a lesion of the right tibial diaphysis. The radiological and clinical appearance was that of primary osteosarcoma. Biopsy results revealed metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the tibia. Intramedullary nailing was performed which relieved pain on weightbearing. The patient declined radiotherapy and was started on a palliative care regimen. This case illustrates the importance of histological diagnosis in the treatment of diaphyseal lesions.

  2. PRIMARY TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE OVARY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old female presented with a history of progressively enlarging abdominal mass. Abdominal computed tomography showed a pelvic mass involving both the ovaries and omentum. CA-125 was normal. Staging surgery was performed and the histopathological diagnosis of Transitional Cell Carcinoma was made and later confirmed by immuno-histochemistry. Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer. Surgical resection is the primary therapeutic approach, and patient’s outcomes after chemotherapy are better than for other types of ovarian cancers.

  3. PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF MIB1 PROLIFERATIONMARKER EXPRESSION ON DUCTAL CARCINOMA IN SITU ANDINVASIVE DUCTAL CARCINOMA OF THE BREAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine the prognostic significance of MIB1 proliferation marker expression on ductal carci noma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. Methods By means of histological and immunohis tochemical techniques, MIB1 labelling index (LI) was determined in 31 pathologic specimens (DICS 6, IDC 22 and 3 benign breast lesions as control). Results Significantly higher (P<0.05) MIB1 expression was noted in breast carcinomas in con trast with benign breast lesions. MIB1 LI increased with increasing tumor invasion from DCIS to IDC (P<0.05). Increased tendency of MIB1 LI had been also noted in according with the increased nuclear grading (NG) of IDC. Conclusion MIB1 ex pression can faithfully reflect the proliferative activity of the breast lesions, where the breast cancers with both high MIB1 LI and NG seem to have a poor prognosis.

  4. Metastatic breast carcinoma of the coracoid process: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drosdowech Darren S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coracoid process of the scapula is a rare site of involvement for metastatic disease or for primary tumors. We are unaware of any reports in the literature of pathologic coracoid process fractures and only one report of metastatic disease to the coracoid. Methods and Results In this case report, we present two cases with metastatic breast carcinoma of the coracoid process, one of which presented with a pathologic fracture of the coracoid. Conclusions An orthopaedic surgeon must be aware of the potential for metastatic disease to the coracoid as they may be the first medical provider to encounter evidence of malignant disease.

  5. CLINICO PATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF CARCINOMA BREAST: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

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    Madhu Shankar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women and the second most cause of death in cancer. Over the past several decades there has been increase in incidence of the disease. Analysis of the incidence, clinical presentations, various risk factors, accuracy of FNAC and frozen section, incidence of various pathological types, stage at presentation and ER, PR, HER-2/neu status. METHODS In this prospective study, 51 consecutive patients who were diagnosed to have carcinoma breast admitted between April 2013 to April 2014 in the Department of Surgery, Rajarajeshwari Hospital, Bangalore, were included in the study. A detailed clinical history was elicited from all patients at the time of admission. All patients who had triple assessment evidence of malignancy were worked up for surgery with necessary investigations. Written consent was obtained from each patient for surgery. After data collection, it was checked, verified, edited manually for consistency to reduce error. Descriptive and graphical methods were used in analysing the data. The important variables were considered and analysed to fulfil the objective of the study. RESULTS In our study, the incidence of carcinoma breast is 5.6 per 1000, 32% of them were between 41-50 year age group, 63.3% had early menarche, 14.3% were nulliparous. Nearly 84.3% of them presented with lump of which 54% left sided involving upper outer quadrant 54.9%. Most cases belong to stage II and stage III at the time of presentation. FNAC was done in all cases with accuracy rate of 82.4%, followed by frozen section which showed about 71.4% of accuracy for those false negative cases. CONCLUSION Various risk factors in relation to breast carcinoma have been proved. As most of the cases presented late in our series because of lack of awareness, proper awareness and early screening by breast self-examination and mammogram should be emphasized. FNAC proved to be a simple and reliable procedure

  6. Breast magnetic resonance imaging in patients with occult breast carcinoma: evaluation on feasibility and correlation with histopathological findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hong; XU Yi-lin; ZHANG Shu-ping; LANG Rong-gang; Chi S.Zee; LIU Pei-fang; FU Li

    2011-01-01

    Background As an uncommon presentation, occult primary breast cancer remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in clinical practice. This study aimed to retrospectively assess the feasibility of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with malignant axillary lymphadenopathy and unknown primary malignancy, and correlation with histopathological characteristics.Methods A total of 35 women with occult breast carcinoma were evaluated with dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. Whole seriate section was used in all cases. MRI performance was assessed and correlated with histopathological findings.Results Twenty-one of 35 patients were found to have primary breast carcinoma histologically. Twenty of the 21 patients had abnormal MR findings and 1 patient had a normal MRI study. Of the remaining 14 patients, 10 were negative on both MRI and surgery. Four had suspicious enhancement on MRI and no corresponding tumor was found. Lesions with mass enhancement were found in 55% (11/20) and ductual and segmental enhancement in 45%. The average diameter of the primary tumors was 15 mm. Invasive ductal carcinomas were found in 81% (17/21). One of 17 invasive ductual carcinomas was too small to be graded. Fourteen of the remaining 16 were classified as grade II and 2 as grade I. Thirty-two of the 35 patients had received estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 examinations and the 12 of 32 were triple-negative breast carcinoma.Conclusions Mass lesions with small size and lesions with ductal or segment enhancement are common MRI features in patients with occult breast cancer. The dominant types of primary tumors are invasive ductal carcinoma with moderate histopathological grade. The rate of triple-negative breast carcinoma may be higher in occult breast cancer.

  7. Ipsilateral synchronous renal pelvic transitional cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩平; 魏强; 石明; 杨宇如

    2004-01-01

    @@ Reports of multiple synchronous primary renal neoplasms in the literature are rare. Although primary renal tumors of 2 distinctively dissimilar origins have been sporadically described,1-6 to our knowledge there have been no reported cases of triple primary renal neoplasms in the same kidney. Here we report a very rare case of ipsilateral synchronous renal pelvic transitional cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma with marked hydronephrosis and multiple stones in the same kidney.

  8. The diagnostic value of xero-mammography in clinically occult breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambouris, T; Kotoulas, K; Pontifex, G

    1984-05-01

    Seventy-four clinically occult breast carcinomas were detected in 7535 patients who were examined clinically and by xeromammography. The criteria by which a diagnosis of clinically occult breast carcinoma was established are described in detail. The most frequent finding of a clinically occult breast carcinoma in the xeromammogram was an irregular mass density 1 cm in diameter or less with microcalcifications. Axillary lymph node metastases were present in 29.7% of the total group of patients, which is much fewer than what might have been expected if the carcinomas had been discovered by palpation during the clinical examination or by the patient herself. This means a better prognosis and a lower death rate from breast carcinoma. Screening xeromammography is encouraged for all women after the age of 40, especially for those who belong to the high-risk group, even though they are quite asymptomatic, as there is hope of detecting cancers before they become palpable.

  9. Evaluation of serum sialic acid, heat stable alkaline phosphatase and fucose as markers of breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, P S; Baxi, B R; Adhvaryu, S G; Balar, D B

    1990-01-01

    Serum levels of total sialic acid (TSA), lipid bound sialic acid (LSA), heat stable alkaline phosphatase (HSAP) and fucose were measured in 39 patients with breast carcinoma, 14 patients with benign breast diseases and 35 healthy female individuals. Elevated levels of the four biomarkers in breast carcinoma were significant when compared with controls (p less than 0.001). Fucose levels were most sensitive (71.8%), while TSA levels were most specific (64.3%) for breast carcinoma. Sensitivity and specificity were 100% when combinations of LSA with fucose and TSA with HSAP were studied respectively. LSA was significantly elevated in infiltrating duct carcinoma patients compared with lobular carcinoma (p less than 0.001). TSA, HSAP and fucose also had lower mean values in lobular carcinoma as compared to infiltrating duct carcinoma. Increase in the levels of LSA and HSAP after surgical removal of the tumor in breast carcinoma occurred prior to the clinical evidence of the recurrence. The results indicate that the combination of the markers studied might be useful in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring.

  10. Axillary Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma with Ipsilateral Pectoral Invasive Ductal Carcinoma: An Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of axillary metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC with triple negative (ER−/PR−/Her2− phenotype, concurrent with multifocal invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC of ipsilateral pectoral breast (ER+/PR+/Her2− in a 60-year-old woman. The two tumors demonstrate different morphology, immunophenotype, and opposite response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy of paclitaxol, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide. Methylation analysis of human androgen receptor (HUMARA on X-chromosome identified monoclonal pattern of X-chromosome inactivation in MBC and mosaic pattern in the IDC. Stem cell origin of MBC is suggested in this case. Clinicopathological features, imaging findings, biological markers, chemoradiation management, and prognosis of MBC are reviewed in comparison to invasive ductal carcinoma. Our case and literature review suggest that traditional chemotherapy applicable to IDC is less effective towards MBC. However, new chemotherapy protocols targeting stem cell and multimodality management of MBC are promising. Recognition of unusual presentation of MBC will help tailor therapy towards tumor with worse prognosis.

  11. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis can be presenting manifestation of breast carcinoma

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    Mandić-Stojmenović Gorana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC is a serious complication occuring in solid cancer patients with rather poor prognosis. Case report. We presented a 47-yearold woman with the 6-month history of diffuse headache, nausea and visual obscuration. Initially, clinical status and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI indicated syndrome of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Due to clinical progression and high papillary stasis, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination was performed only after ventriculoperitoneal shunt was implanted. This led to a significant although transient clinical improvement. Futher investigations led to the diagnosis of invasive lobular breast carcinoma and repeated CSF analysis revealed malignant breast carcinoma cells. In this case LC was an initial presentation of a malignant disease. Conclusion. In the presence of a high clinical suspicion of LC, in spite of initially negative findings, a clinician should persist in repeating relevant tests, such are MRI with larger amounts of gadolinium and high-volume cytological CSF analyses in order to make the diagnosis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175022

  12. Prostate-specific antigen and hormone receptor expression in male and female breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Cynthia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate carcinoma is among the most common solid tumors to secondarily involve the male breast. Prostate specific antigen (PSA and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP are expressed in benign and malignant prostatic tissue, and immunohistochemical staining for these markers is often used to confirm the prostatic origin of metastatic carcinoma. PSA expression has been reported in male and female breast carcinoma and in gynecomastia, raising concerns about the utility of PSA for differentiating prostate carcinoma metastasis to the male breast from primary breast carcinoma. This study examined the frequency of PSA, PSAP, and hormone receptor expression in male breast carcinoma (MBC, female breast carcinoma (FBC, and gynecomastia. Methods Immunohistochemical staining for PSA, PSAP, AR, ER, and PR was performed on tissue microarrays representing six cases of gynecomastia, thirty MBC, and fifty-six FBC. Results PSA was positive in two of fifty-six FBC (3.7%, focally positive in one of thirty MBC (3.3%, and negative in the five examined cases of gynecomastia. PSAP expression was absent in MBC, FBC, and gynecomastia. Hormone receptor expression was similar in males and females (AR 74.1% in MBC vs. 67.9% in FBC, p = 0.62; ER 85.2% vs. 68.5%, p = 0.18; and PR 51.9% vs. 48.2%, p = 0.82. Conclusions PSA and PSAP are useful markers to distinguish primary breast carcinoma from prostate carcinoma metastatic to the male breast. Although PSA expression appeared to correlate with hormone receptor expression, the incidence of PSA expression in our population was too low to draw significant conclusions about an association between PSA expression and hormone receptor status in breast lesions.

  13. Carcinoma espinocelular da mama: relato de um caso Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast tissue: a case report

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    Rubens José Pereira

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma espinocelular do parênquima mamário é um tipo raro de neoplasia, representando menos de 1% de todos os carcinomas mamários. Esse trabalho relata a condução de um caso diagnosticado e tratado no Serviço de Ginecologia e Mama do Hospital Araújo Jorge/ACCG. São discutidos a apresentação clínica, o diagnóstico e o prognóstico destes tumores.Squamous cell carcinoma of the mammary tissue is a very rare neoplasm, representing less than 1% of all breast carcinomas. The present study reports a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the breast, treated at the Hospital Araújo Jorge/ACCG. The tumor diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are also discussed.

  14. Oral Metastasis of Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis 1

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    Ana Paula Molina Vivas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 has been associated with an increased risk for development of malignancy, especially malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. In addition, recently, literature has demonstrated an increased risk of breast cancer in women with NF1. The present paper shows a 53-year-old woman with NF1 who presented with metaplastic breast carcinoma and developed multiple metastases, including mandible. Furthermore, we reviewed the English literature, found 63 cases showing the association between NF1 and breast cancer, and added one more case. The present study demonstrated an important association between NF1 and breast cancer. Until the present time, there has been only one case of metaplastic breast carcinoma associated with NF1. Curiously, in our case the oral metastasis corresponded to sarcomatous component of metaplastic breast carcinoma.

  15. Mixed Mucinous and Infiltrating Carcinoma Occurring in Male Breast- Study of Clinico-Pathological Features: A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kavita; Sharma, Swati; Kudva, Ranjini; Kumar, Sandeep

    2015-06-01

    Mucinous carcinoma is a less common histologic variant of breast cancer. Cases of mucinous carcinomas in male breast are extremely rare. Here, we describe a case of mixed mucinous carcinoma i.e. mucinous carcinoma with infiltrating ductal carcinoma component and showing apocrine differentiation in a 73-year-old man. This uncommon tumour entity has dismal prognosis and treatment depends largely on the tumour type, size, lymph node involvement and hormonal status.

  16. Basal like carcinoma of breast in patient with neurofibromatosis I: An association or co-existence?

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    Sree Rekha Jinkala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis I (NF I, an autosomal dominant disorder is associated with increased risk of benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and central nervous system tumors. There are only few case reports of breast carcinoma in known patients of NF I. We report a case of basal like carcinoma of the breast in a 69-year-old lady who had NF I. Considering the rare association of carcinomas with NF I and finding that both the NF I gene and a breast cancer pre-disposition gene, BRCA 1 are located in close proximity on chromosome 17q makes the association of these two conditions intriguing.

  17. Molecular Classification of Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Denggang; Zuo, Qi; Huang, Qi; Su, Li; Ring, Huijun Z.; Ring, Brian Z.

    2017-01-01

    The morphology of breast tumors is complicated and diagnosis can be difficult. We present here a novel diagnostic model which we validate on both array-based and RNA sequencing platforms which reliably distinguishes this tumor type across multiple cohorts. We also examine how this molecular classification predicts sensitivity to common chemotherapeutics in cell-line based assays. A total of 1845 invasive breast cancer cases in six cohorts were collected, split into discovery and validation cohorts, and a classifier was created and compared to pathological diagnosis, grade and survival. In the validation cohorts the concordance of predicted diagnosis with a pathological diagnosis was 92%, and 97% when inconclusively classified cases were excluded. Tumor-derived cell lines were classified with the model as having predominantly ductal or lobular-like molecular physiologies, and sensitivity of these lines to relevant compounds was analyzed. A diagnostic tool can be created that reliably distinguishes lobular from ductal carcinoma and allows the classification of cell lines on the basis of molecular profiles associated with these tumor types. This tool may assist in improved diagnosis and aid in explorations of the response of lobular type breast tumor models to different compounds. PMID:28303886

  18. Bilateral synchronous breast carcinomas followed by a metastasis to the gallbladder: a case report

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    Dardamanis Dimitrios

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is usually associated with metastases to lungs, bones and liver. Breast carcinoma metastasizing to the gallbladder is very rare. Case presentation A 59-year-old woman presented with bilateral synchronous breast lesions. A palpable, retroareolar solid lesion of diameter equal to 5 cm was present in the right breast, and a newly developed, non-palpable lesion with microcalcifications (diameter equal to 0.7 cm was present in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast. Modified radical mastectomy was performed on the right breast and lumpectomy after hook-wire localization was performed on the left breast, combined with lymph node dissection in both sides. The pathological examination revealed invasive lobular carcinoma grade II in the right breast and invasive ductal carcinoma grade I in the left breast. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, trastuzumab and letrozole were appropriately administered. At her 18-month follow-up, the patient was free of symptoms; the imaging tests (chest CT, abdominal U/S, bone scan, biochemical tests, blood cell count and tumor markers were also normal. At the 20th month after surgery however, the patient developed symptoms of cholecystitis and underwent cholecystectomy. The histopathological examination revealed metastasis of the lobular carcinoma to the gallbladder. Conclusion This extremely rare case confirms on a single patient the results of large series having demonstrated the preferential metastasis of lobular breast cancer to the gallbladder. Symptoms of cholecystitis should not be neglected in such patients, as they might indicate metastasis to the gallbladder.

  19. Expression of Pol(t) in tissues and cell lines of transitional cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To explore the expression of DNA polymerase iota in transitional cell carcinoma cells and tissues; Methods: RT-PCR was applie to detect the expression of polymerase iota in BIU87 and T24 cells, then the expression of polymerase iota was also detected in the same way in transitional cell carcinoma which was derived from clinical bladder carcinoma and renal pelvic carcinoma. Results: The expression of Polt was low in bladder normal membrana mucosa but significantly elevated in transitional cell carcinoma cells. Compared with the expression of polymerase iota in bladder normal mucous membranes, the expression of polymerase iota was significantly increased in transitional cell carcinoma tissue (P<0.01)and associated with the grade of transitional cell carcinoma. Conclusion: The significantly increased expression of polymerase iota may be associated with the generation and development of transitional cell carcinoma, even with its high heterogenicity.

  20. Computed tomographic mammography. Diagnosis of mammographically and clinically occult carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibala, J L; Chang, C H; Lin, F; Jewell, W R

    1981-01-01

    If breast cancer can be detected early, while it is still localized and before it can be palpated, the prognosis for cure is excellent. Heretofore, conventional mammography has been the only means available to detect cancer at such an early stage. Two cases of minimal breast carcinoma measuring less than 5 mm in diameter have been detected and correctly diagnosed using computed tomographic mammography (CT/M). Both cases occurred in fatty breasts and were clinically and mammographically occult. These cases demonstrate the value of CT/M in the diagnosis of minimal breast carcinoma that would have been missed otherwise.

  1. Role of surgery in breast metastasis from carcinoma of the cervix

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    Parveen Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the cervix is the most common malignancy among women in India. Although metastatic disease is common, metastasis to breast is rare. A limited number of case reports are published in the world literature. Most of the previous reports of metastatic cervical carcinoma to breast are either autopsy series or widely disseminated disease where no treatment options were available. A rare case of cervical carcinoma presenting as metastasis in breast is reported here where palliative mastectomy improved the general condition of the patient. A female patient aged 58 years was diagnosed and treated for cervical carcinoma, FIGO stage 2B. Four months after the treatment which included both external beam and intracavitory radiotherapy, the patient presented with breast and lung metastasis. Palliative mastectomy was done which improved the general condition of the patient. Metastatic carcinoma of the cervix can present as a case of breast carcinoma. In an appropriate setting, this possibility should be kept in mind. Palliative mastectomy should be offered for patients of cervical carcinoma with metastasis to breast when needed.

  2. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy for Breast Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathout, Lara [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Centre affilié à l' Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Hijal, Tarek [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Théberge, Valérie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec, L' Hôtel-Dieu de Québec, Quebec (Canada); Centre des maladies du sein Deschênes-Fabia, Quebec (Canada); Fortin, Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Centre affilié à l' Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Vulpe, Horia [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Hogue, Jean-Charles [Centre des maladies du sein Deschênes-Fabia, Quebec (Canada); Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec, Hôpital St-Sacrement, Quebec (Canada); Lambert, Christine [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Bahig, Houda [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Centre affilié à l' Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); and others

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Conventional radiation therapy (RT) administered in 25 fractions after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is the standard treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. Although accelerated hypofractionated regimens in 16 fractions have been shown to be equivalent to conventional RT for invasive breast cancer, few studies have reported results of using hypofractionated RT in DCIS. Methods and Materials: In this multicenter collaborative effort, we retrospectively reviewed the records of all women with DCIS at 3 institutions treated with BCS followed by hypofractionated whole-breast RT (WBRT) delivered in 16 fractions. Results: Between 2003 and 2010, 440 patients with DCIS underwent BCS followed by hypofractionated WBRT in 16 fractions for a total dose of 42.5 Gy (2.66 Gy per fraction). Boost RT to the surgical bed was given to 125 patients (28%) at a median dose of 10 Gy in 4 fractions (2.5 Gy per fraction). After a median follow-up time of 4.4 years, 14 patients had an ipsilateral local relapse, resulting in a local recurrence-free survival of 97% at 5 years. Positive surgical margins, high nuclear grade, age less than 50 years, and a premenopausal status were all statistically associated with an increased occurrence of local recurrence. Tumor hormone receptor status, use of adjuvant hormonal therapy, and administration of additional boost RT did not have an impact on local control in our cohort. On multivariate analysis, positive margins, premenopausal status, and nuclear grade 3 tumors had a statistically significant worse local control rate. Conclusions: Hypofractionated RT using 42.5 Gy in 16 fractions provides excellent local control for patients with DCIS undergoing BCS.

  3. Expression of Neuroendocrine Markers in Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Carcinoma

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    David L. Wachter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Carcinomas of the breast with neuroendocrine features are incorporated in the World Health Organization classification since 2003 and include well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas/small cell carcinomas, and invasive breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation. Neuroendocrine differentiation is known to be more common in certain low-grade histologic special types and has been shown to mainly cluster to the molecular (intrinsic luminal A subtype. Methods. We analyzed the frequency of neuroendocrine differentiation in different molecular subtypes of breast carcinomas of no histologic special type using immunohistochemical stains with specific neuroendocrine markers (chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Results. We found neuroendocrine differentiation in 20% of luminal B-like carcinomas using current WHO criteria (at least 50% of tumor cells positive for synaptophysin or chromogranin A. In contrast, no neuroendocrine differentiation was seen in luminal A-like, HER2 amplified and triple-negative carcinomas. Breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation presented with advanced stage disease and showed aggressive behavior. Conclusions. We conclude that neuroendocrine differentiation is more common than assumed in poorly differentiated luminal B-like carcinomas. Use of specific neuroendocrine markers is thus encouraged in this subtype to enhance detection of neuroendocrine differentiation and hence characterize the biological and therapeutic relevance of this finding in future studies.

  4. Expression of Neuroendocrine Markers in Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, David L.; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Alexander; Bayer, Christian M.; Agaimy, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Background. Carcinomas of the breast with neuroendocrine features are incorporated in the World Health Organization classification since 2003 and include well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas/small cell carcinomas, and invasive breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation. Neuroendocrine differentiation is known to be more common in certain low-grade histologic special types and has been shown to mainly cluster to the molecular (intrinsic) luminal A subtype. Methods. We analyzed the frequency of neuroendocrine differentiation in different molecular subtypes of breast carcinomas of no histologic special type using immunohistochemical stains with specific neuroendocrine markers (chromogranin A and synaptophysin). Results. We found neuroendocrine differentiation in 20% of luminal B-like carcinomas using current WHO criteria (at least 50% of tumor cells positive for synaptophysin or chromogranin A). In contrast, no neuroendocrine differentiation was seen in luminal A-like, HER2 amplified and triple-negative carcinomas. Breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation presented with advanced stage disease and showed aggressive behavior. Conclusions. We conclude that neuroendocrine differentiation is more common than assumed in poorly differentiated luminal B-like carcinomas. Use of specific neuroendocrine markers is thus encouraged in this subtype to enhance detection of neuroendocrine differentiation and hence characterize the biological and therapeutic relevance of this finding in future studies. PMID:24701575

  5. Evaluation of grading and hormone receptor immunostaining on fine needle aspirates in carcinoma breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Handa

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The grading along with ER and PR immunostaining of breast carcinoma on smears is advocated because of high concordance between cytology and histology. This allows the patient to be treated with hormonal therapy on the basis of FNAC alone.

  6. Antigenic modulation of metastatic breast and ovary carcinoma cells by intracavitary injection of IFN-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, P.; Mottolese, M.; Fraioli, R.; Benevolo, M.; Venturo, I.; Natali, P. G.

    1992-01-01

    Antigenic modulation of major histocompatibility and tumour associated antigens was observed in neoplastic cells obtained from patients with pleural and abdominal effusions of breast and ovary carcinomas following a single intracavitary dose of 18 x 10(6) U recombinant IFN-alpha. This regimen resulted in antigenic modulation in seven out of 11 tested cases, suggesting a potential, although limited, responsiveness of at least a fraction of breast and ovary carcinoma cells to in situ biomodification with IFN-alpha. PMID:1503908

  7. Comparative evaluation of various cytomorphological grading systems in breast carcinoma

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    P Arul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis of breast carcinoma can be reliably made by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Grading usually done in histological samples for the selection of therapy but not in cytology. Various cytological grading systems have been proposed; however, none of them is presently considered the gold standard to predict the prognosis. Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate various 3-tier cytological grading systems and to determine the best possible system corresponds to the histological grading proposed by Elston and Ellis based on the method by Nottingham modification of Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR method. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 94 cases of breast carcinoma FNACs were graded using six cytological grading systems and compared with SBR method. Concordance, association, and correlation studies were done to select best possible cytological grading system. The interobserver reproducibility among the six grading systems was also assessed. Results: Robinson method showed best correlation (r = 0.801; P = 0.0001 and t = 0.783; P = 0.0001, maximum percent agreement (83/94 cases; 88.3%, and a substantial kappa value of agreement (k = 0.737 with the Nottingham modification of SBR grading system followed by Mouriguand method. Taniguchi system showed better interobserver agreement (87.2%; k= 0.738. Conclusions: This study showed that all six cytological grading systems correlated positively with SBR method. However, Robinson's grading system demonstrated the best concordance, correlation, and substantial Kappa value of the agreement with the histological grading by SBR method in comparison to other 3-tier cytological grading systems. Hence, in conclusion, this grading should be routinely incorporated in the cytology reports as it correlates well with histological grade. Despite various cytological grading systems, Robinson's method is simple, more objective, and reproducible, hence being preferable for routine

  8. Sensitivity of imaging for multifocal-multicentric breast carcinoma

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    Viale Giuseppe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This retrospective study aims to determine: 1 the sensitivity of preoperative mammography (Mx and ultrasound (US, and re-reviewed Mx to detect multifocal multicentric breast carcinoma (MMBC, defined by pathology on surgical specimens, and 2 to analyze the characteristics of both detected and undetected foci on Mx and US. Methods Three experienced breast radiologists re-reviewed, independently, digital mammography of 97 women with MMBC pathologically diagnosed on surgical specimens. The radiologists were informed of all neoplastic foci, and blinded to the original mammograms and US reports. With regards to Mx, they considered the breast density, number of foci, the Mx characteristics of the lesions and their BI-RADS classification. For US, they considered size of the lesions, BI-RADS classification and US pattern and lesion characteristics. According to the histological size, the lesions were classified as: index cancer, 2nd lesion, 3rd lesion, and 4th lesion. Any pathologically identified malignant foci not previously described in the original imaging reports, were defined as undetected or missed lesions. Sensitivity was calculated for Mx, US and re-reviewed Mx for detecting the presence of the index cancer as well as additional satellite lesions. Results Pathological examination revealed 13 multifocal and 84 multicentric cancers with a total of 303 malignant foci (282 invasive and 21 non invasive. Original Mx and US reports had an overall sensitivity of 45.5% and 52.9%, respectively. Mx detected 83/97 index cancers with a sensitivity of 85.6%. The number of lesions undetected by original Mx was 165/303. The Mx pattern of breasts with undetected lesions were: fatty in 3 (1.8%; scattered fibroglandular density in 40 (24.3%, heterogeneously dense in 91 (55.1% and dense in 31 (18.8% cases. In breasts with an almost entirely fatty pattern, Mx sensitivity was 100%, while in fibroglandular or dense pattern it was reduced to 45

  9. Transitional Cell Carcinoma of Kidney- Report of a Rare Case

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    Priyesh Halgaonkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematuria is a common presentation in the surgical outpatient department. The most common causes being urinary tract infection or renal calculi that causes hematuria. Few of them are being diagnosed as Renal or Bladder mass. Transitional cell carcinoma affecting urogenital tract accounts for 5-10% of the primary renal malignancies which is relatively rare. Here we report such rare case in an elderly female who presented with painless hematuria.

  10. E-cadherin and beta-catenin expression in breast medullary carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpin, C; Bonnier, P; Garcia, S; Andrac, L; Crebassa, B; Dorel, M; Lavaut, M N; Allasia, C

    1999-08-01

    The initial step of cancer invasion and metastasis is the escape of tumour cells from the primary site, involving disruption of normal cell-cell adhesion and E-cadherin (E-cad) and beta-catenin (beta-cat) down-regulation, as shown in various types of human malignancies including breast carcinomas. Medullary carcinomas are high grade and poorly differentiated tumours with syncytial typical pattern, and prognosis unexpectedly better than that in high grade breast carcinomas. In a series of 55 breast typical medullary carcinomas diagnosed according to the strict use of Ridolfi et al (Cancer 40: 1365-1385, 1977) criteria, E-cad and beta-cat were investigated using quantitative (SAMBA 2005 system) immunocytochemical assays on frozen sections. Results were compared to that obtained on paraffin sections and in a series (n=55) of grade 3 ductal carcinomas. It was shown that medullary carcinomas significantly (p<0.001) expressed more E-cad and beta-cat than grade 3 ductal carcinomas. E-cad and beta-cat correlated with high expression of P53, of c-erbB, and of Ki-67 antigens, and with lack of hormone receptors antigenic sites (p<0.001). It was concluded that favourable prognosis and syncytial pattern of typical breast medullary carcinomas likely results, at least partly, from a particular expression of cell-cell adhesion molecules, significantly limiting tumour growth and efficiently mastering the tumour cell dissemination, opposing to high proliferative activity (grade 3).

  11. Quantitative histopathological variables in in situ and invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekarl, M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1993-01-01

    correlation was found between estimates of vv(nuc) obtained in the in situ component and the invasive part of ductal carcinomas (r = 0.86, 2p = 2.10(-4). Previous studies have shown prognostic value of quantitative histopathological variables in breast carcinomas. The present study points to an additional...

  12. In-transit metastases from squamous cell carcinoma penis

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    L Padmavathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-transit metastasis is one that is located between the primary tumor and the closest lymph node region and results from tumor emboli getting trapped in the lymphatic channels. A 65-year-old male patient who had undergone partial amputation of the penis and bilateral inguinal lymph node resection for squamous cell carcinoma of the penis 4 months earlier developed multiple cutaneous metastatic lesions in the pubic region and scrotum. The case is reported for the uncommon presentation of in-transit metastases.

  13. MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF BONE METASTASES IN BREAST CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors of bone metastases in breast carcinoma. Methods: By cross sectional study, the data of 225 breast cancer patients who were inpatients in four hospitals in Hangzhou were analyzed. All patients underwent total body bone scan with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at least once during 1995 to 2000. Results: All patients were followed-up to 294 months after operation, bone metastases were found in 113 cases, suspected bone metastases 3 cases, with a bone metastases rate of 50.9% (113/222). Multivariate analysis by Cox's proportional hazards regression model showed that there were four risk factors of bone metastases in breast cancer: (1) clinical stage, I(IV stages with a hazard ratio of bone metastases of 1.945, 95% confidence interval 1.396(2.710; (2) number of invaded axillary lymph nodes, with a hazard ratio of 1.039, 95% confidence interval 1.0142(1.068; (3) skeletal complications (yes vs. no), with a hazard ratio of bone metastases of 1.722, 95% confidence interval 1.060(2.796; (4) age at the time of surgery or diagnosis, with a hazard ratio of 2.048, 95% confidence interval 1.123(3.876 for patients of age 40(50 y versus patients bellow 40 y of age and 2.837, 95% confidence interval 1.473(5.465 for patients of age above 50 y versus patients of ages between 40 and 50. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that for patients with more than 5 invasive axillary lymph nodes, compared with those with 1(5, the bone metastasis rates increased significantly ((2 =6.3319, P=0.012). Conclusion: The clinical stage, number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes, age at the time of operation and skeletal complications are essential risk factors of bone metastases.

  14. Foetal antigen 2 (FA2) in the stromal reaction induced by breast carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H B; Teisner, B; Andersen, J A

    1992-01-01

    An indirect immunoperoxidase technique was used to examine the distribution of foetal antigen 2 (FA2), a recently described basement membrane (BM)-associated antigen, in invasive breast carcinoma (n = 34), fibroadenoma (n = 5) and normal breast tissue (n = 5), and to compare its distribution...

  15. Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans control adhesion and invasion of breast carcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Hooi Ching; Multhaupt, Hinke A. B.; Couchman, John R.

    2015-01-01

    phenotype of mammary carcinoma cells. Finally, both syndecan-2 and caveolin-2 were upregulated in tissue arrays from breast cancer patients compared to normal mammary tissue. Moreover their expression levels were correlated in triple negative breast cancers. Conclusion: Cell surface proteoglycans, notably...

  16. Lack of evidence for an association of Epstein–Barr virus infection with breast carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Background Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human γ-herpes virus infecting more than 90% of the population worldwide. EBV is associated with certain malignancies (e.g. Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma). Recent studies have raised the possibility that EBV may also be involved in the pathogenesis of breast carcinoma, the most common carcinoma of females. If substantiated, this finding would have major implications regarding prevention and therapy of the di...

  17. Shorter CAG repeat in the AR gene is associated with atypical hyperplasia and breast carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Abreu, Francine Blumental; Pirolo, Leandro Júnior; Canevari, Renata de Azevedo

    2007-01-01

    -based GeneScan analysis was used to investigate the [CAG]n repeat length at exon 1 of the AR gene in 59 benign breast lesions (27 fibroadenomas, 18 atypical hyperplasias, and 14 hyperplasias without atypia) and 54 ductal breast carcinomas. Seventy-two cancer-free women were used as a control group....... In addition, [CAG]n repeats were evaluated for the presence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI) in a subset of these samples (27 fibroadenomas, 14 hyperplasias without atypia and 22 breast carcinomas). RESULTS: Shorter [CAG]n repeat lengths were strongly correlated...

  18. Coexistence of benign phyllodes tumor and invasive ductal carcinoma in distinct breasts: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Guerino

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report describes a rare case of coexistence of benign phyllodes tumor, which measured 9 cm in the right breast, and invasive ductal carcinoma of 6 cm in the left breast, synchronous and independent, in a 66-year-old patient. The patient underwent a bilateral mastectomy due to the size of both lesions. Such situations are rare and usually refer to the occurrence of ductal or lobular carcinoma in situ when associated with malignant phyllodes tumors, and more often in ipsilateral breast or intra-lesional.

  19. Urachal adenocarcinoma that metastasized to breast was misinterpreted as primary breast mucinous carcinoma: A rare case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiang-Rong; Gao, Chao; Zhang, Yong; Kong, Lei; Qu, Wei; Li, Jia; Gao, Yong-Sheng; Yu, Yong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The urachus is a vestigial tubular structure that connects the urinary bladder to the allantois during early embryonic development. Urachal carcinoma develops in the urachus, which is an embryological remnant of the urogenital sinus and allantois. The estimated annual incidence of urachal carcinoma in the general population is 0.01% of all cancers in adults. Moreover, urachal carcinoma accounts for 0.34% to 0.7% of all bladder carcinoma cases. And breast metastasis is extremely rarer. Methods and Results: A 42-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a palpable mass in the outer upper quadrant of the right breast, which was misinterpreted as a carcinoma that originated from the breast. Subsequently, she underwent surgery without any further meticulous examination. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed positivity for CK20, Villin, and CDX-2 and negativity for CK7. After further inspection, a mass was found in the bladder dome using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography. The mass was surgically removed. Conclusion: Pathologic and immunohistochemical examination confirmed that the mass was urachal mucinous adenocarcinoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma to the right breast. The patient has been followed up without recurrence for 8 months. PMID:27583877

  20. An unusual case of intracystic papillary carcinoma of breast with invasive component

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    Suryawanshi Kishor H, Nikumbh Dhiraj B, Damle Rajshri P, Dravid NV, Tayde Yogesh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Papillary carcinoma of the breast is a rare malignant tumor, constituting 1-2 % of breast neoplasms mostly affecting elderly postmenopausal women. Intracystic (Encysted papillary carcinoma (IPC is a rare distinct entity with slow growth rate and overall favourable prognosis regardless of whether it is in situ alone or associated with invasive component. Treatment modalities vary from conservative surgery to radical surgery with or without adjuvant therapy depending upon the associated component (DCIS or invasive of the tumor. Herein, we report a case of 55-year-old female presented with a painless lump in the right breast. FNAC yielded haemorrhagic fluid with scanty cellularity of atypical ductal epithelial cells. Patient underwent wide local excision. The final histopathological diagnosis revealed intracystic papillary carcinoma associated with invasive ductal carcinoma, NOS type.

  1. Fusions of Breast Carcinoma and Dendritic Cells as a Vaccine for the Treatment of Metatastic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Dendritic Cells as a Vaccine for the Treatment of Metatastic Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Donald Kufe, M.D...COVERED 1 July 2011 – 30 June 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Fusions of Breast Carcinoma and Dendritic Cells as a Vaccine for...have been enrolled thus far. We reported in detail the characterization of the tumor cells, the generated dendritic cells and the DC/tumor fusions

  2. Synchronous infiltrating ductal carcinoma and primary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yan-Xue

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extramedullary plasmacytomas are seldom solitary and usually progress to diffuse myelomatosis. Plasmacytomas of the breast are rare, especially when not associated multiple myeloma. Synchronous infiltrating ductal carcinoma and primary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the breast have not previously reported. Case presentation A 27-years-old woman with an untreated upper outer quadrant breast mass for 1-year was referred to our cancer hospital for surgical evaluation of increasing breast pain. Postoperatively, microscopic examination revealed an infiltrating ductal carcinoma complicated by an extramedullary plasmacytoma divided by fibrous tissue in one section. Following surgery, the patient received chemotherapy for the carcinoma and radiotherapy for the plasmacytoma. Conclusion In this case, careful histopathology examination was essential to make the correct diagnosis and therapy for these synchronous lesions. The patient finished chemotherapy and radiotherapy without significant adverse effects.

  3. ADAMTS8 and ADAMTS15 expression predicts survival in human breast carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, Sarah; Span, Paul N; Sweep, Fred C G J;

    2006-01-01

    We recently undertook expression profiling of all 19 human ADAMTS metalloproteinases (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) in malignant and non-neoplastic breast tissue and showed that 11 of the ADAMTS genes are dysregulated in breast carcinoma. We identified a subgroup......% C.I. = 2.16-13.5, p prediction of poor prognosis by ADAMTS8 and ADAMTS15 expression was found to be independent of other classical clinicopathological factors. Results observed in FVB-PyMT mice, a robust transgenic model of highly metastatic...... breast carcinoma, fitted the expectation that relatively high expression levels of ADAMTS8 together with low expression levels of ADAMTS15 seen in human breast carcinoma are associated with a poor clinical outcome. In summary, ADAMTS8 and ADAMTS15 have emerged as novel predictors of survival in patients...

  4. Correlation between PET/CT results and histological and immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Galvão Vieira Bitencourt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To correlate the results of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT performed with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts with histological/immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinoma patients. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional study with prospective data collection, where patients with biopsy-confirmed breast carcinomas were studied. The patients underwent PET/CT examination in prone position, with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts. PET/CT findings were compared with histological and immunohistochemical data. Results The authors identified 59 malignant breast lesions in 50 patients. The maximum diameter of the lesions ranged from 6 to 80 mm (mean: 32.2 mm. Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type (n = 47; 79.7%. At PET/CT, 53 (89.8% of the lesions demonstrated anomalous concentrations of 18F-FDG, with maximum SUV ranging from 0.8 to 23.1 (mean: 5.5. A statistically significant association was observed between higher values of maximum SUV and histological type, histological grade, molecular subtype, tumor diameter, mitotic index and Ki-67 expression. Conclusion PET/CT performed with specific protocol for assessment of breasts has demonstrated good sensitivity and was associated with relevant histological/immunohistochemical factors related to aggressiveness and prognosis of breast carcinomas.

  5. Immunohistochemical characterization of molecular classification of breast carcinoma and its relation with Ki-67

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Karangadan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Molecular classification of breast carcinoma along with Ki-67 index is considered a better predictive factor for prognosis and treatment than routine histopathology. Aims: To classify breast carcinoma into the four molecular subtypes defined by immunohistochemical expression of triple markers: Luminal A (estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor-positive [ER/PR+] and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 HER2/neu, luminal B (ER/PR + and HER2/neu+, triple negative (ER/PR − and HER2/neu−, and HER2 positive (ER/PR−, HER2/neu+, and to correlate the expression of ER, PR, HER2/neu, and classification with Ki-67. Materials and Methods: The present study includes sixty breast carcinoma cases studied over a 3-year period. The expression patterns of ER, PR, HER2/neu, and Ki-67 were studied. Clinical features, pathologic features such as size, grade, and lymph node status, and correlation with Ki-67 of the four subtypes were compared. Results: Out of sixty cases, most common molecular subtype was triple negative (40.00% followed by luminal B (23.33%. Most of the tumors showed low proliferative index (low Ki-67; however, triple negative and HER2 positive subtype showed high proliferative index. Most common histological subtype was ductal carcinoma which was mainly triple negative. All medullary carcinoma cases were triple negative. One case of lobular carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma each was HER2 positive and luminal B, respectively. Single case of carcinoma of male breast was luminal B subtype. Conclusion: Correlation of molecular classification with age, histological grade, and Ki-67 was statistically significant (P < 0.05. ER/PR also correlated with histological grade and Ki-67 (P < 0.01. These results emphasize the fact that molecular subtypes correlate with prognosis and aid in targeted therapy.

  6. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer progression and metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yifan Wang; Binhua P. Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women,and approximately 90% of breast cancer deaths are caused by local invasion and distant metastasis of tumor cells.Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a vital process for large-scale cell movement during morphogenesis at the time of embryonic development.Tumor cells usurp this developmental program to execute the multi-step process of tumorigenesis and metastasis.Several transcription factors and signals are involved in these events.In this review,we summarize recent advances in breast cancer researches that have provided new insights in the molecular mechanisms underlying EMT regulation during breast cancer progression and metastasis.We especially focus on the molecular pathways that control EMT.

  7. Two breast metastases from thyroid carcinoma presented 6 years later after total thyroidectomy: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Gene Hyuk; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Sung Hun; Lee, Ah Won [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Na Young [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Thyroid carcinoma is usually indolent with good prognosis, as compared to other malignancy. Distant metastases from thyroid cancer are rare and usually manifest as multiple lesions especially in lungs, bones and lymph nodes, in advanced stages of the disease. Metastasis to the breast from thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare, with about 16 cases reported in the English literature. Herein, we reported a case of metastatic poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which presented as 2 breast masses in a 72-year-old woman, 6 years after total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (USG) image findings are nonspecific oval mass with circumscribed or partially indistinct margin, metastases from thyroid cancer should be included in the differential diagnosis when recurrence of thyroid carcinoma is suspected. Also, fusion images of CT and USG are helpful to the radiologists in localizing the targeted lesion and conducting accurate USG-guided biopsy.

  8. Enhancing area surrounding breast carcinoma on MR mammography: comparison with pathological examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethem, M. van; Verslegers, I.; Biltjes, I.; Schepper, A. de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium); Schelfout, K.; Colpaert, C. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerpen (Belgium); Kersschot, E. [Department of Radiology, OLV Hospital, Aalst (Belgium); Tjalma, W.A. [Department of Gynaecology and Gynaecological Oncology, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerpen (Belgium); Weyler, J. [Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University Antwerp, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2004-08-01

    The enhancing area surrounding breast carcinoma on MR mammography is correlated with findings from pathological examination. We studied 194 patients with breast cancer who underwent preoperative MR mammography. Of all malignant lesions presenting with an enhancing surrounding area on MR mammography, morphologic features including long spicules, a ductal pattern, diffuse enhancement or nodules were evaluated and compared with histopathological examination. A double breast coil was used; we performed a 3D FLASH sequence with contiguous coronal slices of 2 mm, before and after injection of 0.2 mmol/kg GD-DTPA, and subtraction images were obtained. In total, 297 malignant lesions were detected at MR mammography and 101 of them had one or more types of enhancing surrounding area. In 49 of the 53 cancers with long spicules and in 49 of the 55 cancers with surrounding ductal pattern of enhancement, pathological examination showed in situ and/or invasive carcinoma. Multiple nodules adjacent to the carcinoma were seen in 20 patients and corresponded with six cases of invasive and ten cases of ductal in situ carcinoma. A diffuse enhancing area next to a mass was seen in ten patients and consisted of carcinoma in all cases: seven in situ and three invasive carcinomas. Enhancing areas including long spicules, a ductal pattern, noduli, or diffuse enhancement surrounding a carcinoma corresponded with in situ or invasive extension of the carcinoma in 92.5, 89, 80 and 100% of cases, respectively. (orig.)

  9. Automated quantification of aligned collagen for human breast carcinoma prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S Bredfeldt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mortality in cancer patients is directly attributable to the ability of cancer cells to metastasize to distant sites from the primary tumor. This migration of tumor cells begins with a remodeling of the local tumor microenvironment, including changes to the extracellular matrix and the recruitment of stromal cells, both of which facilitate invasion of tumor cells into the bloodstream. In breast cancer, it has been proposed that the alignment of collagen fibers surrounding tumor epithelial cells can serve as a quantitative image-based biomarker for survival of invasive ductal carcinoma patients. Specific types of collagen alignment have been identified for their prognostic value and now these tumor associated collagen signatures (TACS are central to several clinical specimen imaging trials. Here, we implement the semi-automated acquisition and analysis of this TACS candidate biomarker and demonstrate a protocol that will allow consistent scoring to be performed throughout large patient cohorts. Methods: Using large field of view high resolution microscopy techniques, image processing and supervised learning methods, we are able to quantify and score features of collagen fiber alignment with respect to adjacent tumor-stromal boundaries. Results: Our semi-automated technique produced scores that have statistically significant correlation with scores generated by a panel of three human observers. In addition, our system generated classification scores that accurately predicted survival in a cohort of 196 breast cancer patients. Feature rank analysis reveals that TACS positive fibers are more well-aligned with each other, are of generally lower density, and terminate within or near groups of epithelial cells at larger angles of interaction. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the utility of a supervised learning protocol for streamlining the analysis of collagen alignment with respect to tumor stromal boundaries.

  10. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF CARCINOMA BREAST PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF NORTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The study was done to know the epidemiology, clinicopathological aspects of carcinoma breast patients in our population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The epidemiological and clinicopathological data pertaining to demography and risk factors for carcinoma breast were analyzed in patients attending tertiary care hospital of North India from January 2012 to June 2013. Thorough Clinical and physical examination was done, FNAC was done for diagnosis of cancer Breast. RESULTS: In our study mean age of our female breast cancer patients was found to be lower compared to the western world, with an average difference of one decade. Majority of the patients were from urban background. Lump in the breast was a dominant symptom. Familial breast cancer was uncommon. Left sided breast cancer was slightly preponderant. CONCLUSION: Most common symptom was lump in breast among postmenopausal women from urban area. Lack of education was responsible for their delayed presentation. Left upper and outer quadrant being the commonest site, Infiltrating duct carcinoma was the most common type. Modified radical mastectomy was found to be a safe operative procedure. Adjuvant chemotherapy and hormonal therapy was found very effective in early stages. Overall survival for stage IV was 60% for 1 year follow up.

  11. Differentiating fibroadenoma and ductal carcinoma in situ from normal breast tissue by multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yuting; Wu, Yan; Lian, Yuane; Fu, Fangmeng; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-09-01

    Fibroadenoma (FA) is the most common benign tumor of the female breast and several studies have reported that women with it have increased risk of breast cancer. While the ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a very early form of breast cancer. Thus, early detections of FA and DCIS are critical for improving breast tumor outcome and survival. In this paper, we use multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to obtain the high-contrast images of fresh, unfixed, unstained human breast specimens (normal breast tissue, FA and DCIS). Our results show that MPM has the ability to identify the characteristics of FA and DCIS including changes of duct architecture and collagen morphology. These results are consistent with the histological results. With the advancement of MPM, the technique has potential ability to serve as a real-time noninvasive imaging tool for early detection of breast tumor.

  12. FGFR-1 amplification in metastatic lymph-nodal and haematogenous lobular breast carcinoma

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    Brunello Eleonora

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lobular breast carcinoma usually shows poor responsiveness to chemotherapies and often lacks targeted therapies. Since FGFR1 expression has been shown to play pivotal roles in primary breast cancer tumorigenesis, we sought to analyze the status of FGFR1 gene in a metastatic setting of lobular breast carcinoma, since promising FGFR1 inhibitors has been recently developed. Methods Fifteen tissue metastases from lobular breast carcinomas with matched primary infiltrative lobular breast carcinoma were recruited. Eleven cases showed loco-regional lymph-nodal and four haematogenous metastases. FGFR-1 gene (8p12 amplification was evaluated by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH analysis. Her-2/neu and topoisomerase-IIα gene status was assessed. E-cadherin and Hercept Test were also performed. We distinguished amplification (>6 or cluster of signals versus gains (3–6 signals of the locus specific FGFR-1 gene. Results Three (20% primary lobular breast carcinomas showed >6 or cluster of FGFR1 signals (amplification, six cases (40% had a mean of three (range 3–6 chromogenic signals (gains whereas in 6 (40% was not observed any abnormality. Three of 15 metastasis (20% were amplified, 2/15 (13,4% did not. The ten remaining cases (66,6% showed three chromogenic signals. The three cases with FGFR-1 amplification matched with those primary breast carcinomas showing FGFR-1 amplification. The six cases showing FGFR-1 gains in the primary tumour again showed FGFR-1 gains in the metastases. Four cases showed gains of FGFR-1 gene signals in the metastases and not in the primary tumours. Her-2/neu gene amplification was not observed in all cases but one (6% case. Topoisomerase-IIα was not amplified in all cases. Conclusions 1 a subset of metastatic lobular breast carcinoma harbors FGFR-1 gene amplification or gains of chromogenic signals; 2 a minor heterogeneity has been observed after matching primary and metastatic carcinomas; 3 in the

  13. Significance of β-tubulin Expression in Breast Premalignant Lesions and Carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxia Gao; Yun Niu; Xiumin Ding; Yong Yu

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the expression of β-tubulin in premalignant lesions and carcinomas of the breast, and to observe the relationship of its expression with breast cancer pathological features.METHODS The expression of β-tubulin was detected immunohistochemically in 50 specimens of premalignant lesions of the breast (ADH and Peri-PM with ADH), 50 specimens of breast in situ ductal carcinomas (DCIS), and 50 specimens of invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC). Thirty specimens of normal breast tissues served as a control group.RESULTS Immunohistochemical analysis showed that: the differences among the 4 groups (normal breast tissues, breast premalignant lesions, DCIS and IDC, P < 0.05) were significant,and there were also statistically significant differences between any 2 groups (P < 0.05) except for the β-tubulin positive expression comparing DCIS versus IDC (P > 0.05). In addition, β-tubulin was expressed at a higher level in Peri-PM with ADH compared to ADH (P < 0.05). Following the degree of breast epithelial hyperplasia involved, and its development into carcinoma, the β-tubulin positive expression displayed an elevating tendency.We also found a significant positive relationship of β-tubulin expression with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05), but no significant correlation with histological grading and nuclear grade.CONCLUSION Centrosome defects may be an early event in the development of breast cancer and they can also promote tumor progression. Studies of aberrations of centrosomal proteins provide a new way to explore the mechanism of breast tumorigenesis.

  14. Expression of tight junction molecules in breast carcinomas analysed by array PCR and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tőkés, Anna-Mária; Szász, Attila Marcell; Juhász, Eva; Schaff, Zsuzsa; Harsányi, László; Molnár, István Arthur; Baranyai, Zsolt; Besznyák, István; Zaránd, Attila; Salamon, Ferenc; Kulka, Janina

    2012-07-01

    In the past few decades an enormous amount of data became known to clarify the molecular composition and architecture of tight junctions (TJs). Despite the efforts, the expression and function of several TJ genes and proteins in breast carcinoma are still not known and some of the data are contradictory. The expression of forty-four TJ associated genes was examined at mRNA level in eighteen invasive ductal breast carcinoma samples and corresponding normal breast tissues by using low density array PCR. Expressions of claudins (CLDNs) 5, 10, 16, 17, and 18, and ZO-1, ZO-2 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry as well. Using immunohistochemical phenotype as a surrogate for the genetic subtype, 11 luminal A, 3 luminal B, 3 triple negative and one HER2+ cases were included. Ten genes were significantly downregulated in tumors compared with normal breast tissues (CLDNs 5, 10, 16, 18, 19, CTNNAL1, JAM-B, ZO-1, ZO-2 and PARD3), whereas one gene (CLDN17) was significantly up-regulated in tumors when compared with normal breast. At protein level CLDNs 5, 10, 16, 18, ZO-1 and ZO-2 were downregulated in tumors as compared with normal breast tissue. CLDN17 showed variable expression in tumor tissues in comparison to normal breast. In the single HER2+ tumor when compared with the other subtypes CLDNs 5, 16, 17, 18, CTNNAL1, JAM-B, ZO-1, ZO-2 and PARD3 genes were found to be upregulated. We found altered TJ genes and proteins whose expression has not yet been associated with breast carcinoma. Our findings show a tendency of TJ genes and proteins to be downregulated in breast cancer. Further studies are necessary to examine whether the downregulation of the above mentioned TJ associated genes and proteins may contribute to the malignant progression of invasive ductal breast carcinomas.

  15. Autoantibodies to tailor-made panels of tumor-associated antigens in breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piura, Ettie; Piura, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Autoantibodies (AAbs) to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been identified in the sera of cancer patients. In a previous review published in this journal, we have focused on recent knowledge related to circulating AAbs to individual TAAs in breast carcinoma. This review will focus on recent knowledge related to AAb assays to tailor-made panels of TAAs in breast carcinoma. So far, AAb assays to the following tailor-made panels of TAAs have been assessed in breast carcinoma: (1) p53, c-myc, HER2, NY-ESO-1, BRCA2, and MUC1, (2) IMP1, p62, Koc, p53, c-MYC, cyclin B1, and survivin, (3) PPIA, PRDX2, FKBP52, HSP-60, and MUC1, (4) MUC1, HER2, p53, and IGFBP2, (5) p53, HER2, IGFBP-2, and TOPO2α, (6) survivin and livin, (7) ASB-9, SERAC1, and RELT, and (8) p16, p53, and c-myc. Assessment of serum AAbs to a tailor-made panel of TAAs provides better sensitivity to diagnosis of breast carcinoma than measuring serum AAbs to a single TAA. Nevertheless, measurement of serum AAbs to a panel of TAAs for screening and early diagnosis of breast carcinoma is still investigational and should be carried out along with traditional diagnostic studies.

  16. Reoperation Rates in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ vs Invasive Breast Cancer After Wire-Guided Breast-Conserving Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhans, Linnea; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Talman, Maj-Lis M;

    2017-01-01

    the Danish National Patient Registry that were cross-checked with the Danish Breast Cancer Group database and the Danish Pathology Register. Main Outcomes and Measures: Reoperation rate after wire-guided BCS in patients with IBC or DCIS. Results: Wire-guided BCS was performed in 4118 women (mean [SD] age, 60......Importance: New techniques for preoperative localization of nonpalpable breast lesions may decrease the reoperation rate in breast-conserving surgery (BCS) compared with rates after surgery with the standard wire-guided localization. However, a valid reoperation rate for this procedure needs...... to be established for comparison, as previous studies on this procedure include a variety of malignant and benign breast lesions. Objectives: To determine the reoperation rate after wire-guided BCS in patients with histologically verified nonpalpable invasive breast cancer (IBC) or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS...

  17. Approach and management of primary ectopic breast carcinoma in the axilla : Where are we? A comprehensive historical literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visconti, Giuseppe; Eltahir, Yassir; Van Ginkel, Robert J; Bart, Joost; Werker, Paul M N

    2011-01-01

    Primary ectopic breast carcinoma is a rare disease and, at present, no specific guidelines on its diagnosis and treatment are available. The purpose of this article is to review the world literature in English on primary ectopic breast carcinoma located in the armpit and to offer guidelines for diag

  18. Breast carcinoma, intratumour heterogeneity and histological grading, using geostatistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Salamatian, V; de Roquancourt, A; Rigaut, J P

    2000-01-01

    Tumour progression is currently believed to result from genetic instability. Chromosomal patterns specific of a type of cancer are frequent even though phenotypic spatial heterogeneity is omnipresent. The latter is the usual cause of histological grading imprecision, a well documented problem, without any fully satisfactory solution up to now. The present article addresses this problem in breast carcinoma. The assessment of a genetic marker for human tumours requires quantifiable measures of intratumoral heterogeneity. If any invariance paradigm representing a stochastic or geostatistic function could be discovered, this might help in solving the grading problem. A novel methodological approach using geostatistics to measure heterogeneity is used. Twenty tumours from the three usual (Scarff-Bloom and Richardson) grades were obtained and paraffin sections stained by MIB-1 (Ki-67) and peroxidase staining. Whole two-dimensional sections were sampled. Morphometric grids of variable sizes allowed a simple and fast recording of positions of epithelial nuclei, marked or not by MIB-1. The geostatistical method is based here upon the asymptotic behaviour of dispersion variance. Measure of asymptotic exponent of dispersion variance shows an increase from grade 1 to grade 3. Preliminary results are encouraging: grades 1 and 3 on one hand and 2 and 3 on the other hand are totally separated. The final proof of an improved grading using this measure will of course require a confrontation with the results of survival studies.

  19. Spontaneous regression of a breast carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussan, Carlos; Zubor, Pavol; Fernandez, Manuel; Yabar, Alejandro; Szunyogh, Norbert; Visnovsky, Jozef

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous regression of malignant tumors is a rare event. It is defined as partial or total disappearance of a proven malignant tumor without adequate medical treatment. The causes of this phenomenon are various. Nevertheless, malignant tumors do regress occasionally for no apparent reason, as evidenced by many clinical observations. We report a case of a 68-year-old woman, who was presented with a several-month history of a painless firm lump, initially of 1 cm in diameter and growing to a large solid regular tumor of 2.5 x 2.5 cm in size, in the upper outer quadrant of her right breast. Preoperative histopathological diagnosis revealed ductal invasive carcinoma. Later on, while awaiting surgical treatment, she suffered an arm injury requiring a 1-month delay of surgery. After recovery, on the date of surgery the tumor disappeared, and, in addition, it was not found in tissue specimens obtained from quadrantectomy. After 78 months of follow-up there was no evidence of relapse. In this report, we discuss clinical and histopathological findings, patient management and possible mechanisms of cancer regression.

  20. An atypical cause of rapidly progressing breast lump with abscess formation: Pure squamous cell carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilekar, Murat; Erkasap, Serdar; Oner, Ulku; Akici, Murat; Ciftci, Evrim; Dizen, Hayrettin; Turel, Serkan; Kavak, Ozgu I; Yilmaz, Sezgin

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare type of breast malignancy and little is known about long-term outcome. In the present report, the clinical features, histopathologic findings and postoperative course of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma are described. We have treated a 47-years-old woman who admitted for right breast mass without any discharge, bleeding and pain. The tumor was, 3 × 2 × 1.5 cm in size with central abscess formation. The result of surgical biopsy revealed large cell keratinizing type of SCC. The metastatic work-up studies ruled out any other probable sources of primary tumor. The patient was performed modified radical mastectomy and axillary dissection and received two cycles of chemotherapy. Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast (SCCB) is a rare entity and should be considered in patients with rapidly progressing breast mass. It should also be considered in breast lesions with abscess formation. The initial therapeutic approach should be surgical excision after histopathological diagnosis.

  1. Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter and struvite calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielo Garcia de Freitas

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The association of primary carcinoma of the ureter and lithiasis is extremely rare. We report a rare case of a primary carcinoma of the ureter with corariform calculus. CASE REPORT: 60-year-old phaeodermal female, reported a history of right-side nephritic colic, hyperthermia and pyuria during the past 20 years and had received treatment for urinary infections a number of times. The first clinical presentation was related to lithiasis and the tumor had not been shown up by excretory urography, cystoscopy or ultrasonography. Two months after the calculus had been eliminated, the patient began to have serious symptoms and a grade III transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter was discovered. Total nephroureterectomy and M.V.A.C. (Metotrexate + Vinblastina + Doxo Rubicina + Cisplatina chemotherapy were tried unsuccessfully. In this report we emphasize the diagnostic difficulty caused by the concomitant presence of the two pathologies. In our opinion, the rapid evolution in this case is directly related to the high grade of the tumor.

  2. Morphological heterogeneity of the simultaneous ipsilateral invasive tumor foci in breast carcinoma: a retrospective study of 418 cases of carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, Monica; Marian, Cristina; Moldovan, Cosmin; Stolnicu, Simona

    2012-10-15

    The aim of this paper was to assess whether the morphological appearance (i.e. histological tumor type and histological grade) of simultaneous invasive breast carcinoma foci is heterogeneous, since it is known that adjuvant therapy is established according to these parameters. Patients with simultaneous breast tumors in which only the features of the largest neoplastic focus are reported could thus be undertreated. A retrospective study of 418 cases of breast carcinomas was conducted over a 3-year period. The histological tumor types and histological grades of multifocal/multicentric carcinomas in each tumor focus were compared, and mismatches among foci were recorded. Ninety-one of the 418 cases reviewed had multiple carcinomas (21.77%). A comparison between multiple synchronous tumor foci revealed that their histological type was different in 12.08% of the cases. Mismatches among foci were also observed in 9.89% of the cases when evaluating the histological grade, and 5 out of 9 additional tumor foci with a different grade from the largest (index) tumor (55.55%) displayed a higher grade compared to the index tumor. Since the histological tumor type and histological grade of the individual foci may vary considerably within the same tumor and the additional foci may be of higher grade than the index tumor, we believe that reporting morphologic parameters with more unfavorable characteristics in addition to the parameters of the index tumor is imperative.

  3. Intensity Modulated Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgery in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Stage 0-I Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  4. Value of high-frequency ultrasonography with virtual touch tissue quantification in diagnosis of breast pure mucinous carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Shi; Guang Yang; Jialing Wu; Wenlin Xu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to analyze the characters of breast pure mucinous carcinomas on highfrequency ultrasonography with virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ). Methods: A total of 12 patients (with breast pure mucinous carcinomas) and a group of 30 patients (with adenofibroma of breast) underwent breast examination with high-frequency ultrasonography to analyze the characters of images, and with VTQ to analyze the elastic character. Results: In the conventional ultrasound imaging, statistical differences were found between two groups in the shape, the boundary and the internal echo of the lesions. In the VTQ, the mean of shearing wave speed (Vs) in pure mucinous carcinomas was less than in adenofibroma of breast. Conclusion: Conventional high-frequency ultrasonography combining with VTQ have significant value in diagnosis of breast pure mucinous carcinoma.

  5. Effect of amlodipine on apoptosis of human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the effects of amlodipine on the proliferation and apoptosis of human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. Methods: Light microscopy was used to determine the effects of amiodipine on cell morphology; Flow cytometry was used to quantitate cells undergoing apoptosis; the expression of a cell cycle-related protein, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and an antiapoptosis protein, Bcl-2 were assessed by immunocytochemistry. Results: Amlodipine concentration of 8.25 Ixmol/L (1/2 of IC50) affected the morphology, decreased the expression of PCNA and Bcl-2 and induced apoptosis of human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. Conclusion: The effect of amlodipine on the antiproliferation of human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells is related to inducement of apoptosis, and the decrease of the expression of Bcl-2 and PCNA may be the possible mechanism for proliferation inhibitory and inducement of apoptosis.

  6. A recapitulative three-dimensional model of breast carcinoma requires perfusion for multi-week growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla F Goliwas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast carcinomas are complex, three-dimensional tissues composed of cancer epithelial cells and stromal components, including fibroblasts and extracellular matrix. In vitro models that more faithfully recapitulate this dimensionality and stromal microenvironment should more accurately elucidate the processes driving carcinogenesis, tumor progression, and therapeutic response. Herein, novel in vitro breast carcinoma surrogates, distinguished by a relevant dimensionality and stromal microenvironment, are described and characterized. A perfusion bioreactor system was used to deliver medium to surrogates containing engineered microchannels and the effects of perfusion, medium composition, and the method of cell incorporation and density of initial cell seeding on the growth and morphology of surrogates were assessed. Perfused surrogates demonstrated significantly greater cell density and proliferation and were more histologically recapitulative of human breast carcinoma than surrogates maintained without perfusion. Although other parameters of the surrogate system, such as medium composition and cell seeding density, affected cell growth, perfusion was the most influential parameter.

  7. Review of Metaplastic Carcinoma of the Breast: Imaging Findings and Pathologic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Leddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaplastic carcinoma (MPC, an uncommon but often aggressive breast cancer, can be challenging to differentiate from other types of breast cancer and even benign lesions based on the imaging appearance. It has a variable pathology classification system. These types of tumors are generally rapidly growing palpable masses. MPCs on imaging can present with imaging features similar to invasive ductal carcinoma and probably even benign lesions. The purpose of this article is to review MPC of the breast including the pathology subtypes, imaging features, and imaging pathology correlations. By understanding the clinical picture, pathology, and overlap in imaging characteristics of MPC with invasive ductal carcinoma and probably benign lesions can assist in diagnosing these difficult malignancies.

  8. [CD147 expression in non-invasive and invasive breast carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Saki; Sakurai, Kenichi; Suzuki, Shuhei; Hara, Yukiko; Maeda, Tetsuyo; Hirano, Tomohisa; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao; Koshinaga, Tsugumichi

    2014-10-01

    CD147 is a multifunctional membrane glycoprotein involved in tumor invasion, and is overexpressed in many solid tumors. However, the role of CD147 in breast cancer is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate CD147 expression in non-invasive and invasive ductal carcinomas. We recruited 156 breast cancer patients who underwent radical operations at our hospital up until 2002. We performed immunohistochemistry on their tumor specimens, and compared these data with clinicopathological factors. We divided the patients into two groups: group A was comprised of non-invasive ductal carcinomas and group B, invasive ductal carcinomas. The CD147-positive rate was 62.8% for all patients and was higher in group B than group A. In all cases, the CD147-positive rate correlated with clinical stage, number of metastatic lymph nodes, and tumor size. These results implied that CD147 may be involved in the process of breast cancer invasion.

  9. Identification of the boundary between normal breast tissue and invasive ductal carcinoma during breast-conserving surgery using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tongxin; Nie, Yuting; Lian, Yuane; Wu, Yan; Fu, Fangmeng; Wang, Chuan; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-11-01

    Breast-conserving surgery has become an important way of surgical treatment for breast cancer worldwide nowadays. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has the ability to noninvasively visualize tissue architectures at the cellular level using intrinsic fluorescent molecules in biological tissues without the need for fluorescent dye. In this study, MPM is used to image the microstructures of terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU), invasive ductal carcinoma and the boundary region between normal and cancerous breast tissues. Our study demonstrates that MPM has the ability to not only reveal the morphological changes of the cuboidal epithelium, basement membrane and interlobular stroma but also identify the boundary between normal breast tissue and invasive ductal carcinoma, which correspond well to the Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) images. Predictably, MPM can monitor surgical margins in real time and provide considerable accuracy for resection of breast cancerous tissues intraoperatively. With the development of miniature, real-time MPM imaging technology, MPM should have great application prospects during breast-conserving surgery.

  10. Heat shock protein 70 expression in relation to apoptosis in primary bladder transitional cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ling-feng; GUAN Kao-peng; YE Hai-yun; REN Liang; YAN Zheng; WANG Shen-wu; HOU Shu-kun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Bladder carcinoma is the most common tumor in the urinary system. In 1996, a sample investigation showed that bladder carcinoma, in which more than 90% was mainly primary bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC), was one of the ten highest mortality malignant tumors in China. Bladder carcinoma represented 2% of all malignant tumors and has the fifth most common malignancy in men in Europe and North America.1

  11. Breast ductal carcinoma in situ carry mutational driver events representative of invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jia-Min B; Savas, Peter; Fellowes, Andrew P; Mir Arnau, Gisela; Kader, Tanjina; Vedururu, Ravikiran; Hewitt, Chelsee; Takano, Elena A; Byrne, David J; Choong, David Yh; Millar, Ewan Ka; Lee, C Soon; O'Toole, Sandra A; Lakhani, Sunil R; Cummings, Margaret C; Mann, G Bruce; Campbell, Ian G; Dobrovic, Alexander; Loi, Sherene; Gorringe, Kylie L; Fox, Stephen B

    2017-03-24

    The spectrum of genomic alterations in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is relatively unexplored, but is likely to provide useful insights into its biology, its progression to invasive carcinoma and the risk of recurrence. DCIS (n=20) with a range of phenotypes was assessed by massively parallel sequencing for mutations and copy number alterations and variants validated by Sanger sequencing. PIK3CA mutations were identified in 11/20 (55%), TP53 mutations in 6/20 (30%), and GATA3 mutations in 9/20 (45%). Screening an additional 91 cases for GATA3 mutations identified a final frequency of 27% (30/111), with a high proportion of missense variants (8/30). TP53 mutations were exclusive to high grade DCIS and more frequent in PR-negative tumors compared with PR-positive tumors (P=0.037). TP53 mutant tumors also had a significantly higher fraction of the genome altered by copy number than wild-type tumors (P=0.005), including a significant positive association with amplification or gain of ERBB2 (P<0.05). The association between TP53 mutation and ERBB2 amplification was confirmed in a wider DCIS cohort using p53 immunohistochemistry as a surrogate marker for TP53 mutations (P=0.03). RUNX1 mutations and MAP2K4 copy number loss were novel findings in DCIS. Frequent copy number alterations included gains on 1q, 8q, 17q, and 20q and losses on 8p, 11q, 16q, and 17p. Patterns of genomic alterations observed in DCIS were similar to those previously reported for invasive breast cancers, with all DCIS having at least one bona fide breast cancer driver event. However, an increase in GATA3 mutations and fewer copy number changes were noted in DCIS compared with invasive carcinomas. The role of such alterations as prognostic and predictive biomarkers in DCIS is an avenue for further investigation.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 24 March 2017; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2017.21.

  12. Human achaete-scute homolog-1 expression in neuroendocrine breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Luisella; Rapa, Ida; Votta, Arianna; Papotti, Mauro; Sapino, Anna

    2012-04-01

    Neuroendocrine (NE) breast carcinoma is defined by morphological features similar to those of NE tumors of other organs and NE marker expression in at least 50 % of neoplastic cells. However, a NE morphology may be observed even in breast carcinomas lacking NE markers. Human achaete-scute homolog-1 (hASH-1) is a transcription factor that plays a key role in the regulation of mammalian neural and NE cell development and has been identified in several human NE tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate hASH-1 expression in human breast cancers. hASH-1 expression was evaluated in 482 consecutive non-NE invasive breast carcinomas, in a series of 84 breast cancers with >50 % NE marker expression (high NE differentiation) and 21 carcinomas with NE histology but negative or focally (<50 %) positive for NE markers (low NE differentiation). hASH-1 protein was evaluated by a specific monoclonal antibody using immunohistochemistry and gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction. None of the non-NE invasive breast carcinomas expressed hASH-1 at any levels. hASH-1 was expressed in tumor cell nuclei of 63 and 38 % of cases with high and low NE differentiation, respectively. Strong correlation with protein and gene expression levels was observed (p < 0.0001). hASH-1 expression was correlated to a low mitotic count (p = 0.02) and a low Ki67 proliferative index (p = 0.0062). hASH-1 expression occurs in breast cancers with NE differentiation regardless of the extent of the NE cell population, and it is restricted to a subset of tumor cells having a low proliferative potential.

  13. Cortical blindness and choroidal metastases secondary to metastatic breast carcinoma in a male patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palejwala, Neal; Yeh, Steven; Grossniklaus, Hans E; Bergstrom, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Male breast carcinoma is a rare entity that often goes undiagnosed until advanced stages. The authors describe the case of a patient with profound vision loss who was found to have bilateral choroidal metastases as well as advanced cerebral metastatic disease. Further medical work-up revealed widespread infiltrative ductal breast carcinoma. Given the presence of large occipital lobe lesions, the etiology of the patient's vision loss was thought to be cortical blindness. Prompt diagnosis and neurologic evaluation with this presentation is crucial because it can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality.

  14. Myoepithelial carcinoma arising in an adenomyoepithelioma of the breast: A case report of a rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurana Anuj

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Adenomyoepithelioma of the breast is a rare tumor. Malignant change arising in this lesion is infrequent and only a few cases have been reported. We discuss a case of a 56-year-old female presenting with a firm breast mass, which was interpreted as myoepithelial carcinoma arising in a background of adenomyoepithelioma, based on morphological and immunohistochemical studies. This case is being highlighted for its rarity and distinct morphological spectrum.

  15. Secretory Carcinoma of the Breast: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Secretory carcinoma of the breast is an extremely rare subtype of breast cancer characterized by intracellular or extracellular secretion and granular eosinophilic cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells. The disease which was considered to be predominant in younger age group has been recognized in adult population too and tends to show slow growth and indolent behavior. The disease occurs preferentially in females and only 27 cases have been reported amongst males. An optimal treatment for the dis...

  16. HER2 expression in Brazilian patients with estrogen and progesterone receptor-negative breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Susana; Serra, Katia Piton; Vassallo, Jose; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Pinto, Glauce Aparecida; Teixeira, Luiz Carlos; da Cunha, Isabela Werneck; Derchain, Sophie F M; de Souza, Gustavo

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between clinical and pathological factors and survival in patients with double negative HER2-overexpressing carcinoma and triple negative carcinoma. One hundred and sixty-one (161) patients diagnosed with breast cancer negative for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were included. Of the total, 58 patients had double negative HER2-overexpressing (ER/PR-negative and HER2-positive) and 103 had triple negative (ER-negative, PR-negative and HER2-negative). ER and PR expression was assessed through immunohistochemistry (IHC) and HER2 expression was measured by immunohistochemistry and Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis in tissue microarray. More than 80% had stages II and III disease and histologic grade III and nuclear grade 3. Patients with triple negative breast carcinoma had undifferentiated histologic types in 11% of cases and vascular invasion in 14.5%. Both groups had more than 50% visceral metastases. HER2 expression (p=0.42) and vascular invasion (p=0.05) did not interfere with survival. Survival of patients with Stages I-II disease was significantly longer than in those with Stage III disease both for double negative HER2-overexpressing carcinomas (p<0.0001) and triple negative carcinomas (p=0.03). The study shows that hormone receptor-negative breast carcinomas were undifferentiated and diagnosed at advanced stages and that HER2 expression was not associated with overall survival.

  17. Serum estradiol levels associated with specific gene expression patterns in normal breast tissue and in breast carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Vessela N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High serum levels of estradiol are associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Little is known about the gene expression in normal breast tissue in relation to levels of circulating serum estradiol. Methods We compared whole genome expression data of breast tissue samples with serum hormone levels using data from 79 healthy women and 64 breast cancer patients. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM was used to identify differentially expressed genes and multivariate linear regression was used to identify independent associations. Results Six genes (SCGB3A1, RSPO1, TLN2, SLITRK4, DCLK1, PTGS1 were found differentially expressed according to serum estradiol levels (FDR = 0. Three of these independently predicted estradiol levels in a multivariate model, as SCGB3A1 (HIN1 and TLN2 were up-regulated and PTGS1 (COX1 was down-regulated in breast samples from women with high serum estradiol. Serum estradiol, but none of the differentially expressed genes were significantly associated with mammographic density, another strong breast cancer risk factor. In breast carcinomas, expression of GREB1 and AREG was associated with serum estradiol in all cancers and in the subgroup of estrogen receptor positive cases. Conclusions We have identified genes associated with serum estradiol levels in normal breast tissue and in breast carcinomas. SCGB3A1 is a suggested tumor suppressor gene that inhibits cell growth and invasion and is methylated and down-regulated in many epithelial cancers. Our findings indicate this gene as an important inhibitor of breast cell proliferation in healthy women with high estradiol levels. In the breast, this gene is expressed in luminal cells only and is methylated in non-BRCA-related breast cancers. The possibility of a carcinogenic contribution of silencing of this gene for luminal, but not basal-like cancers should be further explored. PTGS1 induces prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production which

  18. [Chemo- and endocrino-therapy of breast carcinoma xenografts in the dormant or exponential growth phase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T

    1995-06-01

    In case of concerning about recurrence case after operative treatment of breast cancer, we must suppose existence of dormant breast cancer cell. To elucidate a rational treatment of the breast cancer in the dormant stage, we have developed a new treatment model using human breast carcinoma xenografts (MCF-7, R-27 and Br-10) in nude mice. After the sc inoculation of the tumors, the treatment was initiated with or without the previous estradiol (E2) stimulation. While MCF-7 was sensitive to mitomycin C (6 mg/kg i.p.) and and tamoxifen pellet (2.5 mg/mouse s.c.) in the dormant and exponential growth phase, R-27 and Br-10 were sensitive to the drugs only in the exponential growth phase but not in the dormant stage. These results suggested that the sensitivity of human breast carcinoma cells in the dormant stage is rather low, however some strain would be also sensitive to the treatment. This model seems to be useful in evaluating the adjuvant therapy of breast carcinoma after surgery.

  19. Expression of CD133, PAX2, ESA, and GPR30 in invasive ductal breast carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qun; LI Ji-guang; ZHENG Xin-yu; JIN Feng; DONG Hui-ting

    2009-01-01

    Background Biomarkers in breast neoplasms provide invaluable information regarding prognosis and help determining the optimal treatment. We have examined the possible correlation between cancer stem cell (CSC)-Iike markers (CD133,paired box gene 2 protein (PAX2), epithelial specific antigen (ESA)), and a new membrane estrogen receptor (G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30)) in invasive ductal breast carcinomas with known clinicopathological parameters, tumor recurrence, and expression of some known biomarkers.Methods In 74 invasive ductal breast carcinomas, we investigated the protein expression of these molecular markers by immunohistochemistry, and their associations with known clinicopathological parameters, tumor recurrence, and expression of some known biomarkers. We studied the interrelationship between the expressions of these proteins.Results CD133, a putative CSC marker, was positively related to tumor size, tumor stage, and lymph node metastasis.PAX2 was negatively correlated with tumor recurrence. ESA, one of the breast CSC markers, was an indicator of tumor recurrence. GPR30 was associated with hormone receptors. Despite the correlation between GPR30 and the nuclear estrogen receptor, the expression was dependent. Positive staining of GPR30 in tumors displayed a significant association with high C-erbB2 expression and a tendency for tumor recurrence. A positive relationship between GPR30 and CD133 existed.Conclusion Detecting the expression of CD133, PAX2, ESA, and GPR30 in invasive ductal breast carcinomas may be of help in more accurately predicting the aggressive properties of breast cancer and determining the optimal treatment.

  20. Tubular carcinoma of the breast: Mammographic, sonographic, clinical and pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenhan-Bilgen, Isil [Ege University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bornova, Izmir 35100 (Turkey)]. E-mail: isilbilgen@hotmail.com; Oktay, Aysenur [Ege University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bornova, Izmir 35100 (Turkey)

    2007-01-15

    Purpose: To determine and quantitate the radiological characteristics of tubular carcinoma of the breast, to report clinical and pathologic findings and to define findings at follow-up. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of records of 2872 women who received a diagnosis of breast carcinoma between January 1988 and January 2006 revealed 32 histopathologically proven pure tubular carcinoma of the breast. Analysis included history; findings at physical examination, mammography, and sonography (US) at the time of diagnosis and in postoperative follow-up and histopathological results. Results: Fifty-nine percent of the patients (n = 19) presented with a palpable mass. The mammographic findings were a mass in 23 (72%), a mass with microcalcifications in 2 (6%), asymmetric focal density in 1 (3%), architectural distortion in 1 (3%) and negative in 5 (16%) of the 32 patients. Most (96%) masses had spiculated margins. US depicted 30 masses in 29 patients, all of which were hypoechoic, mostly (n = 27, 90%) with posterior acoustic shadowing. The cancer was clinically occult in 41% (n = 13), mammographically occult in 16% (n = 5), and sonographically occult in 6% (n = 2) of the patients. Histologically, the tumor was multifocal in 3% (n = 1) of the patients. Four (13%) patients developed contralateral breast carcinoma at follow-up. Conclusion: Tubular carcinoma has a variety of presentations, but it is mostly seen on mammography as a small spiculated mass, and on sonography as an irregular mass with posterior acoustic shadowing. Although tubular carcinoma is known as a well-differentiated tumor with excellent prognosis, the mammographic follow-up of the contralateral breast is important.

  1. Presentation of Axillary Metastases from Occult Breast Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wang

    2007-01-01

    Axillary presentation from occult breast cancer is uncommon and continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to physicians.Once the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma metastatic to an axillary lymph node has been confirmed,a preoperative workup should be done.The current experience is based on several relatively small retrospective reviews and case reports.It is difficult to determine the best management of occult breast cancer.However,treatmenl of axillary Iymph node dissection is recommended for local control and complete staging information.Treatment of breast should be a choice between breast conservation with whole-breast radiotherapy and mastectomy.Adjuvant systemic treatment should be offered.

  2. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast - a pilot study of a Danish population of 240 breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Julie Benedicte; Talman, Maj-Lis Møller; Wielenga, Vera Timmermans

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast - a very recent diagnosis, which was not recognized by WHO until 2003 - has lately been the subject of increasing attention. It is defined as a primary breast cancer with morphologic features similar to other types of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung...... and gastrointestinal tract combined with positive neuroendocrine immunohistochemical markers. While much information has been gathered during the last decade, most studies suffer from poor statistics due to a low incidence, and there are still fundamental open questions regarding etiology and prognosis. Furthermore...

  3. Cdx2 polymorphism affects the activities of vitamin D receptor in human breast cancer cell lines and human breast carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Pulito

    Full Text Available Vitamin D plays a role in cancer development and acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR. It regulates the action of hormone responsive genes and is involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. VDR is a critical component of the vitamin D pathway and different common single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism can play an important role in breast cancer, modulating the activity of VDR. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and the activities of VDR in human breast cancer cell lines and carcinomas breast patients. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D treatment were investigated in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive (MCF7 and T-47D and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM 159PT, SK-BR-3, BT549, MDA-MB-468, HCC1143, BT20 and HCC1954 human breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the potential relationship among Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and a number of biomarkers used in clinical management of breast cancer was assessed in an ad hoc set of breast cancer cases. Vitamin D treatment efficacy was found to be strongly dependent on the Cdx2 VDR status in ER-negative breast cancer cell lines tested. In our series of breast cancer cases, the results indicated that patients with variant homozygote AA were associated with bio-pathological characteristics typical of more aggressive tumours, such as ER negative, HER2 positive and G3. Our results may suggest a potential effect of Cdx2 VDR polymorphism on the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in aggressive breast cancer cells (estrogen receptor negative. These results suggest that Cdx2 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker for vitamin D treatment in breast cancer, independently of the VDR receptor expression.

  4. Cdx2 polymorphism affects the activities of vitamin D receptor in human breast cancer cell lines and human breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulito, Claudio; Terrenato, Irene; Di Benedetto, Anna; Korita, Etleva; Goeman, Frauke; Sacconi, Andrea; Biagioni, Francesca; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina; Muti, Paola; Mottolese, Marcella; Falvo, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D plays a role in cancer development and acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). It regulates the action of hormone responsive genes and is involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. VDR is a critical component of the vitamin D pathway and different common single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism can play an important role in breast cancer, modulating the activity of VDR. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and the activities of VDR in human breast cancer cell lines and carcinomas breast patients. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D treatment were investigated in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive (MCF7 and T-47D) and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM 159PT, SK-BR-3, BT549, MDA-MB-468, HCC1143, BT20 and HCC1954) human breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the potential relationship among Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and a number of biomarkers used in clinical management of breast cancer was assessed in an ad hoc set of breast cancer cases. Vitamin D treatment efficacy was found to be strongly dependent on the Cdx2 VDR status in ER-negative breast cancer cell lines tested. In our series of breast cancer cases, the results indicated that patients with variant homozygote AA were associated with bio-pathological characteristics typical of more aggressive tumours, such as ER negative, HER2 positive and G3. Our results may suggest a potential effect of Cdx2 VDR polymorphism on the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in aggressive breast cancer cells (estrogen receptor negative). These results suggest that Cdx2 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker for vitamin D treatment in breast cancer, independently of the VDR receptor expression.

  5. Cdx2 Polymorphism Affects the Activities of Vitamin D Receptor in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines and Human Breast Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, Anna; Korita, Etleva; Goeman, Frauke; Sacconi, Andrea; Biagioni, Francesca; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina; Muti, Paola; Mottolese, Marcella; Falvo, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D plays a role in cancer development and acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). It regulates the action of hormone responsive genes and is involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. VDR is a critical component of the vitamin D pathway and different common single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism can play an important role in breast cancer, modulating the activity of VDR. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and the activities of VDR in human breast cancer cell lines and carcinomas breast patients. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D treatment were investigated in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive (MCF7 and T-47D) and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM 159PT, SK-BR-3, BT549, MDA-MB-468, HCC1143, BT20 and HCC1954) human breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the potential relationship among Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and a number of biomarkers used in clinical management of breast cancer was assessed in an ad hoc set of breast cancer cases. Vitamin D treatment efficacy was found to be strongly dependent on the Cdx2 VDR status in ER-negative breast cancer cell lines tested. In our series of breast cancer cases, the results indicated that patients with variant homozygote AA were associated with bio-pathological characteristics typical of more aggressive tumours, such as ER negative, HER2 positive and G3. Our results may suggest a potential effect of Cdx2 VDR polymorphism on the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in aggressive breast cancer cells (estrogen receptor negative). These results suggest that Cdx2 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker for vitamin D treatment in breast cancer, independently of the VDR receptor expression. PMID:25849303

  6. Radiation induced esophageal adenocarcinoma in a woman previously treated for breast cancer and renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissouni Soundouss

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary radiation-induced cancers are rare but well-documented as long-term side effects of radiation in large populations of breast cancer survivors. Multiple neoplasms are rare. We report a case of esophageal adenocarcinoma in a patient treated previously for breast cancer and clear cell carcinoma of the kidney. Case presentation A 56 year-old non smoking woman, with no alcohol intake and no familial history of cancer; followed in the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat Morocco since 1999 for breast carcinoma, presented on consultation on January 2011 with dysphagia. Breast cancer was treated with modified radical mastectomy, 6 courses of chemotherapy based on CMF regimen and radiotherapy to breast, inner mammary chain and to pelvis as castration. Less than a year later, a renal right mass was discovered incidentally. Enlarged nephrectomy realized and showed renal cell carcinoma. A local and metastatic breast cancer recurrence occurred in 2007. Patient had 2 lines of chemotherapy and 2 lines of hormonotherapy with Letrozole and Tamoxifen assuring a stable disease. On January 2011, the patient presented dysphagia. Oesogastric endoscopy showed middle esophagus stenosing mass. Biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma. No evidence of metastasis was noticed on computed tomography and breast disease was controlled. Palliative brachytherapy to esophagus was delivered. Patient presented dysphagia due to progressive disease 4 months later. Jejunostomy was proposed but the patient refused any treatment. She died on July 2011. Conclusion We present here a multiple neoplasm in a patient with no known family history of cancers. Esophageal carcinoma is most likely induced by radiation. However the presence of a third malignancy suggests the presence of genetic disorders.

  7. Clinical features and treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang XM

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ximei Zhang,1 Baozhong Zhang,1 Fenglin Zang,2 Lujun Zhao,1 Zhiyong Yuan,1 Ping Wang1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Department of Pathology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Objectives: Data on breast squamous cell carcinoma (SCC are rare. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and to explore the rational treatment of patients with breast SCC. Patients and methods: We conducted a retrospective review of breast SCC cases treated at our center from 1966 to 2014. The majority of these patients received primary surgery followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, whilst four elderly patients had lumpectomy only. Results: Patients with breast SCC were usually women, and large masses, large proportion of early stage disease, low levels of estrogen receptor expression, less frequent axillary lymph nodes involvement, and unfavorable prognosis were common. The 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival of all patients were 67.2% and 57.8%, respectively. Axillary nodal involvement was a significant prognostic factor for survival. Conclusion: The current results indicated that breast SCC is clinically aggressive and the outcomes were poor. Distant metastasis was the main failure pattern. New strategies will be needed because of the poor outcomes. Keywords: breast metaplastic carcinoma, breast SCC, treatment, surgery, prognosis

  8. Recurrence patterns of bladder transitional cell carcinoma after radical cystectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bohyun; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Mi-hyun; Cho, Kyung-Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Univ. of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); E-mail: choihj@amc.seoul.kr

    2012-10-15

    Background Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is widely accepted as an effective imaging modality in monitoring for bladder cancer recurrence after radical cystectomy. Elucidating the pattern of bladder cancer recurrence on CT can increase the diagnostic accuracy. Purpose To evaluate the recurrence patterns of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and the factors associated with cancer recurrence. Material and Methods One hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients (mean age, 66.55 years; range, 32-86 years) who underwent preoperative contrast-enhanced CT and radical cystectomy were included in this study. The presence, site, and time of tumor recurrence were recorded retrospectively by two radiologists in a consensus fashion. The association of tumor recurrence and tumor factors (T stage, lymph node metastasis, nuclear grade, and tumor diameter) were also evaluated using multiple logistic regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier statistics. Results Tumor recurrence occurred in 60 patients (40.3%) with a mean time of 14 months (range, 1-64 months). The sites of recurrence included the operation site (n = 20), lymph node (n = 20), bone (n = 11), liver (n = 6), lung (n = 5), upper urinary tract (n = 4), colon (n = 3), adrenal gland (n = 2), peritoneum (n = 1), abdominal wall (n = 1), psoas muscle (n = 1), and penile skin (n = 1). Tumor recurrence was found to be associated with advanced T stage (P = 0.002) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). Conclusion Transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder recur more frequently at the operation site and lymph node, and T-stage and lymph node metastasis are closely associated with tumor recurrence.

  9. A novel gene expression signature for bone metastasis in breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savci-Heijink, C Dilara; Halfwerk, Hans; Koster, Jan; van de Vijver, Marc J

    2016-04-01

    Metastatic cancer remains the leading cause of death for patients with breast cancer. To understand the mechanisms underlying the development of distant metastases to specific sites is therefore important and of potential clinical value. From 157 primary breast tumours of the patients with known metastatic disease, gene expression profiling data were generated and correlated to metastatic behaviour including site-specific metastasis, metastasis pattern and survival outcomes. We analysed gene expression signatures specifically associated with the development of bone metastases. As a validation cohort, we used a published dataset of 376 breast carcinomas for which gene expression data and site-specific metastasis information were available. 80.5 % of luminal-type tumours developed bone metastasis as opposed to 41.7 % of basal and 55.6 % of HER2-like tumours. A novel 15-gene signature identified 82.4 % of the tumours with bone metastasis, 85.2 % of the tumours which had bone metastasis as first site of metastasis and 100 % of the ones with bone metastasis only (p 9.99e-09), in the training set. In the independent dataset, 81.2 % of the positive tested tumours had known metastatic disease to the bone (p 4.28e-10). This 15-gene signature showed much better correlation with the development of bone metastases than previously identified signatures and was predictive in both ER-positive as well as in ER-negative tumours. Multivariate analyses revealed that together with the molecular subtype, our 15-gene expression signature was significantly correlated to bone metastasis status (p genes, APOPEC3B, ATL2, BBS1, C6orf61, C6orf167, MMS22L, KCNS1, MFAP3L, NIP7, NUP155, PALM2, PH-4, PGD5, SFT2D2 and STEAP3, encoded mainly membrane-bound molecules with molecular function of protein binding. The expression levels of the up-regulated genes (NAT1, BBS1 and PH-4) were also found to be correlated to epithelial to mesenchymal transition status of the tumour. We have identified a

  10. Radiologic and pathological correlation of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast; A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Gyu; Kim, Shin Young; Jung, Hae Yoen; Kim, Sung Yong; Lee, Deuk Young; Park, Sang Hyun [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Plus Internal Medicine Clinic, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a subtype of adenocarcinoma that is usually seen in the salivary glands. It has also been reported in other organs including the breast, skin, tracheobronchial tree, cervix, larynx, and Bartholin gland. ACC in the breast is rare, accounting for less than 0.1% of all breast cancers. Furthermore, the imaging characteristics of ACC of the breast have not been well described in the literature, especially regarding the findings with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we report radiologic findings of a rare case of ACC in the breast by mammography, sonography, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography/CT, and MRI with pathologic correlation and a review of the literature.

  11. Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast presenting as retroperitoneal fibrosis: a case report

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    Al-Haddad Sahar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast represents approximately 6.3% of mammary malignancies. Distant metastasis of invasive lobular carcinoma to the peritoneum or retroperitoneum has been reported fairly frequently. Case presentation We report the case of a 59-year-old Caucasian-Canadian woman with invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast presenting with retroperitoneal fibrosis and bilateral ureteral obstruction. Intra-operative pathology consultation did not reveal malignancy. The diagnosis, however, was confirmed on permanent sections by histological appearance in addition to immunohistochemistry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast presenting with retroperitoneal fibrosis. Conclusion In a case of unexplained ureteric obstruction and retroperitoneal fibrosis, more comprehensive physical examination and additional ancillary studies may be warranted to rule out malignancy as an underlying etiology. This case also emphasizes that intra-operative frozen section consultation cannot always be fully relied upon to exclude a malignancy as the etiology of retroperitoneal fibrosis. Moreover, in permanent histopathology sections, immunohistochemistry testing can be of value to rule out metastatic disease where the morphology is not salient. There is a need for a thorough physical examination of patients with retroperitoneal fibrosis, including the breast and gynecological organs.

  12. Breast Carcinoma Cells in Primary Tumors and Effusions Have Different Gene Array Profiles

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    Sophya Konstantinovsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of breast carcinoma cells in effusions is associated with rapidly fatal outcome, but these cells are poorly characterized at the molecular level. This study compared the gene array signatures of breast carcinoma cells in primary carcinomas and effusions. The genetic signature of 10 primary tumors and 10 effusions was analyzed using the Array-Ready Oligo set for the Human Genome platform. Results for selected genes were validated using PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Array analysis identified 255 significantly downregulated and 96 upregulated genes in the effusion samples. The majority of differentially expressed genes were part of pathways involved in focal adhesion, extracellular matrix-cell interaction, and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Genes that were upregulated in effusions included KRT8, BCAR1, CLDN4, VIL2, while DCN, CLDN19, ITGA7, and ITGA5 were downregulated at this anatomic site. PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the array findings for BCAR1, CLDN4, VIL2, and DCN. Our data show that breast carcinoma cells in primary carcinomas and effusions have different gene expression signatures, and differentially express a large number of molecules related to adhesion, motility, and metastasis. These differences may have a critical role in designing therapy and in prognostication for patients with metastatic disease localized to the serosal cavities.

  13. Isolated clival metastasis as the cause of abducens nerve palsy in a patient of breast carcinoma: A rare case report

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    Akhil Kapoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic lesions to the clivus have been reported in various cancers including lung cancer, prostate carcinoma, skin melanoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. There have been only a few reports of breast cancer presenting with isolated clival metastasis. We report a case of 35-year-old lady, who was known case of breast carcinoma presented with diplopia as the only sign of clival metastasis. The etiology was established by magnetic resonance imaging which showed an enhancing lesion in the clivus. The diagnosis of clival metastasis from breast cancer was confirmed by transsphenoidal biopsy.

  14. Metaplastic carcinoma of the right breast and simultaneous giant ovarian teratoma: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang Li; Qing-Zhu Wei

    2012-01-01

    We describe here a female patient who presented with a breast mass and giant abdominal mass.Fine needle aspiration cytology of the breast mass and histological examination after modified radical mastectomy confirmed metaplastic carcinoma of the breast.The epithelial components were formed by infiltrating ductal carcinoma with poor differentiation,and the sarcomatous components were formed by fibrosarcoma and osteosarcoma.Histological examination of the abdominal mass confirmed ovarian teratoma.The patient underwent modified radical mastectomy of the right breast and laparoscopic excision of the abdominal mass in the lower right quadrant.Having underwent six courses of chemotherapy,the patient is now in her tenth month after surgery and under follow-up,and she has no relapsed disease.These two diseases have never seen in one patient before.The case we report here provides some new data for research and clinical experience and it may also provide a new insight into the relationship between metaplastic breast carcinoma and ovarian teratoma.

  15. Fusions of Breast Carcinoma and Dendritic Cells as a Vaccine for the Treatment of Metatastic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-31

    stimulate anti-tumor immunity . We demonstrated that DC/breast carcinoma fusions strongly express costimulatory, adhesion, and maturation markers as...can initiate the study. Our correspondence is summarized below: 1. Request for further information from DOD issued 3.4.09 2. Reponses to...days 3 and 5. Measures of tumor specific cellular and humoral immunity will be obtained at serial time points following vaccination. Time to disease

  16. XLN306 induces apoptosis in human breast carcinoma MX-1 cells

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    Jing Jin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available XLN306 is a novel synthetic quinazoline derivative with potentially useful anticancer activity. In previous research, we showed that XLN306 is highly cytotoxic to many tumor cell lines. This paper reports an investigation of this cytotoxicity in a number of human carcinoma cell lines. The results show that human breast carcinoma MX-1 cells are extremely sensitive to XLN306 and that the cytotoxicity is due to dose- and time-dependent apoptosis as confirmed by DAPI stain and DNA fragmentation analysis. Both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways are involved in the apoptosis process. The findings indicate that XLN306 has apoptotic induction activity and may be useful for the management of various cancers, especially breast carcinoma.

  17. [Neuroendocrine carcinoma with large cells of the breast: case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourhaleb, Z; Uri, N; Haddad, H; Azzouzi, S; Zamiati, S; Benchakroun, N; Tawfiq, N; Jouhadi, H; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A

    2009-12-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma with large cells is a slightly different tumor from the high rank of malignity. We report a case of breast localization in a 28-year-old patient. It is a locally advanced classified T4dN1M0 tumor that required neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The clinical answer was 75% of the level of the tumor. A standard surgery mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection was realized, followed by external radiotherapy. The anatomopathologic and the immuno-histochemical study of the operational part confirmed the diagnosis of neuroendocrine carcinoma with large cells expressing the progesterone receptor. The patient is subjected to adjuvant hormonal treatment. After a 12 months retreat, a complete remission is maintained. Considering the scarcity of neuroendocrine carcinoma with large cells of the breast, the therapeutic standard is not yet available and the forecast remains difficult to determine.

  18. Real-time quantitative PCR of microdissected paraffin-embedded breast carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum, Lise Mette; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl; Kjeldsen, Eigil

    2004-01-01

    We studied the feasibility of using real-time quantitative PCR to determine HER-2 DNA amplification and mRNA expression in microdissected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast tumors and compared this with standard immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) methods....... Study cases (27 carcinomas and 3 ductal breast carcinoma in situ (DCIS) cases) showed varying Her-2 expression as determined by IHC (HercepTest). In carcinomas, there was a good correlation between HER-2 DNA amplification and strong HER-2 protein expression detected by FISH and IHC, respectively....... A single DCIS case was amplified in FISH, but not in IHC. Both HER-2 gene amplification and expression could be quantified in microdissected paraffin-embedded tumors using real-time PCR, DNA and RNA being successfully detected in 146 of 150 (97%) and 141 of 150 (94%) samples, respectively. PCR analysis...

  19. A rare case of concurrent signet-ring carcinoma of breast and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Kelly; Bae, Esther; Park, Hanna; Hussain, Farabi

    2016-01-01

    Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) can be an uncommon presentation of an underlying malignancy, most often due to signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC). Additionally, pure SRCC in a breast primary-tumor comprises <2% of all breast cancers (Shin SY, Park H, Chae SW, Woo HY. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia as the first manifestation of metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma of unknown origin: a case report and review of literature. Kor J Lab Med 2011;31:157–61). To the best of our knowledge, the combination of these two entities, pure breast primary SRCC along with MAHA, has not been reported. Here, we present such a rare case. We also evaluate the current literature regarding this and similar disease processes, of which evidence is scarce and further research is needed. PMID:27587305

  20. Tuberculous mastitis simulating carcinoma of the breast in a young Nigerian woman: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabageh, Donatus; Amao, Emmanuel Afolabi; Ayo-Aderibigbe A, Adebisi; Sabageh, Adedayo Olukemi

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculous mastitis is an uncommon disease even in countries where tuberculosis is highly endemic. It typically presents a diagnostic challenge masquerading as carcinoma or other primary disease of the breast. We report the case of a young multiparous Nigerian woman who presented with a tender left breast lump and enlargement of the left axillary lymph nodes for which a provisional diagnosis of carcinoma of the breast was made after clinical and radiological evaluation. The mass was pathologically diagnosed as tuberculous mastitis and anti-tuberculous therapy was instituted although she later absconded. This case shows that TM may present a diagnostic challenge on clinical, radiologic and microbiological investigation. Therefore, a high index of suspicion as well as FNAC and/or histological evaluation of tissue samples remain very important its diagnosis.

  1. Presentation of Apocrine Breast Carcinoma in a Woman with Bilateral Silicone Prosthesis; Presentacion de un carcinoma apocrino de mama en una mujer con protesis bilateral de silicona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J. A.; Salvador, R.; Salvador, M.; Barranco, C.

    2003-07-01

    We present a case of apocrine breast carcinoma in a 45 year-old woman with bilateral silicone breast prosthesis whose clinical manifestations and mammography were that of a palpable nodule-high glandular density, rounded and with imprecise borders devoid of any visible microcalcifications. A bibliographical revision confirmed the infrequent association of this type of tumor with the presence of silicone breast implants, precisely in which we consider its radiological interest to lie. (Author) 11 refs.

  2. Expression of WT1, CA 125, and GCDFP-15 as useful markers in the differential diagnosis of primary ovarian carcinomas versus metastatic breast cancer to the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornos, Carmen; Soslow, Robert; Chen, Shirley; Akram, Muzaffar; Hummer, Amanda J; Abu-Rustum, Nadeen; Norton, Larry; Tan, Lee K

    2005-11-01

    Metastatic breast carcinoma to the ovary is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary ovarian carcinoma. This problem is often encountered in breast carcinoma patients who develop adnexal masses. ER and PR can be positive in a high percentage of breast and ovarian carcinomas, and therefore cannot be used in the differential diagnosis of these entities. WT1 and CA125 have been identified as possible markers for ovarian cancer. However, no studies have been done that specifically compare the immunophenotype of breast carcinoma metastatic to ovary with that of primary ovarian cancer. Thirty-nine cases of metastatic breast carcinoma to the ovary, 36 primary breast carcinomas, and 42 primary ovarian carcinomas were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of WT1, CA125, carcinoembryonic antigen, MUC2, MUC1, and GCDFP. The percentage of cells stained and the intensity of staining were recorded. Thirty-two ovarian carcinomas (76%) were positive for WT1, including 31 of 33 (94%) serous carcinomas. Most of them had strong and diffuse staining. None of the breast cancers either primary or metastatic to the ovary expressed WT1. Thirty-eight (90%) ovarian carcinomas were positive for CA125, most of them with strong and diffuse staining. Most breast carcinomas were negative for CA125, with only 6 (16%) of the primary ones and 5 (12%) of the metastatic showing weak and focal positivity. All ovarian carcinomas were negative for GCDFP. Five primary breast cancers (14%) and 17 (43%) metastatic to the ovary were positive for GCDFP. Nine (21%) ovarian carcinomas, 8 (22%) primary breast carcinomas, and 13 (33%) metastatic to the ovary were positive for carcinoembryonic antigen. Almost all tumors examined were positive for MUC1 (100% ovarian carcinomas, 100% primary breast carcinomas, and 95% metastatic breast carcinomas to ovary). MUC2 was positive in 10 (24%) ovarian carcinomas, 3 (8%) primary breast cancers, and 12 (30%) metastases to the ovary. The presence of

  3. Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: The histogenetic diatribe

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    Cabibi D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article entitled “Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: a report of two cases and review of the literature” by Spinelli et al. [1]. The authors stated that “the histogenesis is still unclear because the presence of neuroendocrine cells in normal breast has not been proved conclusively”. Moreover they reported two histogenetic hypotheses, the first one stating that “small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNC is a variant of metaplastic carcinoma arising from a lobular or ductal carcinoma”, the second one claiming that “it is a distinct type of breast carcinoma different from the usual type”. We appreciate this case report and we agree with the authors on the histogenetic diatribe of this rare type of breast neoplasia. In this background, we would highlight our previous case report about a solid variant of mammary adenoid cystic carcinoma merging with "small cell carcinoma" [2] in which we found positivity for CD10 and S100 and negativity for estrogen receptors, both in sbACC and in SCC, in keeping with a myoepithelial origin of both neoplastic areas [3] supporting the hypothesis that the “two components share the same histogenetic myoepithelial origin and represent an example of dedifferentiation along neuroendocrine phenotype lines occurring in a multipotential neoplastic stem line, already committed towards a myoepithelial phenotype”. These findings are in keeping with the first hypothesis about the metaplastic, divergent histogenetic nature of SNSC and we think that this rare SNSC, albeit arising from a different tumor, could be introduced in this case review of the literature, also for its contribute to the histogenetic diatribe.

  4. Prostate-derived ets factor represses tumorigenesis and modulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in bladder carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ke-Hung; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Chung, Li-Chuan; Chuang, Sung-Ting; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chiang, Kun-Chun; Chang, Phei-Lang; Yeh, Chi-Ju; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2016-05-28

    Prostate-derived Ets (E-twenty six) factor (PDEF), an epithelium-specific member of the Ets family of transcription factors, has been shown to play a role in suppressing the development of many epithelium-derived cancers such as prostate and breast cancer. It is not clear, however, whether PDEF is involved in the development or progression of bladder cancer. In a comparison between normal urothelium and bladder tumor tissue, we identified significant decreases of PDEF in the tumor tissue. Further, the immunohistochemistry assays indicated a significantly higher immunostaining of PDEF in low-grade bladder tumors. Additionally, the highly differentiated transitional-cell bladder carcinoma RT-4 cells expressed significantly more PDEF levels than the bladder carcinoma HT1376 and the T24 cells. Ectopic overexpression of PDEF attenuated proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis of bladder carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. PDEF enhanced the expression levels of mammary serine protease inhibitor (MASPIN), N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), KAI1, and B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2). PDEF modulated epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) by upregulating E-cadherin expression and downregulating the expression of N-cadherin, SNAIL, SLUG, and vimentin, leading to lower migration and invasion abilities of bladder carcinoma cells. Filamentous actin (F-actin) polarization and remodeling were observed in PDEF-knockdown RT-4 cells. Our results suggest that PDEF gene expression is associated with the extent of bladder neoplasia and PDEF modulated the expressions of EMT-related genes. The induction of BTG2, NDRG1, MASPIN, and KAI1 gene expressions by PDEF may explain the inhibitory functions of PDEF on the proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis in bladder carcinoma cells.

  5. Identification of p53 and Its Isoforms in Human Breast Carcinoma Cells

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    Zorka Milićević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In breast carcinoma, disruption of the p53 pathway is one of the most common genetic alterations. The observation that the p53 can express multiple protein isoforms adds a novel level of complexity to the outcome of p53 mutations. p53 expression was analysed by Western immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies DO-7, Pab240, and polyclonal antiserum CM-1. The more frequently p53-positive nuclear staining has been found in the invasive breast tumors. One of the most intriguing findings is that mutant p53 appears as discrete dot-shaped regions within the nucleus of breast cancer cells. In many malignant cells, the nucleolar sequestration of p53 is evident. These observations support the view that the nucleolus is involved directly in the mediation of p53 function or indirectly by the control of the localization of p53 interplayers. p53 expressed in the nuclear fraction of breast cancer cells revealed a wide spectrum of isoforms. p53 isoforms ΔNp53 (47 kDa and Δ133p53β (35 kDa, known as dominant-negative repressors of p53 function, were detected as the most predominant variants in nuclei of invasive breast carcinoma cells. The isoforms expressed also varied between individual tumors, indicating potential roles of these p53 variants in human breast cancer.

  6. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators SNAI2 and TWIST1 in thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Darya; Hardin, Heather; Shan, Weihua; Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Rush, Patrick S; Asioli, Sofia; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is an important mechanism of epithelial tumor progression, local invasion and metastasis. The E-cadherin (CDH1) repressor SLUG (SNAI2) and the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor TWIST1 inhibit CDH1 expression in poorly differentiated malignancies as inducers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition has been implicated in progression from well to poorly differentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma but the expression of SNAI2 and TWIST1 proteins and their phenotypic association in human thyroid cancers has not been extensively studied. We examined the expression of SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1 by immunohistochemistry in a panel of well-differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers and by qRT-PCR in thyroid cell lines. Ten normal thyroids, 33 follicular adenomas, 56 papillary thyroid carcinomas including 28 follicular variants, 27 follicular carcinomas and 10 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas were assembled on a tissue microarray and immunostained for SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1. Most (8/10) anaplastic thyroid carcinomas demonstrated strong nuclear immunoreactivity for SNAI2 with associated absence of CDH1 in 6/8 cases (75%). TWIST1 was expressed in 5/10 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas with absence of CDH1 in 3/5 (60%) cases. These findings were confirmed in whole sections of all anaplastic thyroid carcinomas and in a separate validation set of 10 additional anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. All normal thyroids, follicular adenomas, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were negative for SNAI2 and TWIST1 (Pcarcinoma and two anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines tested, but the highest levels of CDH1 mRNA were detected in the normal thyroid cell line while the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line demonstrated the highest levels of SNAI2 and TWIST1 mRNA. Our findings support the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the development of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  7. Coexistence of carcinoma and tuberculosis in one breast

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    Dalal Neha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coexistence of breast cancer and tuberculosis is very rare. This can create a dilemma in the diagnosis and treatment as there are no pathognomonic symptoms or signs to distinguish both diseases. Case presentation A female patient was seen in the breast clinic for a right breast lump. Clinical examination and investigation confirmed cancer and tuberculosis of the right breast. She underwent right mastectomy and axillary clearance and received chemo and radiotherapy. Unfortunately, she died of wide spread metastases. Conclusion The simultaneous occurrence of these two major illnesses in the breast can lead to many problems regarding diagnosis and treatment. Though rare, surgeons, pathologists and radiologists should be aware of such condition.

  8. Issues Affecting the Loco-regional and Systemic Management of Patients with Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Carmel; Clemons, Mark; Addison, Christina; Robertson, Susan; Arnaout, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast is the second most common type of invasive breast carcinoma accounting for 8-14% of all breast cancers. Traditional management of ILC has followed similar paradigms as that for invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). However, ILC represents a pathologically, clinically and biologically unique variant of breast cancer with particular management challenges. These challenges are seen in both the loco-regional management of ILC; where ILC tumors tend to avoid detection and hence present as more clinically advanced and surgically challenging carcinomas, and the systemic management with a unique response pattern to standard systemic therapies. Because of these challenges, the outcome for patients with ILC has likely lagged behind the continued improvements seen in outcome for patients with IDC. Here, we discuss some of the unique challenges ILC presents and discuss possible management strategies to best overcome the difficulties in the loco-regional and systemic management of patients with ILC.

  9. Pembrolizumab and Ruxolitinib Phosphate in Treating Patients With Metastatic Stage IV Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Breast Carcinoma Metastatic in the Bone; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  10. Primary Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Breast: A Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Study

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    Kiyoshi Shingu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acinic cell carcinoma of the breast is an extremely rare, malignant neoplasm characterized by widespread acinar cell-like differentiation and clinically low-grade malignancy. Herein, we report a case of acinic cell carcinoma of the breast in a 41-year-old woman. The tumor was poorly demarcated but had a firm consistency. It was removed with lumpectomy, and sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed to check for metastasis. Microscopically, the tumor showed an infiltrative growth pattern with a combination of solid, trabecular, and microglandular areas. Many of the tumor cells had abundant clear vacuolated cytoplasm containing zymogen-typed granules which resemble acinar cells of the salivary glands. The immunohistochemical profile of the tumor was also similar to that of salivary gland acinic cell carcinoma: the tumor cells were positive for amylase, lysozyme, α-1-antichymotrypsin, S-100 protein, and epithelial membrane antigen and negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. She received postoperative chemoradiation therapy and has been well for 3 years since surgery. As studies on large series are lacking, further studies are needed to elucidate the biological characteristics of acinic cell carcinoma of the breast.

  11. Metastatic breast carcinoma of the abdominal wall muscle: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiya, Akiko; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sato, Mutsumi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Nishikawa, Noriko; Kikutani, Mariko; Tadokoro, Yukiko; Tanaka, Kumiko; Uematsu, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Junichiro; Kasami, Masako; Yamasaki, Seiji

    2015-03-01

    Metastasis from breast carcinoma is an uncommon occurrence in skeletal muscle, compared to local invasion into muscle from direct tumor spread. A 49-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with an 8.5-cm mass in the right breast. Core needle biopsy revealed metaplastic carcinoma with squamous metaplasia. The mass was rapidly growing and metaplastic, so mastectomy with dissection of axillary lymph nodes was performed. Pathological examination showed metaplastic carcinoma, histological grade 3, triple negative, and a MIB-1 labeling index of 80%. Six months postoperatively, during adjuvant chemotherapy treatment, she reported numbness and pain in the right lateral thigh and a mass in the right lower abdomen. Computed tomography revealed multiple lined masses in the abdominal wall and iliac muscle. Core needle biopsy showed metastatic breast carcinoma. Radio- and chemotherapy were administered, but the mass in the muscle became enlarged. To control her pain, a combined treatment with morphine, fentanyl, ketamine, antiepilepsy drug, and NSAIDs was administered. Liver metastasis appeared 9 months (15 months postoperatively) after recognition of muscle metastasis, and the patient died 16 months postoperatively. Skeletal muscle metastasis is uncommon, and therapeutic intervention is mainly palliative. The most common symptom of skeletal muscle metastasis is pain; thus, pain control is a pivotal goal of treatment.

  12. [Breast metastasis from vulvar carcinoma: case report and review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouchani, M; Benchakroun, N; Tahri, A; Tawfiq, N; Jouhadi, H; Acharki, A; Sahraoui, S; Belaabidia, B; Benider, A

    2008-03-01

    The breast metastases resulting of vulvar carcinoma are very rare, and represent exceptionally the first manifestation of the disease. We report the case of a 42 year-old patient who underwent a treatment because of vulvar epidermoid carcinoma, right away metastatic at the level of the inguinal ganglia. The treatment consisted in a total vulvectomy with bilateral ganglial curretage, followed by external radiotherapy about the perineum and the inguinal ganglia. Three months after the end of her treatment, the patient presented with a nodula on the left outer breast with features of malignancy noticed by clinic and mammographic examination. The histologic study of the mammary biopsy showed epidermoid carcinoma of likely metastatic origin. A left Patey has been realized and confirmed the metastatic localization of epidermoid carcinoma with axillary ganglial metastasis (2N+/-7). Besides, this patient presented a right cervical ganglial parcel that the biopsy showed a metastatic localization of a vulvar carcinoma. A palliative chemotherapy type cyclophosphamid, adriblastin, cisplatine (CAP) has been admistrated during three cycles spaced out three weeks. The patient died 11 months after the supervene of the cerebral metastasis. We present this case because its rarety and to show the possibility of metastasis at the level of breast due to vulvar cancer. The clinicians must remember this possible tropism of the vulvar cancer for the breast, not only during the supervision and the complete examination as regards the disease spreading but also when the affection revealed unknown primary tumor. The diagnostic orientation is based on the mammography and the mammary biopsy. In this stage, the treatment is unfortunately palliative, the survival until a year is not more than 20%.

  13. Assessment of Pathological Response of Breast Carcinoma in Modified Radical Mastectomy Specimens after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

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    Dhanya Vasudevan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Paclitaxel based neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen (NAT in the setting of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC can render inoperable tumor (T4, N2/N3 resectable. The aim of this study was to assess the status of carcinoma in the breast and lymph nodes after paclitaxel based NAT in order to find out the patient and the tumor characteristics that correspond to the pathological responses which could be used as a surrogate biomarker to assess the treatment response. Materials and Methods. Clinical and tumor characteristics of patients with breast carcinoma (n=48 were assessed preoperatively. These patients were subjected to modified radical mastectomy after 3 courses of paclitaxel based NAT regimen. The pathological responses of the tumor in the breast and the lymph nodes were studied by using Chevallier’s system which graded the responses into pathological complete response (pCR, pathological partial response (pPR, and pathological no response (pNR. Results. Our studies showed a pCR of 27.1% and a pPR of 70.9% . Clinically small sized tumors (2–5 cms and Bloom Richardson’s grade 1 tumors showed a pCR. Mean age at presentation was 50.58 yrs. 79.2% of cases were invasive ductal carcinoma NOS; only 2.1% were invasive lobular carcinoma, their response to NAT being the same. There was no downgrading of the tumor grades after NAT. Ductal carcinoma in situ and lymphovascular invasion were found to be resistant to chemotherapy. The histopathological changes noted in the lymph nodes were similar to that found in the tumor bed. Discussion and Conclusion. From our study we conclude that histopathological examination of the tumor bed is the gold standard for assessing the chemotherapeutic tumor response. As previous studies have shown pCR can be used as a surrogate biomarker to assess the tumor response.

  14. Characterization of ductal and lobular breast carcinomas using novel prolactin receptor isoform specific antibodies

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    Heger Christopher D

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolactin is a polypeptide hormone responsible for proliferation and differentiation of the mammary gland. More recently, prolactin's role in mammary carcinogenesis has been studied with greater interest. Studies from our laboratory and from others have demonstrated that three specific isoforms of the prolactin receptor (PRLR are expressed in both normal and cancerous breast cells and tissues. Until now, reliable isoform specific antibodies have been lacking. We have prepared and characterized polyclonal antibodies against each of the human PRLR isoforms that can effectively be used to characterize human breast cancers. Methods Rabbits were immunized with synthetic peptides of isoform unique regions and immune sera affinity purified prior to validation by Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Sections of ductal and lobular carcinomas were stained with each affinity purified isoform specific antibody to determine expression patterns in breast cancer subclasses. Results We show that the rabbit antibodies have high titer and could specifically recognize each isoform of PRLR. Differences in PRLR isoform expression levels were observed and quantified using histosections from xenografts of established human breast cancer cells lines, and ductal and lobular carcinoma human biopsy specimens. In addition, these results were verified by real-time PCR with isoform specific primers. While nearly all tumors contained LF and SF1b, the majority (76% of ductal carcinoma biopsies expressed SF1a while the majority of lobular carcinomas lacked SF1a staining (72% and 27% had only low levels of expression. Conclusions Differences in the receptor isoform expression profiles may be critical to understanding the role of PRL in mammary tumorigenesis. Since these antibodies are specifically directed against each PRLR isoform, they are valuable tools for the evaluation of breast cancer PRLR content and have potential clinical importance in

  15. A retrospective study of clinico-pathological spectrum of carcinoma breast in a West Delhi, India

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    Jitendra Singh Nigam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the demographic profile of breast cancer patients from Delhi is scarce and whatever is available is from higher referral center. Our hospital caters to patients from an urban population of the lower socioeconomic strata and is a representation of cases at a tertiary care hospital in west Delhi. In Delhi, breast cancer (26.8% is commonest cancer among the female followed by cervix (12.5%, gallbladder (7.2%, ovary (7.1%, and uterus (3.3%. Aims and Objectives: A retrospective audit of breast cancer patients presenting at a tertiary referral center from 2004 to 2011. Materials and Methods: A total of 328 cases diagnosed as carcinoma breast on histopathology from year 2004 to 2011 were retrieved and studied retrospectively with regards to demographic profile and their histological features with estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and Her2neu status. Results: The median age of presentation was 49 years of age. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC, not otherwise specified (NOS was the commonest histopathological variant (81.40% followed by medullary carcinoma (10.36% and mucinous carcinoma (2.74%. Triple negative were found to be the commonest group comprising 39.4% of all the cases followed by ER and PR both positive. Pathological tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM staging showed most common group was T 2 N 0 M 0 ( 19.5% followed by T 2 N 1 M 0 (17.1% and T 2 N 2 M 0 (14%. Conclusion: The incidence of breast cancer in the India and include a higher incidence of ER, PR, and Her2neu negative disease in west Delhi.

  16. Individual and combined usefulness of lipid associated sialic acid, mucoid proteins and hexoses as tumor markers in breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, P S; Baxi, B R; Adhvaryu, S G; Balar, D B

    1990-06-15

    Serum levels of lipid associated sialic acid (LASA), mucoid proteins (MP) and hexoses (galactose + mannose) were measured in 41 breast cancer patients, 14 patients with benign breast diseases and 36 healthy age matched female individuals. In breast carcinoma patients, we have observed significant increase in the levels of the three markers compared with the controls (P less than 0.001) and in MP and hexoses compared to the patients with benign breast diseases (P less than 0.001). LASA and hexoses levels were significantly higher in benign breast diseases with respect to controls (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.01, respectively). We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the markers individually and in combination. MP were most sensitive (71.8%) and specific (71.4%). Both sensitivity and specificity were increased when combinations of the markers were studied. Combination of MP with LASA was most sensitive (97.4%) while the combination of MP and hexoses was most specific (92.9%). LASA was significantly elevated in infiltrating duct carcinoma compared to lobular carcinoma (P less than 0.001). MP and hexoses also showed higher mean value in infiltrating duct carcinoma than lobular carcinoma. The present study suggests that the combination of the markers investigated might be useful for diagnosis and classification of breast carcinoma.

  17. Unusual Occurrence of Rare Lipid-Rich Carcinoma and Conventional Invasive Ductal Carcinoma in the One Breast: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Machalekova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old woman noticed a palpable mass in her left breast during self-examination. Patient was admitted to our hospital and malignant bifocal tumour was diagnosed by ultrasonography, digital mammography, magnetic resonance, and core-cut biopsy. The patient underwent planned conservative surgery (biquadrantectomy with a sentinel node examination, but after results of the frozen section with positive resection margins and positive sentinel lymph nodes subsequent mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection were realized. Histology in the resection specimen revealed two isolated and distinct tumours. One of the lesions represented conventional invasive ductal carcinoma of histological grade 3, and the second tumour was evaluated as invasive lipid-rich carcinoma, containing tumour cells with clear and foamy cytoplasm. Lipids in neoplastic cells were detected by Oil Red O staining and ultrastructural examination. Immunohistochemical analysis of both carcinomas was almost identical with negative steroid receptors, positive staining of HER-2, and p53 and with high proliferation activity (Ki-67. Mastectomy specimen contained residual foci of invasive ductal carcinoma and dissected axillary lymph nodes were free of metastasis. Patient underwent first cycles of chemotherapy with paclitaxel and Herceptin together with local radiotherapy and two month after surgery is without any evidence of the disease.

  18. Types of HLA in the bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Erkan; Uğur Özalp, Ali; Cekmen, Arman; Eren, Bülent; Onal, Bülent; Akkuş, Emre; Erdoğan, Ergun

    2013-02-01

    HLA plays a complementary role in the interaction between tumor and body immunology. The aim of this study was to determine the existence of the association between the HLA system and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Using standard micro-lymphocytotoxic method of Terasaki, HLA-A, B, DR and DQ antigen types of 30 patients with TCC of the bladder were compared with the control group (30 healthy people). In the TCC patient group, HLA -DQ6(1) and HLA -DQ7(3) antigens were detected with a significantly higher frequency than in the control group (p=0.018 and p=0.038, respectively), whereas HLA-A10, B4, DR53 and DQ1 antigens were detected with significantly higher frequency in the control group (p less 0.05 in all). It suggests that patients who had the antigens detected were at higher risk of TCC, and the ones who had the antigens displaying protective features as were detected in the control group, were at lesser risk.

  19. Proteomics research on muscle-invasive bladder transitional cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Yan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aimed to facilitate candidate biomarkers selection and improve network-based multi-target therapy, we perform comparative proteomics research on muscle-invasive bladder transitional cell carcinoma. Laser capture microdissection was used to harvest purified muscle-invasive bladder cancer cells and normal urothelial cells from 4 paired samples. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the proteome expression profile. The differential proteins were further analyzed using bioinformatics tools and compared with the published literature. Results A total of 885/890 proteins commonly appeared in 4 paired samples. 295/337 of the 488/493 proteins that specific expressed in tumor/normal cells own gene ontology (GO cellular component annotation. Compared with the entire list of the international protein index (IPI, there are 42/45 GO terms exhibited as enriched and 9/5 exhibited as depleted, respectively. Several pathways exhibit significantly changes between cancer and normal cells, mainly including spliceosome, endocytosis, oxidative phosphorylation, etc. Finally, descriptive statistics show that the PI Distribution of candidate biomarkers have certain regularity. Conclusions The present study identified the proteome expression profile of muscle-invasive bladder cancer cells and normal urothelial cells, providing information for subcellular pattern research of cancer and offer candidate proteins for biomarker panel and network-based multi-target therapy.

  20. Identification and analysis of signaling networks potentially involved in breast carcinoma metastasis to the brain.

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    Feng Li

    Full Text Available Brain is a common site of breast cancer metastasis associated with significant neurologic morbidity, decreased quality of life, and greatly shortened survival. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underpinning brain colonization by breast carcinoma cells are poorly understood. Here, we used 2D-DIGE (Difference in Gel Electrophoresis proteomic analysis followed by LC-tandem mass spectrometry to identify the proteins differentially expressed in brain-targeting breast carcinoma cells (MB231-Br compared with parental MDA-MB-231 cell line. Between the two cell lines, we identified 12 proteins consistently exhibiting greater than 2-fold (p<0.05 difference in expression, which were associated by the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA with two major signaling networks involving TNFα/TGFβ-, NFκB-, HSP-70-, TP53-, and IFNγ-associated pathways. Remarkably, highly related networks were revealed by the IPA analysis of a list of 19 brain-metastasis-associated proteins identified recently by the group of Dr. A. Sierra using MDA-MB-435-based experimental system (Martin et al., J Proteome Res 2008 7:908-20, or a 17-gene classifier associated with breast cancer brain relapse reported by the group of Dr. J. Massague based on a microarray analysis of clinically annotated breast tumors from 368 patients (Bos et al., Nature 2009 459: 1005-9. These findings, showing that different experimental systems and approaches (2D-DIGE proteomics used on brain targeting cell lines or gene expression analysis of patient samples with documented brain relapse yield highly related signaling networks, suggest strongly that these signaling networks could be essential for a successful colonization of the brain by metastatic breast carcinoma cells.

  1. Breast carcinoma in pregnancy and lactation: A diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma

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    Ali M. Al-Amri

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the clinical presentation, pathological features, receptors type, and reason for the delay of diagnosis of breast carcinoma during pregnancy and lactation.Patients and methods: This is retrospective study of patients with pregnancy associated breast carcinoma (PABC, treated at our hospital from 2003 to 2009.Results: Of the 16 patients, 8 (50% were pregnant and 8 (50% were lactating with an average age of 30years (range, 21 to 41years. Four (25% underwent therapeutic abortions, two (12.5% cesarean section, one (6.25% patient had spontaneous abortions and one (6.25% had no follow up. Fifteen (94% presented with a breast mass, 37.5% with nipple retraction and 31% presented with inflammatory changes in the breast. Symptoms and signs were overlooked by physicians in 8 (50% of patients, resulting in delay of referral. In 5 (31.25% the delay was due to patients' fear of cancer and only 3 (18.75% there was no delay. The majority of cases were ductal 12 (75%. Only one-third presented with early stage, the rest with advanced stage. Half (50% were Estrogen receptor and Progesterone receptor (ER, PR negative, while 6 (37.5% were positive. Human epidermal growth factor receptors type2 (HER2 positivity was found in 3 (18.75% while 2 (12.5% were ER negative but PR positive. Conclusion: Breast masses during pregnancy and lactation is not always benign. It may be overlooked and all appropriate methods should be used to role out breast carcinoma.

  2. A CLINICAL STUDY ON CARCINOMA BREAST IN RELATION TO ER AND PR STATUS

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    Ramanaiah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Breast carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor and the leading cause of death in women worldwide 1 . It accounts for 15 % of all cancer deaths 2 . According to the World Health Organisation (WHO, approximately 70% of breast cancers occur in women with none of the known risk factors. Only about 5% of breast cancers are inherited. Various protocols are in use for the assessment of prognosis, and also to assist further management of these cases. Of various parameters, expression of hormonereceptors Estrogen receptor (ER and Progesterone receptor (PR ar e significant AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To study the occurrence of ER and PR status in breast cancer patients attending S.V.R.R.G.G. Hospital. To correlate the expression of prognostic factors like age at presentation menarche, menopause, parity, tumor size, number of lymph nodes, metastasis histology, grading with ER and PR status. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This clinic opathological study of carcinoma breast was carried out in patients admitted to SVRRGG Hospital, Tirupati during the period from September 2011 to August 2013 after obtaining approval from scientific committee and ethical committee .Forty cases of breast carcinoma were taken into study. The clinical study done by interviewing, detailed examination and subjecting to relevant investigations and surgeries depending upon the stage of the disease. Excised specimen is sent for Histopathological examination in 10% formaline Reports of light microscopy (Hematoxilin and Eosin and immunohistochemistry on tumor histology including MBR (Modified Bloom Richardson grading and Estrogen and Progesterone status is analysed. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, ER and PR status correlates well with histopathological grading and other clinico - pathological parameters. Higher grade is associated with ER PR negativity. Hence. Immunohistochemical assessment of ER and PR status should be incorporated as a routine investigation. This along with

  3. Risk of subsequent invasive breast cancer after a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Shan; Booth, Mary E; Kearins, Olive; Dodwell, David

    2014-12-01

    Despite surgical removal of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), recurrences still occur. This retrospective cohort study evaluated the risk of invasive recurrence following surgery and investigated factors which may be predictive of recurrence. We specifically investigated invasive recurrence with respect to mode of detection of DCIS. Patients whose DCIS was detected outside of the NHS Breast Screening Programme have a higher risk of subsequent ipsilateral invasive breast cancer than those whose DCIS is detected through screening. There is no significant difference in risk of subsequent contralateral invasive recurrence according to mode of detection.

  4. Cribriform carcinoma mimicking breast abscess - case report. Diagnostic and therapeutic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Roszkowska-Purska, Katarzyna; Chrapowicki, Eryk

    2013-06-01

    The authors presents a case of cribriform breast carcinoma in a cyst that clinically imitated an abscess. The case concerns a 71-year-old female patient treated for ankylosing spondylitis, with a positive family history of breast cancer. The patient presented at the surgical clinic for incision of an abscess of the mammary gland localized in the lower inner quadrant that was a consequence of previous trauma to the right breast. The abscess was incised and the serosanguineous contents were evacuated. The wound was drained and antibiotics (Dalacin with Metronidazol) were administered for the period of 10 days. During the treatment, a cutaneous fistula was formed. At the incision site, a hard thickening was palpable (tumor). Core needle biopsy of the clinically palpable tumor was performed and the purulent material from the fistula was collected for a culture test. Complete blood count did not reveal leucocytosis. In accordance with the obtained sensitivity report, the patient was started on antibiotics again. Breast ultrasound performed upon the completion of the antibiotic therapy, in the right breast, revealed two solidcystic oval lesions with thick echogenic walls and blurred margins. Both masses contained dense levels of fluid material and solid polycyclic structures. On sonoelastography, the lesions were heterogeneous with a high Young's modulus. In the right axillary fossa, ultrasound examination revealed three abnormal lymph nodes enlarged to 31 mm length, which were rounded, hypoechoic and without visible sinuses. Histopathology of the core needle biopsy performed at admittance and after the antibiotic therapy indicated a breast abscess (presence of fibrinous and partly fibrinopurulent material). The mass was finally resected to confirm histopathology. The resected material revealed the presence of an invasive, moderately differentiated cribriform carcinoma, which developed within a cyst, with a 40% necrotic component. Eighteen months after the commencement

  5. Secretory Carcinoma of the Breast: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature

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    Vivekanand Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretory carcinoma of the breast is an extremely rare subtype of breast cancer characterized by intracellular or extracellular secretion and granular eosinophilic cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells. The disease which was considered to be predominant in younger age group has been recognized in adult population too and tends to show slow growth and indolent behavior. The disease occurs preferentially in females and only 27 cases have been reported amongst males. An optimal treatment for the disease subtype has been debated because of the paucity of data. We report two cases (one female and one male of this rare disease that underwent treatment at our institution.

  6. Secretory Carcinoma of the Breast: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivekanand; Anuragi, Gajendra; Singh, Suresh; Patel, Pinakin; Jindal, Arpita; Sharma, Raj Govind

    2015-01-01

    Secretory carcinoma of the breast is an extremely rare subtype of breast cancer characterized by intracellular or extracellular secretion and granular eosinophilic cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells. The disease which was considered to be predominant in younger age group has been recognized in adult population too and tends to show slow growth and indolent behavior. The disease occurs preferentially in females and only 27 cases have been reported amongst males. An optimal treatment for the disease subtype has been debated because of the paucity of data. We report two cases (one female and one male) of this rare disease that underwent treatment at our institution. PMID:26236516

  7. Overexpression of peroxiredoxin I and thioredoxin1 in human breast carcinoma

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    Kim Il-Han

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxiredoxins (Prxs are a novel group of peroxidases containing high antioxidant efficiency. The mammalian Prx family has six distinct members (Prx I-VI in various subcellular locations, including peroxisomes and mitochondria, places where oxidative stress is most evident. The function of Prx I in particular has been implicated in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Since thioredoxin1 (Trx1 as an electron donor is functionally associated with Prx I, we investigated levels of expression of both Prx I and Trx1. Methods We investigated levels of expression of both Prx I and Trx1 in breast cancer by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western blot. Results Levels of messenger RNA (mRNA for both Prx I and Trx1 in normal human breast tissue were very low compared to other major human tissues, whereas their levels in breast cancer exceeded that in other solid cancers (colon, kidney, liver, lung, ovary, prostate, and thyroid. Among members of the Prx family (Prx I-VI and Trx family (Trx1, Trx2, Prx I and Trx1 were preferentially induced in breast cancer. Moreover, the expression of each was associated with progress of breast cancer and correlated with each other. Western blot analysis of different and paired breast tissues revealed consistent and preferential expression of Prx I and Trx1 protein in breast cancer tissue. Conclusion Prx I and Trx1 are overexpressed in human breast carcinoma and the expression levels are associated with tumor grade. The striking induction of Prx I and Trx1 in breast cancer may enable their use as breast cancer markers.

  8. Unusual paraneoplastic syndromes of breast carcinoma: a combination of cerebellar degeneration and Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Romics, L

    2011-06-01

    Paraneoplastic neurological disorders are rare complications of breast carcinoma. Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome (LEMS) is most commonly associated with small cell lung cancer. However, a combination of LEMS and subacute cerebellar degeneration as paraneoplastic syndromes is extremely rare, and has never been described in association with breast cancer.

  9. Molecular clonality relationships in initial carcinomas, ipsilateral breast failures, and distant metastases in patients treated with breast-conserving therapy: evidence suggesting that some distant metastases are derived from ipsilateral breast failures and that metastases can metastasize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Neal S; Vicini, Frank A; Hunter, Susan; Odish, Eva; Forbes, Suzy; Kestin, Larry L

    2005-07-01

    We studied the clonality relationships in invasive breast carcinomas, ipsilateral breast failures (IBFs), and distant metastases (DMs) using a polymerase chain reaction-loss of heterozygosity (LOH) clonality assay to determine whether IBFs can be the source of DMs. Six cases of initial carcinomas, IBFs, and DMs were identified. Carcinoma DNA was extracted from paraffin blocks and analyzed with 20 markers. In 2 cases, the LOH pattern suggested the DM directly resulted from the IBF. In 2 cases, the initial carcinoma, IBF, and DM were one progressive, genetically unstable process. Separate subclones in the initial carcinoma gave rise to the IBF and DM in 1 case, and the DM derived from a second IBF in 1 case. The relationships of initial carcinomas, IBFs, and DMs are complex. DMs seem to be the direct result of IBFs in some cases. Some carcinomas seem to be composed of subclones with different and unrelated IBF and DM potential.

  10. Cytoplasmic Skp2 expression is associated with p-Akt1 and predicts poor prognosis in human breast carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: S-phase kinase protein 2 (Skp2, an oncogenic protein, is a key regulator in different cellular and molecular processes, through ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway. Increased levels of Skp2 are observed in various types of cancer and associated with poor prognosis. However, in human breast carcinomas, the underlying mechanism and prognostic significance of cytoplasmic Skp2 is still undefined. METHODS: To investigate the role of cytoplasmic Skp2 expression in human breast carcinomas, we immnohistochemically assessed cytoplasmic Skp2, p-Akt1, and p27 expression in 251 patients with invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast. Association of cytoplasmic Skp2 expression with p-Akt1 and p27 was analyzed as well as correspondence with other clinicopathological parameters. Disease-free survival and overall survival were determined based on the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression models. RESULTS: Cytoplasmic of Skp2 was detected in 165 out of 251 (65.7% patients. Cytoplasmic Skp2 expression was associated with larger tumor size, more advanced histological grade, and positive HER2 expression. Increased cytoplasmic Skp2 expression correlated with p-Akt1 expression, with 54.2% (51/94 of low p-Akt1-expressing breast carcinomas, but 72.6% (114/157 of high p-Akt1-expressing breast carcinomas exhibiting cytoplasmic Skp2 expression. Elevated cytoplasmic Skp2 expression with low p-Akt1 expression was associated with poor disease-free and overall survival (DFS and OS, and Cox regression models demonstrated that cytoplasmic Skp2 expression was an independent prognostic marker for invasive breast carcinomas. CONCLUSION: Cytoplasmic Skp2 expression is associated with aggressive prognostic factors, such as larger tumor size, and advanced histological grade of the breast cancers. Results demonstrate that combined cytoplasmic Skp2 and p-Akt1 expression may be prognostic for patients with invasive breast carcinomas, and cytoplasmic Skp2 may serve as a

  11. Gastric cancer in a pregnant woman presenting with low back pain and bilateral erythematous breast hypertrophy mimicking primary inflammatory breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandato, Vincenzo Dario; Pirillo, Debora; Gelli, Maria Carolina; Cavina, Maurizio; La Sala, Giovanni Battista

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the first case of a pregnant woman presenting low-back pain and breast pain associated with bilateral erythematous breast hypertrophy, proving to be the result of metastatic disease from a gastric carcinoma. A 30-year-old pregnant woman was admitted complaining of persistent severe low back pain, breast pain and concomitant bilateral erythematous breast hypertrophy, mimicking primary inflammatory breast carcinoma. During the caesarean section, widespread disease was found and finally metastatic gastric cancer was detected. Pregnant women with gastric cancer may present symptoms that are considered common during pregnancy. Common symptoms that present warning characteristics, such as the persistent severe pain observed in the presented case, should be carefully investigated as they may be the only warning signs and symptoms of rare ominous conditions such as gastric cancer.

  12. Identification of novel biomarkers associated with poor patient outcomes in invasive breast carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canevari, Renata A; Marchi, Fabio A; Domingues, Maria A C

    2016-01-01

    Breast carcinoma (BC) corresponds to 23 % of all cancers in women, with 1.38 million new cases and 460,000 deaths worldwide annually. Despite the significant advances in the identification of molecular markers and different modalities of treatment for primary BC, the ability to predict its...... to stratify independent BC patient datasets according to disease-free survival and overall survival. The upregulation of B3GNT7, PPM1D, TNKS2, PHB, and GTSE1 in patients with poor outcomes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in an independent sample......, as observed in the oligoarray data. These findings point to novel prognostic markers that can distinguish breast carcinomas with metastatic potential from those with favorable outcomes....

  13. A Rare Case of Invasive Apocrine Carcinoma of the Breast with Unusual Radiologic Findings

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    Min Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Invasive apocrine carcinoma (IAC of the breast is a rare subtype of breast malignancy. Its incidence is not well known, but it is approximately less than 1% to 4%. For these reasons, there are few reports and little information on the radiologic appearance of IAC. Furthermore, most of the case reports show malignant features which are similar to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC. We present a rare case of IAC without typical malignant feature on mammography, and ultrasonography (USG. Imaging findings on computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET/CT are also presented. The nodule in our case showed a relatively benign feature on USG and it is the first case of IAC with unusual findings. Therefore, this report may encourage radiologists to consider the malignant potential and perform pathologic correlation even if a newly developed nodule does not present with a typical malignant feature on USG.

  14. Heterogeneous Chromosomal Aberrations in Intraductal Breast Lesions Adjacent to Invasive Carcinoma

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    Michaela Aubele

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease phenotypically as well as molecular biologically. So far, heterogeneity on the molecular biological level has not been investigated in potential precursor lesions, such as ductal hyperplasia (DH and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS. In this study we applied comparative genomic hybridization (CGH to formalin‐fixed, paraffin‐embedded breast tissue with DH and DCIS, adjacent to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC, to screen these potential precursor lesions for whole genomic chromosomal imbalances. Laser‐microdissection was used to select pure cell populations from the sections. Isolated DNA was amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide primed PCR (DOP‐PCR and further processed for CGH analysis.

  15. Argyrophilic carcinoma of the male breast. A neuroendocrine tumor containing predominantly chromogranin B (secretogranin I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopsi, L; Andreola, S; Saccozzi, R; Pilotti, S; Boracchi, P; Rosa, P; Conti, A R; Manzari, A; Huttner, W B; Rilke, F

    1991-11-01

    Argyrophilic tumors were diagnosed in 28 of 134 (20.8%) consecutive male patients who had a carcinoma of the breast removed between 1961 and 1990. Histologically, most argyrophilic tumors showed uniform cellularity and prevalent expansive growth. Ultrastructural observation disclosed the presence of electron-dense cored granules in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. By immunocytochemistry, 17 of 28 argyrophilic tumors (60.7%) contained chromogranin B (secretogranin I)-immunoreactive cells, whereas chromogranin A was present in four of these 17 tumors only (14.2%). Immunoblotting studies showed chromogranin B immunoreactivity similar to that found in normal neuroendocrine cells. Despite these findings, which would argue for a distinct morphologic and immunochemical entity, no statistically significant differences between argyrophilic and common male breast carcinomas were found when a number of clinicopathologic features and relapse-free survival were considered.

  16. In situ identification of CD44+/CD24- cancer cells in primary human breast carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Perrone

    Full Text Available Breast cancer cells with the CD44+/CD24- phenotype have been reported to be tumourigenic due to their enhanced capacity for cancer development and their self-renewal potential. The identification of human tumourigenic breast cancer cells in surgical samples has recently received increased attention due to the implications for prognosis and treatment, although limitations exist in the interpretation of these studies. To better identify the CD44+/CD24- cells in routine surgical specimens, 56 primary breast carcinoma cases were analysed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, and the results were compared using flow cytometry analysis to correlate the amount and distribution of the CD44+/CD24- population with clinicopathological features. Using these methods, we showed that the breast carcinoma cells displayed four distinct sub-populations based on the expression pattern of CD44 and CD24. The CD44+/CD24- cells were found in 91% of breast tumours and constituted an average of 6.12% (range, 0.11%-21.23% of the tumour. A strong correlation was found between the percentage of CD44+/CD24- cells in primary tumours and distant metastasis development (p = 0.0001; in addition, there was an inverse significant association with ER and PGR status (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively. No relationship was evident with tumour size (T and regional lymph node (N status, differentiation grade, proliferative index or HER2 status. In a multivariate analysis, the percentage of CD44+/CD24- cancer cells was an independent factor related to metastasis development (p = 0.004. Our results indicate that confocal analysis of fluorescence-labelled breast cancer samples obtained at surgery is a reliable method to identify the CD44+/CD24- tumourigenic cell population, allowing for the stratification of breast cancer patients into two groups with substantially different relapse rates on the basis of CD44+/CD24- cell percentage.

  17. Clinical analysis of breast tubular adenoma and breast adenoid cystic carcinoma%乳腺管状腺瘤及腺样囊性癌临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云; 陈登庭

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of the breast tubular glands lymphoma and the breast adenoid cystic carcinoma,and the correlation of breast tubular glands lymphoma with breast cancer.Methods A retrospective analysis was undertaken to analyze ten thousand pathologic medical records of inpatients and outpatients,and 86 breast tumors constituted by glandular epithelium cells and muscle epithelial cells were collected,which we reviewed again and compared with each other.Results Eighty-six breast tumors constituted by glandular epithelium cells and muscle epithelial cells include 79 breast tubular adenomas and 7 breast adenoid cystic carcinomas.Conclusions Morbidity of breast tubular adenoma which is used as a independent diagnosis trend to rise,and the breast tubular adenoma is proved to have malignant tendancy.The breast tubular adenoma probably is a precancerous lesion of the breast adenoid cystic carcinoma.%目的 探讨乳腺管状腺瘤(BTA)与乳腺腺样囊性癌(BACC)的发病情况,研究乳腺管状腺瘤与乳腺癌的关系.方法 回顾性分析10 000例住院患者及门诊患者病理资料,收集到86例腺上皮细胞和肌上皮细胞构成的乳腺肿瘤,并对该86例病理结果重新再审核、对比.结果 86例中乳腺管状腺瘤79例,乳腺腺样囊性癌7例.结论 乳腺管状腺瘤发病率呈上升趋势,已作为一种独立诊断,并有恶变倾向;乳腺管状腺瘤可能为腺样囊性癌的癌前病变.

  18. The immunohistochemical detection of lymph node metastases from infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast.

    OpenAIRE

    Bussolati, G; Gugliotta, P; Morra, I; Pietribiasi, F.; Berardengo, E.

    1986-01-01

    Immunological markers improve specificity and accuracy of cell detection, therefore it is important to evaluate their usefulness in improving standard histological procedures. This study investigates whether immunocytochemical techniques increase the accuracy of detection, in axillary lymph nodes, of metastatic cells from infiltrating breast lobular carcinoma (ILC). Fifty cases of ILC reported to be node-negative were selected. New serial sections were cut from a total of 767 lymph nodes, sta...

  19. Incidental detection of filarial worm in metastatic axillary lymph node from ductal carcinoma breast

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    Ranjan Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis is a major disease of the tropics. Frequently, lymphatics of the lower limbs, retroperitoneal tissues, spermatic cord, epididymis, and mammary glands are involved. Simultaneous filariasis along with another underlying disease is rare. We present a rare case of filariasis of the axillary lymph node in a modified radical mastectomy specimen, which also showed metastatic deposits of ductal carcinoma breast. The case is presented due to its rarity.

  20. A rare case report of a primary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast with coexisting Paget disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psoma, Elizabeth; Nikolaidou, Olga; Stavrogianni, Thomai; Mavromati, Areti; Lytras, Konstantinos; Xirou, Persefoni; Koumbanaki, Melanie; Panagiotopoulou, Dimitra

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinomas are malignancies deriving from neuroendocrine cells existing in various sites of the body, most commonly in the lungs and gastrointestinal tract. Primary neuroendocrine carcinomas of the breast are extremely rare, and their diagnosis is confirmed by positive neuroendocrine markers. We describe a case of a 46-year-old woman with a palpable mass in her left breast for the previous 3 months. The tumor was resected and a primary large-cell neuroendocrine tumor of the breast was confirmed by histopathologic examination. Paget disease of the nipple was noted as well.

  1. Treatment outcomes of occult breast carcinoma and prognostic analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; ZHANG Ye-fan; WANG Xin; WANG Jian; YANG Xue; GAO Yin-qi; FANG Yi

    2013-01-01

    Background The surgical management of occult breast cancer is controversial.We compared the outcomes of different treatments of occult breast cancer and evaluated the potential prognostic factors for overall survival and recurrence.Methods We retrospectively reviewed 77 patients who presented to our hospital from 1968 to 2011 with a diagnosis of occult breast cancer.Patients were divided into three groups:42 patients (63%) were treated with modified radical mastectomy+axillary lymph node dissection (ALND),16 patients (24%) were treated with ALND+postoperative radiotherapy,and 9 patients (13%) with only ALND.Survival analyses were undertaken to compare the efficacy of these three treatments.Results Of the 77 patients with occult breast cancer,2 patients were lost to follow-up and 8 patients refused surgical treatment:67 patients (90.4%) were included in this analysis.The median follow-up was 62.2 (0.6-328.0)months.Kaplan-Meier analyses showed no significant difference in overall survival and recurrence-free survival between the three groups (P=0.494 and 0.397,respectively).The prevalence of local recurrence was 11.9% for the mastectomy+ALND,18.8% for ALND+radiotherapy,and 11.1% for ALND-only groups,and those for distant recurrence were 2.4%,12.5%,and 11.1%,respectively.Compared with progesterone receptor-negative subjects,progesterone receptor-positive patients had better overall survival and lower recurrence rates (P=0.057 and 0.062,respectively).Conclusions There was no significant difference in outcomes between mastectomy and breast-preserving surgery.Expression of the progesterone receptor should be taken into account when evaluating the prognosis of occult breast cancer.

  2. Cellular growth and survival are mediated by beta 1 integrins in normal human breast epithelium but not in breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howlett, Anthony R; Bailey, Nina; Damsky, Caroline; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    1994-11-28

    We previously established a rapid three-dimensional assay for discrimination of normal and malignant human breast epithelial cells using a laminin-rich reconstituted basement membrane. In this assay, normal epithelial cells differentiate into well-organized acinar structures whereas tumor cells fail to recapitulate this process and produce large, disordered colonies. The data suggest that breast acinar morphogenesis and differentiation is regulated by cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions and that these interactions are altered in malignancy. Here, we investigated the role of ECM receptors (integrins) in these processes and report on the expression and function of potential laminin receptors in normal and tumorigenic breast epithelial cells. Immmunocytochemical analysis showed that normal and carcinoma cells in a three-dimensional substratum express profiles of integrins similar to normal and malignant breast tissues in situ. Normal cells express {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}3, {alpha}6, {beta}1 and {beta}4 integrin subunits, whereas breast carcinoma cells show variable losses, disordered expression, or down regulation of these subunits. Function-blocking experiments using inhibitory antiintegrin subunit antibodies showed a >5-fold inhibition of the formation of acinar structures by normal cells in the presence of either anti-{beta}1 or anti-{alpha}3 antibodies, whereas anti-{alpha}2 or -{alpha}6 had little or no effect. In experiments where collagen type I gels were used instead of basement membrane, acinar morphogenesis was blocked by anti-{beta}1 and -{alpha}2 antibodies but not by anti-{alpha}3. These data suggest a specificity of integrin utilization dependent on the ECM ligands encountered by the cell. The interruption of normal acinar morphogenesis by anti-integrin antibodies was associated with an inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis. Function-blocking antibodies had no inhibitory effect on the rate of tumor cell growth, survival or

  3. Occurrence of BOOP outside radiation field after tangential radiation therapy for breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamanishi, Tohru; Gohma, Iwao; Oida, Kazukiyo [Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    We report three cases of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) that occurred outside the radiation field after radiation therapy using tangential fields for breast carcinoma. All patients complained of a cough between 14 and 20 weeks after completion of radiation therapy. Fever also developed in two of the three. Chest radiography and computed tomography demonstrated peripheral alveolar opacities outside the radiation field on the same side as the radiation therapy. Laboratory data showed an increased level of C-reactive protein and an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed an elevated total cell count with a very high percentage of lymphocytes. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed a histologic pattern consistent with BOOP. Treatment with corticosteroids resulted in rapid clinical improvement and complete resolution of the radiographic abnormalities. This pulmonary disorder appears to be induced by radiation, especially when a tangential field is employed for breast carcinoma, though the etiology has not been fully investigated. It is important to be aware of this type of pulmonary complication in patients given radiotherapy for breast carcinoma. (author)

  4. Importance of mammography in relationship to the number of treated carcinomas of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterok, E.M.; Weishaar, J.; Bischoff, J.; Mueller, D.

    1980-09-01

    From 1976 to 1978 11,197 women were examined clinically and mammographically. Biopsy material from 1,673 breasts were examined microscopically. In 536 cases, or almost every third case a carcinoma of the breast was detected. The cancer was bilateral in 19 cases and the total number of women was therefore 517. A clinically occult tumour was only found in 7.7% of the cases. 5% of these patients were high risk patients and 2.7% preventive examinations. 5 women with occult carcinoma of the breast were under age 40 and 14 under age 50. Benign changes of the glandular tissue were found in 59.5% of the cases. Marked proliferative changes were found in 4.6% of the cases and carcinoma in situ was found in 3.8% of the patients. In the age group 45-54 benign and malignant findings was 1:1 in the age group 55-59 and was less than 1:2 in the age group over 70. A sophistication of the mammographic technique must be obtained. A thorough microscopic examination of tissue from subcutaneous mastectomies and tissue obtained at the time of reduction mammoplasties showed occasionally unexpected malignant tissue in an unexpected location. Especially these cases are suitable for later comparison to the mammographies.

  5. Calretinin expression as a reliable prognostic marker in different molecular subtypes of breast carcinoma

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    Mayada Saad Farrag

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calretinin (CR, a known mesothelial marker, is expressed in both epithelial and mesenchymal malignancies including breast cancer. Aims: We aimed to measure the frequency of CR expression in correlation with other clinicopathological parameters of different molecular subtypes of invasive breast carcinoma and to study its prognostic implications in this common cancer.Study Design: Tissue microarrays were constructed from 225 tissue samples of breast carcinoma cases. Subjects and Methods: Immunostaining for CR in addition to estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, epidermal growth factor receptor, CK5/6, and Ki-67 for molecular subtyping. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were done using SPSS 18.0 software (IBM Inc.. Survival data were analyzed using Kaplan–Meier test, Log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazard models. Results: Cases of invasive breast carcinomas with different grades were classified into 84 luminal A, 45 luminal B, 27 HER2 positive, 40 basal-like, and 29 unclassified. High CR expression was associated with tumors of high grade (P < 0.0001, high locoregional recurrence (P = 0.005, hormonal receptors negative, and high Ki-67 indices. They frequently display a basal-like phenotype (70%, P < 0.0001, HER2 (59.3%, and luminal B (33.3% tumors compared to luminal A (9.5% and unclassified subtypes (17.2%. Moreover, it is associated with poor overall patient survival (P = 0.034, but it does not affect disease-free survival. Conclusions: Calretinin could be a reliable predictor marker of adverse prognosis in breast cancer.

  6. Function of the Alpha6 in Breast Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    integrin into p53 wild-type tu- growth, and apoptosis in prostate carcinoma cells by MMAC/PTEN. Cancer mors may inhibit their growth by inducing the... taxis , which can occur independently of a6c/4 ligation (19, 13). DISCUSSION From these observations one can infer that the large /34 cyto- Recent

  7. Metastatic transitional cell carcinoma presenting with skin metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açıkgöz, Onur; Ölçücüoğlu, Erkan; Kasap, Yusuf; Yığman, Metin; Güneş, Zeki Ender; Gazel, Eymen

    2015-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of upper urinary system account for 5% of all TCCs. The incidence of such metastases ranges from 0.18% to 2%. Experimental studies reported a general unsatisfactory survival time following skin metastasis. We report in this paper a case of metastatic urinary system TCC, which had become evident with a skin lesion in the right hypogastric region. A 60-year-old female patient with a history of being operated upon due to renal pelvic TCC was admitted to our outpatient clinic with complaints of red skin lesion in the near vicinity of the operational incision scar for 3 months. Her medical history revealed nothing but nephroureterectomy operation on the upper urinary system; moreover, it was learned that she had been ignoring what was recommended to her for routine controls. Thoraco-abdominal computed tomographic (CT) examination performed on the basis of aforementioned findings depicted a mass lesion of 24*20 mm dimension with high contrast uptake detected within the subcutaneous fat tissue in the right abdominal wall. The skin lesion depicted in CT was surgically excised. The pathological examination of the excised material was reported to be compatible with TCC. The patient was referred due to abdominal lesion to medical oncology after the operation. Followed up under chemotherapy protocol, the patient died 3 months after the metastasectomy operation. Skin metastasis of upper urinary system TCCs, especially renal pelvic TCCs, are quite rare conditions. Among the likely skin sites of metastasis for genitourinary system TCCs are head, face, extremities, suprapubic region and abdomen. Taking into consideration the low survival rates, the importance of early diagnosis of recurrences and/or distant metastases should be better appreciated. These patients die soon after the skin metastasis even with the administration of aggressive therapy. Similarly, our patient died 90 days after the diagnosis of skin metastasis despite the oncologic

  8. OPIUM USE IN TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER

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    A. Nourbakhsh

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Opium use is one of the most common forms of substance abuse in Iran and there are some evidence indicating it is a risk factor of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder. The majority of opium users are also cigarette smokers, so consideration of the high prevalence of smoking which is the most important risk factor of TCC of the urinary bladder among opium users is essential to assess the role of opium use as a possible risk factor of TCC. This study was done to evaluate the role of opium as a risk factor of TCC. A case-control study was performed on 255 individuals diagnosed with TCC of the urinary bladder by pathologic light microscopic examination of the tumor biopsies. Control population was chosen from individuals who had no history or presenting signs or symptoms of urinary problems. Case and control groups were matched by sex and age and also by cigarette smoking habits. Forty-one (18.1% of the cases and 12 (5% of controls were recognized to be opium users. Mantel-Haenszel analysis showed an odds ratio of 3.88, with 95% confidence interval of 1.99-7.57 and P value of < 0.001. Results indicate that opium use is a risk factor for TCC. The majority of opium users are also cigarette smokers, which is another important risk factor for TCC. Routine urine cytology and early evaluation in the patients presenting with any of the symptoms of urinary bladder malignancy by means of cystoscopy and urine cytology are highly recommended.

  9. Immunohistochemistry applied to the differential diagnosis between ductal and lobular carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Deus Moura, Rafael; Wludarski, Sheila C L; Carvalho, Filomena M; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2013-01-01

    The distinction between classic lobular and ductal carcinoma, both in situ and invasive, has important therapeutic and management implications. Most ductal and lobular carcinomas are distinguished readily on hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections because of distinct histomorphologic features. In cases with ambiguous morphologic features, however, categorization in one or another type can be a challenge. Several immunohistochemical markers, including epithelial cadherin, p120, β-catenin, and low-molecular-weight and high-molecular-weight cytokeratins among others, have been introduced to help better discriminate between lobular neoplasia and ductal carcinoma. In this critical review of the literature, we comment about the usefulness and the limitations of these markers to improve the accuracy in the differential diagnosis of breast pathology.

  10. Down-regulation of p73 correlates with high histological grade in Japanese with breast carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Cai-wen; Izo Kimijima; Toru Otake; Rikiya Abe; Seiichi Takenoshita; ZHANG Guo-jun

    2011-01-01

    Background p73, a homologue of p53, has been located at chromosome 1 p36-33, a region of frequently observed loss of heterozygosity in breast cancers. The objective of the present study was to investigate the function of p73 in Japanese with breast cancers. Methods Sixty Japanese patients with breast cancer were assessed by polymerase chain reaction single strand confirmation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing to detect the p73 allele. p73 mRNA levels were also determined in 40 out of 60 patients by reverse-transcriptional polymerase chain reaction. Results We analyzed the entire open reading frame of the p73 gene by polymerase chain reaction single strand confirmation polymorphism and sequencing, and failed to identify any mutations of p73 in the encoding regions detected.Loss of heterozygosity of p73 was infrequent and only found in 9% of breast carcinomas. We revealed a few polymorphisms with a frequency of 13%-29%, which had been reported previously. Down-regulation of p73 mRNA expression was observed in tumor tissues in comparison to the normal breast tissues. A significant inverse correlation was found between p73 transcripts and high histological grade, suggesting that down-regulated p73 expression could be related to poor prognosis in those patients. Conclusion Our results suggest that p73 may serve as a tumor suppressor gene and its expression plays a role in tumorigenesis in Japanese patients with breast cancer.

  11. Identification of a three-gene expression signature of poor-prognosis breast carcinoma

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    Tozlu Sengül

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical course of breast cancer is difficult to predict on the basis of established clinical and pathological prognostic criteria. Given the genetic complexity of breast carcinomas, it is not surprising that correlations with individual genetic abnormalities have also been disappointing. The use of gene expression profiles could result in more accurate and objective prognostication. Results To this end, we used real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays to quantify the mRNA expression of a large panel (n = 47 of genes previously identified as candidate prognostic molecular markers in a series of 100 ERα-positive breast tumor samples from patients with known long-term follow-up. We identified a three-gene expression signature (BRCA2, DNMT3B and CCNE1 as an independent prognostic marker (P = 0.007 by univariate analysis; P = 0.006 by multivariate analysis. This "poor prognosis" signature was then tested on an independent panel of ERα-positive breast tumors from a well-defined cohort of 104 postmenopausal breast cancer patients treated with primary surgery followed by adjuvant tamoxifen alone: although this "poor prognosis" signature was associated with shorter relapse-free survival in univariate analysis (P = 0.029, it did not persist as an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis (P = 0.27. Conclusion Our results confirm the value of gene expression signatures in predicting the outcome of breast cancer.

  12. Role of Heregulin in the Neovascularization of Breast Carcinoma Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Escrich, E. "The HER-2 Oncogen as Example of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Progress in Breast Cancer" REVISTA de SENOLOGIA y PATOLOGIA MAMARIA Vol. 14 (1): 8...Menendez, Bharvi P. Oza, Ramon Colomer, and Ruth Lupu. "The estrogenic activity of synthetic progestins used in oral contraceptives enhances Fatty Acid

  13. Association between AgNORs and Immunohistochemical Expression of ER, PR, HER2/neu, and p53 in Breast Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Settings. Despite the limited diagnostic utility of AgNORs (argyrophilic nucleolar organiser region-associated proteins for individual breast lesions, AgNOR analysis bears a significant potential for characterizing cell proliferative activity of breast lesions. Methodology. The present study investigated the relationship between mean AgNORs count and immunohistochemical expression of ER, PR, HER2/neu, and p53 in breast carcinoma in serial paraffin sections from 137 breast carcinomas. Twenty control cases of benign breast lesions were included. Results. Mean AgNOR counts correlated significantly inversely with hormone estrogen receptors (ER, Progesterone receptors (PR, and p53 immunohistochemical expression, denoting values of 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001, respectively. No significant correlation was found between mean AgNOR counts and HER2/neu, =0.9. Mean AgNOR count was significantly higher in grade II tumor cells. We conclude that mean AgNOR counts correlate with ER, PR, and P53 tumor markers in breast carcinomas. Conclusion. We recommend the use of mean AgNOR count for accurate reporting of breast carcinomas, as well as prediction of ER, PR, and P53 in routine paraffin sections.

  14. CD40L induces multidrug resistance to apoptosis in breast carcinoma and lymphoma cells through caspase independent and dependent pathways

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    Blay Jean-Yves

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD40L was found to reduce doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in non Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines through caspase-3 dependent mechanism. Whether this represents a general mechanism for other tumor types is unknown. Methods The resistance induced by CD40L against apoptosis induced by a panel of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs in non Hodgkin's lymphoma and breast carcinoma cell lines was investigated. Results Doxorubicin, cisplatyl, etoposide, vinblastin and paclitaxel increased apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in breast carcinoma as well as in non Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines. Co-culture with irradiated L cells expressing CD40L significantly reduced the percentage of apoptotic cells in breast carcinoma and non Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines treated with these drugs. In breast carcinoma cell lines, these 5 drugs induced an inconsistent increase of caspase-3/7 activity, while in non Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines all 5 drugs increased caspase-3/7 activity up to 28-fold above baseline. Co-culture with CD40L L cells reduced (-39% to -89% the activation of caspase-3/7 induced by these agents in all 5 non Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines, but in none of the 2 breast carcinoma cell lines. Co culture with CD40L L cells also blocked the apoptosis induced by exogenous ceramides in breast carcinoma and non Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines through a caspase-3-like, 8-like and 9-like dependent pathways. Conclusion These results indicate that CD40L expressed on adjacent non tumoral cells induces multidrug resistance to cytotoxic agents and ceramides in both breast carcinoma and non Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines, albeit through a caspase independent and dependent pathway respectively.

  15. Genetic Predisposition to In Situ and Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Christos; Brook, Mark N.; Nowinski, Salpie; Papouli, Efterpi; Fletcher, Olivia; Pinder, Sarah; Hanby, Andrew; Kohut, Kelly; Gorman, Patricia; Caneppele, Michele; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Swann, Ruth; Dwek, Miriam; Perkins, Katherine-Anne; Gillett, Cheryl; Houlston, Richard; Ross, Gillian; De Ieso, Paolo; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Wesseling, Jelle; Cornelissen, Sten; Keeman, Renske; Fasching, Peter A.; Jud, Sebastian M.; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Kerin, Michael J.; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L.; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; Benitez, Javier; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Meindl, Alfons; Lichtner, Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Lochmann, Magdalena; Brauch, Hiltrud; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Dörk, Thilo; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Investigators, kConFab; Lambrechts, Diether; Weltens, Caroline; Van Limbergen, Erik; Hatse, Sigrid; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Volorio, Sara; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Mclean, Catriona A.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Devillee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline M.; Kriege, Mieke; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J.; Sherman, Mark E.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Humphreys, Keith; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Shah, Mitul; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk; Couch, Fergus J.; Hallberg, Emily; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dunning, Alison M.; Hall, Per; Easton, Doug; Pharoah, Paul; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Tomlinson, Ian; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) accounts for 10–15% of all invasive breast carcinomas. It is generally ER positive (ER+) and often associated with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 70 common polymorphisms that predispose to breast cancer, but these studies included predominantly ductal (IDC) carcinomas. To identify novel common polymorphisms that predispose to ILC and LCIS, we pooled data from 6,023 cases (5,622 ILC, 401 pure LCIS) and 34,271 controls from 36 studies genotyped using the iCOGS chip. Six novel SNPs most strongly associated with ILC/LCIS in the pooled analysis were genotyped in a further 516 lobular cases (482 ILC, 36 LCIS) and 1,467 controls. These analyses identified a lobular-specific SNP at 7q34 (rs11977670, OR (95%CI) for ILC = 1.13 (1.09–1.18), P = 6.0×10−10; P-het for ILC vs IDC ER+ tumors = 1.8×10−4). Of the 75 known breast cancer polymorphisms that were genotyped, 56 were associated with ILC and 15 with LCIS at P<0.05. Two SNPs showed significantly stronger associations for ILC than LCIS (rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2, P-het = 0.04 and rs889312/5q11/MAP3K1, P-het = 0.03); and two showed stronger associations for LCIS than ILC (rs6678914/1q32/LGR6, P-het = 0.001 and rs1752911/6q14, P-het = 0.04). In addition, seven of the 75 known loci showed significant differences between ER+ tumors with IDC and ILC histology, three of these showing stronger associations for ILC (rs11249433/1p11, rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2 and rs10995190/10q21/ZNF365) and four associated only with IDC (5p12/rs10941679; rs2588809/14q24/RAD51L1, rs6472903/8q21 and rs1550623/2q31/CDCA7). In conclusion, we have identified one novel lobular breast cancer specific predisposition polymorphism at 7q34, and shown for the first time that common breast cancer polymorphisms predispose to LCIS. We have shown that many of the ER+ breast cancer predisposition loci also predispose to ILC, although there

  16. Genetic predisposition to in situ and invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Sawyer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC accounts for 10-15% of all invasive breast carcinomas. It is generally ER positive (ER+ and often associated with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS. Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 70 common polymorphisms that predispose to breast cancer, but these studies included predominantly ductal (IDC carcinomas. To identify novel common polymorphisms that predispose to ILC and LCIS, we pooled data from 6,023 cases (5,622 ILC, 401 pure LCIS and 34,271 controls from 36 studies genotyped using the iCOGS chip. Six novel SNPs most strongly associated with ILC/LCIS in the pooled analysis were genotyped in a further 516 lobular cases (482 ILC, 36 LCIS and 1,467 controls. These analyses identified a lobular-specific SNP at 7q34 (rs11977670, OR (95%CI for ILC = 1.13 (1.09-1.18, P = 6.0 × 10(-10; P-het for ILC vs IDC ER+ tumors = 1.8 × 10(-4. Of the 75 known breast cancer polymorphisms that were genotyped, 56 were associated with ILC and 15 with LCIS at P<0.05. Two SNPs showed significantly stronger associations for ILC than LCIS (rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2, P-het = 0.04 and rs889312/5q11/MAP3K1, P-het = 0.03; and two showed stronger associations for LCIS than ILC (rs6678914/1q32/LGR6, P-het = 0.001 and rs1752911/6q14, P-het = 0.04. In addition, seven of the 75 known loci showed significant differences between ER+ tumors with IDC and ILC histology, three of these showing stronger associations for ILC (rs11249433/1p11, rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2 and rs10995190/10q21/ZNF365 and four associated only with IDC (5p12/rs10941679; rs2588809/14q24/RAD51L1, rs6472903/8q21 and rs1550623/2q31/CDCA7. In conclusion, we have identified one novel lobular breast cancer specific predisposition polymorphism at 7q34, and shown for the first time that common breast cancer polymorphisms predispose to LCIS. We have shown that many of the ER+ breast cancer predisposition loci also predispose to ILC, although there is some heterogeneity

  17. SEMA6D Expression and Patient Survival in Breast Invasive Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongquan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC is the second most common cancer diagnosed in American women and is also the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Research has focused heavily on BC metastasis. Multiple signaling pathways have been implicated in regulating BC metastasis. Our knowledge of regulation of BC metastasis is, however, far from complete. Identification of new factors during metastasis is an essential step towards future therapy. Our labs have focused on Semaphorin 6D (SEMA6D, which was implicated in immune responses, heart development, and neurogenesis. It will be interesting to know SEMA6D-related genomic expression profile and its implications in clinical outcome. In this study, we examined the public datasets of breast invasive carcinoma from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. We analyzed the expression of SEMA6D along with its related genes, their functions, pathways, and potential as copredictors for BC patients’ survival. We found 6-gene expression profile that can be used as such predictors. Our study provides evidences for the first time that breast invasive carcinoma may contain a subtype based on SEMA6D expression. The expression of SEMA6D gene may play an important role in promoting patient survival, especially among triple negative breast cancer patients.

  18. Complexity in regulation of microRNA machinery components in invasive breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sun Young; Lee, Jae-ho; Kim, Bora; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kang, Sun Hee; Kim, Shin

    2014-07-01

    Altered expression of microRNA (miRNA) machinery components may play an important role in breast cancer progression. The objective of the current study was to evaluate Drosha, the DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 (DGCR8), Dicer, and Argonaute 2 (AGO2) mRNA expression in invasive breast carcinoma (IBC) and to assess the value of clinical parameters on their expression. By using quantitative real-time PCR, we examined the expression of the four miRNA machinery components in 52 breast tumor tissues which are diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. In the present study, decreased mRNA expression levels of major miRNA machinery components were observed in IBC. The altered mRNA expression levels of DGCR8 and AGO2 are positively correlated with to each other. This study revealed for the first time that expression alterations of DGCR8 are significantly associated with estrogen receptor and Ki-67 status in IBC. Moreover, AGO2 mRNA expression level was significantly correlated with N stage. These results provided evidences that down-regulated the four miRNA machinery components may play an important role in breast pathobiology and that DGCR8 and AGO2 might be associated with important clinical factors.

  19. Intracystic Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Breast: A Challenging Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, João; Simões, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 36-year-old woman that presented with a painful mass in the outer quadrants of the left breast that had grown rapidly. Physical examination revealed a well circumscribed elastic mass and breast ultrasound showed a cyst measuring 26 mm with vegetation growing on the inner wall. Microscopic evaluation, after fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), suggested benign lesion. Tumorectomy was performed and the final diagnosis was a pure squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the breast. A simple mastectomy with sentinel node biopsy was performed. The histological study of the specimen revealed residual SCC and the sentinel lymph node was negative. The patient received 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant radiotherapy. Four years later, the patient is free of disease. PMID:27747114

  20. Colorectal carcinoma in a patient with prior breast cancer: Is there a causal link?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarles, Elaine [Blackpool Victoria Hospital, Blackpool, Lancashire FY3 8NR (United Kingdom); Nightingale, Julie [Department of Radiography, School of Health Care Professions, University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester, M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.nightingale@salford.ac.uk

    2008-02-15

    A 70-year-old female patient with prior breast cancer was diagnosed with colorectal carcinoma six years following the original breast referral. The cancers were both discovered at an early stage enabling potentially curative surgery to be performed, with an associated good long-term prognosis. This article explores a range of cancer risk factors associated with lifestyle, genetics and medication to ascertain whether the two primary cancers were independent oncological events, or whether they were related. Factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, genetic predisposition and the use of contraceptives and Tamoxifen may increase the relative risk for both cancers. Various studies have offered conflicting data regarding the relative risk for developing the second cancer, but long-term cohort studies will continue to add to the evidence base. It is possible that the outcomes of these studies may have implications for the follow up of breast cancer patients within the colorectal cancer screening service.

  1. A rare case of breast carcinoma co-existing with axillary mantle cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scally John

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL is a rare variety of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma which originates from CD5+ B-cell population in the mantle zones of lymphoid follicles. Coexistence of such tumours in the axillary lymph nodes with invasive breast cancers without prior history of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy has not been previously reported in literature. Case report We report a rare case of breast cancer co-existing with stage I mantle cell lymphoma of the ipsilateral axillary lymph node detected fortuitously by population screening. Conclusion Though some studies have tried to prove breast carcinomas and lymphomas to share a common molecular or viral link, more research needs to be done to establish whether such a link truly exists.

  2. ATM down-regulation is associated with poor prognosis in sporadic breast carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bueno, R C; Canevari, R A; Villacis, R A R

    2014-01-01

    hybridization (aCGH) in 42 tumours. RESULTS: Low ATM levels were associated with tumour grade. Absence of ATM protein expression was associated with distant metastasis (P survival (DFS, P cancer-specific survival (CSS, P analysis indicated ATM......BACKGROUND: Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) gene downexpression has been reported in sporadic breast carcinomas (BC); however, the prognostic value and mechanisms of ATM deregulation remain unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ATM and miRNAs (miR-26a, miR-26b, miR-203, miR-421, miR-664, miR-576-5p...... and miR-18a) expression levels were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) in 52 BC and 3 normal breast samples. ATM protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 968 BC and 35 adjacent normal breast tissues. ATM copy number alteration was detected by array comparative genomic...

  3. Analysis of molecular markers as predictive factors of lymph node involvement in breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Luciana Marques; De Moraes, Luis Henrique Ferreira; Do Canto, Abaeté Leite; Dos Santos, Laurita; Martin, Airton Abrahão; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; De Azevedo Canevari, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Nodal status is the most significant independent prognostic factor in breast cancer. Identification of molecular markers would allow stratification of patients who require surgical assessment of lymph nodes from the large numbers of patients for whom this surgical procedure is unnecessary, thus leading to a more accurate prognosis. However, up to now, the reported studies are preliminary and controversial, and although hundreds of markers have been assessed, few of them have been used in clinical practice for treatment or prognosis in breast cancer. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1D, β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 9, prohibitin, phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 5 (PIK3R5), phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase type IIα, TRF1-interacting ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase 2, BCL2 associated agonist of cell death, G2 and S-phase expressed 1 and PAX interacting protein 1 genes, described as prognostic markers in breast cancer in a previous microarray study, are also predictors of lymph node involvement in breast carcinoma Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed on primary breast tumor tissues from women with negative lymph node involvement (n=27) compared with primary tumor tissues from women with positive lymph node involvement (n=23), and was also performed on primary tumors and paired lymph node metastases (n=11). For all genes analyzed, only the PIK3R5 gene exhibited differential expression in samples of primary tumors with positive lymph node involvement compared with primary tumors with negative lymph node involvement (P=0.0347). These results demonstrate that the PIK3R5 gene may be considered predictive of lymph node involvement in breast carcinoma. Although the other genes evaluated in the present study have been previously characterized to be involved with

  4. Analysis of molecular markers as predictive factors of lymph node involvement in breast carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Luciana Marques; De Moraes, Luis Henrique Ferreira; Do Canto, Abaeté Leite; Dos Santos, Laurita; Martin, Airton Abrahão; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; De Azevedo Canevari, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Nodal status is the most significant independent prognostic factor in breast cancer. Identification of molecular markers would allow stratification of patients who require surgical assessment of lymph nodes from the large numbers of patients for whom this surgical procedure is unnecessary, thus leading to a more accurate prognosis. However, up to now, the reported studies are preliminary and controversial, and although hundreds of markers have been assessed, few of them have been used in clinical practice for treatment or prognosis in breast cancer. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1D, β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 9, prohibitin, phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 5 (PIK3R5), phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase type IIα, TRF1-interacting ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase 2, BCL2 associated agonist of cell death, G2 and S-phase expressed 1 and PAX interacting protein 1 genes, described as prognostic markers in breast cancer in a previous microarray study, are also predictors of lymph node involvement in breast carcinoma Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed on primary breast tumor tissues from women with negative lymph node involvement (n=27) compared with primary tumor tissues from women with positive lymph node involvement (n=23), and was also performed on primary tumors and paired lymph node metastases (n=11). For all genes analyzed, only the PIK3R5 gene exhibited differential expression in samples of primary tumors with positive lymph node involvement compared with primary tumors with negative lymph node involvement (P=0.0347). These results demonstrate that the PIK3R5 gene may be considered predictive of lymph node involvement in breast carcinoma. Although the other genes evaluated in the present study have been previously characterized to be involved with

  5. The Role of IQGAP1 in Breast Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-10

    oxida- tive flavonoid which is known to have strong anti-proliferative properties [50], decreases IQGAP1 expression in HepG2 human hepatocellular...discriminatory markers for prostate carcinoma: a gene expression analysis on total and microdissected prostate tissue. Am. J. Pathol. 160, 2169–2180. [80...and Reprobing for Total MAPK 2.5. Confocal Immunofluorescence for Active and Total MAPK 157Regulation of MAP Kinase Signaling by Calcium 9

  6. High expression of Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway genes indicates a risk of recurrence of breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng KS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kuo-Shyang Jeng,1 I-Shyan Sheen,2 Wen-Juei Jeng,2 Ming-Che Yu,3 Hsin-I Hsiau,3 Fang-Yu Chang31Department of Surgery, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Medical Center, Chang-Gung University, Tao-Yuan, 3Department of Medical Research, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Abnormal activation of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH signaling pathway contributing to carcinogenesis of some organs has been reported in the literature. We hypothesize that activation of the SHH pathway contributes to the recurrence of breast carcinoma.Methods: Fifty consecutive patients with invasive breast carcinoma following curative resection were enrolled in this prospective study. The ratios of messenger RNA (mRNA expression for Sonic Hedgehog (SHH, patched homolog-1 (PTCH-1, glioma-associated oncogene-1 (GLI-1, and smoothened (SMOH were measured between breast carcinoma tissue and paired noncancerous breast tissue. These ratios were compared with their clinicopathologic characteristics. These factors and the mRNA ratios were compared between patients with recurrence and those without recurrence.Results: The size of the invasive cancer correlated significantly with the ratio of SHH mRNA (P=0.001, that of PTCH-1 mRNA (P=0.005, and that of SMOH mRNA (P=0.021. Lymph node involvement correlated significantly with the ratio of SMOH mRNA (P=0.041. The correlation between Her-2 neu and the ratio of GLI-1 mRNA was statistically significant (P=0.012. Each ratio of mRNA of SHH, PTCH-1, GLI-1, and SMOH correlated significantly with cancer recurrence (P<0.001 for each.Conclusion: We suggest that high expression of SHH mRNA, PTCH-1 mRNA, GLI-1 mRNA, and SMOH mRNA in breast cancer tissue correlates with invasiveness and is a potential biomarker to predict postoperative recurrence.Keywords: SHH pathway, breast carcinoma, prediction, recurrence

  7. Preliminary Study on Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)-Prognostic Biomarker in Carcinoma Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhe, Mahendra Bhauraoji; Gupta, Dilip; Reddy, M.V.R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) is one of the biochemical markers for breast cancer. Serum LDH is enzyme required for anaerobic glycolysis. One of its isoenzyme is increased in breast cancer due to up-regulation in its gene. It leads to increase in serum LDH level in breast cancer patients. Serum LDH is economical, easily available and easy to estimate. Aim In the present study, we evaluated the LDH levels in circulation of newly diagnosed patients of breast cancer and tried to correlate it with different TNM staging of carcinoma breast before interventions and after adjuvant therapy of these patients. Materials and Methods This prospective study was done on 83 diagnosed patients of breast cancer was conducted among poor patients in rural area. This study was conducted in the Department of Surgery between October 2008 to October 2010, at MGIMS, Sevagram, Maharashtra, a rural medical college located in Central India. Out of total 83 participants, 10 participants were having adverse events following surgery and remaining 73 participants were without adverse events following surgery. The significant difference in serum LDH levels between two groups, with and without adverse surgical outcome was calculated by Mann-Whitney U test. Results Patients with higher clinical TNM staging were having higher serum LDH levels. The serum LDH levels at sixth months following surgery showed a trend of statistically significant difference between patients with and without adverse events. As increased serum LDH levels in breast cancer patients shows poor prognosis, surgical outcome or advanced metastases. Conclusion Serum LDH monitoring can be used as a prognostic biomarker in patients of breast cancer. For confirmation of this finding, we require further more studies on larger sample size and long-term follow-up in patients specifically with higher serum LDH levels. PMID:27134855

  8. Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter and struvite calculi

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    CONTEXT: The association of primary carcinoma of the ureter and lithiasis is extremely rare. We report a rare case of a primary carcinoma of the ureter with corariform calculus. CASE REPORT: 60-year-old phaeodermal female, reported a history of right-side nephritic colic, hyperthermia and pyuria during the past 20 years and had received treatment for urinary infections a number of times. The first clinical presentation was related to lithiasis and the tumor had not been shown up by excretory ...

  9. The Reproducibility of Nuclear Morphometric Measurements in Invasive Breast Carcinoma

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    Pauliina Kronqvist

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of computerized nuclear morphometry was determined in repeated measurements of 212 samples of invasive breast cancer. The influence of biological variation and the selection of the measurement area was also tested. Morphometrically determined mean nuclear profile area (Pearson’s r 0.89, grading efficiency (GE 0.95 and standard deviation (SD of nuclear profile area (Pearson’s r 0.84, GE 0.89 showed high reproducibility. In this respect, nuclear morphometry equals with other established methods of quantitative pathology and exceeds the results of subjective grading of nuclear atypia in invasive breast cancer. A training period of eight days was sufficient to produce clear improvement in consistency of nuclear morphometry results. By estimating the sources of variation it could be shown that the variation associated with the measurement procedure itself is small. Instead, sample associated variation is responsible for the majority of variation in the measurements (82.9% in mean nuclear profile area and 65.9% in SD of nuclear profile area. This study points out that when standardized methods are applied computerized morphometry is a reproducible and reliable method of assessing nuclear atypia in invasive breast cancer. For further improvement special emphasize should be put on sampling rules of selecting the microscope fields and measurement areas.

  10. Novel clinical trial designs for treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast with trastuzumab (herceptin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ricardo J; Buzdar, Aman U; Fraser Symmans, W; Yen, Tina W; Broglio, Kristine R; Lucci, Anthony; Esteva, Francisco J; Yin, Guosheng; Kuerer, Henry M

    2007-01-01

    Because ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) avidly expresses Her2/neu, the target of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab, and because trastuzumab has been shown to be effective against invasive breast cancer, trastuzumab may be effective for reducing the tumor burden and abrogating or reversing the hypothesized transition from in situ to invasive disease in patients with DCIS. To test this hypothesis, a trial of neoadjuvant trastuzumab for DCIS has been opened at our institution. Because trastuzumab has been shown to act as a radiosensitizing agent for Her2/neu-overexpressing cancer and because there are currently no systemic treatments for estrogen-receptor-negative DCIS, it makes sense to investigate whether use of trastuzumab concurrently with postoperative radiation therapy improves local control of DCIS. The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) is planning a trial to test this hypothesis. The risk of cardiac toxicity associated with the doses of trastuzumab planned for these trials (cumulative doses of 8 mg/kg for our trial and 14 mg/kg in the NSABP trial) is believed to be minimal, but the safety profile of these approaches will need to be closely monitored.

  11. p53 expression and relationship with MDM2 amplification in breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukpinarbasili, Nur; Gucin, Zuhal; Ersoy, Yeliz Emine; İlbak, Ayca; Kadioglu, Huseyin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2016-04-01

    Carcinoma of the breast, like other malignancies, is a genetic disease with multiple genetic events leading to the malignant phenotype. p53 mutations are the most common genetic events in human cancer. Inactivation of p53 can be a result of mutation in gene sequence. One of the main structures that regulate p53 stabilization is MDM2. It suppresses p53 transcriptional activation by recognizing transactivation domain of p53. The loss of MDM2 function on p53 regulation results in deprivation of p53 tumor suppressor ability. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP309 T->G exchange) or MDM2 amplification has been proposed to play a role in this issue. In the present study, our aim is to analyze p53 and MDM2 status and investigate their interactions in human sporadic breast carcinoma. The study groups were separated according to their molecular classifications. In each group, histologic type of the tumor, conventional prognostic parameters, p53, and MDM2 interactions were compared statistically. Tumors are divided into 4 subtypes due to estrogen and progesterone receptor status, HER-2, and Ki-67 proliferation index results. According to this classification, 23 cases are in the luminal A, 32 cases are in the luminal B, 15 cases are in the HER-2 positive, and 22 cases are in the triple-negative group, with a total of 92 cases. p53 expression is low in luminal breast carcinomas than HER-2 and triple-negative subtypes. MDM2 amplification frequency was found to be 5.4% in total. MDM2 gene amplification does not have a significant role in breast carcinogenesis, but other possible mechanisms may play a role in its inactivation.

  12. Cytological grading of breast carcinoma on fine needle aspirates and its relation with histological grading

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    Jyoti Prakash Phukan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Grading of breast carcinoma on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC is beneficial for selecting patients for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Aims: To grade the breast carcinoma on FNAC using Robinson grading system and to assess the concordance of cytological grading (CG with histological grading (HG using Elston-Ellis modification of Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grading system. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for 1-year, comprising of 50 female patients attending outpatient departments (OPD as well as admitted in various surgical wards of a teaching hospital, diagnosed as breast carcinoma. FNAC smears were stained with May-Grunwald-Giemsa and Papanicolaou (Pap stains and CG was done using Robinson system on Pap stained smears. The results were compared with HG system after resection of tumors. Results: Of 50 cases, 14 (28% cases were graded as grade I, 24 (48% grade II, and 12 (24% grade III by CG, whereas 9 (18%, 28 (56% and 13 (26% cases were graded as grade I, II and III by HG. The result showed overall 72% concordance of CG with HG, with grade II and grade III showing highest degree of concordance (83.33%, which is comparable to previous studies. Kappa measurement showed a higher degree of agreement in high-grade tumors compared with low-grade tumors (0.73 in grade III, 0.53 in grade II and 0.39 in grade I. Conclusion: Cytological grading is comparable to HG in majority of cases. Because neoadjuvant chemotherapy is becoming increasingly popular as primary treatment modality of breast cancer, CG could be a useful parameter in selecting the mode of therapy and predicting tumor behavior.

  13. P-mTOR Expression and Implication in Breast Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-Na; Dou, Meng-Meng; Chi, Yan-Yan; Wu, Shao-Xuan; Zhang, Ya-Na; Shan, Zheng-Zheng; Zhang, Yi-Jie; Wang, Feng; Fan, Qing-Xia; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Tong-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Objective Phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) is a promising prognostic marker in many types of cancer. However, its survival benefit in patients with breast carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between p-mTOR expression and prognosis in breast carcinoma based on a systematic review and meta-analysis. Materials and Methods Electronic databases (including Pubmed, Embase, ISI web of science, and Cochrane Library) were searched up to November 24, 2015. The outcome measures were hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between the prognosis of breast carcinoma patients and p-mTOR expression. Primary end points were disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS). Statistical analysis was performed with STATA 12.0. Results Nine cohort studies including 3051 patients met full eligibility criteria. The pooled HRs (95% CI) for OS, DFS, and RFS were 0.84 (0.27–2.63), 0.71 (0.40–1.23), and 0.48 (0.20–1.18), respectively. Conclusions Our findings suggested that p-mTOR overexpression was not significantly related to prognosis in breast carcinoma regarding OS and disease recurrence. Prospective studies are warranted to examine the association between p-mTOR expression and survival outcomes in breast carcinoma. PMID:28114374

  14. Pterostilbene inhibits triple-negative breast cancer metastasis via inducing microRNA-205 expression and negatively modulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chih-Ming; Lee, Wei-Hwa; Wu, Alexander T H; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Wang, Liang-Shun; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Yeh, Chi-Tai

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among females in economically developing countries. Greater than 95% of breast malignancies are of epithelial origin; the induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been shown to initiate the metastatic process in breast carcinoma and remains the key target for drug development. Here, we examine the anti-metastatic potential of pterostilbene in modulating EMT process in breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. The differential invasive ability among MCF7, Hs578t and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were closely correlated with the expression of EMT markers, determined by Western blots and Matrigel-coated transwells assay. Pterostilbene inhibited the migratory and invasive potential of triple-negative MDA-MB-231 and Hs578t cells, accompanied by the up-regulation of E-cadherin and down-regulation of Snail, Slug, vimentin and ZEB1. Mechanistic investigations revealed a significant up-regulation of miR-205, which resulted in the reduction of Src expression in pterostilbene-treated breast cancer cells. Importantly, pterostilbene suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in MDA-MB-231-bearing NOD/SCID mice by reducing Src/Fak signaling; this observation was consistent with the negative correlations between miR-205 and Src expression in both normal and malignant breast tissues. Our findings provide supports for the usage of pterostilbene as an inhibitor of EMT process and potential candidate for adjuvant therapy.

  15. Anti-Cancer Activity of Solanum nigrum (AESN through Suppression of Mitochondrial Function and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Jang Lai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy is the main approach for treating advanced and recurrent carcinoma, but the clinical performance of chemotherapy is limited by relatively low response rates, drug resistance, and adverse effects that severely affect the quality of life of patients. An association between epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and chemotherapy resistance has been investigated in recent studies. Our recent studies have found that the aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum (AESN is a crucial ingredient in some traditional Chinese medicine formulas for treating various types of cancer patients and exhibits antitumor effects. We evaluated the suppression of EMT in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with AESN. The mitochondrial morphology was investigated using Mitotracker Deep-Red FM stain. Our results indicated that AESN markedly inhibited cell viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest mediated by activation of caspase-3 and production of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, mitochondrial fission was observed in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with AESN. In addition to elevation of E-cadherin, downregulations of ZEB1, N-cadherin, and vimentin were found in AESN-treated MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These results suggested that AESN could inhibit EMT of MCF-7 breast cancer cells mediated by attenuation of mitochondrial function. AESN could be potentially beneficial in treating breast cancer cells, and may be of interest for future studies in developing integrative cancer therapy against proliferation, metastasis, and migration of breast cancer cells.

  16. Metastatic canine mammary carcinomas can be identified by a gene expression profile that partly overlaps with human breast cancer profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hummel Michael

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Similar to human breast cancer mammary tumors of the female dog are commonly associated with a fatal outcome due to the development of distant metastases. However, the molecular defects leading to metastasis are largely unknown and the value of canine mammary carcinoma as a model for human breast cancer is unclear. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression signatures associated with mammary tumor metastasis and asked for parallels with the human equivalent. Methods Messenger RNA expression profiles of twenty-seven lymph node metastasis positive or negative canine mammary carcinomas were established by microarray analysis. Differentially expressed genes were functionally characterized and associated with molecular pathways. The findings were also correlated with published data on human breast cancer. Results Metastatic canine mammary carcinomas had 1,011 significantly differentially expressed genes when compared to non-metastatic carcinomas. Metastatic carcinomas had a significant up-regulation of genes associated with cell cycle regulation, matrix modulation, protein folding and proteasomal degradation whereas cell differentiation genes, growth factor pathway genes and regulators of actin organization were significantly down-regulated. Interestingly, 265 of the 1,011 differentially expressed canine genes are also related to human breast cancer and, vice versa, parts of a human prognostic gene signature were identified in the expression profiles of the metastatic canine tumors. Conclusions Metastatic canine mammary carcinomas can be discriminated from non-metastatic carcinomas by their gene expression profiles. More than one third of the differentially expressed genes are also described of relevance for human breast cancer. Many of the differentially expressed genes are linked to functions and pathways which appear to be relevant for the induction and maintenance of metastatic progression and may represent new therapeutic

  17. Detection of primary breast cancer presenting as metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary origin by 111In-pentetreotide scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, R; Kim, E E; Raber, M N; Abbruzzese, J L

    1998-02-01

    Women with isolated metastatic carcinoma or adenocarcinoma involving axillary lymph nodes are a well-recognized group of unknown primary carcinoma (UPC) patients with a favorable prognosis. This group of patients are generally treated based on the assumption that they have occult breast cancer. However, to facilitate patient access to the whole spectrum of therapies available for patients with breast cancer, including strategies involving the use of high-dose chemotherapy, a precise diagnosis is increasingly important. In this clinical case we report the detection of a primary breast cancer by 111In-pentetreotide scanning in a woman who presented with metastatic carcinoma in axillary nodes, no palpable breast lesion, a nondiagnostic mammogram, and negative breast ultrasonography. Previous outcomes analysis of patients with UPC have emphasized the value of identifying women with breast cancer. This report suggests that the 111In-pentetreotide scan can contribute specific, clinically useful information in the evaluation of women presenting with metastatic carcinoma in axillary nodes and an occult primary and deserves prospective study in women with UPC presenting with isolated axillary metastases.

  18. The impact of age, marital status, and physician-patient interactions on the care of older women with breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, R A; Troyan, S L; Guadagnoli, E; Kaplan, S H; Greenfield, S

    1997-10-01

    Understanding why older women with breast carcinoma do not receive definitive treatment is critical if disparities in mortality between younger and older women are to be reduced. With this in mind, the authors studied 302 women age > or =55 years with early stage breast carcinoma. Data were collected from surgical records and in telephone interviews with the women. The main outcome was receipt of definitive primary tumor therapy, defined either as modified radical mastectomy or as breast-conserving surgery with axillary dissection followed by radiation therapy. The majority (56%) of the women underwent breast-conserving surgery and axillary dissection followed by radiation therapy. After statistical control for four variables (comorbidity, physical function, tumor size, and lymph node status), patients' ages, marital status, and the number of times breast carcinoma specialists discussed treatment options were significantly associated with the receipt of definitive primary tumor therapy. The authors concluded that when older women have been newly diagnosed with breast carcinoma and there is clinical uncertainty as to the most appropriate therapies, patients may be better served if they are offered choices from among definitive therapies. In discussing therapies with them, physicians must be sensitive to their fears and concerns about the monetary costs and functional consequences of treatment in relation to the expected benefits.

  19. Prognostic, quantitative histopathologic variables in lobular carcinoma of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekarl, M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1993-01-01

    of disease, vv(nuc), MI, and NI were of significant independent, prognostic value. On the basis of the multivariate analyses, a prognostic index with highly distinguishing capacity between prognostically poor and favorable cases was constructed. CONCLUSION: Quantitative histopathologic variables are of value...... for objective grading of malignancy in lobular carcinomas. The new parameter--estimates of the mean nuclear volume--is highly reproducible and suitable for routine use. However, larger and prospective studies are needed to establish the true value of the quantitative histopathologic variables in the clinical...

  20. Loss of prostasin (PRSS8 in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell lines is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Karl X

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchored epithelial extracellular membrane serine protease prostasin (PRSS8 is expressed abundantly in normal epithelia and essential for terminal epithelial differentiation, but down-regulated in human prostate, breast, and gastric cancers and invasive cancer cell lines. Prostasin is involved in the extracellular proteolytic modulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and is an invasion suppressor. The aim of this study was to evaluate prostasin expression states in the transitional cell carcinomas (TCC of the human bladder and in human TCC cell lines. Methods Normal human bladder tissues and TCC on a bladder cancer tissue microarray (TMA were evaluated for prostasin expression by means of immunohistochemistry. A panel of 16 urothelial and TCC cell lines were evaluated for prostasin and E-cadherin expression by western blot and quantitative PCR, and for prostasin gene promoter region CpG methylation by methylation-specific PCR (MSP. Results Prostasin is expressed in the normal human urothelium and in a normal human urothelial cell line, but is significantly down-regulated in high-grade TCC and lost in 9 (of 15 TCC cell lines. Loss of prostasin expression in the TCC cell lines correlated with loss of or reduced E-cadherin expression, loss of epithelial morphology, and promoter DNA hypermethylation. Prostasin expression could be reactivated by demethylation or inhibition of histone deacetylase. Re-expression of prostasin or a serine protease-inactive variant resulted in transcriptional up-regulation of E-cadherin. Conclusion Loss of prostasin expression in bladder transitional cell carcinomas is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, and may have functional implications in tumor invasion and resistance to chemotherapy.

  1. Expression of cytokeratins 5/6 and cytokeratin 17 in invasive breast carcinoma

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    Ivković-Kapicl Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Cytokeratins (CK 5/6 and 17, myoepithelial markers, are also expressed in a proportion of breast carcinomas. Breast carcinomas expressing basal epithelium cytokeratins constitute a tumor subgroup that shows common but heterogeneous morphological, genetical, and immunophenotypical features and is associated with poor clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of basal expression of cytokines CK5/6 and CK17 in the tested samples of ductal invasive breast cancers, as well as to test the presence of a correlation of tumor expression of basal cytokines and clinicopathological prognostic factors: age, the level of histological differentiation, hormone receptor status, HER2 (human epidermal prowth factor receptor 2 protein expresion and HER2 gene amplification in tumorous tissue. Methods. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was used to evaluate the CK5/6 and CK17 status of 121 ductal invasive breast cancers. The results thus obtained were compared with clinicopathological characteristics. Results. From the 117 analyzed tumor specimens, 22% and 30% were immunohistochemically positive for CK5/6 and CK17, respectively. Basal cytokeratins showed significant inverse relationship with estrogen and progesterone receptor status and HER2 protein expression. CK5/6 and CK17 immunoreactivities were directly associated with triple-negative phenotype and higher histological grade. Conclusion. Our findings are similar to reports that tumours expression of basal cytokeratins are correlated with adverse pathological parameters. Given the limited number of emerging therapeutic targets in these tumors, routine IHC identification of basal-like subtype as a poor prognostic group of breast cancer could be based on the expression of basal CKs.

  2. Histological analysis of gamma delta T lymphocytes infiltrating human triple-negative breast carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Villacorta Hidalgo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women and the second most common cancer worldwide after lung cancer. The remarkable heterogeneity of breast cancers influences numerous diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic factors. Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs lack expression of HER2 and the estrogen and progesterone receptors and often contain lymphocytic infiltrates. Most of TNBCs are invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs with poor prognosis, whereas prognostically more favorable subtypes such as medullary breast carcinomas (MBCs are somewhat less frequent. Infiltrating T cells have been associated with an improved clinical outcome in TNBCs. The prognostic role of γδ T cells within CD3+ tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes remains unclear. We analyzed 26 TNBCs, 14 IDCs and 12 MBCs, using immunohistochemistry for the quantity and patterns of γδ T-cell infitrates within the tumor microenvironment. In both types of TNBCs, we found higher numbers of γδ T cells in comparison with normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. The numbers of infiltrating γδ T cells were higher in MBCs than in IDCs. γδ T cells in MBCs were frequently located in direct contact with tumor cells, within the tumor and at its invasive border. In contrast, most γδ T cells in IDCs were found in clusters within the tumor stroma. These findings could be associated with the fact that the patient’s prognosis in MBCs is better than that in IDCs. Further studies to characterize these γδ T cells at the molecular and functional level are in progress.

  3. Expression of xenobiotic and steroid hormone metabolizing enzymes in human breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Susanne; Pierl, Christiane; Harth, Volker; Pesch, Beate; Rabstein, Sylvia; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon; Hamann, Ute; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Fischer, Hans-Peter

    2006-10-15

    The potential to metabolize endogenous and exogenous substances may influence breast cancer development and tumor growth. Therefore, the authors investigated the protein expression of Glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoforms and cytochrome P450 (CYP) known to be involved in the metabolism of steroid hormones and endogenous as well as exogenous carcinogens in breast cancer tissue to obtain new information on their possible role in tumor progression. Expression of GST pi, mu, alpha and CYP1A1/2, 1A2, 3A4/5, 1B1, 2E1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry for primary breast carcinomas of 393 patients from the German GENICA breast cancer collection. The percentages of positive tumors were 50.1 and 44.5% for GST mu and CYP2E1, and ranged from 13 to 24.7% for CYP1A2, GST pi, CYP1A1/2, CYP3A4/5, CYP1B1. GST alpha was expressed in 1.8% of tumors. The authors observed the following associations between strong protein expression and histopathological characteristics: GST expression was associated with a better tumor differentiation (GST mu, p = 0.018) and with reduced lymph node metastasis (GST pi, p = 0.02). In addition, GST mu expression was associated with a positive estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status (p CYP1B1 was associated with poor tumor differentiation (p = 0.049). Our results demonstrate that the majority of breast carcinomas expressed xenobiotic and drug metabolizing enzymes. They particularly suggest that GST mu and pi expression may indicate a better prognosis and that strong CYP3A4/5 and CYP1B1 expression may be key features of nonfavourable prognosis.

  4. Primary retroperitoneal transitional cell carcinoma presenting as a dumb-bell tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S; Ansari, M; Gupta, S; Kumar, A

    2009-11-01

    We report a retroperitoneal transitional cell carcinoma arising from the primitive urogenital remnants of a 56-year-old married Indian woman. She presented with a huge cystic mass in the hypogastrium and right iliac fossa, which extended into the right thigh as a massive dumb-bell tumour. On exploration, it was found not to be arising from any known retroperitoneal structure. The mass was excised, and the histopathology confirmed transitional cell carcinoma with positive margins. Though she received postoperative chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin and cisplatin, she developed extensive local recurrence and hepatic secondaries, and succumbed to the disease after ten months of follow-up. We highlight the rarity of the disease, its atypical presentation as a cystic dumb-bell lump, its diagnostic challenges and aggressive behaviour, and review the literature on primary retroperitoneal transitional cell carcinomas.

  5. Benzyl Isothiocyanate Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Cultured and Xenografted Human Breast Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sehrawat, Anuradha; Singh, Shivendra V.

    2011-01-01

    We showed previously that cruciferous vegetable constituent benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) inhibits growth of cultured and xenografted human breast cancer cells, and suppresses mammary cancer development in a transgenic mouse model. We now demonstrate, for the first time, that BITC inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human breast cancer cells. Exposure of estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 and estrogen-responsive MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines and a pancreatic cancer cell ...

  6. Management of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Breast: A Rare Cancer Network Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanfir, Kaouthar, E-mail: kaouthar.khanfir@rsv-gnw.ch [Hopital de Sion, CHCVs, Sion (Switzerland); Kallel, Adel [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Villette, Sylviane [Centre Rene Huguenin, Paris (France); Belkacemi, Yazid [CHU Henri Mondor, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Vautravers, Claire [Centre George Francois Leclerc, Dijon (France); Nguyen, TanDat [Institut Jean Gaudinot, Reims (France); Miller, Robert [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Li Yexiong [Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Taghian, Alphonse G. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Boersma, Liesbeth [Maastricht University Medical Center (MAASTRO clinic), Maastricht (Netherlands); Poortmans, Philip [Dr. Bernard Verbeeten Institute, Tilburg (Netherlands); Goldberg, Hadassah [Western Galilee Hospital-Nahariya, Nahariya (Israel); Vees, Hansjorg [Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Senkus, Elzbieta [Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk (Poland); Igdem, Sefik; Ozsahin, Mahmut [Istanbul Bilim University, Istanbul (Turkey); Jeanneret Sozzi, Wendy [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-04-01

    Background: Mammary adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare breast cancer. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess prognostic factors and patterns of failure, as well as the role of radiation therapy (RT), in ACC. Methods: Between January 1980 and December 2007, 61 women with breast ACC were treated at participating centers of the Rare Cancer Network. Surgery consisted of lumpectomy in 41 patients and mastectomy in 20 patients. There were 51(84%) stage pN0 and 10 stage cN0 (16%) patients. Postoperative RT was administered to 40 patients (35 after lumpectomy, 5 after mastectomy). Results: With a median follow-up of 79 months (range, 6-285), 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 94% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88%-100%) and 82% (95% CI, 71%-93%), respectively. The 5-year locoregional control (LRC) rate was 95% (95% CI, 89%-100%). Axillary lymph node dissection or sentinel node biopsy was performed in 84% of cases. All patients had stage pN0 disease. In univariate analysis, survival was not influenced by the type of surgery or the use of postoperative RT. The 5-year LRC rate was 100% in the mastectomy group versus 93% (95% CI, 83%-100%) in the breast-conserving surgery group, respectively (p = 0.16). For the breast-conserving surgery group, the use of RT significantly correlated with LRC (p = 0.03); the 5-year LRC rates were 95% (95% CI, 86%-100%) for the RT group versus 83% (95% CI, 54%-100%) for the group receiving no RT. No local failures occurred in patients with positive margins, all of whom received postoperative RT. Conclusion: Breast-conserving surgery is the treatment of choice for patients with ACC breast cancer. Axillary lymph node dissection or sentinel node biopsy might not be recommended. Postoperative RT should be proposed in the case of breast-conserving surgery.

  7. Prospective Multicenter Trial Evaluating Balloon-Catheter Partial-Breast Irradiation for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Andrea M.; Portschy, Pamela R. [Division of Surgical Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Lee, Chung [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Le, Chap T. [Division of Biostatistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Han, Linda K. [Department of Surgery, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Washington, Tara [Vantage Oncology, Redhawk and Wildomar Centers California, Wildomar, California (United States); Kinney, Michael [Center for Advanced Breast Care, Arlington Heights, Illinois (United States); Bretzke, Margit [Surgical Specialists of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Tuttle, Todd M., E-mail: tuttl006@umn.edu [Division of Surgical Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To determine outcomes of accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) with MammoSite in the treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) after breast-conserving surgery. Methods and Materials: We conducted a prospective, multicenter trial between 2003 and 2009. Inclusion criteria included age >18 years, core needle biopsy diagnosis of DCIS, and no prior breast cancer history. Patients underwent breast-conserving surgery plus MammoSite placement. Radiation was given twice daily for 5 days for a total of 34 Gy. Patients were evaluated for development of toxicities, cosmetic outcome, and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR). Results: A total of 41 patients (42 breasts) completed treatment in the study, with a median follow up of 5.3 years. Overall, 28 patients (68.3%) experienced an adverse event. Skin changes and pain were the most common adverse events. Cosmetic outcome at 6 months was judged excellent/good by 100% of physicians and by 96.8% of patients. At 12 months, 86.7% of physicians and 92.3% of patients rated the cosmetic outcome as excellent/good. Overall, 4 patients (9.8%) developed an IBTR (all DCIS), with a 5-year actuarial rate of 11.3%. All IBTRs were outside the treatment field. Among patients with IBTRs, the mean time to recurrence was 3.2 years. Conclusions: Accelerated partial-breast irradiation using MammoSite seems to provide a safe and cosmetically acceptable outcome; however, the 9.8% IBTR rate with median follow-up of 5.3 years is concerning. Prospective randomized trials are necessary before routine use of APBI for DCIS can be recommended.

  8. Plasmacytoid Transitional Cell Carcinoma of Bladder: A Clinico-pathological Study and Review of Literatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xiaoli; ZHANG Hongtu; SUN Yuntian; LIU Xiuyun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathologic features of plasmacytoid transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, and to analyze the diagnostic features, criteria for differential diagnosis and the clinical significance of the tumor. Methods: Two cases of bladder plasmacytoid transitional cell carcinoma were studied. Routine paraffin sections with HE staining, Pap smear and immunohistochemistry by S-P method were observed under a light microscope. Pathological and clinical data were analyzed by comparison with early reported cases in literatures. Results: A characteristic feature of this tumor was of deep invasion in the lamina propria and/or muscularis propria, in addition to the component of carcinoma in situ in the mucosa, when tumors were diagnosed. The histological pattern and cytological features showed similarity to a plasmacytoid tumor. The tumor cells were strongly positive for AE1/AE3, CEA and CK18. The prognosis appeared to be worse than ordinary transitional cell carcinoma. Conclusion: The plasmacytoid transitional cell carcinoma of bladder is rare but has typical pathological, immunohistological and clinical features. Pathologists should be aware of this kind of primary tumor of bladder.

  9. Neuroendocrine differentiated breast carcinoma: imaging features correlated with clinical and histopathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenhan-Bilgen, Isil; Ustuen, Esin Emin; Memis, Aysenur [Department of Radiology, Ege University Hospital, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Zekioglu, Osman; Erhan, Yildiz [Department of Pathology, Ege University Hospital, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey)

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the imaging features of neuroendocrine differentiated breast carcinoma (NEDBC) and to correlate the radiological findings with the clinical and histopathological findings. A retrospective review of the mammograms of 1845 histopathologically proven breast cancer cases revealed five NEDBC. The clinical, imaging, and histopathological findings were analyzed. On mammography, a high-density mass was seen in all patients. The shape of the mass was round in 4 and irregular in 1 patient. The margins were spiculated in 2, indistinct in 1, microlobulated in 1, and partially obscured in 1 patient. On sonography, 4 patients had homogeneously hypoechoic masses with normal sound transmission. In 1 patient the mass was heterogeneously hypoechoic with mild posterior acoustic enhancement. The margins were microlobulated in 2, irregular in 2, and well-circumscribed in 1 patient. Neuroendocrine differentiated breast carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of mammographically dense, round masses with predominantly spiculated or lobulated margins. Sonographically, they mostly present as irregular or microlobulated, homogeneously hypoechoic masses with normal sound transmission. (orig.)

  10. Multiphoton microscopic imaging of fibrotic focus in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sijia; Nie, Yuting; Lian, Yuane; Wu, Yan; Fu, Fangmeng; Wang, Chuan; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-11-01

    During the proliferation of breast cancer, the desmoplastic can evoke a fibrosis response by invading healthy tissue. Fibrotic focus (FF) in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast had been reported to be associated with significantly poorer survival rate than IDC without FF. As an important prognosis indicator, it's difficult to obtain the exact fibrotic information from traditional detection method such as mammography. Multiphoton imaging based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) has been recently employed for microscopic examination of unstained tissue. In this study, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was used to image the fibrotic focus in invasive ductal carcinoma tissue. The morphology and distribution of collagen in fibrotic focus can be demonstrated by the SHG signal. Variation of collagen between IDC with and without FF will be examined and further characterized, which may be greatly related to the metastasis of breast cancer. Our result suggested that the MPM can be efficient in identifying and locating the fibrotic focus in IDC. Combining with the pathology analysis and other detecting methods, MPM owns potential in becoming an advanced histological tool for detecting the fibrotic focus in IDC and collecting prognosis information, which may guide the subsequent surgery option and therapy procedure for patients.

  11. Triple negative breast carcinoma is a prognostic factor in Taiwanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Shou-Jen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there is a debate as to whether triple negative breast carcinoma (TNBC has a worse prognosis than non-TNBC. Our aim was to determine whether TNBC is a prognostic factor for survival. Methods We identified 1,048 Taiwanese breast carcinoma patients, of whom 167 (15.9% had TNBC. Data used for analysis were derived from our cancer registry database for women with breast cancer who were diagnosed between 2002 January and 2006 December. Results In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, tumor subgroup (TNBC vs. non-TNBC was a prognosis factor related to 5-year overall survival. In the univariate analysis, tumor subgroup (TNBC vs. non-TNBC was a significant factor related to 5-year overall survival, in addition to age, tumor size, lymph node, metastasis, grade, stage, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, and HER2 overexpression status. In the multivariate analysis, tumor subgroup was not a significant factor related to 5-year disease-free survival (DFS. In node-positive patients, tumor subgroup was a significant factor related to 5-year overall survival, in addition to age, tumor size, metastasis, and grade. In node-negative patients, tumor subgroup was not a significant factor related to 5-year disease-free survival and 5-year overall survival. Conclusion Our results indicated that TNBC patients in Taiwan have worse 5-year overall survival than non-TNBC patients. Notably, in node-positive patients, TNBC played a prognostic role in 5-year overall survival.

  12. Pituitary Tumor-Transforming Gene 1 Is Expressed in Primary Ductal Breast Carcinoma, Lymph Node Infiltration, and Distant Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Grizzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advances that have been made in the fields of molecular and cell biology, there is still considerable debate explaining how the breast cancer cells progress through carcinogenesis and acquire their metastatic ability. The lack of preventive methods and effective therapies underlines the pressing need to identify new biomarkers that can aid early diagnosis and may be targets for effective therapeutic strategies. In this study we explore the pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1 expression in primary ductal breast carcinoma, lymph node infiltration, and distant metastases. Three human cell lines, 184B5 derived from normal mammary epithelium, HCC70 from a primary ductal carcinoma, and MDA-MB-361 from a breast metastasis, were used for quantifying PTTG1 mRNA expression. The PTTG1 immunohistochemical expression was carried out on specimens taken from eight patients with invasive ductal breast cancer who underwent surgical treatment and followup for five years retrospectively selected. The study demonstrated that PTTG1 is expressed gradually in primary ductal breast carcinoma, lymph node infiltration, and distant metastases. Our findings suggest that the immunohistochemical evaluation of PTTG1 expression might be a powerful biomarker of recognition and quantification of the breast cancer cells in routine pathological specimens and a potential target for developing an effective immunotherapeutic strategy for primary and metastatic breast cancer.

  13. Appraisal of the technologies and review of the genomic landscape of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jia-Min B; Gorringe, Kylie L; Wong, Stephen Q; Dobrovic, Alexander; Campbell, Ian G; Fox, Stephen B

    2015-06-16

    Ductal carcinoma in situ is a biologically diverse entity. Whereas some lesions are cured by local surgical excision, others recur as in situ disease or progress to invasive carcinoma with subsequent potential for metastatic spread. Reliable prognostic biomarkers are therefore desirable for appropriate clinical management but remain elusive. In common with invasive breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ exhibits many genomic changes, predominantly copy number alterations. Although studies have revealed the genomic heterogeneity within individual ductal carcinoma in situ lesions and the association of certain copy number alterations with nuclear grade, none of the genomic changes defined so far is consistently associated with invasive transformation or recurrence risk in pure ductal carcinoma in situ. This article will review the current landscape of genomic alterations in ductal carcinoma in situ and their potential as prognostic biomarkers together with the technologies used to define these.

  14. Epigenetic reversion of breast carcinoma phenotype is accompaniedby DNA sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandal, Tone; Valyi-Nagy, Klara; Spencer, Virginia A.; Folberg,Robert; Bissell, Mina J.; Maniotis, Andrew J.

    2006-07-19

    The importance of microenvironment and context in regulation of tissue-specific genes is finally well established. DNA exposure to, or sequestration from, nucleases can be used to detect differences in higher order chromatin structure in intact cells without disturbing cellular or tissue architecture. To investigate the relationship between chromatin organization and tumor phenotype, we utilized an established 3-D assay where normal and malignant human breast cells can be easily distinguished by the morphology of the structures they make (acinus-like vs tumor-like, respectively). We show that these phenotypes can be distinguished also by sensitivity to AluI digestion where the malignant cells are resistant to digestion relative to non-malignant cells. Reversion of the T4-2 breast cancer cells by either cAMP analogs, or a phospatidylinositol 3-kinase (P13K) inhibitor not only reverted the phenotype, but also the chromatin sensitivity to AluI. By using different cAMP-analogs, we show that the cAMP-induced phenotypic reversion, polarization, and shift in DNA organization act through a cAMP-dependent-protein-kinase A-coupled signaling pathway. Importantly, inhibitory antibody to fibronectin also reverted the malignant phenotype, polarized the acini, and changed chromatin sequestration. These experiments show not only that modifying the tumor microenvironment can alter the organization of tumor cells but also that architecture of the tissues and the global chromatin organization are coupled and yet highly plastic.

  15. Exosomes released from breast cancer carcinomas stimulate cell movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinari A Harris

    Full Text Available For metastasis to occur cells must communicate with to their local environment to initiate growth and invasion. Exosomes have emerged as an important mediator of cell-to-cell signalling through the transfer of molecules such as mRNAs, microRNAs, and proteins between cells. Exosomes have been proposed to act as regulators of cancer progression. Here, we study the effect of exosomes on cell migration, an important step in metastasis. We performed cell migration assays, endocytosis assays, and exosome proteomic profiling on exosomes released from three breast cancer cell lines that model progressive stages of metastasis. Results from these experiments suggest: (1 exosomes promote cell migration and (2 the signal is stronger from exosomes isolated from cells with higher metastatic potentials; (3 exosomes are endocytosed at the same rate regardless of the cell type; (4 exosomes released from cells show differential enrichment of proteins with unique protein signatures of both identity and abundance. We conclude that breast cancer cells of increasing metastatic potential secrete exosomes with distinct protein signatures that proportionally increase cell movement and suggest that released exosomes could play an active role in metastasis.

  16. Exosomes released from breast cancer carcinomas stimulate cell movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Dinari A; Patel, Sajni H; Gucek, Marjan; Hendrix, An; Westbroek, Wendy; Taraska, Justin W

    2015-01-01

    For metastasis to occur cells must communicate with to their local environment to initiate growth and invasion. Exosomes have emerged as an important mediator of cell-to-cell signalling through the transfer of molecules such as mRNAs, microRNAs, and proteins between cells. Exosomes have been proposed to act as regulators of cancer progression. Here, we study the effect of exosomes on cell migration, an important step in metastasis. We performed cell migration assays, endocytosis assays, and exosome proteomic profiling on exosomes released from three breast cancer cell lines that model progressive stages of metastasis. Results from these experiments suggest: (1) exosomes promote cell migration and (2) the signal is stronger from exosomes isolated from cells with higher metastatic potentials; (3) exosomes are endocytosed at the same rate regardless of the cell type; (4) exosomes released from cells show differential enrichment of proteins with unique protein signatures of both identity and abundance. We conclude that breast cancer cells of increasing metastatic potential secrete exosomes with distinct protein signatures that proportionally increase cell movement and suggest that released exosomes could play an active role in metastasis.

  17. Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) promotes breast cancer cell metastasis and the mechanism implicates epithelial-mesenchymal transition programme under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tingting; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xinping; Zhao, Hu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jing; Li, Xia; Zhang, Yan; Bu, Xin; Shi, Man; Yao, Libo; Su, Jin

    2014-12-01

    A wide range of genes involved in breast cancer metastasis have been reported to be related to the microenvironment. We studied the role of discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2), a collagen-binding receptor, in breast cancer progression under hypoxic conditions. We showed that DDR2 protein expression closely correlated with the expression of hypoxic marker HIF-1α in clinical breast cancer specimens. The in vitro data demonstrated that hypoxia treatment increased the levels of both expression and phosphorylation of DDR2 in human breast cancer cell lines. In vivo, orthotopic breast tumour xenografts with DDR2 knockdown displayed reduced dissemination and significant prevention in pulmonary and lymphatic metastasis; conversely, these processes were significantly facilitated by the enforced expression of the activated form of DDR2. Further mechanism studies indicated that DDR2 plays an indispensable role in a series of hypoxia-induced behaviours of breast cancer cells, including migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The transcription factor Snail was found to mediate DDR2-induced down-regulation of the cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin. It was also documented that there is a correlation between DDR2 and E-cadherin expression with the presence of lymph node metastases in 160 cases of invasive human breast carcinoma. In addition, we provided evidence that DDR2 silencing in breast cancer cells prevents the hypoxia-induced activation of ERK MAPK, suggesting its potential involvement in mediating the effect of DDR2 on hypoxia-induced signalling. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that DDR2 participates in hypoxia-induced breast cancer metastasis through the regulation of cell migration, invasion, and EMT, and thus may serve as an accessible therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  18. Mucinous carcinoma of breast in a 30-year-old female: A rare case report and discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banyameen Mohamad Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucinous carcinoma (MC (colloid carcinoma is a particular, rare type of breast carcinoma. It is characterized by the presence of extracellular mucin. MC of the breast generally presents as a lobulated, moderately well-circumscribed mass on mammography, sonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. It has a favorable prognosis due to the low incidence of axillary lymph node metastasis and poor adherence to bottom fascia and poor infiltration of overlying skin. It has high incidence of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor positivity. The incidence of MC in females under 35 years of age is only 1%. Here, we report a case of MC of right breast in a 30-year-old female.

  19. Centrally necrotizing breast carcinoma: a rare histological subtype, which was cause of misdiagnosis in an evident clinical local recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernanz Fernando

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Centrally necrotizing carcinoma is a rare subtype of breast carcinoma, which is characterized by an extensive central necrotic zone accounting for at least 70% of the cross-sectional area of the neoplasm. This central necrotic zone, in turn, is surrounded by a narrow rim of proliferative viable tumor cells. We report an unusual clinical situation in which a patient whose evident breast mass suggested an ipsilateral local recurrence and for which numerous attempts to confirm the histological diagnosis had failed. The patient was treated with a radical mastectomy based on clinical suspicion of breast cancer recurrence after an undesirable delay. In this case, the narrow rim of viable malignant tissue had a thickness of 0.5 to 8 mm, and the centrally necrotizing carcinoma had a central zone with a predominance of fibrosis. The special features of this case led to a misdiagnosis and to an evident clinical local recurrence.

  20. Thyroid, Renal, and Breast Carcinomas, Chondrosarcoma, Colon Adenomas, and Ganglioneuroma: A New Cancer Syndrome, FAP, or Just Coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihab Shafek Atta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a case associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, invasive mammary carcinoma, chondrosarcoma, benign ganglioneuroma, and numerous colon adenomas. The patient had a family history of colon cancer, kidney and bladder cancers, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, leukemia, and throat and mouth cancers. She was diagnosed with colonic villous adenoma at the age of 41 followed by thyroid, renal, and breast cancers and chondrosarcoma at the ages of 48, 64, 71, and 74, respectively. Additionally, we included a table with the most common familial cancer syndromes with one or more benign or malignant tumors diagnosed in our case, namely, FAP, HNPCC, Cowden, Peutz-Jeghers, renal cancer, tuberous sclerosis, VHL, breast/other, breast/ovarian, Carney, Werner’s, Bloom, Li-Fraumeni, xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia-telangiectasia, osteochondromatosis, retinoblastoma, and MEN2A.

  1. Dynamic transcription factor networks in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siletz, Anaar; Schnabel, Michael; Kniazeva, Ekaterina; Schumacher, Andrew J; Shin, Seungjin; Jeruss, Jacqueline S; Shea, Lonnie D

    2013-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex change in cell differentiation that allows breast carcinoma cells to acquire invasive properties. EMT involves a cascade of regulatory changes that destabilize the epithelial phenotype and allow mesenchymal features to manifest. As transcription factors (TFs) are upstream effectors of the genome-wide expression changes that result in phenotypic change, understanding the sequential changes in TF activity during EMT provides rich information on the mechanism of this process. Because molecular interactions will vary as cells progress from an epithelial to a mesenchymal differentiation program, dynamic networks are needed to capture the changing context of molecular processes. In this study we applied an emerging high-throughput, dynamic TF activity array to define TF activity network changes in three cell-based models of EMT in breast cancer based on HMLE Twist ER and MCF-7 mammary epithelial cells. The TF array distinguished conserved from model-specific TF activity changes in the three models. Time-dependent data was used to identify pairs of TF activities with significant positive or negative correlation, indicative of interdependent TF activity throughout the six-day study period. Dynamic TF activity patterns were clustered into groups of TFs that change along a time course of gene expression changes and acquisition of invasive capacity. Time-dependent TF activity data was combined with prior knowledge of TF interactions to construct dynamic models of TF activity networks as epithelial cells acquire invasive characteristics. These analyses show EMT from a unique and targetable vantage and may ultimately contribute to diagnosis and therapy.

  2. Dynamic transcription factor networks in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaar Siletz

    Full Text Available The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is a complex change in cell differentiation that allows breast carcinoma cells to acquire invasive properties. EMT involves a cascade of regulatory changes that destabilize the epithelial phenotype and allow mesenchymal features to manifest. As transcription factors (TFs are upstream effectors of the genome-wide expression changes that result in phenotypic change, understanding the sequential changes in TF activity during EMT provides rich information on the mechanism of this process. Because molecular interactions will vary as cells progress from an epithelial to a mesenchymal differentiation program, dynamic networks are needed to capture the changing context of molecular processes. In this study we applied an emerging high-throughput, dynamic TF activity array to define TF activity network changes in three cell-based models of EMT in breast cancer based on HMLE Twist ER and MCF-7 mammary epithelial cells. The TF array distinguished conserved from model-specific TF activity changes in the three models. Time-dependent data was used to identify pairs of TF activities with significant positive or negative correlation, indicative of interdependent TF activity throughout the six-day study period. Dynamic TF activity patterns were clustered into groups of TFs that change along a time course of gene expression changes and acquisition of invasive capacity. Time-dependent TF activity data was combined with prior knowledge of TF interactions to construct dynamic models of TF activity networks as epithelial cells acquire invasive characteristics. These analyses show EMT from a unique and targetable vantage and may ultimately contribute to diagnosis and therapy.

  3. Rapid Fatal Outcome from Pulmonary Arteries Compression in Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis A. Voutsadakis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a malignancy that metastasizes frequently to lymph nodes including the mediastinal lymph nodes. This occurrence may produce symptoms due to compression of adjacent structures such as the superior vena cava syndrome or dysphagia from esophageal compression. We report the case of a 59-year-old man with metastatic transitional cell carcinoma for whom mediastinal lymphadenopathy led to pulmonary artery compression and a rapidly fatal outcome. This rare occurrence has to be distinguished from pulmonary embolism, a much more frequent event in cancer patients, in order that proper and prompt treatment be initiated.

  4. Figurate and bullous eruption in association with breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watsky, K L; Orlow, S J; Bolognia, J L

    1990-05-01

    We describe a patient with two coexistent cutaneous eruptions: (1) trauma-induced bullae of the distal extremities and elbows and (2) multiple concentric gyrate lesions on the trunk and extremities, some of which became bullous. The gyrate lesions were stationary and nonpruritic. Biopsy of both types of lesions showed a subepidermal blister and a minimal inflammatory infiltrate. Direct immunofluorescence revealed linear deposition of IgG and C3 at the dermoepidermal junction and indirect immunofluorescence was negative. By immunoelectron microscopy, these immune deposits were localized to the lower lamina lucida. The eruption was not controlled despite high-dose (80 mg/d) oral administration of prednisone and required the addition of an oral administration of methotrexate (20 mg weekly). On further evaluation, an intraductal mammary carcinoma was detected. Following radiation therapy, the methotrexate and prednisone therapy were tapered without recurrence of the eruption during a follow-up period of 18 months.

  5. A Case of High-grade Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder in a Pediatric Patient With Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Liza; Danialan, Richard; Kim, Christina

    2015-06-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma is a rare entity in children, especially in the first decade of life. The majority of these tumors are of low grade and noninvasive. We report an interesting case of a high-grade superficial transitional cell carcinoma in a 3-year-old girl with Turner syndrome.

  6. CLINICAL STUDY OF CORRELATION BETWEEN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR (ER AND PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR (PR STATUS AND PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS IN CARCINOMA BREAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION Breast carcinoma is the first among women of all races and Hispanic origin populations; most common carcinoma in women and account for 25% of all female cancers, which is more than twice the prevalence of cancer in women at any other site. Recent information suggests globally breast carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer related death and is the most common cancer among women excluding the non-melanoma skin cancer. Estrogen and Progesterone play a central role in regulating growth kinetics of a variety of epithelial lining like in breast and endometrium and are powerful predictive markers in carcinoma of breast. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To study the correlation between ER and PR status and patient characteristics like age of patient, menarche, menopause, parity, tumour size, lymph node status and tumour grade in carcinoma breast patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty patients were included in this study who were admitted with breast carcinoma, the patient characteristics are correlated with ER and PR status studied by immunohistochemistry. This study was done over the period from October 2013 to September 2015. RESULTS Patients with both ER/PR positive are better differentiated, low grade, small sized tumours and with less chance of lymph node metastasis. Progesterone receptor negative status is associated with lymph node metastasis independent of other patient characteristics. Grade 3 and 4 tumours showed lower level of Estrogen and Progesterone receptors irrespective of age. CONCLUSION ER/PR positive group were better differentiated, showed better prognosis with hormonal therapy. They were less aggressive, low lymph node metastasis when compared with patients with either of the receptors negative or both the receptors negative. Hence immunohistochemistry is a must as it provides valuable prognostic, predictive and therapeutic information.

  7. No evidence of clonal somatic genetic alterations in cancer-associated fibroblasts from human breast and ovarian carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wen; Hu, Min; Sridhar, Anita; Opeskin, Ken; Fox, Stephen; Shipitsin, Michail; Trivett, Melanie; Thompson, Ella R; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Gorringe, Kylie L; Polyak, Kornelia; Haviv, Izhak; Campbell, Ian G

    2008-05-01

    There is increasing evidence showing that the stromal cells surrounding cancer epithelial cells, rather than being passive bystanders, might have a role in modifying tumor outgrowth. The molecular basis of this aspect of carcinoma etiology is controversial. Some studies have reported a high frequency of genetic aberrations in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), whereas other studies have reported very low or zero mutation rates. Resolution of this contentious area is of critical importance in terms of understanding both the basic biology of cancer as well as the potential clinical implications of CAF somatic alterations. We undertook genome-wide copy number and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis of CAFs derived from breast and ovarian carcinomas using a 500K SNP array platform. Our data show conclusively that LOH and copy number alterations are extremely rare in CAFs and cannot be the basis of the carcinoma-promoting phenotypes of breast and ovarian CAFs.

  8. Basal/HER2 breast carcinomas: integrating molecular taxonomy with cancer stem cell dynamics to predict primary resistance to trastuzumab (Herceptin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Cufí, Silvia; Moreno, José Manuel; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Urruticoechea, Ander; Martín, Ángel G; López-Bonet, Eugeni; Menendez, Javier A

    2013-01-15

    High rates of inherent primary resistance to the humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) are frequent among HER2 gene-amplified breast carcinomas in both metastatic and adjuvant settings. The clinical efficacy of trastuzumab is highly correlated with its ability to specifically and efficiently target HER2-driven populations of breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). Intriguingly, many of the possible mechanisms by which cancer cells escape trastuzumab involve many of the same biomarkers that have been implicated in the biology of CS-like tumor-initiating cells. In the traditional, one-way hierarchy of CSCs in which all cancer cells descend from special self-renewing CSCs, HER2-positive CSCs can occur solely by self-renewal. Therefore, by targeting CSC self-renewal and resistance, trastuzumab is expected to induce tumor shrinkage and further reduce breast cancer recurrence rates when used alongside traditional therapies. In a new, alternate model, more differentiated non-stem cancer cells can revert to trastuzumab-refractory, CS-like cells via the activation of intrinsic or microenvironmental paths-to-stemness, such as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Alternatively, stochastic transitions of trastuzumab-responsive CSCs might also give rise to non-CSC cellular states that lack major attributes of CSCs and, therefore, can remain "hidden" from trastuzumab activity. Here, we hypothesize that a better understanding of the CSC/non-CSC social structure within HER2-overexpressing breast carcinomas is critical for trastuzumab-based treatment decisions in the clinic. First, we decipher the biological significance of CSC features and the EMT on the molecular effects and efficacy of trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer cells. Second, we reinterpret the genetic heterogeneity that differentiates trastuzumab-responders from non-responders in terms of CSC cellular states. Finally, we propose that novel predictive approaches aimed at better forecasting

  9. Individual characterisation of the metastatic capacity of human breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, R; Hellman, S

    2000-08-01

    The clinical implications of understanding the invasive and metastatic proclivities of an individual patient's tumour are substantial because the choice of systemic therapy needs to be guided by the likelihood of occult metastasis as well as by knowing when the metastases will become overt. Malignant potential is dynamic, progressing throughout the natural history of a tumour. Required of tumours is the development of critical phenotypic attributes: growth, angiogenesis, invasion and metastagenicity. Characterisation of the extent of tumour progression with regard to these major tumour phenotypes should allow the fashioning of individual therapy for each patient. To examine the clinical parameters and molecularly characterise the metastatic proclivity we have been studying a series of regionally treated breast cancer patients who received no systemic therapy and have long follow-up. Clinically we describe two parameters: metastagenicity - the metastatic proclivity of a tumour, and virulence--the rate at which these metastases appear. Both attributes increase with tumour size and nodal involvement. However, within each clinical group there is a cured population, even in those with extensive nodal involvement, underscoring the heterogeneity of breast cancers within each group and the need for further molecular characterisation. Using biomarkers that characterise the malignant phenotype we have determined that there is progression in the phenotypic changes. Angiogenesis and loss of nm23 are earlier events than the loss of E-cadherin, or abnormalities in TP53. The strongest biomarkers of poor prognosis are p53 and E-cadherin, but even when both are abnormal 42% of node-negative patients are cured indicating that other determinative steps need to occur before successful metastases are established. Identification of these critical later events will further increase the efficacy of determining the malignant capacities of individual tumours.

  10. A CASE STUDY ON EPIDEMIOLOGY, CLINICO-PATHOLOGICAL, CLINICO-RADIOLOGICAL CORRELATION, MANAGEMENT AND FOLLOW UP OF CARCINOMA BREAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Reddy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour and the leading cause of death in women worldwide. It accounts for 15% of all cancer deaths in women. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, approximately 70% of breast cancers occur in women with none of the known risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study population comprised patients of carcinoma breast attending to surgical op and admitted in surgical units 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 at Government General Hospital, Kakinada during November 2013 to November 2015. RESULTS Most common in females, breast lump is most common presentation, increased incidence in postmenopausal women, urban population has a higher incidence, upper outer quadrant is most commonly involved. CONCLUSION In our study, higher incidence is found in 5 th decade, mostly in postmenopausal women from urban areas, most commonly located in upper outer quadrant.

  11. Necrotizing granulomatous inflammation in an ipsilateral axillary lymph node in a patient with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Limin; Park, Jeong Mi; Askeland, Ryan W; Fajardo, Laurie L

    2012-01-01

    A patient presented with flu-like symptoms and a warm, tender area in the left axilla after working with an ancient piece of Cyprus wood. Antibiotics prescribed failed to improve symptoms. Followup physical examination and subsequent ultrasound found suspicious left-breast mass and an enlarged lymph node in the left axilla. Biopsy and lumpectomy of the left-breast mass revealed invasive ductal carcinoma. Biopsy and excision of the enlarged lymph node in the left axilla revealed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation without evidence of metastatic breast carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case report to show the coexistence of breast cancer with necrotizing granulomatous inflammation in the ipsilateral axillary lymph node, likely due to exposure to ancient wood.

  12. Chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma: metabolic and morphologic changes on PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Ukihide [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Gamez, Cristina; Yeung, Henry W.D.; Macapinlac, Homer A. [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Dawood, Shaheenah; Cristofanilli, Massimo [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Breast Medical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    To investigate clinical implications of FDG uptake in the thyroid glands in patients with advanced breast carcinoma by comparing metabolic and morphologic patterns on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). The institutional review board waived the requirement for informed consent. A retrospective analysis was performed in 146 women (mean age 54 years) with advanced breast carcinoma who received systemic treatment. All patients underwent PET-CT before and after treatment. All PET-CT studies were reviewed in consensus by two reviewers. Morphologic changes including volume and mean parenchymal density of the thyroid glands were evaluated. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were determined to evaluate metabolic changes. These parameters were compared between patients with chronic thyroiditis who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy and those who did not. Of the 146 patients, 29 (20%) showed bilaterally diffuse uptake in the thyroid glands on the baseline PET-CT scan. The SUVmax showed a linear relationship with volume (r = 0.428, p = 0.021) and the mean parenchymal density (r = -0.385, p = 0.039) of the thyroid glands. In 21 of the 29 patients (72%) with hypothyroidism who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy, the volume, mean parenchymal density, SUVmax, and TLG of the thyroid glands showed no significant changes. In contrast, 8 of the 29 patients (28%) who did not receive thyroid hormone replacement therapy showed marked decreases in SUVmax and TLG. Diffuse thyroid uptake on PET-CT represents active inflammation caused by chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma. Diffuse thyroid uptake may also address the concern about subclinical hypothyroidism which develops into overt disease during follow-up. (orig.)

  13. Herceptin responsive lung adenocarcinoma in the setting of bilateral synchronous lung primaries and breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard J Fitzmaurice

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her-2 mutations in lung adenocarcinoma is approximately 3%; however, its significance in the management of these lung cancers remains under investigation. We describe an incidental but unique opportunity to evaluate the response to treatment with herceptin in a patient with bilateral synchronous lung primaries in conjunction with breast carcinoma. Interval imaging following surgical resection of the squamous cell carcinoma while on herceptin treatment delineated the radiological regression of the Her-2 positive lung adenocarcinoma. We feel that this case highlights the potential role for herceptin treatment in Her-2 positive lung adenocarcinomas and demonstrates the importance of screening for these mutations.

  14. In Situ Identification of CD44+/CD24− Cancer Cells in Primary Human Breast Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Giuseppe; Gaeta, Laura Maria; Zagami, Mariagiovanna; Nasorri, Francesca; Coppola, Roberto; Borzomati, Domenico; Bartolozzi, Francesco; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio; Tonini, Giuseppe; Santini, Daniele; Cavani, Andrea; Muda, Andrea Onetti

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer cells with the CD44+/CD24− phenotype have been reported to be tumourigenic due to their enhanced capacity for cancer development and their self-renewal potential. The identification of human tumourigenic breast cancer cells in surgical samples has recently received increased attention due to the implications for prognosis and treatment, although limitations exist in the interpretation of these studies. To better identify the CD44+/CD24− cells in routine surgical specimens, 56 primary breast carcinoma cases were analysed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, and the results were compared using flow cytometry analysis to correlate the amount and distribution of the CD44+/CD24− population with clinicopathological features. Using these methods, we showed that the breast carcinoma cells displayed four distinct sub-populations based on the expression pattern of CD44 and CD24. The CD44+/CD24− cells were found in 91% of breast tumours and constituted an average of 6.12% (range, 0.11%–21.23%) of the tumour. A strong correlation was found between the percentage of CD44+/CD24− cells in primary tumours and distant metastasis development (p = 0.0001); in addition, there was an inverse significant association with ER and PGR status (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively). No relationship was evident with tumour size (T) and regional lymph node (N) status, differentiation grade, proliferative index or HER2 status. In a multivariate analysis, the percentage of CD44+/CD24− cancer cells was an independent factor related to metastasis development (p = 0.004). Our results indicate that confocal analysis of fluorescence-labelled breast cancer samples obtained at surgery is a reliable method to identify the CD44+/CD24− tumourigenic cell population, allowing for the stratification of breast cancer patients into two groups with substantially different relapse rates on the basis of CD44+/CD24− cell percentage. PMID:23028444

  15. Five Year Outcome of 145 Patients With Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) After Accelerated Breast Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciervide, Raquel [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Dhage, Shubhada; Guth, Amber; Shapiro, Richard L.; Axelrod, Deborah M.; Roses, Daniel F. [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: silvia.formenti@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Background: Accelerated whole-breast radiotherapy (RT) with tumor bed boost in the treatment of early invasive breast cancer has demonstrated equivalent local control and cosmesis when compared with standard RT. Its efficacy in the treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) remains unknown. Methods and Materials: Patients treated for DCIS with lumpectomy and negative margins were eligible for 2 consecutive hypofractionated whole-breast RT clinical trials. The first trial (New York University [NYU] 01-51) prescribed to the whole breast 42 Gy (2.8 Gy in 15 fractions) and the second trial (NYU 05-181) 40.5 Gy (2.7 Gy in 15 fractions) with an additional daily boost of 0.5 Gy to the surgical cavity. Results: Between 2002 and 2009, 145 DCIS patients accrued, 59 to the first protocol and 86 to the second trial. Median age was 56 years and 65% were postmenopausal at the time of treatment. Based on optimal sparing of normal tissue, 79% of the patients were planned and treated prone and 21% supine. At 5 years' median follow-up (60 months; range 2.6-105.5 months), 6 patients (4.1%) experienced an ipsilateral breast recurrence in all cases of DCIS histology. In 3/6 patients, recurrence occurred at the original site of DCIS and in the remaining 3 cases outside the original tumor bed. New contralateral breast cancers arose in 3 cases (1 DCIS and 2 invasive carcinomas). Cosmetic self-assessment at least 2 years after treatment is available in 125 patients: 91% reported good-to-excellent and 9% reported fair-to-poor outcomes. Conclusions: With a median follow-up of 5 years, the ipsilateral local recurrence rate is 4.1%, comparable to that reported from the NSABP (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project) trials that employed 50 Gy in 25 fractions of radiotherapy for DCIS. There were no invasive recurrences. These results provide preliminary evidence that accelerated hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy is a viable option for DCIS.

  16. A rare case of male breast ductal carcinoma in-situ associated with prolactinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallawaarachchi, Chandike Maithri; Ivanova, Snezana; Shorthouse, Alice; Shousha, Sami; Sinnett, Dudley

    2011-08-31

    A case of ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS) associated with prolactinoma in a male patient is described. A 56-year-old gentleman presented with lethargy and loss of libido. His prolactin at presentation was 3680 mU/l and an MRI scan of the head revealed a pituitary tumour suggestive of prolactinoma. Following 18 months of treatment with cabergoline, the prolactin level reduced to 914 mU/l. However, 3 years later he presented with blood stained nipple discharge, the cytology of which was negative for cancer. Ultrasound scan of his right breast revealed a single dilated mammary duct. Microdochectomy was performed. The histology revealed incompletely excised DCIS. There is increasing evidence of prolactinoma associated with breast cancer with or without DCIS in females. A review of the literature reveals only one previous case report of this association in males. This is the first case of pure DCIS preceded by prolactinoma in a male patient.

  17. A case report of primary small cell carcinoma of the breast and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Dong Ge; Wei-Dong Wei; Ning Lv; Yun Cao; Xi Wang; Jun Tang; Ze-Ming Xie; Xiang-Sheng Xiao; Peng Liu; Xiao-Ming Xie

    2012-01-01

    Primary small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the breast,an exceedingly rare and aggressive tumor,is often characterized by rapid progression and poor prognosis.We report a case of primary SCC of the breast that was diagnosed through pathologic and immunohistochemical examinations.Computed tomography (CT) scans failed to reveal a non-mammary primary site.Due to the scant number of relevant case summaries,this type of tumor is proved to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.Therefore,we also reviewed relevant literature to share expertise in diagnosis,clinicopathologic characteristics,treatment,and prognosis of this type of tumor.Future studies with more cases are required to define more appropriate treatment indications for this disease.

  18. The first case of acinic cell carcinoma of the breast within a fibroadenoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limite, G; Di Micco, R; Esposito, E; Sollazzo, V; Cervotti, M; Pettinato, G; Varone, V; Benassai, G; Monda, A; Luglio, G; Maisto, V; Izzo, G; Forestieri, P

    2014-01-01

    A case of acinic cell carcinoma of the breast is reported in a 26-year-old woman. She presented a lump in her right breast, that seemed to be a fibroadenoma. The open biopsy revealed a well-bordered fibroadenoma, together with a proliferation of cells characterized by serous acinar differentiation and eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules. Tumor cells stained for amylase, lysozyme, α-1-antichymotripsin, epithelial membrane antigen, S-100 protein, pan-cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7 and E-cadherin. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression, CD10, P63, smooth muscle actin, cytokeratin 5/6 were negative. The sentinel node was negative. 8 months after surgery she is in good clinical conditions without recurrence or metastases.

  19. Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody-positive paraneoplastic stiff limb syndrome associated with carcinoma of the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Pankaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stiff limb syndrome (SLS is a rare "focal" variant of stiff person syndrome which presents with rigidity and painful spasms of a distal limb, and abnormal fixed foot or hand postures. Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Ab are variably present in most cases. Most reported cases of SLS are unassociated with cancer. We describe a patient with SLS as a paraneoplastic manifestation of breast carcinoma, in whom GAD-Ab was present. The patient responded very well to oral diazepam, baclofen and steroids.This is the third reported case of SLS as a paraneoplastic accompaniment to cancer.

  20. Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody-positive paraneoplastic stiff limb syndrome associated with carcinoma of the breast

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Stiff limb syndrome (SLS) is a rare "focal" variant of stiff person syndrome which presents with rigidity and painful spasms of a distal limb, and abnormal fixed foot or hand postures. Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Ab) are variably present in most cases. Most reported cases of SLS are unassociated with cancer. We describe a patient with SLS as a paraneoplastic manifestation of breast carcinoma, in whom GAD-Ab was present. The patient responded very well to oral diazepam, ba...

  1. Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody-positive paraneoplastic stiff limb syndrome associated with carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pankaj A; Ichaporia, Nasli R

    2010-01-01

    Stiff limb syndrome (SLS) is a rare "focal" variant of stiff person syndrome which presents with rigidity and painful spasms of a distal limb, and abnormal fixed foot or hand postures. Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Ab) are variably present in most cases. Most reported cases of SLS are unassociated with cancer. We describe a patient with SLS as a paraneoplastic manifestation of breast carcinoma, in whom GAD-Ab was present. The patient responded very well to oral diazepam, baclofen and steroids.This is the third reported case of SLS as a paraneoplastic accompaniment to cancer.

  2. Unusual cause for ventriculoperitoneal shunt failure: Carcinoma breast compressing distal catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roka Yam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP shunt is one of the most common surgical procedures in any neurosurgery unit worldwide. Distal catheter obstruction outside the peritoneum is a rare cause of shunt failure. We report the first case of distal obstruction in a 70-year old female by carcinoma breast engulfing the catheter and causing kinking. Intraoperatively, the catheter was intratumoral with no flow of cerebrospinal fluid distally. She underwent relocation of a new catheter to the opposite side of the abdomen and modified mastectomy with resolution of the hydrocephalus. The postoperative course has been uneventful.

  3. Screening and characterization of novel specific peptides targeting MDA-MB-231 claudin-low breast carcinoma by computer-aided phage display methodologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobrega, Franklin L.; Ferreira, Débora; Martins, Ivone M.; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Azeredo, Joana; Kluskens, L.D.; Rodrigues, Lígia R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Claudin-low breast carcinoma represents 19% of all breast cancer cases and is characterized by an aggressive progression with metastatic nature and high rates of relapse. Due to a lack of known specific molecular biomarkers for this breast cancer subtype, there are no targeted therapi

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPRESSIONS OF P38 PROTEIN IN HUMAN BREAST CARCINOMA AND LYMPH NODES METASTASIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bai-lin; LI Feng; HAN Yan-chun; SONG Min; SONG Ji-ye

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To detect the change of p38 protein expression and investigate the relationship of p38 and lymph nodes metastasis in human breast carcinomas. Methods: Sixty breast cancer cases were checked by S-P immunohistochemistry technique and 30 breast cancer cases were examined by Western Blot. Results: Immunohistochemical results showed that p38protein was observed in breast cancer and normal cytoplasm. P-p38 was positive in nucleus in breast cancer. P38 protein expressed positively in 29 out of 38 patients who had lymph nodes metastasis (positive rate 76.3%) and in 9 out of 22 patients who had no lymph nodes metastasis (positive rate 40.9%). There was a significant difference between these two groups (P<0.01). The positive rate of p-p38 in patients who had lymph nodes metastasis was 68.4%, and the positive rate in patients who had no metastasis was 36.4%, and there was a significant difference between these two groups (P<0.05). The result of western blot showed that the protein contents of p38 and p-p38 in patients with metastasis was higher than those in patients without metastasis (P<0.05). P38 and p-p38 protein expressions had relation with clinical pathological grades in breast cancer, higher in grade Ⅲ than in grade Ⅰ, Ⅱ (P<0.05), while had no relation with patients' age and tumor size (P>0.05).Conclusion: p38 and p-p38 protein expressions had relationship with lymph nodes metastasis and the levels of p38 and p-p38protein expression in groups with lymph nodes metastasis were higher than in groups without lymph nodes metastasis. P38and p-p38 protein expressions had relationship with clinical grades and had no relationship with patients' age and tumor size.

  5. The role of breast magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadrljanski Mirjan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, the noninvasive breast malignant tumor originates from the terminal ductal­lobular units (TDLU. The typical feature of DCSI is the formation of calcifications. Up to 90% of DCIS are diagnosed on mammographic examinations, as clinically asymptomatic. Between 10% and 20% of DCIS remain mammographically occult due to the lack of calcifications and/ or small tumor dimensions. Contrast­enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI detects mammographically occult breast lesions, thus defining morphologic features of the lesion and the dynamics of signal intensity changes due to contrast enhancement. Distribution of contrast enhancement - signal intensity increase in DCIS most frequently includes segmental, ductal and linear patterns, followed by regional enhancement pattern, while the intralesional contrast uptake most frequently includes the nodular pattern with the areas of confluence. Post­ contrast signal intensity increase in DCIS is most frequently fast in the initial phase (wash­in, while the whole dynamic of contrast­enhancement includes either of the three possible time­intensity curve (TIC types (persistent, plateau or washout, although the plateau TIC is considered to be more frequent. Breast MRI has high sensitivity in the diagnosis of invasive breast cancer, varying from 90% to 100%; the sensitivity in the diagnosis of DCIS is lower (77­96%. For the time being, the primary role of MRI in DCIS is planning of breast­conserving surgery (BCS for the evaluation of lesion extension. Further development of MRI in the diagnosis of DCIS includes the implementation of the principles of functional and molecular imaging.

  6. Experimental evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy of human breast carcinoma implanted on nude mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Satya Ranjan

    2000-06-01

    An in-pool small animal irradiation neutron tube (SAINT) facility was designed, constructed and installed at the University of Virginia Nuclear Research Reactor (UVAR). Thermal neutron flux profiles were measured by foil activation analysis (gold) and verified with DORT and MCNP computer code models. The gamma-ray absorbed dose in the neutron-gamma mixed field was determined from TLD measurements. The SAINT thermal neutron flux was used to investigate the well characterized human breast cancer cell line MCF-7B on both in-vitro samples and in- vivo animal subjects. Boronophenylalanine (BPA enriched in 95% 10B) was used as a neutron capturing agent. The in-vitro response of MCF-7B human breast carcinoma cells to BPA in a mixed field of neutron-gamma radiation or pure 60Co gamma radiation was investigated. The best result (lowest surviving fraction) was observed in cell cultures pre-incubated with BPA and given the neutron irradiation. The least effective treatment consisted of 60Co irradiation only. Immunologically deficient nude mice were inoculated subcutaneously with human breast cancer MCF-7B cells and estradiol pellets (to support tumor growth). The tumor volume in the mouse control group increased over time, as expected. The group of mice exposed only to neutron treatment exhibited initial tumor volume reduction lasting until 35 days following the treatment, followed by renewed tumor growth. Both groups given BPA plus neutron treatment showed continuous reduction in tumor volume over the 55-day observation period. The group given the higher BPA concentration showed the best tumor reduction response. The results on both in-vitro and in-vivo studies showed increased cell killing with BPA, substantiating the incorporation of BPA into the tumor or cell line. Therefore, BNCT may be a possible choice for the treatment of human breast carcinoma. However, prior to the initiation of any clinical studies, it is necessary to determine the therapeutic efficacy in a large

  7. Significance of periductal lymphatic and blood vascular densities in intraductal carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gohary, Yasser M; Metwally, Ghada; Saad, Reda S; Robinson, Morton J; Mesko, Thomas; Poppiti, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the significance of periductal lymphatic and blood vascular densities in intraductal carcinomas (IDC) of the breast. Thirty five cases of pure IDC treated by partial or total mastectomy were reviewed. Seven cases with normal breast tissue and 48 cases of invasive breast carcinoma were included as controls. All cases were immunostained with D2-40 and CD31. Positively stained microvessels were counted in densely vascular/lymphatic foci (hot spots) at 400x (=0.17 mm(2)) in the periductal areas. IDC without comedonecrosis showed a mean periductal D2-40 lymphatic microvessel density (LMD) of 5.8 +/- 5 (range 0-18), and a CD31 microvessel density (MD) of 14 +/- 8.9 (range 1-40). IDC with comedonecrosis showed periductal D2-40 LMD of 8.4 +/- 3.8 (range 4-18), and a CD31 MD of 24.3 +/- 7.6 (range 14-40). There was a significant difference between periductal D2-40 LMD and CD31 MD counts in IDC with and without comedonecrosis. There was a positive correlation of periductal D2-40 LMD and CD31 MD counts with high nuclear grade (r = 0.39 and 0.56) of IDC as well as with the presence of comedonecrosis (r = 0.49 and 0.59). Both D2-40 LMD and CD31 MD did not correlate significantly with tumor size, estrogen status, or progesterone status. As IDC with comedonecrosis and/or high nuclear grade has a worse prognosis than IDC without comedonecrosis and/or with low nuclear grade, it appears that lymphatic and blood vascular density evaluated by D2-40 and CD31, respectively, are independent prognostic indicators for patients with IDC of the breast and may be an indicator of early or unrecognized invasion or "regression."

  8. Somatostatin Enhances the Antineoplastic Effects of Tamoxifen on Breast Carcinoma in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENGXizhi; YAOZhenxiang

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To study the antineoplastic effects of tamoxifen(TAM) in combination with a somatostain analogue(octreotide,OCT) on breast cancer.Methods:Estrogen receptor(ER)-positive(MCF-7) and ER-negative(MDA-MB-435S)human breast carcinoma cell lines were treated with TAM or OCT,or combination of both agents in vitro.Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay,distribu-tion of cell cycle and rate of apoptosis were detemined by flow cytometry.Results:The inhibitory effect of OCT or TAM on proliferation of MCF-7 cells was associated with cell arrest in G0/G1 phase and induction of apoptosis.The inhibitory effect on proliferation of MCF-7 cells enhanced when treatment of TAM combined with OCT.The increased rate of apoptosis induced by combination of TAM and OCT was much higher than use of either TAM or OCT alone.TAM or OCT also had weak inhibitory effect on MDA-MB435S cell.The cells were arrested at S phase by TAM and at G0/G1 phase by OCT, but the induction of apoptosis was not identified.However,the rate of apoptosis was 22.7% if combined treatment of TAM and OCT applied.Conclusion:TAM and OCT can synergistically inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancer cells.The synergism of TAM and OCT may be of interest in the clinical treatment of breast carcinoma.

  9. Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: MRI pathological correlation following bilateral total mastectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stivalet, Aude; Pigneur, Frederic (AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor Albert Chenevier, Imagerie Medicale, Creteil (France)); Luciani, Alain (AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor Albert Chenevier, Imagerie Medicale, Creteil (France); INSERM Unite U 955, Equipe 17, Univ. Paris Est Creteil, Creteil (France)), email: alain.luciani@hmn.aphp.fr (and others)

    2012-05-15

    Background: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is more often multifocal and bilateral than invasive ductal carcinoma. MRI is usually recommended for detection of all ILC sites. The performance of known diagnostic breast MRI criteria for ILC characterization has not been evaluated to date using bilateral mastectomy specimens as gold standard. Purpose: To determine the value of BI-RADS 2006 MRI criteria for ILC detection and characterization, using pathological examination of bilateral mastectomy specimens as the reference standard. Material and Methods: Between 2004 and 2007, we retrospectively included all patients with pathologically documented ILC referred to our institution for bilateral mastectomy and preoperative bilateral breast MRI. The location, diameter, and characteristics (BI-RADS) of all lesions were compared with pathological findings. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of bilateral breast MRI for the diagnosis of ILC were calculated. Association of MRI BI-RADS categorical variables and characterization of ILC were assessed (Fisher exact test). Results: Among 360 patients treated for ILC in 2004-2007, 15 patients qualified for this study. Thirty-one ILC foci were found on pathological examination (30 ipsilateral and 1 contralateral tumor; mean diameter 23 mm; range 2-60 mm) and all were identified on MRI, with 90% of masses and 10% non-mass-like enhancements; MRI features significantly associated with ILC included absence of smooth margins (P = 0.02) and rim-shaped enhancement (P = 0.039). Enhancement kinetics of the 31 foci were evenly distributed among wash-out, plateau, and persistent profiles. Eleven additional lesions were seen on MRI, mainly corresponding to fibrocystic disease; 91% presented as masses and 9% had a wash-out profile. Conclusion: Based on the 2006 BI-RADS criteria, breast MRI shows a high sensitivity for ILC detection, at the expense of a 26% false-positive rate, suggesting that a pathological proof by US- or MR

  10. Typical and atypical lymphatic flows in breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, Vittorio; Monteleone, Francesco; D'Orazi, Valerio; Del Vecchio, Luca; Sottile, Daniela; Iacobelli, Silvia; Monti, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    La pratica, universalmente riconosciuta, della ricerca e biopsia del linfonodo sentinella nella stadiazione dei tumori ha evidenziato una serie di situazioni anatomiche e fisiologiche che hanno consentito una più approfondita conoscenza del comportamento del flusso linfatico nel soggetto sano e nel paziente affetto da neoplasia. In particolar modo abbiamo concentrato la nostra attenzione sulle pazienti sottoposte a ricerca linfoscintigrafica del linfonodo sentinella in vista di interventi chirurgici per carcinoma mammario; abbiamo valutato statisticamente la sede in cui è stato reperito il LS e nell’eventualità di drenaggio in sedi anomale il percorso del flusso linfatico. Si è fatto riferimento, per questo studio, alla casistica del Dipartimento di Scienze Chirurgiche dell’Università La Sapienza di Roma maturata negli ultimi 2 anni. Lo scopo del nostro studio è stato quello di valutare statisticamente la sede del linfonodo sentinella, le possibilità di flussi linfatici in direzione non usuale e in questi casi dove, quando e perché. Ne sono emersi riscontri degni di analisi critica e considerazioni oggetto del presente lavoro.

  11. Transitional cell carcinoma metastatic to the eye in a collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Christina; Stanley, Robin; Lynch, Michael

    2002-09-01

    A 15-year-old female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) was presented for ophthalmic examination following sudden onset of blindness. Bilateral retinal detachment was diagnosed, neoplasia suspected, and euthanasia performed. Widespread tumor dissemination was apparent at autopsy, and transitional cell carcinoma was diagnosed histologically. The tumor was identified as arising from the ovary. Epidemiologic features of this case are discussed.

  12. Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in children: radiologic appearance and differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillin, S P; McAlister, W H

    1991-01-01

    Primary epithelial tumors of the bladder are rare in children. We report a case of transitional cell carcinoma (TCCa) of the bladder in a 10-year-old boy who was evaluated with intravenous urography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography (CT). The radiographic appearance and a differential diagnosis are discussed. The literature of TCCa of the bladder in children is reviewed.

  13. Quantitative histopathology in the prognostic evaluation of patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Fukuzawa, S

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphologic grading of malignancy is considered to be of prognostic value in patients with transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder (TCC). This qualitative approach is, however, associated with low reproducibility. Grading of malignancy can be carried out on a reproducible...

  14. Reproductive risk factors associated with breast carcinoma in a tertiary care hospital of north India: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babita, R; Kumar, N; Karwasra, R K; Singh, M; Malik, J S; Kaur, A

    2014-01-01

    Context: Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. In India and other developing countries, breast carcinoma ranks second only to cervical carcinoma among women. But the incidence of breast cancer is on the rise and may become number one cancer in females in near future. Aims: (1) To find out the magnitude of reproductive risk factors of carcinoma breast among the study subjects; and (2) to find out the association of reproductive risk factors with breast carcinoma. Materials and Methods: The study was done in the wards of General Surgery and Oncosurgery from August 2009-July 2010 in a tertiary care institute. A total of 128 histopathologically confirmed cases of breast cancer those came in this duration were considered. Equal controls were selected by simple random sampling by lottery method. The controls were matched for age with a range of ± 2 years. The subjects were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire. Written informed consent was taken from study subjects before starting the interview. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test, odds ratio with 95% confidence interval, and t test. Results: The age group of the cases was 25-78 years, whereas that of the controls was 24-79 years. The difference among cases and controls regarding age at marriage, age at menarche, age at menopause, age at first pregnancy, and number of children was statistically significant. Continuous variables of the study population were analyzed by independent t tests, in which age at menarche and age at first pregnancy were found statistically significant. Conclusions: Information, education, and communication activities regarding risk factors and breast self-examination should be imparted to the women to create awareness about this fatal disease.

  15. Reproductive risk factors associated with breast carcinoma in a tertiary care hospital of north India: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Babita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. In India and other developing countries, breast carcinoma ranks second only to cervical carcinoma among women. But the incidence of breast cancer is on the rise and may become number one cancer in females in near future. Aims: (1 To find out the magnitude of reproductive risk factors of carcinoma breast among the study subjects; and (2 to find out the association of reproductive risk factors with breast carcinoma. Materials and Methods: The study was done in the wards of General Surgery and Oncosurgery from August 2009-July 2010 in a tertiary care institute. A total of 128 histopathologically confirmed cases of breast cancer those came in this duration were considered. Equal controls were selected by simple random sampling by lottery method. The controls were matched for age with a range of ± 2 years. The subjects were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire. Written informed consent was taken from study subjects before starting the interview. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test, odds ratio with 95% confidence interval, and t test. Results: The age group of the cases was 25-78 years, whereas that of the controls was 24-79 years. The difference among cases and controls regarding age at marriage, age at menarche, age at menopause, age at first pregnancy, and number of children was statistically significant. Continuous variables of the study population were analyzed by independent t tests, in which age at menarche and age at first pregnancy were found statistically significant. Conclusions: Information, education, and communication activities regarding risk factors and breast self-examination should be imparted to the women to create awareness about this fatal disease.

  16. Sonographic Findings of Additional Malignant Lesions in Breast Carcinoma Seen by Second Look Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Delgado Laguna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim is to show ultrasound (US findings of additional malignant lesions of breast carcinoma visualized on targeted second-look US that were not identified by mammography or US prior to the time of diagnosis. Materials and Methods: A double-blind retrospective review of the US results from January 2008 through August 2010 of 228 patients with known breast cancer was conducted by two expert radiologists. The focus of the review was on the second-look US characteristics (following BI-RADS criteria of 26 documented additional malignant lesions of the 76 with successful sonographic correlation from the 123 lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. All of them, before the MRI, had an initial mammography and a US with a histopathological biopsy of the primary lesion. Results: Approximately 60 to 70% of the findings were classified as BI-RADS 2 and BI-RADS 3, while assessing the final US category. The review of the second-look US showed the size of the second malignant additional lesion ranged from 3 to 22 mm, of which 90% were smaller than 10 mm and 66% were smaller than 7 mm. Conclusions: Most additional malignant lesions, nonpalpable carcinomas, which were previously not detected by mammography and US at first-look diagnosis, were detected by a targeted second-look US examination. These lesions were of category BI-RADS 2 and BI-RADS 3 and smaller than 7 mm.

  17. Wet autoclave pretreatment for immunohistochemical demonstration of oestrogen receptors in routinely processed breast carcinoma tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, B; Bankfalvi, A; Grote, L; Blasius, S; Ofner, D; Böcker, W; Jasani, B; Schmid, K W

    1995-02-01

    The immunohistochemical demonstration of oestrogen receptor (OR) was performed on 32 randomly selected and routinely processed breast carcinomas after wet autoclave pretreatment of sections. The autoclave method was compared to the OR status found on frozen sections as well as to alternative pretreatment methods such as enzymatic predigestion and microwave irradiation. Using four different monoclonal antibody clones (H222, LH1, CC4-5, 1D5.26), the OR status was evaluated for each of the various pretreatment methods applied. All cases with a high OR content on frozen sections (n = 11) also showed a high OR status on wet autoclave-pretreated paraffin tissues using antibody clones 1D5.26 and CC4-5; in cases with low OR content on frozen sections, no false-negative cases were recorded using only the antibody 1D5.26 neither after wet autoclave nor microwave pretreatment. In addition, with this antibody, OR was detectable after autoclave pretreatment in two cases which were considered to be OR-negative even on frozen sections. When the primary antibody was omitted, no false-positive cases were observed after wet autoclave pretreatment. Thus, in our hands, wet autoclave pretreatment, in combination with the antibody 1D5.26, offers a highly sensitive method for the immunohistochemical demonstration of OR in routinely formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of breast carcinomas.

  18. Lymphoid infiltration as a prognostic variable for early-onset breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, S; Tomasic, G; Casalini, P; Balsari, A; Pilotti, S; Cascinelli, N; Salvadori, B; Colnaghi, M I; Rilke, F

    1997-05-01

    Infiltration by lymphoid cells is a common feature of many human tumors, including breast carcinomas, and the degree of infiltration has been suggested to be a measure of the host immune response. Our analyses in a series of 1919 cases of primary ductal and lobular infiltrating breast carcinomas from women with a long-term follow-up revealed: (a) a 16-17% frequency of infiltrated tumors independent of the patient's age at diagnosis; and (b) a strong positive correlation between survival rates and the presence of lymphocytes at the tumor site in patients less than 40 years of age (P = 0.0002) but no association with prognosis in patients 40 years of age or older. Multivariate analysis indicated that lymphoid infiltration is independent of other conventional prognostic factors such as nodal status and tumor size in predicting survival. Thus, a possible immune response against the tumor seems to be relevant only in women with early-onset tumors. Because the immune system is functionally maximum in younger years, declining with age, this finding might reflect a difference in the efficiency of the immune system. Alternatively, the biology of these tumors might differ, leading to a difference in immuno-genicity.

  19. Long-term follow-up of in situ carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebi, V; Feudale, E; Foschini, M P; Micheli, A; Conti, A; Riva, C; Di Palma, S; Rilke, F

    1994-08-01

    Eighty cases of duct carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast have been investigated by a cohort-retrospective study. These consisted of 8.5 per 1,000 of 9,446 breast biopsies originally diagnosed as benign, between 1964 and 1976, with a mean follow-up of 17.5 years. There were forty-one cases (51%) of DCIS of clinging type (CC); 30 cases (37.%) of CC associated with other types of DCIS; nine cases of DCIS other than CC two of which were DCIS of comedo-type. Invasive duct carcinoma (IDC) subsequently developed in 11 patients (14%), whereas DCIS recurred in 5 (6%). The recurrence was ipsilateral in 12 of these 16 patients. IDC appeared more frequently, with high statistical significance, when the lesion present in the original biopsy showed pleomorphic (P) nuclei (ie, poorly differentiated cyto-nuclear morphology). The Standardized Morbidity Ratio (SMR) was 8.0 (95% CI; 2.9-17.5) with the general population as reference. IDC that developed following a lesion displaying P nuclei also showed a statistically significantly more aggressive behavior. It is suggested that when cases of DCIS are followed-up for a considerable length of time, a two-wave pattern of aggressiveness becomes apparent. IDC that develops after a poorly differentiated DCIS leads to death more precociously than that appearing after other types of DCIS, especially those showing more bland nuclear cytology.

  20. p53 expression is of independent predictive value in lymph node-negative breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno, M; Molina, R; Pérez del Río, M J; Alvarez, S; Díaz-Iglesias, J M; García, I; Herrero, A

    1997-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate p53 expression, determined by immunohistochemistry, in 151 infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas with negative axillary lymph nodes, and to determine whether p53 can be considered as an independent prognostic value for overall and disease-free survival. A monoclonal antibody (DO-7) that reacts with an epitope on the N terminal portion of the human protein p53 was used to detect p53 in paraffin-embedded sections, utilising a standard avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) technique with a microwave oven antigen retrieval. Overexpression of p53 (more than 50% of stained cells) was found in 45 cases (30%). Forty-five cases were negative and occasionally or moderately stained cells were present in 61 cases. p53 protein overexpression was significantly associated with high histological grade and tumour necrosis, high MIB-1 value (MIB-1 > 30%) and negative oestrogen receptor status. Univariate analysis (log-rank) showed a shorter overall survival (P = 0.003) in patients with high tumour p53 positivity. This statistical significance was also seen on multivariate analysis (Cox's logistic regression, P = 0.004). p53 protein overexpression is an independent prognostic marker in node-negative breast carcinoma for overall survival and should be used with other prognostic factors.

  1. Invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast showing partial reversed cell polarity are associated with lymphatic tumor spread and may represent part of a spectrum of invasive micropapillary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acs, Geza; Esposito, Nicole N; Rakosy, Zsuzsa; Laronga, Christine; Zhang, Paul J

    2010-11-01

    Invasive micropapillary carcinomas (IMPC) of the breast are aggressive tumors frequently associated with lymphatic invasion and nodal metastasis even when micropapillary (MP) differentiation is very focal within the tumors. We have noticed that some breast carcinomas showing lymphatic spread but lacking histologic features of IMPC have occasional tumor cell clusters reminiscent of those of IMPC without the characteristic prominent retraction artifact. To study the clinicopathologic significance of such features, we prospectively selected 1323 invasive ductal carcinomas and determined the presence and extent of MP differentiation and retraction artifact in the tumors. One representative tumor block per case was used for immunostaining for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). Partial reverse cell polarity (PRCP) was defined as prominent linear EMA reactivity on at least part of the periphery of tumor cell clusters usually associated with decreased cytoplasmic staining. The clinicopathologic features of carcinomas with PRCP were compared with IMPC and invasive ductal (no special type) carcinomas without this feature. Of the 1323 cases, 96 (7.3%) and 92 (7.0%) showed MP features and the presence of PRCP, respectively. We found that the presence of both PRCP and MP features were strongly associated with decreased cytoplasmic EMA immunoreactivity and the presence of lymphatic invasion and nodal metastasis, even if such features were present only very focally. Our results suggest that breast carcinomas with PRCP may have the same implication as MP differentiation and these tumors may represent part of a spectrum of IMPC. Complete or partial reversal of cell polarity may play a significant role in lymphatic tumor spread.

  2. FOXA2 mRNA expression is associated with relapse in patients with Triple-Negative/Basal-like breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Balaguer, Ariadna; Ortiz-Martínez, Fernando; García-Martínez, Araceli; Pomares-Navarro, Critina; Lerma, Enrique; Peiró, Gloria

    2015-09-01

    The FOXA family of transcription factors regulates chromatin structure and gene expression especially during embryonic development. In normal breast tissue FOXA1 acts throughout mammary development; whereas in breast carcinoma its expression promotes luminal phenotype and correlates with good prognosis. However, the role of FOXA2 has not been previously studied in breast cancer. Our purpose was to analyze the expression of FOXA2 in breast cancer cells, to explore its role in breast cancer stem cells, and to correlate its mRNA expression with clinicopathological features and outcome in a series of patients diagnosed with breast carcinoma. We analyzed FOXA2 mRNA expression in a retrospective cohort of 230 breast cancer patients and in cell lines. We also knocked down FOXA2 mRNA expression by siRNA to determine the impact on cell proliferation and mammospheres formation using a cancer stem cells culture assay. In vitro studies demonstrated higher FOXA2 mRNA expression in Triple-Negative/Basal-like cells. Further, when it was knocked down, cells decreased proliferation and its capability of forming mammospheres. Similarly, FOXA2 mRNA expression was detected in 10% (23/230) of the tumors, especially in Triple-Negative/Basal-like phenotype (p Triple-Negative/Basal-like tumors, and is associated with increase relapses.

  3. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter activity is dispensable for MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Duane D; Wu, Yuejin; Domann, Frederick E; Spitz, Douglas R; Anderson, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Calcium uptake through the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) is thought to be essential in regulating cellular signaling events, energy status, and survival. Functional dissection of the uniporter is now possible through the recent identification of the genes encoding for MCU protein complex subunits. Cancer cells exhibit many aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction associated with altered mitochondrial Ca2+ levels including resistance to apoptosis, increased reactive oxygen species production and decreased oxidative metabolism. We used a publically available database to determine that breast cancer patient outcomes negatively correlated with increased MCU Ca2+ conducting pore subunit expression and decreased MICU1 regulatory subunit expression. We hypothesized breast cancer cells may therefore be sensitive to MCU channel manipulation. We used the widely studied MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line to investigate whether disruption or increased activation of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake with specific siRNAs and adenoviral overexpression constructs would sensitize these cells to therapy-related stress. MDA-MB-231 cells were found to contain functional MCU channels that readily respond to cellular stimulation and elicit robust AMPK phosphorylation responses to nutrient withdrawal. Surprisingly, knockdown of MCU or MICU1 did not affect reactive oxygen species production or cause significant effects on clonogenic cell survival of MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to irradiation, chemotherapeutic agents, or nutrient deprivation. Overexpression of wild type or a dominant negative mutant MCU did not affect basal cloning efficiency or ceramide-induced cell killing. In contrast, non-cancerous breast epithelial HMEC cells showed reduced survival after MCU or MICU1 knockdown. These results support the conclusion that MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells do not rely on MCU or MICU1 activity for survival in contrast to previous findings in cells derived from cervical, colon, and prostate cancers and

  4. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter activity is dispensable for MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane D Hall

    Full Text Available Calcium uptake through the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU is thought to be essential in regulating cellular signaling events, energy status, and survival. Functional dissection of the uniporter is now possible through the recent identification of the genes encoding for MCU protein complex subunits. Cancer cells exhibit many aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction associated with altered mitochondrial Ca2+ levels including resistance to apoptosis, increased reactive oxygen species production and decreased oxidative metabolism. We used a publically available database to determine that breast cancer patient outcomes negatively correlated with increased MCU Ca2+ conducting pore subunit expression and decreased MICU1 regulatory subunit expression. We hypothesized breast cancer cells may therefore be sensitive to MCU channel manipulation. We used the widely studied MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line to investigate whether disruption or increased activation of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake with specific siRNAs and adenoviral overexpression constructs would sensitize these cells to therapy-related stress. MDA-MB-231 cells were found to contain functional MCU channels that readily respond to cellular stimulation and elicit robust AMPK phosphorylation responses to nutrient withdrawal. Surprisingly, knockdown of MCU or MICU1 did not affect reactive oxygen species production or cause significant effects on clonogenic cell survival of MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to irradiation, chemotherapeutic agents, or nutrient deprivation. Overexpression of wild type or a dominant negative mutant MCU did not affect basal cloning efficiency or ceramide-induced cell killing. In contrast, non-cancerous breast epithelial HMEC cells showed reduced survival after MCU or MICU1 knockdown. These results support the conclusion that MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells do not rely on MCU or MICU1 activity for survival in contrast to previous findings in cells derived from cervical, colon, and

  5. Quantitation of HDAC1 mRNA expression in invasive carcinoma of the breast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhuan Zhang; Hirotaka Iwase; Hiroko Yamashita; Tatsuya Toyama; Hiroshi Sugiura; Yoshiaki Ando; Keiko Mita; Maho Hamaguchi; Yasuo Hara; Shunzo Kobayashi

    2006-01-01

    Estrogen is well-established as a mitogenic factor implicated in the tumorigenesis and progression of breast cancer via its binding to the estrogen receptor a(ERα). Recent data indicate that chromatin inactivation mediated by histone deacetylation(HDAC) and DNA methylation is a critical component of ERα silencing in human breast cancer cells. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of the HDAC1 gene in malignant human breast tissue and to correlate our observations with available clinical information. In the present study, the level of expression of HDAC1 mRNA was assessed by LightCycler-based quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analvsis in 162 cases of invasive carcinoma of the breast. Associations between HDAC1 mRNA expression and different clinicopathological factors were sought. It was found that HDAC1 mRNA was expressed at significantly higher levels in tumors from patients over 50 years of age and in those tumors without axillary lymph node involvement, that are less than 2 cm, that are of a non-high histological grade, that are HER2 negative and that are ERα/PgR positive. Patients with tumors displaying high levels of HDAC1 mRNA expression tended to have a better prognosis in terms of both disease-free and overall survival. However, univariate and multivariate analysis did not show HDAC1 mRNA expression level to be an independent prognostic factor for either disease-free or overall survival. These results imply that HDAC1 mRNA expression could have potential as an endocrine response marker and may have prognostic implications for breast cancer progression.

  6. Novel markers for differentiation of lobular and ductal invasive breast carcinomas by laser microdissection and microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srovnal Josef

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas (IDC and ILC are the most common histological types of breast cancer. Clinical follow-up data and metastatic patterns suggest that the development and progression of these tumors are different. The aim of our study was to identify gene expression profiles of IDC and ILC in relation to normal breast epithelial cells. Methods We examined 30 samples (normal ductal and lobular cells from 10 patients, IDC cells from 5 patients, ILC cells from 5 patients microdissected from cryosections of ten mastectomy specimens from postmenopausal patients. Fifty nanograms of total RNA were amplified and labeled by PCR and in vitro transcription. Samples were analysed upon Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays. The expression of seven differentially expressed genes (CDH1, EMP1, DDR1, DVL1, KRT5, KRT6, KRT17 was verified by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. Expression of ASPN mRNA was validated by in situ hybridization on frozen sections, and CTHRC1, ASPN and COL3A1 were tested by PCR. Results Using GCOS pairwise comparison algorithm and rank products we have identified 84 named genes common to ILC versus normal cell types, 74 named genes common to IDC versus normal cell types, 78 named genes differentially expressed between normal ductal and lobular cells, and 28 named genes between IDC and ILC. Genes distinguishing between IDC and ILC are involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, TGF-beta and Wnt signaling. These changes were present in both tumor types but appeared to be more prominent in ILC. Immunohistochemistry for several novel markers (EMP1, DVL1, DDR1 distinguished large sets of IDC from ILC. Conclusion IDC and ILC can be differentiated both at the gene and protein levels. In this study we report two candidate genes, asporin (ASPN and collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1 which might be significant in breast carcinogenesis. Besides E-cadherin, the proteins validated on tissue

  7. Perfil imuno-histoquímico de carcinomas mamários invasores em homens Immunohistochemical profile of invasive male breast carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Medeiros Souza de Freitas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O câncer de mama em homens é uma doença incomum. A cada 150 casos de câncer de mama é esperada a ocorrência de apenas um no sexo masculino. Devido à baixa incidência desta neoplasia, grande parte do seu conhecimento é oriunda do carcinoma de mama no sexo feminino, cujos parâmetros diagnósticos, prognósticos e terapêuticos são bem estabelecidos na literatura. Entretanto, a distribuição dos fenótipos moleculares dos carcinomas da mama masculina é pouco conhecida. Pela análise de dados clínicos e imuno-histoquímicos estudamos os diferentes perfis de uma amostra de 20 casos de tumores invasores de mama em homens. Utilizamos um painel de cinco anticorpos composto por receptor de estrogênio, citoqueratinas 5/6, citoqueratinas 8/18, HER-1 e HER-2. Dos 20 casos examinados, 19 eram carcinomas do tipo ductal não-especial (95% e um do tipo lobular (5%. A maioria dos casos foi composta por mastectomias (65%, sendo a média de tamanho das neoplasias de 2,8 cm e o grau histológico mais freqüente o II (60%. Do total, 86,6% dos casos apresentaram metástases linfonodais. O número médio de linfonodos comprometidos foi de 5,2 nas amostras com axila positiva. Foram determinados 14 tumores (70% correspondentes ao fenótipo RE+/luminal, dois (10% do tipo indeterminado, um único tumor (5% do fenótipo Basal, e três de mama (15% correspondendo ao fenótipo HER2-positivo. A imunofenotipagem dos carcinomas de mama no sexo masculino permite traçar paralelos com os tumores de mama feminina, possibilitando a elucidação de fatores intrínsecos à doença em cada um dos sexos.Male breast cancer (MBC is a rare disease. One out of 150 cases of breast cancer is expected to occur in the male gender. Due to the low incidence of this neoplasia, most information about it derives from female breast carcinoma, whose diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutical parameters are well established in the medical literature. However, the distribution of molecular

  8. The plasticity of human breast carcinoma cells is more than epithelial to mesenchymal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Ole William; Nielsen, Helga Lind; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, Ren& #233; ; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J.

    2001-05-12

    The human breast comprises three lineages: the luminal epithelial lineage, the myoepithelial lineage, and the mesenchymal lineage. It has been widely accepted that human breast neoplasia pertains only to the luminal epithelial lineage. In recent years, however, evidence has accumulated that neoplastic breast epithelial cells may be substantially more plastic in their differentiation repertoire than previously anticipated. Thus, along with an increasing availability of markers for the myoepithelial lineage, at least a partial differentiation towards this lineage is being revealed frequently. It has also become clear that conversions towards the mesenchymal lineage actually occur, referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transitions. Indeed, some of the so-called myofibroblasts surrounding the tumor may indeed have an epithelial origin rather than a mesenchymal origin. Because myoepithelial cells, epithelial to mesenchymal transition-derived cells, genuine stromal cells and myofibroblasts share common markers, we now need to define a more ambitious set of markers to distinguish these cell types in the microenvironment of the tumors. This is necessary because the different microenvironments may confer different clinical outcomes. The aim of this commentary is to describe some of the inherent complexities in defining cellular phenotypes in the microenvironment of breast cancer and to expand wherever possible on the implications for tumor suppression and progression.

  9. Correlation between 3 T apparent diffusion coefficient values and grading of invasive breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipolla, Valentina, E-mail: valentina.cipolla@yahoo.it [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome (Italy); Santucci, Domiziana; Guerrieri, Daniele; Drudi, Francesco Maria [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome (Italy); Meggiorini, Maria Letizia [Department of Gynaecological Sciences, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome (Italy); Felice, Carlo de [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Apparent diffusion coefficient is a quantitative parameter which reflects molecular water movement. • Grading is an independent prognostic factor which correlates with other histopathological features. • Apparent diffusion coefficient values were significantly different between G1 and G3 classes. - Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) provided by 3.0 T (3 T) magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) varied according to the grading of invasive breast carcinoma. Materials and methods: A total of 92 patients with 96 invasive breast cancer lesions were enrolled; all had undergone 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for local staging. All lesions were confirmed by histological analysis, and tumor grade was established according to the Nottingham Grading System (NGS). MRI included both dynamic contrast-enhanced and DWI sequences, and ADC value was calculated for each lesion. ADC values were compared with NGS classification using the Mann–Whitney U and the Kruskal–Wallis H tests. Grading was considered as a comprehensive prognostic factor, and Rho Spearman test was performed to determine correlation between grading and tumor size, hormonal receptor status, HER2 expression and Ki67 index. Pearson's Chi square test was carried out to compare grading with the other prognostic factors. Results: ADC values were significantly higher in G1 than in G3 tumors. No significant difference was observed when G1 and G3 were compared with G2. Tumor size, hormonal receptor status, HER2 expression and Ki67 index correlated significantly with grading but there was a significant difference only between G1 and G3 related to the ER and PR status, HER2 expression and Ki67 index. There was no statistically significant difference in lesion size between the two groups. Conclusion: ADC values obtained on 3 T DWI correlated with low-grade (G1) and high-grade (G3) invasive breast carcinoma. 3

  10. Metastatic ductal carcinoma of the breast to the thyroid gland diagnosed with fine needle aspiration: A case report with emphasis on morphologic and immunophenotypic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magers, Martin J; Dueber, Julie C; Lew, Madelyn; Pang, Judy C; Davenport, Robertson D

    2016-06-01

    Metastases to the thyroid are uncommon [thyroid fine needle aspirations (FNA)]. Of metastases to the thyroid, breast carcinoma is relatively common. The diagnosis of metastasis to the thyroid has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. To our knowledge, a morphologic and immunophenotypic comparison of metastatic ductal carcinoma of the breast and primary thyroid carcinomas has not been reported. Here, we report the case of a 37-year-old female with a history of metastatic ductal carcinoma of the breast (modified Bloom-Richardson grade 2; ER+, PgR+, HER2+) diagnosed 6 years prior. She developed hoarseness, prompting a CT scan. Multiple thyroid nodules were found, including a 1.5 cm hypoechoic, solid, irregularly-shaped nodule. On FNA, cells were arranged singly and in crowded groups, varied in size and degree of pleomorphism, and exhibited rare nuclear grooves, inconspicuous nucleoli, and rare intracytoplasmic lumina with no nuclear pseudoinclusions or colloid (Figs. 1A and B). These findings raised the differential of papillary thyroid carcinoma (Fig. 1C), follicular neoplasm (Fig. 1D), medullary carcinoma (Fig. 1E), parathyroid (Fig. 1F), and metastatic breast carcinoma. Immunostaining for GATA-3 (+), ER (+), PAX-8 (-), and TTF-1 (-) was consistent with metastatic breast carcinoma (Fig. 2). We conclude that metastatic breast carcinoma to the thyroid may morphologically mimic primary thyroid carcinoma on FNA; a panel of immunomarkers, such as GATA-3, hormonal marker(s), PAX-8, and TTF-1, may be useful in some cases. GATA-3 immunostaining for metastatic breast carcinoma was helpful in our case and has not been previously reported in a thyroid metastasis sampled by FNA. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:530-534. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The plasticity of human breast carcinoma cells is more than epithelial to mesenchymal conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole William; Nielsen, Helga Lind; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn;

    2001-01-01

    The human breast comprises three lineages: the luminal epithelial lineage, the myoepithelial lineage, and the mesenchymal lineage. It has been widely accepted that human breast neoplasia pertains only to the luminal epithelial lineage. In recent years, however, evidence has accumulated that neopl......The human breast comprises three lineages: the luminal epithelial lineage, the myoepithelial lineage, and the mesenchymal lineage. It has been widely accepted that human breast neoplasia pertains only to the luminal epithelial lineage. In recent years, however, evidence has accumulated...... that neoplastic breast epithelial cells may be substantially more plastic in their differentiation repertoire than previously anticipated. Thus, along with an increasing availability of markers for the myoepithelial lineage, at least a partial differentiation towards this lineage is being revealed frequently....... It has also become clear that conversions towards the mesenchymal lineage actually occur, referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transitions. Indeed, some of the so-called myofibroblasts surrounding the tumor may have an epithelial origin rather than a mesenchymal origin. Because myoepithelial cells...

  12. Correlation of primary tumor size and axillary nodal status with tumor suppressor gene p53 in breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topić Brano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation of standard path morphological prognostic parameters, primary tumor size and axillary nodal status with new prognostic factor in breast carcinoma: tumor suppressor gene p53 was analyzed. The studied sample included 65 women who underwent surgery for breast carcinoma at the Surgical Clinic of Clinical Center Banja Luka, from January 1st 1997 till January 1st 1999. Statistical data analysis was performed and correlation of prognostic factors was determined. The majority of authors in this field agree that the primary tumor size and axillary nodal status are the two most important prognostic factors. These factors are the best predictors of prognosis and survival of women who had the tumor and were operated on. Tumor markers were immunohistochemically determined in the last ten years and, according to the majority of authors, are still considered the additional or relative prognostic factors in breast carcinoma. Their prognostic value and significance increase almost daily. Most frequently determined tumor markers are bcl-2, pS2, Ki-67 and p53. There was a positive, directly proportional relationship between primary tumor size and tumor suppressor gene p53, but there was no positive correlation between the axillary nodal status and tumor suppressor gene p53. Significance of determination of new tumor markers as the prognostic factors was emphasized. These markers represent a powerful tool in the early detection and prevention of breast carcinoma.

  13. FABP7 and HMGCS2 are novel protein markers for apocrine differentiation categorizing apocrine carcinoma of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Espinoza, Jaime A; Talman, Maj-Lis;

    2014-01-01

    Apocrine carcinoma of the breast is a distinctive malignancy with unique morphological and molecular features, generally characterized by being negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors, and thus not electable for endocrine therapy. Despite the fact that they are morphologically distinct f...

  14. Endocrine sensitivity of the receptor-positive T61 human breast carcinoma serially grown in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Spang-Thomsen, M; Skovgaard Poulsen, H;

    1985-01-01

    A study was made on the effect of ovariectomy, 17 beta-oestradiol, and tamoxifen on the oestrogen and progesterone receptor-positive T61 human breast carcinoma grown in nude mice. The effect of the treatment was evaluated by the specific growth delay calculated on the basis of Gompertz growth...

  15. Critical appraisal of cytological nuclear grading in carcinoma of the breast and its correlation with ER/PR expression

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    Bhargava Vidhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cytological nuclear grading is one of the several key prognostic factors that should be addressed in cytological analysis of breast carcinomas. Aims: To evaluate different cytological nuclear grading methods on fine needle aspirates of breast carcinomas and its correlation with histopathological nuclear grading as well as with the immunocytochemical expression of estrogen receptor (ER and progesterone receptor (PR. Materials and Methods: The smears from 30 cytologically proven cases of breast carcinoma were graded by - Nottingham′s modification of Scarff Bloom Richardson, Fisher′s modification of Black′s nuclear grading and Robinson′s cytological grading methods. 18 cases were available for correlation with histology grading. Results: Robbinson′s cytological grading system was found to have the best correlation with histopathology grades (P < 0.001 as well as ER (P = 0.003 and PR (P = 0.001 expression on smears. Conclusions: The Richardson′s cytology grading method is recommended for cytological nuclear grading along with ER / PR expression, without which the cytological diagnosis of breast carcinoma is incomplete.

  16. Robinson′s cytological grading on aspirates of breast carcinoma: Correlation with Bloom Richardson′s histological grading

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    Sinha S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Cytological grading (CG on aspirates of breast carcinoma is a useful tool for surgical maneuver and prognosis. Aims : An endeavor was made to use CG on aspirates of breast carcinoma using Robinson′s grade and to correlate it with Bloom Richardsons′ histopathological grading. Materials and Methods : A total of 59 patients of breast carcinoma, aged 28-57 years, were aspirated and the smears were graded using Robinson′s criteria. All the cases were correlated with Bloom Richardson′s grade on histopathology in mastectomy specimens. Lymphadenopathy in 38 cases was aspirated and stained with Papanicolaou and Romanowsky stain. Results : Robinson′s CG correlated well with Bloom Richardson′s histopathological grading. For grade I and II tumors, there was substantial strength of agreement between cytology and histopathology, while in grade III, the concordance was nearly perfect. Lymph node metastasis was found in 27 of 32 axillary nodes, three of five cervical nodes and the only palpable supraclavicular node. Lymph node metastasis was observed in three with cytological grade II, 28 of grade III and none of grade I. All grade I had stage A, two of grade II had stage B, while all grade III had either stage B or stage C disease. Conclusions : Thus, CG of breast carcinoma correlates well with histopathological grading and may well be useful as a prognostic marker.

  17. Acute leukemia / myelodysplastic syndrome as a sequelae of carcinoma breast: A report of five cases from north India

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    Bhatia Prateek

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A second malignant neoplasm has been found to be more frequent than might be expected from the general population rates. Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute leukemia are dreaded long-term complications of five cases of hematological malignancies following treatment for successful breast cancer therapy (therapeutic drugs or radiotherapy. We encountered carcinoma from north India over a 7-year period from 1999 to 2005. The patients presented 2-5 years after treatment of breast carcinoma. Three patients underwent surgery and received chemoradiotherapy. One patient received chemotherapy after surgery. One patient underwent only surgery and after 3 years presented with acute myeloid leukemia and bone marrow metastasis of carcinoma of the breast. At the time of presentation, all the patients had either bicytopenia or pancytopenia. A close follow-up with complete blood cell counts of the patients who previously had carcinoma of the breast is suggested for early detection of hematological abnormalities. However, the poor prognosis, limited financial resources and poor health insurance coverage results in few patients and their family members opting for treatment.

  18. FoxD3 deficiency promotes breast cancer progression by induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Tian-Li [Department of General Surgery, The People’s Hospital of Wuqing, Tianjin (China); Zhao, Hong-Meng [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Li, Yue [Department of Respiration, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Tianjin (China); Chen, Ao-Xiang; Sun, Xuan [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Ge, Jie, E-mail: gejie198003@163.com [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. • FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. • FoxD3 deficiency induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition. - Abstract: The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3) plays an important role in the development of neural crest and gastric cancer cells. However, the function and mechanisms of FOXD3 in the breast tumorigenesis and progression is still limited. Here, we report that FOXD3 is a tumor suppressor of breast cancer tumorigenicity and aggressiveness. We found that FOXD3 is down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. Patients with low FOXD3 expression have a poor outcome. Depletion of FOXD3 expression promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, whereas overexpression of FOXD3 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, depletion of FOXD3 is linked to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype. Our results indicate FOXD3 exhibits tumor suppressive activity and may be useful for breast therapy.

  19. High SPARC Expression Starting from Dysplasia, Associated with Breast Carcinoma, Is Predictive for Bone Metastasis without Enhancement of Plasma Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Paola; Bendinelli, Paola; Morelli, Daniele; Drago, Lorenzo; Luzzati, Alessandro; Perrucchini, Giuseppe; Bonini, Chiara; Matteucci, Emanuela; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2015-01-01

    In order to become established in the skeleton, metastatic cells disseminating from the breast carcinoma need to acquire organ-specific traits. There are no effective predictors for who will develop bone metastasis to guide long-term predictive therapy. Our purpose was to individuate events critical for bone colonization to make a molecular classification of breast carcinoma useful for bone-metastasis outcome. In dysplasia adjacent to carcinoma and in pair-matched specimens of bone metastasis we examined SPARC expression and localization as well as Endothelin 1/ETAR signals by immunohistochemistry, and the evaluation of plasma levels of SPARC by ELISA was also performed. In patients with breast carcinoma metastasizing to bone, SPARC and Endothelin 1/ETAR axis were highly expressed from dysplasia until bone metastasis, but the SPARC plasma level was as low as that of normal women, in contrast to patients that never develop bone metastasis, suggesting that circulating SPARC was counter adhesive. Altogether, the early identification of SPARC/Endothelin 1/ETAR in dysplastic lesions would be important to devise therapies preventing metastasis engraftment, since often carcinoma cells spread to distant organs at the time or even before patients present with cancer. PMID:26703564

  20. Expression and role of fibroblast activation protein-alpha in microinvasive breast carcinoma

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    Hua Xing

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS in breast cancer cases is challenging for pathologist due to a variety of in situ patterns and artefacts, which could be misinterpreted as stromal invasion. Microinvasion is detected by the presence of cytologically malignant cells outside the confines of the basement membrane and myoepithelium. When malignant cells invade the stroma, there is tissue remodeling induced by perturbed stromal-epithelial interactions. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs are main cells in the microenvironment of the remodeled tumor-host interface. They are characterized by the expression of the specific fibroblast activation protein-alpha (FAP-α, and differ from that of normal fibroblasts exhibiting an immunophenotype of CD34. We hypothesized that staining for FAP-α may be helpful in determining whether DCIS has microinvasion. Methods 349 excised breast specimens were immunostained for smooth muscle actin SMA, CD34, FAP-α, and Calponin. Study material was divided into 5 groups: group 1: normal mammary tissues of healthy women after plastic surgery; group 2: usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH; group 3: DCIS without microinvasion on H & E stain; group 4: DCIS with microinvasion on H & E stain (DCIS-MI, and group 5: invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC. A comparative evaluation of the four immunostains was conducted. Results Our results demonstrated that using FAP-α and Calponin adjunctively improved the sensitivity of pathological diagnosis of DCIS-MI by 11.29%, whereas the adjunctive use of FAP-α and Calponin improved the sensitivity of pathological diagnosis of DCIS by 13.6%. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that immunostaining with FAP-α and Calponin can serve as a novel marker for pathologically diagnosing whether DCIS has microinvasion.

  1. Cytotoxicity of fucosterol containing fraction of marine algae against breast and colon carcinoma cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Gheidarloo, Razieh; Sadati, Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Tavajohi, Shohreh; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2012-01-01

    Context: Marine algae produce different secondary metabolites with a wide range of biological activities. Many studies have been achieved on the screening of biological effects of marine organisms and a lot of active compounds were isolated and characterized. Aims: In an attempt to find cytotoxic compound of hexane fraction, isolation, identification, and cytotoxicity of active compound of this fraction were performed. Materials and Methods: In this study, total methanolic (70%) extract and partition fractions of hexane, chloroform (CHCl3), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and MeOH–H2O of Sargassum angustifolium, Chondria dasyphylla, and Ulva flexuosa, collected from coastlines of the Persian Gulf in south of Iran, were studied against colon carcinoma (HT-29), colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2), breast ductal carcinoma (T47D), and Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines by MTT assay. Statistical Analysis Used: IC50 (median growth inhibitory concentration) values were calculated by Sigmaplot (10) software. Results: Hexane fraction of Chondria dasyphylla (IC50 82.26 ± 4.09 μg/ml) and MeOH-H2O fraction of Ulva flexuosa (IC50 116.92 ± 8.58 μg/ml) showed cytotoxic activity against proliferation of T47D cells. Hexane fraction of Sargassum angustifolium was also observed for cytotoxicity against T47D and HT-29 cell lines (IC50 166.42 ± 26.7 and 190.24 ± 52.8 μg/ml), respectively. An investigation of a component from the hexane fraction of Sargassum angustifolium yielded a steroidal metabolite, fucosterol, with cytotoxicity in T47D and HT29 (IC50 27.94 ± 9.3 and 70.41 ± 7.5 μg/ml). Conclusions: These results indicated that fucosterol, the most abundant phytosterol in brown algae, is responsible for cytotoxic effect of this extract against breast and colon carcinoma cell lines. PMID:22438665

  2. Cytotoxicity of fucosterol containing fraction of marine algae against breast and colon carcinoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Khanavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Marine algae produce different secondary metabolites with a wide range of biological activities. Many studies have been achieved on the screening of biological effects of marine organisms and a lot of active compounds were isolated and characterized. Aims: In an attempt to find cytotoxic compound of hexane fraction, isolation, identification, and cytotoxicity of active compound of this fraction were performed. Materials and Methods: In this study, total methanolic (70% extract and partition fractions of hexane, chloroform (CHCl 3 , ethyl acetate (EtOAc, and MeOH-H 2 O of Sargassum angustifolium, Chondria dasyphylla, and Ulva flexuosa, collected from coastlines of the Persian Gulf in south of Iran, were studied against colon carcinoma (HT-29, colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2, breast ductal carcinoma (T47D, and Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH 3T3 cell lines by MTT assay. Statistical Analysis Used: IC 50 (median growth inhibitory concentration values were calculated by Sigmaplot (10 software. Results: Hexane fraction of Chondria dasyphylla (IC 50 82.26 ± 4.09 μg/ml and MeOH-H 2 O fraction of Ulva flexuosa (IC 50 116.92 ± 8.58 μg/ml showed cytotoxic activity against proliferation of T47D cells. Hexane fraction of Sargassum angustifolium was also observed for cytotoxicity against T47D and HT-29 cell lines (IC 50 166.42 ± 26.7 and 190.24 ± 52.8 μg/ml, respectively. An investigation of a component from the hexane fraction of Sargassum angustifolium yielded a steroidal metabolite, fucosterol, with cytotoxicity in T47D and HT29 (IC 50 27.94 ± 9.3 and 70.41 ± 7.5 μg/ml. Conclusions: These results indicated that fucosterol, the most abundant phytosterol in brown algae, is responsible for cytotoxic effect of this extract against breast and colon carcinoma cell lines.

  3. Multifocal intraportal invasion of breast carcinoma diagnosed by laparoscopy-assisted liver biopsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomoki Nakajima; Takeshi Mazaki; Akio Yanagisawa; Takeshi Okanoue; Satoru Sekoguchi; Taichirou Nishikawa; Hidetaka Takashima; Tadashi Watanabe; Masahito Minami; Yoshito Itoh; Naruhiko Mizuta; Hiroo Nakajima

    2005-01-01

    Hepar lobatum carcinomatosum (HLC) is defined as an acquired hepatic deformity consisting of an irregularly lobulated hepatic contour caused by intravascular infiltration of metastatic carcinoma. To date, only nine cases of HLC have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a 68-year-old woman showing hepatic metastasis of breast carcinoma in radiologically unidentified form. Initially, she received left partial mastectomy for breast cancer but solid hepatic metastases were identified in S2 and S6, 9 mo after surgery. Then, they responded to chemotherapy and radiologically disappeared. After radiological disappearance of the liver tumors, the patient's blood chemistry showed abnormal liver function. A CT scan demonstrated heterogeneous enhancement effect in the liver in the late phase,suggesting uneven hepatic blood supply. Hepatic deformity was not obvious. Laparoscopy revealed a slightly deformed liver surface with multiple indentations and shallow linear depressions. Furthermore, a wide scar was observed on the surface of S2 possibly at the site where the metastatic tumor existed before chemotherapy. Liver biopsy from the wide scar lesion showed intraportal tumor thrombi with desmoplastic change. Because of its similarity to the histology of the original breast cancer, we concluded that the hepatic functional abnormalities and slightly deformed liver surface were derived from the circulatory disturbance caused by microscopic tumor thrombi. Besides, since the wide scar was located at the site of the pre-existing tumor,it is probable that chemotherapy was an important cause of fibrous scarring as a result of tumor regression. These morphologic findings are compatible with those of HLC.Laparoscopy-assisted liver biopsy was useful to make definite diagnosis, even though the hepatic deformity was radiologically undetectable.

  4. Deep sequencing reveals small RNA characterization of invasive micropapillary carcinomas of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Yang, Cuicui; Zhai, Lili; Zhang, Wenwei; Yu, Jing; Gu, Feng; Lang, Ronggang; Fan, Yu; Gong, Meihua; Zhang, Xiuqing; Fu, Li

    2012-11-01

    Invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) is an uncommon histological type of breast cancer. IMPC has a special growth pattern and a more aggressive behavior than invasive ductal carcinomas of no special types (IDC-NSTs). microRNAs are a large class of non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of various biological processes. Here, we analyzed the small RNA transcriptomes of five formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) pure IMPC samples and five FFPE IDC-NSTs samples by means of next-generation sequencing, generating a total of >170,000,000 clean reads. In an unsupervised cluster analysis, differently expressed miRNAs generated a tree with clear distinction between IMPC and IDC-NSTs classes. Paired fresh-frozen and FFPE specimens showed very similar miRNA expression profiles. By means of RT-qPCR, we further investigated miRNA expression in more IMPC (n = 22) and IDC-NSTs (n = 24) FFPE samples and found let-7b, miR-30c, miR-148a, miR-181a, miR-181a*, and miR-181b were significantly differently expressed between the two groups. We also elucidated several features of miRNA in these breast cancer tissues including 5' variability, miRNA editing, and 3' untemplated addition. Our findings will lead to further understanding of the invasive potency of IMPC and gain an insight into the diversity and complexity of small RNA molecules in breast cancer tissues.

  5. HER2 testing in breast carcinoma: very low concordance rate between reference and local laboratories in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wludarski, Sheila Cristina Lordelo; Lopes, Lisandro Ferreira; Berto E Silva, Tácio R; Carvalho, Filomena M; Weiss, Lawrence M; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer accounts for approximately one quarter of all cancers in females. HER2 gene amplification or HER2 protein overexpression, detected in about 20% of breast carcinomas, predicts a more aggressive clinical course and determines eligibility for targeted therapy with trastuzumab. HER2 testing has become an essential part of the clinical evaluation of all breast carcinoma patients, and accurate HER2 results are critical in identifying patients who may be benefited from targeted therapy. This study investigated the concordance in the results of HER2 immunohistochemistry assays performed in 500 invasive breast carcinomas between a reference laboratory and 149 local laboratories from all geographic regions of Brazil. Our results showed an overall poor concordance (171 of 500 cases, 34.2%) regarding HER2 results between local and reference laboratories, which may be related to the low-volume load of HER2 assays, inexperience with HER2 scoring system, and/or technical issues related to immunohistochemistry in local laboratories. Standardization of HER2 testing with rigorous quality control measures by local laboratories is highly recommended to avoid erroneous treatment of breast cancer patients.

  6. Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary-A case report with review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheikh Aijaz Aziz; Abdul Rashid Lone; Mohmad Hussain Mir; Sumyra Khursheed Qadri; Arif Nabi Bhat; Farhana Siraj Bagdadi; Mir Muzaffar Bashir; Sanjeed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Transitional cel carcinoma (TCC) of the ovary is a rare and recently recognized subtype of ovarian epithelial cancer. We presented the first case report from our Institute (Sheri Kashmir Instiute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, India), which was initial y misdiagnosed as stromal cel carcinoma (granulosa cel tumour), and on review of histopathology with immunohistochemistry, the diagnosis of TCC of the ovary was established. The aim of this article was to describe the typical case of primary TCC of the ovary and to review the literature for information on TCC management.

  7. Spindle cell carcinoma of the breast as complex cystic lesion:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiro Kitada; Satoshi Hayashi; Yoshinari Matsuda; Kei Ishibashi; Keisuke Oikawa; Naoyuki Miyokawa

    2014-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor. hTis tumor can proliferate rapidly and cause cystic changes because of internal tissue necrosis. We evaluated a 54-year-old woman with right breast lump. Mammography showed a category four mass with a diameter of 2.5 cm. Ultrasonography (US) revealed a complex cystic lesion, and ifne-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology demonstrated bloody fluid and malignant cells. Partial breast resection and sentinel lymph node biopsy were performed. Immunohistology revealed spindle cells with positive results for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and vimentin, partially positive results for s-100, and negative results for desmin and α-actin. The pathological stage was IIA, and biochemical characterization showed that the tumor was triple negative. Six courses of FEC-100 chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m2, epirubicin 100 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2) were administered. Radiotherapy was performed. hTis case is discussed with reference to the literature.

  8. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: Treatment, results and prognostic factors based on international literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, Alessandro; Lucchini, Roberta; Santoprete, Stefano; Farabi, Raffaele; Fioriti, Lorella; Bistoni, Giovanni; Triola, Roberta; Avenia, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast (MCB) is a rare form of cancer containing mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal elements in variable combinations. Few and conflicting clinical data are available in the literature addressing optimal treatment modalities, prognosis and outcome. A retrospective study was conducted to review all patients with MCB diagnosed and treated at Breast Unit of Azienda Ospedaliera "Santa Maria" Terni - Italy between 2001/2010. The aim is to describe patient's clinic pathologic features and to analyze treatment results. Six female patients were studied. The median age was 48 years (range 14/58). The median tumor size was 9 cm. (range 3/18 cm.). Two cases (33%) were identified as purely epithelial and 4 (67%) as mixed epithelial and mesenchymal metaplasia. Hormone receptors were positive in only 2 patients. Modified radical mastectomy performed in 3 patients and 5 underwent axillary node dissection. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to all patients and postoperative radiotherapy to 4. Four patients relapsed with median time of relapse of 12 months. MCB is an aggressive form of breast cancer associated with poor outcome, high incidence of local recurrence and pulmonary metastases. The disease tends to be estrogen/progesterone receptor negative. Tumor size has an important impact on outcome. The best treatment approach is yet to be defined.

  9. Prognostic value of immunohistochemical stratification of invasive duct carcinoma of the breast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asmaa Salama; Habiba El-Fendy; Sahar Talaat; Badaweya Bayomi; Amr Amin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Gene expression profiling of breast cancer has identified five molecularly distinct subtypes of breast cancer that have different biological behavior and clinical outcomes. These subtypes are termed luminal A, luminal B, luminal HER2, HER2-enriched and triple negative breast cancers (TNBC). We aimed at identification of breast cancer subtypes among Egyptian population and their clinicopathologic features using ER, PR and HER2, Ki-67 and CK5/6. Methods: Tumors from 100 patients with invasive duct carcinoma were subtyped by immunohistochemistry using ER, PR, HER2, Ki-67 and CK5/6. The prognostic value of the immunohistochemical assignment for breast cancer disease-specific survival was investigated by using Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: Immunohistochemical profiling classified 22 cases as luminal A, 33 cases as luminal B, 9 cases as luminal HER2, 26 cases as HER2-enriched and 10 cases as TNBC. Tumors that measured more than 3.5 cm, showed predominance of HER2-enriched subtype. HER2-enriched and luminal B subtypes dominated the node positive cases (35.4% and 33.8%; respectively). Large tumor size (> 3.5 cm), hormone receptor negative state and HER2 positive state were associated with poor prognosis. Disease free survivals (DFSs) were significantly different (P < 0.0001) among different breast subtypes with worst 2-year DFS for HER2-enriched subtype (40.77%) followed by luminal A (63.56%). DFS was almost similar in the remaining other subtypes, and luminal B, luminal HER2 and TNBC which were 86.85%, 87.5% and 88.89%; respectively. Conclusion: ER, PR, HER2 and Ki-67 constituted a strong surrogate for molecular breast cancer subtypes and can be easily applied. HER2-enriched subtype carries worse features being associated with large tumor size, nodal metastasis and is associated with poor outcome. Luminal A is a heterogeneous subtype with underlying several factors that can turn its prognosis adversely. TNBC subtype may behave unexpected in a favorable way.

  10. Primary peritoneal carcinoma metastasizing to breast: a single case report and literature review from clinic to biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ji-Yuan; Gebre, Wondwossen; Dong, Yi-Min; Shaun, Xiao; Robbins, Rachel; Podrumar, Alida

    2016-01-01

    Primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) is a type of rare malignant epithelial tumor. Metastasis from PPC to breast has been rarely reported. PPC originates de novo from the peritoneal tissues rather than invasion or metastasis from adjacent or remote organs. PPCs have been implicated in many cases of carcinomas of unknown primary origin. It is similar to ovarian cancer (OvCa), because it shares the same common embryonic origin, the coelomic epithelium (mesodermal origin). The mechanism of oncogenesis remains elusive. In this article, we report a rare case of PPC in a patient 10 years after total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingooophorectomy for uterine leiomyoma, which was widely spread in the abdomen and metastasized to the colon, liver and distant organs including breast. The treatment is similar to that of primary ovarian cancer. We also reviewed the primary peritoneal cancer metastatic to breast and discuss the possible mechanisms and biology of primary peritoneal cancer, using experimental and animal model.

  11. Molecular clonality determination of ipsilateral recurrence of invasive breast carcinomas after breast-conserving therapy: comparison with clinical and biologic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Neal S; Vicini, Frank A; Hunter, Susan; Odish, Eva; Forbes, Suzy; Kraus, Daniel; Kestin, Larry L

    2005-05-01

    We established clonality relationships between invasive ipsilateral breast failures (IBFs; local recurrences) and initial invasive carcinomas using a molecular polymerase chain reaction loss of heterozygosity (LOH) assay for 26 patients treated with breast-conserving therapy for invasive carcinoma with no distant metastases (DMs) before the IBE LOH was +/- 50% allelic loss. Eighteen IBFs (69%) were related clonally to initial carcinomas; 8 (31%) were clonally distinct, second primary carcinomas. IBFs and initial invasive carcinomas were morphologically similar in 6 (75%) of 8 clonally different cases. Clinical IBF classification and molecular assay results differed in 11 cases (42%). The mean intervals to IBF were 4.7 years in related and 8.7 years in different cases (P = .013). In 6 patients, DMs developed; 5 had related IBFs. In related IBF cases, the mean increase in fractional allelic loss (FAL) of IBFs associated with DMs was 18.9% compared with 7.6% in cases unassociated with DMs (P = .004). Molecular assays can accurately establish the clonality of most IBFs. Morphologic comparison and clinical IBF classification are unreliable methods of determining clonality. Clonally related IBFs occurred sooner than clonally different IBFs. Patients with clonally related IBFs are the main pool in which DMs occur Not all clonally related IBFs have the same DM association; those with large FAL gains were associated with DMs. Molecular clonality assays may provide a reliable means of identifying patients who might benefit from systemic chemotherapy at the time of IBF.

  12. Amyloidosis of the Breast with Multicentric DCIS and Pleomorphic Invasive Lobular Carcinoma in a Patient with Underlying Extranodal Castleman’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an interesting case of focal amyloidosis of the left breast which was intermixed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS. On subsequent staging bilateral breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, the patient was found to have an additional suspicious enhancing mass with spiculated borders within the left breast. This mass was biopsy proven to represent pleomorphic invasive lobular carcinoma. A pulmonary nodule within the lingula was also noted on the staging bilateral breast MRI and was biopsy proven to represent extranodal Castleman’s disease. Therefore, it is believed that our patient had secondary amyloidosis due to Castleman’s disease.

  13. Cell surface alpha 2,6 sialylation affects adhesion of breast carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaoqiang; Kemmner, Wolfgang; Grigull, Sabine; Schlag, Peter M

    2002-05-15

    Tumor-associated alterations of cell surface glycosylation play a crucial role in the adhesion and metastasis of carcinoma cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of alpha 2,6-sialylation on the adhesion properties of breast carcinoma cells. To this end mammary carcinoma cells, MDA-MB-435, were sense-transfected with sialyltransferase ST6Gal-I cDNA or antisense-transfected with a part of the ST6Gal-I sequence. Sense transfectants showed an enhanced ST6Gal-I mRNA expression and enzyme activity and an increased binding of the lectin Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), specific for alpha 2,6-linked sialic acid. Transfection with ST6Gal-I in the antisense direction resulted in less enzyme activity and SNA reactivity. A sense-transfected clone carrying increased amounts of alpha 2,6-linked sialic acid adhered preferentially to collagen IV and showed reduced cell-cell adhesion and enhanced invasion capacity. In contrast, antisense transfection led to less collagen IV adhesion but enhanced homotypic cell-cell adhesion. In another approach, inhibition of ST6Gal-I enzyme activity by application of soluble antisense-oligodeoxynucleotides was studied. Antisense treatment resulted in reduced ST6 mRNA expression and cell surface 2,6-sialylation and significantly decreased collagen IV adhesion. Our results suggest that cell surface alpha 2,6-sialylation contributes to cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion of tumor cells. Inhibition of sialytransferase ST6Gal-I by antisense-oligodeoxynucleotides might be a way to reduce the metastatic capacity of carcinoma cells.

  14. SPARC (osteonectin) in breast tumors of different histologic types and its role in the outcome of invasive ductal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yi-Hsuan; Lien, Huang-Chun; Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Chang, King-Jen; Hsieh, Fon-Jou

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the immunohistochemical distribution of secreted protein acidic and rich in cystein (SPARC) in benign and malignant breast tumors of different histologic types and define its association with the outcome of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) patients. A total of 286 samples of benign and malignant breast lesions between 1994 and 2005 were retrieved from National Taiwan University Hospital. Up to 11 years clinical follow-up data were available for 185 patients with IDC. Immunohistochemistry staining with SPARC was performed in tissue microarray or whole section. The association of expression of SPARC and cumulative overall survival of IDC patients were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cystein was not expressed in benign breast phylloides and all benign breast tumors, while expressed in 17.2% of IDC, 85% of metaplastic carcinoma of the breast (MCB), and all malignant breast phylloides. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cystein was strongly expressed in mesenchymal components of MCB and expression levels in epithelial components were variable. The correlation of positive expression of SPARC and poor long-term survival in IDC is significant (p = 0.004). Individuals with positive SPARC expression had 2.34 times higher hazard of death compared with those with negative SPARC expression after adjusting for factors including positive lymph node, TNM tumor stage, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cystein may be useful as a prognostic indicator for IDC.

  15. Eliminating "ductal carcinoma in situ" and "lobular carcinoma in situ" (DCIS and LCIS) terminology in clinical breast practice: The cognitive psychology point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Yoder, Whitney R; Riva, Silvia; Mazzocco, Ketti; Arnaboldi, Paola; Galimberti, Viviana

    2016-02-01

    There is evidence from the literature that the terms "ductal carcinoma in situ" and "lobular carcinoma in situ" (DCIS and LCIS) should be eliminated in clinical breast cancer practice and replaced with the new "ductal intraepithelial neoplasia" (DIN) and "lobular intraepithelial neoplasia" (LIN) terminology. The main purpose of the present article is to expand on this argument from a cognitive psychology perspective and offer suggestions for further research, emphasizing how the elimination of the term "carcinoma" in "in situ" breast cancer diagnoses has the potential to reduce both patient and health care professional confusion and misperceptions that are often associated with the DCIS and LCIS diagnoses, as well as limit the adverse psychological effects of women receiving a DCIS or LCIS diagnosis. We comment on the recent peer-reviewed literature on the clinical implications and psychological consequences for breast cancer patients receiving a DCIS or LCIS diagnosis and we use a cognitive perspective to offer new insight into the benefits of embracing the new DIN and LIN terminology. Using cognitive psychology and cognitive science in general, as a foundation, further research is advocated in order to yield data in support of changing the terminology and therefore, offer a chance to significantly improve the lives and psychological sequelae of women facing such a diagnosis. Typology: Controversies/Short Commentary.

  16. Metastatic breast carcinoma uncovered in an otherwise unremarkable “random colon biopsy”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Black

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most devastating cancers afflicting women, being a main cause of cancer related death. Approximately 50% of these patients have developed regional or distant metastases at the time of diagnosis; hence, an early diagnosis and surgery with indicated neoadjuvant therapy are crucial in eradicating this disease and improving patient survival. A significant percentage of patients, even after initial satisfactory tumor removal, still face the threat of metastatic diseases which could plague a wide spectrum of body sites such as bones, lungs, central nervous system, liver and gastrointestinal tract (mostly upper gastrointestinal locations. Colonic and anorectal involvement by metastatic breast cancer has been less frequently reported in disseminated diseases. Typically, metastatic disease presents as a mass, enteric stenosis, or obstruction. Rare cases, however, may not form an endoscopically or radiologically recognizable lesion, and thus could be overlooked. Here we report a unique case of random colon biopsies in a patient presenting with epigastric pain, whose stomach biopsy showed Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic active gastritis. No colonoscopic lesion was present; however, microscopic examination of the “random biopsy” revealed scattered single and small clusters of tumor cells involving the lamina propria of the colonic mucosa, morphologically and immunophenotypically consistent with metastatic disease from breast carcinoma. The clinical presentation and histopathology of the case were reviewed and compared with limited cases reported in the literature. We conclude that high levels of suspicion and alertness are essential to identify occult microscopic gastrointestinal metastatic breast cancer in the absence of a grossly appreciable lesion.

  17. Expression analysis of carbohydrate antigens in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast by lectin histochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieber-Emmons Thomas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of breast cancer patients diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS continues to grow. Laboratory and clinical data indicate that DCIS can progress to invasive disease. Carbohydrate-mediated cell-cell adhesion and tumor-stroma interaction play crucial roles in tumorigenesis and tumor aggressive behavior. Breast carcinogenesis may reflect quantitative as well as qualitative changes in oligosaccharide expression, which may provide a useful tool for early detection of breast cancer. Because tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACA are implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis, the purpose of this study was to assess the expression of selected TACA by lectin histochemistry on DCIS specimens from the archival breast cancer tissue array bank of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. Methods For detection of TACA expression, specimens were stained with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin-I (GS-I and Vicia vilosa agglutinin (VVA. We studied associations of lectin reactivity with established prognostic factors, such as tumor size, tumor nuclear grade, and expression of Her-2/neu, p53 mutant and estrogen and progesterone receptors. Results We observed that both lectins showed significant associations with nuclear grade of DCIS. DCIS specimens with nuclear grades II and III showed significantly more intense reactivity than DCIS cases with nuclear grade I to GS-1 (Mean-score chi-square = 17.60, DF = 2; P = 0.0002 and VVA (Mean-score chi-square = 15.72, DF = 2; P = 0.0004. Conclusion The results suggest that the expression of VVA- and GS-I-reactive carbohydrate antigens may contribute to forming higher grade DCIS and increase the recurrence risk.

  18. Clustering of sebaceous gland carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma and breast cancer in a woman as a new cancer susceptibility disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newman Brian D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Multiple distinct tumors arising in a single individual or within members of a family raise the suspicion of a genetic susceptibility disorder. Case presentation We present the case of a 52-year-old Caucasian woman diagnosed with sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid, followed several years later with subsequent diagnoses of breast cancer and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Although the patient was also exposed to radiation from a pipe used in the oil field industry, the constellation of neoplasms in this patient suggests the manifestation of a known hereditary susceptibility cancer syndrome. However, testing for the most likely candidates such as Muir-Torre and Cowden syndrome proved negative. Conclusion We propose that our patient's clustering of neoplasms either represents a novel cancer susceptibility disorder, of which sebaceous gland carcinoma is a characteristic feature, or is a variant of the Muir-Torre syndrome.

  19. Multi-epitope Folate Receptor Alpha Peptide Vaccine, Sargramostim, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-24

    Bilateral Breast Carcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma; Unilateral Breast Carcinoma

  20. Complete en bloc urinary exenteration for synchronous multicentric transitional cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid features in a hemodialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio M. Siqueira Jr

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC in patients submitted to hemodialysis is low. The presence of TCC with sarcomatoid features in this cohort is even scarcer. Herein, we describe a very rare case of synchronous multicentric muscle invasive bladder carcinoma with prostate invasion in a hemodialysis patient, submitted to complete en bloc urinary exenteration.

  1. Expression of p53 and p21 Protein in Transitional Mucosa Adjacent to Rectal Carcinoma and Its Clinical Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To study the biopathological characteristics of the transitional mucosa adjacent to rectal carcinoma, 34 cases were subjected to mucin histochemical and immunohistochemical study to observe the expression of p53 and p21 protein in distal mucosa adjacent to rectal carcinoma and its relationship to the mucin change. The expression of p53 protein was found in 29. 4 % (10/34) of distal transitional mucosa in the cytoplasm of goblet cells, and its positive staining was within 4 cm from carcinoma margin. A11 p53 positive mucosa was transitional mucosa. Overexpression of p21 protein was found in 26.5 % (9/34) of distal transitional mucosa in cytoplasm of crypt cells, and its positive staining was within 2 cm from carcinoma margin. There was no relationship between the expression of p53 and p21 protein in carcinoma and that in transitional mucosa (P>0.05). These findings indicated that there was aberrant alteration of p53 and p21 genes in transitional mucosa adjacent to colorectal carcinoma, which provided further evidence that transitional mucosa was an unstable pre-cancerous change. The aberrant mucin change and genetic alteration in distal mucosa of rectal cancer is within 4 cm.

  2. Implications of free radicals and antioxidant levels in carcinoma of the breast: A never-ending battle for survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R J Sinha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Under normal circumstances, there is a steady balance between the production of oxygen derived free radicals and their destruction by the cellular antioxidant system inside the human body. However, any imbalance between the levels of these oxidants and antioxidants might cause DNA damage and may lead to cancer development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of antioxidants and free radicals in blood and tissue of cancer patients and compare these levels at different TNM stages to derive the possible role of free radicals and antioxidant enzymes in the etiology of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: This study includes 30 patients suffering from cancer breast and 20 patients as controls who had benign breast diseases. Circulating lipid peroxide (Malonyldialdehyde [MDA] levels and activities of the defensive enzymes (Superoxide Dismutase [SOD] and Catalase [CAT] were estimated in the blood and breast tissue of these patients. Results: Increased levels of free radicals and low levels of antioxidants were observed in malignant tissue. An elevated lipid peroxide concentration was found in the tissue of all the cancer breast patients as evidenced by an increase in the mean MDA level seen with increasing TNM stage of carcinoma breast. Levels of antioxidants SOD and CAT were decreased in cancer patients. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that free radical activity is enhanced in cancer breast patients while the antioxidant defense mechanism is weakened. This activity is enhanced with the increasing severity of cancer as depicted in different TNM stages of breast cancer.

  3. Selective arterial embolization for control of haematuria secondary to advanced or recurrent transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, D

    2014-05-02

    Haematuria is a common symptom in patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. We report our experience of selective pelvic embolization using gelfoam as an embolic agent to treat intractable haematuria in these patients.

  4. [Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in adolescents: a diagnosis to bear in mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eduardo; Alarcón Caba, Martín; Toselli, Luzia; Moldes, Juan; Ormaechea, María; de Badiola, Francisco; Christiansen, Silvia

    2009-02-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder has a high incidence in adults, but it is uncommon in children and adolescents. Hematuria is the most common symptom of presentation and vesical ecography the preferred diagnostic method. The diagnosis and treatment is performed with cystoscopy and endoscopic resection. We describe two patients: an 18 years old male, who presented with a pediculated tumor on the posterior bladder wall and a 15 years old female with a 1 cm long tumor on the posterior wall too; both were removed under endoscopic control. In both patients superficial transitional cell carcinoma was the final diagnosis and are disease free 3 and 5 years later. A review of the available literature was performed to clarify if this type of tumors must be considered malignant and try to define how long and by which way these patients must be controlled.

  5. Genetic association of deleted in colorectal carcinoma variants with breast cancer risk: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinghan; Wang, Xijing; Fu, Sidney W; Wang, Meng; Kang, Huafeng; Guan, Haitao; Zhang, Shuqun; Ma, Xiaobin; Lin, Shuai; Liu, Kang; Feng, Yanjing; Dai, Cong; Dai, Zhijun

    2016-05-31

    Deleted in colorectal carcinoma (DCC), a netrin-1 dependence receptor, is correlated with cell progression, migration, and adhesion. Evidence indicated that DCC was frequently down-regulated in many cancers. However, the association of DCC with breast cancer remains uncertain. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the impact of three DCC gene variants (rs2229080, rs7504990, and rs4078288) on breast cancer susceptibility in Chinese women. This study included 560 breast cancer patients and 583 age-matched healthy controls from Northwest China. The three gene variants were genotyped via Sequenom MassARRAY. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were utilized to evaluate the associations. We found that individuals with the rs2229080 C/G, C/C, and C/G-CC genotypes had a higher breast cancer risk, and the minor allele C was associated with increased breast cancer risk in an allele model. We observed a significantly decreased breast cancer risk with the rs7504990 C/T, T/T, and C/T-T/T genotypes, and the minor allele T was protective against breast cancer in an allele model. In addition, rs2229080 was associated with the axillary lymph node (LN) metastasis status. An age-stratified analysis revealed an association between rs2229080 and reduced breast cancer risk among older patients (≥ 49 years). Furthermore, the haplotype analysis showed that the Crs2229080Crs7504990Ars4078288 haplotype was associated with a decreased breast cancer risk. However, the results indicated a lack of association between rs4078288 and breast cancer risk. These findings affirmed that rs2229080 and rs7504990 polymorphisms in DCC might be related with breast cancer susceptibility in Chinese women.

  6. Frequent methylation of the KLOTHO gene and overexpression of the FGFR4 receptor in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallol, Ashraf; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Merdad, Adnan; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Gari, Mamdooh A; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad M; Elaimi, Aisha; Assidi, Mourad; Chaudhary, Adeel G; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Nedjadi, Taoufik; Ermiah, Eramah; Alkhayyat, Shadi S; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed H

    2015-12-01

    Invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast is the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. The marked heterogeneity of breast cancer is matched only with the heterogeneity in its associated or causative factors. Breast cancer in Saudi Arabia is apparently an early onset with many of the affected females diagnosed before they reach the age of 50 years. One possible rationale underlying this observation is that consanguinity, which is widely spread in the Saudi community, is causing the accumulation of yet undetermined cancer susceptibility mutations. Another factor could be the accumulation of epigenetic aberrations caused by the shift toward a Western-like lifestyle in the past two decades. In order to shed some light into the molecular mechanisms underlying breast cancer in the Saudi community, we identified KLOTHO (KL) as a tumor-specific methylated gene using genome-wide methylation analysis of primary breast tumors utilizing the MBD-seq approach. KL methylation was frequent as it was detected in 55.3 % of breast cancer cases from Saudi Arabia (n = 179) using MethyLight assay. Furthermore, KL is downregulated in breast tumors with its expression induced following treatment with 5-azacytidine. The involvement of KL in breast cancer led us to investigate its relationship in the context of breast cancer, with one of the protagonists of its function, fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4). Overexpression of FGFR4 in breast cancer is frequent in our cohort and this overexpression is associated with poor overall survival. Interestingly, FGFR4 expression is higher in the absence of KL methylation and lower when KL is methylated and presumably silenced, which is suggestive of an intricate relationship between the two factors. In conclusion, our findings further implicate "metabolic" genes or pathways in breast cancer that are disrupted by epigenetic mechanisms and could provide new avenues for understanding this disease in a new context.

  7. Radiologic Findings of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Arising Within a Juvenile Fibroadenoma: Mammographic, Sonographic and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Breast MRI Features

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun Kyung; Cho, Kyu Ran; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Woo, Ok Hee; Lee, Jeong Hyeon; Song, Sung Eun; Bae, Jeong Won

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile fibroadenoma is an uncommon histologic variant of fibroadenoma that frequently shows a remarkable and rapid growth. The development of a carcinoma within a fibroadenoma, either in situ or invasive, is a rare condition. We encountered a 36-year-old woman with a palpable mass in the right breast. The radiologic findings were indicative of a fibroadenoma in the breast. Sonographic guided biopsy using a 14G core needle revealed the presence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) within the j...

  8. Basal cytokeratin phenotypes of myoepithelial cells indicates the origin of ductal carcinomas in situ of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Yin, Xiaona; Lu, Shanshan; Chen, Guorong; Dong, Lei

    2015-09-01

    Terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) is widely accepted as the origin of ductal carcinoma in situ of breast. The differentiation states of myoepithelial cells of breast ductal system hint the development of breast hyperplastic lesions. Basal cytokeratin (CK) phenotypes indicate the differentiation of myoepithelial cells. Using antibodies of CK5/6, CK14, and CK17, this study reports the basal CK phenotypes of myoepithelial cells in 20 foci of normal breast, 20 usual ductal hyperplasias, 36 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS), and 28 sclerosing adenosis (SA). The results showed that the positive staining of basal CKs of myoepithelial cells in normal ducts were significantly higher than those in normal lobules. The basal CK expression of myoepithelial cells of DCIS and usual ductal hyperplasia was similar to that of normal duct, whereas that of SA was similar to that of normal lobule. We propose a modified model of TDLU origin of intraductal carcinoma that most of DCIS originate from terminal ducts of TDLU, whereas most SA originate from lobules.

  9. Detection of bladder transitional cell carcinoma: urinary hTERT assay versus urine cytology

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    "nBackground: Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) of bladder is the second most common urogenital malignancy and because of its high rate of recurrence (two third of tumors recur) vigilant surveillance is necessary. There have been a lot of efforts to find a proper biomarker for detecting urothelial cancers because available methods are expensive and invasive (like cystoscopy) or have a low degree of sensitivity (like urine cytology). Urothelial malignancies, like other cancers tend to exp...

  10. Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder in a Beluga Whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, D; Lagacé, A; Massé, R; Morin, M; Béland, P

    1985-10-01

    A transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder was found in a beluga whale stranded in the St. Lawrence middle estuary. Various organs of this animal were submitted to high resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. High frequency of urinary bladder cancer in the human population of the same area and the presence of carcinogenic compounds in the marine environment of this animal are discussed.Concurrent isolation of Edwardsiella tarda from various organs of this whale is also reported.

  11. Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder in a Beluga Whale (Delphinapterus leucas)

    OpenAIRE

    Martineau, D.; Lagacé, A.; Massé, R; Morin, M.; Béland, P

    1985-01-01

    A transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder was found in a beluga whale stranded in the St. Lawrence middle estuary. Various organs of this animal were submitted to high resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. High frequency of urinary bladder cancer in the human population of the same area and the presence of carcinogenic compounds in the marine environment of this animal are discussed.

  12. Value of dynamic enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI)in diagnosing the breast fibroadenoma and breast carcinoma%MRI动态增强扫描对乳腺纤维腺瘤和乳腺癌的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅莉; 郑建刚; 王开香; 许建兴; 刘良卿; 顾勇坚; 周鸿雁

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨乳腺纤维腺瘤和乳腺癌的MRI动态增强表现,以期提高对乳腺疾病的诊断准确性.方法 回顾性分析30例经手术或穿刺病理证实的乳腺纤维腺瘤和乳腺癌患者的MRI资料,分析病灶的形态特征、动态增强特征,以及病灶的时间-信号强度曲线(TIC)表达.结果 30例患者共53个病灶,其中乳腺纤维腺瘤病灶38个,乳腺癌病灶15个.乳腺纤维腺瘤边界大多较清晰光整,且增强后强化均匀或不强化,TIC表达主要为Ⅰ型,占78.95%.乳腺癌的形态多表现为不规则或毛刺状,强化不均匀,TIC以Ⅲ型为主,占60.00%.二者在Ⅱ型TIC上有交叉.结论 MRI动态增强扫描可以提高病灶的检出率,能更好地鉴别乳腺癌和乳腺纤维腺瘤.%Objective To investigate the imaging appearance of breast fibroadenoma and breast carcinoma by the dynamic enhanced MRI(DCE - MRI), and improve the diagnostic accuracy of the breast diseases. Methods Imaging data of 30 patients with breast fibroadenoma and breast carcinoma proved by operation or biopsy were retrospectively analized. MR imaging features of morphology, dynamic enhancement pattern, and the time-signal intensity curve(TIC) were evaluated. Results Among the 30 patients with 53 breast lesions, 38 were having breast fibroadenoma, 15 breast carcinoma. Most breast fibroadenoma cases showed smooth and tidy borders, homogeneous enhancement or no enhancement. Type Ⅰ TIC were observed in most cases(78.95%). While most breast carcinoma showed irregular shape or speculated margin, and heterogeneous enhancement or rim enhancement. Type Ⅲ TIC curves were observed in most breast carcinoma (60.00%). Type Ⅱ TIC curves were found in both breast fibroadenoma and breast carcinoma. Conclusion DCE -MRI can improve the lesions' relevance ratio of breast diseases, and is helpful in diagnosing the difference between breast fibroadenoma and breast carcinoma.

  13. A novel histone deacetylase inhibitor augments tamoxifen-mediated attenuation of breast carcinoma growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restall, Christina; Doherty, Judy; Liu, Hong Bin; Genovese, Rosemary; Paiman, Lisa; Byron, Keith A; Anderson, Robin L; Dear, Anthony E

    2009-07-15

    Earlier we generated novel derivatives of the hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), Oxamflatin (Ox), which demonstrate considerable HDACi activity. Here the effects of one such derivative, Metacept-1 (MCT-1), alone or in combination with tamoxifen on mammary tumour growth have been assessed in a syngeneic orthotopic model. MCT-1 alone resulted in a trend towards inhibition of growth of 4T1.2 mammary tumours. Since the combination of MCT-1 and tamoxifen up-regulates estrogen receptor expression in 4T1.2 cells in vitro, we tested this combination and found a significant reduction in primary tumour growth over tamoxifen treatment alone. Taken together, these observations suggest that the novel HDACi MCT-1 may warrant further exploration in the treatment of estrogen receptor positive breast carcinoma, particularly when used in combination with conventional agents such as tamoxifen.

  14. Recurrent transitional cell carcinoma in the anastomotic site of ileal conduit and ureter: a report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Joon Won; Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation MEDICINE, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Chang Kyu [Kyungpook National Univ. College of Medicine, Kyungsan(Korea, Republic of)

    2001-01-01

    The authors report two cases of recurrent transitional cell carcinoma at the anastomotic site of the ileal conduit and ureter after total cystectomy. In one patient, a recurrent tumor was also found in the distal ureter which had not been removed during previous nephrectomy. At follow up, the patients presented with gross hematuria or hydronephrosis, and the presence of mass lesions was demostarted by intravenous urography, antegrade pyelography, and/or loopography. Transitional cell carcinoma was diagnosed by surgery and pathologic examination.

  15. A novel combination of multiple primary carcinomas: Urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, prostate adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma- report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannikaki Elpida

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of multiple primary malignant neoplasms increases with age and they are encountered more frequently nowadays than before, the phenomenon is still considered to be rare. Case presentation We report a case of a man in whom urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, metachronous prostate adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma were diagnosed within an eighteen-month period. The only known predisposing factor was that he was heavy smoker (90–100 packets per year. The literature on the phenomenon of multiple primary malignancies in a single patient is reviewed and the data is summarized. Conclusion It is important for the clinicians to keep in mind the possibility of a metachronous (successive or a synchronous (simultaneous malignancy in a cancer patient. It is worthy mentioning this case because clustering of three primary malignancies (synchronous and metachronous is of rare occurrence in a single patient, and, to our knowledge, this is the first report this combination of three carcinomas appearing in the same patient.

  16. Fibromatosis-like carcinoma-an unusual phenotype of a metaplastic breast tumor associated with a micropapilloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badwe Rajan A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromatosis-like metaplastic carcinoma is a newly described metaplastic breast tumor, literature on which is still evolving. Case presentation A 77-year-old lady presented with a 2 × 2 cm mass with irregular margins in the upper and outer quadrant of left breast. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from the lump was inconclusive. A lumpectomy was performed and sent for frozen section, which revealed presence of spindle cells showing mild atypia in a sclerotic stroma. The tumor cells revealed prominent infiltration into the adjacent fat. A differential diagnosis of a low-grade sarcoma vs. a metaplastic carcinoma, favoring the former, was offered. Final histology sections revealed an infiltrating tumor with predominant spindle cells in a collagenous background, simulating a fibromatosis. Adjacent to the tumor were foci of benign ductal hyperplasia and a micropapilloma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC showed diffuse co-expression of epithelial markers i.e. cytokeratins (CK, HMWCK, CK7 and EMA along with a mesenchymal marker i.e. vimentin in the tumor cells. Myoepithelial markers (SMA and p63 showed focal positivity. A diagnosis of a low-grade fibromatosis-like carcinoma breast associated with a micropapilloma was formed. Conclusion Fibromatosis-like carcinoma is a rare form of a metaplastic breast tumor. This diagnosis requires an index of suspicion while dealing with spindle cell breast tumors. The importance of making this diagnosis to facilitate an intra operative surgical planning is marred by diagnostic difficulties. In such cases, IHC is imperative in forming an objective diagnosis.

  17. Correlation between Grade in Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC and Expression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Jallali Nadoushan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was undertaken to investigate the correlation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR expression with grade of Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC. Methods: Tumor samples of 75 patients from Mostafa Khomaini Hospital with Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the bladder were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression of EGFR. In this context, we assigned the bladder tumors a grade accord¬ing WHO classification. Results analyzed for possible correlation with the expression status of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR. Results: This cross-sectional study showed that all grades of Transitional Cell Carcinoma expressed EGFR, and 14 cases were LMP (18.9% which 10 cases among them had negative cells according EGFR point of view(71.4% and 4 cases had re¬ported positive (28.6%. Thirty five cases were low grade (46.7% which 18 cases among them had reported negative cells (51.4% and 17 cases had positive cells (48.6%. Twenty six cases were high grade (34.7% that 9 cases among them had reported negative cells (34.6%. Seventeen cases had positive cells (65.4%. Mann-Witney test showed relation between grade and expression of EGFR (P<0.05. Conclusions: This study showed that expression of EGFR is correlated with grade of tumor.

  18. Fine-needle aspiration of gray zone lesions of the breast: fibroadenoma versus ductal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xin; Normolle, Daniel; Michael, Claire W

    2013-09-01

    While breast lesions have characteristic cytological features, some lesions, particularly adenocarcinoma and fibroadenoma, may present with overlapping features causing erroneous diagnoses. The current study aimed to define significant cytomorphologic features predictive of fibroadenoma and adenocarcinoma, respectively. Further, we intended to evaluate the predictive characteristics for differentiation between gray zone lesions and to identify root causes contributing to misdiagnoses. First, direct smears prepared from 14 histology-confirmed fibroadenomas and 14 adenocarcinomas were reviewed and characteristics of commonly encountered morphologic features were assessed. We then retrospectively and blindly reviewed nine cytohistologic discrepant cases using the significant characteristic as a guideline, in order to assess whether these discrepant cases could be correctly categorized. Morphologic characteristics predictive of fibroadenoma included moderate cellularity, large, folded cellular sheets/aggregates, staghorn projections, smooth and round borders, monolayers, honeycomb arrangement, smaller nuclear size, and background bipolar cells. Predictive characteristics of adenocarcinoma included high cellularity, loose cohesive sheets/aggregates, pointed projections, irregular borders, larger nuclear size, irregular nuclear membrane, prominent nucleoli, and single atypical epithelial cells. Retrospective, blind review correctly re-classified seven out of nine cytohistologic discrepant cases, including five false negative cases and two false positive cases. Root causes contributing to the misdiagnoses were large branching sheets of carcinoma mimicking folded sheets of fibroadenoma; fibroblasts mimicking myoepithelial cells; apocrine cells mimicking carcinoma cells; and not recognizing the loose myxoid matrix presenting as soap bubbles in fibroadenoma. In conclusion, this study identified significant characteristics that can assist in achieving accurate diagnosis in a

  19. Preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging and contralateral breast cancer occurrence among older women with ductal carcinoma in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Yi; Long, Jessica B; Killelea, Brigid K; Evans, Suzanne B; Roberts, Kenneth B; Silber, Andrea; Gross, Cary P

    2016-07-01

    Although preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect mammographically occult contralateral breast cancers (CBCs) among women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the impact of MRI on the incidence of subsequent CBC events is unclear. We examined whether MRI use decreases CBC occurrences and detection of invasive disease among women who develop a CBC. Utilizing the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare dataset, we assessed overall, synchronous (cancer diagnosis), and subsequent (≥6 months after diagnosis, i.e., metachronous) CBC occurrence in women aged 67-94 years diagnosed with DCIS during 2004-2009, with follow-up through 2011. We applied a matched propensity score approach to compare the stage-specific incidence rate of CBC according to MRI use. Our sample consisted of 9166 beneficiaries, 1258 (13.7 %) of whom received preoperative MRI. After propensity score matching, preoperative MRI use was significantly associated with a higher synchronous CBC detection rate (108.6 vs. 29.7 per 1000 person-years; hazard ratio [HR] = 3.65; p clinically evident.

  20. Nuclear localization and cytosolic overexpression of LASP-1 correlates with tumor size and nodal-positivity of human breast carcinoma

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    Dietl Johannes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LIM and SH3 protein 1 (LASP-1, initially identified from human breast cancer, is a specific focal adhesion protein involved in cell proliferation and migration, which was reported to be overexpressed in 8–12 % of human breast cancers and thought to be exclusively located in cytoplasm. Methods In the present work we analyzed the cellular and histological expression pattern of LASP-1 and its involvement in biological behavior of human breast cancer through correlation with standard clinicopathological parameters and expression of c-erbB2 (HER-2/neu, estrogen- (ER and progesterone-receptors (PR. For this purpose immunohistochemical staining intensity and percentage of stained cells were semi-quantitatively rated to define a LASP-1 immunoreactive score (LASP-1-IRS. LASP-1-IRS was determined in 83 cases of invasive ductal breast carcinomas, 25 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS and 18 fibroadenomas. Cellular LASP-1 distribution and expression pattern was visualized by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy and assessed through separate Western blots of nuclear and cytosol preparations of BT-20, MCF-7, MDA-MB231, and ZR-75/1 breast cancer cells. Results Statistical analysis revealed that the resulting LASP-1-IRS was significantly higher in invasive carcinomas compared to fibroadenomas (p = 0.0176. Strong cytoplasmatic expression of LASP-1 was detected in 55.4 % of the invasive carcinomas, which correlated significantly with nuclear LASP-1-positivity (p = 0.0014, increased tumor size (p = 0.0159 and rate of nodal-positivity (p = 0.0066. However, levels of LASP-1 expression did not correlate with average age at time point of diagnosis, histological tumor grading, c-erbB2-, ER- or PR-expression. Increased nuclear localization and cytosolic expression of LASP-1 was found in breast cancer with higher tumor stage as well as in rapidly proliferating epidermal basal cells. Confocal microscopy and separate Western blots of cytosolic and

  1. Carcinoma de mama: novos conceitos na classificação Breast cancer: new concepts in classification

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    Daniella Serafin Couto Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma de mama é a neoplasia maligna mais comum em mulheres. Estudos moleculares do carcinoma de mama, baseados na identificação do perfil de expressão gênica por meio do cDNA microarray, permitiram definir pelo menos cinco sub-grupos distintos: luminal A, luminal B, superexpressão do HER2, basal e normal breast-like. A técnica de tissue microarray (TMA, descrita pela primeira vez em 1998, permitiu estudar, em várias amostras de carcinoma, os perfis de expressão protéica de diferentes neoplasias. No carcinoma de mama, os TMAs têm sido utilizados para validar os achados dos estudos preliminares, identificando, desta forma, os novos subtipos fenotípicos do carcinoma de mama. Dentre os subtipos classicamente descritos, o grupo basal constitui um dos mais intrigantes subtipos tumorais e é freqüentemente associado com pior prognóstico e ausência de alvos terapêuticos definidos. A classificação histopatológica do carcinoma de mama tem pobre valor preditivo. Portanto, a associação entre o diagnóstico histológico com técnicas moleculares nos laboratórios de anatomia patológica, por meio do estudo imunoistoquímico, pode determinar o perfil molecular do carcinoma de mama, buscando melhorar a resposta terapêutica. Este estudo visou resumir os mais recentes conhecimentos em que se baseiam os novos conceitos da classificação do carcinoma de mama.Breast cancer is the principal cause of death from cancer in women. Molecular studies of breast cancer, based in the identification of the molecular profiling techniques through cDNA microarray, had allowed defining at least five distinct sub-group: luminal A, luminal B, HER-2-overexpression, basal and " normal" type breast-like. The technique of tissue microarrays (TMA, described for the first time in 1998, allows to study, in some samples of breast cancer, distinguished by differences in their gene expression patterns, which provide a distinctive molecular portrait for each tumor

  2. Immunohistochemical localization of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins in in situ and invasive duct breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucuoglu, N; Losi, L; Eusebi, V

    1997-01-01

    Bcl-2 and Bax proteins are coded by a family of genes that take part in the manteinance of the balance between cell proliferation rate and programmed cell death in multicellular organisms. The Bax gene acts as promoter of cell death by opposing the death protector effect of the Bcl-2 gene. Expression of the Bcl-2 and Bax proteins has been investigated in 58 cases of duct carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and duct invasive and invasive lobular carcinomas (IC) of the breast. While both proteins were expressed at the same time in normal and benign epithelium, different staining patterns were observed according to the degree of differentiation of the neoplastic epithelium. In well-differentiated DCIS and grade I IC there was a predominance of Bcl-2 protein staining. Grade II lesions co-expressed both proteins. Poorly differentiated DCIS displayed a predominantly Bax protein staining pattern. Therefore, it appears that Bax protein expression, especially in DCIS, relates to more aggressive neoplasms while Bcl-2 protein expression is associated with less aggressive malignant lesions.

  3. Relationship between Lymphatic Vessel Density and Lymph Node Metastasis of Invasive Micropapillary Carcinoma of the Breast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing Guo; Ling Chen; Ronggang Lang; Yu Fan; Li Fu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between lymphatic vessel density and lymph node metastasis of invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) of the breast.METHODS The immunohistochemical study for vascular endothelial growth factor-c (VEGF-C), VEGF Receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) and lymphatic vessel density of 51 cases of IMPC were performed, and lymph node metastases were examined by microscopic analysis of these cases.RESULTS In IMPC, VEGF-C was expressed in the cytoplasm and/or on the membrane of the tumor cells, and the expression of VEGF-C showed a positive correlation with lymph node metastasis (P<0.01). Lymphatic vessel density was determined by the number of micro-lymphatic vessels with VEGFR-3 positive staining. Lymphatic vessel density was positively correlated with VEGF-C expression (P<0.01) and lymph node metastasis (P<0.01). The percentage of IMPC in the tumor was not associated with the incidence of lymph node metastasis. The metastatic foci in lymph nodes were either pure or predominant micropapillary carcinoma.CONCLUSION The results suggested that VEGF-C overexpression stimulated tumor lymphangiogenesis, and the increased lymphatic vessel density may be the key factor that influenced lymph node metastasis of IMPC.

  4. [Prospect and guideline update of sentinel lymph node biopsy for patients with early-stage breast carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei-qi; Chen, Hai-long; Hu, Yue; Deng, Yong-chuan; Zheng, Shu

    2014-07-01

    Axillary lymph nodes are the most common and initial site of metastasis of breast carcinoma. Precise axillary staging of breast carcinoma before initial treatment is crucial as it allows efficient identification for local and systemic treatment options, and provides prognostic information. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an accurate minimally invasive technology for axillary staging. Although top evidence of high-quality clinical trials showed that SLNB could safely and effectively replace axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for axillary negative patients with decrease in complications and improvement in quality of life, there are specific indications and contraindications for SLNB. Clinicians should balance the compliance of guideline and native clinical practice, especially for the circumstance of multifocal/multicentric lesion, breast biopsy history, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. With the accumulation of clinical practice and new results of clinical trials, axillary therapy has changed from unique surgery to patient-tailored multi-disciplinary intervention, although ALND should be recommended traditionally if SLNB is positive. Intensive and accurate preoperative axillary staging is gradually valued by clinicians. Development of imaging modality especially ultrasonography and ultrasound-guided biopsy can identify some extra lymph node positive patients directly to ALND with avoidance of unnecessary SLNB. Thus, the positive rate of SLNB will decline significantly. It seems possible that axillary management will step into a noninvasive era abandoning SLNB in some patients with small breast cancer. In this article we review the prospect and guideline update of SLNB for patients with early-stage breast cancer.

  5. BRCA-mutated Invasive Breast Carcinomas: Immunohistochemical Analysis of Insulin-like Growth Factor II mRNA-binding Protein (IMP3), Cytokeratin 8/18, and Cytokeratin 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sambit K; Lai, Jin-Ping; Gordon, Ora K; Pradhan, Dinesh; Bose, Shikha; Dadmanesh, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the expression of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein (IMP3), CK8/18, and CK14 in BRCA mutated and sporadic invasive breast carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry for IMP3, CK8/18, and CK14 was performed on 39 cases of invasive breast carcinomas with BRCA mutation (24 BRCA1, 14 BRCA2, and 1 dual BRCA1/BRCA2) and 54 cases of sporadic invasive breast carcinomas. The relationship between the IMP3, CK8/18, and CK14 and the tumor grade and molecular phenotypes were analyzed. IMP3, CK8/18, and CK14 positivity were present in 20 (51%), 22 (56%), and 14 (36%) of 39 BRCA-mutated breast carcinomas, and 11 (20%), 53 (98%), and 24 (44%) of 54 sporadic breast carcinomas respectively. The rates of IMP3 expression and absence of CK8/18 (44% versus 2%) in BRCA-mutated breast carcinomas was significantly higher than the sporadic breast carcinomas (p = 0.002 and p BRCA1-related and BRCA2-related breast carcinomas in the immunoprofile for IMP3, CK8/18, and CK14. No significant correlation was identified between the expression of IMP3 and CK8/18 and the tumor grade in both BRCA-mutated and sporadic breast carcinomas (p > 0.05). In cases with luminal A and B phenotypes, the rates of expression of IMP3 and loss of CK8/18 were significantly higher in BRCA-mutated as compared to sporadic breast carcinoma (p BRCA-mutated breast carcinomas (54% versus 0%, p = 0.001), while no difference was observed for IMP3 expression (p = 0.435). Regardless of mutation type, histologic grade, or molecular phenotype, the absence of CK8/18 expression and presence of IMP3 expression are seen at much higher rate in BRCA mutated breast carcinomas.

  6. In vivo photoacoustic molecular imaging of breast carcinoma with folate receptor-targeted indocyanine green nanoprobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huina; Liu, Chengbo; Gong, Xiaojing; Hu, Dehong; Lin, Riqiang; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Yan, Meng; Chen, Jingqin; Cai, Lintao; Song, Liang

    2014-11-01

    As an optical-acoustic hybrid imaging technology, photoacoustic imaging uniquely combines the advantages of rich optical contrast with high ultrasonic resolution in depth, opening up many new possibilities not attainable with conventional pure optical imaging technologies. To perform photoacoustic molecular imaging, optically absorbing exogenous contrast agents are needed to enhance the signals from specifically targeted disease activity. In this work, we designed and developed folate receptor targeted, indocyanine green dye doped poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) lipid nanoparticles (FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs) for molecular photoacoustic imaging of tumor. The fabricated FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs exhibited good aqueous stability, a high folate-receptor targeting efficiency, and remarkable optical absorption in near-infrared wavelengths, providing excellent photoacoustic signals in vitro. Furthermore, after intravenous administration of FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, mice bearing MCF-7 breast carcinomas showed significantly enhanced photoacoustic signals in vivo in the tumor regions, compared with those using non-targeted ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs. Given the existing wide clinical use of ICG and PLGA, the developed FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, in conjunction with photoacoustic imaging technology, offer a great potential to be translated into the clinic for non-ionizing molecular imaging of breast cancer in vivo.

  7. The role of milk thistle extract in breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7 apoptosis with doxorubicin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Rastegar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed invasive malignancy and first leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Iranian women. Based on silymarin's unique characteristics, its application in chemotherapy combined with doxorubicin can be effective to enhance the efficacy together with a reduced toxicity on normal tissues. The present study focus on evaluate the efficacy of silymarin in combination with doxorubicin, on viability and apoptosis of estrogen-dependent breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7. After being cultured, MCF-7 cells were divided into 8 groups and treated as follows: 1st group received 75 μg silymarin, groups 2, 3, and 4 were treated with 10, 25, and 50 nM doxorubicin, respectively, and groups 5, 6, and 7 respectively received 10, 25, and 50 nM doxorubicin as well as 75 μg silymarin. Viability percentage and apoptosis of the cells were assessed with Trypan Blue staining after 16, 24, and 48 hours. Silymarin has a synergistic effect on the therapeutic potential of doxorubicin. Use of silymarin in combination with doxorubicin can be more effective on the therapeutic potential of doxorubicin and decreases its dose-limiting side effects.

  8. In vivo photoacoustic molecular imaging of breast carcinoma with folate receptor-targeted indocyanine green nanoprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huina; Liu, Chengbo; Gong, Xiaojing; Hu, Dehong; Lin, Riqiang; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Yan, Meng; Chen, Jingqin; Cai, Lintao; Song, Liang

    2014-11-06

    As an optical-acoustic hybrid imaging technology, photoacoustic imaging uniquely combines the advantages of rich optical contrast with high ultrasonic resolution in depth, opening up many new possibilities not attainable with conventional pure optical imaging technologies. To perform photoacoustic molecular imaging, optically absorbing exogenous contrast agents are needed to enhance the signals from specifically targeted disease activity. In this work, we designed and developed folate receptor targeted, indocyanine green dye doped poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) lipid nanoparticles (FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs) for molecular photoacoustic imaging of tumor. The fabricated FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs exhibited good aqueous stability, a high folate-receptor targeting efficiency, and remarkable optical absorption in near-infrared wavelengths, providing excellent photoacoustic signals in vitro. Furthermore, after intravenous administration of FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, mice bearing MCF-7 breast carcinomas showed significantly enhanced photoacoustic signals in vivo in the tumor regions, compared with those using non-targeted ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs. Given the existing wide clinical use of ICG and PLGA, the developed FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, in conjunction with photoacoustic imaging technology, offer a great potential to be translated into the clinic for non-ionizing molecular imaging of breast cancer in vivo.

  9. Symmetrical ethmoidal metastases from ductal carcinoma of the breast, suggesting transcribrosal spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserez, D; Vlaminck, S; Kuhweide, R; Casselman, J

    2001-01-01

    Symmetrical ethmoidal metastases from ductal carcinoma of the breast, suggesting transcribrosal spread. While half of breast cancers develop metastases, the appearance of metastatic disease in paranasal sinuses from this origin is very rare. Eighteen other cases were found in the literature, dating from 1939 till now. A case of metastatic breastcancer presenting as a subacute therapy-resistant pansinusitis is described. The perfect symmetry was misleading. Bilateral ethmoidal biopsies were compatible with metastases from a ductal adenocarcinoma. Further investigation revealed meningeal carcinomatosis in the supra-orbital region and locoregional recurrence in the mastectomy scar and axilla. Comparing these 19 cases in chronological order, it was noticed that symptoms at time of diagnosis shift from those of space occupying lesions to those suggestive for sinusitis. This shift could be explained by earlier diagnosis. High index of suspicion is the key to diagnosis. Earlier diagnosis does not result in longer survival since in most cases patients have already widespread disease and die within one year. Most authors mention the role of the vertebral venous plexus in hematogeneous spreading of tumor cells. Another pathway of hematogenous spread is via (occult) lung metastases. This case prompts the hypothesis of transcribrosal spread from meningeal involvement.

  10. Solid neuroendocrine breast carcinoma: mammographic and sonographic features in thirteen cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Wu; Rong Zhang; Qiu-Xia Yang; Yao-Pan Wu; De-Ling Wang; Xue-Wen Liu; Chun-Yan Cui; Ling Wang; Yao Chen; Chuan-Miao Xie

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine and quantitate the mammographic and sonographic characteristics in 13 cases of solid neuroendocrine breast carcinoma (NEBC) and to analyze the association of radiological findings with the clinical and histopathologic findings.The clinical data and imaging findings of 13 female patients with histologically confirmed solid NEBC were reviewed.Imaging data were evaluated by two radiologists for a consensual diagnosis.All patients presented with one palpable mass; only 1 experienced occasional breast pain,and 5 complained of fluid discharge.In 7 patients,the masses were firm and mobile.Regional lymph node metastasis was noted in only 1 patient.For the 10 patients who underwent mammography,6 had a mass,1 had clustered small nodules with clustered punctuate microcalcifications,2 had asymmetric focal density,and 1 had solitary punctuate calcification.Most of the masses had irregular shape with indistinct or microlobulated margins.For the 9 patients who underwent ultrasonography (US),9 masses were depicted,all of which were hypoechoic,mostly with irregular shape and without acoustic phenomena.Different types of acoustic phenomena were also identified.One patient had developed distant metastases during follow-up.NEBC has a variety of presentations,but it is mostly observed on mammograms as a dense,irregular mass with indistinct or microlobulated margins.Sonographically,it typically presents as an irregular,heterogeneously hypoechoic mass with normal sound transmission.Histories of nipple discharge and calcification observed using imaging are not rare.

  11. The Polycomb group protein RING1B is overexpressed in ductal breast carcinoma and is required to sustain FAK steady state levels in breast cancer epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Almudena; Panoutsopoulou, Konstantina; Corominas, Josep Maria; Gimeno, Ramón; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Martín-Caballero, Juan; Morales, Saleta; Lobato, Tania; Martínez-Romero, Carles; Farias, Eduardo F.; Mayol, Xavier; Cano, Amparo; Hernández-Muáoz, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    In early stages of metastasis malignant cells must acquire phenotypic changes to enhance their migratory behavior and their ability to breach the matrix surrounding tumors and blood vessel walls. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression allows the acquisition of these features that, once tumoral cells have escape from the primary tumor, can be reverted. Here we report that the expression of the Polycomb epigenetic repressor Ring1B is enhanced in tumoral cells that invade the stroma in human ductal breast carcinoma and its expression is coincident with that of Fak in these tumors. Ring1B knockdown in breast cancer cell lines revealed that Ring1B is required to sustain Fak expression in basal conditions as well as in Tgfβ-treated cells. Functionally, endogenous Ring1B is required for cell migration and invasion in vitro and for in vivo invasion of the mammary fat pad by tumoral cells. Finally we identify p63 as a target of Ring1B to regulate Fak expression: Ring1B depletion results in enhanced p63 expression, which in turns represses Fak expression. Importantly, Fak downregulation upon Ring1B depletion is dependent on p63 expression. Our findings provide new insights in the biology of the breast carcinoma and open new avenues for breast cancer prognosis and therapy. PMID:24742605

  12. Breast metastasis from medullary thyroid carcinoma in a male patient: case report and review of the literature

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    Stylianos Mandanas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC is a rare malignancy that may metastasize to liver, lungs and bones. Breast is an unusual metastatic site for MTC and only 20 female cases have been reported in the literature. We present a male patient in whom histological examination and immunohistochemistry of a breast mass were indicative of breast metastasis from MTC. A 67-year-old man with recent diagnosis of MTC and metastases to cervical and upper mediastinum lymph nodes was referred to our department for further treatment. At first evaluation, diagnostic imaging techniques showed lung and bone metastases and three months later the presence of liver metastases. Due to the extension of the disease, treatment with vandetanib was decided, but serious adverse events led to its interruption after two weeks. During follow-up, patient developed a painful swelling in the right breast. Ultrasound and mammography showed the presence of multiple masses to the right breast suspicious for malignancy. Core needle biopsy and histological examination of the specimen confirmed the presence of metastatic MTC. Palliative external beam irradiation was used to relieve local pain and, after one month, the patient died. Consequently, breast masses should be cautiously evaluated, mainly in the presence of a known primary malignancy. Histological and/or cytopathological examination are requisite diagnostic tools, while external beam irradiation and tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be used as palliative therapies in the concurrent presence of breast metastases from MTC.

  13. Low grade urothelial carcinoma mimicking basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia in needle prostate biopsy

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    Julian Arista-Nasr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose The vast majority of urothelial carcinomas infiltrating the bladder are consistent with high-grade tumors that can be easily recognized as malignant in needle prostatic biopsies. In contrast, the histological changes of low-grade urothelial carcinomas in this kind of biopsy have not been studied. Materials and Methods We describe the clinicopathologic features of two patients with low-grade bladder carcinomas infiltrating the prostate. They reported dysuria and hematuria. Both had a slight elevation of the prostate specific antigen and induration of the prostatic lobes. Needle biopsies were performed. At endoscopy bladder tumors were found in both cases. Results Both biopsies showed nests of basophilic cells and cells with perinuclear clearing and slight atypia infiltrating acini and small prostatic ducts. The stroma exhibited extensive desmoplasia and chronic inflammation. The original diagnosis was basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia. The bladder tumors also showed low-grade urothelial carcinoma. In one case, the neoplasm infiltrated the lamina propria, and in another, the muscle layer. In both, a transurethral resection was performed for obstructive urinary symptoms. The neoplasms were positive for high molecular weight keratin (34BetaE12 and thrombomodulin. No metastases were found in either of the patients, and one of them has survived for five years. Conclusions The diagnosis of low-grade urothelial carcinoma in prostate needle biopsies is difficult and may simulate benign prostate lesions including basal cell hyperplasia and urothelial metaplasia. It is crucial to recognize low-grade urothelial carcinoma in needle biopsies because only an early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can improve the prognosis for these patients.

  14. Program death 1 (PD1) haplotyping in patients with breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenas, Mohammad Reza; Naeimi, Sirous; Talei, Abdolrasoul; Ghaderi, Abbas; Erfani, Nasrollah

    2011-08-01

    Located on chromosome 2q37.3, the programmed death 1 (PD1) gene encodes for PD-1 (also known as CD279), a negative co-stimulator in the immune system. PD-1 renders potent inhibitory effects on T and B lymphocytes as well as monocyte responses. Expression of PD-1 ligands by tumor cells has been reported to contribute in immune system evasion. We aimed, in current study, to investigate the association of two single nucleotide polymorphisms in PD1 gene, +7146 G to A (PD-1.3) and +7785 C to T (PD-1.5 or +872), with susceptibility and/or progression of breast carcinoma. Four hundred forty-three women with breast cancer and 328 age-sex match healthy donors were recruited in present study. Genotyping was performed using Nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Arlequin software package was used to check for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibration and to determine the haplotypes. Results revealed no significant differences in the frequencies of genotypes and alleles at PD-1.3 (P=0.252 and 0.279 for genotypes and alleles, respectively) and PD-1.5 positions (P=0.522 and 0.278 for genotypes and alleles, respectively). Four haplotypes were observed among populations with no differences in the frequency between patients and controls. Our results also revealed no association between PD1 genotypes and tumor stage, tumor size, tumor grade, lymph node involvement, vascular invasion, distant metastasis, and Nottingham prognostic index. Present data do not confirm association of PD-1.3 (+7146) G/A and PD-1.5 (+7785 or +872) C/T genetic markers with susceptibility of Iranians to breast cancer.

  15. Characterization of ductal carcinoma in situ on diffusion weighted breast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbar, Habib; Partridge, Savannah C.; Eby, Peter R.; DeMartini, Wendy B.; Gutierrez, Robert L.; Peacock, Sue; Lehman, Constance D. [University of Washington, Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    To characterize ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and its subtypes on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). We retrospectively reviewed 74 pure DCIS lesions in 69 women who underwent DWI at 1.5 T (b = 0 and 600 s/mm{sup 2}). Each lesion was characterized by qualitative DWI intensity, quantitative DWI lesion-to-normal contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). The detection rate was calculated with predetermined thresholds for each parameter. The effects of lesion size, grade, morphology, and necrosis were assessed. Ninety-six percent (71/74) of DCIS lesions demonstrated greater qualitative DWI intensity than normal breast tissue. Quantitatively, DCIS lesions demonstrated on average 56% greater signal than normal tissue (mean CNR = 1.83 {+-} 2.7) and lower ADC values (1.50 {+-} 0.28 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) than normal tissue (2.01 {+-} 0.37 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, p < 0.0001). A 91% detection rate was achieved utilizing an ADC threshold (<1.81 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s). Non-high-grade DCIS exhibited greater qualitative DWI intensity (p = 0.02) and quantitative CNR (p = 0.01) than high-grade DCIS but no difference in ADC (p = 0.40). Lesion size, morphology, and necrosis did not affect qualitative or quantitative DWI parameters of DCIS lesions (p > 0.05). DCIS lesions have higher DWI signal intensity and lower ADC values than normal breast tissue. DWI warrants further investigation as a potential non-contrast MRI tool for early breast cancer detection. (orig.)

  16. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin elicits rapid and specific cytolysis of breast carcinoma cells mediated through tight junction proteins claudin 3 and 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominsky, Scott L; Vali, Mustafa; Korz, Dorian; Gabig, Theodore G; Weitzman, Sigmund A; Argani, Pedram; Sukumar, Saraswati

    2004-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) induces cytolysis very rapidly through binding to its receptors, the tight junction proteins CLDN 3 and 4. In this study, we investigated CLDN 3 and 4 expression in breast cancer and tested the potential of CPE-mediated therapy. CLDN 3 and 4 proteins were detected in all primary breast carcinomas tested (n = 21) and, compared to normal mammary epithelium, were overexpressed in approximately 62% and 26%, respectively. Treatment of breast cancer cell lines in culture with CPE resulted in rapid and dose-dependent cytolysis exclusively in cells that expressed CLDN 3 and 4. Intratumoral CPE treatment of xenografts of T47D breast cancer cells in immunodeficient mice resulted in a significant reduction in tumor volume (P = 0.007), with accompanying necrosis. Necrotic reactions were also seen in three freshly resected primary breast carcinoma samples treated with CPE for 12 hours, while isolated primary breast carcinoma cells underwent rapid and complete cytolysis within 1 hour. Thus, expression of CLDN 3 and 4 sensitizes primary breast carcinomas to CPE-mediated cytolysis and emphasizes the potential of CPE in breast cancer therapy.

  17. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy and Survival for Pure Tubular Breast Carcinoma-Experience From the SEER Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Baoqing, E-mail: bal9018@med.cornell.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York (United States); Chen, Margaret [Department of Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York (United States); Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, K.S. Clifford [Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York (United States); Chen, Allen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Chen, Steven L. [Department of Surgery, University of California Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Pure tubular carcinoma of the breast (PTCB) represents a distinct subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) that is generally thought to be associated with better prognosis than even low-grade IDC. There has been controversy as to the role of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) in this population. We hypothesized that adjuvant RT would demonstrate a survival improvement. Methods and Materials: We queried the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database for the years 1992-2007 to identify patients with pure tubular carcinomas of the breast. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and surgical and RT treatments were collected. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method for univariate comparisons and Cox proportional hazards modeling for multivariate comparisons, stratifying on the basis of age with a cutoff age of 65. Results: A total of 6465 patients were identified: 3624 (56.1%) patients underwent lumpectomy with RT (LUMP+RT), 1525 (23.6%) patients underwent lumpectomy alone (LUMP), 1266 (19.6%) patients received mastectomy alone (MAST), and 50 (0.8%) patients underwent mastectomy with RT (MAST+RT). When we compared the LUMP+RT and LUMP groups directly, those receiving adjuvant RT tended to be younger and were less likely to be hormone receptor-positive. Overall survival was 95% for LUMP+RT and 90% for LUMP patients at 5 years. For those 65 or younger, the absolute overall survival benefit of LUMP+RT over LUMP was 1% at 5 years and 3% at 10 years. On stratified multivariate analysis, adjuvant RT remained a significant predictor in both age groups (P=.003 in age {<=}65 and P=.04 in age >65 patients). Other significant unfavorable factors were older age and higher T stage (age >65 only). Conclusions: Since sufficiently powered large scale clinical trials are unlikely, we would recommend that adjuvant radiation be considered in PTCB patients age 65 or younger, although consideration of the small absolute survival benefit is

  18. Characteristics of breast cancer patients who experience menopausal transition due to treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F.A. Duijts; A.C. Stolk-Vos; H.S.A. Oldenburg; M. van Beurden; N.K. Aaronson

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify patient-related and treatment-related factors associated significantly with climacteric symptoms in young patients who experience menopausal transition due to adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Methods This cross-sectional study used questionnaire data collected to screen br

  19. Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of the Breast: Evaluating the Role of Radiation Therapy in the Management and Attempts to Identify Low-Risk Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shah,Chirag; Vicini, Frank A.; Berry, Sameer; Julian, Thomas B.; Ben Wilkinson, J.; Shaitelman, Simona F.; Khan, Atif; Finkelstein, Steven E.; Goldstein, Neal

    2015-01-01

    Ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS) of the breast has rapidly increased in incidence over the past several decades secondary to an increased use of screening mammography. Local treatment options for women diagnosed with DCIS include mastectomy or breast-conserving therapy (BCT). While several randomized trials have confirmed a greater than 50% reduction in the risk of local recurrence with the administration of radiation therapy (RT) compared to breast-conserving surgery (BCS) alone, controversy ...

  20. Malignant phyllodes tumor in the right breast and invasive lobular carcinoma within fibroadenoma in the other: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Gebrim

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The malignant variety of the phyllodes tumor is rare. The occurrence of invasive lobular carcinoma within fibroadenoma is rare as well. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: A 58-year-old black female patient was referred to the Mastology unit of the Department of Gynecology, Federal University of São Paulo / Escola Paulista de Medicina, in February 1990, presenting an ulcerated tumor in the right breast with fast growth over the preceding six months. She was a virgin, with meno-pause at the age of 45 years and had not undergone hormone replacement treatment. The physical examination showed, in her right breast, an ulcerated tumor of 20 x 30 cm which was not adher-ent to the muscle level, multilobular and with fibroelastic consistency. The axillary lymph nodes were not palpable. The left breast showed a 2 x 3 cm painless, movable nodule, with well-defined edges, and fibroelastic consistency. We performed left-breast mammography, which showed several nodules with well-defined edges, the largest being 2 x 3 cm and exhibiting rough calcification and grouped microcalcifications within it. The patient underwent a frozen biopsy that showed a malignant variant of the phyllodes tumor in the right breast and fibroadenoma in the left one. After that, we performed a total mastectomy in the right breast and an excision biopsy in the left one. Paraffin study confirmed the frozen biopsy result from the right breast, yet we observed that in the interior of the fibroadenoma that was removed on the left, there was a focal area of invasive lobular carcinoma measuring 0.4 cm. The patient then underwent a modi-fied radical mastectomy with total axillary lymphadenectomy. None of the 21 dissected lymph nodes showed evidence of metastasis. In the follow-up, the patient evolved asymptomatically and with normal physical and laboratory examination results up to July 1997.

  1. Molecular characteristics and metastasis predictor genes of triple-negative breast cancer: a clinical study of triple-negative breast carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hung Kuo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer is a subtype of breast cancer with aggressive tumor behavior and distinct disease etiology. Due to the lack of an effective targeted medicine, treatment options for triple-negative breast cancer are few and recurrence rates are high. Although various multi-gene prognostic markers have been proposed for the prediction of breast cancer outcome, most of them were proven clinically useful only for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. Reliable identification of triple-negative patients with a favorable prognosis is not yet possible. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinicopathological information and microarray data from 157 invasive breast carcinomas were collected at National Taiwan University Hospital from 1995 to 2008. Gene expression data of 51 triple-negative and 106 luminal breast cancers were generated by oligonucleotide microarrays. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that the majority (94% of triple-negative breast cancers were tightly clustered together carrying strong basal-like characteristics. A 45-gene prognostic signature giving 98% predictive accuracy in distant recurrence of our triple-negative patients was determined using the receiver operating characteristic analysis and leave-one-out cross validation. External validation of the prognostic signature in an independent microarray dataset of 59 early-stage triple-negative patients also obtained statistical significance (hazard ratio 2.29, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.04-5.06, Cox P=0.04, outperforming five other published breast cancer prognostic signatures. The 45-gene signature identified in this study revealed that TGF-β signaling of immune/inflammatory regulation may play an important role in distant metastatic invasion of triple-negative breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Gene expression data and recurrence information of triple-negative breast cancer were collected and analyzed in this study. A novel set of 45-gene

  2. Correlation between PET/CT results and histological and immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinomas; Correlacao entre resultado do PET/CT e achados histologicos e imuno-histoquimicos em carcinomas mamarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Lima, Eduardo Nobrega Pereira; Chojniak, Rubens; Marques, Elvira Ferreira; Souza, Juliana Alves de; Graziano, Luciana; Andrade, Wesley Pereira; Osorio, Cynthia Aparecida Bueno de Toledo, E-mail: almirgvb@yahoo.com.br [A.C.Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Objective: to correlate the results of {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) performed with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts with histological/immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinoma patients. Materials and methods: cross-sectional study with prospective data collection, where patients with biopsy-confirmed breast carcinomas were studied. The patients underwent PET/CT examination in prone position, with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts. PET/CT findings were compared with histological and immunohistochemical data. Results: the authors identified 59 malignant breast lesions in 50 patients. The maximum diameter of the lesions ranged from 6 to 80 mm (mean: 32.2 mm). Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type (n = 47; 79.7%). At PET/CT, 53 (89.8%) of the lesions demonstrated anomalous concentrations of {sup 18}F-FDG, with maximum SUV ranging from 0.8 to 23.1 (mean: 5.5). A statistically significant association was observed between higher values of maximum SUV and histological type, histological grade, molecular subtype, tumor diameter, mitotic index and Ki-67 expression. Conclusion: PET/CT performed with specific protocol for assessment of breasts has demonstrated good sensitivity and was associated with relevant histological/immunohistochemical factors related to aggressiveness and prognosis of breast carcinomas. (author)

  3. DNAJC6 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression through induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tao [Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Hospital of Shijiazhuang City, Shijiazhuang 050011 (China); Li, Xiao-Na [General Surgery, Sports Science Institute of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050011 (China); Li, Xing-Guang; Li, Ming [General Surgery, The First Hospital of Shijiazhuang City, Shijiazhuang 050011 (China); Gao, Peng-Zhi, E-mail: pengzhigaovip@163.com [Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Hospital of Shijiazhuang City, Shijiazhuang 050011 (China)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • DNAJC6 is up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. • DNAJC6 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and invasion. • DNAJC6 induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition by activating transforming growth factor β signaling. - Abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental program, which is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and progression. DNAJC6 (DNA/HSP40 homolog subfamily C member 6) encodes auxilin, which is responsible for juvenile Parkinsonism with phenotypic variability. However, the role of DNAJC6 in HCC development and progression is limited. Here, we report that DNAJC6 is up-regulated in HCC tissues and up-regulation of DNAJC6 expression predicts poor outcome in patients with HCC. Furthermore, overexpression of DNAJC6 enhances the ability for acquisition of mesenchymal traits, enhanced cell proliferation and invasion. DNAJC6 positively regulated expression of EMT-related transcription factor, also activating transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway to contribute to EMT. Our findings demonstrated an important function of DNAJC6 in the progression of HCC by induction of EMT, and they implicate DNAJC6 as a marker of poor outcome in HCC.

  4. Long CAG Repeat Sequence and Protein Expression of Androgen Receptor Considered as Prognostic Indicators in Male Breast Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-Ni Song; Jing-Shu Geng; Tong Liu; Zhen-Bin Zhong; Yang Liu; Bing-Shu Xia; Hong-Fei Ji; Xiao-Mei Li; Guo-Qiang Zhang; Yan-Lv Ren; Zhi-Gao Li; Da Pang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The androgen receptor (AR) expression and the CAG repeat length within the AR gene appear to be involved in the carcinogenesis of male breast carcinoma (MBC). Although phenotypic differences have been observed between MBC and normal control group in AR gene, there is lack of correlation analysis between AR expression and CAG repeat length in MBC. The purpose of the study was to investigate the prognostic value of CAG repeat lengths and AR protein expression. METHODS: 81 tumor tiss...

  5. Allelic imbalance and fine mapping of the 17p13.3 subregion in sporadic breast carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, C; Mollenhauer, J; Waldau, B;

    2001-01-01

    .3. This region is suspected to harbor another tumor suppressor gene. In order to get more information concerning the pattern of AIs in 17p13.3, we performed analysis of AI of 49 breast carcinomas at 6 polymorphic loci in 17p13.3. Eighty-six percent of the tumors present AI at least at one marker in 17p13...

  6. Metastatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Breast Identified by Tc-99m-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT: A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claimon, Apichaya; Chuthapisith, Suebwong; Samarnthai, Norasate; Pusuwan, Pawana

    2015-08-01

    The authors reported an uncommon presentation of metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma to the breast detected by Tc-99m-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT in a 49 years old woman who, previously, had carcinoid tumor of left main bronchus and invasive ductal carcinoma of the right breast. Later, the patient developed left breast mass. Core needle biopsy of the mass revealed poorly differentiated invasive ductal carcinoma. The disease remained stable for 12 years without any treatment on that left breast (due to patient's rejection). On the later investigation using Tc-99m-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy examination, rather than invasive ductal carcinoma, metastatic neuroendocrine cancer was suggested. The final diagnosis was confirmed by pathological examination after surgical excision. Multiple metastatic lesions of neuroendocrine carcinoma at lung, liver, ovaries, and bones were also depicted. Due to the good behavior of the disease, patient had been doing well for eight months, without specific treatment. This report confirmed the advantage and the accuracy of Tc-99m-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy in detection of neuroendocrine carcinoma. Furthermore, metastatic neuroendocrine tumor should be in differential diagnosis for patient with breast mass together with history of neuroendocrine tumor

  7. [Synchronous and ipsilateral invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast occurring near a phyllodes tumor - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Saki; Sakurai, Kenichi; Suzuki, Shuhei; Sakagami, Masashi; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao; Koshinaga, Tsugumichi

    2014-11-01

    We report 2 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast occurring near a phyllodes tumor. The first case was ofa 58- year-old woman who had a tumor in her right breast and visited our hospital. Following a core needle biopsy (CNB), a malignant phyllodes tumor was diagnosed. We performed a lumpectomy for the phyllodes tumor, with 1.5-cm surgical margins. Pathological diagnosis of the resected specimen confirmed the malignant phyllodes tumor. A ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was also discovered near the phyllodes tumor. The second case was of another 58-year-old woman who had a big tumor in her right breast and visited our hospital. CNB resulted in pathological diagnosis ofa benign phyllodes tumor. The tumor was removed by a lumpectomy with 1.5-cm surgical margins. The pathological diagnosis from the resected specimen was borderline phyllodes tumor with invasive ductal carcinoma in the proximity. In both cases, DCIS could not have been diagnosed preoperatively.

  8. Expression of Presenilin-2 and Glutathione S Transferase π and Their Clinical Significance in Breast Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANWei; WUXiaoting; ZHOUYejiang; ZHOUTong; HUANGXiong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expressions of presenilin-2 (PS2) and glutathione S transferase π (GSTπ) and their roles in prognosis and therapy of breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Methods:The paraffin-embedded specimens of 210 patients with breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma were examined by using LSAB immunohistochemistry for the expression of PS2 and GSTπ. Results: The expression rate of PS2 and GSTπ was 49.5% (104/210) and 48.1% (101/210) respectively. The 5-year and 10-year postoperative survival rates in 4 groups, from high to low, were group 1 (PS2 positive expression/GSTπ negative expression), group 2 (PS2 positive expression/GSTπ positive expression), group 3 (PS2 negative expression/GSTπ negative expression) and group 4 (PS2 negative expression/GSTπ positive expression) in turn. Conclusion: The prognosis of the group 1 was the best, followed by the group 2, group 3 and group 4 in turn. These results suggested that the reasonable use of endocrinotherapy and chemotherapy for patients with breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma is necessary.

  9. Characterization of a novel PTEN mutation in MDA-MB-453 breast carcinoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gobind

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowden Syndrome (CS patients with germ line point mutations in the PTEN gene are at high risk for developing breast cancer. It is believed that cells harboring these mutant PTEN alleles are predisposed to malignant conversion. This article will characterize the biochemical and biological properties of a mutant PTEN protein found in a commonly used metastatic breast cancer cell line. Methods The expression of PTEN in human breast carcinoma cell lines was evaluated by Western blotting analysis. Cell line MDA-MB-453 was selected for further analysis. Mutation analysis of the PTEN gene was carried out using DNA isolated from MDA-MB-453. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate a PTEN E307K mutant cDNA and ectopic expressed in PC3, U87MG, MCF7 and Pten-/- mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFS. Histidine (His-tagged PTEN fusion protein was generated in Sf9 baculovirus expression system. Lipid phosphatase and ubiquitination assays were carried out to characterize the biochemical properties of PTEN E307K mutant. The intracellular localization of PTEN E307K was determined by subcellular fractionation experiments. The ability of PTEN E307K to alter cell growth, migration and apoptosis was analyzed in multiple PTEN-null cell lines. Results We found a mutation in the PTEN gene at codon 307 in MDA-MB-453 cell line. The glutamate (E to lysine (K substitution rendered the mutant protein to migrate with a faster mobility on SDS-PAGE gels. Biochemically, the PTEN E307K mutant displayed similar lipid phosphatase and growth suppressing activities when compared to wild-type (WT protein. However, the PTEN E307K mutant was present at higher levels in the membrane fraction and suppressed Akt activation to a greater extent than the WT protein. Additionally, the PTEN E307K mutant was polyubiquitinated to a greater extent by NEDD4-1 and displayed reduced nuclear localization. Finally, the PTEN E307K mutant failed to confer chemosensitivity to

  10. Modulation of markers associated with aggressive phenotype in MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells by sulforaphane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunakova, L; Sedlakova, O; Cholujova, D; Gronesova, P; Duraj, J; Sedlak, J

    2009-01-01

    Metastasis as a complex process involves loss of adhesion, migration, invasion and proliferation of cancer cells. Sulforaphane (SFN) is one of naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive isothiocyanates found in cruciferous vegetables, consumption of which has been associated with reduced risk of cancer. In this study, we describe effect of SFN on various aspects determining invasive behavior of MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells. We studied modulation of molecules associated with epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), hypoxic marker CA IX and mitochondrially located peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) using flow cytometry, gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP1, 3, 7, 9, 14, transcription factors POU5F1 and Twist1 mRNA by RT PCR, and cytokine production by multiplex bead assay. SFN downregulated PBR and vimentin expression in a dose dependent manner, but significantly affected neither HIF-1alpha, nor CA IX protein expression, nor VEGF and GLUT1 mRNA levels. Among studied MMPs, MMP7 and MMP14 mRNA were downregulated while no apparent effect on MMP1, MMP3 and MMP9 was observed. Further, we found significant down regulation of Twist1 and POU5F1, transcription factors that mediate EMT and the self-renewal of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells. SFN reduced also the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, immunomodulating cytokine IL-4 and growth factors involved in angiogenesis PDGF and VEGF. Our study shows that SFN efficacy is associated with the reversal of several biological characteristics connected with EMT or implicated in the matrix degradation and extracellular proteolysis, as well as with reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-angiogenic growth factors in MDA-MB-231 cells.

  11. In situ quantification of genomic instability in breast cancer progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos; Chin, Koei; Gray, Joe W.; Lockett, Stephen J.

    2003-05-15

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of breast and other solid cancers. Presumably caused by critical telomere reduction, GI is responsible for providing the genetic diversity required in the multi-step progression of the disease. We have used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization and 3D image analysis to quantify genomic instability cell-by-cell in thick, intact tissue sections of normal breast epithelium, preneoplastic lesions (usual ductal hyperplasia), ductal carcinona is situ or invasive carcinoma of the breast. Our in situ-cell by cell-analysis of genomic instability shows an important increase of genomic instability in the transition from hyperplasia to in situ carcinoma, followed by a reduction of instability in invasive carcinoma. This pattern suggests that the transition from hyperplasia to in situ carcinoma corresponds to telomere crisis and invasive carcinoma is a consequence of telomerase reactivation afertelomere crisis.

  12. Intratumor genetic heterogeneity of breast carcinomas as determined by fine needle aspiration and TaqMan low density array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Maria B.; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Pallisgaard, Niels

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene expression profiling is thought to be an important tool in determining treatment strategies for breast cancer patients. Tissues for such analysis may at a preoperative stage be obtained, by fine needle aspiration (FNA) allowing initiation of neoadjuvant treatment. To evaluate...... the extent of the genetic heterogeneity within primary breast carcinomas, we examined whether a gene expression profile obtained by FNA was representative of the tumor. METHODS: Tumors from 12 consecutive cases of early predominantly estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer patients undergoing primary...... by statistical analysis. High correlations between the gene profiles of tumor FNAs and tissue biopsies from the same patient were observed for all patients. A cluster analysis identified clustering of both the two FNAs and the tissue biopsy of the same 9 patients. CONCLUSION: The overall genetic heterogeneity...

  13. Isolated Metastasis in Male Breast from Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma - Oncological Curiosity. A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuraman, Lakshminarasimman; Kane, Shubhada V; Pai, Prathamesh S; Shanghvi, Kintan

    2016-03-01

    Papillary carcinomas are the most common thyroid malignancy accounting for approximately 80 % of thyroid cancers (Rosenbaum and McHenry Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 9:317-329, 2009). They generally manifest as solitary nodules in the thyroid with or without cervical lymphadenopathy. Distant metastases though rare, are commonly seen in lungs and bones, other rare sites are parotid, skin, brain, ovary, adrenal, kidney, Pancreas and breast. We herein present an unusual case of breast lump as an initial presentation of a well differentiated thyroid cancer in a male patient. Our case is unique since it presented with isolated breast metastasis in a male patient in the absence of primary diagnosis. This prompted us to report the case with review of literature. A brief review of literature follows.

  14. Paeoniflorin prevents hypoxia-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Z

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zhenyu Zhou,1,* Shunchang Wang,1,* Caijuan Song,2 Zhuang Hu11Department of Thyroid and Breast, Huaihe Hospital, Henan University, Kaifeng, 2Department of Immunization Program, Zhengzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Paeoniflorin (PF is a monoterpene glycoside extracted from the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. Previous studies have demonstrated that PF inhibits the growth, invasion, and metastasis of tumors in vivo and in vitro. However, the effect of PF on hypoxia-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT in breast cancer cells remains unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of PF on hypoxia-induced EMT in breast cancer cells, as well as characterize the underlying mechanism. The results presented in this study demonstrate that PF blocks the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by repressing EMT under hypoxic conditions. PF also significantly attenuated the hypoxia-induced increase in HIF-1α level. Furthermore, PF prevented hypoxia-induced expression of phosphorylated PI3K and Akt in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, PF prevented hypoxia-induced EMT in breast cancer cells by inhibiting HIF-1α expression via modulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This finding provides evidence that PF can serve as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer.Keywords: paeoniflorin, breast cancer, hypoxia, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

  15. Mindfulness Meditation or Survivorship Education in Improving Behavioral Symptoms in Younger Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors (Pathways to Wellness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    Cancer Survivor; Early-Stage Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  16. Effects of exogenous human leptin on heat shock protein 70 expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and breast carcinoma of nude mice xenograft model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Rong-quan; GU Jun-chao; YU Wei; WANG Yu; ZHANG Zhong-tao; MA Xue-mei

    2012-01-01

    Background It is important to identify the multiple sites of leptin activity in obese women with breast cancer.In this study,we examined the effect of exogenous human leptin on heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and in a breast carcinoma xenograft model of nude mice.Methods We cultured MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and established nude mice bearing xenograffs of these cells,and randomly divided them into experimental and control groups.The experimental group was treated with human leptin,while the control group was treated with the same volume of normal saline.A real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed to quantify the mRNA expression of HSP70 in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and in tumor tissues.Western blotting analysis was applied to quantify the protein expression of HSP70 in the MCF-7 cells.Immunohistochemical staining was done to assess the positive rate of HSP70 expression in the tumor tissues.Results Leptin activated HSP70 in a dose-dependent manner in vitro:leptin upregulated significantly the expression of HSP70 at mRNA and protein levels in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells (P <0.001).There was no significant difference in expression of HSP70 mRNA in the implanted tumors between the leptin-treated group and the control group (P>0.05).Immunohistochemical staining revealed no significant difference in tumor HSP70 expression between the leptin-treated group and the control group (P>0.05).Conclusions A nude mouse xenograft model can be safely and efficiently treated with human leptin by subcutaneous injections around the tumor.HSP70 may be target of leptin in breast cancer.Leptin can significantly upregulate the expression of HSP70 in a dose-dependent manner in vitro.

  17. Ductal carcinoma in situ and atypical ductal hyperplasia of the breast diagnosed at stereotactic core biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, I; Andreu, F J; Sáez, E; Sentís, M; Jurado, I; Cabezuelo, M A; Castañer, E; Gallardo, X; Díaz-Ruiz, M J; López, E; Marco, V

    2001-01-01

    Stereotactic core needle biopsy (SCNB) allows specific histopathologic diagnoses to be made without surgery and has been demonstrated to be an accurate, cost-effective method of diagnosing breast disease, particularly nonpalpable lesions. However, recent studies have concluded that the diagnosis of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) by means of SCNB has resulted in nearly equal odds that a coexisting malignant lesion will be missed. Furthermore, others have concluded that SCNB diagnosed as DCIS cannot reliably indicate the absence of tumor invasion in surgical excision. Between 1993 and 1998, 1,221 consecutive SCNB of mammographically identified lesions were performed using a 14-gauge automated device with an average of 5.3 cores obtained per lesion. ADH was identified in 19 (1.6%) lesions and DCIS in 89 (7.3%). Surgical biopsy was performed in 89 of these patients and histopathologic results from SCNB and surgical biopsies were reviewed and correlated. In 12 cases of ADH diagnosed by SCNB, surgical biopsy showed ADH in 8 (67%) cases and DCIS in the other 4 (33%) cases. In 77 cases of DCIS diagnosed by SCNB, a surgical biopsy showed DCIS in 55 (71%) cases, 6 more cases (8%) had DCIS with focal microinvasion, and 15 (19%) had invasive ductal carcinoma. In one case no residual tumor was found at surgery. In the author's patient population, the diagnosis of ADH at SCNB indicates high probability of DCIS or residual ADH in the surgical biopsy. The diagnosis of DCIS at SCNB is confirmed in the majority of surgical biopsies; however, a significant number of cases may show microinvasion or invasive carcinoma.

  18. Intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity predicts invasive components in breast ductal carcinoma in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hai-Jeon [Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Yangchun-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yemi [Ewha Womans University, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bom Sahn [Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Yangchun-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ewha Womans University, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    This study investigated whether texture-based imaging parameters could identify invasive components of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We enrolled 65 biopsy-confirmed DCIS patients (62 unilateral, 3 bilateral) who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), or breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI). We measured SUV{sub max} and intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity by the area under the curve (AUC) of cumulative SUV histograms (CSH) on PET, tumour-to-normal ratio (TNR) and coefficient of variation (COV) as an index of heterogeneity on BSGI, minimum ADC (ADC{sub min}) and ADC difference (ADC{sub diff}) as an index of heterogeneity on DWI. After surgery, final pathology was categorized as pure-DCIS (DCIS-P), DCIS with microinvasion (DCIS-MI), or invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Clinicopathologic features of DCIS were correlated with final classification. Final pathology confirmed 44 DCIS-P, 14 DCIS-MI, and 10 IDC. The invasive component of DCIS was significantly correlated with higher SUV{sub max} (p = 0.017) and lower AUC-CSH (p < 0.001) on PET, higher TNR (p = 0.008) and COV (p = 0.035) on BSGI, lower ADC{sub min} (p = 0.016) and higher ADC{sub diff} (p = 0.009) on DWI, and larger pathologic size (p = 0.018). On multiple regression analysis, AUC-CSH was the only significant predictor of invasive components (p = 0.044). The intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity of {sup 18}F-FDG PET was the most important predictor of invasive components of DCIS. (orig.)

  19. Topoisomerase II alpha--a fundamental prognostic factor in breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajduk, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    Because of the introduction of modern diagnostic methods, numerous prognostic and predictive factors have been recognized and are today considered classic, yet they seem to be insufficient in assessment of prognosis, hence the need for further investigations. Among factors newly discovered by molecular techniques, there are class I and II topoisomerases, the role of which as prognosticators has not been fully determined. The objective of the present investigation was the assessment of topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) expression in patients with infiltrating breast carcinoma, as a prognostic factor in correlation with other recognized prognosticators and patient survival. The study was carried out in 151 patients treated by mastectomy and lymph node excision followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. The material was evaluated histopathologically according to the pTNM system, taking into consideration such parameters as grade of malignancy (G); the ER, PR as well as HER2 and TOP2A receptors status--all of them were assessed immunohistochemically. TOP2A was expressed with varying intensity in the majority of infiltrating ductal carcinomas studied, more frequently in large T3 and T4, grade G2 and G3 tumours, in patients with extensive metastases to regional N2 and N3 lymph nodes, a positive HER2 and negative ER and PR status. Five-year mortality rates were higher and 5-year symptom-free survival rates were lower in patients with TOP2A-positive tumours as compared to individuals with a negative TOP2A status. The study indicates that TOP2A expression is a negative predictive factor and may be recognized as a prognostic factor.

  20. Sonographic findings of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast : comparison with mammographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eung Yeop; Han, Boo-Kyung; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Nam, Seok Jin; Ko, Young Hyeh; Yang, Jung Hyun [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-01

    To evaluate the sonographic findings and detection rate of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and to compare the results with mammographic findings. Of 134 patients with pathologically proven DCIS, 47 patients (48 breasts) who underwent sonography before surgery were included. Twenty-seven patients were asymptomatic, while 20 experienced symptoms. Whether a lesion was present, and the nature of the related sonographic finding were analyzed retrospectively. When a mass was identified by means of sonography, it was evaluated in terms of its shape, margin, echogenicity, associated microcalcifications, and intervening echogenic lines. Sonography detected 39/48 cases of DCIS (81%). In 24 cases, detection was based only on the presence of the mass, while in nine cases this depended on additional findings alone [periductal thickening (n=6);micronodules (n=3)]. In three cases the presence of microcalcifications alone was sufficient for detecton and in the other three cases, detection was based on the presence of microcalcifications as well as on additional findings [periductal thickening (n=2); micronodules (n=1)]. Thirteen lesions (54%) were irregular in shape, while 11 (46%) were o val or lobulated. The margins of 17 lesions (71%) were ill-defined, and in 18 (75%), echogenicity was slightly hypoechoic. Sonography showed that for masses identified as DCIS, the most common findings were an ill-de-fined margin, irregular shape, and mild hypoechogenicity. Microcalcifications were identified in 13 of 48 breasts (27%), while in some cases intervening echogenic lines and microcalcifications were the only finding. For early detection of DCIS, mammography together with sonography may be helpful.

  1. Relationship between the inflammatory molecular profile of breast carcinomas and distant metastasis development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Eiró

    Full Text Available Inflammatory conditions may promote tumor progression and aggressiveness. In previous reports, we found a group of breast cancer tumors characterized by metalloprotease-11 (MMP-11 expression by intratumoral mononuclear inflammatory cells (MICs, which was associated with distant metastasis development. Thus, in the present study we evaluated the relationship between MMP-11 expression by MICs, distant metastasis development, and a wide panel of inflammatory factors in breast carcinoma. In an initial approach, we analyzed 65 factors associated with tumor progression and inflammation, in a tumor population classified in good or bad prognosis, based on MMP-11 expression by intratumoral MICs. The most differentially expressed factors were then analyzed in a wider tumor population classified according to MMP-11 expression by MICs and also according to metastasis development. These analyses were carried out by Real-time PCR. The results showed that of the 65 starting factors analyzed, those related with MMP-11 expression by MICs were: IL-1, -5, -6, -8, -17, -18, MMP-1, TIMP-1, ADAM-8, -10, -15, -23, ADAMTS-1, -2, -15, Annexin A2, IFNβ, Claudin-3, CCL-3, MyD88, IRAK-4 and NFκB. Of them, factors more differentially expressed between both groups of tumors were IL-1, IL-5, IL-6, IL-17, IFNβ and NFκB. Thereafter, we confirmed in the wider tumor population, that there is a higher expression of those factors in tumors infiltrated by MMP-11 positive MICs. Altogether these results indicate that tumors developing worse prognosis and identified by MMP-11 expression by intratumoral MICs, shows an up-regulation of inflammatory-related genes.

  2. Expression of e-cadherin, n-cadherin and snail and their correlation with clinicopathological variants: an immunohistochemical study of 132 invasive ductal breast carcinomas in Egypt

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    Hanan Mohamed Abd ElMoneim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression of the cell adhesion molecules E-cadherin and N-cadherin and the transcription factor Snail in invasive ductal breast carcinomas and to determine their relationships with clinicopathological features. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and Snail protein expression in 132 invasive breast carcinomas. RESULTS: The expression of E-cadherin was decreased (negative or weak in 37.1% of invasive carcinomas, while N-cadherin and Snail overexpression were detected in 51.9% and 40.9% of carcinomas, respectively. Low E-cadherin expression was significantly correlated with poorly differentiated carcinoma (53.1%, positive node status (80.9%, poor Nottingham Prognostic Index (64.7%, and the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors. Overexpression of N-cadherin and Snail were also significantly correlated with poorly differentiated carcinoma, positive node status, and poor Nottingham Prognostic Index but were correlated with the absence of hormone receptors. Loss of E-cadherin immunoexpression was strongly associated with the presence of membranous N-cadherin (87.8% and nuclear Snail (69.4%. CONCLUSION: Loss of E-cadherin and overexpression of N-cadherin and Snail in breast carcinomas may play a central role in the development of invasive ductal breast carcinoma. These biomarkers may provide a valuable reference for the study of invasive ductal carcinoma progression and to characterize the biological behavior of the tumor. In the future, increased N-cadherin and decreased E-cadherin expression may be used as indicators of the progression and prognosis of invasive ductal carcinoma.

  3. Surgical management of bladder transitional cell carcinoma in a vesicular diverticulum: case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raheem, Omer A

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of primary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of a bladder diverticum along with a literature review. A 55-year-old male presented with painless gross hematuria. A histological diagnosis of TCC within a bladder diverticulum was made following cystoscopical examination. Initially transurethral resection of bladder tumour with subsequent intravesical chemotherapy followed. As a result of recurrence and in view of bladder-sparing therapy, a distal partial cystectomy was performed. This report demonstrates that conservative bladder-sparing treatment can be achieved and subsequently followed by vigilant cystoscopy.

  4. Surgical management of bladder transitional cell carcinoma in a vesicular diverticulum: case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raheem, Omer A

    2011-08-01

    We report a case of primary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of a bladder diverticum along with a literature review. A 55-year-old male presented with painless gross hematuria. A histological diagnosis of TCC within a bladder diverticulum was made following cystoscopical examination. Initially transurethral resection of bladder tumour with subsequent intravesical chemotherapy followed. As a result of recurrence and in view of bladder-sparing therapy, a distal partial cystectomy was performed. This report demonstrates that conservative bladder-sparing treatment can be achieved and subsequently followed by vigilant cystoscopy.

  5. Hypoxia induced E-cadherin involving regulators of Hippo pathway due to HIF-1α stabilization/nuclear translocation in bone metastasis from breast carcinoma

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    Maroni, Paola [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, IRCCS, Milano (Italy); Matteucci, Emanuela [Dipartiimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Drago, Lorenzo; Banfi, Giuseppe [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, IRCCS, Milano (Italy); Dipartiimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Bendinelli, Paola [Dipartiimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina, E-mail: a.desiderio@unimi.it [Dipartiimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    The present study deals with the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of E-cadherin expression under hypoxia, because the adjustment of the amount of E-cadherin due to physical stimuli of the microenvironment might influence the colonization of metastasis to skeleton. We analyzed the effect of 1% oxygen tension, that is similar to that encountered in the bone marrow by metastatic cells spreading from breast carcinoma. The purpose was to evaluate the hypoxia-orchestrated control of E-cadherin transactivation via hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and the involvement of Hippo pathway members, as regulators of transcription factors. To give a translational significance to the study, we took into consideration human pair-matched ductal breast carcinoma and bone metastasis: E-cadherin and Wwox were expressed in bone metastasis but not in breast carcinoma, while HIF-1α and TAZ seemed localized principally in nuclei of metastasis and were found in all cell compartments of breast carcinoma. A close examination of the regulatory mechanisms underlying E-cadherin expression in bone metastasis was done in 1833 clone derived from MDA-MB231 cells. Hypoxia induced E-cadherin only in 1833 clone, but not in parental cells, through HIF-1 and PPARγ activities, while Wwox decreased. Since Wwox was highly expressed in bone metastasis, the effect of ectopic Wwox was evaluated, and we showed E-cadherin transactivation and enhanced invasiveness in WWOX transfected 1833 cells. Also, hypoxia was additive with ectopic Wwox remarkably enhancing HIF-1α nuclear shuttle and accumulation due to the lengthening of the half-life of HIF-1α protein; under this experimental condition HIF-1α appeared as a slower migrated band compared with control, in agreement with the phosphorylation state. The in vitro data strongly supported the almost exclusive presence of HIF-1α in nuclei of human-bone metastasis. Thus, we identified

  6. Histochemical Study of N-acetylgalactosamine Containing Glycoconjugate in Intraductal Carcinoma of the Breast by HPA Lectin

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    Mohammad Reza Arab

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycoconjugates are a class of glycoproteins or glycolipids, their terminal sugars are responsible for cell-cell and/or cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Aberrant glycosylation of these compounds are one of the most important aspects of cellular transformation, metastasis and escape of tumoral cells from immune system and resistance to antineoplastic drugs. Recent studies showed that patients with HPA (helix pomatia agglutinin positive intraductal carcinoma cells have worse prognosis compared to patients with HPA negative cells. The aim of the present study was to define the presence of GalNac terminal sugar in glycoconjugate of different grades of intraductal breast carcinoma and to compare the degree and the pattern of reactivity of tumoral cells to HPA lectin. Materials and Methods: The paraffin blocks belonging to 20 patients of intraductal carcinoma was chosen from pathology archive of Khatam-Al-Anbia hospital in Zahedan and 5-7 micrometer sections were prepared. Two expert pathologists determined histopathological grading independently. The lectin histochemistry was performed using HPA. The same observers determined histochemical grading. Data were analyzed by NPAR (non-parametric test of Mann Whitney. Results: Results of this study revealed that the pattern and the degree of histochemical reactivity of neoplastic cells differ in all grades of intraductal carcinoma. Histochemical staining showed significant difference between grades of intraductal carcinoma of the breast (p<0.003. The lowest reactivity was seen in grade I and the highest in grade III. Furthermore, the reaction of tumoral cells was primarily confined to apical surfaces of cells in grade I, to the Golgi zone in grade II, and to a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution in grade III. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the HPA reactivity of tumoral cells were different in all grades of intraductal carcinoma. The tumor cells showed aberrant glycosylation, which

  7. Lipid-rich carcinoma of the breast that is strongly positive for estrogen receptor: a case report and literature review

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    Oba T

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Takaaki Oba,1 Mayu Ono,1 Asumi Iesato,1 Toru Hanamura,1 Takayuki Watanabe,1 Tokiko Ito,1 Toshiharu Kanai,1 Kazuma Maeno,1 Ken-ichi Ito,1 Ayako Tateishi,2 Akihiko Yoshizawa,2 Fumiyoshi Takayama31Division of Breast, Endocrine and Respiratory Surgery, Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shinshu University Hospital, 3Imaging Center, Ichinose Neurosurgical Hospital, Matsumoto, JapanAbstract: Lipid-rich carcinoma (LRC of the breast is a rare breast cancer variant that accounts for <1% of all breast malignancies. It has been reported that LRCs are negative for estrogen receptor. Here, we report a case of LRC of the breast that was strongly positive for estrogen receptor and treated with endocrine adjuvant therapy. A 52-year-old postmenopausal female noticed a lump in her right breast by self-examination and presented to our hospital. Physical examination revealed an elastic 30 mm ×20 mm hard mass in the upper medial part of her right breast. The findings obtained using ultrasonography, mammography, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging suggested breast cancer. Core needle biopsy resulted in the diagnosis of invasive carcinoma. The patient underwent mastectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy. Histopathologically, the tumor cells were abundant in foamy cytoplasm. Because the presence of marked cytoplasmic lipid droplets was confirmed by Sudan IV staining and electron microscopic examination of the tumor and the lipid droplets were negative for periodic acid–Schiff staining, the