Forman, Michele R; Winn, Deborah M; Collman, Gwen W; Rizzo, Jeanne; Birnbaum, Linda S
This review summarizes the report entitled: Breast Cancer and the Environment: Prioritizing Prevention, highlights research gaps and the importance of focusing on early life exposures for breast development and breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Waltz, Susan E
... in a murine model of human breast cancer. These results are in agreement with human cancer studies documenting an upregulation of this receptor in breast tumors as well as are consistent with the correlation between Ron overexpression...
Waltz, Susan E
.... Virtually nothing is known regarding the function of Ron in the breast. However, two recent studies have shown that Ron is over-expressed and highly phosphorylated in a significant fraction of human and feline breast cancers...
.... Virtually nothing is known regarding the function of Ron in the breast. However, two recent studies have shown the Ron is over- expressed and highly phosphorylated in a significant fraction of human and feline breast cancers...
In this work the topic of breast cancer treated more generally and mainly focused on risk factors for the development. The theoretical part describes the general knowledge about breast cancer as a stage or treatment. The practical part is to have clarified the risk factors that have some bearing on the diagnosis of breast cancer. What level are involved in the probability of occurrence? Can we eliminate them? As a comparison of risk factors examined in the Czech Republic, England, Australia a...
Nazario, C M; Figueroa-Vallés, N; Rosario, R V
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiologic patterns of breast cancer and to estimate the lifetime risk probability of developing breast cancer among Hispanic females using cancer data from Puerto Rico. The age-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate (per 100,000) in Puerto Rico increased from 15.3 in 1960-1964 to 43.3 in 1985-1989. The age-adjusted breast cancer mortality rate (per 100,000) increased from 5.7 to 10.6 comparing the same two time periods (1960-1964 vs 1985-1989). Nevertheless, in 1985-1989 breast cancer incidence rate was higher in US White females (110.8 per 100,000) compared to Puerto Rican females (51.4 per 100,000; age-adjusted to the 1970 US standard population). The breast cancer mortality rate was also higher in US White females (27.4 per 100,000) than in Puerto Rican females (15.1 per 100,000; age-adjusted to the 1970 US standard population) during 1985-1989. A multiple decrement life table was constructed applying age-specific incidence and mortality rates from cross-sectional data sets (1980-1984 and 1985-1989 data for Puerto Rican females and 1987-1989 SEER data sets for US White and Black females) to a hypothetical cohort of 10,000,000 women. The probability of developing invasive breast cancer was computed for the three groups using the long version of DEVCAN: Probability of DEVeloping CANcer software, version 3.3. The lifetime risk of developing breast cancer was 5.4% for Puerto Rican females, compared to 8.8% for US Black females and 13.0% for US White females. Lifetime risk for Puerto Rican females increased from 4.5% in 1980-1984 to 5.4% in 1985-1989. Lifetime risk of breast cancer appears to be increasing in Puerto Rico, but remains lower than the probability for US White females. Therefore, the application of lifetime probability of developing invasive breast cancer estimated for the US female population will overestimate the risk for the Puerto Rican female population.
Yu, Dan-dan; Wu, Ying; Shen, Hong-yu; Lv, Meng-meng; Chen, Wei-xian; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Zhong, Shan-liang; Tang, Jin-hai; Zhao, Jian-hua
Transport through the cell membrane can be divided into active, passive and vesicular types (exosomes). Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles released by a variety of cells. Emerging evidence shows that exosomes play a critical role in cancers. Exosomes mediate communication between stroma and cancer cells through the transfer of nucleic acid and proteins. It is demonstrated that the contents and the quantity of exosomes will change after occurrence of cancers. Over the last decade, growing attention has been paid to the role of exosomes in the development of breast cancer, the most life-threatening cancer in women. Breast cancer could induce salivary glands to secret specific exosomes, which could be used as biomarkers in the diagnosis of early breast cancer. Exosome-delivered nucleic acid and proteins partly facilitate the tumorigenesis, metastasis and resistance of breast cancer. Exosomes could also transmit anti-cancer drugs outside breast cancer cells, therefore leading to drug resistance. However, exosomes are effective tools for transportation of anti-cancer drugs with lower immunogenicity and toxicity. This is a promising way to establish a drug delivery system. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.
... can help you know how to prevent breast cancer. Breast implants, using antiperspirants, and wearing underwire bras do not increase the risk for breast cancer. There is also no evidence of a direct ...
... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...
Mark E Sherman
Full Text Available Breast cancer risk prediction models are used to plan clinical trials and counsel women; however, relationships of predicted risks of breast cancer incidence and prognosis after breast cancer diagnosis are unknown.Using largely pre-diagnostic information from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC for 37,939 invasive breast cancers (1996-2007, we estimated 5-year breast cancer risk (<1%; 1-1.66%; ≥1.67% with three models: BCSC 1-year risk model (BCSC-1; adapted to 5-year predictions; Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT; and BCSC 5-year risk model (BCSC-5. Breast cancer-specific mortality post-diagnosis (range: 1-13 years; median: 5.4-5.6 years was related to predicted risk of developing breast cancer using unadjusted Cox proportional hazards models, and in age-stratified (35-44; 45-54; 55-69; 70-89 years models adjusted for continuous age, BCSC registry, calendar period, income, mode of presentation, stage and treatment. Mean age at diagnosis was 60 years.Of 6,021 deaths, 2,993 (49.7% were ascribed to breast cancer. In unadjusted case-only analyses, predicted breast cancer risk ≥1.67% versus <1.0% was associated with lower risk of breast cancer death; BCSC-1: hazard ratio (HR = 0.82 (95% CI = 0.75-0.90; BCRAT: HR = 0.72 (95% CI = 0.65-0.81 and BCSC-5: HR = 0.84 (95% CI = 0.75-0.94. Age-stratified, adjusted models showed similar, although mostly non-significant HRs. Among women ages 55-69 years, HRs approximated 1.0. Generally, higher predicted risk was inversely related to percentages of cancers with unfavorable prognostic characteristics, especially among women 35-44 years.Among cases assessed with three models, higher predicted risk of developing breast cancer was not associated with greater risk of breast cancer death; thus, these models would have limited utility in planning studies to evaluate breast cancer mortality reduction strategies. Further, when offering women counseling, it may be useful to note that high
A collaborative article gives an overview of breast cancer in LICs, ... approach to the problem; therefore they are published as two separate ... attached to the diagnosis of breast cancer. ... Their founding statement in its early form is included.
Breast cancer is a complex disease and the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide. It has been estimated that 1 in 8 women and 1 in 1,000 men will develop breast cancer. Surgical-, chemical- and radiation based therapies are available to breast cancer patients. Early detection of cancer is crucial
Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...
Coles, Charlotte E.
Radiotherapy following conservation surgery decreases local relapse and death from breast cancer. Currently, the challenge is to minimise the morbidity caused by this treatment without losing efficacy. Despite many advances in radiation techniques in other sites of the body, the majority of breast cancer patients are still planned and treated using 2-dimensional simple radiotherapy techniques. In addition, breast irradiation currently consumes 30% of the UK's radiotherapy workload. Therefore, any change to more complex treatment should be of proven benefit. The primary objective of this research is to develop and evaluate novel radiotherapy techniques to decrease irradiation of normal structures and improve localisation of the tumour bed. I have developed a forward-planned intensity modulated (IMRT) breast radiotherapy technique, which has shown improved dosimetry results compared to standard breast radiotherapy. Subsequently, I have developed and implemented a phase III randomised controlled breast IMRT trial. This National Cancer Research Network adopted trial will answer an important question regarding the clinical benefit of breast IMRT. It will provide DNA samples linked with high quality clinical outcome data, for a national translational radiogenomics study investigating variation in normal tissue toxicity. Thus, patients with significant late normal tissue side effects despite good dose homogeneity will provide the best model for finding differences due to underlying genetics. I evaluated a novel technique using high definition free-hand 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound in a phantom study, and the results suggested that this is an accurate and reproducible method for tumour bed localisation. I then compared recognised methods of tumour bed localisation with the 3D ultrasound method in a clinical study. The 3D ultrasound technique appeared to accurately represent the shape and spatial position of the tumour cavity. This tumour bed localisation research
Thirlaway, K.; Fallowfield, L.; Nunnerley, H.; Powles, T.
Do family history clinics offering counselling, surveillance and preventative programmes alleviate or exacerbate anxiety in women at a high risk of developing breast cancer? In this study risk perceptions and anxiety of 99 'at risk' women participating in the Tamoxifen Prevention Trial were compared with those of 87 'at risk' women not attending any specialist clinic who were recruited from the National Breast Screening Programme (NBSP). Most anxiety was found in NBSP women with a family hist...
African patients are more likely to be premenopausal at diagnosis and the ... of whether a patient had a mastectomy or breast conserving therapy. Breast conserving treat- ment is an option for treatment of breast cancer in a young patient given the ... family and society as a whole. ... breast cancer, from the perspective of.
Özkan, Mine; Yıldırım, Nazmiye; Dişçi, Rian; İlgün, Ahmet Serkan; Sarsenov, Dauren; Alço, Gül; Aktepe, Fatma; Kalyoncu, Nesiba; İzci, Filiz; Selamoğlu, Derya; Ordu, Çetin; Pilancı, Kezban Nur; Erdoğan, Zeynep İyigün; Eralp, Yeşim; Özmen, Vahit
Objective The aim of this study was to determine the roles of biopsychosocial risk factors in the development of breast cancer. Materials and methods This hospital-based case-control study included 491 women with breast cancer (study group) and 512 women who did not have cancer or other serious diseases (control group). Biological, psychological, and social risk factors were compared between the two groups. Data were collected using the semi-structured interview, the Stress Assessment Form, and the Coping Strategy Indicator to assess these factors. Results When the significantly different biopsychosocial variables between the study and the control groups were evaluated together, independent breast cancer risk factors were found as follows: a stressor experienced in the last 5 years, age 40 years and older, inadequate social support perception, use of avoidance coping strategy, being a housewife, having a family history of cancer, and having a body mass index ≥25. Conclusion This study showed a relationship between breast cancer risk and manageable variables (obesity, stressor and coping strategy, social support, and employment status), age and family history of cancer, which are biopsychosocial factors. Biopsychosocial aspects are becoming a greater part of many different healthcare systems. PMID:29082379
been the 'gold standard' for imaging the breast since the mid-1960s.2 In ... Breast cancer is still one of the most common cancers in women. ... Engineering, and his qualifications include a BSc (Hons) in applied mathematics and physics.
Scutt, Diane; Lancaster, Gillian A; Manning, John T
INTRODUCTION: It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer, and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched healthy women. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease at time of mammography, but who had subsequently developed breast cancer, with that of age-matched healthy ...
Al-Awadhi, Aydah; Murray, James Lee; Ibrahim, Nuhad K
Breast cancer accounts for more than one million new cases annually and is the leading cause of death in women globally. HER2 overexpression induces cellular and humoral immune responses against the HER2 protein and is associated with higher tumour proliferation rates. Trastuzumab-based therapies are effectively and widely used as standard of care in HER2-amplified/overexpressed breast cancer patients; one cited mechanism of action is the induction of passive immunity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against malignant breast cancer cells. These findings drove the efforts to generate antigen-specific immunotherapy to trigger the patient's immune system to target HER2-overexpressing tumour cells, which led to the development of various vaccines against the HER2 antigen. This manuscript discusses the various anti-HER2 vaccine formulations and strategies and their potential role in the metastatic and adjuvant settings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.
Bleiker, E M; van der Ploeg, H M; Hendriks, J H; Adèr, H J
It has been estimated that approximately 25% of all breast cancers in women can be explained by currently recognized somatic (i.e., hereditary and physiologic) risk factors. It has also been hypothesized that psychological factors may play a role in the development of breast cancer. We investigated the extent to which personality factors, in addition to somatic risk factors, may be associated with the development of primary breast cancer. We employed a prospective, longitudinal study design. From 1989 through 1990, a personality questionnaire was sent to all female residents of the Dutch city of Nijmegen who were 43 years of age or older. This questionnaire was sent as part of an invitation to participate in a population-based breast cancer screening program. Women who developed breast cancer among those who returned completed questionnaires were compared with women without such a diagnosis in regard to somatic risk factors and personality traits, including anxiety, anger, depression, rationality, anti-emotionality (i.e., an absence of emotional behavior or a lack of trust in one's own feelings), understanding, optimism, social support, and the expression and control of emotions. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables that could best explain group membership (i.e., belonging to the case [breast cancer] or the control [without disease] group). Personality questionnaires were sent to 28 940 women, and 9705 (34%) were returned in such a way that they could be used for statistical analyses. Among the 9705 women who returned useable questionnaires, 131 were diagnosed with breast cancer during the period from 1989 through 1994. Seven hundred seventy-one age-matched control subjects (up to six per case patient) were selected for the analyses. Three variables were found to be statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer: 1) having a first-degree family member with breast cancer (versus not having an
Mara Rejane Barroso Barcelos
Full Text Available Background: Mortality from breast cancer decreased in high-income countries, while countries with middle and low incomes as Brazil still has upward trend. However, large geographical variations among the federal units are observed in the country. The aim of the study was to evaluate the trend of specific mortality from breast cancer in women over 20 years old years among different states of Brazil from 1996 to 2012. Methods and Findings: Ecological study, using linear regression model for temporal analysis of specific mortality coefficient from malignant neoplasm of breast. We also checked the degree of its correlation with the HDI for the states of Brazil during the stated period. There was an increase in the specific mortality rate for malignant neoplasm of the breast in order of 33%, with range from 23.2 to 30.8 / 100,000 inhabitants. The states with the highest human development HDI in 2010, showed the largest specific mortality rates of breast cancer. Conclusion: Taking the trends of mortality from cancer an important role, this study confirms the need for improvements in mammography coverage, following radiological lesions suspected and access to appropriate therapy.
... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...
Tice, Jeffrey A.; Cummings, Steven R.; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca; Ichikawa, Laura; Barlow, William E.; Kerlikowske, Karla
Background Current models for assessing breast cancer risk are complex and do not include breast density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer that is routinely reported with mammography. Objective To develop and validate an easy-to-use breast cancer risk prediction model that includes breast density. Design Empirical model based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results incidence, and relative hazards from a prospective cohort. Setting Screening mammography sites participating in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. Patients 1 095 484 women undergoing mammography who had no previous diagnosis of breast cancer. Measurements Self-reported age, race or ethnicity, family history of breast cancer, and history of breast biopsy. Community radiologists rated breast density by using 4 Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System categories. Results During 5.3 years of follow-up, invasive breast cancer was diagnosed in 14 766 women. The breast density model was well calibrated overall (expected–observed ratio, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.99 to 1.06]) and in racial and ethnic subgroups. It had modest discriminatory accuracy (concordance index, 0.66 [CI, 0.65 to 0.67]). Women with low-density mammograms had 5-year risks less than 1.67% unless they had a family history of breast cancer and were older than age 65 years. Limitation The model has only modest ability to discriminate between women who will develop breast cancer and those who will not. Conclusion A breast cancer prediction model that incorporates routinely reported measures of breast density can estimate 5-year risk for invasive breast cancer. Its accuracy needs to be further evaluated in independent populations before it can be recommended for clinical use. PMID:18316752
Jensen, Peter Damsgaard
At the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), a 3D tomographic microwave imaging system is currently being developed with the aim of using nonlinear microwave imaging for breast-cancer detection. The imaging algorithm used in the system is based on an iterative Newton-type scheme. In this algorithm...... used in the microwave tomographic imaging system is presented. Non-linear microwave tomographic imaging of the breast is a challenging computational problem. The breast is heterogeneous and contains several high-contrast and lossy regions, resulting in large differences in the measured signal levels....... This implies that special care must be taken when the imaging problem is formulated. Under such conditions, microwave imaging systems will most often be considerably more sensitive to changes in the electromagnetic properties in certain regions of the breast. The result is that the parameters might...
... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... can be addressed as quickly as possible. Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...
Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...
... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...
... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...
A comprehensive overview of breast cancer development and progression suggests that the process is influenced by intrinsic properties of the tumor cells, as well as by microenvironmental factors. Indeed, in breast carcinoma, an intensive interplay exists between the tumor cells on one hand, and inflammatory cells/cytokines/chemokines on the other. The purpose of the present review is to outline the reciprocal interactions that exist between these different elements, and to shed light on their potential involvement in breast cancer development and progression
Degnim, Amy C; Hoskin, Tanya L; Arshad, Muhammad; Frost, Marlene H; Winham, Stacey J; Brahmbhatt, Rushin A; Pena, Alvaro; Carter, Jodi M; Stallings-Mann, Melody L; Murphy, Linda M; Miller, Erin E; Denison, Lori A; Vachon, Celine M; Knutson, Keith L; Radisky, Derek C; Visscher, Daniel W
Purpose: Little is known about the role of the immune system in the earliest stages of breast carcinogenesis. We studied quantitative differences in immune cell types between breast tissues from normal donors and those from women with benign breast disease (BBD). Experimental Design: A breast tissue matched case-control study was created from donors to the Susan G. Komen for the Cure Tissue Bank (KTB) and from women diagnosed with BBD at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) who either subsequently developed cancer (BBD cases) or remained cancer-free (BBD controls). Serial tissue sections underwent immunostaining and digital quantification of cell number per mm 2 for CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, CD20 + B cells, and CD68 + macrophages and quantification of positive pixel measure for CD11c (dendritic cells). Results: In 94 age-matched triplets, BBD lobules showed greater densities of CD8 + T cells, CD11c + dendritic cells, CD20 + B cells, and CD68 + macrophages compared with KTB normals. Relative to BBD controls, BBD cases had lower CD20 + cell density ( P = 0.04). Nearly 42% of BBD cases had no CD20 + B cells in evaluated lobules compared with 28% of BBD controls ( P = 0.02). The absence of CD20 + cells versus the presence in all lobules showed an adjusted OR of 5.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.4-23.1) for subsequent breast cancer risk. Conclusions: Elevated infiltration of both innate and adaptive immune effectors in BBD tissues suggests an immunogenic microenvironment. The reduced B-cell infiltration in women with later breast cancer suggests a role for B cells in preventing disease progression and as a possible biomarker for breast cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res; 23(14); 3945-52. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
More than 20-year follow-up of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has a crucial role in determining the relationship of radiation to the occurrence of breast cancer. In 1967, Wanebo et al have first reported 27 cases of breast cancer during the period 1950-1966 among the Adult Health Study population of A-bomb survivors. Since then, follow-up surveys for breast cancer have been made using the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, and the incidence of breast cancer has increased year by year; that is breast cancer was identified in 231 cases by the first LSS series (1950-1969), 360 cases by the second LSS series (1950-1974), 564 cases by the third LSS series (1950-1980), and 816 cases in the fourth LSS series (1950-1085). The third LSS series have revealed a high risk for radiation-induced breast cancer in women aged 10 or less at the time of exposure (ATE). Both relative and absolute risks are found to be decreased with increasing ages ATE. Based on the above-mentioned findings and other studies on persons exposed medical radiation, radiation-induced breast cancer is characterized by the following: (1) the incidence of breast cancer is linearly increased with increasing radiation doses; (2) both relative and absolute risks for breast cancer are high in younger persons ATE; (3) age distribution of breast cancer in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors is the same as that in both distally A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons, and there is no difference in histology between the former and latter groups. Thus, immature mammary gland cells before the age of puberty are found to be most radiosensitive. (N.K.)
Olver, Ian N
Modifiable lifestyle factors may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. Obesity is associated particularly with post-menopausal breast cancer. Diet is important, and exercise equivalent to running for up to 8 hours each week reduces the risk of breast cancer, both in its own right and through reducing obesity. Alcohol consumption may be responsible for 5.8% of breast cancers in Australia and it is recommended to reduce this to two standard drinks per day. Drinking alcohol and smoking increases the risk for breast cancer and, therefore, it is important to quit tobacco smoking. Prolonged use of combined oestrogen and progesterone hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptives may increase breast cancer risk and this must be factored into individual decisions about their use. Ionising radiation, either from diagnostic or therapeutic radiation or through occupational exposure, is associated with a high incidence of breast cancer and exposure may be reduced in some cases. Tamoxifen chemoprevention may reduce the incidence of oestrogen receptor positive cancer in 51% of women with high risk of breast cancer. Uncommon but serious side effects include thromboembolism and uterine cancer. Raloxifene, which can also reduce osteoporosis, can be used in post-menopausal women and is not associated with the development of uterine cancer. Surgical prophylaxis with bilateral mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy can reduce the risk of breast cancer in patients carrying BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. For preventive treatments, mammographic screening can identify other women at high risk.
"Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).
... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...
Delgado, L.; Krygier, G.; Castillo, C.
This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks
... modulators and aromatase inhibitors, reduce the risk of breast cancer in women with a high risk of the disease. These medications carry a risk of side effects, so doctors reserve these medications for women who ...
Thirlaway, K.; Fallowfield, L.; Nunnerley, H.; Powles, T.
Do family history clinics offering counselling, surveillance and preventative programmes alleviate or exacerbate anxiety in women at a high risk of developing breast cancer? In this study risk perceptions and anxiety of 99 'at risk' women participating in the Tamoxifen Prevention Trial were compared with those of 87 'at risk' women not attending any specialist clinic who were recruited from the National Breast Screening Programme (NBSP). Most anxiety was found in NBSP women with a family history. Women attending the family history clinic and participating in the trial had anxiety scores comparable with 86 women recruited from the NBSP who did not have a family history. We conclude that such specialist clinics do not see a selected group of the most anxious 'at risk' women nor does participation in tamoxifen prevention programmes appear to increase anxiety. PMID:8645590
Nakamura, Takemi; Horiguchi, Hironori; Arai, Masaji; Yanagie, Hironobu
In the Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator, developments of irradiation technique with application enlargement for breast cancer on BNCT have been performed in the second medium term plans. We compiled this report about the technological development to solve several problems with the irradiation of breast cancer in the medical irradiation facility of JRR-4. In the present study, design fabrication of a collimator for breast cancer, dose evaluation analysis by clinical model, investigation of dose enhancement at deeper region and investigation of fixing method for breast cancer irradiation were studied. By these evaluation results, we verified that the developed breast cancer irradiation technique can be applied to BNCT medical irradiation of JRR-4. These results are expected to be able to contribute to breast cancer irradiation techniques of other reactor-based BNCT and future accelerator-based BNCT. (author)
Full Text Available Rapid proliferation and Warburg effect make cancer cells consume plenty of glucose, which induces a low glucose micro-environment within the tumor. Up to date, how cancer cells keep proliferating in the condition of glucose insufficiency still remains to be explored. Recent studies have revealed a close correlation between excessive fructose consumption and breast cancer genesis and progression, but there is no convincing evidence showing that fructose could directly promote breast cancer development. Herein, we found that fructose, not amino acids, could functionally replace glucose to support proliferation of breast cancer cells. Fructose endowed breast cancer cells with the colony formation ability and migratory capacity as effective as glucose. Interestingly, although fructose was readily used by breast cancer cells, it failed to restore proliferation of non-tumor cells in the absence of glucose. These results suggest that fructose could be relatively selectively employed by breast cancer cells. Indeed, we observed that a main transporter of fructose, GLUT5, was highly expressed in breast cancer cells and tumor tissues but not in their normal counterparts. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the fructose diet promoted metastasis of 4T1 cells in the mouse models. Taken together, our data show that fructose can be used by breast cancer cells specifically in glucose-deficiency, and suggest that the high-fructose diet could accelerate the progress of breast cancer in vivo.
... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... white women. Inflammatory breast tumors are frequently hormone receptor negative, which means they cannot be treated with ...
Tilstra, Sarah; McNeil, Melissa
The clinical update serves as a brief review of recently published, high-impact, and potentially practice-changing journal articles summarized for our readers. In this clinical update, we selected top recent articles regarding breast health that may change the clinical practice of women's health providers. We identified articles by reviewing high-impact medical and women's health journals as well as national practice guidelines. Three of our articles are dedicated to the rapid changes in breast cancer screening. With regard to breast cancer treatment, we focused on two articles that impact who we treat with traditional aggressive regimens.
Habor, V; Habor, A; Copotoiu, C; Panţîru, A
Fibrocystic breast disease has developed a major issue: the breast cancer sequence. Its involvement regarding the increse of breast cancer risk has 2 aspects: it may be either the marker of a prone tissue or a premalignant hystological deffect. Difficult differential diagnosis of benign proliferative breast lession and carcinoma led to the idea of sequency between the two: cancer does not initiate on normal mammary epithelia; it takes several proliferative stages for it to occur. In our series we analized a number of 677 breast surgical procedures where the pathologic examination reveals 115 cases (17%) of coexistence between cancer and fibrocystic breast disease. This aspect has proved to be related to earlier debut of breast cancer, suggesting that epithelial hyperplasia is a risk factor for breast cancer.
Lawrence von Karsa
Full Text Available In Europe, as in many other regions of the world, breast cancer is a major cause of suffering and death. Early detection of breast cancer by systematic mammography screening can find lesions for which treatment is more effective and generally more favourable for quality of life. Comprehensive quality assurance guidelines for breast cancer screening based on mammography have been developed in the Europe Against Cancer programme with the aim of maximising screening benefits while minimising adverse effects, such as unnecessary examination or treatment resulting from false-positive screening tests. The present report provides an overview of the European experience in developing and implementing quality assurance guidelines for breast cancer screening. It highlights implications relevant to those regions of the world in which the burden of breast cancer in the coming years will make population-based screening an option for cancer control.
Aiello Bowles Erin J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Common measures of surgical quality are 30-day morbidity and mortality, which poorly describe breast cancer surgical quality with extremely low morbidity and mortality rates. Several national quality programs have collected additional surgical quality measures; however, program participation is voluntary and results may not be generalizable to all surgeons. We developed the Breast Cancer Surgical Outcomes (BRCASO database to capture meaningful breast cancer surgical quality measures among a non-voluntary sample, and study variation in these measures across providers, facilities, and health plans. This paper describes our study protocol, data collection methods, and summarizes the strengths and limitations of these data. Methods We included 4524 women ≥18 years diagnosed with breast cancer between 2003-2008. All women with initial breast cancer surgery performed by a surgeon employed at the University of Vermont or three Cancer Research Network (CRN health plans were eligible for inclusion. From the CRN institutions, we collected electronic administrative data including tumor registry information, Current Procedure Terminology codes for breast cancer surgeries, surgeons, surgical facilities, and patient demographics. We supplemented electronic data with medical record abstraction to collect additional pathology and surgery detail. All data were manually abstracted at the University of Vermont. Results The CRN institutions pre-filled 30% (22 out of 72 of elements using electronic data. The remaining elements, including detailed pathology margin status and breast and lymph node surgeries, required chart abstraction. The mean age was 61 years (range 20-98 years; 70% of women were diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma, 20% with ductal carcinoma in situ, and 10% with invasive lobular carcinoma. Conclusions The BRCASO database is one of the largest, multi-site research resources of meaningful breast cancer surgical quality data
Nuyten, Dimitry S. A.; van de Vijver, Marc J.
Understanding and preventing the development of distant metastases is the most important aim in research and treatment of malignant tumors, including breast cancer. In patients with primary breast cancer without lymph node metastases who are under 50 years of age, approximately 25% will develop
Skolnick, M.H.; Cannon-Albright, L.A.; Goldgar, D.E.; Ward, J.H.; Marshall, C.J.; Schumann, G.B.; Hogle, H.; McWhorter, W.P.; Wright, E.C.; Tran, T.D.; Bishop, D.T.; Kushner, J.P.; Eyre, H.J.
Previous studies have emphasized that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is rare and is expressed primarily as premenopausal breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, or both. Proliferative breast disease (PBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer and appears to be a precursor lesion. PBD and breast cancer were studied in 103 women from 20 kindreds that were selected for the presence of two first degree relatives with breast cancer and in 31 control women. Physical examination, screening mammography, and four-quadrant fine-needle breast aspirates were performed. Cytologic analysis of breast aspirates revealed PBD in 35% of clinically normal female first degree relatives of breast cancer cases and in 13% of controls. Genetic analysis suggests that genetic susceptibility causes both PBD and breast cancer in these kindreds. This study supports the hypothesis that this susceptibility is responsible for a considerable portion of breast cancer, including unilateral and postmenopausal breast cancer
Shah, Chirag; Wilkinson, John Ben; Baschnagel, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Ghilezan, Mihai [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); William Beaumont School of Medicine, Oakland University, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Riutta, Justin; Dekhne, Nayana; Balaraman, Savitha [Beaumont Cancer Institute, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); William Beaumont School of Medicine, Oakland University, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Mitchell, Christina; Wallace, Michelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Vicini, Frank, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Beaumont Cancer Institute, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); William Beaumont School of Medicine, Oakland University, Royal Oak, MI (United States)
Purpose: To determine the rates of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) in patients undergoing whole-breast irradiation as part of breast-conserving therapy (BCT) and to identify clinical, pathologic, and treatment factors associated with its development. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,861 patients with breast cancer were treated at William Beaumont Hospital with whole-breast irradiation as part of their BCT from January 1980 to February 2006, with 1,497 patients available for analysis. Determination of BCRL was based on clinical assessment. Differences in clinical, pathologic, and treatment characteristics between patients with BCRL and those without BCRL were evaluated, and the actuarial rates of BCRL by regional irradiation technique were determined. Results: The actuarial rate of any BCRL was 7.4% for the entire cohort and 9.9%, 14.7%, and 8.3% for patients receiving a supraclavicular field, posterior axillary boost, and internal mammary irradiation, respectively. BCRL was more likely to develop in patients with advanced nodal status (11.4% vs. 6.3%, p = 0.001), those who had a greater number of lymph nodes removed (14 nodes) (9.5% vs. 6.0%, p = 0.01), those who had extracapsular extension (13.4% vs. 6.9%, p = 0.009), those with Grade II/III disease (10.8% vs. 2.9%, p < 0.001), and those who received adjuvant chemotherapy (10.5% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.02). Regional irradiation showed small increases in the rates of BCRL (p = not significant). Conclusions: These results suggest that clinically detectable BCRL will develop after traditional BCT in up to 10% of patients. High-risk subgroups include patients with advanced nodal status, those with more nodes removed, and those who receive chemotherapy, with patients receiving regional irradiation showing a trend toward increased rates.
... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...
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... right away. He or she will do a physical exam. They will ask you about your health history and your family’s history of breast cancer. ... and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Travel Occupational Health First Aid and ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food ...
Carson, Dennis A
...) develop breast cancer less frequently. However, these drugs have side effects toward the stomach, liver and kidneys, particularly at the high doses potentially required to prevent breast cancer...
development of breast cancer screening test. Increasing our understanding of the role of biomarkers in the etiology and progression of breast cancer...granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia . Hypertens Pregnancy 1999;18:95 – 106. 50. Bux J, Hofmann C, Welte K. Serum G-CSF
Wang, Shengfeng; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Ademola, Adeyinka; Oluwasola, Olayiwola A; Adeoye, Adewunmi O; Sofoluwe, Adenike; Morhason-Bello, Imran; Odedina, Stella O; Agwai, Imaria; Adebamowo, Clement; Obajimi, Millicent; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng
Risk prediction models have been widely used to identify women at higher risk of breast cancer. We aim to develop a model for absolute breast cancer risk prediction for Nigerian women. A total of 1,811 breast cancer cases and 2,225 controls from the Nigerian Breast Cancer Study (NBCS, 1998~2015) were included. Subjects were randomly divided into the training and validation sets. Incorporating local incidence rates, multivariable logistic regressions were used to develop the model. The NBCS model included age, age at menarche, parity, duration of breast feeding, family history of breast cancer, height, body mass index, benign breast diseases and alcohol consumption. The model developed in the training set performed well in the validation set. The discriminating accuracy of the NBCS model (area under ROC curve [AUC]=0.703, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.687-0.719) was better than the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS) model (AUC=0.605, 95% CI: 0.586-0.624), Gail model for White population (AUC=0.551, 95% CI: 0.531-0.571), and Gail model for Black population (AUC=0.545, 95% CI: 0.525-0.565). Compared to the BWHS, two Gail models, the net reclassification improvement of the NBCS model were 8.26%, 13.45% and 14.19%, respectively. We have developed a breast cancer risk prediction model specific to women in Nigeria, which provides a promising and indispensable tool to identify women in need of breast cancer early detection in SSA populations. Our model is the first breast cancer risk prediction model in Africa. It can be used to identify women at high-risk for breast cancer screening. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.
Unnithan, Jaya; Macklis, Roger M.
The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counselling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably
Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Thiery, Jean Paul
The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental mechanism of crucial importance in establishing the body plan in many multicellular organisms. Several transduction pathways controlling the various steps of the morphological transition have been identified by molecular analyses of this process in cell lines and in vivo. The newly formed mesenchymal cells can exhibit locomotory and invasive phenotypes, suggesting that EMTs contribute to the progression of carcinoma. Diverse evidence indicates that EMT subprograms are involved in the appearance of different breast carcinoma types. Several normal and malignant breast cell lines are currently being analyzed to define key steps in EMT and to identify candidate genes. DNA profiling technology is also being applied to uncover pathways that lead to a metastatic phenotype
Stahlberg, Claudia; Pedersen, A T; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic
of receptor-negative breast cancer, relative risk (RR) 3.29 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.27-4.77) and RR 0.99 (95% CI: 0.42-2.36), respectively (P for difference=0.013). The risk of being diagnosed with low histological malignancy grade was higher than high malignancy grade with RR 4.13 (95% CI: 2......The aim of this study is to investigate the risk of developing prognostic different types of breast cancer in women using hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A total of 10 874 postmenopausal Danish Nurses were followed since 1993. Incident breast cancer cases and histopathological information were...... retrieved through the National Danish registries. The follow-up ended on 31 December 1999. Breast cancer developed in 244 women, of whom 172 were invasive ductal carcinomas. Compared to never users, current users of HRT had an increased risk of a hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, but a neutral risk...
Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...
... types of breast cancer that can occur in men include Paget's disease of the nipple and inflammatory breast cancer. Inherited genes that increase breast cancer risk Some men inherit abnormal (mutated) genes from their parents that ...
FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...
Yu, Qing Cissy; Verheyen, Esther M.; Zeng, Yi Arial
The Wnt pathway has emerged as a key signaling cascade participating in mammary organogenesis and breast oncogenesis. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of how the pathway regulates stem cells and normal development of the mammary gland, and discuss how its various components contribute to breast carcinoma pathology. PMID:27420097
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
Full Text Available The aim of the current review is to assess the magnitude of the breast cancer, and to explore the contribution of different dietary constituents in both the causation and the prevention of the disease. An exhaustive search for all materials related to the topic was made in different search engines, including PubMed, World Health Organization Web site, and Google scholar, for a duration of 30 days (June 2014. Relevant documents, systematic reviews, technical publication series, research articles, books, and guidelines focusing on the association of dietary factors and breast cancer, published in 1998-2014 were included in the review. Overall, 56 articles were selected based on the suitability with the current review objectives and analyzed. Although specific foods and nutrients have been attributed to the causation of breast cancer, the association of the same with overall diet is still inconsistent and unexplored. As the etiology of breast cancer is multifactorial and because contribution of each factor in the development of the disease is still unclear, early detection of the disease remains the crucial factor in breast cancer control. To conclude, a definite direct or inverse association has been observed in the development of breast cancer with the dietary nutrients, and thus there is an urgent need to develop cost-effective and readily available approach for the early detection and treatment of breast cancer, especially among women from low-resource settings.
Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads
BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared...... with women with non-preeclamptic pregnancies only, women with one or more preeclamptic pregnancies were 19% significantly less likely to develop breast cancer (IRR = 0.81 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). We found some indication of greater risk reduction in women with term births, one or more previous births...
Thoidingjam, Shivani; Bhan Tiku, Ashu
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths in females worldwide. The high metastatic rate and drug resistance makes it one of the difficult cancers to treat. Early diagnosis and treatment are keys to better survival of breast cancer patients. Conventional treatment approaches like chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery suffer from major drawbacks. Novel approaches to improve cancer therapy with minimal damage to normal tissues and better quality of life for cancer patients need to be developed. Among various approaches used for treatment and diagnosis of breast cancer, use of nanoparticles (NPs) is coming up as a new and promising treatment regime. It can help overcome various limitations of conventional therapies like non-targeted effects, resistance to treatment, late diagnosis, etc. Among various nanoparticles studied for their biomedical applications, especially for breast cancer therapy, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are perhaps the most exciting due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, size and properties like superparamagnetism. Besides, IONPs are also the only metal oxide nanoparticles approved for clinical use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which is an added advantage for early detection. Therefore in this mini review, we are discussing the developments made in the use of IONPs for breast cancer therapy over the short span of the last five years i.e. 2010-2015. Since late diagnosis and therapy resistance are important drawbacks in breast cancer therapy, the potential of IONPs to overcome these limitations are also evaluated.
Kimler, B.F.; Preston, D.; McMillin, C.H.; Dusing, R.; Zalles, C.M.; Fabian, C.J.
Sestamibi scintimammography is becoming increasingly accepted as an adjunct to conventional breast imaging by mammography and ultrasound. We sought to determine whether it might serve to detect/quantify pre-cancerous breast lesions, specifically hyperplasia with atypia which, when detected by random periareolar fine needle aspiration (FNA), is known to be associated with increased risk for subsequent development of breast cancer. If a parameter derived from sestamibi scanning could be shown to correlate with and predict for atypia, then this could serve 1) to refine estimates of risk of development of breast cancer; and 2) as a surrogate endpoint biomarker in clinical breast cancer chemoprevention trials. To this end, we performed sestamibi scanning on both breasts of 65 women at high risk for development of breast cancer who also underwent FNA. Seventeen women (26%) exhibited non-proliferative cytology; 30 (46%) had hyperplasia; and 18 (28%) had hyperplasia with atypia in the FNA specimen. Since the fine needle aspiration specimens from both breasts are pooled to provide a single result, we likewise pooled the sestamibi results from both breasts so as to consider the most abnormal finding. Twenty-five women (39%) were characterized as having an abnormal sestamibi scan with heterogenous, focal, intense uptake. There was no correlation between an abnormal scan and cytologic evidence of hyperplasia with atypia. Neither was there a correlation between any of a variety of quantitative measures of the sestamibi scans and the cytological classification. At this time, there is no indication for the use of sestamibi scanning for the prediction of risk of subsequent development of breast cancer, or as a surrogate endpoint biomarker in clinical breast cancer chemoprevention trials
My research is focused on BRCA2, whose mutation has been implicated in the development of breast, ovarian, prostate, pancreatic cancers and Fanconi anemia BRCA2 is an extremely large protein that is challenging% to study...
The long range goal of our research is to identify genes involved in the early stages of breast cancer development, specifically genes involved in the transition from hyperplasia to ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS...
The proposed research aims to develop innovative technology that could ultimately lead to new breast cancer screening tests ones, which will not require expensive equipment for read-out, but rather...
... ultrasound or a breast MRI cannot rule out breast cancer then you will need a biopsy to confirm diagnosis. If diagnosed When first diagnosed with breast cancer, many men are in shock. After all, ...
... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...
Nixon, Nancy A; Khan, Omar F; Imam, Hasiba; Tang, Patricia A; Monzon, Jose; Li, Haocheng; Sun, Gavin; Ezeife, Doreen; Parimi, Sunil; Dowden, Scot; Tam, Vincent C
Understanding the drug development pathway is critical for streamlining the development of effective cancer treatments. The objective of the current study was to delineate the drug development timeline and attrition rate of different drug classes for common cancer disease sites. Drugs entering clinical trials for breast, colorectal, and non-small cell lung cancer were identified using a pharmaceutical business intelligence database. Data regarding drug characteristics, clinical trials, and approval dates were obtained from the database, clinical trial registries, PubMed, and regulatory Web sites. A total of 411 drugs met the inclusion criteria for breast cancer, 246 drugs met the inclusion criteria for colorectal cancer, and 315 drugs met the inclusion criteria for non-small cell lung cancer. Attrition rates were 83.9% for breast cancer, 87.0% for colorectal cancer, and 92.0% for non-small cell lung cancer drugs. In the case of non-small cell lung cancer, there was a trend toward higher attrition rates for targeted monoclonal antibodies compared with other agents. No tumor site-specific differences were noted with regard to cytotoxic chemotherapy, immunomodulatory, or small molecule kinase inhibitor drugs. Drugs classified as "others" in breast cancer had lower attrition rates, primarily due to the higher success of hormonal medications. Mean drug development times were 8.9 years for breast cancer, 6.7 years for colorectal cancer, and 6.6 years for non-small cell lung cancer. Overall oncologic drug attrition rates remain high, and drugs are more likely to fail in later-stage clinical trials. The refinement of early-phase trial design may permit the selection of drugs that are more likely to succeed in the phase 3 setting. Cancer 2017;123:4672-4679. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...
Lundstedt, Dan, E-mail: email@example.com [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Gustafsson, Magnus [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Steineck, Gunnar [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Malmstroem, Per [Skane Department of Oncology, Skane University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Alsadius, David [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Sundberg, Agnetha [Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wilderaeng, Ulrica [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Holmberg, Erik [Oncologic Centre, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Johansson, Karl-Axel [Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Karlsson, Per [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)
Purpose: Postoperative radiotherapy decreases breast cancer mortality. However, studies have revealed a long-lasting breast pain among some women after radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors that contribute to breast pain after breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We identified 1,027 recurrence-free women in two cohorts of Swedish women treated for breast cancer. The women had breast-conserving surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, the breast was treated to 48 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions or to 50 Gy in 2.0-Gy fractions. Young women received a boost of up to 16 Gy. Women with more than three lymph node metastases had locoregional radiotherapy. Systemic treatments were given according to health-care guidelines. Three to 17 years after radiotherapy, we collected data using a study-specific questionnaire. We investigated the relation between breast pain and potential risk modifiers: age at treatment, time since treatment, chemotherapy, photon energy, fractionation size, boost, loco-regional radiotherapy, axillary surgery, overweight, and smoking. Results: Eight hundred seventy-seven women (85%) returned the questionnaires. Among women up to 39 years of age at treatment, 23.1% had breast pain, compared with 8.7% among women older than 60 years (RR 2.66; 95% CI 1.33-5.36). Higher age at treatment (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.94-0.98, annual decrease) and longer time since treatment (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98, annual decrease) were related to a lower occurrence of breast pain. Chemotherapy increased the occurrence of breast pain (RR 1.72; 95% CI 1.19-2.47). In the multivariable model only age and time since treatment were statistically significantly related to the occurrence of breast pain. We found no statistically significant relation between breast pain and the other potential risk modifiers. Conclusions: Younger women having undergone breast-conserving surgery with postoperative radiotherapy report a higher occurrence of long
Martínez-Montiel, Nancy; Anaya-Ruiz, Maricruz; Pérez-Santos, Martín; Martínez-Contreras, Rebeca D
Alternative splicing is a key molecular mechanism now considered as a hallmark of cancer that has been associated with the expression of distinct isoforms during the onset and progression of the disease. The leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide is breast cancer, and even when the role of alternative splicing in this type of cancer has been established, the function of this mechanism in breast cancer biology is not completely decoded. In order to gain a comprehensive view of the role of alternative splicing in breast cancer biology and development, we summarize here recent findings regarding alternative splicing events that have been well documented for breast cancer evolution, considering its prognostic and therapeutic value. Moreover, we analyze how the response to endocrine and chemical therapies could be affected due to alternative splicing and differential expression of variant isoforms. With all this knowledge, it becomes clear that targeting alternative splicing represents an innovative approach for breast cancer therapeutics and the information derived from current studies could guide clinical decisions with a direct impact in the clinical advances for breast cancer patients nowadays.
Dongen, J.A. van
The therapy of early breast cancer has been changing during the last decennium. It requires a multi-disciplinary approach and in each of these disciplines improvements have been implemented. The result is that treatment schedules can now be adapted to specific subgroups. In this review early breast cancer is defined as operable disease, using the criteria set out by Haagensen. Emphasis is given to describing the new developments in prognostic criteria, since these form the basis for creating subgroups for specific treatment schedules. Distinction is made between the factors relating to growth rate and those relating to metastatic potential. Data on screening promises a beneficial effect of the implementation of screening in national health care programs. Important shifts are seen in treatment schedules; the place of postoperative radiotherapy after classic ablative treatment is being challenged, whereas it plays a major role in the new breast conserving therapy schedules. The data mentioned in the review suggest that a large proportion of 'operable' cases can be treated with breast conservation but details in the technique of breast conserving therapy are still under investigation. They form a major part of the coming prospective studies in breast cancer. Improvements in reconstruction techniques, creating better cosmetic results, make reconstruction more competitive with breast conserving therapy. The use of chemotherapy and endocrine manipulation in early breast cancer has now been clearly confirmed by the overview technique by the Peto-group, thanks to all efforts of individual trialists together. (orig.)
Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid
This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of breast cancer, and its relationship with human development index (HDI) and its components in Asia in 2012. This study was an ecologic study in Asia for assessment of the correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) with HDI and its details that include: life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling and gross national income (GNI) per capita. Data about SIR and SMR for every Asian country for the year 2012 were obtained from the global cancer project. We used a bivariate method for assessment of the correlation between SIR and SMR and HDI and its individual components. Statistical significance was assumed if PASMR) was observed in Pakistan (25.2), Armenia (24.2), and Lebanon (24). There was a positive correlation between the ASIR of breast cancer and HDI (r = 0.556, p ASMR of breast cancer and HDI (r = -0.051). Breast cancer incidence in countries with higher development is greater, while mortality is greatest in countries with less development. There was a positive and significant relationship between the ASIR of breast cancer and HDI and its components. Also there was a negative but non significant relationship between the ASMR of breast cancer and HDI.
Pandya, Sonali; Moore, Richard G
In this article, the development of the female breast, as well as the functional anatomy, blood supply, innervation and lymphatic drainage are described. A thorough understanding of the breast anatomy is an important adjunct to a meticulous clinical breast examination. Breast examination is a complex skill involving key maneuvers, including careful inspection and palpation. Clinical breast examination can provide an opportunity for the clinician to educate patients about their breast and about breast cancer, its symptoms, risk factors, early detection, and normal breast composition, and specifically variability. Clinical breast examination can help to detect some cancers not found by mammography, and clinicians should not override their examination findings if imaging is not supportive of the physical findings.
Luo, Shi-Xiang; Liu, Jun-E; Cheng, Andy S K; Xiao, Shu-Qin; Su, Ya-Li; Feuerstein, Michael
Aim To determine whether breast cancer survivors (BCS) at work following the diagnosis and/or treatment of breast cancer, in a rapidly developing country such as China experience similar to return to work challenges as reported in nations with established return to work (RTW) policy and procedures for employees with cancer. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 BCS who returned to work following diagnosis and/or primary cancer treatment. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to investigate responses. Results Three recurring themes emerged: (1) challenges at work related to residual effects of diagnosis and/or primary treatment; (2) positive and negative responses from employers and/or supervisors; and (3) positive and negative responses from co-workers/colleagues. Although several participants experienced a high level of workplace support, there was a subgroup that did report challenges related to symptom burden, cognitive limitations, and both positive and negative responses by employers and co-workers were reported. Conclusions Findings indicate similar challenges in BCS who RTW during and/or following cancer treatment in both rapidly developing and developed nations. Results suggest that regardless of the existence of workplace policies and practices related to RTW for workers with a history of cancer, a subgroup of BCS experience similar challenges when returning to work. These findings highlight the international nature of RTW challenges and suggest the need for more global efforts to develop and evaluate workplace interventions to assist with these similarities.
Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin
Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093
Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin
Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix
Lawson, James S., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)
Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.
Full Text Available Rita NahtaDepartments of Pharmacology and Hematology and Medical Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USAAbstract: Approximately 20%–30% of metastatic breast cancers show increased expression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2 tyrosine kinase. Two HER2-specific therapies are currently approved for clinical treatment of patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer. Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody against HER2 and is approved for first-line treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Lapatinib is a small molecule dual inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor and HER2 tyrosine kinases, and is approved for trastuzumab-refractory disease. Although trastuzumab is a highly effective therapy for patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer, a significant number of patients in the initial clinical trials of trastuzumab monotherapy showed resistance to trastuzumab-based therapy. Further, among those who did respond, the initial trials indicated that the median time to progression was less than 1 year. Similarly, lapatinib is effective in a subset of trastuzumab-refractory cases, but the majority of patients display resistance. This review discusses the multiple molecular mechanisms of resistance that have been proposed in the literature. In addition, novel agents that are being tested for efficacy against HER2-positive breast cancer, including the antibodies pertuzumab and trastuzumab-DM1 and the immunotoxin affitoxin, are reviewed. The introduction of trastuzumab has revolutionized the clinical care of patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer and has resulted in dramatic reductions in recurrences of early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer. The development and implementation of gene- and protein-based assays that measure potential molecular predictors of trastuzumab resistance will allow individualization of HER2-targeted therapeutic approaches
... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...
Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L; Hoffman, Mary Ann; Ginter, Amanda C; Piontkowski, Sarah; Schexnayder, Kelci; White, Rachel
Breast cancer survivors represent the largest proportion of cancer survivors, and the rate of young breast cancer survivors who are diagnosed before the age of 40 is increasing. Cancer survivorship scholarship has begun to address many aspects of survivors' quality of life, yet the role of work and career issues have been understudied, particularly for young survivors. To explore the work lives and career development of young breast cancer survivors, this study used consensual qualitative research methodology (Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997) to analyze data from qualitative interviews with 13 young women diagnosed with breast cancer before the age of 40. The 4 career-related domains that emerged from the data were (a) cancer-related work challenges, (b) coping with cancer-related work challenges, (c) reappraisal of career development after cancer, and (d) components of career and life satisfaction after cancer. Experiencing breast cancer at a young age was viewed by participants as contributing to an increased desire for work to provide a sense of meaning as well as financial security and insurance. Cancer was further viewed as contributing to lost control over career success and work choices, treatment side effects that interfere with work self-efficacy and capabilities, and interpersonal difficulties connecting within and outside of work. Women with more extensive cancer treatment and side effects reported greater work struggles. Despite this, participants' cancer narratives were characterized by a range of coping strategies, including reframing and seeking control, and by evidence of persistence, resilience, and hope. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Breast cancer is the most common type of non-dermal cancer among women in this country. Breast cancer risk in women is known to be significantly influenced by genetics, but over 70% of the women that are diagnosed with breast cancer have non-inherited or sporadic cancer. The ris...
Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Duriaud, Helle Molter; Jensen, Helle Elisabeth
Previous studies have reported that 15% to 25% of patients treated for breast cancer experience long-term moderate-to-severe pain in the area of surgery, potentially lasting for several years. Few prospective studies have included all potential risk factors for the development of persistent pain...... after breast cancer surgery (PPBCS). The aim of this prospective cohort study was to comprehensively identify factors predicting PPBCS. Patients scheduled for primary breast cancer surgery were recruited. Assessments were conducted preoperatively, the first 3 days postoperatively, and 1 week, 6 months...... were included, and 475 (88%) were available for analysis at 1 year. At 1-year follow-up, the prevalence of moderate-to-severe pain at rest was 14% and during movement was 7%. Factors associated with pain at rest were age breast conserving surgery (OR: 2.0, P...
... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... sensitive breast cancer cells contain proteins called hormone receptors that become activated when hormones bind to them. ...
Lebwohl, D E; Canetta, R
Anthracyclines and taxanes are the two most active classes of chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced breast cancer. Recent studies have investigated combination therapy including doxorubicin (Dox) and paclitaxel. The efficacy of this combination has been established in a phase III study conducted by ECOG, comparing Dox/paclitaxel versus Dox versus paclitaxel. The combination is superior to Dox or paclitaxel with respect to response rate and time to disease progression, indicating that the combination provides a new standard for the first line treatment of metastatic breast cancer . Phase II studies using higher doses of Dox and using shorter infusions of paclitaxel have suggested the combination can be further optimized; Gianni reported a 94% objective response rate using Dox 60 mg/m2 followed by paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 given over three hours . The more active regimens are associated with enhanced cardiotoxicity; this toxicity can be avoided, however, by limiting the exposure to doxorubicin. The newer regimens have now been moved into phase III studies. Future progress for this disease will depend on the introduction of new agents. Two novel drugs are currently being investigated in randomised phase III trials as potentiators of Dox and/or paclitaxel. One is a monoclonal antibody from Genentech (Herceptin, trastuzumab) directed at the HER-2/neu oncogene, which is overexpressed in > 25% of breast cancers . Recent results indicate that Herceptin in combination with paclitaxel (or with a Dox plus cyclophosphamide regimen) induces a higher response rate (RR) and prolongs the time to disease progression when compared to chemotherapy alone. The second agent N,N-diethyl-2[4-(phenylmethyl)-phenoxy] ethanamine.HCl (DPPE, BMS-217380-01), when combined with Dox, was associated with a higher RR than previously observed with Dox alone . A randomized trial of Dox versus Dox plus DPPE is ongoing. The possible mechanisms underlying chemo-potentiation by these agents
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breast Cancer KidsHealth / For Kids / Breast Cancer What's in this ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...
... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... only hormone therapy after a hysterectomy . Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Aromatase inhibitors . Less exposure of breast ...
Murata, Mariko; Shoji, Tsuyoshi; Nakayama, Ei; Bando, Toru
Sarcomas are a rare complication of radiotherapy for breast cancer and such patients have a poor prognosis. We report resection of an osteosarcoma in the chest wall that developed 20 years after postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer. A 57-year-old woman was referred to our department for examination and treatment of an anterior chest wall tumor in April 2007. In September 1986, she had undergone a radical mastectomy and postoperative irradiation and chemotherapy for right breast cancer. In December 2003, she underwent chemotherapy for recurrence of breast cancer which was pointed out on computed tomography involving the pleura and left superior clavicular lymph nodes. In March 2006, follow-up computed tomography of the chest demonstrated the destruction of the sternum, which was diagnosed as recurrence and she was followed with chemotherapy for breast cancer continuously thereafter. In April 2007, because of the developing sternal tumor, excisional biopsy was performed and histopathology indicated sarcoma. In May 2007, resection of the chest wall tumor with the sternum, bilateral clavicles, bilateral first and second ribs, and right partial lung (upper and middle lobe) were performed, and the chest wall defect was reconstructed with a rectus abdominis musculocutaneous free flap. Histopathologically, the tumor was osteosarcoma with margin free. Adjuvant radiotherapy to the breast plays a significant role in preventing local disease recurrence in women treated for breast cancer. However, radiotherapy can induce malignant sarcoma after a latency period of several years. The risk is extremely low for the individual patient, but this disease is aggressive and associated with a poor overall prognosis. Therefore, early detection is necessary for optimal treatment and incisional biopsy is necessary for accurate diagnosis. (author)
Au-Yong Ting Kun
Breast cancer is one of the commonest cancer in women. Treatment and prognosis of breast cancer depend very much on accurate diagnosis, staging and follow-up of patients. Recently, there are several radioisotope techniques developed and have great impact on management of breast cancer. These include scintimammography, sentinel lymph node detection and positron emission tomography. This article is to review these important techniques
Finnerty, N.A.; Buzdar, A.U.; Blumenschein, G.R.
Between 1975 and 1983, sixteen patients with a history of irradiation at an early age to the head, neck, or chest areas for a variety of conditions in whom breast cancer subsequently developed were seen at out institute. The median latent period between the irradiation and the development of breast cancer was 420 months. The distribution of patients by stage of the disease and the median age at diagnosis of this subgroup was similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. The subsequent course of this disease was also similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. A substantial number of women have been exposed to irradiation at a young age, and these women are at a higher risk of having breast cancer develop. These women should be closely observed to discover the disease in an early curable stage
... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...
Carson, Dennis A
.... Also, how these agents prevent breast cancer is not understood. This project will develop an optimized NSAID for breast cancer prevention that can be taken safely at high doses, and will determine its mechanisms of action...
Nazario, Cruz M; Freudenheim, Jo
This project has two mayor goals: to design and conduct a pilot case-control breast cancer study among Puerto Rican women, and to train and develop researchers in breast cancer at the University of Puerto Rico...
When researchers discovered the HER2 gene's importance to breast cancer growth, this led to the development of trastuzumab and other treatments that have improved survival for women with HER2-positive breast cancer.
Schootman, Mario; Jeffe, Donna B; Gillanders, William E; Aft, Rebecca
Distant metastases are the most common and lethal type of breast cancer relapse. The authors examined whether older African American breast cancer survivors were more likely to develop metastases compared with older white women. They also examined the extent to which 6 pathways explained racial disparities in the development of metastases. The authors used 1992-1999 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data with 1991-1999 Medicare data. They used Medicare's International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes to identify metastases of respiratory and digestive systems, brain, bone, or other unspecified sites. The 6 pathways consisted of patient characteristics, tumor characteristics, type of treatment received, access to medical care, surveillance mammography use, and area-level characteristics (poverty rate and percentage African American) and were obtained from the SEER or Medicare data. Of the 35,937 women, 10.5% developed metastases. In univariate analysis, African American women were 1.61 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54-1.83) more likely to develop metastasis than white women. In multivariate analysis, tumor grade, stage at diagnosis, and census-tract percentage African American explained why African American women were more likely to develop metastases than white women (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.68-1.03). Interventions to reduce late-stage breast cancer among African Americans also may reduce racial disparities in subsequent increased risk of developing metastasis. African Americans diagnosed with high-grade breast cancer could be targeted to reduce their risk of metastasis. Future studies should identify specific reasons why the racial distribution in census tracts was associated with racial disparities in the risk of breast cancer metastases. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. Enormous advancement has been made over the last decades in understanding the biology of breast cancer. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms regulating progression, gaining of invasive and metastatic phenotypes, and therapeutic resistance are still not completely understood. Oxidative stress initiate by disbalance in redox status of body. In this case, increase of free radicals in body cause tissue damage. One of the significant species of free radicals is reactive oxygen species (ROS that produced by various metabolic pathways, comprising aerobic metabolism in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. They play a serious role in cellular physiology and pathophysiology likewise beginning and evolution of numerous types of cancers. ROS overproduction is deleterious to cells, and considered key-factors for the development of numerous diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Cancer cells are commonly submitted to upper ROS levels that further incite malignant phenotype through motivation to preserved proliferation, angiogenesis, death evasion, invasiveness, and metastasis. ROS impress various signaling pathways, comprising mitogenic pathways and growth factors, and also controls numerous cellular processes, containing cell proliferation, thus stimulates the undisciplined growth of cells which inspires the development of tumors and initiates the progression of carcinogenesis. The importance of ROS on breast cancer development and etiology is being increasingly clarified. Nevertheless, fewer consideration has been given to the progress of redox system-targeted strategies for breast cancer treatment. Augmented oxidative stress caused by reactive species can diminish the body’s antioxidant defense against angiogenesis and metastasis in cancer cells. These processes are core factors in the development of cancer. Bimolecular reactions cause
Hilton, Heidi N; Clarke, Christine L; Graham, J Dinny
The ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone are master regulators of the development and function of a broad spectrum of human tissues, including the breast, reproductive and cardiovascular systems, brain and bone. Acting through the nuclear estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR), both play complex and essential coordinated roles in the extensive development of the lobular alveolar epithelial structures of the normal breast during puberty, the normal menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The past decade has seen major advances in understanding the mechanisms of action of estrogen and progesterone in the normal breast and in the delineation of the complex hierarchy of cell types regulated by ovarian hormones in this tissue. There is evidence for a role for both ER and PR in driving breast cancer, and both are favourable prognostic markers with respect to outcome. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the mechanisms of action of ER and PR in the normal breast, and implications for the development and management of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Martins, Murillo L; Saeki, Margarida J.; Telling, Mark T. F.
Breast cancer is a public health problem throughout the world. Moreover, breast cancer cells have a great affinity for hydroxyapatite, leading to a high occurrence of bone metastasis. In this work we developed a bio-nanocomposite (bio-NCP) in order to use such affinity in the diagnosis...
In der Maur, Caroline D.; Klokman, Willem J.; van Leeuwen, Floor E.; Tan, I. Bing; Rutgers, Emiel J. Th; Balm, Alfons J. M.
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether patients with salivary gland tumours are at increased risk of developing breast cancer. A retrospective cohort study was performed. Female patients (n = 439) with a salivary gland tumour (major and minor) were included. The diagnosis was confirmed
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women throughout the world and the third most common cause of cancer deaths in adults, according to recent figures. Many authorities, both medical and non-medical, have written about the risks and causes of breast cancer, and research has been conducted into many diverse theories. This paper is a review of some of these ideas and possible risks of breast cancer
detection of tumors, we chose to pursue the study of clinical samples in lieu of developing more mouse models since this will yield more meaningful ...D.R. “Ultrasensitive Assays for Early Breast Cancer Detection”. Poster presentation. The Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied...Cancer Detection”. Poster presentation. 250th American Chemical Society National Meeting and Exposition, 2015 August 16-20, Boston, MA. • Baig, S
Early-stage cancer detection could reduce breast cancer death rates significantly in the long-term. The most critical point for best prognosis is to identify early-stage cancer cells. Investigators have studied many breast diagnostic approaches, including mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computerized tomography, positron emission tomography and biopsy. However, these techniques have some limitations such as being expensive, time consuming and not suitable for young women. Developing a high-sensitive and rapid early-stage breast cancer diagnostic method is urgent. In recent years, investigators have paid their attention in the development of biosensors to detect breast cancer using different biomarkers. Apart from biosensors and biomarkers, microwave imaging techniques have also been intensely studied as a promising diagnostic tool for rapid and cost-effective early-stage breast cancer detection. This paper aims to provide an overview on recent important achievements in breast screening methods (particularly on microwave imaging) and breast biomarkers along with biosensors for rapidly diagnosing breast cancer.
Euhus, David M; Diaz, Jennifer
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women with 232,670 new cases estimated in the USA for 2014. Approaches for reducing breast cancer risk include lifestyle modification, chemoprevention, and prophylactic surgery. Lifestyle modification has a variety of health benefits with few associated risks and is appropriate for all women regardless of breast cancer risk. Chemoprevention options have expanded rapidly, but most are directed at estrogen receptor positive breast cancer and uptake is low. Prophylactic surgery introduces significant additional risks of its own and is generally reserved for the highest risk women. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong
Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.
Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.
Chaves, Roberio C.; Crispim, Verginia R.; Santos, Delano B.V.
A system for evaluating the values of absorbed dose in breast teletherapy was developed, using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100), to compare them to those provided by Therapy planning system. A breast phantom was made to distribute the dosimeters TL shaped chip in breast volume and irradiate it under the same conditions of planning. Three different techniques of teletherapy were considered: one with irradiation from a therapy unit of 60 Co and two with an X-ray beam coming from a 6 MV linear accelerator. Doses measures allowed checking that the performance of the quality control system used in breast cancer treatment is appropriate, since the planned doses differed about 1.5% of the responses provided by TL dosimeters
... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...
de Vries, J.; van Heck, G.L.
The objective of the current study was to develop a short form of the Dutch version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) Trait scale and to provide initial validation data in a sample of breast cancer patients and survivors. This short trait anxiety (A-Trait) scale was designed to reduce time
Wang, Shuwei; Ding, Zhongyang
Fibroblast growth factor receptors are growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, exerting their roles in embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis, and development of breast cancer. Recent genetic studies have identified some subtypes of fibroblast growth factor receptors as strong genetic loci associated with breast cancer. In this article, we review the recent epidemiological findings and experiment results of fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer. First, we summarized the structure and physiological function of fibroblast growth factor receptors in humans. Then, we discussed the common genetic variations in fibroblast growth factor receptors that affect breast cancer risk. In addition, we also introduced the potential roles of each fibroblast growth factor receptors isoform in breast cancer. Finally, we explored the potential therapeutics targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors for breast cancer. Based on the biological mechanisms of fibroblast growth factor receptors leading to the pathogenesis in breast cancer, targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors may provide new opportunities for breast cancer therapeutic strategies.
Altaf, Fadwa J.
Breast cancer is a very common health problem in Saudi females that can be reduced by early detection through introducing breast cancer screening. Literature review reveals significant reduction in breast cancer incidence and outcome after the beginning of breast cancer screening. The objectives of this article are to highlight the significance of breast cancer screening in different international societies and to write the major guidelines of breast cancer screening in relation to other departments involved with more emphasis on the Pathology Department guidelines in tissue handling, diagnostic criteria and significance of the diagnosis. This article summaries and acknowledges major work carried out before, and recommends similar modified work in order to meet the requirement for the Saudi society. (author)
cells we observed that it promoted transformation of HMLE cells, suggesting a tumor suppressive role of Merlin in breast cancer (Figure 4B). A...08-1-0767 TITLE: Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yashaswi Shrestha...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-08-1-0767 Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes Yashaswi Shrestha Dana-Farber
Funke, M.; Villena, C.
Advances in female breast imaging have substantially influenced the diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of breast cancer in the past few years. Mammography using conventional or digital technique is considered the gold standard for the early detection of breast cancer. Other modalities such as breast ultrasound and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast play an important role in diagnostic imaging, staging, and follow-up of breast cancer. Percutaneous needle biopsy is a faster, less invasive, and more cost-effective method than surgical biopsy for verifying the histological diagnosis. New methods such as breast tomosynthesis, contrast-enhanced mammography, and positron emission tomography promise to further improve breast imaging. Further studies are mandatory to adapt these new methods to clinical needs and to evaluate their performance in clinical practice. (orig.) [de
Haupt, Sue; Vijayakumaran, Reshma; Miranda, Panimaya Jeffreena; Burgess, Andrew; Lim, Elgene; Haupt, Ygal
The major cause of death from breast cancer is not the primary tumour, but relapsing, drug-resistant, metastatic disease. Identifying factors that contribute to aggressive cancer offers important leads for therapy. Inherent defence against carcinogens depends on the individual molecular make-up of each person. Important molecular determinants of these responses are under the control of the mouse double minute (MDM) family: comprised of the proteins MDM2 and MDM4. In normal, healthy adult cells, the MDM family functions to critically regulate measured, cellular responses to stress and subsequent recovery. Proper function of the MDM family is vital for normal breast development, but also for preserving genomic fidelity. The MDM family members are best characterized for their negative regulation of the major tumour suppressor p53 to modulate stress responses. Their impact on other cellular regulators is emerging. Inappropriately elevated protein levels of the MDM family are highly associated with an increased risk of cancer incidence. Exploration of the MDM family members as cancer therapeutic targets is relevant for designing tailored anti-cancer treatments, but successful approaches must strategically consider the impact on both the target cancer and adjacent healthy cells and tissues. This review focuses on recent findings pertaining to the role of the MDM family in normal and malignant breast cells. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS.
In situ breast cancer, particularly the ductal type, is increasing in frequency in the developed countries as well as in Ecuador, most probably. These lesions carry a higher risk of developing a subsequent invasive cancer. Treatment has changed recently due to results of randomized studies, from classical mastectomy to conservative surgery associated to radiotherapy. The Van Nuys Prognostic Index is currently the most usual instrument to guide diagnosis and treatment. Tamoxifen seems to decrease significantly the risk of tumor recurrence after initial treatment. (The author)
Matsuda, Naoko; Lim, Bora; Wang, Xiaoping; Ueno, Naoto T.
Introduction Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted treatment has been evaluated but has not shown a clear clinical benefit for breast cancer. This review article aims to consider the knowledge of the biological background of EGFR pathways in dissecting clinical studies of EGFR targeted treatment in breast cancer. Areas covered This review focuses on the role of the EGFR pathway and the investigational drugs that target EGFR for breast cancer. Expert opinion Recent studies have indicated that EGFR targeted therapy for breast cancer has some promising effects for patients with triple-negative breast cancer, basal-like breast cancer, and inflammatory breast cancer. However, predictive and prognostic biomarkers for EGFR targeted therapy have not been identified. The overexpression or amplification of EGFR itself may not be the true factor of induction of the canonical pathway as an oncogenic driver of breast cancer. Instead, downstream, non-canonical pathways related to EGFR may contribute to some aspects of the biological behavior of breast cancer; therefore, the blockade of the receptor could result in sufficient suppression of downstream pathways to inhibit the aggressive behavior of breast cancer. Mechanistic studies to investigate the dynamic interaction between the EGFR pathway and non-canonical pathways are warranted. PMID:28271910
Matsuda, Naoko; Lim, Bora; Wang, Xiaoping; Ueno, Naoto T
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted treatment has been evaluated but has not shown a clear clinical benefit for breast cancer. This review article aims to consider the knowledge of the biological background of EGFR pathways in dissecting clinical studies of EGFR targeted treatment in breast cancer. Areas covered: This review focuses on the role of the EGFR pathway and the investigational drugs that target EGFR for breast cancer. Expert opinion: Recent studies have indicated that EGFR targeted therapy for breast cancer has some promising effects for patients with triple-negative breast cancer, basal-like breast cancer, and inflammatory breast cancer. However, predictive and prognostic biomarkers for EGFR targeted therapy have not been identified. The overexpression or amplification of EGFR itself may not be the true factor of induction of the canonical pathway as an oncogenic driver of breast cancer. Instead, downstream, non-canonical pathways related to EGFR may contribute to some aspects of the biological behavior of breast cancer; therefore, the blockade of the receptor could result in sufficient suppression of downstream pathways to inhibit the aggressive behavior of breast cancer. Mechanistic studies to investigate the dynamic interaction between the EGFR pathway and non-canonical pathways are warranted.
Lewis, Michael T
The unique biology of the breast presents the opportunity to these cell and gene therapy techniques in a way that circumvents many of these technical limitations for the treatment of early stage breast cancer...
Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard
Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...
Stevens, Kristen N.; Vachon, Celine M.; Lee, Adam M.; Slager, Susan; Lesnick, Timothy; Olswold, Curtis; Fasching, Peter A.; Miron, Penelope; Eccles, Diana; Carpenter, Jane E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Ambrosone, Christine; Winqvist, Robert; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Sawyer, Elinor; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Ekici, Arif B.; Tapper, William J; Gerty, Susan M; Durcan, Lorraine; Graham, Nikki; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stephan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Fostira, Florentia; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Dimopoulos, Athanasios M.; Fountzilas, George; Clarke, Christine L.; Balleine, Rosemary; Olson, Janet E.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Diasio, Robert B.; Pathak, Harsh; Ross, Eric; Weaver, JoEllen; Rüdiger, Thomas; Försti, Asta; Dünnebier, Thomas; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Kulkarni, Swati; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Van Limbergen, Erik; Janssen, Hilde; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Verhoef, Senno; Tomlinson, Ian; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Beesley, Jonathan; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Blows, Fiona M.; Dawson, Sarah-Jane; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W; Lambrechts, Diether; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Severi, Gianluca; Hamann, Ute; Pharoah, Paul; Easton, Douglas F.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Nevanlinna, Heli; Wang, Xianshu; Couch, Fergus J.
Triple negative breast cancers are an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor survival, but there remains little known about the etiological factors which promote its initiation and development. Commonly inherited breast cancer risk factors identified through genome wide association studies (GWAS) display heterogeneity of effect among breast cancer subtypes as defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. In the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC), 22 common breast cancer susceptibility variants were investigated in 2,980 Caucasian women with triple negative breast cancer and 4,978 healthy controls. We identified six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with risk of triple negative breast cancer, including rs2046210 (ESR1), rs12662670 (ESR1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs999737 (RAD51L1), rs8170 (19p13.11) and rs8100241 (19p13.11). Together, our results provide convincing evidence of genetic susceptibility for triple negative breast cancer. PMID:21844186
DeSantis, Carol; Siegel, Rebecca; Bandi, Priti; Jemal, Ahmedin
In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,520 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2011. Breast cancer incidence rates were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008. Breast cancer death rates have been declining since the early 1990s for all women except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. Disparities in breast cancer death rates are evident by state, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. While significant declines in mortality rates were observed for 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years, rates for 14 states remained level. Analyses by county-level poverty rates showed that the decrease in mortality rates began later and was slower among women residing in poor areas. As a result, the highest breast cancer death rates shifted from the affluent areas to the poor areas in the early 1990s. Screening rates continue to be lower in poor women compared with non-poor women, despite much progress in increasing mammography utilization. In 2008, 51.4% of poor women had undergone a screening mammogram in the past 2 years compared with 72.8% of non-poor women. Encouraging patients aged 40 years and older to have annual mammography and a clinical breast examination is the single most important step that clinicians can take to reduce suffering and death from breast cancer. Clinicians should also ensure that patients at high risk of breast cancer are identified and offered appropriate screening and follow-up. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society, Inc.
Aspord, Caroline; Pedroza-Gonzalez, Alexander; Gallegos, Mike; Tindle, Sasha; Burton, Elizabeth C.; Su, Dan; Marches, Florentina; Banchereau, Jacques; Palucka, A. Karolina
We previously reported (Bell, D., P. Chomarat, D. Broyles, G. Netto, G.M. Harb, S. Lebecque, J. Valladeau, J. Davoust, K.A. Palucka, and J. Banchereau. 1999. J. Exp. Med. 190: 1417–1426) that breast cancer tumors are infiltrated with mature dendritic cells (DCs), which cluster with CD4+ T cells. We now show that CD4+ T cells infiltrating breast cancer tumors secrete type 1 (interferon γ) as well as high levels of type 2 (interleukin [IL] 4 and IL-13) cytokines. Immunofluorescence staining of tissue sections revealed intense IL-13 staining on breast cancer cells. The expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 in breast cancer cells suggests that IL-13 actually delivers signals to cancer cells. To determine the link between breast cancer, DCs, and CD4+ T cells, we implanted human breast cancer cell lines in nonobese diabetic/LtSz-scid/scid β2 microglobulin–deficient mice engrafted with human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells and autologous T cells. There, CD4+ T cells promote early tumor development. This is dependent on DCs and can be partially prevented by administration of IL-13 antagonists. Thus, breast cancer targets DCs to facilitate its development. PMID:17438063
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Breast cancer accounts for one-third of all cancers in females and 24% of the patients are younger than 55 years of age. More than 10% all Dutch women will develop breast cancer and 70-80% of all breast cancer patients will survive over 5 years.
E. К. Saribekyan
Full Text Available The paper presents the diagnostic results of 27 patients with mucinous breast cancer, which is a rare type of invasive ductal breast cancer accounting for less than 2% of all breast cancers. The role of radiological, histological and cytological examination in the diagnosis of mucinous breast cancer is evaluated. In cases with large tumors, it was difficult to differentiate mucinous breast cancer from fibrocystic and other benign breast lesions.
Butow, P N; Hiller, J E; Price, M A; Thackway, S V; Kricker, A; Tennant, C C
Review empirical evidence for a relationship between psychosocial factors and breast cancer development. Standardised quality assessment criteria were utilised to assess the evidence of psychosocial predictors of breast cancer development in the following domains: (a) stressful life events, (b) coping style, (c) social support, and (d) emotional and personality factors. Few well-designed studies report any association between life events and breast cancer, the exception being two small studies using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) reporting an association between severely threatening events and breast cancer risk. Seven studies show anger repression or alexithymia are predictors, the strongest evidence suggesting younger women are at increased risk. There is no evidence that social support, chronic anxiety, or depression affects breast cancer development. With the exception of rationality/anti-emotionality, personality factors do not predict breast cancer risk. The evidence for a relationship between psychosocial factors and breast cancer is weak. The strongest predictors are emotional repression and severe life events. Future research would benefit from theoretical grounding and greater methodological rigour. Recommendations are given.
...; they also are at considerable risk for breast cancer recurrence. According to the American Society of Clinical Oncology, survivors should undergo careful breast cancer surveillance, including annual mammography and breast self-exam...
Suárez, L.; Santander, G.
Introduction: Metastases to the breast are rare, corresponding approximately to 3% of breast cancers. Primary tumors that spread more commonly are own breast, often following them in melanomas, neuroendocrine, ovarian and lymphoma. Medical history: A 59-year consultation rectoragias repeated and thinning. It is studied and finally intervenes (low anterior resection) diagnosed with rectal cancer whose Histopathology revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma stage III. Concomitantly the patient has a left breast lump that was studied with mammography, which revealed a dense mass of larger diameter 4 cm in topografiada 3 hour left breast with well defined contours and ultrasonographic structure solid. MI lumpectomy is performed whose pathology reports a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with cytoarchitectural features matching the lesion of rectum. Hormone receptors were negative. The patient is treated as a rectal cancer with RT spread over QT (5FU i /c). Died 7 months after diagnosis. Discusion: In literature are reported only 3 cases of breast metastases secondary to rectal cancer; how unusual this presentation justify this report.In this event they occurred in patients with a previous diagnosis of rectal cancer and in the context of systemic lesion progression. In our case clinician early diagnosis of rectal and breast metastases was synchronous. The mammographic image consistent with those described for these cases in the literature.The development of metastases in breast tissue is associated with a poor prognosis as which correlates with the survival of the patient
He, Xiangming; Dong, Xiaowu; Zou, Dehong; Yu, Yang; Fang, Qunying; Zhang, Quan; Zhao, Meirong
The o,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) with a chiral center possesses enantioselective estrogenic activity, in which R-(-)-o,p'-DDT exerts a more potent estrogenic effect than S-(+)-o,p'-DDT. Although concern regarding DDT exposure and breast cancer has increased in recent decades, the mode of enantioselective action of o,p'-DDT in breast cancer development is still unknown. Herein, we conducted a systematic study of the effect of o,p'-DDT on stereoselective breast tumor cell progression in a widely used in vitro breast tumor cell model, MCF-7 cells. We demonstrated that R-(-)-o,p'-DDT promoted more cancer cell invasion mediated by the human estrogen receptor (ER) by inducing invasion-promoted genes (matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and human telomerase reverse transcriptase) and inhibiting invasion-inhibited genes (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -4). Molecular docking verified that the binding affinity between R-(-)-o,p'-DDT and human ER was stronger than that of S-(+)-o,p'-DDT. The enantioselective-induced decrease in cell-to-cell adhesion may involve the downregulation of adhesion-promoted genes (E-cadherin and β-catenin). For the first time, these results reveal that estrogenic-like chiral compounds are of significant concern in the progression of human cancers and that human health risk assessment of chiral chemicals should consider enantioselectivity.
Full Text Available The incidence of breast cancer is on a rise worldwide; it is a disease having a complex etiology. Besides genetics, environmental and other lifestyle factors play a role in the development of the disease. There has been a keen interest in studying associations between breast cancer and exposures to emerging environmental chemicals, which mimic estrogens or influence estrogen levels and signaling in the human body. The common consequence of an endocrine disrupting chemical exposure is that it may have an impact on breast cancer etiology by stimulating formation as well as progression of breast cancer. Exposures to selected emerging environmental contaminants such as alkylphenols (APs, bisphenol A (BPA, parabens, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, phthalates, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, synthetic musks and triclosan, and their probable role in breast cancer development are reviewed. Studies evaluated include the experimental in vitro and in vivo studies as well as human population based studies. In vitro and in vivo evidences indicate that a number of emerging environmental contaminants may play a role in the initiation and/or progression of breast cancer. Although exposures have been assessed in some human populations, breast and other cancer risks associated with these exposures are largely unknown. Efforts should be focussed on the evaluation of these environmental exposures in human populations and their interactions with each other and other genetic and lifestyle risk factors.
... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...
Intuition might dictate that the outcome of both surgical and adjuvant treatment of breast cancer in these patients would be poor because of the effect on immunity. We recently published a prospective cohort study which compared the treatment outcomes of breast cancer in HIV- infected and -uninfected patients.3 This was ...
Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke
OBJECTIVE: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980-2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...
Nodora, Jesse N; Carvajal, Scott C; Robles-Garcia, Rebeca; Agraz, Francisco Páez; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutierrez-Millan, Luis Enrique; Martinez, Maria Elena
Lacking in the literature are data addressing the extent to which changes in reproductive and lifestyle factors predispose women in developing nations to higher breast cancer rates, and the degree to which these are due to globalization influences. This article describes the development and psychometric assessment of an instrument intended to measure global, predominantly U.S., influences on breast cancer risk profile among women residing in Mexico. Using investigator consensus and a focus group methodology, the Measure of Globalization Influence on Health Risk (MGIHR) was developed and completed by 341 women. Psychometric analysis support the use of an 11-item Consumerism and Modernity scale and 7-item Reproductive Control and Gender Role scale. The MGIHR is a valid and reliable instrument for understanding changing lifestyle and reproductive factors for breast cancer risk and may provide a more complete understanding of breast cancer development and needed interventions.
Conclusions: As the prognostic and predictive factors showing the development of brain metastasis in breast cancer patients may be identified, follow-up also including the brain is important in order to take preventive measures.
Bok-Yae Chung, PhD, RN, APN
Conclusion: Rehabilitation of breast cancer patients deserves special attention to achieve optimal quality of life. Health care professionals need to be educated about rehabilitation as an effective intervention.
Dickersin, K; Braun, L; Mead, M; Millikan, R; Wu, A M; Pietenpol, J; Troyan, S; Anderson, B; Visco, F
To develop and implement Project LEAD (leadership, education, and advocacy development), a science course for breast cancer activists. Students were breast cancer activists and other consumers, mainly affiliated with advocacy organizations in the United States of America. Project LEAD is offered by the National Breast Cancer Coalition; the course takes place over 5 days and is offered 4 times a year, in various cities in the United States of America. The Project LEAD curriculum has developed over 5 years to include lectures, problem-based study groups, case studies, interactive critical appraisal sessions, a seminar by an 'expert' scientist, role play, and homework components. A core faculty has been valuable for evaluating and revising the course and has proved necessary to provide consistent high quality teaching. Course evaluations indicated that students gained critical appraisal skills, enhanced their knowledge and developed confidence in selected areas of basic science and epidemiology. Project LEAD comprises a unique curriculum for training breast cancer activists in science and critical appraisal. Course evaluations indicate that students gain confidence and skills from the course.
Johansson, S.; Franzen, L.; Henriksson, R.; Bjermer, L.
Purpose: To investigate the influence of smoking on the development of radiation-induced pneumonitis in patients treated for breast and oesophagus cancer. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective study on 405 females diagnosed with primary unilateral breast cancer stages 1 and 2 and 201 oesophagus carcinoma patients. The possibilities in Sweden to obtain detailed information from different medical records were used to collect data on smoking habits, radiation treatment and spontaneously reported pneumonitis. Radiation-induced pneumonitis was defined as a combination of roentgenographic infiltrate in the lung field involving an irradiated area on the chest X-ray and clinical symptoms such as non-productive cough and dyspnoea. Results: Six breast cancer patients had spontaneously reported pneumonitis. Five of them were non-smokers (P=0.182) and the other was a former smoker. Eight of the oesophagus cancer patients had spontaneously reported radiation-induced clinical pneumonitis and they were all non-smokers (P=0.022), except one, who was a pipe smoker. None of the patients who were cigarette smokers were recorded as developing clinical pneumonitis after irradiation. Conclusion: These data could support the previous clinical observations and experimental studies that smoking depresses the frequency of radiation-induced pneumonitis. The present study as well as earlier observations could justify further studies concerning the possibility of an interaction of smoking with cancer treatment, both from the view of therapeutic failures and reduced adverse effects. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)
... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...
Armstrong, Katrina; Kim, Jane J; Halm, Ethan A; Ballard, Rachel M; Schnall, Mitchell D
Multiple advisory groups now recommend that high-risk smokers be screened for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography. Given that the development of lung cancer screening programs will face many of the same issues that have challenged other cancer screening programs, the National Cancer Institute-funded Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) consortium was used to identify lessons learned from the implementation of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening that should inform the introduction of lung cancer screening. These lessons include the importance of developing systems for identifying and recruiting eligible individuals in primary care, ensuring that screening centers are qualified and performance is monitored, creating clear communication standards for reporting screening results to referring physicians and patients, ensuring follow-up is available for individuals with abnormal test results, avoiding overscreening, remembering primary prevention, and leveraging advances in cancer genetics and immunology. Overall, this experience emphasizes that effective cancer screening is a multistep activity that requires robust strategies to initiate, report, follow up, and track each step as well as a dynamic and ongoing oversight process to revise current screening practices as new evidence regarding screening is created, new screening technologies are developed, new biological markers are identified, and new approaches to health care delivery are disseminated. Cancer 2016;122:1338-1342. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.
Radice, P.; Pierotti, M. A.
In the last two decades, molecular studies have enlightened the complexity of the genetic alterations that occur in breast cancer cells. To date, more than 40 different genes or loci have been found to be altered in breast carcinomas. Although some of these genes, as for example ERBB2, appear to be mutated in a high proportion of cases, their mechanism of action and their role in the different stages of cancer development are still poorly understood. More recently, two major determinants of the inherited predisposition to breast cancer, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been isolated. As a consequence, it is now possible to screen families with a positive history of breast carcinomas for the identification of mutations carriers, in order to address these individuals into adequate programs of cancer surveillance and prevention
James Sutherland Lawson
Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of
Kim, Paul; Lee, Ju Kang; Lim, Oh Kyung; Park, Heung Kyu; Park, Ki Deok
To predict the probability of lymphedema development in breast cancer patients in the early post-operation stage, we investigated the ability of quantitative lymphoscintigraphic assessment. This retrospective study included 201 patients without lymphedema after unilateral breast cancer surgery. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed between 4 and 8 weeks after surgery to evaluate the lymphatic system in the early postoperative stage. Quantitative lymphoscintigraphy was performed using four methods: ratio of radiopharmaceutical clearance rate of the affected to normal hand; ratio of radioactivity of the affected to normal hand; ratio of radiopharmaceutical uptake rate of the affected to normal axilla (RUA); and ratio of radioactivity of the affected to normal axilla (RRA). During a 1-year follow-up, patients with a circumferential interlimb difference of 2 cm at any measurement location and a 200-mL interlimb volume difference were diagnosed with lymphedema. We investigated the difference in quantitative lymphoscintigraphic assessment between the non-lymphedema and lymphedema groups. Quantitative lymphoscintigraphic assessment revealed that the RUA and RRA were significantly lower in the lymphedema group than in the non-lymphedema group. After adjusting the model for all significant variables (body mass index, N-stage, T-stage, type of surgery, and type of lymph node surgery), RRA was associated with lymphedema (odds ratio=0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.46; p=0.001). In patients in the early postoperative stage after unilateral breast cancer surgery, quantitative lymphoscintigraphic assessment can be used to predict the probability of developing lymphedema.
Deo, S.V.S.; Ray, S.; Kar, M.; Asthana, S.; Rath, G.K.; Shukla, N.K.; Raina, V.
BACKGROUND: Early detection and multimodality therapy has resulted in an overall improvement of survival among breast cancer patients. Despite a significant shift in the treatment approach from radical mastectomy to breast conservation a significant number of patients develop lymphedema. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for development of lymphedema. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective analysis for prevalence of lymphedema in a tertiary care regional cancer centre. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three hundred treated breast cancer patients with a minimum follow up of one year were evaluated for the prevalence and risk factors for lymphedema. Lymphedema was assessed using a serial circumferential measurement method. More than 3 cm difference in circumference is considered as clinical significant lymphedema. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed for evaluating the risk factors by using the Chi square test and Cox logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of clinically significant lymphedema was 33.5 % and 17.2 % had severe lymphedema. The prevalence of lymphedema was 13.4 % in patients treated with surgery only where as the prevalence was 42.4% in patients treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Stage of the disease, body surface area> 1.5 m 2 , presence of co-morbid conditions, post operative radiotherapy and anthracycline based chemotherapy were significant risk factors in univariate analysis where as axillary irradiation and presence of co-morbid conditions have emerged as independent risk factors in multivariate analysis (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Post treatment lymphedema continues to be a significant problem following breast cancer therapy. Presence of co-morbid conditions and axillary radiation significantly increases the risk of lymphedema. A combination of axillary dissection and axillary radiation should be avoided whenever feasible to avoid lymphedema. (author)
Background Cancer is the leading cause of deaths in the world. A widening disparity in cancer burden has emerged between high income and low-middle income countries. Closing this cancer divide is an ethical imperative but there is a dearth of data on cancer services from developing countries. Methods This was a multi-center, retrospective observational cohort study which enrolled women with breast cancer (BC) attending 8 participating cancer centers in Malaysia in 2011. All patients were followed up for 12 months from diagnosis to determine their access to therapies. We assess care performance using measures developed by Quality Oncology Practice Initiative, American Society of Clinical Oncology/National Comprehensive Cancer Network, American College of Surgeons’ National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers as well as our local guideline. Results Seven hundred and fifty seven patients were included in the study; they represent about 20% of incident BC in Malaysia. Performance results were mixed. Late presentation was 40%. Access to diagnostic and breast surgery services were timely; the interval from presentation to tissue diagnosis was short (median = 9 days), and all who needed surgery could receive it with only a short wait (median = 11 days). Performance of radiation, chemo and hormonal therapy services showed that about 75 to 80% of patients could access these treatments timely, and those who could not were because they sought alternative treatment or they refused treatment. Access to Trastuzumab was limited to only 19% of eligible patients. Conclusions These performance results are probably acceptable for a middle income country though far below the 95% or higher adherence rates routinely reported by centres in developed countries. High cost trastuzumab was inaccessible to this population without public funding support. PMID:24650245
Li, F.P.; Corkery, J.; Vawter, G.; Fine, W.; Sallan, S.E.
Among 910 survivors of childhood cancer, four developed infiltrating carcinoma of the breast and another had noninfiltrating breast tumor. Expected frequency was 0.3 cases of breast cancer in the series. The affected women developed breast carcinoma at ages 20, 25 and 38 years, and the men at ages 38 and 39 years, respectively. Each patient had received orthovoltage chest irradiation for treatment of Wilms' tumor or bone sarcoma between seven and 34 years previously, and estimated radiation dose to the breast exceeded 300 rad in each instance. Four patients also received diverse forms of chemotherapy. Survivors of childhood cancer have increased risk of developing breast cancer and should undergo periodic screening, particularly after breast tissue had been irradiated. Individualized radiotherapy planning can help exclude the breasts from treatment fields for some thoracic neoplasms
Coronel, Andrei D.; Saldana, Rafael P.
Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Philippines. Developed within the context of a Philippine Cancer Grid, the present study used web development technologies such as PHP, MySQL, and Apache server to build a prototype data retrieval system for breast cancer research that incorporates medical ontologies from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS).
Naqvi, Atta Abbas; Zehra, Fatima; Ahmad, Rizwan; Ahmad, Niyaz
There is a general hesitation in participation among Pakistani women when it comes to giving their responses in surveys related to breast cancer which may be due to the associated stigma and conservatism in society. We felt that no research instrument was able to extract information from the respondents to the extent it was needed for the successful execution of our study. The need to develop a research instrument tailored for Pakistani women was based upon the fact that most Pakistani women come from a conservative background and sometimes view this topic as provocative and believe discussing publicly about it as inappropriate. Existing research instruments exhibited a number of weaknesses during literature review. Therefore, using them may not be able to extract information concretely. A research instrument was, thus, developed exclusively. It was coined as, "breast cancer inventory (BCI)" by a panel of experts for executing a study aimed at documenting awareness, knowledge, and attitudes of Pakistani women regarding breast cancer and early detection techniques. The study is still in the data collection phase. The statistical analysis involved the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure and Bartlett's test for sampling adequacy. In addition, reliability analysis and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were, also employed. This concept paper focuses on the development, piloting and validation of the BCI. It is the first research instrument which has high acceptability among Pakistani women and is able to extract adequate information from the respondents without causing embarrassment or unease.
Atta Abbas Naqvi
Full Text Available There is a general hesitation in participation among Pakistani women when it comes to giving their responses in surveys related to breast cancer which may be due to the associated stigma and conservatism in society. We felt that no research instrument was able to extract information from the respondents to the extent it was needed for the successful execution of our study. The need to develop a research instrument tailored for Pakistani women was based upon the fact that most Pakistani women come from a conservative background and sometimes view this topic as provocative and believe discussing publicly about it as inappropriate. Existing research instruments exhibited a number of weaknesses during literature review. Therefore, using them may not be able to extract information concretely. A research instrument was, thus, developed exclusively. It was coined as, “breast cancer inventory (BCI” by a panel of experts for executing a study aimed at documenting awareness, knowledge, and attitudes of Pakistani women regarding breast cancer and early detection techniques. The study is still in the data collection phase. The statistical analysis involved the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO measure and Bartlett’s test for sampling adequacy. In addition, reliability analysis and exploratory factor analysis (EFA were, also employed. This concept paper focuses on the development, piloting and validation of the BCI. It is the first research instrument which has high acceptability among Pakistani women and is able to extract adequate information from the respondents without causing embarrassment or unease.
Full text: Long term survival after breast cancer diagnosis has increased markedly in the last decade: 15-year relative survival after breast cancer diagnosis is now 75% in the US. Associated with these excellent survival prospects, however, long term studies suggest that contralateral second breast cancer rates are in the range from 10 to 15% at 15 years post treatment, and are still higher for BRCA1/2 carriers, as well as for still longer term survivors. These second cancer risks are much higher than those for a comparable healthy woman to develop a first breast cancer. It follows that women with breast cancer are highly prone to develop a second breast cancer. We propose here a new option for reducing the disturbingly high risk of a contralateral second breast cancer. in patients with both estrogen positive and negative primary breast cancer: prophylactic mammary irradiation (PMI) of the contralateral breast. The rationale behind PMI is evidence that standard post-Iumpectomy radiotherapy of the affected (ipsilateral) breast substantially reduces the long-term genetically-based second cancer risk in the ipsilateral breast, by killing the existing premalignant cells in that breast. This suggests that there are relatively few premalignant cells in the breast (hundreds or thousands, not millions), so even a fairly modest radiation cell-kill level across the whole breast would be expected to kill essentially all of them. If this is so, then a modest radiation dose-much lower than that to the affected breast--delivered uniformly to the whole contralateral breast, and typically delivered at the same time as the radiotherapy of the ipsilateral breast, would have the potential to markedly reduce second-cancer risks in the contralateral breast by killing essentially all the pre-malignant cells in that breast while causing only a very low level of radiation-induced sequelae. Therefore we hypothesize that low-dose prophylactic mammary irradiation of the contralateral breast
Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Raloxifene Hydrochloride Tamoxifen Citrate Drugs ...
Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer
Wiese, Thomas E
Xavier University (XU) and the Tulane Cancer Center (TCC) will build a core of human talent that will address scientific problems such as drug resistance and the effect of environmental agents on breast cancer (BC...
Wiese, Thomas E
Xavier University (XU) and the Tulane Cancer Center (TCC) will build a core of human talent that will address scientific problems such as drug resistance and the effect of environmental agents on breast cancer (BC...
Wiese, Thomas E
Xavier University (XU) and the Tulane Cancer Center (TCC) will build a core of human talent that will address scientific problems such as drug resistance and the effect of environmental agents on breast cancer (BC...
den Hollander, Petra; Savage, Michelle I.; Brown, Powel H.
With a better understanding of the etiology of breast cancer, molecularly targeted drugs have been developed and are being testing for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Targeted drugs that inhibit the estrogen receptor (ER) or estrogen-activated pathways include the selective ER modulators (tamoxifen, raloxifene, and lasofoxifene) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) (anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane) have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies. Tamoxifen and raloxifene have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer and promising results of AIs in breast cancer trials, suggest that AIs might be even more effective in the prevention of ER-positive breast cancer. However, these agents only prevent ER-positive breast cancer. Therefore, current research is focused on identifying preventive therapies for other forms of breast cancer such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, breast cancer that does express ER, progesterone receptor, or HER2). HER2-positive breast cancers are currently treated with anti-HER2 therapies including trastuzumab and lapatinib, and preclinical and clinical studies are now being conducted to test these drugs for the prevention of HER2-positive breast cancers. Several promising agents currently being tested in cancer prevention trials for the prevention of TNBC include poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, vitamin D, and rexinoids, both of which activate nuclear hormone receptors (the vitamin D and retinoid X receptors). This review discusses currently used breast cancer preventive drugs, and describes the progress of research striving to identify and develop more effective preventive agents for all forms of breast cancer. PMID:24069582
penetrance breast cancer predisposition alleles. A fasci- nating aspect of the recent genome-wide scans has been the opaqueness of the relationship of...popu- lation isolates, and/or in families with higher levels of consanguinity . Further, unidentified breast cancer-associated syndromes may also exist...cancer- causing components within these blocks are cryptic. Attempts to identify them may chal- lenge current paradigms of the relationship be- tween
Fortner, Renée T; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf
The relationship between adiposity and breast cancer risk and prognosis is complex, with associations that differ depending on when body size is assessed (e.g., pre- vs. postmenopausal obesity) and when breast cancer is diagnosed (i.e., pre- vs. postmenopausal disease). Further, the impact of obesity on risk differs by tumor hormone receptor status (e.g., estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor) and, among postmenopausal women, use of exogenous hormones (i.e., hormone replacement therapy (HRT)). In the context of these complexities, this review focuses on associations between childhood and adolescent adiposity, general adiposity, weight changes (i.e., loss and gain), abdominal adiposity, and breast cancer risk and survival. Finally, we discuss potential mechanisms linking adiposity to breast cancer.
Skip to main content Learning About Breast Cancer Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...
Many studies have shown that breast cancer screening is able to reduce breast cancer mortality, including the HIP study, the Swedish Trial and the Netherlands studies. Mammography is considered as the most effective method for breast cancer screening but it might be unfeasible for some reasons: - the population acceptability of the method might be low. Indeed, most populations of the South of Europe are less compliant to mass screening than populations of the North of Europe; - the medical equipment and personnel - radiologists and pathologists - might be insufficient; - it might be too costly for the National Health Service, specially where the incidence rate of breast cancer is relatively low (i.e. Greece, Portugal). The validity of screening tests is judged by their sensitivity and their specificity
Ancukiewicz, Marek; Russell, Tara A.; Otoole, Jean; Specht, Michelle; Singer, Marybeth; Kelada, Alexandra; Murphy, Colleen D.; Pogachar, Jessica; Gioioso, Valeria; Patel, Megha; Skolny, Melissa; Smith, Barbara L.; Taghian, Alphonse G.
Purpose: To develop a simple and practical formula for quantifying breast cancer-related lymphedema, accounting for both the asymmetry of upper extremities' volumes and their temporal changes. Methods and Materials: We analyzed bilateral perometer measurements of the upper extremity in a series of 677 women who prospectively underwent lymphedema screening during treatment for unilateral breast cancer at Massachusetts General Hospital between August 2005 and November 2008. Four sources of variation were analyzed: between repeated measurements on the same arm at the same session; between both arms at baseline (preoperative) visit; in follow-up measurements; and between patients. Effects of hand dominance, time since diagnosis and surgery, age, weight, and body mass index were also analyzed. Results: The statistical distribution of variation of measurements suggests that the ratio of volume ratios is most appropriate for quantification of both asymmetry and temporal changes. Therefore, we present the formula for relative volume change (RVC): RVC = (A 2 U 1 )/(U 2 A 1 ) - 1, where A 1 , A 2 are arm volumes on the side of the treated breast at two different time points, and U 1 , U 2 are volumes on the contralateral side. Relative volume change is not significantly associated with hand dominance, age, or time since diagnosis. Baseline weight correlates (p = 0.0074) with higher RVC; however, baseline body mass index or weight changes over time do not. Conclusions: We propose the use of the RVC formula to assess the presence and course of breast cancer-related lymphedema in clinical practice and research.
Salih, A K; Fentiman, I S
Increased risk of breast cancer may result from potentially modifiable causes such as endogenous hormone levels, obesity, HRT, and non-lactation, or non-modifiable factors including genetic susceptibility and increasing age. The Gail model, based on known factors, may be useful for estimating lifetime risk in some individuals, but those risk factors that are easier to modify may have a limited impact on the totality of breast cancer. Tamoxifen prevention still remains contentious, with a significant reduction in risk of breast cancer in women given tamoxifen in the NSABP P1 study but no effect in the Italian and Royal Marsden trials. Raloxifene, tested in the MORE trial, reduced the incidence of breast cancer by 65% but this was restricted to oestrogen receptor positive tumours. Lifestyle factors such as diet, obesity, exercise and age at first full term pregnancy and number of pregnancies have a mild to moderate impact on risk, so may have little effect on the incidence of breast cancer. Reduction of alcohol intake could lead to a modest reduction in the risk of breast cancer but possibly adversely affect other diseases. Fat reduction and GnRH analogue reduce mammographic density but have not yet been shown to affect risk. For women with BRCA1/2 mutation, options include unproven surveillance and prophylactic mastectomy with an unquantified risk reduction. Interesting new candidates for chemoprevention include aromatase inhibitors, new generation SERMs, demethylating agents, non-selective COX inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and polyamine synthetic inhibitors.
Gallicchio, Lisa; Berndt, Sonja I; McSorley, Meghan A; Newschaffer, Craig J; Thuita, Lucy W; Argani, Pedram; Hoffman, Sandra C; Helzlsouer, Kathy J
A cohort study was conducted to examine the role of genetic polymorphisms in three estrogen metabolizing enzymes (COMT, CYP1A1, CYP1B1) and the two estrogen receptors (ESR1, ESR2) in the progression of benign breast disease (BBD) to breast cancer. Among participants in an ongoing cohort study, 1438 Caucasian women had a breast biopsy for BBD and were successfully genotyped for at least one of the polymorphisms examined in this study. Genotypes were determined using DNA extracted from blood specimens collected in 1989. Incident cases of breast cancer occurring subsequent to BBD diagnosis up to 2003 were identified through cancer registries. Among all participants, the ESR2 *5772G allele was associated with a significant decrease in the risk of breast cancer among women with BBD (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.38; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.15, 0.96). Compared to the reference wild-type genotypes, marginally significant associations with the development of breast cancer were observed between carriers of the variant ESR1 – 104062T allele (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.45, 1.09), the variant ESR2 *38A allele (OR 1.40; 95% CI 0.88, 2.25), and the variant CYP1B1 453Ser allele (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.95, 2.32). The results indicate that specific polymorphisms in the CYP1B1, ESR1, and ESR2 genes may play a role in progression of BBD to breast cancer among Caucasian women. Although additional studies are needed to confirm or refute our findings, these results suggest that genetic markers may aid in the identification of women who are at risk for progression of BBD to cancer
Subbiah, Ishwaria M; Lei, Xiudong; Weinberg, Jeffrey S; Sulman, Erik P; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Tripathy, Debu; Gupta, Rohan; Varma, Ankur; Chouhan, Jay; Guevarra, Richard P; Valero, Vicente; Gilbert, Mark R; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M
Several indices have been developed to predict overall survival (OS) in patients with breast cancer with brain metastases, including the breast graded prognostic assessment (breast-GPA), comprising age, tumor subtype, and Karnofsky performance score. However, number of brain metastases-a highly relevant clinical variable-is less often incorporated into the final model. We sought to validate the existing breast-GPA in an independent larger cohort and refine it integrating number of brain metastases. Data were retrospectively gathered from a prospectively maintained institutional database. Patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases from 1996 to 2013 were identified. After validating the breast-GPA, multivariable Cox regression and recursive partitioning analysis led to the development of the modified breast-GPA. The performances of the breast-GPA and modified breast-GPA were compared using the concordance index. In our cohort of 1,552 patients, the breast-GPA was validated as a prognostic tool for OS (P three v ≤ three), both were independent predictors of OS. We therefore developed the modified breast-GPA integrating a fourth clinical parameter. Recursive partitioning analysis reinforced the prognostic significance of these four factors. Concordance indices were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.77 to 0.80) and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.85) for the breast-GPA and modified breast-GPA, respectively (P formative part of the clinician's discussion of prognosis and direction of care and as a potential patient selection tool for clinical trials. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Roh, Soonhee; Burnette, Catherine E; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Jun, Jung Sim; Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Kyoung Hag
The purpose of this article is to examine the health beliefs and literacy about breast cancer and their relationship with breast cancer screening among American Indian (AI) women. Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and hierarchical logistic regression with data from a sample of 286 AI female adults residing in the Northern Plains, we found that greater awareness of breast cancer screening was linked to breast cancer screening practices. However, perceived barriers, one of the HBM constructs, prevented such screening practices. This study suggested that culturally relevant HBM factors should be targeted when developing culturally sensitive breast cancer prevention efforts.
McDonough, Meghan H; Sabiston, Catherine M; Ullrich-French, Sarah
Physical activity experiences may contribute to psychological and social wellbeing among breast cancer survivors. The main purpose of the current study was to qualitatively explore the development of social relationships, social support, and posttraumatic growth among breast cancer survivors participating in a dragon boat program over 19 months. Guided by interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith, Flowers, & Larkin, 2009), semistructured interviews were conducted with 17 breast cancer survivors on five occasions over their first two seasons of dragon boating. Narrative accounts were developed for each participant, and four profiles emerged describing processes of social and posttraumatic growth development over time: "developing a feisty spirit of survivorship," "I don't want it to be just about me," "it's not about the pink it's about the paddling," and "hard to get close." Profiles were discussed in terms of developing social relationships and support, providing support to others, physicality and athleticism, and negative interactions and experiences.
... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... 4 ). This risk reduction is limited to hormone receptor –positive breast cancer; age at first full-term ...
Kaur, Pavinder; Ward, Brenda; Saha, Baisakhi; Young, Lillian; Groshen, Susan; Techy, Geza; Lu, Yani; Atkinson, Roscoe; Taylor, Clive R.; Ingram, Marylou
Progress in our understanding of heterotypic cellular interaction in the tumor microenvironment, which is recognized to play major roles in cancer progression, has been hampered due to unavailability of an appropriate in vitro co-culture model. The aim of this study was to generate an in vitro 3-dimensional human breast cancer model, which consists of cancer cells and fibroblasts. Breast cancer cells (UACC-893) and fibroblasts at various densities were co-cultured in a rotating suspension culture system to establish co-culture parameters. Subsequently, UACC-893, BT.20, or MDA.MB.453 were co-cultured with fibroblasts for 9 days. Co-cultures resulted in the generation of breast cancer histoid (BCH) with cancer cells showing the invasion of fibroblast spheroids, which were visualized by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of sections (4 µm thick) of BCH. A reproducible quantitative expression of C-erbB.2 was detected in UACC-893 cancer cells in BCH sections by IHC staining and the Automated Cellular Imaging System. BCH sections also consistently exhibited qualitative expression of pancytokeratins, p53, Ki-67, or E-cadherin in cancer cells and that of vimentin or GSTPi in fibroblasts, fibronectin in the basement membrane and collagen IV in the extracellular matrix. The expression of the protein analytes and cellular architecture of BCH were markedly similar to those of breast cancer tissue. PMID:22034518
Hamashima, Chisato; Hamashima C, Chisato; Hattori, Masakazu; Honjo, Satoshi; Kasahara, Yoshio; Katayama, Takafumi; Nakai, Masahiro; Nakayama, Tomio; Morita, Takako; Ohta, Koji; Ohnuki, Koji; Sagawa, Motoyasu; Saito, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Seiju; Shimada, Tomoyuki; Sobue, Tomotaka; Suto, Akihiko
The incidence of breast cancer has progressively increased, making it the leading cause of cancer deaths in Japan. Breast cancer accounts for 20.4% of all new cancers with a reported age-standardized rate of 63.6 per 100 000 women. The Japanese guidelines for breast cancer screening were developed based on a previously established method. The efficacies of mammography with and without clinical breast examination, clinical breast examination and ultrasonography with and without mammography were evaluated. Based on the balance of the benefits and harms, recommendations for population-based and opportunistic screenings were formulated. Five randomized controlled trials of mammographic screening without clinical breast examination were identified for mortality reduction from breast cancer. The overall relative risk for women aged 40-74 years was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.67-0.83). Three randomized controlled trials of mammographic screening with clinical breast examination served as eligible evidence for mortality reduction from breast cancer. The overall relative risk for women aged 40-64 years was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.77-0.98). The major harms of mammographic screening were radiation exposure, false-positive cases and overdiagnosis. Although two case-control studies evaluating mortality reduction from breast cancer were found for clinical breast examination, there was no study assessing the effectiveness of ultrasonography for breast cancer screening. Mammographic screening without clinical breast examination for women aged 40-74 years and with clinical breast examination for women aged 40-64 years is recommended for population-based and opportunistic screenings. Clinical breast examination and ultrasonography are not recommended for population-based screening because of insufficient evidence regarding their effectiveness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Polk, Anne; Svane, Inge-Marie; Andersson, Michael
INTRODUCTION: An increasing number of compounds directed against immune checkpoints are currently under clinical development. In this review we summarize current research in breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A computer-based literature search was carried out using PubMed and EMBASE; data...... reported at international meetings and clinicaltrials.gov were included as well. RESULTS: The obtained overall response rate of PD-1/PD-L1 monotherapy varied from 5 to 30% in heavily pretreated triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). The median duration of progression free survival and overall survival were...... and induce long standing anti-tumor immunity in a subgroup of breast cancer patients. However, the identification of predictive biomarkers is crucial for further development of this treatment modality....
Rebentisch, D.P.; Rebentisch, H.D.; Thomas, K.; Karat, S.; Jadhav, A.J.
Carcinoma of the breast is the third most common cancer in Indian women. With rapid industrialization and effective control of communicable diseases, better diagnostic and treatment facilities, cancer is emerging as a major health problem. Since early detection is the only way to reduce morbidity and mortality from breast cancer, we undertook a pilot project to evaluate efficacy of using existing manpower and resources for screening women in the high risk group. Methodology pros and cons, results, and recommendations are presented. Our method can be adopted by any developing country interested in a screening programme for malignant disease
Rebentisch, D P; Rebentisch, H D; Thomas, K; Karat, S; Jadhav, A J
Carcinoma of the breast is the third most common cancer in Indian women. With rapid industrialization and effective control of communicable diseases, better diagnostic and treatment facilities, cancer is emerging as a major health problem. Since early detection is the only way to reduce morbidity and mortality from breast cancer, we undertook a pilot project to evaluate efficacy of using existing manpower and resources for screening women in the high risk group. Methodology pros and cons, results, and recommendations are presented. Our method can be adopted by any developing country interested in a screening programme for malignant disease.
Mason, Ralph P
Gene therapy holds great promise for treatment of breast cancer. In particular clinical trials are underway to apply therapeutic genes related to pro-drug activation or to modulate the activity of oncogenes by blocking promoter sites...
Swenson, Karen K
.... Cases will be identified in the physical therapy or cancer centers. Controls will be identified using the oncology registry and include patients with breast cancer surgery who have not developed lymphedema...
Bjorn, M.J.; Ring, D.; Frankel, A.
Eighty-five antibodies recognizing breast cancer-selective antigens were conjugated to ricin toxin A-chain using a disulfide linkage. The cytotoxicities of the resulting immunotoxins were determined on breast cancer cells and normal human fibroblasts. Twenty-four antibodies formed immunotoxins that were toxic to at least one breast cancer cell line at concentrations of 10 nM or less but were nontoxic to human fibroblast lines used as negative controls. Some of the breast tumor-selective immunotoxins were as toxic as a conjugate between monoclonal anti-transferrin receptor and ricin toxin A-chain (50% inhibition of cellular protein synthesis at approximately 0.1 nM). Another set of four immunotoxins were indiscriminately toxic to human breast tumor cell lines, two human fibroblast cell lines, and a human lymphoblastoid line. Several of the antibodies the toxin conjugates of which specifically killed breast cancer cell lines may be useful in cancer therapy, since they show a wide range of binding to individual breast tumors and cell lines and a limited range of binding to normal tissue types
Full Text Available Fang Bai,1–3,* You Yin,4,* Ting Chen,1,* Jihui Chen,1 Meixin Ge,2 Yunshu Lu,2 Fangyuan Xie,5 Jian Zhang,1 Kejin Wu,3 Yan Liu1,6 1Department of Pharmacy, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 2Department of General Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, 3Department of Breast Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynaecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 4Department of Neurology, Changzheng Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 5Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Shanghai, 6Department of Pharmacy, Changzheng Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Pemetrexed, a new generation antifolate drug, is one of the primary treatments for breast cancer. However, multidrug resistance (MDR in breast cancer greatly hampers the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapies such as pemetrexed. Nanomedicine is emerging as a promising alternative technique to overcome cancer MDR. Thus, pemetrexed-loaded d-alpha tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (vitamin E TPGS liposomes (liposomal pemetrexed were developed as a strategy to overcome MDR to pemetrexed in breast cancer. Materials and methods: Liposomal pemetrexed was developed using the calcium acetate gradient method. The cytotoxic effects, apoptosis-inducing activity, in vivo distribution, and antitumor activity of liposomal pemetrexed were investigated. Results: Liposomal pemetrexed was small in size (160.77 nm, with a small polydispersity of <0.1. The encapsulation efficacy of liposomal pemetrexed was 63.5%, which is rather high for water-soluble drugs in liposomes. The IC50 of liposomal pemetrexed following treatment with MDR breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells overexpressing ABCC5
Faneyte, Ian F.; Kristel, Petra M. P.; Maliepaard, Marc; Scheffer, George L.; Scheper, Rik J.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.
PURPOSE: The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is involved in in vitro multidrug resistance and was first identified in the breast cancer cell line MCF7/AdrVp. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BCRP in resistance of breast cancer to anthracycline treatment. EXPERIMENTAL
Palmero Edenir I
Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a significant public health problem worldwide and the development of tools to identify individuals at-risk for hereditary breast cancer syndromes, where specific interventions can be proposed to reduce risk, has become increasingly relevant. A previous study in Southern Brazil has shown that a family history suggestive of these syndromes may be prevalent at the primary care level. Development of a simple and sensitive instrument, easily applicable in primary care units, would be particularly helpful in underserved communities in which identification and referral of high-risk individuals is difficult. Methods A simple 7-question instrument about family history of breast, ovarian and colorectal cancer, FHS-7, was developed to screen for individuals with an increased risk for hereditary breast cancer syndromes. FHS-7 was applied to 9218 women during routine visits to primary care units in Southern Brazil. Two consecutive samples of 885 women and 910 women who answered positively to at least one question and negatively to all questions were included, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were determined. Results Of the 885 women reporting a positive family history, 211 (23.8%; CI95%: 21.5–26.2 had a pedigree suggestive of a hereditary breast and/or breast and colorectal cancer syndrome. Using as cut point one positive answer, the sensitivity and specificity of the instrument were 87.6% and 56.4%, respectively. Concordance between answers in two different applications was given by a intra-class correlation (ICC of 0.84 for at least one positive answer. Temporal stability of the instrument was adequate (ICC = 0.65. Conclusion A simple instrument for the identification of the most common hereditary breast cancer syndrome phenotypes, showing good specificity and temporal stability was developed and could be used as a screening tool in primary care to refer at
Szepesi, T.; Schratter-Sehn, A.U.
Postoperative adjuvant hormone therapy and hormone therapy in disseminated breast cancer will be discussed systematically. The classical ablative and additive endocrine therapeutic measures - with the exception of ovarectomy and gestagen therapy - are increasinlgy being replaced by antagonists. Individual chapters discuss recent experience with combined hormone-radiotherapy or hormone-chemotherapy. In addition, a successful therapy scheme for the treatment of disseminated breast cancer will be presented. (Author)
development of a journal that will specifically publish breast-cancer-related articles and papers. It will pave the way for those who are interested in the subject and who seek to find the results of the most recent research in this field.Thus, this journal, as its main goal, provides an opportunity for better communication and interaction among medical practitioners, basic science researchers, and health care professionals interested in breast diseases. To achieve this goal, ABC benefits from one of the most qualified editorial boards selected from related specialties with various academic affiliations. The vision of ABC is to become a source of reliable and wellresearched articles focusing on breast cancer. Second, it intends to be an outstanding media, introducing to the world of medicine, cutting edge technologies, recent clinical approaches, diagnostic and practical methods, and even surgical details crucial in dealing with breast cancer. We hope that we can make a considerable contribution to the prevention, early detection, management, and rehabilitation of patients suffering from breast cancer. All the members of ABC editorial staff believe that collaboration and interaction amongthe related scientists, physicians and surgeons, social experts, and policy makers from the four corners of the world would be the ultimate means to achieve the goals of the journal.
... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...
The purpose of our current work is to determine whether there are differences in blood levels of 1,25-dihydroxy- vitamin D between women with breast cancer and two control groups of women without breast cancer...
Shao, Theresa; Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.
Vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action, the current evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, and the optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention are summarized.
... is small. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of breast cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... magnetic resonance imaging) in women with a high risk of breast cancer MRI is a procedure that ...
Problems with attention and symptom distress are common clinical features reported by women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Mindfulness practice significantly improves attention and mindfulness programs significantly reduce symptom distress in patients with cancer, and, more specifically, in women with breast cancer. Recently, a pilot investigation of a music therapy program, built on core attitudes of mindfulness practice, reported significant benefits of enhanced attention and decreased negative mood and fatigue in women with breast cancer. This paper delineates the design and development of the mindfulness-based music therapy (MBMT) program implemented in that pilot study and includes clients’ narrative journal responses. Conclusions and recommendations, including recommendation for further exploration of the function of music in mindfulness practice are provided. PMID:27517966
Chen, Shuai; Wang, Han; Huang, Yu-Fan; Li, Ming-Li; Cheng, Jiang-Hong; Hu, Peng; Lu, Chuan-Hui; Zhang, Ya; Liu, Na; Tzeng, Chi-Meng; Zhang, Zhi-Ming
The WW domain is composed of 38 to 40 semi-conserved amino acids shared with structural, regulatory, and signaling proteins. WW domain-binding protein 2 (WBP2), as a binding partner of WW domain protein, interacts with several WW-domain-containing proteins, such as Yes kinase-associated protein (Yap), paired box gene 8 (Pax8), WW-domain-containing transcription regulator protein 1 (TAZ), and WW-domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) through its PPxY motifs within C-terminal region, and further triggers the downstream signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. Studies have confirmed that phosphorylated form of WBP2 can move into nuclei and activate the transcription of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), whose expression were the indicators of breast cancer development, indicating that WBP2 may participate in the progression of breast cancer. Both overexpression of WBP2 and activation of tyrosine phosphorylation upregulate the signal cascades in the cross-regulation of the Wnt and ER signaling pathways in breast cancer. Following the binding of WBP2 to the WW domain region of TAZ which can accelerate migration, invasion and is required for the transformed phenotypes of breast cancer cells, the transformation of epithelial to mesenchymal of MCF10A is activated, suggesting that WBP2 is a key player in regulating cell migration. When WBP2 binds with WWOX, a tumor suppressor, ER transactivation and tumor growth can be suppressed. Thus, WBP2 may serve as a molecular on/off switch that controls the crosstalk between E2, WWOX, Wnt, TAZ, and other oncogenic signaling pathways. This review interprets the relationship between WBP2 and breast cancer, and provides comprehensive views about the function of WBP2 in the regulation of the pathogenesis of breast cancer and endocrine therapy in breast cancer treatment.
Full Text Available Background. Breasts are an important symbol of physical beauty, feminity, mothering and sexual desire through the entire history of mankind. Lost of the whole or part of the breast is functional and aesthetic disturbance for woman. It is understandable, that the woman, who is concerned over breast loss, is as appropriate as another person´s concern over the loss of a limb or other body part. Before the 1960, breast reconstruction was considered as a dangerous procedure and it was almost prohibited. Considering the psychological importance of the breast in modern society, the possibility of breast reconstruction for the woman about to undergo a mastectomy is a comforting alternative. We can perform breast reconstruction with autologous tissue (autologous reconstruction, with breast implants and combination of both methods. For autologous reconstruction we can use local tissue (local flaps, or tissue from distant parts of the body (free vascular tissue transfer. Tissue expansion must be performed first, in many cases of breast reconstructions with breast implants. Conclusions. Possibility of breast reconstruction made a big progress last 3 decades. Today we are able to reconstruct almost every defect of the breast and the entire breast. Breast reconstruction rise the quality of life for breast cancer patients. Breast reconstruction is a team work of experts from many medicine specialites. In Slovenia we can offer breast reconstruction for breast cancer patients in Ljubljana, where plastic surgeons from Clinical Department for Plastic Surgery and Burns cooperate with oncologic surgeons. Ten years ago a similar cooperation between plastic surgeons and surgeons of the Centre for Breast Diseases was established in Maribor.
With the development of molecularly targeted cancer therapies, it is highly advantageous to be able to determine their efficacy, to improve overall patient survival. Non-invasive imaging techniques are currently available for visualizing different pathological conditions of the human body, but their use for cancer monitoring is limited due to the lack of tumor-specific imaging probes. This review will attempt to summarize the current clinical diagnostic approaches for breast cancer detection, staging, and therapy assessment. In addition, I will present some novel concepts from the field of molecular imaging that form the basis of some of our research. We believe that this general imaging strategy has the potential of significantly advancing our ability to diagnose breast cancer at the earliest stages of the pathology, before any overt clinical symptoms have developed, as well as to better direct the development of molecularly-targeted individualized therapy protocols.
van der Groep, P.
Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several family members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 which account for about 5% of all breast cancers. However, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 may
Day, N E; Williams, D R; Khaw, K T
It is important that the introduction of breast screening is closely monitored. The anticipated effect on breast cancer mortality will take 10 years or more fully to emerge, and will only occur if a succession of more short-term end points are met. Data from the Swedish two-county randomised trial provide targets that should be achieved, following a logical progression of compliance with the initial invitation, prevalence and stage distribution at the prevalence screen, the rate of interval cancers after the initial screen, the pick-up rate and stage distribution at later screening tests, the rate of interval cancers after later tests, the absolute rate of advanced cancer and finally the breast cancer mortality rate. For evaluation purposes, historical data on stage at diagnosis is desirable; it is suggested that tumour size is probably the most relevant variable available in most cases.
Ka'opua, Lana Sue
This article presents findings from research to develop the promotional component of a breast cancer screening program for Native Hawaiian women associated with historically Hawaiian churches in medically underserved communities.The literature on adherence to health recommendations and health promotions marketing guided inquiry on screening influences. Focus groups and individual interviews patterned on the culturally familiar practice of talk story were conducted with 60 Hawaiian women recruited through religious and social organizations.Text data were analyzed with an incremental process involving content analysis and Airhihenbuwa's PEN-3 model. Key informants and senior colleagues reviewed preliminary findings to ensure accuracy of interpretation. Findings reflect collectivist values at the intersection of indigenous Hawaiian culture and religiosity. Inclusion of messages that encourage holistic health across the intergenerational continuum of extended family and fictive kin, reinforcement from spiritual leaders, and testimonials of cancer survivors and family members may facilitate Hawaiian women's screening intent.
Alder, Judith; Bitzer, Johannes
Sexual complaints are an often reported complication of breast cancer treatment, however still under diagnosed and rarely subject of oncologic counseling. The etiology is multifactorial: predisposing factors, triggers and maintaining factors can be identified on a somatic, psychological and social-interactional level. Accordingly, the development of the therapeutic approach is based on the identification and, where possible, modification or compensation of those factors which explain and maintain the sexual problems. Most often, loss of appetence is being reported, however, as it may develop secondary to sexual pain (dyspareunia) which is partly due to lack of lubrication as a consequence of therapy induced hormonal changes, the entire sexual interaction as well as sexual experiences since diagnosis and treatment should be systematically assessed. For treatment, vaginal atrophy, climacteric symptoms and, most importantly, the psychological and relational adjustment process to illness induced changes have to be considered.
Tanna, Nuttan; Buijs, Helene; Pitkin, Joan
Breast cancer survivors can be expected to suffer from menopause symptoms with estrogen deprivation due to cancer treatments, in addition to natural menopause-related estrogen loss. To gain an understanding of what support breast cancer patients have when they suffer from menopausal symptoms, and utilize findings to further inform National Health Service (NHS) care provision for breast cancer survivors. Qualitative study with focus group sessions targeting Caucasian and Asian women with breast cancer. Patient stories, with women describing their breast cancer journey and speaking about support received for any menopausal symptoms. Thematic data analysis of transcription. Breast cancer patients were not sure if they had menopausal symptoms or whether this was due to their breast cancer condition or treatment. Patients had an attitude of acceptance of menopausal symptoms and reported trying to cope with these by themselves. This research identifies a need for more information that is culturally sensitive on managing menopause symptoms, both as side-effects of breast cancer treatments as well as for affect on quality of life during the survivorship phase. Our work also gives insight into cultural remedies used for hot flushes by Asian patients, which they consider as 'cooling' foods. Breast cancer patients want to know whether side-effects of cancer treatment persist long term and how these can be managed. There is a need for improved patient support within any new NHS service models that are developed along breast cancer patient pathways, and inclusion of personalized advice for menopause symptoms.
Kohler, Racquel E; Lee, Clara N; Gopal, Satish; Reeve, Bryce B; Weiner, Bryan J; Wheeler, Stephanie B
In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women's preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment. To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women's preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare. We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs. Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants' responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes, comprehension of choice tasks, and women's abilities to make trade-offs. Applying a discrete choice experiment for breast cancer early detection was feasible with appropriate tailoring for a low-income, low-literacy African setting.
Robinson, David S.; Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Denham, David B.; Manns, Fabrice; Gonzalez, Xochitl; Schachner, Robert D.; Herron, Alan J.; Burdette, Everette C.
A mammographic stereotactic core biopsy instrument can be adapted for laser hyperthermic ablation of breast cancer. The object of this study is to characterize laser endohyperthermia ex-vivo and in-vivo to develop a reliable approach leading to human trials. Light of a Nd:YAG laser passed through a fiberoptic cable to a diffusing quartz tip upon entering surrounding tissues can bring about very high temperatures. This approach concentrating on the heat distribution to fat and fibrofatty tissue, first analyzed a physical model into which both the quartz tip and thermocouple needles were placed. Temperature recordings in volume through a time course demonstrated a progressive thermal increase around the tip. Additional light distribution studies in several media demonstrated the tip's output. The technique transferred to ex-vivo human breast and porcine fibrofatty tissue showed similar findings leading to an in-vivo analysis of subcutaneous porcine fibrofatty tissue. A step-down energy program beginning at 20 watts and decreasing to 15 watts, 10 watts, and to 7 watts, at 30 second intervals was held at the latter power for the remainder of 6 minutes. Three such cycles appear to be the optimal treatment program to develop temperatures between 60 degrees Celsius and 80 degrees Celsius (approximately equals 9700 joules). In-vivo experiments conducted on 5 occasions revealed no skin change. At necropsy the treated tissues demonstrated a circular sharply defined 3 cm volume of necrosis with no change in adjacent tissue. Time-temperature correlations between ex-vivo and in-vivo tissues showed great similarity. Nd:YAG laser energy distributed to a quartz tip through a fiberoptic cable is capable of uniform, complete tissue destruction to a 1 1/2 cm radius with no change beyond that field. This technique with further refinement will be appropriate to the treatment of small breast cancers that have been stereotactically biopsied.
Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie
Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...
Hirth, Jacqueline M; Hatch, Sandra S; Lin, Yu-Li; Giordano, Sharon H; Silva, H Colleen; Kuo, Yong-Fang
Overtreatment is a common concern for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), but this entity is difficult to distinguish from invasive breast cancers in administrative claims data sets because DCIS often is coded as invasive breast cancer. Therefore, the authors developed and validated algorithms to select DCIS cases from administrative claims data to enable outcomes research in this type of data. This retrospective cohort using invasive breast cancer and DCIS cases included women aged 66 to 70 years in the 2004 through 2011 Texas Cancer Registry (TCR) data linked to Medicare administrative claims data. TCR records were used as "gold" standards to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of 2 algorithms. Women with a biopsy enrolled in Medicare parts A and B at 12 months before and 6 months after their first biopsy without a second incident diagnosis of DCIS or invasive breast cancer within 12 months in the TCR were included. Women in 2010 Medicare data were selected to test the algorithms in a general sample. In the TCR data set, a total of 6907 cases met inclusion criteria, with 1244 DCIS cases. The first algorithm had a sensitivity of 79%, a specificity of 89%, and a PPV of 62%. The second algorithm had a sensitivity of 50%, a specificity of 97%. and a PPV of 77%. Among women in the general sample, the specificity was high and the sensitivity was similar for both algorithms. However, the PPV was approximately 6% to 7% lower. DCIS frequently is miscoded as invasive breast cancer, and thus the proposed algorithms are useful to examine DCIS outcomes using data sets not linked to cancer registries. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
Bernatsky, S.; Ramsey-Goldman, R.; Petri, M.
Objective There is a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) versus the general population. We assessed a large sample of SLE patients, evaluating demographic and clinical characteristics and breast cancer risk. Methods We performed case-cohort analyses within a multi......-center international SLE sample. We calculated the breast cancer hazard ratio (HR) in female SLE patients, relative to demographics, reproductive history, family history of breast cancer, and time-dependent measures of anti-dsDNA positivity, cumulative disease activity, and drugs, adjusted for SLE duration. Results...... There were 86 SLE breast cancers and 4498 female SLE cancer-free controls. Patients were followed on average for 7.6 years. Versus controls, SLE breast cancer cases tended to be white and older. Breast cancer cases were similar to controls regarding anti-dsDNA positivity, disease activity, and most drug...
Heleen K Bronsveld
Full Text Available Women with diabetes have a worse survival after breast cancer diagnosis compared to women without diabetes. This may be due to a different etiological profile, leading to the development of more aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Our aim was to investigate whether insulin and non-insulin treated women with diabetes develop specific clinicopathological breast cancer subtypes compared to women without diabetes.This cross-sectional study included randomly selected patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 2000-2010. Stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis (≤50 and >50 years, women with diabetes were 2:1 frequency-matched on year of birth and age at breast cancer diagnosis (both in 10-year categories to women without diabetes, to select ~300 patients with tumor tissue available. Tumor MicroArrays were stained by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR, HER2, Ki67, CK5/6, CK14, and p63. A pathologist scored all stains and revised morphology and grade. Associations between diabetes/insulin treatment and clinicopathological subtypes were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Morphology and grade were not significantly different between women with diabetes (n = 211 and women without diabetes (n = 101, irrespective of menopausal status. Premenopausal women with diabetes tended to have more often PR-negative (OR = 2.44(95%CI:1.07-5.55, HER2-negative (OR = 2.84(95%CI:1.11-7.22, and basal-like (OR = 3.14(95%CI:1.03-9.60 tumors than the women without diabetes, with non-significantly increased frequencies of ER-negative (OR = 2.48(95%CI:0.95-6.45 and triple negative (OR = 2.60(95%CI:0.88-7.67 tumors. After adjustment for age and BMI, the associations remained similar in size but less significant. We observed no evidence for associations of clinicopathological subtypes with diabetes in postmenopausal women, or with insulin treatment in general.We found no compelling evidence that women with diabetes
Bronsveld, Heleen K; Jensen, Vibeke; Vahl, Pernille; De Bruin, Marie L; Cornelissen, Sten; Sanders, Joyce; Auvinen, Anssi; Haukka, Jari; Andersen, Morten; Vestergaard, Peter; Schmidt, Marjanka K
Women with diabetes have a worse survival after breast cancer diagnosis compared to women without diabetes. This may be due to a different etiological profile, leading to the development of more aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Our aim was to investigate whether insulin and non-insulin treated women with diabetes develop specific clinicopathological breast cancer subtypes compared to women without diabetes. This cross-sectional study included randomly selected patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 2000-2010. Stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis (≤50 and >50 years), women with diabetes were 2:1 frequency-matched on year of birth and age at breast cancer diagnosis (both in 10-year categories) to women without diabetes, to select ~300 patients with tumor tissue available. Tumor MicroArrays were stained by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR), HER2, Ki67, CK5/6, CK14, and p63. A pathologist scored all stains and revised morphology and grade. Associations between diabetes/insulin treatment and clinicopathological subtypes were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Morphology and grade were not significantly different between women with diabetes (n = 211) and women without diabetes (n = 101), irrespective of menopausal status. Premenopausal women with diabetes tended to have more often PR-negative (OR = 2.44(95%CI:1.07-5.55)), HER2-negative (OR = 2.84(95%CI:1.11-7.22)), and basal-like (OR = 3.14(95%CI:1.03-9.60) tumors than the women without diabetes, with non-significantly increased frequencies of ER-negative (OR = 2.48(95%CI:0.95-6.45)) and triple negative (OR = 2.60(95%CI:0.88-7.67) tumors. After adjustment for age and BMI, the associations remained similar in size but less significant. We observed no evidence for associations of clinicopathological subtypes with diabetes in postmenopausal women, or with insulin treatment in general. We found no compelling evidence that women with diabetes, treated
Background: The peak age incidence for breast cancer in developing countries is 35-45 years, which is part of the reproductive years of our women. As women defer childbearing on account of education and careers, the incidence of pregnancy associated breast cancer is expected to increase. Aim: This study presents 4 ...
A.M. Gonzalez-Zuloeta Ladd (Angela)
textabstractBreast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the Western world and it is estimated that women who survive to the age of 85 years will have a 1 in 9 lifetime probability of developing this type of neoplasia (1, 2). The degree of risk is not spread homogeneously across the
Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma
Falcon, Shannon; Williams, Angela; Weinfurtner, Jared; Drukteinis, Jennifer S
Breast density is well recognized as an independent risk factor for the development of breast cancer. However, the magnitude of risk is controversial. As the public becomes increasingly aware of breast density as a risk factor, legislation and notification laws in relation to breast density have become common throughout the United States. Awareness of breast density as a risk factor for breast cancer presents new challenges for the clinician in the approach to the management and screening of women with dense breasts. The evidence and controversy surrounding breast density as a risk factor for the development of breast cancer are discussed. Common supplemental screening modalities for breast cancer are also discussed, including tomosynthesis, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. A management strategy for screening women with dense breasts is also presented. The American College of Radiology recognizes breast density as a controversial risk factor for breast cancer, whereas the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recognizes breast density as a modest risk factor. Neither organization recommends the routine use of supplemental screening in women with dense breasts without considering additional patient-related risk factors. Breast density is a poorly understood and controversial risk factor for the development of breast cancer. Mammography is a screening modality proven to reduce breast cancer-related mortality rates and is the single most appropriate tool for population-based screening. Use of supplemental screening modalities should be tailored to individual risk assessment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS. It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non
Full Text Available Alessandra Gorini,1,2 Ketti Mazzocco,1,2 Sara Gandini,2 Elisabetta Munzone,2 Gordon McVie,2 Gabriella Pravettoni1,2 1Department of Health Science, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 2European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy Introduction: The advent of “personalized medicine” has been driven by technological advances in genomics. Concentration at the subcellular level of a patient's cancer cells has meant inevitably that the “person” has been overlooked. For this reason, we think there is an urgent need to develop a truly personalized approach focusing on each patient as an individual, assessing his/her unique mental dimensions and tailoring interventions to his/her individual needs and preferences. The aim of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the ALGA-Breast Cancer (ALGA-BC, a new multidimensional questionnaire that assesses the breast cancer patient's physical and mental characteristics in order to provide physicians, prior to the consultation, with a patient's profile that is supposed to facilitate subsequent communication, interaction, and information delivery between the doctor and the patient. Methods: The specific validation processes used were: content and face validity, construct validity using factor analysis, reliability and internal consistency using test–retest reliability, and Cronbach's alpha correlation coefficient. The exploratory analysis included 100 primary breast cancer patients and 730 healthy subjects. Results: The exploratory factor analysis revealed eight key factors: global self-rated health, perceived physical health, anxiety, self-efficacy, cognitive closure, memory, body image, and sexual life. Test–retest reliability and internal consistency were good. Comparing patients with a sample of healthy subjects, we also observed a general ability of the ALGA-BC questionnaire to discriminate between the two. Conclusion: The ALGA-BC questionnaire with 29 items is a valid
.... Our aims are first to develop a model of anti-S14 breast cancer therapy in mice. Intratumoral adenoviral delivery of an S14-antisense gene into human breast cancer cell xenografts caused a significant inhibition of tumor growth...
.... In order to evaluate whether these inhibitors may be useful for treating breast cancer, we have during the grant period developed mouse models for both primary and metastatic growth of human breast cancer cells...
Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard
and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria......ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development...
Clarke, Robert B; Bundred, Nigel J
A recent report suggests that, in an in vitro model of premalignant breast cells (vHMECs), silencing of INK4A gene is accompanied by over-expression of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2. This suggests that COX-2 over-expression may be an early event in breast cancer aetiology permitting clones within the normal epithelium to evade apoptosis, to increase their numbers and perhaps acquire further changes that promote the formation of hyperplasias, and eventually carcinomas. While COX-2 expression in normal breast epithelium in vivo has not been proven to be linked to an increased risk of breast cancer, its over-expression in the premalignant model in vitro does provide preliminary evidence that COX-2 inhibition may be a useful chemoprevention strategy
Full Text Available Racquel E Kohler,1 Clara N Lee,2 Satish Gopal,3 Bryce B Reeve,1 Bryan J Weiner,1 Stephanie B Wheeler11Department of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3UNC Project-Malawi, Tidziwe Center, Lilongwe, MalawiBackground: In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women’s preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment.Objective: To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women’s preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare.Methods: We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs.Results: Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants’ responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes
To give an overview of studies comparing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in breast cancer screening. The implementation of tomosynthesis in breast imaging is rapidly increasing world-wide. Experimental clinical studies of relevance for DBT screening have shown that tomosynthesis might have a great potential in breast cancer screening, although most of these retrospective reading studies are based on small populations, so that final conclusions are difficult to draw from individual reports. Several retrospective studies and three prospective trials on tomosynthesis in breast cancer screening have been published so far, confirming the great potential of DBT in mammography screening. The main results of these screening studies are presented. The retrospective screening studies from USA have all shown a significant decrease in the recall rate using DBT as adjunct to mammography. Most of these studies have also shown an increase in the cancer detection rate, and the non-significant results in some studies might be explained by a lack of statistical power. All the three prospective European trials have shown a significant increase in the cancer detection rate. The retrospective and the prospective screening studies comparing FFDM and DBT have all demonstrated that tomosynthesis has a great potential for improving breast cancer screening. DBT should be regarded as a better mammogram that could improve or overcome limitations of the conventional mammography, and tomosynthesis might be considered as the new technique in the next future of breast cancer screening.
Day, N. E.; Williams, D. R.; Khaw, K. T.
It is important that the introduction of breast screening is closely monitored. The anticipated effect on breast cancer mortality will take 10 years or more fully to emerge, and will only occur if a succession of more short-term end points are met. Data from the Swedish two-county randomised trial provide targets that should be achieved, following a logical progression of compliance with the initial invitation, prevalence and stage distribution at the prevalence screen, the rate of interval c...
Kümler, Iben; Stenvang, Jan; Moreira, José
Despite the advances that have taken place in the past decade, including the development of novel molecular targeted agents, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of cancer treatment. In breast cancer, anthracyclines and taxanes are the two main chemotherapeutic options used on a routine...... basis. Although effective, their usefulness is limited by the inevitable development of resistance, a lack of response to drug-induced cancer cell death. A large body of research has resulted in the characterization of a plethora of mechanisms involved in resistance; ATP-binding cassette transporter...
Full Text Available Malgorzata Banys,1,2 Andreas D Hartkopf,1 Natalia Krawczyk,1 Tatjana Kaiser,1 Franziska Meier-Stiegen,1 Tanja Fehm,1 Hans Neubauer11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg, Hamburg, GermanyAbstract: Tumor dormancy describes a prolonged quiescent state in which tumor cells are present, but disease progression is not yet clinically apparent. Breast cancer is especially known for long asymptomatic periods, up to 25 years, with no evidence of the disease, followed by a relapse. Factors that determine the cell's decision to enter a dormant state and that control its duration remain unclear. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in understanding how tumor cells circulating in the blood interact and extravasate into secondary sites and which factors might determine whether these cells survive, remain dormant, or become macrometastases. The mechanisms of tumor cell dormancy are still not clear. Two different hypotheses are currently discussed: tumor cells persist either by completely withdrawing from the cell cycle or by continuing to proliferate at a slow rate that is counterbalanced by cell death. Because dormant disseminated tumor cells may be the founders of metastasis, one hypothesis is that dormant tumor cells, or at least a fraction of them, share stem cell-like characteristics that may be responsible for their long half-lives and their suggested resistance to standard chemotherapy. Therefore, knowledge of the biology of tumor cell dormancy may be the basis from which to develop innovative targeted therapies to control or eliminate this tumor cell fraction. In this review, we discuss biological mechanisms and clinical implications of tumor dormancy in breast cancer patients.Keywords: tumor dormancy, disseminated tumor cell, circulating tumor cell, targeted therapy
Kiely, Belinda E; Hossack, Lucinda K; Shadbolt, Clair L; Davis, Anna; Cassumbhoy, Robin; Moodie, Kate; Antill, Yoland; Mitchell, Gillian
Demand for screening breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for women with a hereditary predisposition to breast cancer has increased since the introduction of a medicare item number. To aid future service planning, we examined the practicalities of establishing and running a breast MRI screening programme for high risk women and to describe the early outcomes of our screening programme. We undertook a retrospective audit of prospectively collected data. Women detection rate; and patient satisfaction via questionnaire. From 2006 to 2009, 82 women completed a round one screening MRI and 45, 21 and one women completed second, third and fourth round annual MRI studies, respectively. Median MRI process times were: booking 20 min; attendance in radiology department 90 min; imaging duration 45 min; reporting by one radiologist 30 min. Of the 82 round one studies, 23 (28%) were reported as ≥Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System three requiring further investigation. Of the round two and three studies completed, 13/45 (28%) and 2/21 (9%) have been recalled, respectively. Seven malignancies were detected. Questionnaires revealed women were satisfied with the service. Significant time, staff and equipment is required to run an effective breast MRI screening programme and this must be considered by future service providers.
Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) comprises a heterogeneous group of diseases. It incorporates a subset of stage IIB (T3N0) disease, stage III disease and inflammatory breast cancer. In the developed world, 7% of breast cancer patients have stage III disease at diagnosis. In developing countries, LABC constitutes ...
Azubuike, Samuel O; Muirhead, Colin; Hayes, Louise; McNally, Richard
Despite mortality from breast cancer in Africa being higher than in high income countries, breast cancer has not been extensively studied in the region. The aim of this paper was to highlight the rising burden of breast cancer with an emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa as well as trends, characteristics, controversies and their implications for regional development. A review of published studies and documents was conducted in Medline, Scopus, Pubmed and Google using combinations of key words-breast neoplasm, breast cancer, cancer, incidence, mortality, Africa, Nigeria. Graphical and frequency analyses were carried out on some of the incidence and mortality figures retrieved from published papers and the GLOBOCAN website. Globally, about 25% and 15% of all new cancer cases and cancer deaths respectively among females were due to breast cancer. Africa currently had the highest age-standardized breast cancer mortality rate globally, with the highest incidence rates being recorded within the sub-Saharan African sub-region. Incidence trends such as inherently aggressive tumour and younger age profile had been subject to controversies. Certain factors such as westernized diet, urbanization and possibly increasing awareness had been implicated, though their specific contributions were yet to be fully established. Unless urgent action is taken, breast cancer will compound sub-Saharan Africa's disease burden, increase poverty and gender inequality as well as reverse the current global gains against maternal and neonatal mortality.
impact of the increasing incidence and mortality due to breast cancer. ... ported to be increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. ... A lump with more than three quarters of its margin being .... accounted for 36.8% of the false negative cases rate. The.
This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer. Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 4/28/2011.
Tice, Jeffrey A; O'Meara, Ellen S; Weaver, Donald L; Vachon, Celine; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Kerlikowske, Karla
Benign breast disease and high breast density are prevalent, strong risk factors for breast cancer. Women with both risk factors may be at very high risk. We included 42818 women participating in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium who had no prior diagnosis of breast cancer and had undergone at least one benign breast biopsy and mammogram; 1359 women developed incident breast cancer in 6.1 years of follow-up (78.1% invasive, 21.9% ductal carcinoma in situ). We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) using Cox regression analysis. The referent group was women with nonproliferative changes and average density. All P values are two-sided. Benign breast disease and breast density were independently associated with breast cancer. The combination of atypical hyperplasia and very high density was uncommon (0.6% of biopsies) but was associated with the highest risk for breast cancer (HR = 5.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.52 to 8.09, P < .001). Proliferative disease without atypia (25.6% of biopsies) was associated with elevated risk that varied little across levels of density: average (HR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.69, P = .003), high (HR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.68 to 2.44, P < .001), or very high (HR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.54 to 2.72, P < .001). Low breast density (4.5% of biopsies) was associated with low risk (HRs <1) for all benign pathology diagnoses. Women with high breast density and proliferative benign breast disease are at very high risk for future breast cancer. Women with low breast density are at low risk, regardless of their benign pathologic diagnosis.
Sawada, Takayuki; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Norimasa; Wang, Chaochen; Lin, Yingsong; Mori, Mitsuru; Tanno, Kozo; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kikuchi, Shogo
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. However, it remains unproven whether psychological factors have an influence on breast cancer incidence. In our earlier study, subjects possessing two personality traits, decisiveness and "ikigai" (a Japanese word meaning something that makes one's life worth living), showed a significantly lower risk of developing breast cancer, although no psychological factors have been convincingly demonstrated to have an influence on breast cancer development in other studies. Therefore, we conducted this follow-up analysis to confirm the association between breast cancer incidence and psychological traits, using the final dataset of a large-scale prospective cohort study in Japan. We identified 209 cases of incident breast cancer out of a maximum 21-year follow-up of 29,098 Japanese women. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, adjusted for the same potential confounders used in our previous study, did not reveal any significant relationships between breast cancer incidence and four psychological traits: having "ikigai", decisiveness, ease of anger arousal, and perceived stress. Our finding is consistent with previous studies, and suggests that the psychological traits are unlikely to be an important risk factor for breast cancer.
Genetic background plays a dominant role in mammary gland development and breast cancer (BrCa). Despite this, the role of genetics is only partially understood. This study used strain-dependent variation in an inbred mouse mapping panel, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying structura...
Modern data are presentd on epidemology etiopathogensis and statistics of breast cancer. Home and international clinical and histological classifications is given. Much attention is paid to the methods for early diagnosis of pretumor diseases and breast cancer: clinical roentgenomammography, thrmography and computerized tomomammography. The role of self-examination in cancer early detection has been analyzed. Special attention is paid to system of detection of minimal and unpalpable form of breast cancer, screening of these tumors. 113 refs.; 60 figs.; 6 tabs
Agarwal, Gaurav; Pradeep, P V; Aggarwal, Vivek; Yip, Cheng-Har; Cheung, Polly S Y
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Asia, and in recent years is emerging as the commonest female malignancy in the developing Asian countries, overtaking cancer of the uterine cervix. There have been no studies objectively comparing data and facts relating to breast cancer in the developed, newly developed, and developing Asian countries thus far. This multi-national collaborative study retrospectively compared the demographic, clinical, pathological and outcomes data in breast cancer patients managed at participating breast cancer centers in India, Malaysia and Hong Kong. Data, including those on the availability of breast screening, treatment facilities and outcomes from other major cancer centers and cancer registries of these countries and from other Asian countries were also reviewed. Despite an increasing trend, the incidence of breast cancer is lower, yet the cause-specific mortality is significantly higher in developing Asian countries compared with developed countries in Asia and the rest of the world. Patients are about one decade younger in developing countries than their counterparts in developed nations. The proportions of young patients (women and the clinical picture are different from those of average patients managed elsewhere in the world. Owing to lack of awareness, lack of funding, lack of infrastructure, and low priority in public health schemes, breast cancer screening and early detection have not caught up in these under-privileged societies. The inadequacies of health care infrastructures and standards, sociocultural barriers, economic realities, illiteracy, and the differences in the clinical and pathological attributes of this disease in Asian women compared with the rest of the world together result in a different spectrum of the disease. Better socioeconomic conditions, health awareness, and availability of breast cancer screening in developed Asian countries seem to be the major causes of a favorable clinical
Lovatt, Melanie; Bath, Peter A; Ellis, Julie
Online health forums provide peer support for a range of medical conditions including life-threatening and terminal illnesses. Trust is an important component of peer-to-peer support, although relatively little is known about how trust forms within online health forums. The aim of this paper is to examine how trust develops and influences sharing among users of an online breast cancer forum. An interpretive qualitative approach was adopted. Data were collected from forum posts from 135 threads on 9 boards on the UK charity, Breast Cancer Care (BCC). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 BCC forum users. Both datasets were analyzed thematically using Braun and Clarke's approach and combined to triangulate analysis. Trust operates in 3 dimensions, structural, relational, and temporal, and these intersect with each other and do not operate in isolation. The structural dimension relates to how the affordances and formal rules of the site affected trust. The relational dimension refers to how trust was necessarily experienced in interactions with other forum users: it emerged within relationships and was a social phenomenon. The temporal dimension relates to how trust changed over time and was influenced by the length of time users spent on the forum. Trust is a process that changes over time and which is influenced by structural features of the forum, as well as informal but collectively understood relational interactions among forum users. The study provides a better understanding of how the intersecting structural, relational, and temporal aspects that support the development of trust facilitate sharing in online environments. These findings will help organizations developing online health forums. ©Melanie Lovatt, Peter A Bath, Julie Ellis. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 23.05.2017.
Giraldo-Mora, Clara V
Understanding the social representation of breast cancer and how it has influenced breast cancer prevention and self-care practice in a group of women from the city of Medellin. This was a qualitative study using 19 semi-structured interviews with adult females who had not had breast cancer, using maximum variation criterion as sampling technique. The analysis was orientated by grounded theory. Some women physiologically represented breast cancer while others represented it by its social and psychological effects. They identified its causes with personal and emotional problems and certain daily habits such as inadequate food ("a bodily payback for the abuses which we subject ourselves to"). The word "breast cancer" was associated with inevitable death, terror, suffering, incurability, devastation, powerlessness and pain. This cancer has strong social representation due to its severe implications for females, their attractiveness and self-image. The persistence of breast cancer's negative image is associated with "the life-style myth" (1) for which people tend to blame the patient. Our biological reductionism hides environmental, social and political factors. We are obsessed by the dangers and their control (2) and powerful images are added to these messages such as those in which "one out of nine women will develop breast cancer" to foster self-responsibility (2). However, the ghost of cancer in developing societies in which many people are still trapped is magnified and has also yet to be overcome.
Petersen, Nadia Viborg; Andersen, Sofie Ramskov; Andersen, Rikke Sick
Recent studies are encouraging research of breast cancer immunogenicity to evaluate the applicability ofimmunotherapy as a treatment strategy. The epitope landscape in breast cancer is minimally described, thus it is necessary to identify T cell targets to develop immune mediated therapies.......This project investigates four proteins commonly upregulated in breast cancer and thus probable tumor associated antigens (TAAs). Aromatase, prolactin, NEK3, and PIAS3 contribute to increase growth, survival, and motility of malignant cells. Aspiring to uncover novel epitopes for cytotoxic T cells, a reverse...... recognition utilizing DNA barcode labeled MHC multimers to screen peripheral blood lymphocytes from breast cancer patients and healthy donor samples. Signif-icantly more TAA speciﬁc T cell responses were detected in breast cancer patients than healthy donors for both HLA-A*0201 (P
Karemore, Gopal; Nielsen, Mads; Karssemeijer, Nico; Brandt, Sami S.
It is well understood nowadays that changes in the mammographic parenchymal pattern are an indicator of a risk of breast cancer and we have developed a statistical method that estimates the mammogram regions where the parenchymal changes, due to breast cancer, occur. This region of interest is computed from a score map by utilising the anatomical breast coordinate system developed in our previous work. The method also makes an automatic scale selection to avoid overfitting while the region estimates are computed by a nested cross-validation scheme. In this way, it is possible to recover those mammogram regions that show a significant difference in classification scores between the cancer and the control group. Our experiments suggested that the most significant mammogram region is the region behind the nipple and that can be justified by previous findings from other research groups. This result was conducted on the basis of the cross-validation experiments on independent training, validation and testing sets from the case-control study of 490 women, of which 245 women were diagnosed with breast cancer within a period of 2-4 years after the baseline mammograms. We additionally generalised the estimated region to another, mini-MIAS study and showed that the transferred region estimate gives at least a similar classification result when compared to the case where the whole breast region is used. In all, by following our method, one most likely improves both preclinical and follow-up breast cancer screening, but a larger study population will be required to test this hypothesis.
Karemore, Gopal; Nielsen, Mads; Brandt, Sami S; Karssemeijer, Nico
It is well understood nowadays that changes in the mammographic parenchymal pattern are an indicator of a risk of breast cancer and we have developed a statistical method that estimates the mammogram regions where the parenchymal changes, due to breast cancer, occur. This region of interest is computed from a score map by utilising the anatomical breast coordinate system developed in our previous work. The method also makes an automatic scale selection to avoid overfitting while the region estimates are computed by a nested cross-validation scheme. In this way, it is possible to recover those mammogram regions that show a significant difference in classification scores between the cancer and the control group. Our experiments suggested that the most significant mammogram region is the region behind the nipple and that can be justified by previous findings from other research groups. This result was conducted on the basis of the cross-validation experiments on independent training, validation and testing sets from the case-control study of 490 women, of which 245 women were diagnosed with breast cancer within a period of 2–4 years after the baseline mammograms. We additionally generalised the estimated region to another, mini-MIAS study and showed that the transferred region estimate gives at least a similar classification result when compared to the case where the whole breast region is used. In all, by following our method, one most likely improves both preclinical and follow-up breast cancer screening, but a larger study population will be required to test this hypothesis. (paper)
Hayashi, Naoki; Niikura, Naoki; Masuda, Norikazu; Takashima, Seiki; Nakamura, Rikiya; Watanabe, Ken-ichi; Kanbayashi, Chizuko; Ishida, Mayumi; Hozumi, Yasuo; Tsuneizumi, Michiko; Kondo, Naoto; Naito, Yoichi; Honda, Yayoi; Matsui, Akira; Fujisawa, Tomomi; Oshitanai, Risa; Yasojima, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Hideko; Saji, Shigehira; Iwata, Hiroji
The clinical course and prognostic factors of HER2-positive breast cancer patients with brain metastases are not well known because of the relatively small population. The aim of this study was to determine prognostic factors associated with HER2-positive patients who develop brain metastases. This retrospective study assessed the largest dataset to date of 432 HER2-positive patients who were diagnosed with brain metastases from 24 institutions of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group, Breast Cancer Study Group. The median age of the 432 patients was 54 years (range, 20-86 years). Of the patients, 162 patients (37.5 %) had ER-positive/HER2-positive (ER+HER2+) breast cancer, and 270 (62.5 %) had ER-negative/HER2-positive (ER-HER2+) breast cancer. The median brain metastasis-free survival period from primary breast cancer was 33.5 months in both groups. The median survival after developing brain metastasis was 16.5 and 11.5 months in the ER+HER2+ and ER-HER2+ groups, respectively, (p = 0.117). Patients with >3 brain metastases had significantly shorter overall survival in both ER+HER2+ (p developing brain metastases was not associated with survival duration after developing brain metastases (p = 0.571). However, patients treated with both trastuzumab and lapatinib after developing metastasis had significantly longer survival than patients treated with trastuzumab alone, lapatinib alone, or no HER2-targeting agent (p brain metastases, regardless of the use of trastuzumab before developing brain metastasis, treatment with both trastuzumab and lapatinib might improve survival.
Bardhan, Pooja; Bui, Marilyn M; Minton, Susan; Loftus, Loretta; Carter, W Bradford; Laronga, Christine; Ismail-Khan, Roohi
We report a rare finding of two male breast cancer patients with HER2-positive breast cancer who also developed thyroid cancer. We reviewed 45 male breast cancer patients treated in our institution from 2003 to 2008. Only five male breast cancer patients were HER2-positive. In reviewing the published data, we found no cases of thyroid cancer and concurrent breast cancer in men. However, breast cancer and thyroid cancer have shown close association in women. This finding therefore provokes speculation as to whether we should investigate whether women with HER2-positive breast cancer are at a higher risk for thyroid cancer. Although this observation seems to be clinically prevalent, publications are sparse in clinical research areas linking thyroid cancer to breast cancer.
Knight, J.A.; Bernstein, L.; Largent, J.
Women with primary breast cancer are at increased risk of developing second primary breast cancer. Few studies have evaluated risk factors for the development of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer in women with breast cancer. In the Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology St...
Lowry, Michelle C; Gallagher, William M; O'Driscoll, Lorraine
Although it has been long realized that eukaryotic cells release complex vesicular structures into their environment, only in recent years has it been established that these entities are not merely junk or debris, but that they are tailor-made specialized minimaps of their cell of origin and of both physiological and pathological relevance. These exosomes and microvesicles (ectosomes), collectively termed extracellular vesicles (EVs), are often defined and subgrouped first and foremost according to size and proposed origin (exosomes approximately 30-120 nm, endosomal origin; microvesicles 120-1000 nm, from the cell membrane). There is growing interest in elucidating the relevance and roles of EVs in cancer. Much of the pioneering work on EVs in cancer has focused on breast cancer, possibly because breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. This review provides an in-depth summary of such studies, supporting key roles for exosomes and other EVs in breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis, stem cell stimulation, apoptosis, immune system modulation, and anti-cancer drug resistance. Exosomes as diagnostic, prognostic, and/or predictive biomarkers and their potential use in the development of therapeutics are discussed. Although not fully elucidated, the involvement of exosomes in breast cancer development, progression, and resistance is becoming increasingly apparent from preclinical and clinical studies, with mounting interest in the potential exploitation of these vesicles for breast cancer biomarkers, as drug delivery systems, and in the development of future novel breast cancer therapies. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.
Liu, Hongfang; Li, Xin; Yoon, Victoria; Clarke, Robert
As the most common cancer among women, breast cancer results from the accumulation of mutations in essential genes. Recent advance in high-throughput gene expression microarray technology has inspired researchers to use the technology to assist breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment prediction. However, the high dimensionality of microarray experiments and public access of data from many experiments have caused inconsistencies which initiated the development of controlled terminologies and ontologies for annotating microarray experiments, such as the standard microarray Gene Expression Data (MGED) ontology (MO). In this paper, we developed BCM-CO, an ontology tailored specifically for indexing clinical annotations of breast cancer microarray samples from the NCI Thesaurus. Our research showed that the coverage of NCI Thesaurus is very limited with respect to i) terms used by researchers to describe breast cancer histology (covering 22 out of 48 histology terms); ii) breast cancer cell lines (covering one out of 12 cell lines); and iii) classes corresponding to the breast cancer grading and staging. By incorporating a wider range of those terms into BCM-CO, we were able to indexed breast cancer microarray samples from GEO using BCM-CO and MGED ontology and developed a prototype system with web interface that allows the retrieval of microarray data based on the ontology annotations. PMID:18999108
Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P
BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...
Sheikh Sajjadieh, Mohammad Hossein
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer among women. Mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have certain limitations in detecting breast cancer, especially during its early stage of development. A number of studies have shown that microwave breast cancer detection has potential to become a successful clinical complement to the conventional X-ray mammography. Microwave breast imaging is performed by illuminating the breast tissues with an electromagnetic waveform and recording its reflections (backscatters) emanating from variations in the normal breast tissues and tumour cells, if present, using an antenna array. These backscatters, referred to as the overall (tumour and clutter) response, are processed to estimate the tumour response, which is applied as input to array imaging algorithms used to estimate the location of the tumour. Due to changes in the breast profile over time, the commonly utilized background subtraction procedures used to estimate the target (tumour) response in array processing are impractical for breast cancer detection. The thesis proposes a new tumour estimation algorithm based on a combination of the data adaptive filter with the envelope detection filter (DAF/EDF), which collectively do not require a training step. After establishing the superiority of the DAF/EDF based approach, the thesis shows that the time reversal (TR) array imaging algorithms outperform their conventional conterparts in detecting and localizing tumour cells in breast tissues at SNRs ranging from 15 to 30dB.
Seyedeh Alia Moosavian
Full Text Available Objective(s: Development of molecules that specifically recognize cancer cells is one of the major areas in cancer research. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 is specifically expressed on the surface of breast cancer cells. HER2 is associated with an aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis. In this study we aimed to isolate RNA aptamers that specifically bind to HER2 overexpressing TUBO cell line. Materials and Methods: Panel of aptamers was selected using cell-based systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (cell-SELEX. Results: Binding studies showed that selected aptamers can identify TUBO cell line with high affinity and selectivity. Our preliminary investigation of the target of aptamers suggested that aptamers bind with HER2 proteins on the surface of TUBO cells. Conclusion: We believe the selected aptamers could be useful ligands for targeted breast cancer therapy.
Mastopathy (mastopathia fibroso-cystica) and breast cancer are two major epidemiologic, economic and medical problems of women. In Poland, annually, 0.2 - 1.6 billion Polish zlotys is spent on diagnosis and treatment of mastopathy; half of that sum is spent improperly. Many papers suggest relationships between these two diseases, however, it is not certain, whether, or how much, mastopathy increases breast cancer incidence. The available papers from the recent years indicate increased risk, but the methodology of these data is not perfect. It is not excluded that fibrocystic diseases of the breast increase breast cancer incidence. If such an influence exists, independent of other well-know factors, it is probably very small. Moreover, due to the diversity of medical information there is a lack of diagnostic and therapeutic standards in mastopathy. Different types of scans, hormonal, biochemical and immunohistochemical examinations are performed improperly, and there has been no genetic analysis of mastopathy. Therefore, there is a strong need of well planned, prospective trials in this field. (author)
Agnieszka B. Owczarczyk-Saczonek; Dawid Sigorski; Paweł Różanowski; Agnieszka Markiewicz; Waldemar J. Placek
Breast cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm among women in Poland and in the European Union. According to most recent data of the Polish National Cancer Registry, in 2014 breast cancer was diagnosed in over 17,000 women. Based on the National Health Fund records, it is estimated that there are about 55,000–60,000 women in Poland who have a history of breast cancer diagnosis and are potentially at a risk of relapse. The most common sign of breast cancer is the presence of a nodule, how...
Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma
Introduction: Breast cancer patients are presenting at advanced stages for oncological treatment in Nigeria and World Health Organization predicted developing countries' breast cancer incidence and mortality to increase by year 2020. Methods: Prospective observational hospital based study that enrolled breast cancer ...
Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in Nigeria. Women previously treated for ipsilateral breast cancer have increased risk of developing contalateral breast cancer (CBC), the chance of which increases with longer period of survival and is associated with worse prognosis. Reports from ...
S. A. Velichko
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of breast imaging for 47200 women. Breast cancer was detected in 862 (1.9% patients, fibroadenoma in 1267 (2.7% patients and isolated breast cysts in 1162 (2.4% patients. Different types of fibrocystic breast disease (adenosis, diffuse fibrocystic changes, local fibrosis and others were observed in 60.1% of women. Problems of breast cancer visualization during mammography, characterized by the appearance of fibrocystic mastopathy (sclerosing adenosis, fibrous bands along the ducts have been analyzed. Data on the development of diagnostic algorithms including the modern techniques for ultrasound and interventional radiology aimed at detecting early breast cancer have been presented.
Ingram, D. M.; Nottage, E.; Roberts, T.
A case-control study was undertaken to investigate the role of diet in women with breast cancer, and in two groups of women with benign breast disease: epithelial hyperplasia, and fibrocystic disease without hyperplasia. The study provides data which suggest that the consumption of red meat, savoury meals (pizza, pies, stew, etc.) and of starches is disadvantageous, while the consumption of chicken and fish, and of fruit, appears to be beneficial. These patterns were present for both the breast cancer patients and the patients with benign epithelial hyperplasia. One-third of breast cancer patients had changed their diet after their diagnosis, compared to only around 12% in controls and patients with benign breast disease. Overall, the women studied had changed their diet to reduce their intake of sugars, dairy products and meat, and increased their intake of poultry, fish, fruit and vegetables over the past decade; but the breast cancer group was less likely to have made this change. PMID:1854621
Toosi, Behzad M; El Zawily, Amr; Truitt, Luke; Shannon, Matthew; Allonby, Odette; Babu, Mohan; DeCoteau, John; Mousseau, Darrell; Ali, Mohsin; Freywald, Tanya; Gall, Amanda; Vizeacoumar, Frederick S; Kirzinger, Morgan W; Geyer, C Ronald; Anderson, Deborah H; Kim, TaeHyung; Welm, Alana L; Siegel, Peter; Vizeacoumar, Franco J; Kusalik, Anthony; Freywald, Andrew
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) tumours that lack expression of oestrogen, and progesterone receptors, and do not overexpress the HER2 receptor represent the most aggressive breast cancer subtype, which is characterised by the resistance to therapy in frequently relapsing tumours and a high rate of patient mortality. This is likely due to the resistance of slowly proliferating tumour-initiating cells (TICs), and understanding molecular mechanisms that control TICs behaviour is crucial for the development of effective therapeutic approaches. Here, we present our novel findings, indicating that an intrinsically catalytically inactive member of the Eph group of receptor tyrosine kinases, EPHB6, partially suppresses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in TNBC cells, while also promoting expansion of TICs. Our work reveals that EPHB6 interacts with the GRB2 adapter protein and that its effect on enhancing cell proliferation is mediated by the activation of the RAS-ERK pathway, which allows it to elevate the expression of the TIC-related transcription factor, OCT4. Consistent with this, suppression of either ERK or OCT4 activities blocks EPHB6-induced pro-proliferative responses. In line with its ability to trigger propagation of TICs, EPHB6 accelerates tumour growth, potentiates tumour initiation and increases TIC populations in xenograft models of TNBC. Remarkably, EPHB6 also suppresses tumour drug resistance to DNA-damaging therapy, probably by forcing TICs into a more proliferative, drug-sensitive state. In agreement, patients with higher EPHB6 expression in their tumours have a better chance for recurrence-free survival. These observations describe an entirely new mechanism that governs TNBC and suggest that it may be beneficial to enhance EPHB6 action concurrent with applying a conventional DNA-damaging treatment, as it would decrease drug resistance and improve tumour elimination.
Case, Jason R.; Young, Madison A.; Dréau, D.; Trammell, Susan R.
Lumpectomy coupled with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy is commonly used to treat breast cancer patients. We are developing an enhanced thermal IR imaging technique that has the potential to provide real-time imaging to guide tissue excision during a lumpectomy by delineating tumor margins. This enhanced thermal imaging method is a combination of IR imaging (8 to 10 μm) and selective heating of blood (˜0.5°C) relative to surrounding water-rich tissue using LED sources at low powers. Postacquisition processing of these images highlights temporal changes in temperature and the presence of vascular structures. In this study, fluorescent, standard thermal, and enhanced thermal imaging modalities, as well as physical caliper measurements, were used to monitor breast cancer tumor volumes over a 30-day study period in 19 mice implanted with 4T1-RFP tumor cells. Tumor volumes calculated from fluorescent imaging follow an exponential growth curve for the first 22 days of the study. Cell necrosis affected the tumor volume estimates based on the fluorescent images after day 22. The tumor volumes estimated from enhanced thermal imaging, standard thermal imaging, and caliper measurements all show exponential growth over the entire study period. A strong correlation was found between tumor volumes estimated using fluorescent imaging, standard IR imaging, and caliper measurements with enhanced thermal imaging, indicating that enhanced thermal imaging monitors tumor growth. Further, the enhanced IR images reveal a corona of bright emission along the edges of the tumor masses associated with the tumor margin. In the future, this IR technique might be used to estimate tumor margins in real time during surgical procedures.
Cohn, Barbara A; La Merrill, Michele; Krigbaum, Nickilou Y; Yeh, Gregory; Park, June-Soo; Zimmermann, Lauren; Cirillo, Piera M
Currently no direct evidence links in utero dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure to human breast cancer. However, in utero exposure to another xenoestrogen, diethylstilbestrol, predicts an increased breast cancer risk. If this finding extends to DDT, it could have far-reaching consequences. Many women were heavily exposed in utero during widespread DDT use in the 1960s. They are now reaching the age of heightened breast cancer risk. DDT exposure persists and use continues in Africa and Asia without clear knowledge of the consequences for the next generation. In utero exposure to DDT is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. This was a case-control study nested in a prospective 54-year follow-up of 9300 daughters in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort (n = 118 breast cancer cases, diagnosed by age 52 y and 354 controls matched on birth year). Kaiser Foundation Health Plan members who received obstetric care in Alameda County, California, from 1959 to 1967, and their adult daughters participated in the study. Daughters' breast cancer diagnosed by age 52 years as of 2012 was measured. Maternal o,p'-DDT predicted daughters' breast cancer (odds ratio fourth quartile vs first = 3.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5-9.0). Mothers' lipids, weight, race, age, and breast cancer history did not explain the findings. This prospective human study links measured DDT exposure in utero to risk of breast cancer. Experimental studies are essential to confirm results and discover causal mechanisms. Findings support classification of DDT as an endocrine disruptor, a predictor of breast cancer, and a marker of high risk.
Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P
Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...... who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...
Breast cancer is the most common oncologic disease in the female population. Besides the sporadic occurrence it occurs in the familial and hereditary form. Persons with the occurrence of positive family anamnesis of breast cancer should be actively investigated. In the indicated cases it is necessary to send the woman to genetic examination. In case that the hereditary form of breast cancer is affirmed it is necessary to examine her family relatives. Women with the hereditary form of breast cancer occur in about 5 – 10 % portion from all women diagnosed with breast cancer. Nowadays we already know that 80 % of hereditary breast cancers are due to germ mutations in BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 gene. Persons with detected gene mutations must be dispensarized in the centres intended for it. (author)
Litton, Jennifer Keating; Arun, Banu K; Brown, Powel H; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N
Endocrine therapy with selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) has been the mainstay of breast cancer prevention trials to date. The aromatase inhibitors, which inhibit the final chemical conversion of androgens to estrogens, have shown increased disease-free survival benefit over tamoxifen in patients with primary hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, as well as reducing the risk of developing contralateral breast cancers. The aromatase inhibitors are being actively evaluated as prevention agents for women with a history of ductal carcinoma in situ as well as for women who are considered to be at high risk for developing primary invasive breast cancer. This review evaluates the available prevention data, as evidenced by the decrease in contralateral breast cancers, when aromatase inhibitors are used in the adjuvant setting, as well as the emerging data of the aromatase inhibitors specifically tested in the prevention setting for women at high risk. Exemestane is a viable option for breast cancer prevention. We continue to await further follow-up on exemestane as well as other aromatase inhibitors in the prevention setting for women at high risk of developing breast cancer or with a history of ductal carcinoma in situ.
Cavalli, L R; Rogatto, S R; Rainho, C A
of chromosome 8 in the characterization of the subtype of ductal breast carcinomas and demonstrate that chromosome 17, which is frequently involved in female breast cancers, is also responsible for the development or progression of primary breast cancers in males.......The cytogenetic findings on G-banding in an infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma in a 69-year-old man are reported. The main abnormalities observed were trisomy of chromosomes 8 and 9 and structural rearrangement in the long arm of chromosome 17 (add(17)(q25)). Our results confirm the trisomy...
The primary objective of epidemiologic studies of radiogenic breast cancer is to use empirical data from human populations exposed to radiation, in order to delineate increases in risk of breast cancer as a function of the radiation characteristics and the characteristics of the women exposed. In addition, such empirical data may be used to test hypotheses concerning the biological mechanism of radiation-induced breast cancer, and this mechanism in turn may serve as a useful model both for other radiogenic solid tumors, and for breast tumors induced by other carcinogens. Specifically, the objective may be formulated in terms of developing an appropriate relatively simple mathematical model, whose functional form may be tested and whose parameters may be estimated from the relevant human data. It is necessary to derive such a model, both because of the sampling instability of estimates based on small subgroups of populations and also because observations may not be available in populations with the characteristics of interest. These latter two restrictions are exemplified by the problem of estimating an increase in risk for individuals with relatively small exposures, and the problem of estimating lifetime risk
Botelho, Monica C.; Soares, Raquel; Alves, Helena
The involvement of steroid hormones in breast carcinogenesis is well established. Recent evidence suggests that angiogenesis can be regulated by hormones. Both oestrogen and progesterone have been implicated in the angiogenic process of hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast cancer. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a growth factor involved in angiogenesis in breast cancer that is up-regulated by estrogens. In our study we evaluated the role of progesterone in the expression of ...
Sørensen, Kristina Pilekær
Each year approximately 4,800 Danish women are diagnosed with breast cancer. Several clinical and pathological factors are used as prognostic and predictive markers to categorize the patients into groups of high or low risk. Around 90% of all patients are allocated to the high risk group...... clinical courses, and they may be useful as novel prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer. The aim of the present project was to predict the development of metastasis in lymph node negative breast cancer patients by RNA profiling. We collected and analyzed 82 primary breast tumors from patients who...... and the time of event. Previous findings have shown that high expression of the lncRNA HOTAIR is correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. We validated this finding by demonstrating that high HOTAIR expression in our primary tumors was significantly associated with worse prognosis independent...
Ferrando, F.; Vidal, M.A.; Caballero, A.J.; Martinez, A.; Lluch, A.
To analyze the radiological and ultrasonographic signs that contribute to the diagnosis of male breast cancer to establish its differential diagnosis with regard to the most common pathologies involving the male breast. We studied 14 patients diagnosed as heaving breast cancer over the past 23 years. We reviewed their medical records, personal and familial history disease, use of pharmacological agents and the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings. The literature on this subject was also reviewed. Given the fact that his lesion is rare and unexpected in men, a large percentage of the cases, especially those studied in the early years of the study period, involved very advanced stages of the disease at diagnosis. The most common clinical finding was retroarelar mass. Mammography usually reveals a well.defined mass and ultrasound shows a well-defined, hypoechoic, heterogeneous mass. The most frequent histological type is, an in women, the infiltrating ductal carcinoma. A palpable breast mass in a man should suggest possible malignant disease. Thus, mammographic and ultrasonographic studies should be performed early, accompanied, if necessary, by aspiration biopsy; with these measures the prognosis may approximate that of women. (Author) 21 refs
Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn
Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to
Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and globally remains a major public health concern. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer continues to develop. Diagnosis is now more precise, surgery is less mutilating and women now have the option of breast conserving therapy with better cosmesis, and without sacrificing survival. Radiotherapy is more targeted and the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is based not only on prognostic and predictive factors, but also on newer molecular profiling that will ensure that chemotherapy is given to the patients who need and respond to it. These developments all provide a more tailored approach to the treatment of breast cancer. Management now involves a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide the highest standard of care for patients throughout their cancer journey from diagnosis through treatment and into follow-up care.
Gallicchio, Lisa; Visvanathan, Kala; Burke, Alyce; Hoffman, Sandra C; Helzlsouer, Kathy J
The objective of this study was to examine the association between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and the development of breast cancer, and to assess whether this association differed by estrogen receptor (ER) subtype. Data were analyzed from 15,651 women participating in CLUE II, a cohort study initiated in 1989 in Washington County, MD. Medication data were collected at baseline in 1989 and in 1996. Incident cases of invasive breast cancer occurring from baseline to March 27, 2006 were identified through linkage of cohort participants with the Washington County Cancer Registry and the Maryland State Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to calculate the risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for breast cancer associated with medication use. Among women in the CLUE II cohort, 418 invasive breast cancer cases were identified during the follow-up period. The results showed that self-reported use of NSAIDs in both 1989 and in 1996 was associated with a 50% reduction in the risk of developing invasive breast cancer compared with no NSAID use in either 1989 or 1996 (RR = 0.50; 95% CI 0.28, 0.91). The protective association between NSAID use and the risk of developing breast cancer was consistent among ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers, although only the RR for ER-positive breast cancer was statistically significant. Overall, findings from this study indicate that NSAID use is associated with a decrease in breast cancer risk and that the reduction in risk is similar for ER-positive and ER-negative tumors.
HANKINSON SUSAN E
Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.
Ramirez C, G; Restrepo, J; Aguirre, C A [Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali (Colombia)
The systemic therapy of breast cancer has also changed profoundly during the last 60 years, and in this time the integration of treatment modalities involve a major area of investigation. The dosimetry of breast cancer presents different complications which can range from the Physician`s handling of the neoplasia up to the simple aspects of physical simulation, contour design, radiation fields, irregular surfaces and computer programs containing mathematical equations which differ little or largely with the reality of the radiation distribution into the volume to be irradiated. We have studied the problem using two types of measurements to determine how the radiation distribution is in irregular surfaces, and designing an easier skill to be used with each patient, in order to optimize the treatment with respect to the simulation and verification process. (author). 7 refs.
Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete
Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.
Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.
Kolak, Agnieszka; Kamińska, Marzena; Sygit, Katarzyna; Budny, Agnieszka; Surdyka, Dariusz; Kukiełka-Budny, Bożena; Burdan, Franciszek
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and is the second cancer frequently occurring worldwide of newly-diagnosed cancers. There is much evidence showing the influence of life style and environmental factors on the development of mammary gland cancer (high-fat diet, alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise), the elimination of which (primary prevention) may contribute to a decrease in morbidity and mortality. Secondary prevention, comprising diagnostic tests (e.g. mammography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, breast self-examination, as well as modern and more precise imaging methods) help the early detection of tumours or lesions predisposing to tumours. The aim of this study paper is to review current knowledge and reports regarding primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer. It is estimated that nearly 70% of malign tumours are caused by environmental factors, whereas in breast cancer this percentage reaches 90-95%. There are national programmes established in many countries to fight cancer, where both types of prevention are stressed as serving to decrease morbidity and mortality due to cancers. Cancer prevention is currently playing a key role in the fight against the disease. Behaviour modification, as well as greater awareness among women regarding breast cancer, may significantly contribute towards reducing the incidence of this cancer. Another important aspect is the number of women undergoing diagnostic tests, which still remains at an unsatisfactory level.
Simon, N.; Silverstone, S.M.
The possible role of radiation as a factor in the causation of breast cancer was investigated. Some variables said to be associated with a high risk of breast cancer include genetic factors, pre-existing breast disease, artificial menopause, family history of breast cancer, failure to breast feed, older than usual age at time of first pregnancy, high socioeconomic status, specific blood groups, fatty diet, obesity, and hormonal imbalances. To this list we must add ionizing radiation as an additional and serious risk factor in the causation of breast cancer. Among the irradiated groups which have an increase in the incidence of cancer of the breast are: tuberculous women subjected to repeated fluoroscopy; women who received localized x-ray treatments for acute post-partum mastitis; atom-bomb survivors; other x-ray exposures involving the breast, including irradiation in children and in experimental animals; and women who were treated with x rays for acne or hirsuitism. The dose of radiation received by the survivors of the atom bomb who subsequently developed cancer of the breast ranged from 80 to 800 rads, the tuberculous women who were fluoroscoped received an estimated 50 to 6,000 rads, the women who were treated for mastitis probably were exposed to 30 to 700 rads, and the patients with acne received 100 to 6,000 rads. These imprecise estimates are compared with mammographic doses in the range of 10s of rads to the breast at each examination, an imprecise estimate depending on technique and equipment. However imprecise these estimates may be, it is apparent that younger women are more likely than older women to develop cancer from exposure to radiation. It is pointed out that the American Cancer Society advises that women under 35 years should have mammography only for medical indication, not for so-called screening
Carson, Dennis A
.... Also, how these agents prevent breastcancer is not understood. This project will develop an optimized NSAID for breast cancer prevention that can betaken safely at high doses, and will determine its mechanisms of action...
Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.
Tagatose are rare. In this study we have determined the effect of these rare ketohexoses on breast cancer cell proliferation and estrogen signalling...Cancer Center (TCC) will build a core of human talent that will address scientific problems such as drug resistance and the effect of environmental agents...pathways for ER(+) (MCF-7) and ER(-) (MCF-7-MEK5) as potentially more effective therapeutic targets. 11 Abstract of RCMI proposal submitted to
Kasum, Miro; Beketić-Orešković, Lidija; Peddi, Parvin F; Orešković, Slavko; Johnson, Rebecca H
In many countries of the developed world, there is an increasing trend toward delay in childbearing from 30 to 40 years of age for various reasons. This is unfortunately concordant with an increasing incidence of breast cancer in women who have not yet completed their family. The current choice for premenopausal women with breast cancer is adjuvant therapy which includes cytotoxic chemotherapy, ovarian ablation (by surgery, irradiation, or chemical ovarian suppression), anti-estrogen therapy, or any combination of these. Although the use of adjuvant therapies with cytotoxic drugs can significantly reduce mortality, it raises issues of the long-term toxicity, such as induction of an early menopause and fertility impairment. The risk of infertility is a potential hardship to be faced by the patients following treatment of breast cancer. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after completion of chemotherapy have shown no adverse effects and congenital anomalies from the treatment, but sometimes high rates of abortion (29%) and premature deliveries with low birth weight (40%) have been demonstrated. Therefore, the issue of recent cytotoxic treatment remains controversial and further research is required to define a "safety period" between cessation of treatment and pregnancy. Preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors of reproductive age has become an important issue regarding the quality of life. Currently, there are several potential options, including all available assisted technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Because increased estrogen levels are thought to be potentially risky in breast cancer patients, recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen. Embryo cryopreservation seems to be the most established
The US National Cancer Institute’s Center for Global Health (CGH) has been a key partner in a multi-institutional expert team that has developed a set of publications to address foundational concerns in breast cancer care across the cancer care continuum and within limited resource settings.
Martins, Murillo L., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Instituto de Biociências – Universidade Estadual Paulista – CP 510, 18618-970 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Saeki, Margarida Juri [Instituto de Biociências – Universidade Estadual Paulista – CP 510, 18618-970 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Telling, Mark T.F. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Parra, Joao P.R.L.L. [Instituto de Biociências – Universidade Estadual Paulista – CP 510, 18618-970 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Landsgesell, Sven [Helmholtz–Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Smith, Ron I. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Bordallo, Heloisa N. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)
Highlights: • We synthesized a magnetic bio-NCP with potential to be used against breast cancer. • The magnetic nanoparticles have an inverted spinel structure. • The coating with chitosan does not cause changes to the particle microstructure. • The hydration level of bio-NCP is crucial to the surface modification with apatite. • Bio-NCP with narrow size distribution and high magnetic response was obtained. -- Abstract: Breast cancer is a public health problem throughout the world. Moreover, breast cancer cells have a great affinity for hydroxyapatite, leading to a high occurrence of bone metastasis. In this work we developed a bio-nanocomposite (bio-NCP) in order to use such affinity in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. The bio-NCP consists of magnetic nanoparticles of Mn and Zn ferrite inside a polymeric coating (chitosan) modified with nanocrystals of apatite. The materials were characterized with synchrotron X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD), Time-of-Flight Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD), Fourier Transformed Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and magnetic measurement with a Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS). We obtained ferrite nanoparticles with a high inversion degree of the spinel structure regarding the Fe and Mn, but with all the Zn in the A site. The coating of such nanoparticles with chitosan had no notable effects to the ferrite microstructure. In addition, the polymeric surface can be easily modified with apatite nanocrystals since the hydration of the bio-NCP during synthesis can be controlled. The resulting bio-NCP presents a spherical shape with a narrow size distribution and high magnetic response at room temperature and is a very promising material for early diagnosis of breast cancer and its treatment.
Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Mirzaei, Maryam; Salehiniya, Hamid
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide and its incidence is generally increasing. In 2012, it was the second most common cancer in the world. It is necessary to obtain information on incidence and mortality for health planning. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the human development index (HDI), and the incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer in the world in 2012. This ecologic study concerns incidence rate and standardized mortality rates of the cancer from GLOBOCAN in 2012, and HDI and its components extracted from the global bank site. Data were analyzed using correlation tests and regression with SPSS software (version 15). Among the six regions of WHO, the highest breast cancer incidence rate (67.6) was observed in the PAHO, and the lowest incidence rate was 27.8 for SEARO. There was a direct, strong, and meaningful correlation between the standardized incidence rate and HDI (r=0.725, p≤0.001). Pearson correlation test showed that there was a significant correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and components of the HDI (life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and GNP). On the other, a non-significant relationship was observed between ASIR and HDI overall (r=0.091, p=0.241). In total, a significant relationship was not found between age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) and components of HDI. Significant positive correlations exist between ASIR and components of the HDI. Socioeconomic status is directly related to the stage of the cancer and patient's survival. With increasing the incidence rate of the cancer, mortality rate from the cancer does not necessariloy increase. This may be due to more early detection and treatment in developed that developing countries. It is necessary to increase awareness of risk factors and early detection in the latter.
Yasuoka, Rie; Mitsuo, Manabu; Hanioka, Keisuke
An 89-year-old woman underwent breast-conserving surgery and axillary lymph node dissection (right AC region, T2N0M0, stage 2A, invasive ductal carcinoma, papillotubular type) for right breast cancer in February 2005. She received postoperative radiotherapy to the residual breast. She then developed marked edema of the right arm and right breast. A mass developed in the right breast in March 2011 and March 2013. This was originally suspected to be an ipsilateral breast recurrence of the cancer, but turned to be angiosarcoma after developing recurrent mass in March 2013, which histopathology was proved to be showed angiosarcoma of the breast. The patient subsequently had repeated intradermal and subcutaneous metastases and recurrence. She is currently receiving chemotherapy with docetaxel (30 mg/m 2 biweekly). This interesting case of angiosarcoma of the breast after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer is reported. (author)
Male breast cancer is a rare disease and most of the knowledge has been extrapolated from females, although these entities are likely different. A better understanding of male breast carcinogenesis is crucial for developing novel targets suitable for personalized treatment. A major problem in
Han, S N; Amant, F; Cardonick, E H
BACKGROUND: Safety of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for breast cancer during pregnancy is insufficiently explored. We investigated efficacy and local recurrence rate in a large series of pregnant patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women diagnosed with breast cancer who underwent SLN biopsy during...... pregnancy were identified from the International Network on Cancer, Infertility and Pregnancy, the German Breast Group, and the Cancer and Pregnancy Registry. Chart review was performed to record technique and outcome of SLN biopsy, locoregional and distant recurrence, and survival. RESULTS: We identified...... were alive and free of disease. Eleven patients experienced a locoregional relapse, including 1 isolated ipsilateral axillary recurrence (0.7%). Eleven (7.6%) patients developed distant metastases, of whom 9 (6.2%) died of breast cancer. No neonatal adverse events related to SLN procedure during...
van Dooren, S; Duivenvoorden, H J; Passchier, J; Bannink, M; Tan, M B M; Oldenmenger, W H; Seynaeve, C; van der Rijt, C C D
The Distress Thermometer (DT) is a promising instrument to get insight into distress experienced by cancer patients. At our Family Cancer Clinic the DT, including an adapted problem list, was completed by 100 women at increased risk of developing hereditary breast cancer (mean age 45.2 years; SD: 10.5). Additionally, the women filled in either the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as psychological component (n=48) or the somatic subscale of the Symptom Checklist-90 as somatic component (n=50) to identify associations with the DT-score. Further, the women filled in an evaluation form. The median score on the DT was 2 (range: 0-9). With regression analysis adjusted for age, the contribution of mood and somatic complaints, respectively, was investigated. The standardized regression coefficient for anxiety was 0.32 (ns), for depression 0.14 (ns) and for the somatic subscale 0.49 (pdepression was 16%, and for somatic complaints 24%. The differences between the coefficients were not significant. Evaluation forms were returned by 73 women. In 50% of the cases, the physician had discussed the DT/problem list, which was appreciated by the majority of these women (80%). Sixty-two percent of the women would recommend the use of the DT for other patients. The use of the DT/problem list seems promising for the current population, and was appreciated by the majority of the women. As mood and somatic complaints did not differ significantly in explaining the experienced distress, other candidate factors need to be examined.
Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer
Previous research suggests that cervical cancer patients have a lower risk of breast cancer than women in the general population. Possible explanations include opposing risk factors for cervical cancer and breast cancer, the effect of irradiation used to treat cervical cancer, or both. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between irradiation for cervical cancer and the subsequent development of breast cancer. There was no statistically significant relationship between radiation to the ovarian area and the risk of breast cancer in this study. However, the results were consistent with a 19% reduction in risk for women irradiated for cervical cancer when compared to nonirradiated women. In a dose-response analysis, there was a nonsignificant trend of decreased risk of breast cancer with increased radiation up to 1800 rad. There was no consistent pattern for higher doses. The trend, although nonsignificant, differed by age. Women <60 years of age at irradiation were generally at a lower risk of breast cancer than nonirradiated women. Women over 59 years were at an increased risk. There are some potentially important findings from this study which might influence medical care. These should be examined in the larger International Radiation Study
with the options ‘intersection-nonempty’ mode, non- stranded , minimum quality 10, and ‘exon’ was used as the feature type, with ‘gene_id’ as the GTF...Keywords: sphingosine-1-phosphate, sphingosine kinase, estradiol, breast cancer, FTY720/fingolimod. Abbreviations: BCSCs, breast cancer stem cells; ,ER...pathway along with p38MAPK in breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) leading to proliferation and tumorigenicity (Hirata et al., 2014). BCSCs can also be
Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Capp, M.P.; Holley, W.R.; Woodruff, K.H.; Sickles, E.A.
Heavy-ion radiography is a new diagnostic imaging technique developed in our laboratory that produces superior density resolution at low radiation doses. Heavy-ion mammography has now emerged as a low-dose, safe, reliable, noninvasive diagnostic radiological procedure that can quantitate and image very small differences in soft tissue densities in the breast tissues of patients with clinical breast disease. The improved density resolution of heavy-ion mammography over conventional X-ray mammography and breast xerography provides the potential of detecting small breast cancers of less than 1 cm diameter. The radiation dose to the breast from carbon-ion mammorgraphy is about 50 mrad or less, and can potentially be only a fraction of this level. The results of the present clinical trial in progress of heavy-ion mammography in 37 patients, thus far studied, are extremely encouraging, and warrant continued study for application to the early diagnosis of breast cancer in women
Amer, Magid H
Women are more likely to develop cancer in the left breast than the right. Such laterality may influence subsequent management, especially in elderly patients with heart disease who may require radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore possible factors for such cancer laterality. In this work, clinical data for consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were reviewed, with emphasis on clinical presentation and family history. Between 2005 and 2012, 687 patients with breast cancer were seen. Two women with incomplete data and eleven men were excluded. In total, 343 (50.9%) patients presented with left breast cancer, 311 (46.1%) with right breast cancer, and 20 (3.0%) with simultaneous bilateral malignancy. There were no significant differences between the three groups, especially in regards to clinical presentation and tumor characteristics. A total of 622 (92.3%) patients had unilateral primary, 20 (3.0%) had simultaneous bilateral, and 32 (4.7%) had metachronous primary breast cancer with subsequent contralateral breast cancer after 7.5–236 months. The worst 10-year survival was for bilateral simultaneous (18%) compared with unilateral (28%) and metachronous primaries (90%). There were no differences in survival in relation to breast cancer laterality, handedness, and presence or absence of a family history of cancer. There were significant similarities between patients and first-degree relatives in regards to breast cancer laterality, namely same breast (30/66, 45.5%), opposite breast (9/66, 13.6%), and bilateral cancer (27/66, 40.9, P=0.01163). This was more evident among patients and their sisters (17/32, 53.1%) or mothers (11/27, 40.7%, P=0.0689). There were also close similarities in relation to age at initial diagnosis of cancer for patients and their first-degree relatives for age differences of ≤5 years (48/166, 28.9%), 6–10 years (34/166, 20.5%), and >11 years (84/166, 50.6%, P=0.12065). High similarities
Full Text Available It is well established that, during development of malignancies, metabolic changes occur, including alterations of enzyme activities and isoenzyme expression. Arginase and nitric oxide (NO synthase (NOS are two of those enzymes considered to be involved in tumorigenesis. The goal of this article was to study the involvement of arginase and NOS in the development of different stages of breast cancer. Our results have shown that human serum arginase activity and NO (resp., and NOS activity and polyamines quantities increased in parallel with cancer stage progression and decreased after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. For breast cancer, the only isoenzyme of arginase expressed in serum before and after chemotherapy was in a cationic form. The data of Lineweaver-Burk plot with a Km value of 2 mM was calculated, which is characteristic for human liver type isoform of arginase. During electrophoresis at pH 8.9, the enzyme exhibited high electrophoretic mobility and was detected near the anode. The presented results demonstrated that arginase in human serum with breast cancer and after chemotherapy is not polymorphic. We suggest that arginase and NOS inhibition has antitumor effects on cancer development, as it can inhibit polyamines and NO levels, a precursor of cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis.
Libby, Rachel; Patberg, Elizabeth; Gabriel, Dieudina; Al-Quran, Samer; Kasher, Matthew; Heldermon, Coy; Daily, Karen; Auguste, Joseph R.; Suprien, Valery C.; Hurley, Judith
Purpose The nonprofit Project Medishare launched a breast cancer treatment program in Port-au-Prince in July 2013 to address the demand for breast cancer care in Haiti. We outline the development of the program, highlight specific challenges, and discuss key considerations for others working in global oncology. Methods We reflected on our experiences in the key areas of developing partnerships, building laboratory capacity, conducting medical training, using treatment algorithms, and ensuring access to safe, low-cost chemotherapy drugs. We also critically reviewed our costs and quality measures. Results The program has treated a total of 139 patients with breast cancer with strong adherence to treatment regimens in 85% of patients. In 273 chemotherapy administrations, no serious exposure or adverse safety events were reported by staff. The mortality rate for 94 patients for whom we have complete data was 24% with a median survival time of 53 months. Our outcome data were likely influenced by stage at presentation, with more than half of patients presenting more than 12 months after first noticing a tumor. Future efforts will therefore focus on continuing to improve the level of care, while working with local partners to spread awareness, increase screening, and get more women into care earlier in the course of their disease. Conclusion Our experiences may inform others working to implement protocol-based cancer treatment programs in resource-poor settings and can provide valuable lessons learned for future global oncology efforts. PMID:28717677
Spikalovas, V.; Mudenas, A.; Karoesiene, E.; Mickevicius, R.
In 1987-1995 a total of 347 patients with breast cancer underwent interstitial treatment. Two methods of irradiation were applied. 1. When patients refused surgery, external radiotherapy was given followed by implant radiotherapy for a dose of 20-30 Gy. Needle sources were applied for treatment with an increasing activity on the ends. The application of special template devices made it possible to implant radioactive sources in a strictly pre-set geometry. This allowed to place the sources in the necessary geometry for the whole course of irradiation. Dosimetric planning was performed in Gray-equivalents to a selected isodose curve mostly 85%. Treatment time was 20-50 hours. 2. In cases when the tumour was localized in the medial quadrant of breast, interstitial therapy was applied to the parasternal lymph nodes. During mastectomy catheters were placed in a. thoracica interna of the corresponding side. On the first or second postoperative day flexible radioactive sources were inserted into catheters. Their active length was 10-12 cm. Irradiation dose at a distance of 2 cm from the centre of source was 40-45 Gy. Results: There was minimum radiation effect on the adjusting organs and tissues. Local recurrence of tumour in the region of irradiation was in 6 patients. Conclusions: The application of interstitial radiotherapy in treatment of breast cancer is effective and the results of radiation treatment are encouraging
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an extremely aggressive disease that progresses rapidly and carries a very grim prognosis. It is characterized by erythema, rapid enlargement of the breast, skin ridging, and a characteristics peau d´orange appearance of the skin secondary to dermal lymphatic tumor involvement. Although a palpable tumor may not by present, about 55% to 85% of patient will present with metastases to the axillary or supraclavicular lymph nodes. Diagnosis of IBC is made on the basis of these clinical characteristics, as well as histologic verification of carcinoma. Accurate diagnosis is critically important, as multimodal therapy can significantly improve outcome if instituted early enough. Primary systemic treatment (neoadjuvant, induction, initials) is standard treatment for inflammatory breast cancer. If treatment response is not satisfactory it is necessary to look for new treatment regimens with different concept of dose intensity, density and sequence of treatment. In the neoadjuvant setting it is possible to employ all targeted and non-targeted therapies as was shown in a number of clinical trials. (author)
Bakitas, Marie; Ahles, Tim A
The purpose of this traineeship is to develop the academic and research skills of an expert advanced practice nurse towards achieving the career goal of becoming a Clinical Breast Cancer Research Scientist...
Dalrymple, G.V.; Baker, M.L.
Cancer of the breast is the most common malignancy afflicting American women. According to the American Cancer Society, one of 11 women (9 percent) born in the United States today, will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. Twenty-seven percent of all cancers in women and 19 percent of all cancer deaths in women are attributable to breast cancer. In 1982, 112,000 women were found to have cancer of the breast, and 37,000 women died from breast cancer. X-ray examinations of the breast are of considerable value in the diagnosis of breast cancer. This may be especially true in the asymptomatic patient who does not have a palpable mass. These x-ray examinations, however, are associated with both a finite though small risk of induction of cancer of the breasts and even smaller risk of death from cancer of the breast. This chapter presents a brief review of cancer of the breast and discusses the value of diagnostic studies, including x-ray mammography; the benefits and risks associated with x-ray examinations; and the future potential of computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound as imaging modalities in the detection of breast cancer
Shin, Hee Jung; Ko, Eun Sook; Yi, Ann
Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results
Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.
Breast cancer currently accounts for 14% of new cancers in women in developing countries. As urbanization accelerates and more Third World women adopt Western diets and reproductive patterns, this rate can be expected to increase. Researchers have accumulated a significant knowledge base of the risk factors associated with breast cancer. Early 1st menstruation, having a 1st fullterm pregnancy after age 30 years, and going through menopause after age 50 years are all believed to increase this risk. Although studies have failed to reveal any consistent association between oral contraceptive (OC) use and breast cancer, there is some evidence of an increased risk among women under age 45 years who started OC use early or used this contraceptive method for a long time. Obesity, and the diet prevalent in developed countries--high in fat, low in fiber, and high in calories--are other risk factors for breast cancer. Several studies have shown that women who moved to the US from countries such as Japan with low breast cancer rates approached the risk levels of US women within 1 generation as a result of the adoption of a Western lifestyle. Of particular concern in developing countries is the fact that most breast cancers go undiagnosed or are not detected early enough to allow for effective treatment, if treatment is even available. Cultural taboos often prevent both women and physicians from examining the breasts for lumps. Both developed and developing countries must begin devoting more attention to the prevention of breast cancer. An important preventive step is for mothers to breastfeed their infants for at least 1 years.
Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
registry with an audit capability. We suggest targeting an 8-week period for the work-up and staging of every patient with breast cancer. The establishment of ... or less' and 'women with symptoms and signs suggestive of breast cancer must be ...
Tapia Herrera, Andres
General aspects of breast cancer were described from the epidemiological point of view, clinical and pathological, as well as its impact at global and national levels. Parenchyma conservative surgery and/or breast skin was analyzed exhaustively as a cancer treatment analyzed exhaustively, to your specifications, requirements, technical aspects, risks, benefits, degree of oncological safety and benefits for patients [es
JhfBK: A I'ccr-mvicw Journal of liiomeclical Scicnccs. July 2002, Vol. 1 No. 1 pp 33-42. Breast cancer in the elderly. ABSTRACT. Between Janua~y 1997 and December 2001,107 patients were admitted and treated for breast cancer at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Of these, 27. (25.2%) were aged 60 ...
Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer
Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...
... Screenings Most Schools Can Do More to Help Students Stay Sun Safe Parents and Friends Can Influence ... Starts in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer ... notice a change in the size or shape of your breast, feel pain in your breast, have nipple discharge other than ...
Lawson, James Sutherland; Glenn, Wendy K.; Whitaker, Noel James
High risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) may have a causal role in some breast cancers. Case–control studies, conducted in many different countries, consistently indicate that HPVs are more frequently present in breast cancers as compared to benign breast and normal breast controls (odds ratio 4.02). The assessment of causality of HPVs in breast cancer is difficult because (i) the HPV viral load is extremely low, (ii) HPV infections are common but HPV associated breast cancers are uncommon, and (iii) HPV infections may precede the development of breast and other cancers by years or even decades. Further, HPV oncogenesis can be indirect. Despite these difficulties, the emergence of new evidence has made the assessment of HPV causality, in breast cancer, a practical proposition. With one exception, the evidence meets all the conventional criteria for a causal role of HPVs in breast cancer. The exception is “specificity.” HPVs are ubiquitous, which is the exact opposite of specificity. An additional reservation is that the prevalence of breast cancer is not increased in immunocompromised patients as is the case with respect to HPV-associated cervical cancer. This indicates that HPVs may have an indirect causal influence in breast cancer. Based on the overall evidence, high-risk HPVs may have a causal role in some breast cancers. PMID:27747193
Lawson, James Sutherland; Glenn, Wendy K; Whitaker, Noel James
High risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) may have a causal role in some breast cancers. Case-control studies, conducted in many different countries, consistently indicate that HPVs are more frequently present in breast cancers as compared to benign breast and normal breast controls (odds ratio 4.02). The assessment of causality of HPVs in breast cancer is difficult because (i) the HPV viral load is extremely low, (ii) HPV infections are common but HPV associated breast cancers are uncommon, and (iii) HPV infections may precede the development of breast and other cancers by years or even decades. Further, HPV oncogenesis can be indirect. Despite these difficulties, the emergence of new evidence has made the assessment of HPV causality, in breast cancer, a practical proposition. With one exception, the evidence meets all the conventional criteria for a causal role of HPVs in breast cancer. The exception is "specificity." HPVs are ubiquitous, which is the exact opposite of specificity. An additional reservation is that the prevalence of breast cancer is not increased in immunocompromised patients as is the case with respect to HPV-associated cervical cancer. This indicates that HPVs may have an indirect causal influence in breast cancer. Based on the overall evidence, high-risk HPVs may have a causal role in some breast cancers.
Melisa Edith Gantner
Full Text Available ABC efflux transporters are polyspecific members of the ABC superfamily that, acting as drug and metabolite carriers, provide a biochemical barrier against drug penetration and contribute to detoxification. Their overexpression is linked to multidrug resistance issues in a diversity of diseases. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP is the most expressed ABC efflux transporter throughout the intestine and the blood-brain barrier, limiting oral absorption and brain bioavailability of its substrates. Early recognition of BCRP substrates is thus essential to optimize oral drug absorption, design of novel therapeutics for central nervous system conditions, and overcome BCRP-mediated cross-resistance issues. We present the development of an ensemble of ligand-based machine learning algorithms for the early recognition of BCRP substrates, from a database of 262 substrates and nonsubstrates compiled from the literature. Such dataset was rationally partitioned into training and test sets by application of a 2-step clustering procedure. The models were developed through application of linear discriminant analysis to random subsamples of Dragon molecular descriptors. Simple data fusion and statistical comparison of partial areas under the curve of ROC curves were applied to obtain the best 2-model combination, which presented 82% and 74.5% of overall accuracy in the training and test set, respectively.
Ha, Ngoc-Han; Nair, Vasudha; Reddy, Divijendra Natha Sirigiri; Mudvari, Prakriti; Ohshiro, Kazufumi; Ghanta, Krishna Sumanth; Pakala, Suresh B.; Li, Da-Qiang; Costa, Luis; Lipton, Allan; Badwe, Rajendra A.; Fuqua, Suzanne; Wallon, Margaretha; Prendergast, George C.; Kumar, Rakesh
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by the lack of expression of ERα, PR and HER-2 receptors and the pathway(s) responsible for this downregulation and thus aggressiveness, remains unknown. Here we discovered that lactoferrin (Lf) efficiently downregulates the levels of ERα, PR and HER-2 receptors in a proteasome-dependent manner in breast cancer cells, and accounts for the loss of responsiveness to ER- or HER-2- targeted therapies. Further we found that Lf increases migration and invasiveness of both non-TNBC and TNBC cell lines. We discovered that Lf directly stimulates the transcription of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a secreted pro-invasive polypeptide that acts through a specific receptor ET(A)R, leading to secretion of bioactive ET-1 peptide. Interestingly, a therapeutic ET-1 receptor antagonist drug completely blocked Lf-dependent motility and invasiveness of breast cancer cells. Physiologic significance of this newly discovered Lf-ET-1 axis in the manifestation of TNBC phenotypes is revealed by elevated plasma and tissue Lf and ET-1 levels in TNBC patients as compared to those in ER+ cases. These findings describe the first physiologically relevant polypeptide as a functional determinant of downregulating all three therapeutic receptors in breast cancer which utilizes another secreted ET-1 system to confer invasiveness. Results presented here provide proof-of-principle evidence in support of therapeutic effectiveness of ET-1 receptor antagonist to completely block the Lf-induced motility and invasiveness of the TNBC as well as non-TBNC cells, and thus, opening a remarkable opportunity to treat TNBC by targeting the Lf-ET-1 axis using an approved developmental drug. PMID:22006997
Wade, Tracey D.; Lee, Christina
This paper investigated the prospective predictors of mental health after breast cancer diagnosis among mid-aged Australian women (initially aged 45-50 years). Two waves of data collected 2 years apart from a longitudinal population-based survey of 12,177 women identified a group of 63 women who reported onset of BC between T1 (T1) and Time 2…
Full Text Available Michael Untch1, Christian Jackisch21Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, University Charité, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Gynecology/Obstetrics, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach, GermanyAbstract: The adjuvant treatment of women with endocrine-sensitive early breast cancer has been dominated for the last 40 years by tamoxifen. However, the side-effects associated with this therapy have prompted a search for safer and biochemically more selective endocrine agents and led to the development of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane. Promising results in advanced disease have paved the way for treating early breast cancer, and AIs are increasingly replacing tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting. Several large, randomized trials with AIs have been completed or are ongoing in women with early-stage breast cancer, documenting the significant impact that these drugs are making on the risk for recurrence of breast cancer. As a result, there is increasing and widespread use of AI therapy for the treatment of early-stage endocrine-responsive breast cancer. This review summarizes the data for exemestane in the adjuvant setting, showing that a switch to exemestane after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen therapy is associated with a statistically significant survival benefit and is regarded as being sensitive by international and national experts.Keywords: early breast cancer, adjuvant setting, endocrine-sensitive, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor, exemestane, switch, IES 31, NSABP B-33, TEAM
James Owain Jones
Full Text Available TOX3 maps to 16q12, a region commonly lost in breast cancers and recently implicated in the risk of developing breast cancer. However, not much is known of the role of TOX3 itself in breast cancer biology. This is the first study to determine the importance of TOX3 mutations in breast cancers. We screened TOX3 for mutations in 133 breast tumours and identified four mutations (three missense, one in-frame deletion of 30 base pairs in six primary tumours, corresponding to an overall mutation frequency of 4.5%. One potentially deleterious missense mutation in exon 3 (Leu129Phe was identified in one tumour (genomic DNA and cDNA. Whilst copy number changes of 16q12 are common in breast cancer, our data show that mutations of TOX3 are present at low frequency in tumours. Our results support that TOX3 should be further investigated to elucidate its role in breast cancer biology.
Cameron M Scott
Full Text Available DNA methylation can mimic the effects of both germline and somatic mutations for cancer predisposition genes such as BRCA1 and p16INK4a. Constitutional DNA methylation of the BRCA1 promoter has been well described and is associated with an increased risk of early-onset breast cancers that have BRCA1-mutation associated histological features. The role of methylation in the context of other breast cancer predisposition genes has been less well studied and often with conflicting or ambiguous outcomes. We examined the role of methylation in known breast cancer susceptibility genes in breast cancer predisposition and tumor development. We applied the Infinium HumanMethylation450 Beadchip (HM450K array to blood and tumor-derived DNA from 43 women diagnosed with breast cancer before the age of 40 years and measured the methylation profiles across promoter regions of BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, PALB2, CDH1, TP53, FANCM, CHEK2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Prior genetic testing had demonstrated that these women did not carry a germline mutation in BRCA1, ATM, CHEK2, PALB2, TP53, BRCA2, CDH1 or FANCM. In addition to the BRCA1 promoter region, this work identified regions with variable methylation at multiple breast cancer susceptibility genes including PALB2 and MLH1. Methylation at the region of MLH1 in these breast cancers was not associated with microsatellite instability. This work informs future studies of the role of methylation in breast cancer susceptibility gene silencing.
Background: Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women worldwide and the most common among African women. The WHO, recent global cancer statistics indicate a rising global incidence of breast cancer in populations of the developing countries that previously enjoyed a low incidence of the ...
Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per
Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...
Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens
OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...
Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg
AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...
Lev, E L; Owen, S V
Although researchers suggest treatments that provide patients with an active coping strategy may increase patients' sense of self-efficacy, previous studies have not measured patients' self-efficacy. Eighteen women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer were randomized to efficacy-enhancing experimental (n = 10) and usual-care control (n = 8) groups. The experimental group received five interventions delivered monthly. Variables--quality of life, symptom distress, and self-care self-efficacy--were measured at baseline and at 4 and 8 months later. At 4 and 8 months the interaction effects for the Functional Assessment of Cancer Treatment-Breast, used to measure quality of life, ranged from small for functional concerns to large for social concerns. Interaction effects for symptom distress, measured by the Symptom Distress Scale, were large. Interaction effects for self-care self-efficacy ranged from small for Enjoying Life and Stress Reduction, medium for Stress Reduction, and large for Making Decisions. Interventions to promote self-efficacy may increase quality of life and decrease distress for women diagnosed with breast cancer.
... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... interactions of pregnancy-related mammotrophic factors, ligands, and receptors? What is the time course of pregnancy-related ...
... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...
... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...
... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Tests may include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...
... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...
Sénéchal, Claire; Reyal, Fabien; Callet, Nasrine; This, Pascale; Noguès, Catherine; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Fourme, Emmanuelle
In France, women carrying BRCA1/2 mutation, at an identified high risk of breast cancer are recommended to undergo breast MRI screening. That screening does not however prevent the risk of developing a breast cancer. The only alternative to breast cancer screening available in France is surgical prevention by prophylactic mastectomy. An interesting option for women who wish to reduce their breast cancer risk, but are unready for prophylactic mastectomy is a preventive hormonal treatment by aromatase inhibitors, or selective estrogens receptor modulators (SERMs). Reliable clinical trials show the efficiency of tamoxifen, raloxifen, exemestane, and anastrozole especially, in reducing breast cancer incidence by 33%, 34%, 65% and 53% respectively. This article tries to sum up the main published trials of breast cancer prevention with hormonal treatment, and presents the latest American and English clinical guidelines concerning hormonal prevention for women at high risk of breast cancer, and starts thinking about the possibilities of hormonoprevention, especially among women carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation in France. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Thorat, Mangesh A; Cuzick, Jack
Developments in breast cancer treatment have resulted in reduction in breast cancer mortality in the developed world. However incidence continues to rise and greater use of preventive interventions including the use of therapeutic agents is needed to control this burden. High quality evidence from 9 major trials involving more than 83000 participants shows that selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) reduce breast cancer incidence by 38%. Combined results from 2 large trials with 8424 participants show that aromatase inhibitors (AIs) reduce breast cancer incidence by 53%. These benefits are restricted to prevention of ER positive breast cancers. Restricting preventive therapy to high-risk women improves the benefit-harm balance and many guidelines now encourage healthcare professionals to discuss preventive therapy in these women. Further research is needed to improve our risk-prediction models for the identification of high risk women for preventive therapy with greater accuracy and to develop surrogate biomarkers of response. Long-term follow-up of the IBIS-I trial has provided valuable insights into the durability of benefits from preventive therapy, and underscores the need for such follow up to fully evaluate other agents. Full utilisation of preventive therapy also requires greater knowledge and awareness among both doctors and patients about benefits, harms and risk factors. Healthcare professionals should routinely discuss preventive therapy with women at high-risk of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khazaee-Pool, Maryam; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Montazeri, Ali; Pashaei, Tahereh; Gholami, Ali; Ponnet, Koen
Breast cancer preventive behaviors have an extreme effect on women's health. Despite the benefits of preventive behaviors regarding breast cancer, they have not been implemented as routine care for healthy women. To assess this health issue, a reliable and valid scale is needed. The aim of the present study is to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a new scale, called the ASSISTS, in order to identify factors that affect women's breast cancer prevention behaviors. A multi-phase instrument development method was performed to develop the questionnaire from February 2012 to September 2014. The item pool was generated based on secondary analyses of previous qualitative data. Then, content and face validity were applied to provide a pre-final version of the scale. The scale validation was conducted with a sample of women recruited from health centers affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The construct validity (both exploratory and confirmatory), convergent validity, discriminate validity, internal consistency reliability and test-retest analysis of the questionnaire were tested. Fifty-eight items were initially extracted from the secondary analysis of previous qualitative data. After content validity, this was reduced to 49 items. The exploratory factor analysis revealed seven factors (Attitude, supportive systems, self-efficacy, information seeking, stress management, stimulant and self-care) containing 33 items that jointly accounted for 60.62 % of the observed variance. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a model with appropriate fitness for the data. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the subscales ranged from 0.68 to 0.85, and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.71 to 0.98; which is well above the acceptable thresholds. The findings showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable instrument for assessing factors affecting women's breast cancer prevention behaviors that can be used both
Rutgers, E.; Tuut, M.K.; Verbeek, A.L.M.
New developments in the diagnostic procedures for women with an increased risk for, or symptoms related to breast cancer led to development of new guidelines by a working group under the auspices of the Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement, the Organisation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres and
Ding, Hao; Nyman, Jeffry S.; Sterling, Julie A.; Perrien, Daniel S.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Bi, Xiaohong
Bone is the most common site for breast cancer metastases. One of the major complications of bone metastasis is pathological bone fracture caused by chronic bone loss and degeneration. Current guidelines for the prediction of pathological fracture mainly rely on radiographs or computed tomography, which are limited in their ability to predict fracture risk. The present study explored the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy to estimate pathological fracture risk by characterizing the alterations in the compositional properties of metastatic bones. Tibiae with evident bone destruction were investigated using Raman spectroscopy. The carbonation level calculated by the ratio of carbonate/phosphate ν1 significantly increased in the tumor-bearing bone at all the sampling regions at the proximal metaphysis and diaphysis, while tumor-induced elevation in mineralization and crystallinity was more pronounced in the metaphysis. Furthermore, the increased carbonation level is positively correlated to bone lesion size, indicating that this parameter could serve as a unique spectral marker for tumor progression and bone loss. With the promising advances in the development of spatially offset Raman spectroscopy for deep tissue measurement, this spectral marker can potentially be used for future noninvasive evaluation of metastatic bone and prediction of pathological fracture risk.
High mammographic breast density, which is a marker of increased risk of developing breast cancer, does not seem to increase the risk of death among breast cancer patients, according to a study led by Gretchen L. Gierach, Ph.D., NCI. Image shows physician
Incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is increasing due to trend of postponing child-bearing to later age. Breast cancer diagnosed during lactation has different biologic behaviour and worse prognosis than when diagnosed during pregnancy. Pregnancy does not constitute a negative prognostic factor per se for outcomes of breast cancer in pregnancy, therefore breast cancer should be treated while containing pregnancy. Pregnancy should not delay treatment. Therapy should follow standard procedures as closely as possible, though with different timing of treatment modalities. Experienced multidisciplinary team is crucial for achieving good treatment results and involvement of an informed patient in decision-making is a must. Properly managed treatment during pregnancy does not carry detrimental effect on development and well-being of children. (author)
Millet, Ingrid; Bouic-Pages, Emmanuelle; Hoa, Denis; Azria, David; Taourel, Patrice
Women with a personal history of breast cancer have a high risk of developing an ipsi- or contralateral recurrence. We aimed to compare the growth rate of primary breast cancer and recurrences in women who had undergone prior breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three hundred and sixty-two women were diagnosed with breast cancer and had undergone breast MRI at the time of diagnosis in our institution (2005 - 2009). Among them, 37 had at least one prior breast MRI with the lesion being visible but not diagnosed as cancer. A linear regression of tumour volume measured on MRI scans and time data was performed using a generalized logistic model to calculate growth rates. The primary objective was to compare the tumour growth rate of patients with either primary breast cancer (no history of breast cancer) or ipsi- or contralateral recurrences of breast cancer. Twenty women had no history of breast cancer and 17 patients were diagnosed as recurrences (7 and 10 were ipsi- and contralateral, respectively). The tumour growth rate was higher in contralateral recurrences than in ipsilateral recurrences (growth rate [10 -3 days -1 ] 3.56 vs 1.38, p < .001) or primary cancer (3.56 vs 2.09, p = 0.01). Differences in tumour growth were not significant for other patient-, tumour- or treatment-related characteristics. These findings suggest that contralateral breast cancer presents accelerated growth compared to ipsilateral recurrences or primary breast events
Azevedo, C.M. de; Villas-Boas, C.L.P.; Koch, H.A.; Nogueira, M.R.
After a study of all cases of masculine breast cancer registered at the INCa from 1983 to 1989, the author present the most usual clinical, radiological and histopathological findings. The ductal infiltrating type of carcinoma was predominant; there were also six cases of secondary implant and two patients who died. The value of this article lies on the opportunity of presenting 11 cases of this pathology, which represent only 0,2% of malignant tumors in men, and to describe its manifestations and call the attention of radiologists for this entity. (author)
Full Text Available Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Breanna Z Orozco Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength, negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass, increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, exercise, physical well-being
Breast cancer is the leading diagnosed cancer in Asian American women. American women are more likely to receive a diagnosis in the advanced stages of the disease primarily because of late detection...
Breast cancer is the leading diagnosed cancer in Asian American women. American women are more likely to receive a diagnosis in the advanced stages of the disease, primarily because of late detection...
Full Text Available Breast cancer affects one out of eight women in their lifetime. Many factors contribute to the development of breast cancer, such as hereditary mutations and lifetime exposure to environmental factors, including estrogen. In addition, overweight and obesity, especially with increased waist circumference, are known to be associated with breast cancer risk. This review will summarize our understanding of the effect of diet on breast cancer incidence and progression. Since some inflammatory cytokines that are changed by a high-fat diet are known to promote the growth of breast cancer cells, these cytokines may serve as biomarkers to monitor the dietary influence for women at high risk of breast cancer and as future therapeutic targets for breast cancer treatment.
Wani, Burhan; Aziz, Shiekh Aejaz; Ganaie, Mohammad Ashraf; Mir, Mohammad Hussain
The study was meant to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with breast cancer and to establish its role as an independent risk factor on occurrence of breast cancer. Fifty women aged between 40 and 80 years with breast cancer and fifty controls of similar age were assessed for metabolic syndrome prevalence and breast cancer risk factors, including age at menarche, reproductive status, live births, breastfeeding, and family history of breast cancer, age at diagnosis of breast cancer, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome parameters. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was found in 40.0% of breast cancer patients, and 18.0% of those in control group ( P = 0.02). An independent and positive association was seen between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 3.037; 95% confidence interval 1.214-7.597). Metabolic syndrome is more prevalent in breast cancer patients and is an independent risk factor for breast cancer.
Ohene-Yeboah, M.; Adjei, E.
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Ghanaian women.To describes the characteristics of breast cancer patients attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana.The study was conducted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Between July 1st 2004 and June 30th 2009 patients presenting with breast lumps were assessed by clinical examination, imaging studies and pathological examination. Relevant clinical and pathological were recorded prospectively data on all patients with microscopically proven breast cancer. The cancers were graded according to the modified Bloom-Richardson system. Tissue immunoperoxidase stains for oestrogen, progesterone receptors and c-erb2 oncogene were performed with commercially prepared antigens and reagents.Nineteen thousand four hundred and twenty – three (19,423) patients were seen during the study period. There were 330 (1.7%) patients with histologically proven breast cancer. The mean age was 49.1 years. A palpable breast lump was detected in 248 patients (75.2%). Two hundred and eighty –one patients (85.2%) presented with Stages III and IV , 271 (82.1%) invasive and 230 ( 85.2%) high grade carcinomas. Oestrogen and progesterone receptors were positive in 32 and 9 cases respectively. Her2 protein was positive in 11 cases. In Kumasi, as in other parts of Ghana, breast cancer affects mostly young pre-menopausal who present with advanced disease. The cancers have unfavourable prognostic features and are unlikely to respond to hormonal therapy. (au)
Andrew G Hill
Full Text Available There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.
Bhikoo, Riyaz; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Moss, David; Hill, Andrew G
There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential
Bhikoo, Riyaz, E-mail: email@example.com; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Moss, David [Department of Surgery, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Hill, Andrew G [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand)
There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop and evaluate a continuing medical education (CME course aimed at improving healthcare provider knowledge about breast cancer health disparities and the importance of cross-cultural communication in provider-patient interactions about breast cancer screening. Methods An interactive web-based CME course was developed and contained information about breast cancer disparities, the role of culture in healthcare decision making, and demonstrated a model of cross-cultural communication. A single group pre-/post-test design was used to assess knowledge changes. Data on user satisfaction was also collected. Results In all, 132 participants registered for the CME with 103 completing both assessments. Differences between pre-/post-test show a significant increase in knowledge (70% vs. 94%; p Conclusion There was an overall high level of satisfaction among all users. Users felt that learning objectives were met and the web-based format was appropriate and easy to use and suggests that web-based CME formats are an appropriate tool to teach cultural competency skills. However, more information is needed to understand how the CME impacted practice behaviors.
Palmer, Richard C; Samson, Raquel; Triantis, Maria; Mullan, Irene D
To develop and evaluate a continuing medical education (CME) course aimed at improving healthcare provider knowledge about breast cancer health disparities and the importance of cross-cultural communication in provider-patient interactions about breast cancer screening. An interactive web-based CME course was developed and contained information about breast cancer disparities, the role of culture in healthcare decision making, and demonstrated a model of cross-cultural communication. A single group pre-/post-test design was used to assess knowledge changes. Data on user satisfaction was also collected. In all, 132 participants registered for the CME with 103 completing both assessments. Differences between pre-/post-test show a significant increase in knowledge (70% vs. 94%; p training was an appropriate tool to train healthcare providers about cultural competency and health disparities. There was an overall high level of satisfaction among all users. Users felt that learning objectives were met and the web-based format was appropriate and easy to use and suggests that web-based CME formats are an appropriate tool to teach cultural competency skills. However, more information is needed to understand how the CME impacted practice behaviors.
Au, Angel H.Y.; Lam, Wendy W.T.; Chan, Miranda C.M.; Or, Amy Y.M.; Kwong, Ava; Suen, Dacita; Wong, Annie L.; Juraskova, Ilona; Wong, Teresa W.T.; Fielding, Richard
Abstract Background Women choosing breast cancer surgery encounter treatment decision‐making (TDM) difficulties, which can cause psychological distress. Decision Aids (DAs) may facilitate TDM, but there are no DAs designed for Chinese populations. We developed a DA for Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer, for use during the initial surgical consultation. Aims Conduct a pilot study to assess the DA acceptability and utility among Chinese women diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods Women preferred the DA in booklet format. A booklet was developed and revised and evaluated in two consecutive pilot studies (P1 and P2). On concluding their initial diagnostic consultation, 95 and 38 Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer received the draft and revised draft DA booklet, respectively. Four‐day post‐consultation, women had questionnaires read out to them and to which they responded assessing attitudes towards the DA and their understanding of treatment options. Results The original DA was read/partially read by 66/22% (n = 84) of women, whilst the revised version was read/partially read by 74/16% (n = 35), including subliterate women (χ2 = 0.76, P = 0.679). Knowledge scores varied with the extent the booklet was read (P1: F = 12.68, d.f. 2, P utility, [except for the ‘treatment options’ (χ2 = 5.50, P = 0.019) and ‘TDM guidance’ (χ2 = 8.19, P = 0.004) sections] without increasing anxiety (F = 0.689, P = 0.408; F = 3.45, P = 0.073). Conclusion The DA was perceived as acceptable and useful for most women. The DA effectiveness is currently being evaluated using a randomized controlled trial. PMID:21223468
Limer, Jane L; Speirs, Valerie
Phytoestrogens are polyphenol compounds of plant origin that exhibit a structural similarity to the mammalian steroid hormone 17β-oestradiol. In Asian nations the staple consumption of phyto-oestrogen-rich foodstuffs correlates with a reduced incidence of breast cancer. Human dietary intervention trials have noted a direct relationship between phyto-oestrogen ingestion and a favourable hormonal profile associated with decreased breast cancer risk. However, these studies failed to ascertain the precise effect of dietary phyto-oestrogens on the proliferation of mammary tissue. Epidemiological and rodent studies crucially suggest that breast cancer chemoprevention by dietary phyto-oestrogen compounds is dependent on ingestion before puberty, when the mammary gland is relatively immature. Phyto-oestrogen supplements are commercially marketed for use by postmenopausal women as natural and safe alternatives to hormone replacement therapy. Of current concern is the effect of phyto-oestrogen compounds on the growth of pre-existing breast tumours. Data are contradictory, with cell culture studies reporting both the oestrogenic stimulation of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cell lines and the antagonism of tamoxifen activity at physiological phyto-oestrogen concentrations. Conversely, phyto-oestrogen ingestion by rodents is associated with the development of less aggressive breast tumours with reduced metastatic potential. Despite the present ambiguity, current data do suggest a potential benefit from use of phyto-oestrogens in breast cancer chemoprevention and therapy. These aspects are discussed
Bens, Annet; Papadopoulos, Fotios C; Pukkala, Eero; Ekbom, Anders; Gissler, Mika; Mellemkjær, Lene
A history of anorexia nervosa has been associated with a reduced risk of developing breast cancer. We investigated survival after breast cancer among women with a prior anorexia nervosa diagnosis compared with women in a population comparison group. This register-based study included combined data from Sweden, Denmark and Finland. A total of 76 and 1462 breast cancer cases identified among 22,654 women with anorexia nervosa and 224,619 women in a population comparison group, respectively, were included in the study. Hazard ratios (HR) for overall and breast cancer-specific mortality after breast cancer diagnosis were estimated using Cox regression. Cause of death was available only for Swedish and Danish women; therefore, the analysis on breast cancer-specific mortality was restricted to these women. We observed 23 deaths after breast cancer among anorexia nervosa patients and 247 among population comparisons. The overall mortality after the breast cancer diagnosis was increased in women with a history of anorexia nervosa compared with population comparisons (HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6-3.9) after adjustment for age, period and extent of disease. Results were similar for overall (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4-3.6) and breast cancer-specific mortality (HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.6) among Swedish and Danish women. We found that female breast cancer patients with a prior diagnosis of anorexia nervosa have a worse survival compared with other breast cancer patients.
One of the most common cancer in females is breasts cancer. This cancer can has high impact on the women including health and social dimensions. One of the most common social dimension is depression caused by breast cancer. Depression can impairs life quality. Depression is one of the symptom among the breast cancer patients. One of the solution is to eliminate the depression in breast cancer patients is by treatments but these treatments can has different unpredictable impacts on the patients. Therefore it is suitable to develop algorithm in order to predict the depression range.
Singh, Priyanka; Yadav, Umesh
Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths in India. Approx. three million patients suffering from the disease while Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in India. Post operative radiotherapy after the breast conservative surgery and mastectomy have been shown to reduce the rates of local recurrence and death due to breast carcinomas. Hence awareness of breast cancer signs, symptoms and self assessment plays critical role in the care of breast cancer patients
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0461 TITLE: Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jose Silva CONTRACTING...CONTRACT NUMBER Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0461 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) l 5d...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC, ~5% of all breast cancers ) is the most lethal form of breast cancer , presenting a 5- year
Remacle, S; Lifrange, E; Nizet, J-L
The incidence of breast cancer, currently one woman on eight, also concerns patients who underwent augmentation surgery. Breast implants have already been the subject of numerous publications concerning the risk of inducing breast cancer or of delaying its diagnosis; however, no significant causal relationship has been established. The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic consequences when breast cancer is identified in a patient with breast implants.
Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Meng, Xiao; Gan, Ren-You; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. Several epidemiological studies suggested the inverse correlation between the intake of vegetables and fruits and the incidence of breast cancer. Substantial experimental studies indicated that many dietary natural products could affect the development and progression of breast cancer, such as soy, pomegranate, mangosteen, citrus fruits, apple, grape, mango, cruciferous vegetables, ginger, garlic, black cumin, edible macro-fungi...
Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.
Terzieff, V.; Vázquez, A.
The prolonged exposure to estrogen increases the risk of cancer breast, the precise role of estrogen in the carcinogenesis process is unclear. They are capable of inducing cell proliferation through different channels receptor Estrogen (ER) known, for example through MAPkinasa sensitivity the promoter of proliferation effect depends on the level of RE, or type to â, integrity (mutations may alter its function) and ligand. The different types of estrogens and related compounds have different profile of affinity for RE and effect end. The modulatory role of progestogens proliferation is very complex, and the interaction between the effector pathways of progestin’s, estrogens, EGF and IGF family - maybe others - determines the final effect .. Estrogens are mutagenic per se weak, but is now known for its hepatic metabolism occur highly reactive species such as quinones, and catechol, powerful mutagens in vitro. Direct or indirect genotoxicity probably explains Part of the effects of estrogen on tumor cells. The use of hormone replacement (HTR) increases the risk of CM, as proportional to the time of use. The combination with progestin seems to be increased risk (R R 2). It is unclear the role of phyto estrogens in the prevention the CM. In the male breast is known that the proliferative response to parenchymal different hormonal maneuvers is different. The effect is minimal castration are and maximum with the combination of estrogen and progesterone. It is unclear, however, the risk of the population exposed to hormone therapy for cancer prostate or otherwise
Xie, Zhaolu; Zeng, Xianghui
To develop a successful formulation for the gene therapy of breast cancer, an effective therapeutic nucleic acid and a proper delivery system are essential. Increased understanding of breast cancer, and developments in biotechnology, material science and nanotechnology have provided a major impetus in the development of effective formulations for the gene therapy of breast cancer. Areas covered: We discuss DNA/RNA-based formulations that can inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells and control the progress of breast cancer. Targets for the gene therapy of breast cancer, DNA/RNA-based therapeutics and delivery systems are summarized. And examples of successful DNA/RNA-based formulations for breast cancer gene therapy are reviewed. Expert opinion: Several challenges remain in developing effective DNA/RNA-based formulations for treatment of breast cancer. Firstly, most of the currently utilized targets are not effective enough as monotherapy for breast cancer. Secondly, the requirements for co-delivery system make the preparation of formulation more complicated. Thirdly, nanoparticles with the modification of tumor-targeting ligands could be more unstable in circulation and normal tissues. Lastly, immune responses against the viral vectors are unfavorable for the gene therapy of breast cancer because of the damage to the host and the impaired therapeutic ability.
Background: Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy affecting women in Nigeria. Regular breast self examination reduces morbidity and mortality from this disease. Objective: To assess the knowledge of breast cancer, breast self examination and practice amongst secondary school teachers in Enugu , Nigeria.
Balaji, Karunakaran; Subramanian, Balaji; Yadav, Poonam; Anu Radha, Chandrasekaran; Ramasubramanian, Velayudham
Concave shape with variable size target volume makes treatment planning for the breast/chest wall a challenge. Conventional techniques used for the breast/chest wall cancer treatment provided better sparing of organs at risk (OARs), with poor conformity and uniformity to the target volume. Advanced technologies such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) improve the target coverage at the cost of higher low dose volumes to OARs. Novel hybrid techniques present promising results in breast/chest wall irradiation in terms of target coverage as well as OARs sparing. Several published data compared these technologies for the benefit of the breast/chest wall with or without nodal volumes. The aim of this article is to review relevant data and identify the scope for further research in developing optimal treatment plan for breast/chest wall cancer treatment.
Balaji, Karunakaran, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Global Hospitals, Chennai (India); School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore (India); Subramanian, Balaji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Global Hospitals, Chennai (India); Yadav, Poonam [Department of Medical Physics and Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI and Aspirus UW Cancer Center, Wisconsin Rapids, WI (United States); Anu Radha, Chandrasekaran; Ramasubramanian, Velayudham [School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore (India)
Concave shape with variable size target volume makes treatment planning for the breast/chest wall a challenge. Conventional techniques used for the breast/chest wall cancer treatment provided better sparing of organs at risk (OARs), with poor conformity and uniformity to the target volume. Advanced technologies such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) improve the target coverage at the cost of higher low dose volumes to OARs. Novel hybrid techniques present promising results in breast/chest wall irradiation in terms of target coverage as well as OARs sparing. Several published data compared these technologies for the benefit of the breast/chest wall with or without nodal volumes. The aim of this article is to review relevant data and identify the scope for further research in developing optimal treatment plan for breast/chest wall cancer treatment.
Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage I Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIB Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0390 TITLE: Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zheng Li CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0390 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Zheng Li 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...14 Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer A. Introduction (1paragraph) The overall goal of this proposal is to prepare TrkC
Full Text Available Aims, results, advantages and possible disadvantages of preoperative chemotherapy (pCHT for breast cancer are discussed in this review. Established chemotherapeutic regimens are described with respect to new drugs that are added to combinations now and in the future. Illustrating the potential of new components, trastuzumab and cytotoxic chemotherapy, were combined in neoadjuvant trials for the first time. This approach yielded impressing and unprecedented high pathological response rates. An overview regarding current neoadjuvant cytostatic and immunotherapy trials is given. Established prognostic factors like axillary lymph-nodal status are altered during pCHT, which causes the need for new prognostic markers. The consequences of these changes for clinical decision making are demonstrated. It seems possible that the advances of gene array and protein expression profile technologies will lead to improved prognostic and predictive statements. Tumor tissue can be analyzed before during and after treatment in this regard recent studies investigating the response to specific, chemotherapeutics in correlation to molecular markers are reviewed. These approaches might enable us to identify chemoresistance of specific tumors. Furthermore pCHT allows testing of chemosensitivity in vivo in an early stage, which might lead to a more individualized cancer therapy. We discuss radiotherapy after neoadjuvant therapy and the risk of local relapse after breast conserving surgery, which was made feasible by pCHT. It is shown how the evaluation of efficacy of new cancer drugs, using the neoadjuvant situation, can be done more rapidly than in the metastatic and adjuvant setting.
... white blood cells that help fight illness. If breast cancer spreads, the lymph nodes in the underarm (called ... if they contain cancer cells. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. Sentinel node biopsy and ...
Zaloga, Gary P
... projects addressed the effects of omega-3 lipids upon breast cancer cells. 0mega-3 lipids were found to decrease breast cancer-induced muscle cell proteolysis and to induce apoptosis in cancer cells...
... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , ... Disclosures Footnotes Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Introduction Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. ...
.... The purpose of this project is to improve the survival from breast cancer and quality of life after being diagnosed with breast cancer for both the patient and loved ones of the cancer patient...
.... The purpose of this project is to improve the survival from breast cancer and quality of life after being diagnosed with breast cancer for both the patient and loved ones of the cancer patient...
This project is to improve the diagnosis and management of patients with breast cancer through development and evaluation of 3D ultrasound imaging and quantification techniques emphasizing vascularity...
Gayen, Swapan K; Balogh-Nair, Valeria
The objective of the research was to explore the feasibility of concomitant detection and of breast cancer through the development of multifunctional nanocomposites that will enable early detection...
Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Meng, Xiao; Gan, Ren-You; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. Several epidemiological studies suggested the inverse correlation between the intake of vegetables and fruits and the incidence of breast cancer. Substantial experimental studies indicated that many dietary natural products could affect the development and progression of breast cancer, such as soy, pomegranate, mangosteen, citrus fruits, apple, grape, mango, cruciferous vegetables, ginger, garlic, black cumin, edible macro-fungi, and cereals. Their anti-breast cancer effects involve various mechanisms of action, such as downregulating ER-α expression and activity, inhibiting proliferation, migration, metastasis and angiogenesis of breast tumor cells, inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and sensitizing breast tumor cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarizes the potential role of dietary natural products and their major bioactive components in prevention and treatment of breast cancer, and special attention was paid to the mechanisms of action.
Full Text Available Seon-Ha Kim,1 Min-Woo Jo,2 Minsu Ock,2 Hyeon-Jeong Lee,2 Jong-Won Lee3,4 1Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Dankook University, Cheonan, 2Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, 3Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 4Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the utility of breast cancer health states using the standard gamble (SG and visual analog scale (VAS methods in the Korean general population.Materials and methods: Eight hypothetical breast cancer health states were developed based on patient education material and previous publications. Data from 509 individuals from the Korean general population were used to evaluate breast cancer health states using the VAS and the SG methods, which were obtained via computer-assisted personal interviews. Mean utility values were calculated for each human papillomavirus (HPV-related health state.Results: The rank of health states was identical between two valuation methods. SG values were higher than VAS values in all health states. The utility values derived from SG were 0.801 (noninvasive breast cancer with mastectomy and followed by reconstruction, 0.790 (noninvasive breast cancer with mastectomy only, 0.779 (noninvasive breast cancer with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy, 0.731 (invasive breast cancer with surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy, 0.610 (locally advanced breast cancer with radical mastectomy with radiation therapy, 0.587 (inoperable locally advanced breast cancer, 0.496 (loco-regional recurrent breast cancer, and 0.352 (metastatic breast cancer.Conclusion: Our findings might be useful for economic evaluation of breast cancer screening and interventions in general populations. Keywords: breast neoplasm, Korea, quality-adjusted life years, quality of life
Burdall, Sarah E; Hanby, Andrew M; Lansdown, Mark RJ; Speirs, Valerie
The majority of breast cancer research is conducted using established breast cancer cell lines as in vitro models. An alternative is to use cultures established from primary breast tumours. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of using both of these models in translational breast cancer research
Mammography, whether film or xerography, is a complementary examination to breast palpation in the detection of breast cancer. According to the guidelines of the American Cancer Society, mammography should be performed on every asymptomatic woman, at least once, over the age of 35. Annual mammography after 50 is also advised. The radiation dose to the breast from current equipment is so low as to not be considered a factor in denying a woman this screening examination. Mammography has a role in evaluating the woman with solitary and multiple breast masses. It is the only proved reliable modality able to detect nonpalpable breast cancers and small tumors less than 2 cm in size. All nonpalpable lesions should be excised by directed biopsy, using a preoperative localization technique
Tyanova, Stefka; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Kronqvist, Pauliina
Systems-wide profiling of breast cancer has almost always entailed RNA and DNA analysis by microarray and sequencing techniques. Marked developments in proteomic technologies now enable very deep profiling of clinical samples, with high identification and quantification accuracy. We analysed 40...... oestrogen receptor positive (luminal), Her2 positive and triple negative breast tumours and reached a quantitative depth of >10,000 proteins. These proteomic profiles identified functional differences between breast cancer subtypes, related to energy metabolism, cell growth, mRNA translation and cell......-cell communication. Furthermore, we derived a signature of 19 proteins, which differ between the breast cancer subtypes, through support vector machine (SVM)-based classification and feature selection. Remarkably, only three proteins of the signature were associated with gene copy number variations and eleven were...
Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among females, early diagnostic methods with suitable treatments improve the 5-year survival rates significantly. Microwave breast imaging has been reported as the most potential to become the alternative or additional tool to the current gold standard X-ray mammography for detecting breast cancer. The microwave breast image quality is affected by the microwave sensor, sensor array, the number of sensors in the array and the size of the sensor. In fact, microwave sensor array and sensor play an important role in the microwave breast imaging system. Numerous microwave biosensors have been developed for biomedical applications, with particular focus on breast tumor detection. Compared to the conventional medical imaging and biosensor techniques, these microwave sensors not only enable better cancer detection and improve the image resolution, but also provide attractive features such as label-free detection. This paper aims to provide an overview of recent important achievements in microwave sensors for biomedical imaging applications, with particular focus on breast cancer detection. The electric properties of biological tissues at microwave spectrum, microwave imaging approaches, microwave biosensors, current challenges and future works are also discussed in the manuscript.
Background and Objective: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in globally and in Nigeria. In Nigeria, cases of breast cancer cases have been prevalent for three decades and more than 90% of cases can be detected by women themselves through breast self – examination. The objective of this study ...
Chouikha, Mohamed F
...); and Georgetown University (Image Science and Information Systems, ISIS). In this partnership training program, we will train faculty and students in breast cancer imaging, digital image database library techniques and network communication strategy...
Problems with attention and symptom distress are common clinical features reported by women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Mindfulness practice significantly improves attention and mindfulness programs significantly reduce symptom distress in patients with cancer, and, more specifically, in women with breast cancer. Recently, a pilot investigation of a music therapy program, built on core attitudes of mindfulness practice, reported significant benefits of enhanced attent...
.... When fully developed, the DTM can provide radiologists improved quantitative, three-dimensional volumetric information of the breast tissue, and assist in breast cancer detection and diagnosis...
Positive Axillary Lymph Node; Stage 0 Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage I Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIB Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer AJCC v7
.... During this time effective adjuvant therapy was not available to treat early breast cancer. Social security numbers for a subset of these women were obtained by crossmatching AFIP records with the DEERS database...
.... This selective inhibition appears to be a consequence of expression of oncogenic Ras. Here we are evaluating the ability of Fmev to selectively interfere with proliferation of breast cancer cells...
An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.
Nikolay V. Dimitro v
Full Text Available The management of male breast cancer is still under discussion due to lack of information from prospective, randomized clinical trials and low incidence of this disease. Current management is based largely on extrapolation from data related to treatment of female breast cancer. Over the last two decades, several review articles have discussed mainly retrospective and anecdotal data related to hormonal and chemotherapy treatment modalities. In this review, we present the most recent information and future considerations related to the management of male breast cancer. In addition to the conventional treatment options we will discuss the possible role of targeted therapy. Establishing a national or global registry for male breast cancer will provide more precise information about the natural history of the disease and will facilitate the design and execution of prospective, randomized multicenter clinical trials.
... conditions for tumor induction, promotion and progression. The pineal gland, via its hormone melatonin, has been shown by numerous laboratories to inhibit the proliferation of both human and animal models of breast cancer...
Thompson, Henry J
.... The intermediate biomarkers being studied are as follows: indicators of oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules such as DNA and lipids, indicators of IGF metabolic status, and cellular indicators of breast cancer risk...
Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...
Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt
AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: From 1977 through...... 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree...
Plesnicar, A.; Kralj, B.; Kovac, V.
Background. Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant disease in the majority of developed countries. In the last few years the introduction of mammography screening programmes has resulted in an improved survival of breast cancer patients. However, the incidence of the disease in these countries is still on the increase. Present focus on secondary breast cancer prevention activities, consisting of early detection and treatment, cannot ensure a decrease of breast cancer incidence. Improved breast health awareness could therefore represent a part of specific health promotion activities aimed at decreasing the incidence of breast cancer. Conclusions. In developed countries breast cancer is a significant health care issue. Secondary breast cancer prevention activities should therefore be complemented by specific health promotion activities in order to reduce its incidence in the future. Primary breast cancer prevention would include health promotion activities aimed at enhancement of the individual as well as collective breast health awareness. Properly enlightened members of the influential population groups could attain appropriate changes in the fields of legislation, taxation, customs and commercial regulations that would enable women to control their own breast health. (author)
Recently, we reported microchimerism to be oppositely associated with maternal breast and colon cancer. In women with a blood test positive for male microchimerism the risk of breast cancer development was reduced to one third, whereas the risk of colon cancer was elevated 4-fold. In this article...
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women particularly in developing countries like Nigeria, with high mortality, and economic costs. Worldwide, it is predicted that more than one million women are diagnosed with breast cancer, and more than 400,000 will die from the disease every year. A comparative integrative ...
Lee, Misa M.; Chen, Luci M.; Heimann, Ruth; Powers, Claire; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.
-up was 50 months for synchronous patients, 45 months for metachronous patients, and 52 months for unilateral patients. Local control and survival were analyzed in patients with (1) synchronous bilateral breast cancer (SBBC), (2) metachronous breast cancer (MBBC), (3) unilateral breast cancer (UBC). The interval to development of local recurrence and survival were calculated from the time of development of the second breast lesion in patients with metachronous breast cancer. RESULTS: There were no differences in survival and failure free survival in patients with SBBC, MBBC, or UBC. Five year overall survival by lifetable analysis was 76% for SBBC, 78% for MBBC, and 87% for UBC patients; the p-value was 0.32 by logrank analysis. The five year failure-free survival was 79% for SBBC, 73% for MBBC, and 85% for UBC patients; the p-value was 0.28 by logrank analysis. There were no significant differences in median age, tumor size, pathologic node status, tamoxifen use, chemotherapy use, or median total dose of radiation therapy for SBBC, MBBC, or UBC patients. A significant difference was found in the incidence of family history of breast cancer in patients with unilateral (28%) versus bilateral breast cancer (40%) (p=0.0028 by chi-square analysis). However, there was no difference seen in outcome of patients by family history of breast cancer. The local control was identical in both bilateral and UBC patients with a crude failure rate of 3%. CONCLUSION: In our patients, no differences were observed in both local control and overall survival. Therefore, breast conservation therapy in local-regional, early stage breast cancer is a rational treatment modality for patients with SBBC and MBBC as well as UBC
Ahmadian, Maryam; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Saidu, Mohammed Bashir
Knowledge of health and community psychology in health professionals influences psychosocial and community determinants of health and promoting participation in disease prevention at the community level. This paper appraises the potential of knowledge on psychology in health care professionals and its contribution to community empowerment through individual behavior change and health practice. The authors proposed a schematic model for the use of psychological knowledge in health professionals to promote participation in health interventions/disease prevention programs in developing countries. By implication, the paper provides a vision on policies towards supporting breast cancer secondary prevention efforts for community health development in Asian countries.
Soto, Ana M.; Brisken, Cathrin; Schaeberle, Cheryl; Sonnenschein, Carlos
We are now witnessing a resurgence of theories of development and carcinogenesis in which the environment is again being accepted as a major player in phenotype determination. Perturbations in the fetal environment predispose an individual to disease that only becomes apparent in adulthood. For example, gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol resulted in clear cell carcinoma of the vagina and breast cancer. In this review the effects of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol-A (BPA) on mammary ...
Ambrosone, Christine B; Zirpoli, Gary; Hong, Chi-Chen; Yao, Song; Troester, Melissa A; Bandera, Elisa V; Schedin, Pepper; Bethea, Traci N; Borges, Virginia; Park, Song-Yi; Chandra, Dhyan; Rosenberg, Lynn; Kolonel, Laurence N; Olshan, Andrew F; Palmer, Julie R
Menarche is a critical time point for diverging fates of mammary cells of origin. African American women have young age at menarche, which could be associated with their high rates of estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer. In the AMBER Consortium, using harmonized data from 4426 African American women with breast cancer and 17 474 controls, we used polytomous logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ages at menarche and first live birth (FLB), and the interval between, in relation to ER+ and ER- breast cancer. All statistical tests were two-sided. Risk of ER- breast cancer was reduced with later age at menarche among both parous and nulliparous women (≥15 vs fashion (OR for 20 year interval = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.79, P trend = .003), ER- risk was only increased for intervals up to 14 years and not beyond (P trend = .33). While ER- breast cancer risk was markedly reduced in women with a late age at menarche, there was not a clear pattern of increased risk with longer interval between menarche and FLB, as was observed for ER+ breast cancer. These findings indicate that etiologic pathways involving adolescence and pregnancy may differ for ER- and ER+ breast cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Schlossbauer, T.; Hellerhoff, K.; Reiser, M.
The aim of this study is to give an overview on early detection of breast cancer in patients with an increased risk of breast cancer. Sensitivities and diagnostic accuracies of breast MRI, mammography and ultrasound were compared. A systematic literature search of the past 3 years was performed. Studies which compared breast imaging modalities and used image-guided biopsy results as standard of reference were included. Patients included had to have had an increased lifetime risk for breast cancer (>15%). Regarding sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy, breast MRI performed best in comparison to the other modalities within this collective of patients. Sensitivities ranged from 71-100%, 0-78%, and 13-65%, for MRI, mammography, and ultrasound, respectively Breast MRI is a well established tool for screening in patients at high risk for developing breast cancer and is a valuable supplement to mammography and ultrasound within this selected cohort of patients. (orig.) [de
Sherri G. Homan
Full Text Available Breast cancer survivors are at risk of developing a second primary cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading second primary cancers, and it is often preventable. We developed a multi-component educational tool to inform and encourage women breast cancer survivors to engage in CRC screening. To assess the strengths and weakness of the tool and to improve the relevancy to the target audience, we convened four focus groups of women breast cancer survivors in Missouri. We also assessed the potential impact of the tool on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding CRC and collected information on the barriers to CRC screening through pre- and post-focus groups’ questionnaires. A total of 43 women breast cancer survivors participated and provided very valuable suggestions on design and content to update the tool. Through the process and comparing pre- and post-focus group assessments, a significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors strongly agreed or agreed that CRC is preventable (78.6% vs. 96.9%, p = 0.02 and became aware that they were at a slightly increased risk for CRC (18.6% vs. 51.7%, p = 0.003. The most cited barrier was the complexity of preparation for colonoscopy.
Gampenrieder, Simon Peter; Westphal, Theresa; Greil, Richard
Summary Based on a strong rationale for anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) treatment in breast cancer and promising preclinical data, great hopes have been placed on the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab. Clinical trials, however, reported conflicting results. In metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2)-negative breast cancer, the addition of bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy improved consistently progression-free survival (PFS), however, without effect on overall...
Most can- cers (97.1%) were found in women with only 24. (2.9%) in males, giving a female:male ratio of. 33.2:1. Figure 1: Age characteristics of breast cancers in Accra. Ductal type represents the most common (90.1%) breast cancer cases followed by lobular carcinomas. (3.9%) (Table 1). The ductal to lobular ratio is.
Fuglede, Niels; Langballe, Oline; Svendsen, Anne Louise
The authors report on the incidence rates of breast cancer overall and by histology in a population of unscreened women constituting approximately 80% of the total population of women in Denmark from 1973-2002, utilizing the files of the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry. The age-specific incidence...... no disproportionate changes by histology in any age group from 1988-2002. Thus, previous reports of a disproportionate increase in lobular breast cancer could not be confirmed in a non-screened population, whereas important changes over the past decade in the age-specific incidence pattern of breast cancer particular...... rates of breast cancer increased throughout the period, and further, marked changes in the age-specific incidence pattern were observed, where the plateau and change of slope around the age of 46-48 in 1973-1981 shifted to around age 64-66 years in 1994-2002. Age-period-cohort modeling indicated...
Poole, Vikki L; McCabe, Christopher J
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in women, with incidence rates that continue to rise. The heterogeneity of the disease makes breast cancer exceptionally difficult to treat, particularly for those patients with triple-negative disease. To address the therapeutic complexity of these tumours, new strategies for diagnosis and treatment are urgently required. The ability of lactating and malignant breast cells to uptake and transport iodide has led to the hypothesis that radioiodide therapy could be a potentially viable treatment for many breast cancer patients. Understanding how iodide is transported, and the factors regulating the expression and function of the proteins responsible for iodide transport, is critical for translating this hypothesis into reality. This review covers the three known iodide transporters - the sodium iodide symporter, pendrin and the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter - and their role in iodide transport in breast cells, along with efforts to manipulate them to increase the potential for radioiodide therapy as a treatment for breast cancer. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.
Pelttari, L.M.; Khan, S.; et al.,
Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737\\ud and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast\\ud cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer\\ud predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the\\ud coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for\\ud identifi...
Pelttari, LM; Khan, S; Vuorela, M; Kiiski, JI; Vilske, S; Nevanlinna, V; Ranta, S; Schleutker, J; Winqvist, R; Kallioniemi, A; Dörk, T; Bogdanova, NV; Figueroa, J; Pharoah, PDP; Schmidt, MK
Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possi...
Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Suraya, Faryal; Jamil, Badar; Rouq, Fwziah Al; Meo, Anusha Sultan; Sattar, Kamran; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Alasiri, Saleh A
The aim of this study was to determine the association of "ABO" and "Rhesus" blood groups with incidence of breast cancer. In this study, we identified 70 research documents from data based search engines including "PubMed", "ISI-Web of Knowledge", "Embase" and "Google Scholar". The research papers were selected by using the primary key-terms including "ABO blood type", "Rhesus" blood type and "breast cancer". The research documents in which "ABO" and "Rhesus" blood types and breast cancer was debated were included. After screening, we reviewed 32 papers and finally we selected 25 research papers which met the inclusion criteria and remaining documents were excluded. Blood group "A" has high incidence of breast cancer (45.88%), blood group "O" has (31.69%); "B" (16.16%) and blood group "AB" has (6.27%) incidence of breast cancer. Blood group "A" has highest and blood group "AB" has least association with breast cancer. Furthermore, "Rhesus +ve" blood group has high incidence of breast cancer (88.31%) and "Rhesus -ve" blood group has least association with breast cancer (11.68%). Blood group "A" and "Rhesus +ve" have high risk of breast cancer, while blood type "AB" and "Rhesus -ve" are at low peril of breast cancer. Physicians should carefully monitor the females with blood group "A" and "Rh +ve" as these females are more prone to develop breast cancer. To reduce breast cancer incidence and its burden, preventive and screening programs for breast cancer especially in young women are highly recommended.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting European women and the leading cause of cancer-related death. A total of 15-20% of women who develop breast cancer have a family history and 5-10% a true genetic predisposition. The identification and screening of women at increased risk may allow early detection of breast cancer and improve prognosis. We established a family risk assessment clinic in May 2005 to assess and counsel women with a family history of breast cancer, to initiate surveillance, and to offer risk-reducing strategies for selected high-risk patients. Patients at medium or high risk of developing breast cancer according to NICE guidelines were accepted. Family history was determined by structured questionnaire and interview. Lifetime risk of developing breast cancer was calculated using Claus and Tyrer-Cuzick scoring. Risk of carrying a breast cancer-related gene mutation was calculated using the Manchester system. One thousand two hundred and forty-three patients have been referred. Ninety-two percent were at medium or high risk of developing breast cancer. Formal assessment of risk has been performed in 368 patients, 73% have a high lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, and 72% a Manchester score >or=16. BRCA1\\/2 mutations have been identified in 14 patients and breast cancer diagnosed in two. Our initial experience of family risk assessment has shown there to be a significant demand for this service. Identification of patients at increased risk of developing breast cancer allows us to provide individuals with accurate risk profiles, and enables patients to make informed choices regarding their follow-up and management.
Keller, Patricia J.; Arendt, Lisa M.; Skibinski, Adam; Logvinenko, Tanya; Klebba, Ina; Dong, Shumin; Smith, Avi E.; Prat, Aleix; Perou, Charles M.; Gilmore, Hannah; Schnitt, Stuart; Naber, Stephen P.; Garlick, Jonathan A.; Kuperwasser, Charlotte
Human breast cancers are broadly classified based on their gene-expression profiles into luminal- and basal-type tumors. These two major tumor subtypes express markers corresponding to the major differentiation states of epithelial cells in the breast: luminal (EpCAM+) and basal/myoepithelial (CD10+). However, there are also rare types of breast cancers, such as metaplastic carcinomas, where tumor cells exhibit features of alternate cell types that no longer resemble breast epithelium. Until now, it has been difficult to identify the cell type(s) in the human breast that gives rise to these various forms of breast cancer. Here we report that transformation of EpCAM+ epithelial cells results in the formation of common forms of human breast cancer, including estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative tumors with luminal and basal-like characteristics, respectively, whereas transformation of CD10+ cells results in the development of rare metaplastic tumors reminiscent of the claudin-low subtype. We also demonstrate the existence of CD10+ breast cells with metaplastic traits that can give rise to skin and epidermal tissues. Furthermore, we show that the development of metaplastic breast cancer is attributable, in part, to the transformation of these metaplastic breast epithelial cells. These findings identify normal cellular precursors to human breast cancers and reveal the existence of a population of cells with epidermal progenitor activity within adult human breast tissues. PMID:21940501
Hashemi, Seyed Hesam Bani; Karimi, Samieh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza
Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer among women. Lifestyle changes are shown to be important in the prevention of breast cancer. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and vitamin and mineral use are key factors influencing the risk of breast cancer among women. Because these factors are related to each other, it is difficult to assess their individual roles in breast cancer. Some of these factors are alterable, meaning that women can decrease their risk...
Vidor, Clémence; Leroyer, Ariane; Christophe, Véronique; Seillier, Mélanie; Foncel, Jérome; Van de Maële, Justine; Bonneterre, Jacques; Fantoni, Sophie
Despite the improvement in the care management, women cancer patients who are still in employment find themselves for the most part obliged to stop working while they are having treatment. Their return-to-work probability is impacted by numerous psychosocial factors. The objective is to describe the development and the content of an intervention aimed to facilitate the return to work of female breast cancer patients and in particular the women in the most precarious situations through early active individualised psychosocial support (APAPI). The intervention proposed is made up of 4 interviews with a psychologist at the hospital, distributed over the year according to the diagnosis and conducted on the same day as a conventional follow-up consultation, then a consultation with a specialist job retention physician. We expect, in the first instance, that this intervention will reduce the social inequalities of the return-to-work rate at 12 months. The EPICES score will enable the population to be broken down according to the level of social precariousness. The other expected results are the reduction of the social inequalities in the quality of the return to work at 18 and 24 months and the disparities between the individual and collective resources of the patients. This intervention is assessed in the context of a controlled and randomised multi-centre study. The patients eligible are women aged between 18 and 55 years with a unilateral breast cancer with local extension exclusively, having received surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, in employment at the time of the diagnosis and dealt with by one of the 2 investigating centres. It is essential to assess this type of intervention before envisaging its generalisation. The study set in place will enable us to measure the impact of this intervention aiming to facilitate the return to work of breast cancer patients, in particular for those who suffer from social fragility, compared with the standard care.
Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women. Despite advances in genetic and biochemical analyses, the incidence of breast cancer and its associated mortality remain very high. About 60 - 70% of breast cancers are Estrogen Receptor alpha (ER-α positive and are dependent on estrogen for growth. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs have therefore provided an effective targeted therapy to treat ER-α positive breast cancer patients. Unfortunately, development of resistance to endocrine therapy is frequent and leads to cancer recurrence. Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the development of ER-α positive tumors and their resistance to ER antagonists is currently limited due to lack of experimental models of ER-α positive breast cancer. In most mouse models of breast cancer, the tumors that form are typically ER-negative and independent of estrogen for their growth. However, in recent years more attention has been given to develop mouse models that develop different subtypes of breast cancers, including ER-positive tumors. In this review, we discuss the currently available mouse models that develop ER-α positive mammary tumors and their potential use to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of ER-α positive breast cancer development and endocrine resistance.
Full Text Available Cancer is a major public health problem and cause of death worldwide. According to WHO, cancer accounted for 7.6 million deaths in 2008, which is projected to continue rising with an estimated 13.1 million deaths in 2030. Breast Cancer (BC is the most common cancer in women worldwide and it represents the second leading cause of death among women, after lung cancer. In India, BC is the most common diagnosed malignancy with 75,000 new cases of breast cancer diagnosed every year. The factors associated with BC are genetic mutation, reproductive factors, family history, breast density, increasing age and nutritional risk factors. Retrospective and prospective epidemiologic studies have revealed that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of developing and dying of BC. Several recent reports have found vitamin D intake is beneficial not only for cancer prevention but also for women recently diagnosed with BC. In India, vitamin D deficiency ranges between 70% and 100%. There is paucity of literature available on association of vitamin D and risk of BC in Indian women. The aim of this review is to present the association of vitamin D deficiency with BC. Given the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and a higher incidence of breast cancer in India, interventional possibilities to increase vitamin D status should be done. Revising the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA for vitamin D intake and defining serum 25(OHD cut off levels for the Asian population should be done with a high priority.
Şener, Hülya Özlem; Malkoç, Mehtap; Ergin, Gülbin; Karadibak, Didem; Yavuzşen, Tuğba
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of clinical Pilates exercises with those of the standard lymphedema exercises on lymphedema developing after breast cancer treatment. The study comprised 60 female patients with a mean age of 53.2±7.7 years who developed lymphedema after having breast cancer treatment. The patients were randomized into two groups: the clinical Pilates exercise group (n=30), and the control group (n=30). Before, and at the 8th week of treatment, the following parameters were measured: the severity of lymphedema, limb circumferences, body image using the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale, quality of life with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) quality of life questionnaire (QLQ-BR23), and upper extremity function using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) outcome measure. Both groups performed one-hour exercises three days a week for 8 weeks. After treatment, the symptoms recovered significantly in both groups. Reductions in the severity of lymphedema, improvements in the social appearance anxiety scale scores, quality of life scores, and upper extremity functions scores in the clinical Pilates exercise group were greater than those in the control group. Clinical Pilates exercises were determined to be more effective on the symptoms of patients with lymphedema than were standard lymphedema exercises. Clinical Pilates exercises could be considered a safe model and would contribute to treatment programs.
Akram, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mehwish; Daniyal, Muhammad; Khan, Asmat Ullah
Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global issue now, but still it is diagnosed in their advanced stages due to the negligence of women regarding the self inspection and clinical examination of the breast. This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of breast cancer, stages of breast cancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.
Canonici, A; Gijsen, M; Mullooly, M; Bennett, R; Bouguern, N; Pedersen, K; O'Brien, NA; Roxanis, I; Li, J-L; Bridge, E; Finn, R; Siamon, D; McGowan, P; Duffy, MJ; O'Donovan, N
Trastuzumab has been shown to improve the survival outcomes of HER2 positive breast cancer patients. However, a significant proportion of HER2-positive patients are either inherently resistant or develop resistance to trastuzumab. We assessed the effects of neratinib, an irreversible panHER inhibitor, in a panel of 36 breast cancer cell lines. We further assessed its effects with or without trastuzumab in several sensitive and resistant breast cancer cells as well as a BT474 xenograft model. ...
CBCP) Breast Center is the Army-recognized and Military-recognized specialty referral center for t r i - se rv ice active duty personnel from around...development of customized treatment options in patients with HER2+ breast cancer. Objective 1 Evaluate differences in the molecular profiles of...2014CBCP & CCBB Analysis of Errors & Corrections 11/7/2014Customer Satisfaction Results Analysis 1/7/2015Audit of signed-out tissue samples in -80 freezer
Full Text Available As a hormone-sensitive condition with no single identifiable cause, breast cancer is a major health problem. It is characterized by a wide range of contributing factors and exposures occurring in different combinations and strengths across a lifetime that may be amplified during periods of enhanced developmental susceptibility and impacted by reproductive patterns and behaviours. The vast majority of cases are oestrogen-receptor positive and occur in women with no family history of the disease suggesting that modifiable risk factors are involved. A substantial body of evidence now links oestrogen-positive breast cancer with environmental exposures. Synthetic chemicals capable of oestrogen mimicry are characteristic of industrial development and have been individually and extensively assessed as risk factors for oestrogen-sensitive cancers. Existing breast cancer risk assessment tools do not take such factors into account. In the absence of consensus on causation and in order to better understand the problem of escalating incidence globally, an expanded, integrated approach broadening the inquiry into individual susceptibility breast cancer is proposed. Applying systems thinking to existing data on oestrogen-modulating environmental exposures and other oestrogenic factors characteristic of Westernisation and their interactions in the exposure, encompassing social, behavioural, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors, can assist in understanding cancer risks and the pursuit of prevention strategies. A new conceptual framework based on a broader understanding of the “system” that underlies the development of breast cancer over a period of many years, incorporating the factors known to contribute to breast cancer risk, could provide a new platform from which government and regulators can promulgate enhanced and more effective prevention strategies.
Waring, Alexia N.
Women with breast cancer often experience a predictable set of emotional and psychological reactions to their cancer diagnosis according to recognized influencing factors such as age at the time of diagnosis and stage of life. The time between a breast biopsy and the receipt of the pathology results has been identified by patients as the most stressful period throughout the entire cancer experience. Treatment decisions, until recently, were made solely by physicians while patients assumed passive roles. Increasingly, breast cancer patients want to assume an active role in their treatment decisions and care and are no longer satisfied to be passive observers. More and more women educate themselves about their disease through the Internet, investigating available treatment options, side effects, and in some cases, alternative therapies. This new type of breast cancer patient wants to be cared for by physicians who embrace the patient as part of the team. They appreciate the physician who is not threatened by the educated breast cancer patient and understands that she is ultimately motivated by an attempt to regain some of the control the cancer has taken away from her. PMID:21765661
Heba Abdelhamid Elkayal
Full Text Available Hyperthermia is potentially an effective method for the treatment of cancer, especially breast cancer tumors. One of the most attractive attributes of hyperthermia is the possibility of providing therapeutic benefit noninvasively, minimizing side effects. To be effective, a hyperthermia treatment must selectively heat the cancerous tissue, elevating the temperature in the tumor without exposing healthy tissue to excessive temperature elevations. In this paper, a suggested simple model of Annular Phased Array (APA using eight half wavelength linear dipoles is presented. New software (COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS is used to calculate the temperature distribution inside a model of a three layered breast (skin, breast tissue, and tumor. In addition, the effect of changing the amplitude and phases of the array elements on the temperature distributions and the conditions on the values of the phases are demonstrated in order to achieve the objective of hyperthermia for breast tumor treatment.
... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Nearly 7,000 women with early-stage, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer were enrolled in the trial ...
Schenker, J.G.; Levinsky, R.; Ohel, G.
The data of an epidemiologic study of multiple primary malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients in Israel are presented. During the 18-year period of the study 12,302 cases of breast carcinoma were diagnosed, and, of these, 984 patients (8%) had multiple primary malignant tumors. Forty-seven of these patients developed two multiple primary cancers. A significantly higher than expected incidence of second primary cancers occurred at the following five sites: the opposite breast, salivary glands, uterine corpus, ovary, and thyroid. Cancers of the stomach and gallbladder were fewer than expected. Treatment of the breast cancer by irradiation was associated with an increased risk of subsequent cancers of lung and hematopoietic system. The prognosis was mainly influenced by the site and malignancy of the second primary cancer. The incidence of multiple primary malignancies justifies a high level of alertness to this possibility in the follow-up of breast cancer patients
.../practitioners regarding topics such as breast health, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer in... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal..., development, implementation and evaluation of evidence-based activities designed to prevent breast cancer...
... ACTH CAF CMF FAC TAC TC TCH TH THP Radiation Therapy Whole Breast Radiation Partial Breast Radiation ... Basics Treatments and Your Bone Health Bone Health Tests Improving Bone Health Medicines To Protect Bones Diet, ...
.... Expression of moderate amounts of p16 in breast cancer cell lines with this type of defect suppresses the transformed properties of the cells, preventing growth in soft agar and blocking formation...
Noriah Jamal; Humairah Samad Cheung
The objective of this study was to examine the mammographic breast density of women with breast cancer detected on voluntary mammographic screening at two selected screening centers in Malaysia. This was a retrospective study of Full-Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) images of 150 Malaysian women with biopsy-proven breast cancer. The study population comprised 73 Malays (37.7 %), 59 Chinese (39.3 %) and 18 Indians (12.0 %). The Tabar breast density Patterns (I - V) were used to evaluate mammographic breast density. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results were compared with findings from a similar study on a group of 668 women who did not have breast cancer. The results showed that 44.7 % of the study population had dense breasts (Patterns IV and V), 14.7 % had predominantly fatty breasts (Patterns II and III) while 40.7 % had Pattern I. The proportion of study population with dense breasts decreased with age. In conclusion, the proportion of women with dense breasts decreased with age. Majority of the women with cancer (44.7 %) had dense breasts of Tabar Patterns IV and V, which has been associated with increased risk of breast cancer detected by voluntary mammographic screening. The results support the notion that increased breast density is a risk factor of breast cancer. (author)
Ali, Simi; Lazennec, Gwendal
Recent studies have highlighted the possible involvement of chemokines and their receptors in breast cancer progression and metastasis. Chemokines and their receptors constitute a superfamily of signalling factors whose prognosis value in breast cancer progression remains unclear. We will examine here the expression pattern of chemokines and their receptors in mammary gland physiology and carcinogenesis. The nature of the cells producing chemokines or harboring chemokine receptors appears to be crucial in certain conditions for example, the infiltration of the primary tumor by leukocytes and angiogenesis. In addition, chemokines, their receptors and the interaction with glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) are key players in the homing of cancer cells to distant metastasis sites. Several lines of evidence, including in vitro and in vivo models, suggest that the mechanism of action of chemokines in cancer development involves the modulation of proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, leukocyte recruitment or angiogenesis. Furthermore, we will discuss the regulation of chemokine network in tumor neovascularity by decoy receptors. The reasons accounting for the deregulation of chemokines and chemokine receptors expression in breast cancer are certainly crucial for the comprehension of chemokine role in breast cancer and are in several cases linked to estrogen receptor status. The targeting of chemokines and chemokine receptors by antibodies, small molecule antagonists, viral chemokine binding proteins and heparins appears as promising tracks to develop therapeutic strategies. Thus there is significant interest in developing strategies to antagonize the chemokine function, and an opportunity to interfere with metastasis, the leading cause of death in most patients. PMID:17717637
Wang, Zhiwei; Fukushima, Hidefumi; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Wan, Lixin; Liu, Pengda; Gao, Daming [Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Sarkar, Fazlul H. [Department of Pathology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Wei, Wenyi, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among American women, and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death for female in the United States. It has been known that several signaling pathways and various factors play critical roles in the development and progression of breast cancer, such as estrogen receptor, Notch, PTEN, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, PI3K/Akt, BRCA1, and BRCA2. Emerging evidence has shown that the F-box protein S-phase kinase associated protein 2 (Skp2) also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Therefore, in this brief review, we summarize the novel functions of Skp2 in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Moreover, we provide further evidence regarding the state of our knowledge toward the development of novel Skp2 inhibitors especially natural “chemopreventive agents” as targeted approach for the prevention and/or treatment of breast cancer.
Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)
Engel, Christoph; Fischer, Christine
BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have a considerably increased risk to develop breast and ovarian cancer. The personalized clinical management of carriers and other at-risk individuals depends on precise knowledge of the cancer risks. In this report, we give an overview of the present literature on empirical cancer risks, and we describe risk prediction models that are currently used for individual risk assessment in clinical practice. Cancer risks show large variability between studies. Breast cancer risks are at 40-87% for BRCA1 mutation carriers and 18-88% for BRCA2 mutation carriers. For ovarian cancer, the risk estimates are in the range of 22-65% for BRCA1 and 10-35% for BRCA2. The contralateral breast cancer risk is high (10-year risk after first cancer 27% for BRCA1 and 19% for BRCA2). Risk prediction models have been proposed to provide more individualized risk prediction, using additional knowledge on family history, mode of inheritance of major genes, and other genetic and non-genetic risk factors. User-friendly software tools have been developed that serve as basis for decision-making in family counseling units. In conclusion, further assessment of cancer risks and model validation is needed, ideally based on prospective cohort studies. To obtain such data, clinical management of carriers and other at-risk individuals should always be accompanied by standardized scientific documentation.
Tice, Jeffrey A; Miglioretti, Diana L; Li, Chin-Shang; Vachon, Celine M; Gard, Charlotte C; Kerlikowske, Karla
Women with proliferative breast lesions are candidates for primary prevention, but few risk models incorporate benign findings to assess breast cancer risk. We incorporated benign breast disease (BBD) diagnoses into the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) risk model, the only breast cancer risk assessment tool that uses breast density. We developed and validated a competing-risk model using 2000 to 2010 SEER data for breast cancer incidence and 2010 vital statistics to adjust for the competing risk of death. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the relative hazards for age, race/ethnicity, family history of breast cancer, history of breast biopsy, BBD diagnoses, and breast density in the BCSC. We included 1,135,977 women age 35 to 74 years undergoing mammography with no history of breast cancer; 17% of the women had a prior breast biopsy. During a mean follow-up of 6.9 years, 17,908 women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. The BCSC BBD model slightly overpredicted risk (expected-to-observed ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.06) and had modest discriminatory accuracy (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, 0.665). Among women with proliferative findings, adding BBD to the model increased the proportion of women with an estimated 5-year risk of 3% or higher from 9.3% to 27.8% (P<.001). The BCSC BBD model accurately estimates women's risk for breast cancer using breast density and BBD diagnoses. Greater numbers of high-risk women eligible for primary prevention after BBD diagnosis are identified using the BCSC BBD model. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Pawar, Atmaram; Singh, Srishti; Rajalakshmi, S; Shaikh, Karimunnisa; Bothiraja, C
The natural flavonoid fisetin (FS) has shown anticancer properties but its in-vivo administration remains challenging due to its poor aqueous solubility. The aim of the study was to develop FS loaded pluronic127 (PF)-folic acid (FA) conjugated micelles (FS-PF-FA) by the way of increasing solubility, bioavailability and active targetability of FS shall increase its therapeutic efficacy. FA-conjugated PF was prepared by carbodiimide crosslinker chemistry. FS-PF-FA micelles were prepared by thin-film hydration method and evaluated in comparison with free FS and FS loaded PF micelles (FS-PF). The smooth surfaces with spherical in shape of FS-PF-PF micelles displayed smaller in size (103.2 ± 6.1 nm), good encapsulation efficiency (82.50 ± 1.78%), zeta potential (-26.7 ± 0.44 mV) and sustained FS release. Bioavailability of FS from FS-PF-PF micelles was increased by 6-fold with long circulation time, slower plasma elimination and no sign of tissue toxicity as compared to free FS. Further, the FS-PF-FA micelles demonstrated active targeting effect on folate overexpressed human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The concentration of the drug needed for growth inhibition of 50% of cells in a designed time period (GI50) was 14.3 ± 1.2 µg/ml for FS while it was greatly decreased to 9.8 ± 0.78 µg/ml, i.e. a 31.46% decrease for the FS-PF. Furthermore, the GI50 value for FS-PF-FA was 4.9 ± 0.4 µg/ml, i.e. a 65.737% decrease compared to FS and 50% decrease compare to FS-PF. The results indicate that the FS-PF-FA micelles have the potential to be applied for targeting anticancer drug delivery.
Tsang, Julia Ys; Tse, Gary Mk
Microglandular adenosis (MGA) and atypical MGA (AMGA) are unusual lesions of the breast. They were once regarded as benign proliferative lesions and innocent bystanders. Several lines of evidence suggested that they could be neoplastic, clonal lesions and a non-obligate precursor for triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC). Recent work published in The Journal of Pathology by Guerini-Rocco and colleagues provided further evidence regarding the precursor-product relationship between MGA/AMGA and TNBC. Using a massively parallel sequencing approach, they demonstrated that MGA/AMGA, particularly those associated with TNBC, could be clonal neoplastic lesions showing clonal non-synonymous mutations, but none in pure MGA. Importantly, those alterations were observed in the associated TNBC. They were also able to identify recurrent alterations in TP53 in those MGA/AMGA cases as well as their associated TNBC. The findings, in conjunction with others, underscore the significance for MGA in clinical diagnosis. The potential of a benign lesion to progress into an aggressive malignant tumour implies that modification of the current management approach may be necessary. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rabinovich, M; Vallejo, C; Bianco, A; Perez, J; Machiavelli, M; Leone, B; Romero, A; Rodriguez, R; Cuevas, M; Dansky, C
The significance of several prognostic factors and the magnitude of their influence on response rate and survival were assessed by means of uni- and multivariate analyses in 362 patients with stage IV (UICC) breast carcinoma receiving combination chemotherapy as first systemic treatment over an 8-year period. Univariate analyses identified performance status and prior adjuvant radiotherapy as predictors of objective regression (OR), whereas the performance status, prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy (adjuvants), white blood cells count, SGOT and SGPT levels, and metastatic pattern were significantly correlated to survival. In multivariate analyses favorable characteristics associated to OR were prior adjuvant radiotherapy, no prior chemotherapy and postmenopausal status. Regarding survival, the performance status and visceral involvement were selected by the Cox model. The predictive accuracy of the logistic and the proportional hazards models was retrospectively tested in the training sample, and prospectively in a new population of 126 patients also receiving combined chemotherapy as first treatment for metastatic breast cancer. A certain overfitting to data in the training sample was observed with the regression model for response. However, the discriminative ability of the Cox model for survival was clearly confirmed.
.... The development of the Fox Chase Cancer Center Breast Cancer Risk Registry was proposed to facilitate research in the epidemiologic and genetic predictors of disease and will permit evaluation...
Mar 12, 2015 ... Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in Africa, yet no published studies have ... receptor (HR) negative. However, HR ... to develop early diagnosis efforts to address high mortality rates. .... High Incidence of Triple-.
Nguyen, Nam P; Almeida, Fabio S; Chi, Alex; Nguyen, Ly M; Cohen, Deirdre; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent
Breast cancer stem cells (CSC) have been postulated recently as responsible for failure of breast cancer treatment. The purpose of this study is to review breast CSCs molecular biology with respect to their mechanism of resistance to conventional therapy, and to develop treatment strategies that may improve survival of breast cancer patients. A literature search has identified in vitro and in vivo studies of breast CSCs. Breast CSCs overexpress breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) which allows cancer cells to transport actively chemotherapy agents out of the cells. Radioresistance is modulated through activation of Wnt signaling pathway and overexpression of genes coding for glutathione. Lapatinib can selectively target HER-2 positive breast CSCs and improves disease-free survival in these patients. Metformin may target basal type breast CSCs. Parthenolide and oncolytic viruses are promising targeting agents for breast CSCs. Future clinical trials for breast cancer should include anti-cancer stem cells targeting agents in addition to conventional chemotherapy. Hypofractionation radiotherapy may be indicated for residual disease post chemotherapy. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-analysis techniques. Dose-response analyses by number of prescriptions were also performed. Analyses were repeated investigating propranolol use before cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: The combined study population included 55,252 and 133,251 breast cancer patients in the analysis of breast cancer-specific and all...
@@ Breast cancer is one of the neoplasms that have greatest negative psychological impact on the sufferers. Although China is among the low morbidity country of breast cancer, its yearly increasing rate in China is 1%-2% higher than the average rate of the word.1 Due to its largest population in the word, China tops the world in its breast cancer cases but general medical care for the patients still lags behind the developed countries. These issues are related to the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in China.
The evolution and development of opinions on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer since Galen to present time is presented. The concept of breast cancer as a local disease has been replaced by the understanding of its systemic character. On this background described are the methods of surgical treatment beginning from early - supraradical, to present -conservative approaches. The ''milestones'' in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer of the last 40 years are presented. Current methods of breast cancer management include correct diagnosis (clinical examination, mammography, ultrasound, fine needle aspiration biopsy), TNM staging, adequate loco-regional therapy, systemic therapy, rehabilitation, reconstruction and careful follow-up. (author)
Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among female undergraduate students in a higher teachers training college in Cameroon. ... Conclusion: Though most students are aware of the existence of breast cancer, their overall knowledge on its risk factors and clinical presentation is insufficient with a ...
About 10% of breast cancers are ''hereditary'', i.e. caused by a pathogenic mutation in one of the ''breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes'' (BRCA). The BRCA genes 1 and 2 identified to date follow an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. A clustering of breast cancer in a family without a documented mutation and without a recognizable inheritance pattern is usually referred to as ''familial cancer''. A distinction between hereditary and familial is difficult in the individual case because not all of the genetic mutations that cause breast cancer susceptibility are known and thus amenable to genetic testing. Women who are suspected of or documented as carrying a breast cancer susceptibility gene face a substantially increased lifetime risk of breast (and ovarian) cancer ranging from 60-80% for breast and up to 40% for ovarian cancer. In addition, the disease develops at a young age (the personal risk starts increasing at age 25; average age of diagnosis is 40). BRCA-associated breast cancers tend to exhibit histologic and histochemical evidence of aggressive biologic behavior (usually grade 3, receptor negative) with very fast growth rates. In particular BRCA1-associated breast cancer may be indistinguishable from fibroadenomas: They appear as well-defined, roundish, hypoechoic masses with smooth borders, without posterior acoustic shadowing on ultrasound, without associated microcalcifications on mammography, and with strong wash-out phenomenon on breast MRI. This article reviews the different options that exist for the prevention of familial or hereditary breast cancer and the specific difficulties that are associated with the radiological diagnosis of these cancers. Lastly, an overview is given of the current evidence regarding the effectiveness of the different imaging modalities for early diagnosis of familial and hereditary breast cancer. (orig.)
We have performed the NotI-MseI MS-AFLP experiments using normal and tumor DNA from breast cancer patients and determined the identity of bands exhibiting consistent changes in breast cancer DNA fingerprint...
al rates of breast cancer, hence screening of asympto- matic, apparently healthy ... screening tools in women who attended free breast cancer screening exercise in a ..... signs of malignancy. www.appliedradiology.mobi/uploadedfiles/Issues/2.
Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is involved in the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and may be important in breast cancer etiology and progression...
... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...
Portnoj, L.M.; Zhakova, I.I.; Budnikova, N.V.; Rukhlyadko, E.D.
The authors propose their screening program for detection of breast cancer. It includes the entire complex of present-day screening diagnostic methods, starting from an original system for the formation of groups at risk of breast cancer and completed by the direct diagnostic model of detection of the condition, oriented at a differentiated approach to the use of mammographic techniques. The proposed organizational and methodologic screening measures are both economic and diagnostically effective, thus meeting the principal requirements to screening programs. Screening of 8541 risk-groups patients helped detect 867 nodular formations, 244 of which were cancer and 623 benign formations. 8 refs., 3 figs.,
Mejdahl, Mathias Kvist; Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Gärtner, Rune
To examine the development of persistent pain after treatment for breast cancer and to examine risk factors associated with continuing pain.......To examine the development of persistent pain after treatment for breast cancer and to examine risk factors associated with continuing pain....
Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.
Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Kalager, Mette
Background: Effective breast cancer screening should detect early-stage cancer and prevent advanced disease. Objective: To assess the association between screening and the size of detected tumors and to estimate overdiagnosis (detection of tumors that would not become clinically relevant). Design......) and nonadvanced (≤20 mm) breast cancer tumors in screened and nonscreened women were measured. Two approaches were used to estimate the amount of overdiagnosis: comparing the incidence of advanced and nonadvanced tumors among women aged 50 to 84 years in screening and nonscreening areas; and comparing...... rate ratio, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.43 to 1.54]). The first estimation approach found that 271 invasive breast cancer tumors and 179 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions were overdiagnosed in 2010 (overdiagnosis rate of 24.4% [including DCIS] and 14.7% [excluding DCIS]). The second approach, which accounted...
Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
Bombardieri, E.; Crippa, F.
The basis of tumour imaging with PET is a specific uptake mechanism of positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals. Among the potential tracers for breast cancer (fluorodeoxyglucose, methionine, tyrosine, fluoro-estradiol, nor-progesterone), 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose labelled with fluorine (FDG) is the most widely used radiopharmaceutical because breast cancer is particularly avid of FDG and 18 F has the advantages of the a relatively long physical half-life. Mammography is the first choice examination in studying breast masses, due to its very good performances, an excellent compliance and the best value regarding the cost/effectiveness aspects. The FDG uptake in tissue correlates with the histological grade and potential aggressiveness of breast cancer and this may have prognostic consequences. Besides the evaluation of breast lesions, FDG-PET shows a great efficacy in staging lymph node involvement prior surgery and this could have a great value in loco-regional staging. Whole body PET provides also information with regard to metastasis localizations both in soft tissue and bone, and plays an important clinical role mainly in detecting recurrent metastatic disease. In fact for its metabolic characteristics PET visualizes regions of enhanced metabolic activity and can complete other imaging modalities based on structural anatomic changes. Even though CT and MRI show superior resolution characteristics, it has been demonstrated that PET provides more accurate information in discriminating between viable tumour, fibrotic scar or necrosis. These statements are coming from the examination of more than 2000 breast cancer detection
Mah, Robert W.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)
There is evidence in breast cancer and other malignancies that the physiologic environment within a tumor correlates with clinical outcome. We are developing a unique percutaneous Smart Probe to be used at the time of needle biopsy of the breast. The Smart Probe will simultaneously measure multiple physiologic parameters within a breast tumor. Direct and indirect measurements of tissue oxygen levels, blood flow, pH, and tissue fluid pressure will be analyzed in real-time. These parameters will be interpreted individually and collectively by innovative neural network techniques using advanced intelligent software. The goals are 1) develop a pecutaneous Smart Probe with multiple sensor modalities and applying advanced Information Technologies to provide real time diagnostic information of the tissue at tip of the probe, 2) test the percutaneous Smart Probe in women with benign and malignant breast masses who will be undergoing surgical biopsy, 3) correlate probe sensor data with benign and malignant status of breast masses, 4) determine whether the probe can detect physiologic differences within a breast tumor, and its margins, and in adjacent normal breast tissue, 5) correlate probe sensor data with known prognostic factors for breast caner, including tumor size, tumor grade, axillary lymph node metastases, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status.
Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Medullary Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma
Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Mohamed, Ibraham
Data from the National Cancer Registry of Malaysia for 2004 provide an age-standardised incidence rate (ASR) of 46.2 per 100,000 women. This means that approximately 1 in 20 women in the country develop breast cancer in their lifetime. However, the rate differs between the three main races, the Malays, Chinese and Indians. The age standardized incidence in Chinese is the highest, with 59.7 per 100,000, followed by the Indians at 55.8 per 100,000. The Malays have the lowest incidence of 33.9 per 100,000. This translates into 1 in 16 Chinese, 1 in 16 Indian and 1 in 28 Malay women developing breast cancer at some stage in their lives. The commonest age at presentation is between 40-49 years, with just over 50% of the cases under the age of 50 years, 16.8% below 40, and 2% under 30. Some 55.7% of all cases were found to be ER positive. The commonest presenting symptom was a lump in the breast in over 90% of cases, generally felt by the woman herself. The mean size of the lump was 4.2 cm, and on average, the women waited 3 months before seeking medical attention. Over the 12-year period from 1993 to 2004, about 60-70% of women presented with early stage (Stages 1-2) while 30-40% presented with late breast cancer (Stages 3-4). Especially Malays present at later stages and with larger tumours. Consequently their survival is worse than with Chinese and Indian women. The challenge in Malaysia is to be able to provide a comprehensive service in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, and this requires training of a team of health professionals dedicated to breast health, such as breast surgeons, radiologists specializing in breast imaging, breast pathologists, plastic surgeons specializing in breast reconstruction, medical and radiation oncologists, psycho-oncologists, counselors, and breast nurses. Advocacy can play a role here in galvanizing the political will to meet this challenge.
Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3, anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years 31 women (7.6% were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012. The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021. An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships.Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.
Gadan, M.A.; González, S.J.; Batalla, M.; Olivera, M.S.; Policastro, L.; Sztejnberg, M.L.
In the frame of the Argentine BNCT Project a new research line has been started to study the application of BNCT to the treatment of locoregional recurrences of HER2+ breast cancer subtype. Based on former studies, the strategy considers the use of immunoliposomes as boron carriers nanovehicles to target HER2 overexpressing cells. The essential concerns of the current stage of this proposal are the development of carriers that can improve the efficiency of delivery of boron compounds and the dosimetric assessment of treatment feasibility. For this purpose, an specific pool of clinical cases that can benefit from this application was determined. In this work, we present the proposal and the advances related to the different stages of current research. - Highlights: • A new proposal of BNCT for HER2+ breast cancer treatment is introduced. • The proposal considers development of immunoliposomes as boron carrier nanovehicles. • Locoregional recurrences after treatment were identified as candidates for initial BNCT studies. • First analysis show acceptable neutron flux distributions provided by RA-6 BNCT facility.
... within their communities for screening behaviours in health promotion. Medical ... breast self examination (BSE) and breast cancer to be effective health educators. ... female students drawn from schools within the College of Health sciences, ...
Goldschmidt, H.; Gorson, R.O.; Lassen, M.
This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures. (orig.)
Goldschmidt, H.; Gorson, R.O.; Lassen, M.
This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures.
Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini
A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…
TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0366 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...communications 215, 566 (Oct 13, 1995). 87. S. J. Reshkin, R. A. Cardone , S. Harguindey, Na+-H+ exchanger, pH regulation and cancer. Recent patents on anti-cancer drug discovery 8, 85 (Jan 1, 2013).
... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... breast cancer, defined as estrogen and/or progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer, represents 79 percent of breast ...
Yi, Haeseung; Xiao, Tong; Thomas, Parijatham S; Aguirre, Alejandra N; Smalletz, Cindy; Dimond, Jill; Finkelstein, Joseph; Infante, Katherine; Trivedi, Meghna; David, Raven; Vargas, Jennifer; Crew, Katherine D; Kukafka, Rita
The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to patient-provider communication when discussing breast cancer risk to aid in the development of decision support tools. Four patient focus groups (N=34) and eight provider focus groups (N=10) took place in Northern Manhattan. A qualitative analysis was conducted using Atlas.ti software. The coding yielded 62.3%-94.5% agreement. The results showed that 1) barriers are time constraints, lack of knowledge, low health literacy, and language barriers, and 2) facilitators are information needs, desire for personalization, and autonomy when communicating risk in patient-provider encounters. These results will inform the development of a patient-centered decision aid (RealRisks) and a provider-facing breast cancer risk navigation (BNAV) tool, which are designed to facilitate patient-provider risk communication and shared decision-making about breast cancer prevention strategies, such as chemoprevention.
M. L. Casais-Molina
Full Text Available Currently, breast cancer is considered as a health problem worldwide. Furthermore, current treatments neither are capable of stopping its propagation and/or recurrence nor are specific for cancer cells. Therefore, side effects on healthy tissues and cells are common. An increase in the efficiency of treatments, along with a reduction in their toxicity, is desirable to improve the life quality of patients affected by breast cancer. Nanotechnology offers new alternatives for the design and synthesis of nanomaterials that can be used in the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer and has now become a very promising tool for its use against this disease. Among the wide variety of nanomaterials, the scientific community is particularly interested in carbon nanomaterials (fullerenes, nanotubes, and graphene due to their physical properties, versatile chemical functionalization, and biocompatibility. Recent scientific evidence shows the potential uses of carbon nanomaterials as therapeutic agents, systems for selective and controlled drug release, and contrast agents for diagnosing and locating tumors. This generates new possibilities for the development of innovative systems to treat breast cancer and can be used to detect this disease at much earlier stages. Thus, applications of carbon nanomaterials in breast cancer treatment are discussed in this article.
Spellman, Paul T.; Heiser, Laura; Gray, Joe W.
Breast cancer is predominantly a disease of the genome with cancers arising and progressing through accumulation of aberrations that alter the genome - by changing DNA sequence, copy number, and structure in ways that that contribute to diverse aspects of cancer pathophysiology. Classic examples of genomic events that contribute to breast cancer pathophysiology include inherited mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, and CHK2 that contribute to the initiation of breast cancer, amplification of ERBB2 (formerly HER2) and mutations of elements of the PI3-kinase pathway that activate aspects of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and deletion of CDKN2A/B that contributes to cell cycle deregulation and genome instability. It is now apparent that accumulation of these aberrations is a time-dependent process that accelerates with age. Although American women living to an age of 85 have a 1 in 8 chance of developing breast cancer, the incidence of cancer in women younger than 30 years is uncommon. This is consistent with a multistep cancer progression model whereby mutation and selection drive the tumor's development, analogous to traditional Darwinian evolution. In the case of cancer, the driving events are changes in sequence, copy number, and structure of DNA and alterations in chromatin structure or other epigenetic marks. Our understanding of the genetic, genomic, and epigenomic events that influence the development and progression of breast cancer is increasing at a remarkable rate through application of powerful analysis tools that enable genome-wide analysis of DNA sequence and structure, copy number, allelic loss, and epigenomic modification. Application of these techniques to elucidation of the nature and timing of these events is enriching our understanding of mechanisms that increase breast cancer susceptibility, enable tumor initiation and progression to metastatic disease, and determine therapeutic response or resistance. These studies also
Narayanan, Ramesh; Dalton, James T.
Molecular and histopathological profiling have classified breast cancer into multiple sub-types empowering precision treatment. Although estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) are the mainstay therapeutic targets in breast cancer, the androgen receptor (AR) is evolving as a molecular target for cancers that have developed resistance to conventional treatments. The high expression of AR in breast cancer and recent discovery and development of new nonsteroidal drugs targeting the AR provide a strong rationale for exploring it again as a therapeutic target in this disease. Ironically, both nonsteroidal agonists and antagonists for the AR are undergoing clinical trials, making AR a complicated target to understand in breast cancer. This review provides a detailed account of AR’s therapeutic role in breast cancer. PMID:27918430
Full Text Available Molecular and histopathological profiling have classified breast cancer into multiple sub-types empowering precision treatment. Although estrogen receptor (ER and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2 are the mainstay therapeutic targets in breast cancer, the androgen receptor (AR is evolving as a molecular target for cancers that have developed resistance to conventional treatments. The high expression of AR in breast cancer and recent discovery and development of new nonsteroidal drugs targeting the AR provide a strong rationale for exploring it again as a therapeutic target in this disease. Ironically, both nonsteroidal agonists and antagonists for the AR are undergoing clinical trials, making AR a complicated target to understand in breast cancer. This review provides a detailed account of AR’s therapeutic role in breast cancer.
Case Study Amy is a 44-year-old woman with severe autism. She lives with her sister Susan, who is her caregiver and guardian. Amy is ambulatory and able to dress and feed herself. She is a healthy individual with no other significant comorbidities. She walks daily and enjoys her sister's company. Amy's life expectancy is greater than 10 years. However, she is difficult to care for medically, as she will not allow a physical examination and strikes out when strangers try to touch her. She is nonverbal and unable to participate in decision-making. INITIAL DIAGNOSIS Amy has a history of breast cancer diagnosed 2 years ago, originally presenting as a stage I lesion (T2N0) that was palpated by her caregiver while bathing. She underwent right simple mastectomy with sentinel lymph node resection. Susan recalls that the mastectomy was a very challenging ordeal, as Amy kept pulling out IV lines, drains, and dressings. Susan felt that Amy withdrew from her after the procedure as she most likely associated Susan with the cause of the pain, making her role as caregiver more difficult. Pathology confirmed an invasive ductal carcinoma, moderately differentiated, 2.4 cm, estrogen/progesterone receptor negative, HER2/neu negative, with negative surgical margins. Two right axillary sentinel lymph nodes were negative for disease. The standard of care for a patient with these tumor features is surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN], 2012). According to the Adjuvant Online! database (2012), Amy's risk for relapse was approximately 40% without adjuvant treatment; her risk for mortality was approximately 29%. After meeting with a medical oncologist, Amy did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. According to Susan, she was not offered the choice, and the decision was not explained to them. She was simply told that it was not necessary. Aside from pathology, previous records were unavailable for review. Medical assessment of Amy's level of autism
Zakharova, N; Duffy, SW; Mackay, J; Kotlyarov, E
Background: A breast cancer screening programme (BCSP) was started in 21 districts in the Khanty-Mansiysky Autonomous Okrug?Ugra region from 7 February 2007. Methods: From the data on the numbers of subjects screened and the resulting diagnoses we calculated screening coverage rates and cancer detection rates and estimated the sensitivity of the screening tests. The State Cancer Registry was the source for the data regarding the female population by age, the number of breast cancer cases and ...
Fernández, Maria E; Gonzales, Alicia; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Partida, Sylvia; Bartholomew, L Kay
This article describes the development of the Cultivando La Salud program, an intervention to increase breast and cervical cancer screening for Hispanic farmworker women. Processes and findings of intervention mapping (IM), a planning process for development of theory and evidence-informed program are discussed. The six IM steps are presented: needs assessment, preparation of planning matrices, election of theoretic methods and practical strategies, program design, implementation planning, and evaluation. The article also describes how qualitative and quantitative findings informed intervention development. IM helped ensure that theory and evidence guided (a) the identification of behavioral and environmental factors related to a target health problem and (b) the selection of the most appropriate methods and strategies to address the identified determinants. IM also guided the development of program materials and implementation by lay health workers. Also reported are findings of the pilot study and effectiveness trial.
Estrogen Receptor Status; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Status; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
Liu Jie; Liu Peifang
Breast cancer is one of the most common female malignant tumors. The occurrence and development of breast cancer are often accompanied by abnormal gene expression. It has been well accepted that estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and C-erbB-2 (epidermal growth factor receptor-2) are the main reference indexes for clinical endocrine therapy and prognosis prediction. Oncogene expression reflects the malignant biological behavior of breast cancer from different perspectives. Those aggressive behaviors cause a variety of changes in histopathology and thus in imaging. Therefore, the imaging features of breast cancer may indirectly demonstrate the status of ER, PR and C-erbB-2 to a certain extent. Until now, because of its simple operation,low cost and high accuracy, mammography is still the preferred method in breast cancer screening and diagnosis, and has been proposed as a noninvasive technique for prediction of the expression of ER, PR and C-erbB-2. It has potential clinical value in preoperative assessment and non-surgical treatment for those who are not able to perform immunohistochemistry. This review summarized previous related studies and explored mammography as a noninvasive predictor for ER, PR and C-erbB-2. (authors)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young breast cancer patients have a lower rate of survival than old breast cancer patients due to being diagnosed at advanced stages. Breast self-examination makes women more "breast aware", which in turn may lead to an earlier diagnosis of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge and practice of breast self-examination and to determine knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer among high school students. Methods This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a high school in Manisa, Turkey. The study sample included 718 female high school students. A socio-demographic characteristics data form, knowledge of breast self examination and risk factors for breast cancer form and breast self examination practice form were used to collect data. Results The female high school students had insufficient knowledge about breast self-examination and a low percentage of students reported that they had performed breast self examination monthly. The most common reason for not doing breast self- examination was "not knowing how to perform breast self-examination" (98.5%. Most of the students had little knowledge of the risk factors for breast cancer. The most widely known risk factor by the students was personal history of breast cancer (68.7%. There was a significant relation between breast self-examination practice and age, school grade, knowledge about breast cancer and knowledge about breast self- examination. Conclusion There is a need to increase knowledge of adolescent females about the risks of breast cancer and benefits of early detection. In fact, health care professionals can develop effective breast health care programs and help young women to acquire good health habits.
Anderson, N.; Lokich, J.
Three patients developed bilateral breast cancer at 10 to 24 years after mantle irradiation for locally or systemically advanced Hodgkin's disease (HD). Four of the six cancers in the three patients were detected only by mammography. Pathologically, five of the cancers were intraductal carcinomas (four with an invasive component) with one being a lobular carcinoma. Five of the six lesions were Stage I pathologically without evidence of axillary nodal involvement. It is recommended that female patients with Hodgkin's disease who have received mantle irradiation as part of the therapy for their Hodgkin's disease and who are observed for 10 or more years after completion of mantle irradiation be considered at risk for the development of breast cancer. Such patients should be monitored appropriately by routine bilateral mammograms to increase the early detection of early stage lesions
Using the 1957-2011 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I integrate the gender relations theory, a life course perspective, and a biosocial stress perspective to explore the effect of women's job authority in 1975 (at age 36) and 1993 (at age 54) on breast cancer incidence up to 2011. Findings indicate that women with the authority to hire, fire, and influence others' pay had a significantly higher risk of a breast cancer diagnosis over the next 30 years compared to housewives and employed women with no job authority. Because job authority conferred the highest risk of breast cancer for women who also spent more hours dealing with people at work in 1975, I suggest that the assertion of job authority by women in the 1970s involved stressful interpersonal experiences, such as social isolation and negative social interactions, that may have increased the risk of breast cancer via prolonged dysregulation of the glucocorticoid system and exposure of breast tissue to the adverse effects of chronically elevated cortisol. This study contributes to sociology by emphasizing gendered biosocial pathways through which women's occupational experiences become embodied and drive forward physiological repercussions.
This critical review focuses on the role of steroid hormones and their receptors in the development and treatment of breast cancer, with special reference to estrogen receptors, as well as mechanisms of receptor.ligand interactions, response or resistance to hormonal therapy against breast cancer, in conjunction with other ...
Primary breast cancer when detected early can be treated by radical mastectomy alone. However, 20-30% of women treated as such later on, develop local or regional recurrence. This leads to an additional treatment with radiotherapy by the oncologist for the sake of the 20-30% of patients that may need it postoperatively.
Tan, Maxine; Leader, Joseph K.; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin
We recently investigated a new mammographic image feature based risk factor to predict near-term breast cancer risk after a woman has a negative mammographic screening. We hypothesized that unlike the conventional epidemiology-based long-term (or lifetime) risk factors, the mammographic image feature based risk factor value will increase as the time lag between the negative and positive mammography screening decreases. The purpose of this study is to test this hypothesis. From a large and diverse full-field digital mammography (FFDM) image database with 1278 cases, we collected all available sequential FFDM examinations for each case including the "current" and 1 to 3 most recently "prior" examinations. All "prior" examinations were interpreted negative, and "current" ones were either malignant or recalled negative/benign. We computed 92 global mammographic texture and density based features, and included three clinical risk factors (woman's age, family history and subjective breast density BIRADS ratings). On this initial feature set, we applied a fast and accurate Sequential Forward Floating Selection (SFFS) feature selection algorithm to reduce feature dimensionality. The features computed on both mammographic views were individually/ separately trained using two artificial neural network (ANN) classifiers. The classification scores of the two ANNs were then merged with a sequential ANN. The results show that the maximum adjusted odds ratios were 5.59, 7.98, and 15.77 for using the 3rd, 2nd, and 1st "prior" FFDM examinations, respectively, which demonstrates a higher association of mammographic image feature change and an increasing risk trend of developing breast cancer in the near-term after a negative screening.
Poortmans, Philip; Aznar, Marianne; Bartelink, Harry
Radiation therapy for breast cancer has considerably changed over the years, from simple simulator-based 2-dimensional techniques to sophisticated image-guided individualized treatments, with maximally protected normal structures. This has led to a substantial improvement in the outcome of breast...... cancer patients in terms of disease control, survival, and quality of life. This progress is based on clinical research and paralleled by progress in delivering sophisticated radiation treatment. Clinical trials resulted in identifying patients groups who will benefit from radiation treatment. They also...
Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M.
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women
Several studies show that a significantly stronger association is obvious between increased body mass index (BMI) and higher breast cancer incidence. Furthermore, obese women are at higher risk of all-cause and breast cancer specific mortality when compared to non-obese women with breast cancer. In this context, increased levels of estrogens due to excessive aromatization activity of the adipose tissue, overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance, hyperactivation of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) pathways, adipocyte-derived adipokines, hypercholesterolemia and excessive oxidative stress contribute to the development of breast cancer in obese women. While higher breast cancer risk with hormone replacement therapy is particularly evident among lean women, in postmenopausal women who are not taking exogenous hormones, general obesity is a significant predictor for breast cancer. Moreover, increased plasma cholesterol leads to accelerated tumor formation and exacerbates their aggressiveness. In contrast to postmenopausal women, premenopausal women with high BMI are inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Nevertheless, life-style of women for breast cancer risk is regulated by avoiding the overweight and a high-fat diet. Estrogen-plus-progestin hormone therapy users for more than 5 years have elevated risks of both invasive ductal and lobular breast cancer. Additionally, these cases are more commonly node-positive and have a higher cancer-related mortality. Collectively, in this chapter, the impacts of obesity-related estrogen, cholesterol, saturated fatty acid, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, aromatase activity, leptin and insulin resistance on breast cancer patients are evaluated. Obesity-related prognostic factors of breast cancer also are discussed at molecular basis.
Li, Fangxuan; Dou, Jinli; Wei, Lijuan; Li, Shixia; Liu, Juntian
Persistently increased blood levels of estrogens are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a class of compounds that act on the estrogen receptor (ER). Several clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of its prophylactic administration. Incidence of invasive ER-positive breast cancer was reduced by SERMs treatment, especially for those women with high risk of developing breast cancer. In this study, we reviewed the clinical application of SERMs in breast cancer prevention. To date, four prospective randomized clinical trials had been performed to test the efficacy of tamoxifen for this purpose. Concerning on the benefit and cost of tamoxifen, various studies from different countries demonstrated that chemoprevention with tamoxifen seemed to be cost-effective for women with a high risk of invasive breast cancer. Based above, tamoxifen was approved for breast cancer prevention by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1998. Raloxifene was also approved for postmenopausal women in 2007 for breast cancer prevention which reduces the risk of invasive breast cancer with a lower risk of unwanted stimulation of endometrium. Thus, raloxifene is considered to have a better clinical possesses as prophylactic agent. Several other agents, such as arzoxifene and lasofoxifene, are currently being investigated in clinic. The American Society of Clinical Oncology and National Comprehensive Cancer Network had published guidelines on breast cancer chemoprevention by SERMs. However, use of tamoxifen and raloxifene for primary breast cancer prevention was still low. A broader educational effort is needed to alert women and primary care physicians that SERMs are available to reduce breast cancer risk.
Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)
Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by
Kim, Seung Ja; Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Woo Kyung
Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by
Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
Stuiver, Martijn M.; ten Tusscher, Marieke R.; Agasi-Idenburg, Carla S.; Lucas, Cees; Aaronson, Neil K.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.
Background Breast cancer-related lymphoedema can be a debilitating long-term sequela of breast cancer treatment. Several studies have investigated the effectiveness of different treatment strategies to reduce the risk of breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Objectives To assess the effects of
Holmich, L.R.; During, M.; Henriksen, T.F.
We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...
Wolden, Suzanne L.; Carlson, Robert W.; Jeffrey, Stefanie S.; Hancock, Steven L.
because of prior radiation. Two patients received a lumpectomy with breast irradiation. In one case, the breast irradiation overlapped the prior mantle field for a cumulative dose of 89.6 Gy. This patient suffered severe fat necrosis. Of 48 patients who had axillary dissections, 31% had involved nodes. One patient presented with bilateral disease and two others developed subsequent invasive cancers in the opposite breast. Three patients had prophylactic contralateral mastectomies. The patient with LCIS was followed after biopsy and Tamoxifen only. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to 55% and hormonal therapy to 36% of women with invasive breast cancer. Adriamycin containing regimens were used infrequently due to concerns about prior cardiotoxic chemotherapy and radiation. Ten year, disease specific actuarial survival was 100% for patients with carcinoma in situ, 71% for those with stage I or II breast cancer, and 43% for stages III and IV. Two women died from third cancers (lung and bladder) and two from myocardial infarction (ages 45 and 60). Conclusion: The risk of breast cancer is increased in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease. Our data suggested that mammography may be underutilized, as most cases in this series were detected by the patient. Histology and tumor grade do not appear to differ from that expected in the general breast cancer population. Generally, breast cancer following Hodgkin's disease is most appropriately treated with mastectomy because of prior radiation. One of two patients in this series had an unacceptable complication following breast conserving therapy. Axillary node dissection is possible after mantle radiotherapy and as many as 31% of patients may have involved nodes. Prophylactic contralateral mastectomy is not recommended because the incidence of bilateral breast cancer is relatively low. Adjuvant chemotherapy and hormonal therapy should be used according to general guidelines, but adriamycin is relatively contraindicated in patients
Drukker, Karen; Sennett, Charlene A.; Giger, Maryellen L.
Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection method and investigate its feasibility for detection of breast cancer in automated 3D ultrasound images of women with dense breasts. Methods: The HIPAA compliant study involved a dataset of volumetric ultrasound image data, “views,” acquired with an automated U-Systems Somo•V ® ABUS system for 185 asymptomatic women with dense breasts (BI-RADS Composition/Density 3 or 4). For each patient, three whole-breast views (3D image volumes) per breast were acquired. A total of 52 patients had breast cancer (61 cancers), diagnosed through any follow-up at most 365 days after the original screening mammogram. Thirty-one of these patients (32 cancers) had a screening-mammogram with a clinically assigned BI-RADS Assessment Category 1 or 2, i.e., were mammographically negative. All software used for analysis was developed in-house and involved 3 steps: (1) detection of initial tumor candidates, (2) characterization of candidates, and (3) elimination of false-positive candidates. Performance was assessed by calculating the cancer detection sensitivity as a function of the number of “marks” (detections) per view. Results: At a single mark per view, i.e., six marks per patient, the median detection sensitivity by cancer was 50.0% (16/32) ± 6% for patients with a screening mammogram-assigned BI-RADS category 1 or 2—similar to radiologists’ performance sensitivity (49.9%) for this dataset from a prior reader study—and 45.9% (28/61) ± 4% for all patients. Conclusions: Promising detection sensitivity was obtained for the computer on a 3D ultrasound dataset of women with dense breasts at a rate of false-positive detections that may be acceptable for clinical implementation
Moretti, A; Bianchi, F; Abbate, I V; Gherardi, G; Bonavita, M; Passoni, E; Nazzaro, G; Bramati, A; Dazzani, M C; Piva, S; Paternò, E; Frungillo, N; Farina, G; La Verde, N
Early breast cancer follow-up guidelines for patients who underwent surgery suggest a regular and accurate clinical examination of the breast area, for an early identification of cutaneous or subcutaneous breast cancer relapse. Nonetheless, breast skin lesions arising in patients treated with mastectomy for breast cancer can be caused by several diseases. A series of diagnostic hypotheses should be considered, not only focusing on cutaneous metastasis, but also on dermatologic and systemic diseases. In February 2015, a 37-year-old patient underwent a right subcutaneous mastectomy for stage IIA breast cancer. Five months after beginning adjuvant chemotherapy, she noted hyperpigmentation and thickening of the skin on the right breast. Differential diagnosis included local relapse, skin infection, lymphoma, or primary cutaneous disease, and a skin biopsy was performed. The histopathologic specimen showed full-thickness sclerosis, with features of localized morphea. Therapy with clobetasol was prescribed, with progressive resolution of the thickness. The collaboration between many professionals in a multidisciplinary team (oncologist, dermatologist, plastic surgeon, and pathologist) was crucial to achieving the diagnosis. In the literature, some articles describe correlation between connective tissue diseases and silicone breast implants, but the pathogenetic mechanisms are unknown. We report a rare case of breast morphea after positioning a silicone implant in a patient who had undergone mastectomy. This clinical report represents an interesting model of multidisciplinary management of a patient with breast cancer who developed an uncommon dermatologic disease. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between silicone implants and breast morphea.
Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of studies have profiled tumor specimens using distinct microarray platforms and analysis techniques. With the accumulating amount of microarray data, one of the most intriguing yet challenging tasks is to develop robust statistical models to integrate the findings. Results By applying a two-stage Bayesian mixture modeling strategy, we were able to assimilate and analyze four independent microarray studies to derive an inter-study validated "meta-signature" associated with breast cancer prognosis. Combining multiple studies (n = 305 samples on a common probability scale, we developed a 90-gene meta-signature, which strongly associated with survival in breast cancer patients. Given the set of independent studies using different microarray platforms which included spotted cDNAs, Affymetrix GeneChip, and inkjet oligonucleotides, the individually identified classifiers yielded gene sets predictive of survival in each study cohort. The study-specific gene signatures, however, had minimal overlap with each other, and performed poorly in pairwise cross-validation. The meta-signature, on the other hand, accommodated such heterogeneity and achieved comparable or better prognostic performance when compared with the individual signatures. Further by comparing to a global standardization method, the mixture model based data transformation demonstrated superior properties for data integration and provided solid basis for building classifiers at the second stage. Functional annotation revealed that genes involved in cell cycle and signal transduction activities were over-represented in the meta-signature. Conclusion The mixture modeling approach unifies disparate gene expression data on a common probability scale allowing for robust, inter-study validated prognostic signatures to be obtained. With the emerging utility of microarrays for cancer prognosis, it will be important to establish paradigms to meta
breast cancer [26, 27] or cytologic atypia , while another observed elevated IL-6 levels among breast cancer cases with insulin resistance [29...Relation between insulin resistance and serum concentrations of IL-6 and TNF- alpha in overweight or obese women with early stage breast cancer...without oophorectomy, hysterectomy with uni- or bilateral oophorectomy), prior breast biopsy (no, yes), ever been pregnant (no, yes), and
Sun, Woo-Young; Lee, Ki-Hyeong; Lee, Ho-Chang; Ryu, Dong-Hee; Park, Jin-Woo; Yun, Hyo-Young; Song, Young-Jin
Synchronous bilateral breast cancer is extremely rare in men and has not, up to date, been reported in Korea. A 54-year-old man presented with a palpable mass in the right breast. The right nipple was retracted and bilateral axillary accessory breasts and nipples were present. On physical examination, a 2 cm-sized mass was palpated directly under the right nipple, and, with squeezing, bloody discharge developed in a single duct of the left nipple. There was no palpable mass in the left breast, and axillary lymph nodes were not palpable. Physical examination of external genitalia revealed a unilateral undescended testis on the left side. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer was diagnosed using mammography, ultrasonography, and core-needle biopsy. Histopathological examination revealed invasive ductal carcinoma in the right breast and ductal carcinoma in situ in the left breast. Bilateral total mastectomy, sentinel lymph node biopsy, and excision of accessory breasts in the axilla were performed.
Ren, Zhiyong; Li, Yufeng; Shen, Tiansheng; Hameed, Omar; Siegal, Gene P; Wei, Shi
Prognostic factors are well established in early-stage breast cancer (BC), but less well-defined in advanced disease. We analyzed 323 BC patients who had distant relapse during follow-up from 1997 to 2010 to determine the significant clinicopathologic factors predicting survival outcomes. By univariate analysis, race, tumor grade, estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR) and HER2 status were significantly associated with overall survival (OS) and post-metastasis survival (PMS). Applying a Cox regression model revealed that all these factors remained significant for PMS, while race, tumor grade and HER2 were independent factors for OS. Tumor grade was the only significant factor for metastasis-free survival by univariate and multivariate analyses. Our findings demonstrated that being Caucasian, hormonal receptor positive (HR+) and HER2 positive (HER2+) were all associated with a decreased hazard of death and that patients with HR+/HER2+ tumors had superior outcomes to those with HR+/HER2- disease. Further, PR status held a prognostic value over ER, thus reflecting the biologic mechanism of the importance of the functional ER pathway and the heterogeneity in the response to endocrine therapy. These observations indicate that the patients' genetic makeup and the intrinsic nature of the tumor principally govern BC progression and prognosticate the long-term outcomes in advanced disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignant cancer among women, both in Poland and worldwide. Due to the constantly increasing number of breast cancer cases, it is vital to develop effective activities in primary and secondary prevention. One of the promising methods of best value, connecting both types of cancer prevention, appears to be chemoprevention. Chemoprevention uses natural or synthetic compounds to inhibit, delay or reverse the process of carcinogenesis. Among ingredients of natural origin, great attention is paid to curcumin – a broad-spectrum anti-cancer polyphenol derivative, extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. Curcumin has a number of chemopreventive properties such as anti-inflammatory activity, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis as well as tumor metastasis. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the mentioned anti-cancer effect in the epithelial breast cell line MCF-10A and in the epithelial breast cell lines MCF-7, BT-474, SK-BR-3-hr and MDA-MB-231. The main problem associated with the use of curcumin as a chemopreventive agent in humans is its low absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, poor solubility in body fluids and low bioavailability. Current studies are underway to increase the bioavailability and effectiveness of curcumin in vivo. Good results in the prevention and the treatment of breast cancer could be ensured by curcumin nanoparticles coated with albumin, known as nanocurcumin. The studies using nanocurcumin, however, are still in the preclinical stage, which is why there is a need to conduct extensive long-term randomized clinical trials to determine its effectiveness.
Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer development in postmenopausal women and correlates with shorter disease-free and overall survival in breast cancer patients, regardless of menopausal status...
Meijer, Danielle; van Agthoven, Ton; Bosma, Peter T.; Nooter, Kees; Dorssers, Lambert C. J.
Antiestrogens, such as tamoxifen, are widely used for endocrine treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. However, as breast cancer progresses, development of tamoxifen resistance is inevitable. The mechanisms underlying this resistance are not well understood. To identify genes
Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer
Abramczyk, H.; Surmacki, J.; Brożek-Płuska, B.; Morawiec, Z.; Tazbir, M.
This paper presents new biological results on ex vivo breast tissue based on Raman spectroscopy and demonstrates its power as diagnostic tool with the key advantage in breast cancer research. The results presented here demonstrate the ability of Raman spectroscopy to accurately characterize cancer tissue and distinguish between normal, malignant and benign types. The goal of the paper is to develop the diagnostic ability of Raman spectroscopy in order to find an optical marker of cancer in the breast tissue. Applications of Raman spectroscopy in breast cancer research are in the early stages of development in the world. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is one of the most statistically reliable reports (1100 spectra, 99 patients) on Raman spectroscopy-based diagnosis of breast cancers among the world women population.
The paper is concerned with the resUlts of the multimodality system of breast cancer recognition using methods, of clinical X-ray and cytological examinations. Altogether 1671 women were examined; breast cancer was detected in 165. Stage 1 was detected in 63 patients, Stage 2 in 34, Stage 3 in 34, and Stage 4 in 8. In 7% of the cases, tumors were inpalpable and could be detected by X-ray only. In 9.9% of the cases, the multicentric nature of tumor growth was established. In 71% tumors had a mixed histological structure. The system of breast cancer recognition provided for accurate diagnosis in 98% of the cases making it possible to avoid surgical intervention in 38%. Good diagnostic results are possible under conditions of a special mammology unit where a roentgenologist working in a close contact with surgeonns working in a close contact with surgeos and morphologists, performs the first stages of diagnosis beginning from clinical examination up to special methods that require X-ray control (paracentesis, ductography, pneumocystography, preoperative marking of the breast and marking of the remote sectors of the breast)
Formenti, S.C.; Formenti, S.C.; Arslan, A.A.; Arslan, A.A.; Love, S.M.; Love, S.M.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women globally. This paper discusses the current progress in breast cancer in Western countries and focuses on important differences of this disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMCs). It introduces several arguments for applying caution before globalizing some of the US-adopted practices in the screening and management of the disease. Finally, it suggests that studies of breast cancer in LMCs might offer important insights for a more effective management of the problem both in developing as well as developed countries.high-energy Japanese immigrants female higher proliferative
Full Text Available Delgermaa Demchig, Claudia Mello-Thoms, Patrick C Brennan Medical Image Optimization and Perception Group (MIOPeG, Faculty of Health Science, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death for women in both developed and developing countries. The incidence and mortality of breast cancer in Mongolia, while low compared with other counties, has been increasing on an annual basis. In addition, in Mongolia, approximately 90% of the patients are diagnosed at a late stage, resulting in high mortality, with the majority of individuals diagnosed with breast cancer dying within 5 years of diagnosis. Breast cancer screening plays an important role in reducing mortality in Western countries and has been adopted by a number of Asian countries; however, no such approach exists in Mongolia. In a country of limited resources, implementation of expensive health strategies such as screening requires effective allocations of resources and the identification of the most effective imaging methods. This requirement relies on recent accurate data; however, at this time, there is a paucity of information around breast cancer in Mongolia. Until data around features of the disease are available, effective strategies to diagnose breast cancer that recognize the economic climate in Mongolia cannot be implemented and the impact of breast cancer is likely to increase. Keywords: incidence, mortality, breast screening, Mongolia
Full Text Available Abstract Background Male breast cancer is a comparatively rare disease, and simultaneous bilateral male breast cancer is considered to be an extremely rare event. Risk factors are said to be genetic factors and hormonal abnormalities due to obesity or testicular diseases. Case presentation The patient was a 47-year-old Japanese male. His family had no history of female breast cancer. This patient also had hypospadias and hormonal examination indicated the presence of primary testicular potential hypogonadism, and these hormonal abnormalities seemed to be present since childhood or the fetal period. The bilateral breast cancer developed in this man at a comparatively young age, and histopathological studies of multiple sections showed that there was almost no normal epithelial cell in the ducts, while the ducts were almost completely filled with breast cancer cells. Conclusion It is thought that male breast cancer is caused by an imbalance between estrogen and testosterone. We cannot rule out the possibility that the breast cancer developed due to the effect of the slight elevation of estrogen over a long period of time, but the actual causative factors in this patient were unable to be definitively identified. In the future, we hope to further elucidate the causes of male breast cancer.
Plesnicar, A.; Kralj, B.; Druzina, B.; Kovac, V.
Background. The survival rate of breast cancer patients has not changed much in the last few decades in developed countries. In order to improve the efficacy of breast cancer prevention and treatment, the role of xenooestrogens in the mechanisms of its development has been evaluated. These industrial chemicals bear little structural resemblance to each other and bind to the oestrogen receptors of exposed cells and/or trigger oestrogenic responses in laboratory test systems. Exposure to xenooestrogens has been regarded as a risk factor for carcinogenesis and a preventable cause of breast carcinoma. Several epidemiological and experimental studies in in vivo and in in vitro conditions of the influence of xenooestrogens on the occurrence of breast cancer have been conducted in the last decades and have shown ambiguous results. Conclusions. No increase in breast carcinoma incidence could be found in women who were exposed to relatively high concentrations of xenooestrogens for extended periods and small quantities of these compounds that are present in the environment probably cannot act as etiological agents for the occurrence of this disease. A multi step approach is suggested regarding the sequence of studies and measures that should be taken to further assess the importance of xenooestrogens on breast cancer carcinogenesis. (author)
Tessier Cloutier, B; Clarke, A E; Ramsey-Goldman, R
Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries.......Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries....