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Sample records for breakthrough cancer pain

  1. Breakthrough cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrew; Buchanan, Alison; Zeppetella, Giovambattista

    2013-01-01

    Breakthrough pain is common in patients with cancer and is a significant cause of morbidity in this group of patients.......Breakthrough pain is common in patients with cancer and is a significant cause of morbidity in this group of patients....

  2. Breakthrough cancer pain – still a challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mañas A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cesar Margarit,1 Joaquim Juliá,2 Rafael López,3 Antonio Anton,4 Yolanda Escobar,5 Ana Casas,6 Juan Jesús Cruz,7 Rafael Galvez,8 Ana Mañas,9 Francisco Zaragozá101Pain Unit, Alicante University General Hospital, Alicante, Spain; 2Department of Integral Support-Palliative Care, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO, Germans Trias i Pujol University Hospital, Badalona, Spain; 3Department of Clinical Oncology, University Hospital Complex, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 4Department of Clinical Oncology, Miguel Servet Hospital, Zaragoza, Spain; 5Department of Clinical Oncology, Gregorio Marañón Hospital, Madrid, Spain; 6Department of Oncology, Virgen Macarena Hospital, Seville, Spain; 7Department of Clinical Oncology, Salamanca Hospital, Salamanca, Spain; 8Pain and Palliative Care Unit, Virgen de las Nieves Hospital, Granada, Spain; 9Department of Oncology–Radiotherapy, La Paz Hospital, Madrid, Spain; 10Department of Pharmacology, University of Alcalá de Henares, SpainAbstract: Breakthrough cancer pain is defined as transient pain exacerbation in patients with stable and controlled basal pain. Although variable, the prevalence of breakthrough cancer pain is high (33%–95%. According to the American Pain Foundation, breakthrough pain is observed in 50%–90% of all hospitalized cancer patients, in 89% of all patients admitted to homes for the elderly and terminal-patient care centers, and in 35% of all ambulatory care cancer patients. The management of breakthrough cancer pain should involve an interdisciplinary and multimodal approach. The introduction of new fentanyl formulations has represented a great advance and has notably improved treatment. Among these, the pectin-based intranasal formulation adjusts very well to the profile of breakthrough pain attacks, is effective, has a good toxicity profile, and allows for convenient dosing – affording rapid and effective analgesia with the added advantage of being easily administered by

  3. [Breakthrough cancer pain in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón-Gutiérrez, Luis; Viloria-Jiménez, María Aurora; Pérez-Cajaraville, Juan; Álamo-González, Cecilio; López-Trigo, José Antonio; Gil-Gregorio, Pedro

    Breakthrough pain is defined as an acute exacerbation of pain with rapid onset, short duration and moderate or high intensity, which occurs spontaneously or in connection with a predictable or unpredictable event despite there being stabilised and controlled baseline pain. However, there are doubts about the definition, terminology, epidemiology, and assessment of breakthrough pain, with no clear answers or consensus, especially in the elderly population. This non-systematic review summarises the most important aspects of breakthrough pain in the elderly, based on the limited publications there are in that population group. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. The "pain pen" for breakthrough cancer pain : A promising treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enting, Roeline; Mucchiano, C; Oldenmenger, WH; Fritzon, M; Wallen, A; Goslinga-van der Gaag, S; Smitt, PAES; Delhaas, E

    Breakthrough pain has been recognized as a challenging pain phenomenon in cancer. Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) recently has been recommended as treatment, but OTFC is not widely available. Therefore, alternatives are needed. In two separate pilot studies, 58 patients were instructed to

  5. A European survey of oncology nurse breakthrough cancer pain practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rustoen, Tone; Geerling, Jenske I.; Pappa, Theodora; Rundstrom, Carina; Weisse, Isolde; Williams, Sian C.; Zavratnik, Bostjan; Kongsgaard, Ulf E.; Wengstrom, Yvonne

    Purpose of the research: Breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP) is a prevalent type of pain in which the nurse can play an important role in improving patients' pain symptoms and overall well-being. Nurses' experience with BTCP (number of patients, and estimates of severity and frequency), the treatment of

  6. Management of breakthrough pain in children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrichsdorf SJ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Stefan J Friedrichsdorf,1,2 Andrea Postier1 1Department of Pain Medicine, Palliative Care and Integrative Medicine, Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, 2University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: Breakthrough pain in children with cancer is an exacerbation of severe pain that occurs over a background of otherwise controlled pain. There are no randomized controlled trials in the management of breakthrough pain in children with cancer, and limited data and considerable experience indicate that breakthrough pain in this pediatric patient group is common, underassessed, and undertreated. An ideal therapeutic agent would be rapid in onset, have a relatively short duration, and would be easy to administer. A less effective pharmacologic strategy would be increasing a patient's dose of scheduled opioids, because this may increase the risk of oversedation. The most common and effective strategy seems to be multimodal analgesia that includes an immediate-release opioid (eg, morphine, fentanyl, hydromorphone, or diamorphine administered intravenously by a patient-controlled analgesia pump, ensuring an onset of analgesic action within minutes. Intranasal fentanyl (or hydromorphone may be an alternative, but no pediatric data have been published yet for commercially available fentanyl transmucosal application systems (ie, sublingual tablets/spray, buccal lozenge/tablet/film, and nasal spray, and these products cannot yet be recommended for use with children with cancer and breakthrough pain. The aim of this paper was to emphasize the dearth of available information on treatment of breakthrough pain in pediatric cancer patients, to describe the treatment protocols we currently recommend based on clinical experience, and to suggest future research on this very important and under-researched topic. Keywords: pediatric, cancer, breakthrough pain, opioid, adjuvant analgesia, integrative medicine

  7. From "breakthrough" to "episodic" Cancer Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhre, Erik Torbjørn; Klepstad, Pål; Bennett, Michael I

    2016-01-01

    consensus on definitions, terminology, and subclassification of transient cancer pain exacerbations. Methods The most frequent authors on BTCP literature were identified using the same search strategy as in a systematic review and invited to participate in a two-round Delphi survey. Topics with a low degree...

  8. Opioids for the management of breakthrough pain in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppetella, Giovambattista; Davies, Andrew N

    2013-10-21

    This review is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Issue 1, 2006). Breakthrough pain is a transient exacerbation of pain that occurs either spontaneously or in relation to a specific predictable or unpredictable trigger despite relative stable and adequately controlled background pain. Breakthrough pain usually related to background pain and is typically of rapid onset, severe in intensity and generally self limiting with a mean duration of 30 minutes. Breakthrough pain has traditionally been managed by the administration of supplemental oral analgesia (rescue medication) at a dose proportional to the total around-the-clock (ATC) opioid dose. To determine the efficacy of opioid analgesics given by any route, used for the management of breakthrough pain in patients with cancer, and to identify and quantify, if data permitted, any adverse effects of this treatment. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and trial registries in January 2005 for the original review, and again on 6 February 2013 for this update. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of opioids used as rescue medication against active or placebo comparator in patients with cancer pain. Outcome measures sought were reduction in pain intensity measured by an appropriate scale, adverse effects, attrition, patient satisfaction and quality of life. We applied no language restrictions. Two review authors independently selected and examined eligible studies. We retrieved full text if any uncertainty about eligibility remained. We screened non-English texts. We conducted quality assessment and data extraction using standardised data forms. We compared drug and placebo dose, titration, route and formulation and recorded details of all outcome measures (if available). The original review included four studies (393 participants), all concerned with the use of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC

  9. Fentanyl Buccal Soluble Film: A Review in Breakthrough Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2016-05-01

    Fentanyl buccal soluble film (Onsolis(®), Breakyl(®), Painkyl™) comprises two layers: a mucoadhesive layer containing the active drug, and an inactive layer with the aim of preventing the diffusion of fentanyl into the oral cavity. It is approved in several countries worldwide, including the USA and those of the EU, for the management of breakthrough cancer pain in opioid-tolerant, adult patients with cancer. This article reviews the pharmacological properties of fentanyl buccal soluble film and its clinical efficacy and tolerability in these patients. Fentanyl buccal soluble film provides an additional option for transmucosal delivery of fentanyl, with approximately half of the dose undergoing an initial, rapid absorption via the buccal mucosa (accounting for its high bioavailability). In clinical trials, fentanyl buccal soluble film was associated with significant improvements in pain intensity scores versus placebo and was generally well tolerated. The most common adverse events were typical opioid-associated adverse events, such as nausea and vomiting. Fentanyl buccal soluble film is a useful option for the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain in opioid-tolerant patients.

  10. Assessment and management of breakthrough pain in cancer patients: current approaches and emerging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Neil A; Biondo, Patricia; Stiles, Carla

    2008-08-01

    Cancer pain is highly prevalent and often severe. Fortunately, most cancer pain can be readily managed, with up to 90% of patients responding well to standard interventions. However, breakthrough cancer pain-brief flares of severe pain superimposed on baseline pain-is common, difficult to manage, and often negatively impacts patients' quality of life. Breakthrough cancer pain is traditionally managed with oral, immediate-release opioids. However, because of its sudden onset and severity, oral opioids often fall short of providing adequate control. Research into novel approaches to pain management has identified several innovative strategies for this difficult cancer pain problem. We describe current approaches to assess, define, characterize, and treat breakthrough cancer pain, and summarize recent clinical research on novel agents, novel routes of drug delivery, and other advances in its management.

  11. Fentanyl transmucosal tablets: current status in the management of cancer-related breakthrough pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prommer E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Eric Prommer, Brandy FicekDivision of Hematology/Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Hospital, Scottsdale, AZ, USAAbstract: Breakthrough pain is a newly recognized pain category that was first described by Portenoy and Hagen in 1990. The term describes pain that increases in intensity to “break through” chronic pain that is being controlled by a scheduled opioid regimen. The development of fluctuations in pain intensity is challenging due to their unpredictable nature, rapid onset, and need for rapid treatment intervention. Breakthrough pain has been treated by using an extra opioid dose in addition to the scheduled opioid being used for pain. Recommendations for dose and frequency are based on expert opinion only, and have included dosing based on a percentage of the total opioid dose. Other recommendations include increasing the regularly scheduled opioid dose. Clinical trials have now focused on delivery of opioids that have both potency and a rapid onset of action. Lipophilic opioids have received a substantial amount of study due to their quick absorption and rapid onset of analgesia. Lipophilic opioids that have been studied to date include transmucosal fentanyl, sublingual fentanyl, intranasal sufentanil, and oral and sublingual methadone. Initial clinical trials have established the superiority of transmucosal fentanyl as a breakthrough analgesic when compared with immediate-release oral opioid formulations. Problems with bioavailability have led to a search for newer formulations of transmucosal delivery. Newer formulations, such as fentanyl transmucosal tablets, have been developed to ensure superior delivery for the patient suffering from breakthrough pain. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current status of transmucosal tablet formulations for cancer breakthrough pain.Keywords: fentanyl, transmucosal, tablets, pain, breakthrough, cancer

  12. Oral trasmucosal fentanyl citrate for breakthrough pain treatment in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano

    2012-04-01

    Breakthrough cancer pain has been defined as a transitory increase in pain intensity that occurs either spontaneously or in relation to a specific predictable or unpredictable trigger, despite relatively stable and adequately controlled background pain. The availability of supplemental doses of oral opioids, in addition to the continuous analgesic medication, is the main treatment suggested to manage pain flares. Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) is the first product of a new generation of delivery systems, named rapid-onset opioids (ROOs), characterized by rapidity of effect and the short duration of analgesia. Controlled studies and long-term experience have shown that OTFC is an effective treatment for breakthrough pain management and its use should be considered in any patient experiencing breakthrough pain related to cancer. The onset of action of OTFC - demonstrated to start within 15 min - and the short time to maximum concentration make it a useful indication for breakthrough pain; dose titration is commonly recommended. However, it is likely that patients receiving high doses of opioids for background analgesia will not be candidates for titration with minimal initial doses of OTFC, as they are opioid tolerant and the process would be time consuming.

  13. An analysis of the variability of breakthrough pain intensity in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Allen W; Filbet, Marilène; Knight, Alastair D; Tayi, Ravi; Perelman, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The management of breakthrough pain in patients with cancer (BTPc) generally includes an initial titration of breakthrough pain medication to an effective dose, followed by the use of that dose in all subsequent episodes. This strategy presumes that an individual patient has a degree of consistency of pain during repeat episodes; however, that presumption has not been formally assessed. To examine the variation in pain intensity of BTPc episodes within individual patients and across patients. Data were pooled from 2 randomized, double-blind, crossover studies that used fentanyl pectin nasal spray (FPNS) vs comparator to relieve BTPc. Eligible patients were adults with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status ≤ 2 and adequately controlled background pain. The FPNS dose was titrated prior to a double-blind treatment consisting of 10 episodes. Pain intensity was reported on an 11-point numeric scale in which 0 = no pain and 10 = worst possible pain. Inter- and intrapatient variabilities of baseline pain intensity scores per episode were analyzed by analysis of covariance via a mixed-effect model. The influences of demographics and ECOG grade at study entry were assessed. Mean baseline pain intensity score was 7.3 (standard deviation, 1.76; range, 2-10) across 1,399 BTPc episodes in 152 patients. The interpatient variability of baseline pain intensity scores was 75.96%; intrapatient variability was 20.64%. Fixed terms for demographics and ECOG grade did not significantly influence baseline pain intensity score (≤ 5% level). This was a post hoc analysis. Baseline pain intensity scores during episodes of BTPc vary widely between patients, but vary little within individual patients; this supports the use of a consistent maintenance dosage of analgesia for BTPc, once it has been titrated to an effective dose. The study was funded by Archimedes Development Ltd.

  14. Mediation of Movement-Induced Breakthrough Cancer Pain by IB4-Binding Nociceptors in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelin, Joshua; Imbert, Ian; Sukhtankar, Devki; Remeniuk, Bethany; Pelletier, Ian; Gentry, Jonathan; Okun, Alec; Tiutan, Timothy; Porreca, Frank; King, Tamara E

    2017-05-17

    Cancer-induced bone pain is characterized by moderate to severe ongoing pain that commonly requires the use of opiates. Even when ongoing pain is well controlled, patients can suffer breakthrough pain (BTP), episodic severe pain that "breaks through" the medication. We developed a novel model of cancer-induced BTP using female rats with mammary adenocarcinoma cells sealed within the tibia. We demonstrated previously that rats with bone cancer learn to prefer a context paired with saphenous nerve block to elicit pain relief (i.e., conditioned place preference, CPP), revealing the presence of ongoing pain. Treatment with systemic morphine abolished CPP to saphenous nerve block, demonstrating control of ongoing pain. Here, we show that pairing BTP induced by experimenter-induced movement of the tumor-bearing hindlimb with a context produces conditioned place avoidance (CPA) in rats treated with morphine to control ongoing pain, consistent with clinical observation of BTP. Preventing movement-induced afferent input by saphenous nerve block before, but not after, hindlimb movement blocked movement-induced BTP. Ablation of isolectin B4 (IB4)-binding, but not TRPV1(+), sensory afferents eliminated movement-induced BTP, suggesting that input from IB4-binding fibers mediates BTP. Identification of potential molecular targets specific to this population of fibers may allow for the development of peripherally restricted analgesics that control BTP and improve quality of life in patients with skeletal metastases.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We present a novel preclinical measure of movement-induced breakthrough pain (BTP) that is observed in the presence of morphine controlling ongoing pain. Blockade of sensory input before movement prevented BTP, whereas nerve block after movement failed to reverse BTP. These observations indicate that blocking peripheral sensory input may prevent BTP and targeting central sites may be required for pain relief once BTP has been initiated

  15. Heart rate variability during treatment of breakthrough pain in patients with advanced cancer: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masel EK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Eva Katharina Masel, Patrick Huber, Tobias Engler, Herbert Hans WatzkeClinical Division of Palliative Care, Department of Internal Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Background: Decisions on the intensity of analgesic therapy and judgments regarding its efficacy are difficult at the end of life, when many patients are not fully conscious and pain is a very common symptom. In healthy individuals and in postoperative settings, nociception and subsequent pain relief have been shown to induce changes in the autonomic nervous system (ANS, which can be detected by measuring heart rate variability (HRV. Objectives: The changes in the ANS were studied by measuring HRV during opioid therapy for cancer breakthrough pain (CBTP in palliative-care patients with cancer and compared these changes with patient-reported pain levels on a numeric rating scale (NRS. Patients and methods: The study included ten patients with advanced cancer and baseline opioid therapy. In each patient, a 24-hour peak-to-peak HRV measurement with a sampling rate of 4,000 Hz was performed. High frequency (HF, low frequency (LF, total power, pNN50 (indicating parasympathetic activity, and log LF/HF were obtained in two intervals prior to therapy and in four intervals thereafter. Intensity of CBTP was recorded using a patient-reported NRS prior to therapy and 30 minutes afterward. Results: CBTP occurred in seven patients (three males and four females; mean age: 62 ± 5.2 years and was treated with opioids. A highly significant positive correlation was found between opioid-induced reduction in patient-reported pain intensity based on NRS and changes in log LF/HF (r > 0.700; p < 0.05. Log LF/HF decreased in patients who had a reduction in pain of >2 points on the NRS but remained unchanged in the other patients. Conclusion: Our data suggest that log LF/HF may be a useful surrogate marker for alleviation of CBTP in patients with advanced cancer and might

  16. Fentanyl sublingual spray for breakthrough cancer pain in patients receiving transdermal fentanyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, David S; Smith, Christina Cognata; Parikh, Neha; Rauck, Richard L

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between effective fentanyl sublingual spray (FSS) doses for breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP) and around-the-clock (ATC) transdermal fentanyl patch (TFP). Adults tolerating ATC opioids received open-label FSS for 26 days, followed by a 26-day double-blind phase for patients achieving an effective dose (100-1600 µg). Out of 50 patients on ATC TFP at baseline, 32 (64%) achieved an effective dose. FSS effective dose moderately correlated with mean TFP dose (r = 0.4; p = 0.03). Patient satisfaction increased during the study. Common adverse event included nausea (9%) and peripheral edema (9%). FSS can be safely titrated to an effective dose for BTCP in patients receiving ATC TFP as chronic cancer pain medication. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00538850.

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of oral fentanyl formulations for breakthrough cancer pain treatment.

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    Cortesi, Paolo Angelo; D'Angiolella, Lucia Sara; Vellucci, Renato; Allegri, Massimo; Casale, Giuseppe; Favaretti, Carlo; Kheiraoui, Flavia; Cesana, Giancarlo; Mantovani, Lorenzo Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Breakthrough cancer Pain (BTcP) has a high prevalence in cancer population. Patients with BTcP reported relevant health care costs and poor quality of life. The study assessed the cost-effectiveness of the available Oral Fentanyl Formulations (OFFs) for BTcP in Italy. A decision-analytical model was developed to estimate costs and benefits associated with treatments, from the Italian NHS perspective. Expected reductions in pain intensity per BTcP episodes were translated into, percentage of BTcP reduction, resource use and Quality-Adjusted-Life-Years (QALYs). Relative efficacy, resources used and unit costs data were derived from the literature and validated by clinical experts. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were performed. At base-case analysis, Sublingual Fentanyl Citrate (FCSL) compared to other oral formulations reported a lower patient's cost (€1,960.8) and a higher efficacy (18.7% of BTcP avoided and 0.0507 QALYs gained). The sensitivity analyses confirmed the main results in all tested scenarios, with the highest impact reported by BTcP duration and health care resources consumption parameters. Between OFFs, FCSL is the cost-effective option due to faster reduction of pain intensity. However, new research is needed to better understand the economic and epidemiologic impact of BTcP, and to collect more robust data on economic and quality of life impact of the different fentanyl formulations. Different fentanyl formulations are available to manage BTcP in cancer population. The study is the first that assesses the different impact in terms of cost and effectiveness of OFFs, providing new information to better allocate the resources available to treat BTcP and highlighting the need of better data.

  18. Correlations between plasma endothelin-1 levels and breakthrough pain in patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan XB

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xue-bin Yan, Tuo-chao Peng, Dong Huang Department of Anesthesiologist, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Endothelin-1 (ET-1 may be involved in driving pain in patients with advanced cancer. However, a few studies focus on the role of ET-1 in breakthrough pain (BP. The aim of this pivotal study was to explore the correlation between the plasma (ET-1 level and BP intensity. A total of 40 patients were enrolled in the study, and they were divided into two groups: BP group and non-BP group. Moreover, 20 healthy adults were used as the normal control group. Pain intensity was measured using visual analog scale (VAS scores of 1–10. Plasma ET-1 levels were detected by an ET radioimmunoassay kit. Subsequently, the correlation of ET-1 level with the VAS score and cancer types was analyzed by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The plasma ET-1 level in the BP group (35.31±8.02 pg/mL was higher than that in the non-BP group (29.51±6.78 pg/mL and the normal control group (24.77±10.10 pg/mL, P<0.05. In addition, the VAS score in the BP group (7.45±0.82 was higher than that in the non-BP group (2.80±1.23, P<0.05. The plasma ET-1 level was positively correlated with the VAS score of the BP group (Pearson’s r=0.42. There was no significant correlation between the plasma ET-1 level and VAS score of the non-BP group (Pearson’s r=–0.22 or/and cancer types (P>0.05. The elevated plasma ET-1 levels were positively related to BP, and targeting ET-1 may provide a novel pain-reducing therapeutic treatment in BP. Keywords: visual analog scale, correlation, cancer types, background pain

  19. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fentanyl pectin nasal spray in patients with breakthrough cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueberall MA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Ueberall,1 Stefan Lorenzl,2 Eberhard A Lux,3,4 Raymond Voltz,5 Michael Perelman6 1Institute of Neurological Sciences, Nuremberg, Germany; 2Institute of Nursing Science and Practice, Paracelsus Private Medical University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria; 3Faculty of Medicine, Witten/Herdecke University, Witten, Germany; 4Clinic for Pain and Palliative Care Medicine, St.- Marien-Hospital, Luenen, Germany; 5Department of Palliative Medicine, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 6Archimedes Development Ltd., Nottingham, United Kingdom Objective: Assessment of analgesic effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of fentanyl pectin nasal spray (FPNS in the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP in routine clinical practice.Methods: A prospective, open-label, noninterventional study (4-week observation period, 3 month follow-up of opioid-tolerant adults with BTcP in 41 pain and palliative care centers in Germany. Standardized BTcP questionnaires and patient diaries were used. Evaluation was made of patient-reported outcomes with respect to “time to first effect”, “time to maximum effect”, BTcP relief, as well as changes in BTcP-related impairment of daily life activities, ­quality-of-life restrictions, and health care resource utilization.Results: A total of 235 patients were recruited of whom 220 completed all questionnaires and reported on 1,569 BTcP episodes. Patients reported a significant reduction of maximum BTcP intensity (11-stage numerical rating scale [0= no pain, 10= worst pain conceivable] with FPNS (mean ± standard deviation = 2.8±2.3 compared with either that reported at baseline (8.5±1.5, experienced immediately before FPNS application (7.4±1.7, or that achieved with previous BTcP medication (6.0±2.0; P<0.001 for each comparison. In 12.3% of BTcP episodes, onset of pain relief occurred ≤2 minutes and in 48.4% ≤5 minutes; maximum effects were reported within 10 minutes for 37.9% and within 15 minutes

  20. Relationship between onset of pain relief and patient satisfaction with fentanyl pectin nasal spray for breakthrough pain in cancer.

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    Torres, Luis M; Revnic, Julia; Knight, Alastair D; Perelman, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Satisfaction with pain relief in patients with breakthrough pain in cancer (BTPc) has typically been assessed by overall efficacy without consideration of the rapidity of that response. To determine the relationship between speed of onset of pain relief and patient satisfaction for treated BTPc episodes overall and for individual treatments. Pooled data from two randomized, double-blinded crossover studies. Patients having 1-4 BTPc episodes per day on ≥60 mg/day oral morphine or equivalent. Episodes treated with fentanyl pectin nasal spray (FPNS; 100-800 μg), immediate-release morphine sulfate (IRMS), or placebo. Pain intensity was measured on an 11-point scale (5-60 minutes posttreatment); satisfaction was measured on a 4-point scale (30 and 60 minutes). The primary analysis assessed the overall relationship of time to onset of pain relief (pain intensity difference [PID]≥1) or time to clinically meaningfully reduction in pain (PID≥2) versus patient satisfaction and overall pain intensity (summed pain intensity difference at 30 [SPID30] and 60 minutes [SPID60]) assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). A secondary analysis assessed whether satisfaction was different between treatments using a within-patient comparison. Eight hundred thirty-one FPNS-treated, 368 IRMS-treated, and 200 placebo-treated episodes were analyzed. Overall, within the pool there was a statistically significant relationship between time to onset of pain relief (PID≥1 and PID≥2) and patient satisfaction (both speed of relief and overall) at 30 and 60 minutes (p<0.001); this relationship was also true within individual treatment groups (p<0.01). Similar results were found for overall pain intensity reduction. When treatment groups were compared using within-patient data, FPNS provided earlier onset of pain relief than IRMS or placebo (p<0.05), which translated into better satisfaction at 60 minutes (p<0.01). Earlier onset of pain relief resulted in greater patient satisfaction

  1. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fentanyl pectin nasal spray in patients with breakthrough cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberall, Michael A; Lorenzl, Stefan; Lux, Eberhard A; Voltz, Raymond; Perelman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of analgesic effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of fentanyl pectin nasal spray (FPNS) in the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) in routine clinical practice. A prospective, open-label, noninterventional study (4-week observation period, 3 month follow-up) of opioid-tolerant adults with BTcP in 41 pain and palliative care centers in Germany. Standardized BTcP questionnaires and patient diaries were used. Evaluation was made of patient-reported outcomes with respect to "time to first effect", "time to maximum effect", BTcP relief, as well as changes in BTcP-related impairment of daily life activities, quality-of-life restrictions, and health care resource utilization. A total of 235 patients were recruited of whom 220 completed all questionnaires and reported on 1,569 BTcP episodes. Patients reported a significant reduction of maximum BTcP intensity (11-stage numerical rating scale [0= no pain, 10= worst pain conceivable]) with FPNS (mean ± standard deviation = 2.8±2.3) compared with either that reported at baseline (8.5±1.5), experienced immediately before FPNS application (7.4±1.7), or that achieved with previous BTcP medication (6.0±2.0; P<0.001 for each comparison). In 12.3% of BTcP episodes, onset of pain relief occurred ≤2 minutes and in 48.4% ≤5 minutes; maximum effects were reported within 10 minutes for 37.9% and within 15 minutes for 79.4%. By the end of the study, there had been significant improvements versus baseline in BTcP-related daily life activities (28.3±16.9 vs 53.1±11.9), physical (35.9±8.4 vs 26.8±6.5), and mental quality of life (38.7±8.5 vs 29.9±7.9) (P<0.001 for each comparison vs baseline); in addition, health care resource utilization requirements directly related to BTcP were reduced by 67.5%. FPNS was well tolerated; seven patients (3.2%) experienced eight treatment-emergent adverse events of which none was serious. There were no indicators of misuse or abuse. FPNS provided rapid and highly

  2. Oncologist's knowledge and implementation of guidelines for breakthrough cancer pain in Spain: CONOCE study.

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    López López, R; Camps Herrero, C; Khosravi-Shahi, P; Guillem Porta, V; Carrato Mena, A; Garcia-Foncillas, J; Cruz Hernández, J J; Gascón Vilaplana, P; Antón Torres, A; Diaz-Rubio, E; Feyjoo Saus, M; Aranda Aguilar, E

    2017-10-03

    Breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) has been shown to be a prevalent and poor prognostic factor for oncologic patients, which remain under diagnosed and undertreated. In 2012, the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM) published a clinical practice guideline (CPG) for the treatment of cancer pain which specifically addressed the management of BTcP. Fundación ECO designed a qualitative study using an Internet-based survey to investigate the attitudes toward, compliance with, and use of SEOM Guideline. A total of 83 oncologists with a mean experience of 13 years responded. Overall, 82% were aware of different guidelines to manage BTcP. Notably, attitudes toward guidelines were highly positive and there was nearly unanimous agreement that CPG provided the best scientific evidence available (99%), on the minimum information to be gathered for the medical history (100%), on the need for a specific treatment for BTcP (100%), and fentanyl as the first-choice drug (99%). Interestingly, there were discrepancies between what oncologists agreed with and what they do in clinical practice. In fact, 87.6% declare full compliance with SEOM guideline, although adherence to registration of BTcP data in medical records ranged from 30.1 to 91.6% (mean 64.5%); therapeutic management compliance was higher ranging from 75.9 to 91.6%. Main barriers identified were time pressure together with vague statements and limited dissemination of the guidelines. Despite oncologist's clinical practice is increasingly guided by GPC, it suffers from limited compliance, at least in part due to suboptimal statements. Improved dissemination and education are needed to enhance guideline implementation.

  3. A new transmucosal drug delivery system for patients with breakthrough cancer pain: the fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet

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    Freye, Enno

    2009-01-01

    Breakthrough pain, a transitory severe pain with the background of otherwise controlled persistent pain has a prevalence between 52% and 67% in outpatients with cancer. Medications for such sudden-onset pain require non-invasive delivery of a potent and short-acting opioid for rapid pain relief. Although oral transmucosal delivery of fentanyl citrate (OTFC) has been shown to provide better pain relief than a typical oral opioid administration such as morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR) in the management of breakthrough pain in patients with cancer-related pain, newer delivery systems offer a potential for further enhancement of pain relief. The fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet (FBT) formulation employs a novel drug delivery system that relies on an effervescence reaction to improve buccal fentanyl absorption. Using the effervescence reaction results in the production and dissipation of carbon dioxide with a dynamic shift in pH as the tablet dissolves. The induced low pH favors dissolution of fentanyl citrate in saliva (higher water solubility). The subsequent increase in pH thereafter favors the buccal absorption of non-ionized fentanyl across the buccal mucosa. Such a pH “pumping” mechanism increases the permeation of fentanyl into and through the buccal to the vascular system from where the agent is transported to the specific opioid receptor sites in the CNS. Compared with OTFC, data in healthy volunteers show that the effervescence reaction employed in FBT increases the total amount and the speed of absorption of fentanyl being absorbed. Compared with OTFC there is an increase in peak fentanyl blood concentrations, and an enhancement of the amount of buccal delivery of fentanyl. Such favorable data are underlined by the results of clinical studies where the FBT technology was studied in patients with breakthrough pain in chronic malignant pathologies. PMID:21197291

  4. Budget impact analysis of the fentanyl buccal tablet for treatment of breakthrough cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbà J

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Josep Darbà,1 Lisette Kaskens,2 Rainel Sánchez-de la Rosa31University of Barcelona, Barcelona, 2BCN Health Economics and Outcomes Research SL, Barcelona, 3Medical and HEOR Department, TEVA Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, Madrid, SpainBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the economic impact of the fentanyl buccal tablet for the management of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP in Spain.Methods: A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the period 2012–2015 for patients with BTcP from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System. BTcP products included in this model were rapid-onset opioids containing fentanyl (buccal, sublingual, or nasal transmucosal. Prevalence data on cancer, BTcP, opioid use, and number of BTcP episodes were obtained from the literature. Input data on health care resources associated with opioid use and opioid-induced side effects were obtained by consulting experts in oncology from different Spanish hospitals. Resources used included drugs, medical and emergency visits, other nonpharmacologic treatments, and treatment of opioid-induced side effects. Unit costs were obtained from the literature, and a 3% discount rate was applied to costs. Based on the unit costs for drugs and health care resources, the annual BTcP treatment costs per patient associated with each fentanyl product were determined to estimate the overall budget impact based on the total treatment population and the percentage of drug utilization associated with each product. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the model.Results: Patients treated with oral opioids for BTcP were estimated at 23,291 in 2012, with an increase up to 23,413 in 2015. The average annual budget savings, with an increase of fentanyl buccal tablets, fentanyl sublingual tablets, and intranasal fentanyl spray, and a decrease in oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate, was estimated at €2.6 million, which represents a 0.5% decrease in

  5. Multi-centre European study of breakthrough cancer pain: pain characteristics and patient perceptions of current and potential management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrew; Zeppetella, Giovambattista; Andersen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    took rescue medication every time they experienced breakthrough pain. Sixty-five percent patients would definitely consider using an oral transmucosal product; patients from Denmark were less likely to answer positively, and a positive response was associated with previous use of the route...... for breakthrough pain. Seventy-three percent patients reported regular oral problems. Forty-two percent patients would definitely consider using an intranasal product, with 26% patients stating they would definitely not use such a preparation; patients from Denmark and Sweden were less likely to answer positively......, and a positive response was associated with male gender, and previous use of the route. Forty-four percent patients reported regular nasal problems. Sixty percent patients would definitely consider using a subcutaneous product, and 44% patients would definitely consider using an intrapulmonary product....

  6. The Alberta Breakthrough Pain Assessment Tool for cancer patients: a validation study using a delphi process and patient think-aloud interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Neil A; Stiles, Carla; Nekolaichuk, Cheryl; Biondo, Patricia; Carlson, Linda E; Fisher, Kim; Fainsinger, Robin

    2008-02-01

    Breakthrough pain is a prevalent cancer pain syndrome, and research is needed to identify more effective interventions to manage it. A validated tool to assess breakthrough pain in a standard and reliable manner is urgently needed to support the conduct of clinical trials in breakthrough pain. To address this need, we developed a breakthrough pain assessment tool for research purposes. The current study was undertaken to gather validity evidence for this breakthrough pain assessment tool, using a Delphi process involving an expert panel review, followed by a think-aloud process involving patients with cancer-related breakthrough pain. Two expert panels were formed: a national panel (within Canada; n=16) and an international panel (including experts from North America, UK, Europe, the Middle East, Australia, and New Zealand; n=22). Each panel participated in one anonymous survey round. Response rates were 56% (national panel) and 73% (international panel). The Delphi process revealed substantial consensus on the content of the tool, which increased between rounds of review. The overall level of agreement with the tool, averaged over the four evaluated aspects of all items, was 80% among national panelists and 88% among international panelists. Nine patients completed the think-aloud study. They were able to understand and complete the tool and provided specific direction on its improvement. The validity evidence gathered in this study suggests the Alberta Breakthrough Pain Assessment Tool is conceptually grounded and is understandable by patients and clinicians. Further validation of this tool as an assessment measure within clinical trials research is warranted.

  7. Breakthrough Pain Management with Sublingual Fentanyl Tablets in Patients with Cancer: Age Subgroup Analysis of a Multicenter Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Jordi; Vargas, María Isabel; De Sanctis, Vicente; Folch, Jordi; Salazar, Rafael; Fuentes, José; Coma, Joan; Ferreras, Julia; Moya, Jordi; Tomás, Albert; Estivill, Pere; Rodelas, Francisco; Jiménez, Antonio Javier; Sanz, Almudena

    2017-09-01

    Breakthrough pain (BTP) management in patients with cancer is challenging, especially in the elderly. However, no studies examining the influence of age on BTP medication have been conducted. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of sublingual fentanyl tablets (SFTs) in terms of efficacy, safety, and quality of life in two age categories. We performed age subgroup analyses (Pain intensity (PI), onset of pain relief, frequency and duration of BTP episodes, and adverse events (AEs) were assessed at 3, 7, 15, and 30 days. Health-status instruments used were the Short Form 12, version 2 (SF-12v2) questionnaire, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A and HADS-D). Twenty-six patients were aged 65 years. Most patients experienced one to five daily episodes after 30 days, and <5% needed a treatment change. AEs were less frequently reported in older individuals (20.5 vs. 36.4%). Age subgroup analyses suggest that SFTs are an effective and safe treatment for the management of BTP in cancer patients of all ages. SFTs may offer a well-tolerated and efficient option to control cancer BTP in the elderly.

  8. Sublingual Fentanyl Tablets for Relief of Breakthrough Pain in Cancer Patients and Association with Quality-of-Life Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Jordi; Vargas, María Isabel; De Sanctis, Vicente; Folch, Jordi; Salazar, Rafael; Fuentes, José; Coma, Jordi; Ferreras, Julia; Moya, Jordi; Tomás, Albert; Estivill, Pere; Rodelas, Francisco; Jiménez, Antonio Javier

    2015-12-01

    Breakthrough pain (BTP) is highly prevalent in patients with cancer and is strongly associated with adverse outcomes related to health status, mood, anxiety and depression. However, studies on the effect of BTP medication on quality of life (QOL) are lacking. The purpose of this study was to provide a qualitative evaluation of the effect of sublingual fentanyl tablets (SFT), a therapy specifically developed for BTP, on the QOL of cancer pain patients. We conducted a multicentre, prospective observation post-authorisation, open-label study between March and December 2013. The study consisted of a screening visit and four assessment points at 3, 7, 15 and 30 days. Pain intensity (PI), frequency of BTP, onset of pain relief and adverse events (AEs) were assessed at each visit. Anxiety and depression were evaluated using the validated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and health status using the Short Form 12, version 2 (SF-12v2) Health Survey. Of the 102 patients considered eligible, 81 (79.4 %) were enrolled; of these, 69 (85.1 %) completed the study. Significant pain reduction was achieved for average PI (p < 0.001) compared with baseline. At the end of the observational period, HADS scores showed significant improvement in the depression subscale (p = 0.005) and the anxiety subscale (p < 0.001). Similarly, SF-12 scores showed significant improvement, both in the mental component score (p < 0.001) and the physical component score (p = 0.002). SFT was well-tolerated and only one patient withdrew from the study due to drug-related AEs. SFT represents an effective, well-tolerated treatment for cancer BTP. Results provide consistent evidence for the positive impact of SFT on health-related QOL and physical functioning as well as other co-morbidities of cancer BTP such as anxiety and depression.

  9. Nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture for analgesia in adult cancer patients with breakthrough pain: A randomized, double-blind controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q; Gao, L-L; Dai, Y-L; Li, Y-X; Wang, Y; Bai, C-F; Mu, G-X; Chai, X-M; Han, W-J; Zhou, L-J; Zhang, Y-J; Tang, L; Liu, J; Yu, J-Q

    2017-12-11

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a fixed nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture for the management of breakthrough cancer pain. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was undertaken in the Medical ward of Tumor Hospital of General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University. 240 cancer patients with breakthrough pain were recruited and randomly received a standard pain treatment (morphine sulphate immediate release) plus a pre-prepared nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture, or the standard pain treatment plus oxygen. The primary endpoint measure was the numerical rating scale (NRS) score measured at baseline, 5 and 15 min after the beginning of treatment, and at 5 min post treatment. In all, analysis of pain score (NRS) at 5 min after the beginning of treatment shown a significant decrease in nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture treated patients with 2.8 ± 1.3 versus 5.5 ± 1.2 in controls (p nitrous oxide/oxygen was 2.0 ± 1.1 compared with 5.6 ± 1.3 for oxygen (p nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture was effective in reducing moderate to severe breakthrough pain among patients with cancer. The management of breakthrough cancer pain is always a challenge due to its temporal characteristics of rapid onset, moderate to severe in intensity, short duration (median 30-60 min). Our study find that self-administered nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture was effective in reducing moderate to severe breakthrough cancer pain. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  10. A Canadian online survey of oncology nurses' perspectives on the management of breakthrough pain in cancer (BTPc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Margaret I; McAndrew, Alison; Burlein-Hall, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores Canadian oncology nurses' perception of management of breakthrough pain in cancer (BTPc). An online questionnaire was distributed to 668 oncology nurses across Canada, and 201 participated. More nurses reported that patients used hydromorphone (99.5%), morphine (97.0%), codeine (88.1%), or oxycodone (88.1%) for BTPc, than fentanyl preparations (64.7%). Problems with opioid administration reported by nurses included failure to work quickly enough (35.7%), difficulty swallowing (16.6%), need for caregiver assistance (13.2%), mouth sores (12.6%) and dry mouth (11.5%). Although most nurses discussed BTPc management with their patients, the vast majority (72.2%) were not very satisfied with current treatment modalities. Effective dialogue with patients and access to educational resources/tools may help optimize therapy and enhance concordance with BTPc medications.

  11. Efficacy and safety of sublingual fentanyl orally disintegrating tablet at doses determined from oral morphine rescue doses in the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Naohito; Gomyo, Ikuo; Teramoto, Osamu; Kojima, Keisuke; Higuchi, Hitomi; Yukitoshi, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Eri; Shimoyama, Megumi

    2015-02-01

    A randomized, crossover, double-blinded placebo-controlled and non-blinded active drug-controlled, comparative clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sublingual fentanyl tablet. Subjects were patients treated with strong opioids at fixed intervals for chronic cancer pain and with oral morphine as rescue medication for breakthrough pain. Sublingual fentanyl was administered at doses that were 1/25th (high dose) and 1/50th (low dose) of the dose of rescue morphine and was compared with placebo and oral morphine. The primary endpoint was pain intensity difference at 30 min after administration. (Clinical Trials Government; NCT00684632). Fifty-one patients were enrolled in the investigation. Their mean pain intensity in visual analog scale before rescue medication prior to the investigation was 60.96 (16.44, standard deviation) mm. Compared with placebo, the low and high doses of sublingual fentanyl showed significant analgesic effects (least squares mean difference, 4.54 and 8.49 mm; P = 0.014, P pain and with oral morphine at doses up to 20 mg as rescue medication were investigated. The doses of sublingual fentanyl to treat breakthrough pain were determined from rescue morphine doses by use of conversion ratios. In these patients, administration of sublingual fentanyl at doses determined by a conversion ratio of 1/50 was effective and safe. Further studies are needed to validate the use of this conversion method. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Efficacy of rapid-onset oral fentanyl formulations vs. oral morphine for cancer-related breakthrough pain: a meta-analysis of comparative trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandhyala, Ravi; Fullarton, John R; Bennett, Michael I

    2013-10-01

    Breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) is widely recognized as a clinically significant complication of chronic cancer pain. With most BTcP episodes peaking in intensity within a few minutes and lasting for approximately 30 minutes, speed of onset is crucial for effective pain management. Although the last decade has seen the development of a number of rapid-onset fentanyl preparations, BTcP is still typically managed by supplemental or rescue doses of the patient's around-the-clock medication, such as oral morphine. Importantly, although the fentanyl preparations, such as fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT), sublingual fentanyl citrate orally disintegrating tablet (ODT), and oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate lozenge (OTFC), have all been proven to be efficacious in clinical studies, oral morphine has never been specifically tested in BTcP, other than as a comparator in studies of OTFC and fentanyl pectin nasal spray. To determine the relative contributions to pain relief from oral morphine and the fentanyl preparations using placebo as a common comparator. Relevant studies were identified by review of the literature and used in a mixed-treatment meta-analysis to indirectly compare fentanyl preparations, morphine, and placebo for the treatment of BTcP. Analysis incorporating the five relevant studies identified revealed that although the fentanyl preparations provide superior pain relief vs. placebo in the first 30 minutes after dosing (FBT provided an 83% probability of superior pain relief, ODT 66%, and OTFC 73% vs. placebo), oral morphine performed little better than placebo (56% probability). This mixed-treatment analysis suggests that FBT, ODT, and OTFC might provide more efficacious treatment options than oral morphine for BTcP. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fentanyl Buccal Tablet vs. Oral Morphine in Doses Proportional to the Basal Opioid Regimen for the Management of Breakthrough Cancer Pain: A Randomized, Crossover, Comparison Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Adile, Claudio; Cuomo, Arturo; Aielli, Federica; Cortegiani, Andrea; Casuccio, Alessandra; Porzio, Giampiero

    2015-11-01

    Fentanyl products have shown superiority to oral opioids for the management of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP). However, these studies did not use appropriate patient selection, and drugs have been compared by using different rationales. The aim of this randomized, crossover, controlled study was to compare efficacy and safety of fentanyl buccal tablets (FBTs) and oral morphine (OM), given in doses proportional to opioid daily doses. Cancer patients with pain receiving ≥60 mg or more of oral morphine equivalents per day and presenting with ≤3 episodes of BTcP per day were included. In a randomized, crossover manner, patients received FBT or OM at doses proportional to the daily opioid regimen in four consecutive episodes of BTcP. Pain intensity was measured before (T0) and 15 (T15) and 30 minutes (T30), after study drugs. In total, 263 episodes of BTcP were treated. A statistical difference in changes in pain intensity-decrease of ≥33% and ≥50%-between the two groups was observed at T15 and T30 (P medication. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparison of intranasal fentanyl spray with oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate for the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain: an open-label, randomised, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, S; Radbruch, L; Davies, A; Poulain, P; Sitte, T; Perkins, P; Colberg, T; Camba, M A

    2009-11-01

    The efficacy of intranasal fentanyl spray (INFS) was compared with that of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) for the relief of cancer-related breakthrough pain (BTP) in an open-label, crossover trial. Adult cancer patients receiving stable background opioid treatment and experiencing BTP episodes were recruited from 44 study centres in seven European countries (Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom); of the 196 patients enrolled, 139 were randomised to receive INFS followed by OTFC, or vice versa. Patients were titrated to an effective dose of one agent (50, 100 or 200 microg INFS; 200, 400, 600, 800, 1200 or 1600 microg OTFC) to treat six BTP episodes, then titration and treatment were repeated with the other agent. The primary outcome was patient-recorded time to onset of 'meaningful' pain relief. Secondary outcomes included pain intensity difference (PID) at 10 and 30 minutes (PID(10), PID(30)), sum of PID at 15 and 60 minutes (SPID(0-15), SPID(0-60)), ease of administration, treatment preference and relationship between background opioid dose and effective INFS dose. Additional outcome measures included proportions of episodes with > or =33% and > or =50% pain intensity (PI) reduction, and PID at additional time points. NCT00496392. Among the intention-to-treat population (n = 139), median time to onset of 'meaningful' pain relief was 11 minutes with INFS versus 16 minutes with OTFC; 65.7% of patients attained faster time to 'meaningful' pain-relief onset with INFS (p pain episodes achieved clinically important pain relief (> or =33% and > or =50% PI reduction) up to 30 minutes post-dosing. The proportions of episodes treated with INFS and OTFC achieving a PI reduction of > or =33% at 5 minutes were 25.3% versus 6.8% (p or =50% PI reduction at 5 minutes were 12.8% versus 2.1% (p or =1 AE during the trial. The only AE that occurred in > or =5% of patients in either treatment group was nausea. Among those patients who

  15. Fentanyl Pectin Nasal Spray Versus Oral Morphine in Doses Proportional to the Basal Opioid Regimen for the Management of Breakthrough Cancer Pain: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Aielli, Federica; Adile, Claudio; Costanzi, Andrea; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2016-07-01

    Fentanyl products have shown superiority over oral opioids for the management of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP). However, these studies did not use an appropriate patient selection, and drugs have been compared using a different rationale. The aim of this randomized, crossover, controlled study was to compare the efficacy and safety of fentanyl pectin nasal spray (FPNS) and oral morphine (OM), given in doses proportional to opioid daily doses. Cancer patients with pain receiving ≥60 mg of OM equivalents/day and presenting with ≤3 episodes of BTcP/day were included. Patients received, in a randomized, crossover manner, FPNS or OM at doses proportional to the daily opioid regimen in four consecutive episodes of BTcP. Pain intensity was measured before (T0), 15 (T15), and 30 minutes (T30) after study drugs. A total of 167 episodes were treated, 82 with FNPS and 85 with OM. A statistical difference in pain intensity between the two groups was observed at T15, but not at T30 (P = 0.018 and P = 0.204, respectively). In a greater number of episodes treated with FPNS, there was a pain decrease of ≥33% in comparison with OM after 15 and 30 minutes (76.5% vs. 32.8%, and 89% vs. 54.9%, respectively). Similar differences were found in the decrease in pain intensity of ≥50% after 15 and 30 minutes (52.3% vs. 11.4%, and 75% vs. 45.8%, respectively). The difference was highly significant at T15 (P pain difference at T15 of FPNS and OM were 3.24 (1.7) and 2.70 (1.2), respectively, whereas the mean (SD) SPIDs30 of FPNS and OM were 4.87 (1.7) and 4.54 (1.5), respectively. The difference was highly significant at T15 (P = 0.019). No severe adverse effects after study drug administration were observed. When used in doses proportional to the basal opioid regimen, FPNS showed a superior analgesic effect over OM for the management of BTcP. Only minor adverse effects were found with both medications. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Oral or Nasal Fentanyl for Treatment of Breakthrough Pain in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogríguez, Dulce; Urrutia, Gerard; Escobar, Yolanda; Moya, Jordi; Murillo, Maite

    2015-09-01

    Formulations of fentanyl that use buccal, sublingual, or nasal transmucosal routes of administration have been developed for the treatment of BTP in opioid-tolerant patients with cancer. The purposes of this analysis were to identify and review published data describing the efficacy and safety of different oral or nasal transmucosal fentanyl formulations for treatment of cancer-related BTP, based on a critical analysis of scientific literature. Oral transmucosal or intranasal fentanyl is an effective treatment for management of BTP episodes due to a potent analgesic effect, rapid onset of action, and sustained effect. Furthermore, it is a reasonably safe treatment, causing generally mild adverse events not leading to treatment discontinuation. Nevertheless, further progress in standardizing methodology, definitions, and criteria used both in research and in clinical practice is needed in order to generate quality information allowing a better understanding of the comparable efficacy of available formulations of fentanyl. A more rigorous assessment of long-term safety is also needed to establish a balance between benefits and risks of the available options.

  17. The use of sublingual fentanyl for breakthrough pain by using doses proportional to opioid basal regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Prestia, Giovanna; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the efficacy and safety of sublingual fentanyl (SLF) in doses proportional to opioid doses used for background analgesia for the treatment of BTP of cancer patients. A sample of patients admitted to an acute palliative care unit, presenting breakthrough pain (BTP) episodes and receiving stable doses of opioids for background pain was selected to assess the efficacy and safety of SLF used in doses proportional to the basal opioid regimen used for the management of BTP. For each patient, data from four consecutive episodes were collected. For each episode, nurses collected changes in pain intensity and adverse effects when pain got severe (T0), and 5, 10, and 15 minutes after SLF was given (T15). Seventy patients were recruited for the study. The mean age was 61.7 (±11.5). Forty-one patients were males. A total of 173 episodes of BTP were recorded (mean 2.5 episodes/patient). In 19 events, documentation regarding changes in pain intensity was incomplete. Of the 154 evaluable episodes, 143 were successfully treated (92%). Mean doses of SLF were 637 µg (SD 786), and 51 patients (72.8%) received SLF doses ≥800 µg. When compared to younger adult patients, older patients received significantly lower doses of SLF (p opioid regimen. Pain intensity significantly decreased at T5, 10 and T15 (p opioid regimen for the management of BTP is safe and effective in clinical practice.

  18. [Cancer immunotherapy: Rational and recent breakthroughs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier, C; Karaki, S; Roussel, H; Badoual, C; Tran, T; Anson, M; Fabre, E; Oudard, S; Tartour, E

    2016-10-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has occupied a marginal therapeutic option in cancer despite strong arguments documenting the role of the immune system in controlling the proliferation of cancers. The recent success of immunotherapy results from a change in the past paradigm. From now on, the goal is not only to activate the immune system against tumor, but also to take account of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment Among these mechanisms, negative costimulatory molecules (CTLA-4, PD-1, etc.) expressed by T cells in the tumor could explain their lack of effectiveness in inhibiting tumor growth. Blocking these molecules allowed the reactivation of anti-tumor T cells. Clinically, the administration of anti-CTLA-4 antibody (ipilimumab: Yervoy(®)) was granted marketing authorization for patients with metastatic melanoma. The anti-PD-1 antibodies (nivolumab: Opdivo(®), pembrolizumab: Keytruda(®)) have demonstrated clinical efficacy when compared to the standard therapy in metastatic melanomas, advanced lung cancers and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. In phase I and II clinical trials, other tumors (Hodgkin's disease, head and neck cancers, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, etc.) appear to be responsive to these immunomodulators. These treatments were associated with the occurrence of side effects dominated by autoimmunity predictable by unlocking the breaks exerted by immune system to maintain tolerance against self-antigen. The optimization of therapeutic combination based on these molecules and the search for biomarkers associated with these treatments constitute a challenge for the future for this new therapeutic class of drugs for oncology. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunotherapy: A breakthrough in cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fast growing field of immunotherapy was one of the topics extensively discussed during the recently concluded ESMO Asia Congress 2016, held from December 16– 19th December at the Suntec Convention and Exhibition Centre in Singapore. Unlike drug-based chemotherapy, immunotherapy exploits the body’s own immune system to fight cancer and is increasingly touted as the future of cancer treatment. The concept of using the immune system as a disease-fighting tool was introduced by Dr. William Bradley Coley, the ‘Father of Cancer Immunotherapy’, in the 19th century based on his work that sought to stimulate a patient’s own immune system against bacterial infection. However, a persistent question remains since the advent of immunotherapy over a century ago – can the immune system accurately recognize malignant tumor and eliminate it effectively? The answer to this question remains hotly debated owing to the differing opinions and attitudes on the application of immunotherapy. Dr. Coley noticed that in a number of cases, patients with cancer went into spontaneous remission after developing erysipelas. In 1891, Dr. Coley injected streptococcal organisms (which cause erysipelas into a patient with inoperable cancer and observed remarkable tumor regression. Although he had treated almost 900 patients with bacterial preparations that eventually became known as “Coley’s toxins”, his treatment method was not widely accepted by the medical community possibly owing to the low cure rates and the severe fever caused by the bacteria. Some physicians also feared that the immune system might not have adapted well enough to recognize and eliminate malignant cells exclusively. As a consequence, most oncologists relied on another treatment that was rapidly gaining acceptance at that time, i.e. radiation. It was only after about a century later that the medical community observed a revived interest in immunotherapy. In 1976, a trial was conducted to

  20. Central Hyperexcitability in Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: A Conceptual Breakthrough with Multiple Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lidbeck

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations of dysfunctional pain processing in the central nervous system have contributed much knowledge about the development of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Many common chronic musculoskeletal pain syndromes - including regional myofascial pain syndromes, whiplash pain syndromes, refractory work-related neck-shoulder pain, certain types of chronic low back pain, fibromyalgia and others - may essentially be explained by abnormalities in central pain modulation. The growing awareness of dysfunctional central pain modulation may be a conceptual breakthrough leading to a better understanding of common chronic pain disorders. A new paradigm will have multiple clinical implications, including re-evaluation of clinical practice routines and rehabilitation methods, and will focus on controversial issues of medicolegal concern. The concept of dysfunctional central pain processing will also necessitate a mechanism-based classification of pain for the selection of individual treatment and rehabilitation programs for subgroups of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain due to different pathophysiological mechanisms.

  1. Effervescent morphine results in faster relief of breakthrough pain in patients compared to immediate release morphine sulfate tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freye, Enno; Levy, Joseph Victor; Braun, Dagmar

    2007-12-01

    Morphine tablets have been formulated to produce an easily ingested effervescent solution when placed in water. It was hypothesized that an aqueous solution would result in fast gastrointestinal transit with a more rapid onset of action compared to immediate release morphine sulfate (IRMS), which would be especially beneficial in treating breakthrough pain (BTP). In an open-label safety and efficacy study, effervescent morphine was given to 76 chronic cancer pain patients for treatment of BTP evaluating time until pain relief, global satisfaction and side effects. Results were compared to those obtained using an IRMS formulation in a preceding run-in period. For BTP, a mean dose of 28 mg of effervescent morphine (range 10-80 mg) resulted in a highly significant reduction of pain score (mean 7.8 to mean 3.2; P effervescent morphine. The dose for treatment of BTP was determined by individual titration and not predicted by the dose taken with the basic pain medication. Compared to IRMS, overall satisfaction for effervescent morphine was rated "superior" by 16.7%, and "better" by 63.2% of patients. Effervescent morphine offers an alternative for management of breakthrough cancer pain compared with the commonly used IRMS.

  2. [Breakthrough pain treatment with sublingual fentanyl in patients with chronic cutaneous ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Triadó, V; López Alarcón, M D; Villegas Estévez, F; Alba Moratillas, C; Massa Domínguez, B; Palomares Payá, F; Mínguez Martí, A; Debón Vicent, L

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of opioids in the management of pain in those patients with chronic cutaneous ulcers and breakthrough/incidental pain. An open-label, multicentre, prospective, uncontrolled study was conducted in the pain and ulcer units of 5 hospitals across the Comunidad Valenciana. Eligibility criteria were baseline pain 4 in the visual analogue scale or breakthrough procedural pain 4. Exclusion criteria were cognitive impairment, opioid intolerance, or patient refusal to provide informed consent. The protocol scheduled 5 controls: baseline (enrolment), 15 days, one month, 2 months, and 3 months. The main outcome measure of the study was the visual analogue scale score during rest, movement and procedures. Opioids were administered for release of the baseline pain, and sublingual fentanyl for breakthrough pain. A total of 32 patients (86.5%) completed the study. Baseline pain achieved a mean improvement of 3.6 visual analogue scale points (SD 2.3), movement pain improved by 3.9 points (SD 2.5) and procedural pain improved by 4.5 points (SD 2.8), and the mean pain intensity improvement was statistically significant from the first control and at all controls thereafter (PDolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy and safety of sublingual fentanyl orally disintegrating tablets in patients with breakthrough pain: multicentre prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Jordi; Vargas, Isabel; De Sanctis, Vicente; Ferreras, Julia; Fuentes, Jose; Salazar, Rafael; Vázquez, Juan M; Folch, Jordi; Moya, Jordi; Ribera, Hermann; Rodelas, Francisco; Tomás, Albert; Arilla, María; Coma, Joan; Aberasturi, Teresa; Sintes, Dolores; Lombán, Ester

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of sublingual fentanyl oral disintegrating tablets (sublingual fentanyl ODT) for the treatment of breakthrough pain (BTP), cancer or non-cancer related, in terms of relief of pain intensity, adverse events (AEs) and patient satisfaction, and to further examine the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with BTP in a clinical setting. A multicentre, prospective, open-label study was conducted in 19 pain units from Catalonia hospitals (Spain) over a 1-month period. Opioid-tolerant adult patients experiencing episodes of BTP intensity >5 on a visual analogue scale (VAS) during the 12-24 h before screening or AEs related to their previous rescue medication for BTP received sublingual fentanyl ODT in the course of routine clinical practice and completed a 30-day study period consisting of five assessment points: days 0 (baseline), 3, 7, 15 and 30. The efficacy was assessed by collecting pain intensity and pain relief data at baseline and at each assessment. AEs were recorded by investigators throughout the study during clinic visits and telephone follow-ups. For all patients, titration was begun with an initial dose of 100 μg. No more than two doses were allowed to treat an episode and patients might wait at least 4 h before treating another BTP episode with sublingual fentanyl ODT. The dose was increased by 100 μg multiples up to 400 μg as needed; and by 200 μg multiples up from 400 to 800 μg, the maximum titration step. A total of 182 patients were enrolled and 177 (97.2 %) completed the study: 37 had breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) and 145 had breakthrough non-cancer pain (BTncP). The mean pain intensity showed a statistically significant improvement at the first assessment point and at all assessments thereafter (p < 0.0001). At the end of the study, the time lag between administration and first effect of sublingual fentanyl ODT was ≤10 min in 69.0 % (60 % BTcP and 71.2 % BTncP). The

  4. Fentanyl Buccal Tablet for the Treatment of Breakthrough Pain: Pharmacokinetics of Buccal Mucosa Delivery and Clinical Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Darwish

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of breakthrough pain (BTP, a transitory exacerbation of pain that occurs on a background of otherwise-controlled, persistent pain, requires an opioid formulation and/or method of administration that can provide rapid and extensive systemic exposure. Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT; FENTORA®, Cephalon, Inc. employs OraVescent® drug delivery technology, which enhances the rate and extent of fentanyl absorption. OraVescent technology enhances the oral dissolution and buccal absorption of fentanyl, which facilitates rapid uptake of fentanyl into the bloodstream, reducing gastrointestinal absorption and minimizing extensive first-pass metabolism. The resulting pharmacokinetic profile of FBT is characterized by greater bioavailability and a higher early systemic exposure compared with the earlier oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate formulation. In clinical studies of opioid-tolerant patients with cancer-related and noncancer- related BTP, FBT has provided consistent and clinically relevant improvements in pain intensity and pain relief relative to placebo, with a safety and tolerability profile that is generally typical of that observed with other potent opioids. The pharmacokinetic properties of FBT allow for meaningful clinical efficacy, with an onset of action that closely matches the onset of BTP.

  5. Cancer Pain Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Bannister, Kirsty; Dickenson, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of inflammatory and neuropathic pains have been elucidated and translated to patient care by the use of animal models of these pain states. Cancer pain has lagged behind since early animal models of cancer-induced bone pain were based on the systemic injection of carcinoma cells....... This precluded systematic investigation of specific neuronal and pharmacological alterations that occur in cancer-induced bone pain. In 1999, Schwei et al. described a murine model of cancer-induced bone pain that paralleled the clinical condition in terms of pain development and bone destruction, confined...... to the mouse femur. This model prompted related approaches and we can now state that cancer pain may include elements of inflammatory and neuropathic pains but also unique changes in sensory processing. Cancer induced bone pain results in progressive bone destruction, elevated osteoclast activity...

  6. A comparison of change in the 0-10 numeric rating scale to a pain relief scale and global medication performance scale in a short-term clinical trial of breakthrough pain intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, John T; Polomano, Rosemary C; Berlin, Jesse A; Strom, Brian L

    2010-06-01

    Pain intensity is commonly reported using a 0-10 Numeric Rating Scale in pain clinical trials. Analysis of the change on the Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale as a proportion has most consistently correlated with clinically important differences reported on the patient's global impression of change. The correlation of data from patients with breakthrough pain with a Pain Relief Scale and a different global outcome measures will extend our understanding of these measures. Data were obtained from the open titration phase of a multiple crossover, randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate with immediate-release oral morphine sulfate for the treatment of cancer-related breakthrough pain. Raw and percentage changes in the pain intensity scores from 1,307 episodes of pain in 134 oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate-naïve patients were correlated with the clinically relevant secondary outcomes of Pain Relief Verbal Response Scale and the global medication performance scale. The changes in raw and percentage change were assessed over time and compared with the ordinal Pain Relief Verbal Response Scale and Global Medication Performance Scale. The P value of the interaction between the raw pain intensity difference was significant (P = 0.034) for four 15-min time periods but not for the percentage pain intensity difference score (P = 0.26). We found similar results in comparison with the ordinal Pain Relief Verbal Response Scale (P = 0.0048 and P = 0.36 respectively) and global medication performance categories (P = 0.048 and P = 0.45, respectively). The change in pain intensity in breakthrough pain was more consistent over time and when compared with both the Pain Relief Verbal Response Scale and the Global Medication Performance Scale when the percentage change is used rather than raw pain intensity difference.

  7. A Comparison of Change in the 0–10 Numeric Rating Scale to a Pain Relief Scale and Global Medication Performance Scale in a Short-term Clinical Trial of Breakthrough Pain Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, John T.; Polomano, Rosemary C.; Berlin, Jesse A.; Strom, Brian L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Pain intensity is commonly reported using a 0–10 numeric rating scale in breakthrough pain clinical trials. Analysis of the change on the Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale as a proportion as most consistently correlated with clinically important differences reported on the Patient Global Impression of Change. The analysis of data using a different global outcome measures and the pain relief scale will extend our understanding of these measures. Use of the pain relief scale is also explored in this study Methods Data came from the open titration phase of a multiple crossover, randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate to immediate-release oral morphine sulfate for treatment of cancer-related breakthrough pain. Raw and percent changes in the pain intensity scores on 1,307 from 134 oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate-naive patients were compared to the clinically relevant secondary outcomes of the pain relief verbal response scale and the global medication performance. The changes in raw and percent change were assessed over time and compared to the ordinal pain relief verbal response scale and global medication performance scales. Results The p-value of the interaction between the raw pain intensity difference was significant but not for the percent pain intensity difference score over 4 15 minute time periods (p = 0.034 and p = 0.26 respectively), in comparison with the ordinal pain relief verbal response scale (p = 0.0048 and p = 0.36 respectively), and global medication performance categories (p = 0.048 and p = 0.45 respectively). Conclusion The change in pain intensity in breakthrough pain was more consistent over time and when compared to both the pain relief verbal response scale and global medication performance scale when the percent change is used rather than raw pain intensity difference. PMID:20463579

  8. Pain in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew Rd; Ramirez, Juan D; Farquhar-Smith, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Cancer and its treatment exert a heavy psychological and physical toll. Of the myriad symptoms which result, pain is common, encountered in between 30% and 60% of cancer survivors. Pain in cancer survivors is a major and growing problem, impeding the recovery and rehabilitation of patients who have beaten cancer and negatively impacting on cancer patients' quality of life, work prospects and mental health. Persistent pain in cancer survivors remains challenging to treat successfully. Pain can arise both due to the underlying disease and the various treatments the patient has been subjected to. Chemotherapy causes painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), radiotherapy can produce late effect radiation toxicity and surgery may lead to the development of persistent post-surgical pain syndromes. This review explores a selection of the common causes of persistent pain in cancer survivors, detailing our current understanding of the pathophysiology and outlining both the clinical manifestations of individual pain states and the treatment options available.

  9. Considerations in selecting rapid-onset opioids for the management of breakthrough pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perelman M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Perelman, Suzan LeakeArchimedes Pharma, Bedminister, NJ, USAWe read with great interest the recent publication by Smith.1 This article provides a valuable perspective on the selection of an agent to manage breakthrough pain. Smith recognizes the importance of a fast onset-of-action and the identification by Farrar et al2 of a 33% (often ≥2 point change in the pain intensity difference as a measure of a ‘clinically important improvement’. For these reasons, Smith focuses on the various transmucosal fentanyl formulations that offer a rapid onset and he provides a nice summary of the key features of each of the available products.View original paper by Howard S Smith.

  10. Cancer and orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Reyes, M; Salvemini, D

    2016-11-01

    Cancer pain is a devastating condition. Pain in the orofacial region, may be present as the single symptom of cancer or as a symptom of cancer in its later stages. This manuscript revises in a comprehensive manner the content of the conference entitled "Orofacial Pain and Cancer" (Dolor Orofacial y Cancer) given at the VI Simposio International "Advances in Oral Cancer" on the 22 July, 2016 in San Sebastioan-Donostia, Spain. We have reviewed (pubmed-medline) from the most relevant literature including reviews, systematic reviews and clinical cases, the significant and evidence-based mechanisms and mediators of cancer-associated facial pain, the diverse types of cancers that can be present in the craniofacial region locally or from distant sites that can refer to the orofacial region, cancer therapy that may induce pain in the orofacial region as well as discussed some of the new advancements in cancer pain therapy. There is still a lack of understanding of cancer pain pathophysiology since depends of the intrinsic heterogeneity, type and anatomic location that the cancer may present, making more challenging the creation of better therapeutic options. Orofacial pain can arise from regional or distant tumor effects or as a consequence of cancer therapy. The clinician needs to be aware that the pain may present the characteristics of any other orofacial pain disorder so a careful differential diagnosis needs to be given. Cancer pain diagnosis is made by exclusion and only can be reached after a thorough medical history, and all the common etiologies have been carefully investigated and ruled out. The current management tools are not optimal but there is hope for new, safer and effective therapies coming in the next years.

  11. Breakthrough Pain Associated with a Reduction in Serum Buprenorphine Concentration during Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salili, Ali Reza; Müller, Daniel; Skendaj, Roswitha; Jehle, Andreas W; Taegtmeyer, Anne B

    2016-01-01

    To describe a case of breakthrough pain associated with a reduction in serum buprenorphine concentration during dialysis. Pharmacokinetic sampling of total and free buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine in an 80 year old male undergoing haemodialysis three times per week who received 5760 µg oral and transdermal buprenorphine daily was performed. The patient's serum albumin concentration was 23g/l (reference range: 35-52 g/l). Pharmacokinetic sampling revealed a free buprenorphine fraction of 32% (consistent with the hypoalbuminaemia), which was markedly reduced at the end of dialysis (free buprenorphine concentration 2.4 µg/l before vs. buprenorphine doses during dialysis to prevent significant falls in the concentration of active drug. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A report on the long-term use of fentanyl pectin nasal spray in patients with recurrent breakthrough pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Donald; Radbruch, Lukas; Revnic, Julia; Torres, Luis M; Ellershaw, John E; Perelman, Michael

    2014-06-01

    As patients with cancer are living longer, there is a need to ensure that treatments used for palliative care are well tolerated and effective during long-term use. To investigate the long-term use of fentanyl pectin nasal spray (FPNS) for the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer (BTPc) in patients receiving regular opioid therapy. Adult patients (N = 401) taking at least 60 mg/day oral morphine or equivalent, experiencing one to four episodes of BTPc a day, entered an open-label long-term study (NCT00458510). Patients had either completed an FPNS randomized controlled trial or were newly identified. Of these, 171 patients continued into an extension study. Up to four episodes of BTPc a day were treated with FPNS at 100-800 μg titrated doses. During the extension study, patients visited the clinic every four weeks for assessment and reporting of adverse events (AEs). There were 163 patients with documented FPNS use. The mean duration of use was 325 days; 46 patients used FPNS for ≥360 days; the maximum duration was 44 months. Seventy percent of patients did not change their FPNS dose; 2% of patients withdrew from the study because of the lack of efficacy. The most common AEs, aside from disease progression, were insomnia, 9.9%; nausea, 9.4%; vomiting, 9.4%; and peripheral edema, 9.4%. The overall incidence of FPNS-related AEs was 11.1%, the most common being constipation (4.1%), with no apparent dose relationship. Ten patients (5.8%) experienced nasal AEs, most of which were mild or moderate. FPNS appeared to provide sustained benefit and was well tolerated during long-term treatment of BTPc. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and performance of a diagnostic/prognostic scoring system for breakthrough pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samolsky Dekel BG

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Boaz Gedaliahu Samolsky Dekel,1–3 Marco Palma,4 Maria Cristina Sorella,1–3 Alberto Gori,3 Alessio Vasarri,3 Rita Maria Melotti1–3 1Department of Medicine and Surgery Sciences, University of Bologna, 2Department of Emergency-Urgency, Bologna’s University Teaching Hospital, Policlinic S. Orsola-Malpighi, 3University of Bologna, Post Graduate School of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 4Collegio Superiore, Istituto di Studi Superiori – ISS, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Objectives: Variable prevalence and treatment of breakthrough pain (BTP in different clinical contexts are partially due to the lack of reliable/validated diagnostic tools with prognostic capability. We report the statistical basis and performance analysis of a novel BTP scoring system based on the naïve Bayes classifier (NBC approach and an 11-item IQ-BTP validated questionnaire. This system aims at classifying potential BTP presence in three likelihood classes: “High,” “Intermediate,” and “Low.”Methods: Out of a training set of n=120 mixed chronic pain patients, predictors associated with the BTP likelihood variables (Pearson’s χ2 and/or Fisher’s exact test were employed for the NBC planning. Adjusting the binary classification to a three–likelihood classes case enabled the building of a scoring algorithm and to retrieve the score of each predictor’s answer options and the Patient’s Global Score (PGS. The latter medians were used to establish the NBC thresholds, needed to evaluate the scoring system performance (leave-one-out cross-validation.Results: Medians of PGS in the “High,” “Intermediate,” and “Low” likelihood classes were 3.44, 1.53, and −2.84, respectively. Leading predictors for the model (based on score differences were flair frequency (∆S=1.31, duration (∆S=5.25, and predictability (∆S=1.17. Percentages of correct classification were 63.6% for the “High” and of 100.0% for either the “Intermediate” and

  14. Cancer immunotherapy: Breakthrough or "deja vu, all over again"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Stewart

    2017-06-01

    From the application of Coley's toxin in the early 1900s to the present clinical trials using immune checkpoint regulatory inhibitors, the history of cancer immunotherapy has consisted of extremely high levels of enthusiasm after anecdotal case reports of enormous success, followed by decreasing levels of enthusiasm as the results of controlled clinical trials are available. In this review, this pattern will be documented for the various immunotherapeutic approaches over the years. The sole exception being vaccination against cancer causing viruses, which have already prevented thousands of cancers. We can only hope that the present high level of enthusiasm for the use of immune stimulation by removal of blocks to cancer immunity will be more productive than the incremental improvements using previous immunotherapies.

  15. Characteristics and prognostic factors for pain management in 152 patients with lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi L

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lei Shi,1,* Yumei Liu,2,* Hua He,1 Cong Wang,1 Hongwei Li,1 Nanya Wang1 1Cancer Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 2Department of Hematology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the pain characteristics and factors influencing the outcome of pain control in patients with lung cancer having pain. Methods: Pain characteristics, the effectiveness, and prognostic factors for pain control were analyzed in 152 patients with lung cancer having moderate or severe chronic pain admitted to Cancer Center of The First Hospital of Jilin University, People’s Republic of China, between January 2012 and May 2013. Information about sex, age, pathological type, TNM stage, presence/absence of bone metastases, characteristics of pain, methods, and effectiveness of pain management was recorded. Results: Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and small-cell carcinoma accounted for 132/152 (86.8% and 20/152 (13.2% cases, respectively. Among them, moderate (72.4% or severe pain (27.6% was reported in 73.7% of the cases at stage IV, chest or back pain was reported in 76.3% of the cases, and pain in other locations in the rest of the cases. Bone metastases were apparent in 44.1% of the patients. Neuropathic pain was noted in 46.7% of the patients, and frequent breakthrough pain was noted in 25.7% of the patients. High pain intensity was associated with frequent breakthrough pain. Pain was adequately controlled in 81.6% of the patients prescribed 3 days of analgesics. More patients reported a KPS higher than or equal to 80 after 3 days of analgesic treatment (P<0.001. Severe pain, frequent breakthrough pain, and presence of bone metastases were independent risk factors for poor pain control. Severe pain, frequent breakthrough pain, or neuropathic pain in the patients using opioids required higher

  16. Administration of four different doses of gabapentin reduces awakening from breakthrough pain and adverse effects in outpatients with neuropathic pain during the initial titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jong-Yeun; Lee, Won Il; Shin, Woo-Kyung; Kim, Cheul Hong; Baik, Seong-Wan; Kim, Kyung-Hoon

    2013-07-01

    Gabapentin is a safe and well-tolerated anticonvulsant with a wide therapeutic index, and it is used for neuropathic pain. The aim of this study was to compare previous dosing methods with the administration of four different doses of gabapentin while maintaining the same maximum daily dose for the safe administration of high doses of the medication. THE SUBJECTS WERE OUTPATIENTS WITH VARIOUS NEUROPATHIC PAIN SYNDROMES, WITH AT LEAST TWO OF THE FOLLOWING SYMPTOMS: allodynia, burning pain, shooting pain, or hyperalgesia. The TID group received equal doses of gabapentin 3 times per day, while the QID group received 4 different doses of gabapentin per day. The pain score, frequency of breakthrough pain (BTP), severity and the duration of pain, sleep disturbance due to nocturnal pain, and adverse effects were recorded each day. The average daily pain score and sleep disturbance were significantly reduced in the QID group between days 3 and 10 of the experiment. The adverse effects of the medication were also reduced in the QID group. However, the frequency of BTP and severity and duration of pain were not significantly different between two groups. Administration of 4 different doses of gabapentin during the initial titration in outpatients with neuropathic pain resulted in a significant reduction in awakening from breakthrough pain and a reduction in the adverse effects of the medication.

  17. The use of opioids for breakthrough pain in acute palliative care unit by using doses proportional to opioid basal regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Villari, Patrizia; Ferrera, Patrizia; Mangione, Salvatore; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2010-05-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of different opioids used in doses proportional to the basal opioid regimen for the management of breakthrough pain (BP). In 66 patients consecutive patients admitted to a pain relief and palliative care unit, the efficacy and safety of different opioids used in doses proportional to the basal opioid regimen for the management of breakthrough pain (BP) were assessed. The choice of the opioid to be administered as rescue medication was based on the characteristics of patients, clinical stability, compliance, preference, and so on. For each episode, nurses were instructed to routinely collect changes in pain intensity and emerging problems when pain became severe (T0), and to re-assess the patient 15 minutes after the opioid given as a rescue medication (T15). Six hundred twenty four episodes of BP were recorded during admission. Intravenous morphine (IV-MO) and oral transmucosal fentanyl (OTFC) were most frequently administered. Of 503 events available, 427 episodes were defined as successfully treated, while 76 episodes required a further administration of opioids. Pain intensity significantly decreased at T15 in all the groups (Popioids for BP proportional to the basal opioid regimen, are very effective and safe in clinical practice, regardless the opioid and modality used.

  18. Nurse's role in controlling cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfudh, Salma Said

    2011-10-01

    Nurses spend more time with patients than any other member of the healthcare team. They play a critical, active and very important part in controlling cancer patients' pain and alleviating suffering. In controlling cancer pain the nurse needs to understand the psychological state of the cancer patient, cancer pain, cancer pain treatment, deleterious effects of unrelieved cancer pain and patient's socio cultural background. She needs to understand that there are two types of pain, nociceptive and neuropathic pains and that 80% of the cancer patients in pain could have 2 or more than 4 different pains at the same time. Nurses' role in controlling cancer pain include believing the patient, assessing pain, identifying the root of the problem, planning the care, administering medication, evaluating effectiveness, ensuring good pain control and individualizing treatment. It also includes nursing interventions such as giving tender nursing care, preventing pain, educating, advocating, communicating, comforting, supporting, and counseling the patient. The nurse must use both pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments to individualize treatment, know all the drugs that are used for the treatment of Cancer Pain, how these drugs relieve pain and what their side effects are. She must use the WHO guidelines to treat pain and must choose the right drug, right dose, given at the right times, with the right intervals and to the right patient. She must evaluate effectiveness of treatment, give PRN doses for breakthrough pain and recommend for specific changes. The role of the nurse is to anticipate the patient's pain needs, advocate for the patient for what feels appropriate for him within his cultural context and incorporate the patient's belief. The nurse can physically relieve pain by promoting comfort, support painful area, gentleness in handling the patient and use nursing treatments. The nurse can recommend physiotherapy, (TENS)/Acupuncture, Occupational therapy

  19. Tanshinone IIA Exerts an Antinociceptive Effect in Rats with Cancer-induced Bone Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wei; Chen, Lei; Wu, Li-Fang; Yang, Fan; Niu, Jian-Xiang; Kaye, Alan D; Xu, Shi-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a common chronic pain characterized by 2 components, ongoing pain and breakthrough pain. Tanshinone IIA (TSN IIA) is a bioactive constituent of the traditional Chinese medicine Danshen, which has been reported to have an antinociceptive effect on neuropathic and inflammatory pain through downregulation of the late proinflammatory cytokine high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1). To assess the antinociceptive effect of TSN IIA on CIBP. A randomized, double-blind, controlled animal trial was performed. University lab in China. A rat CIBP model was established by injecting Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells into the intramedullary cavity of the tibia. Both ongoing pain, e.g., flinching and guarding, and breakthrough pain, e.g., limb use and von Frey threshold, were evaluated. The effects of intraperitoneally administered TSN IIA on pain behavior and the expression levels of spinal HMGB1, interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-6 were determined. The effect of TSN IIA on the electrically evoked response of spinal wide-dynamic range (WDR) neurons was performed in vivo. TSN IIA dose-dependently inhibited cancer-induced ongoing pain and breakthrough pain. The expression levels of spinal HMGB1 and other inflammatory factors (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6) were increased in the rat model, but they were suppressed by TSN IIA in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, TSN IIA significantly inhibited the neuronal responses of WDR neurons in spinal deep layers. Further studies are warranted to ascertain how TSN IIA attenuates cancer-induced ongoing pain. Our results indicate that TSN IIA attenuates cancer-induced ongoing pain and breakthrough pain, possibly via suppression of central sensitization in CIBP rats. Therefore, we have provided strong evidence supporting TSN IIA as a potential and effective therapy for relieving CIBP. Cancer-induced bone pain, high-mobility group protein B1, Tanshinone IIA, ongoing pain

  20. Head and Neck Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Jakun W

    2017-08-01

    Pain is a significant morbidity resulting from head and neck cancer. Pain may also be the result of the treatments directed against head and neck cancer. An experienced practitioner may manage this pain by understanding the multifactorial mechanisms of pain and the various pharmacotherapies available. Pain should be managed with multiple medications in a multimodal approach, and nonpharmacologic therapies should be considered as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pain management in cancer survivorship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurita, Geana Paula; Sjøgren, Per

    2015-01-01

    of the main problems in this population and prevalence varies between 16% and 50%. Most information derives from breast cancer patients assessed by surveys from national or local institutional databases. A Danish population-based survey estimated that 41.5% of all cancer survivors reported chronic pain. PAIN...... survivors. Pain management strategies are discussed according to the biopsychosocial model and with the rapidly growing number of cancer survivors the establishment of multidisciplinary clinics as a part of comprehensive cancer centers are proposed....

  2. Methadone for cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Alexander B; Watson, Graeme R; Derry, Sheena; Wiffen, Philip J

    2017-02-08

    This is an updated review originally published in 2004 and first updated in 2007. This version includes substantial changes to bring it in line with current methodological requirements. Methadone is a synthetic opioid that presents some challenges in dose titration and is recognised to cause potentially fatal arrhythmias in some patients. It does have a place in therapy for people who cannot tolerate other opioids but should be initiated only by experienced practitioners. This review is one of a suite of reviews on opioids for cancer pain. To determine the effectiveness and tolerability of methadone as an analgesic in adults and children with cancer pain. For this update we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and clinicaltrials.gov, to May 2016, without language restriction. We also checked reference lists in relevant articles. We sought randomised controlled trials comparing methadone (any formulation and by any route) with active or placebo comparators in people with cancer pain. All authors agreed on studies for inclusion. We retrieved full texts whenever there was any uncertainty about eligibility. One review author extracted data, which were checked by another review author. There were insufficient comparable data for meta-analysis. We extracted information on the effect of methadone on pain intensity or pain relief, the number or proportion of participants with 'no worse than mild pain'. We looked for data on withdrawal and adverse events. We looked specifically for information about adverse events relating to appetite, thirst, and somnolence. We assessed the evidence using GRADE and created a 'Summary of findings' table. We revisited decisions made in the earlier version of this review and excluded five studies that were previously included. We identified one new study for this update. This review includes six studies with 388 participants. We did not identify any studies in children.The included studies differed so much in their methods and

  3. Pain in patients with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, K.C.P.; Besse, K.; Wagemans, M.; Zuurmond, W.; Giezeman, M.J.; Lataster, A.; Mekhail, N.; Burton, A.W.; Kleef, M. van; Huygen, F.

    2011-01-01

    Pain in patients with cancer can be refractory to pharmacological treatment or intolerable side effects of pharmacological treatment may seriously disturb patients' quality of life. Specific interventional pain management techniques can be an effective alternative for those patients. The appropriate

  4. Cannabinoids in cancer pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskey, Angela

    2006-01-01

    The clinical use of cannabinoids in cancer pain management is reviewed. The endocannabionoid system, cannabinoid receptors, evidence for analgesic effects, other uses in cancer and related issues are discussed.

  5. [Analgesic treatment of cancer pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimouz, Abdelmalek

    2015-04-01

    Cancer pain can be nociceptive, neuropathic or mixed. It is linked to the tumour, to the metastases and to the treatments for the disease and is managed by multimodal analgesia corresponding to the pain relief drugs of the WHO's pain ladder, antidepressants, antiepileptic drugs and local anaesthetics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Options for Treating Pain in Cancer Patients with Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano

    2017-04-01

    Patients with chronic pain often develop dysphagia during the course of an advanced disease such as cancer. Opioids are the cornerstone of the management of cancer pain and are commonly administered orally. However, the oral route does not suit patients with dysphagia, who require alternative methods to administer analgesic drugs. Opioids given by parenteral or transdermal routes provide adequate pain control, being at least as efficacious as the oral route, but knowledge and experience in conversion ratios are mandatory when using these routes of administration. For breakthrough pain, transmucosal fentanyl preparations should be the preferred option and these can be given as needed due to the route of absorption. In addition, a new class of opioid formulations has been developed for use in dysphagic patients that are administered via nasogastric or enteral tubes while maintaining their sustained-release properties.

  7. Pain Management in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Erdek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A majority of pancreatic cancer patients present with pain at the time of diagnosis. Pain management can be challenging in light of the aggressive nature of this cancer. Apart from conventional pharmacotherapy, timely treatment with neurolytic celiac plexus block (NCPB has been shown to be of benefit. NCPB has demonstrated efficacious pain control in high quality studies with analgesic effects lasting one to two months. NCPB has also shown to decrease the requirements of narcotics, and thus decrease opioid related side effects. Another option for the control of moderate to severe pain is intrathecal therapy (IT. Delivery of analgesic medications intrathecally allows for lower dosages of medications and thus reduced toxicity. Both of the above mentioned interventional procedures have been shown to have low complication rates, and be safe and effective. Ultimately, comprehensive pancreatic cancer pain management necessitates understanding of pain mechanisms and delivery of sequential validated therapeutic interventions within a multidisciplinary patient care model.

  8. Effect of fentanyl buccal tablet on pain-related anxiety: a 4-week open-label study among opioid-tolerant patients with chronic and breakthrough pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Lynn R; Messina, John; Xie, Fang; Nalamachu, Srinivas

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) on pain-related anxiety in opioid-tolerant patients with chronic pain and breakthrough pain (BTP). This study consisted of a screening visit, open-label titration period, and 4-week open-label treatment period. Thirty-one US study centers. Opioid-tolerant adults with chronic, persistent pain experiencing 1-4 BTP episodes per day at baseline. Two hundred eighteen patients were enrolled in this study; 180 completed the titration period; and 169 completed the treatment period. Patients were treated with FBT (100-800 microg) for BTP episodes for 4 weeks while continuing their around-the-clock opioid regimens. Change from baseline in the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS) total score at the final visit. Based on a mean baseline PASS total score of 82.6, study patients had a high level of anxiety; 92 patients (42 percent) had a history of anxiety disorders. The change from baseline in PASS total score was not statistically significant (mean change, -1.6; p = 0.322). Numerical improvements were reported in some secondary measures (eg, Beck Depression Inventory total score /mean change, -1.1; p = 0.038) and categorical measures (eg, Pain Flare Treatment Satisfaction, Patient Assessment of Function, and Clinician Assessment of Patient Function ratings). FBT was generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse events related to study drug. Four weeks of treatment with FBT did not reduce anxiety to a clinically meaningful extent, although improvement was reported in several secondary measures of functioning. Further research is needed to assess the impact of treatment for BTP on anxiety symptoms in opioid-tolerant patients with BTP.

  9. Efficacy and safety of fentanyl buccal for cancer pain management by administration through a soluble film: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Omar Delgado-Guay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Marvin Omar Delgado-GuayDivision of Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine, The University of Texas, Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: More than half of patients receiving prescription medicine for cancer pain have been reported to experience inadequate pain relief or breakthrough pain. Buccal administration can deliver lipophilic opioids rapidly to the systemic circulation through the buccal mucosa, limiting gastrointestinal motility and first-pass metabolism. This review updates the safety and efficacy of fentanyl buccal soluble film (FBSF in patients with cancer pain. Literature was identified through searches of Medline (PubMed. Search terms included combinations of the following: cancer pain, fentanyl, fentanyl buccal soluble film, pharmacology, kinetics, safety, efficacy and toxicity. FBSF is an oral transmucosal form of fentanyl citrate developed as a treatment of breakthrough pain in opioid-tolerant patients with cancer. Studies have shown that it is well tolerated in the oral cavity, with adequate bioavailability and safety in cancer patients. Further studies are warranted to evaluate, in comparison with other short-acting opioids, its efficacy in the management of breakthrough cancer pain, its addictive potential and its economic impact in cancer patients.Keywords: fentanyl buccal soluble film, cancer pain

  10. Cancer pain management: Basic information for the young pain physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPS Rana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer pain is multifactorial and complex. The impact of cancer pain is devastating, with increased morbidity and poor quality of life, if not treated adequately. Cancer pain management is a challenging task both due to disease process as well as a consequence of treatment-related side-effects. Optimization of analgesia with oral opioids, adjuvant analgesics, and advanced pain management techniques is the key to success for cancer pain. Early access of oral opioid and interventional pain management techniques can overcome the barriers of cancer pain, with improved quality of life. With timely and proper anticancer therapy, opioids, nerve blocks, and other non-invasive techniques like psychosocial care, satisfactory pain relief can be achieved in most of the patients. Although the WHO Analgesic Ladder is effective for more than 80% cancer pain, addition of appropriate adjuvant drugs along with early intervention is needed for improved Quality of Life. Effective cancer pain treatment requires a holistic approach with timely assessment, measurement of pain, pathophysiology involved in causing particular type of pain, and understanding of drugs to relieve pain with timely inclusion of intervention. Careful evaluation of psychosocial and mental components with good communication is necessary. Barriers to cancer pain management should be overcome with an interdisciplinary approach aiming to provide adequate analgesia with minimal side-effects. Management of cancer pain should comprise not only a physical component but also psychosocial and mental components and social need of the patient. With risk-benefit analysis, interventional techniques should be included in an early stage of pain treatment. This article summarizes the need for early and effective pain management strategies, awareness regarding pain control, and barriers of cancer pain.

  11. Pain Control: Support for People with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do, this booklet includes tips about managing your pain with medicine and other treatments. PDF Kindle ePub This booklet covers: The types and causes of cancer pain How to talk about your pain with your ...

  12. Low cost continuous femoral nerve block for relief of acute severe cancer related pain due to pathological fracture femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cherian Koshy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathological fractures in cancer patient cause severe pain that is difficult to control pharmacologically. Even with good pain relief at rest, breakthrough and incident pain can be unmanageable. Continuous regional nerve blocks have a definite role in controlling such intractable pain. We describe two such cases where severe pain was adequately relieved in the acute phase. Continuous femoral nerve block was used as an efficient, cheap and safe method of pain relief for two of our patients with pathological fracture femur. This method was proved to be quite efficient in decreasing the fracture-related pain and improving the level of well being.

  13. The biopsychosocial model in cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novy, Diane M; Aigner, Carrie J

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with an up-to-date overview on the biopsychosocial model in cancer pain. This review contains articles published from 2012 to 2014, which advance our understanding of biopsychosocial factors related to the cancer pain experience and psychosocial treatment for cancer pain. Greater depression, anxiety, and distress, and lower quality of life are related to greater pain intensity in cancer patients. Recent publications have expanded on this research by examining how psychosocial factors relate to the development of chronic pain conditions after cancer treatment. Recent publications have also advanced our understanding of psychosocial interventions for cancer pain and symptom management. In the last few years, several reviews have emerged, which have found modest effect sizes for psychosocial interventions in cancer pain management. The biopsychosocial model is a helpful way to comprehensively approach the conceptualization and treatment of pain in cancer patients at all stages of the disease process. We currently have an established base of research on the importance of biopsychosocial model in cancer pain. Our ability to treat patients with cancer pain effectively will improve as we gain a better understanding of which treatments work for which patients.

  14. NCCN Practice Guidelines for Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, C; Brock, C; Cleeland, C; Coyle, N; Dubé, J E; Ferrell, B; Hassenbusch, S; Janjan, N A; Lema, M J; Levy, M H; Loscalzo, M J; Lynch, M; Muir, C; Oakes, L; O'Neill, A; Payne, R; Syrjala, K L; Urba, S; Weinstein, S M

    2000-11-01

    The overall approach to pain management encompassed in these guidelines is comprehensive. It is based on objective pain assessments, utilizes both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions, and requires continual reevaluation of the patient. The NCCN Cancer Pain Practice Guidelines Panel believes that cancer pain can be well controlled in the vast majority of patients if the algorithms presented are systematically applied, carefully monitored, and tailored to the needs of the individual patient.

  15. Transdermal opioids for cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachia, Elaine; Ahmedzai, Sam H

    2011-03-01

    Cancer patients with moderate-to-severe pain require opioids for analgesia. Whereas early guidelines recommend oral morphine as the 'drug of choice', newer synthetic opioids can be given by a reliable and effective nonoral transdermal route. We examine the mode of action of transdermal patches and we review the evidence on two drugs, which are currently available in this formulation - buprenorphine and fentanyl - covering physicochemical characteristics and pharmacokinetics of the patches, clinical efficacy data and adverse effects. Both buprenorphine and fentanyl possess ideal characteristics for transdermal delivery, being small molecules with high lipophilicity. Studies of buprenorphine patches show benefits but there is poor randomized controlled trial evidence comparing them with oral opioids. Fentanyl patches have been used for longer and have a larger body of evidence supporting their use, with data to suggest improved pain relief and reduced opioid side effects compared with sustained release oral morphine. Patients who have used both oral morphine and transdermal fentanyl express a preference for the patch drug. Transdermal buprenorphine and fentanyl are now established for moderate-to-severe cancer pain. There is still a need for further comparative studies with other opioids, especially for buprenorphine.

  16. Breakthroughs in modern cancer therapy and elusive cardiotoxicity: Critical research-practice gaps, challenges, and insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, P.-P. (Ping-Pin); Li, J. (Jin); J.M. Kros (Johan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractTo date, five cancer treatment modalities have been defined. The three traditional modalities of cancer treatment are surgery, radiotherapy, and conventional chemotherapy, and the two modern modalities include molecularly targeted therapy (the fourth modality) and immunotherapy (the

  17. Oral tapentadol for cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Naessens, Katrien; Bell, Rae F

    2015-09-25

    A large proportion of people with advanced cancer will experience moderate to severe pain. Tapentadol is a novel, centrally acting analgesic medicine acting at the μ-opioid receptor and inhibiting noradrenaline reuptake. The efficacy of tapentadol is stated to be comparable to morphine and oxycodone. To assess the analgesic efficacy of tapentadol for the relief of cancer pain in adults, and the adverse events associated with its use in clinical trials. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and EMBASE from January 2005 to July 2015, together with reference lists of retrieved papers and review articles, and two clinical trial registries. Searches started from 2005 because this covered the period during which clinical trials were conducted. We contacted the manufacturer of tapentadol in the UK to find additional trials not identified by electronic searches. We did not restrict searches by language. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of tapentadol compared with placebo or active controls in adults with moderate to severe cancer pain. Pain had to be measured using a validated assessment tool, and studies had to include at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Two review authors independently extracted data using a standard form and assessed risk of bias. We extracted available data on study design, participant details, interventions, and outcomes, including analgesic outcome measures, withdrawals, and adverse events. We included four studies with 1029 participants. All the studies used a parallel-group design, and included an initial titration phase to determine the maximum effective and tolerated dose, followed by a maintenance phase. Tapentadol medication was taken twice daily and doses ranged from 50 to 500 mg per day. Rescue medication (morphine or oxycodone immediate-release) was available to participants in all studies.Overall, 440 participants were randomised in classically designed RCTs, and 589

  18. Intrathecal Therapy for Cancer-Related Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Allen W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The increasing incidence of cancer survivorship has shifted treatment of cancer-related pain from short-term analgesia to long-term chronic pain management. As a result, alternatives to oral analgesics, such as intrathecal therapy, may be beneficial for patients with cancer-related pain. The authors review the use of intrathecal therapy in the management of cancer-related pain. Methods. The Medline database was searched for English-language articles that included “ziconotide” or “morphine” AND (“cancer” OR “malignant”) AND “intrathecal” in title or abstract. Available abstracts from scientific congresses in the areas of neuromodulation and oncology were also reviewed. Results. Intrathecal therapy provides pain relief with reduced systemic concerns in patients with cancer-related pain. Patients should undergo multidisciplinary evaluation and, in most cases, drug trialing before intrathecal pump implantation. Morphine, an opioid (µ-opioid receptor antagonist), and ziconotide, a nonopioid (selective N-type calcium channel inhibitor), are both approved for intrathecal analgesia; however, tolerance and safety concerns may deter the use of intrathecal morphine. Ziconotide has also shown efficacy for reduction of cancer-related pain; however, proper dosing and titration must be used to prevent adverse events. There is little information available on use of intrathecal therapies specifically in cancer survivors. Conclusions. Treatment of cancer-related pain has shifted toward chronic pain management strategies, especially among cancer survivors. Intrathecal therapy provides an alternate route of administration of chronic pain medications (e.g., morphine and ziconotide) for cancer patients with and without active disease, although additional research is needed to support effectiveness in cancer survivors. PMID:28025375

  19. Diagnostic, Predictive, Prognostic, and Therapeutic Molecular Biomarkers in Third Millennium: A Breakthrough in Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Nicola; Incollingo, Paola; Tammaro, Vincenzo; Peluso, Gaia; Rupealta, Niccolò; Chiacchio, Gaetano; Sandoval Sotelo, Maria Laura; Minieri, Gianluca; Pisani, Antonio; Riccio, Eleonora; Sabbatini, Massimo; Bracale, Umberto Marcello; Calogero, Armando; Dodaro, Concetta Anna; Santangelo, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third cause of cancer death. The clinical outcomes of the patients are still not encouraging with a low rate of 5 years' survival. Often the disease is diagnosed at advanced stages and this obviously negatively affects patients outcomes. A deep understanding of molecular basis of gastric cancer can lead to the identification of diagnostic, predictive, prognostic, and therapeutic biomarkers. This paper aims to give a global view on the molecular classification and mechanisms involved in the development of the tumour and on the biomarkers for gastric cancer. We discuss the role of E-cadherin, HER2, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), MET, human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), microsatellite instability (MSI), PD-L1, and TP53. We have also considered in this manuscript new emerging biomarkers as matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), microRNAs, and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Identifying and validating diagnostic, prognostic, predictive, and therapeutic biomarkers will have a huge impact on patients outcomes as they will allow early detection of tumours and also guide the choice of a targeted therapy based on specific molecular features of the cancer.

  20. Diagnostic, Predictive, Prognostic, and Therapeutic Molecular Biomarkers in Third Millennium: A Breakthrough in Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Carlomagno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third cause of cancer death. The clinical outcomes of the patients are still not encouraging with a low rate of 5 years’ survival. Often the disease is diagnosed at advanced stages and this obviously negatively affects patients outcomes. A deep understanding of molecular basis of gastric cancer can lead to the identification of diagnostic, predictive, prognostic, and therapeutic biomarkers. Main Body. This paper aims to give a global view on the molecular classification and mechanisms involved in the development of the tumour and on the biomarkers for gastric cancer. We discuss the role of E-cadherin, HER2, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR, MET, human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, microsatellite instability (MSI, PD-L1, and TP53. We have also considered in this manuscript new emerging biomarkers as matrix metalloproteases (MMPs, microRNAs, and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs. Conclusions. Identifying and validating diagnostic, prognostic, predictive, and therapeutic biomarkers will have a huge impact on patients outcomes as they will allow early detection of tumours and also guide the choice of a targeted therapy based on specific molecular features of the cancer.

  1. POSTOPERATIVE AND CANCER PAIN NEED PROPER ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Yanev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors surveyed the clinical data and reviewed the literature on the management of post-operative and cancer pain. The conclusion was made that pain management during post-operative period or in status of advanced cancer necessitates effective pharmacotherapy with non-opioid and opioid analgesics. Data for pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of widely used analgesic drugs are listed. The authors provide practical guidelines for the management of post-operative and cancer pain in clinical wards as well as in outpatients departments.

  2. [Clonidine in the treatment of cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas Bøje; Sjøgren, Per

    2008-01-01

    Clonidine is an alpha2-adrenergic agonist with analgetic properties. Due to its side-effects, the drug is administered via the epidural or spinal route. A literature search yielded nine controlled studies on clonidine as a supplemental drug in the epidural or spinal treatment of cancer pain....... These studies were systematically reviewed to evaluate the evidence of efficacy in patients with cancer pain. CONCLUSION: Despite weak evidence, clonidine may be a useful adjunct in epidural or spinal morphine therapy of cancer pain Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/3...

  3. Managing Cancer Pain - Simple Rules, Major Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwight E Moulin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the developed world, approximately one in three individuals will be diagnosed with cancer and one-half of those will die of progressive disease (1. At least 75% of patients with cancer develop pain before death. It is therefore not surprising that pain is one of the most feared consequences of cancer for both patients and families (2. The good news is that cancer pain can be controlled with relatively simple means in more than 80% of cases based on guidelines from the World Health Organization (3. Mild pain can be treated with acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Step 1 of the analgesic ladder. Moderate pain requires the addition of a 'minor' opioid such as codeine (Step 2, and severe pain mandates the use of a major opioid analgesic such as morphine (Step 3. In this issue of Pain Research & Management, Gallagher et al (pages 188-194 highlight some of the barriers to adequate cancer pain management based on a cross-sectional survey of British Columbian physicians. The survey response rate of 69% attests to the validity of their findings.

  4. Acupuncture for Cancer-Induced Bone Pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole A. Paley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone pain is the most common type of pain in cancer. Bony metastases are common in advanced cancers, particularly in multiple myeloma, breast, prostate or lung cancer. Current pain-relieving strategies include the use of opioid-based analgesia, bisphosphonates and radiotherapy. Although patients experience some pain relief, these interventions may produce unacceptable side-effects which inevitably affect the quality of life. Acupuncture may represent a potentially valuable adjunct to existing strategies for pain relief and it is known to be relatively free of harmful side-effects. Although acupuncture is used in palliative care settings for all types of cancer pain the evidence-base is sparse and inconclusive and there is very little evidence to show its effectiveness in relieving cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP. The aim of this critical review is to consider the known physiological effects of acupuncture and discuss these in the context of the pathophysiology of malignant bone pain. The aim of future research should be to produce an effective protocol for treating CIBP with acupuncture based on a sound, evidence-based rationale. The physiological mechanisms presented in this review suggest that this is a realistic objective.

  5. Hypnosis: Adjunct Therapy for Cancer Pain Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravits, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Pain is a symptom associated with prolonged recovery from illness and procedures, decreased quality of life, and increased health-care costs. While there have been advances in the management of cancer pain, there is a need for therapeutic strategies that complement pharmaceutical management without significantly contributing to the side-effect profile of these agents. Hypnosis provides a safe and efficacious supplement to pharmaceutical management of cancer pain. One barrier to the regular use of hypnosis is health-care providers’ lack of current knowledge of the efficacy and safety of hypnosis. Advanced practitioners who are well-informed about hypnosis have an opportunity to increase the treatment options for patients who are suffering with cancer pain by suggesting to the health-care team that hypnosis be incorporated into the plan of care. Integration of hypnosis into the standard of care will benefit patients, caregivers, and survivors by reducing pain and the suffering associated with it. PMID:25031986

  6. Developing effective cancer pain education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michelle Y; Pisu, Maria; Kvale, Elizabeth A; Johns, Shelley A

    2012-08-01

    Pain is prevalent, burdensome, and undertreated in individuals with cancer across the disease trajectory. Providing patients and family caregivers with psychosocial support and education to manage cancer pain is a core component of quality care that can result in significant clinical benefit. In this review, we: (1) outline an approach for developing and assessing the effectiveness of education programs for adults with cancer pain; (2) discuss considerations for tailoring programs to the needs of diverse populations and those with limited health literacy skills; (3) describe the resource needs and costs of developing a program; (4) highlight innovative approaches to cancer pain education. We conclude with recommendations for future research and the next generation of educational interventions.

  7. [Pain therapy in cancer and palliative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolke, R; Radbruch, L

    2015-10-01

    In Germany, approximately half a million people suffer from cancer pain, which is one of the most common first symptoms of tumor disease in 20-40% of the patients. The prevalence increases during the course of the disease to approximately 90% among patients in a palliative care unit. Treatment in the field of cancer pain is often provided by interdisciplinary teams of different pain or palliative care services. Due to the high availability of opioids and also, in European comparison, of a high number of specialized services in hospice and palliative care provision, Germany plays a special role next to Great Britain. There is a great need for the further development of the coordination and networking of these services within Germany, which is regulated by the Hospice and Palliative Act. The cross-sectional curricula QB 13 (palliative medicine) and QB 14 (pain medicine) were implemented in German medical faculties in order to improve integration of cancer pain management into the teaching of medical students. Research in the area of cancer pain addresses clinical topics such as the availability of opioids, but also basic research including genetic variability as a predictor for the efficacy of opioids and the neurobiology of cancer pain.

  8. Fear of pain in patients with advanced cancer or in patients with chronic noncancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Katerine; Wilson, Keith G; Buenger, Usha; Jarvis, Virginia; Fitzgibbon, Edward; Bhimji, Khadija; Dobkin, Patricia L

    2011-02-01

    pain is one of the most prevalent symptoms in patients with advanced cancer and, according to anecdotal reports, perhaps the most feared. Surprisingly, fear of pain has been the subject of little research within cancer care. The literature on chronic noncancer pain, however, suggests that fear of pain contributes to limitations in function in populations with diverse chronic illness. Little is known about the extent to which such findings might generalize from patients with chronic noncancer pain to those with chronic cancer pain. Therefore, this research examined the extent to which fear of pain is associated with limitations in function in patients with advanced cancer and also compared patients with chronic cancer and noncancer pain. we recruited 117 patients with advanced cancer who received a referral for pain management and 118 patients with a primary complaint of chronic noncancer pain. Participants completed self-report questionnaires. findings revealed similarities between the groups for fear of pain and limitations in function, but they differed on level of depression and pain severity (patients with noncancer pain were more depressed and reported higher pain severity). Fear of pain independently predicted limitations in function in both groups controlling for demographic variables and pain severity. When depression and physical symptoms were controlled, fear of pain predicted limitations in function only in patients with advanced cancer. the findings emphasize the importance of psychological dimensions of pain in patients with advanced cancer, as well as the similarities and differences between the 2 groups of patients suffering from chronic pain.

  9. Unilateral facial pain and lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakespeare, T.P.; Stevens, M.J. [Royal North Shore Hospital, Crows Nest, NSW (Australia)

    1996-02-01

    Facial pain in lung cancer patients may be secondary to metastatic disease to the brain or skull base. Since 1983 there have been 19 published reports of hemi-facial pain as a non-metastatic complication of lung carcinoma. This report describes an additional case in whom unilateral face pain preceded the diagnosis of lung cancer by 9 months. A clinical diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia was made after a normal brain CT scan. Later on the patient complained of global lethargy, weight loss and haemoptysis. A chest X-ray disclosed a 6 cm right hilar mass that was further defined with a whole body CT scan. The neural mechanism of the unilateral facial pain is discussed and the literature reviewed. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Acupuncture Reduces Breast Cancer Joint Pain | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the largest, most rigorous study of its kind, acupuncture was found to significantly reduce the debilitating joint pain experienced by tens of thousands of women each year while being treated for early stage breast cancer with aromatase inhibitors (AIs). |

  11. Pain in castration-resistant prostate cancer with bone metastases: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gater Adam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone metastases are a common painful and debilitating consequence of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CPRC. Bone pain may predict patients' prognosis and there is a need to further explore CRPC patients' experiences of bone pain in the overall context of disease pathology. Due to the subjective nature of pain, assessments of pain severity, onset and progression are reliant on patient assessment. Patient reported outcome (PRO measures, therefore, are commonly used as key endpoints for evaluating the efficacy of CRPC treatments. Evidence of the content validity of leading PRO measures of pain severity used in CRPC clinical trials is, however, limited. Methods To document patients' experience of CRPC symptoms including pain, and their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL, semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 patients with CRPC and bone metastases. The content validity of the Present Pain Intensity (PPI scale from the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ, and the 'Average Pain' and 'Worst Pain' items of the Brief Pain Inventory Short-Form (BPI-SF was also assessed. Results Patients with CRPC and bone metastases present with a constellation of symptoms that can have a profound effect on HRQL. For patients in this study, bone pain was the most prominent and debilitating symptom associated with their condition. Bone pain was chronic and, despite being generally well-managed by analgesic medication, instances of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP were common. Cognitive debriefing of the selected PRO measures of pain severity highlighted difficulties among patients in understanding the verbal response scale (VRS of the MPQ PPI scale. There were also some inconsistencies in the way in which the BPI-SF 'Average Pain' item was interpreted by patients. In contrast, the BPI-SF 'Worst Pain' item was well understood and interpreted consistently among patients. Conclusions Study findings support the

  12. Randomized Double-Blind Trial of Pregabalin Versus Placebo in Conjunction With Palliative Radiotherapy for Cancer-Induced Bone Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Peter J.; Colvin, Lesley A.; Fleetwood-Walker, Susan M.; Adamson, Douglas; Byrne, Anthony; Murray, Gordon D.; Laird, Barry J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) affects one third of patients with cancer. Radiotherapy remains the gold-standard treatment; however, laboratory and clinical work suggest that pregabalin may be useful in treating CIBP. The aim of this study was to examine pregabalin in patients with CIBP receiving radiotherapy. Patients and Methods A multicenter, double-blind randomized trial of pregabalin versus placebo was conducted. Eligible patients were age ≥ 18 years, had radiologically proven bone metastases, were scheduled to receive radiotherapy, and had pain scores ≥ 4 of 10 (on 0-to-10 numeric rating scale). Before radiotherapy, baseline assessments were completed, followed by random assignment. Doses of pregabalin and placebo were increased over 4 weeks. The primary end point was treatment response, defined as a reduction of ≥ 2 points in worst pain by week 4, accompanied by a stable or reduced opioid dose, compared with baseline. Secondary end points assessed average pain, interference of pain with activity, breakthrough pain, mood, quality of life, and adverse events. Results A total of 233 patients were randomly assigned: 117 to placebo and 116 to pregabalin. The most common cancers were prostate (n = 88; 38%), breast (n = 77; 33%), and lung (n = 42; 18%). In the pregabalin arm, 45 patients (38.8%) achieved the primary end point, compared with 47 (40.2%) in the placebo arm (adjusted odds ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.63 to 1.81; P = .816). There were no statistically significant differences in average pain, pain interference, or quality of life between arms. There were differences in mood (P = .031) and breakthrough pain duration (P = .037) between arms. Outcomes were compared at 4 weeks. Conclusion Our findings do not support the role of pregabalin in patients with CIBP receiving radiotherapy. The role of pregabalin in CIBP with a clinical neuropathic pain component is unknown. PMID:26644535

  13. Cancer treatment - dealing with pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care and Supportive Oncology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:chap 3. Grossman SA, Nesbit S. ... Care and Supportive Oncology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013: chap 4. National Cancer Institute. ...

  14. Multimodal intrathecal analgesia in refractory cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastenbroek, Thierry C; Kramp-Hendriks, Bianca J; Kallewaard, Jan Willem; Vonk, Johanna M

    2017-01-01

    Cancer pain treatment has improved over the last decades. The majority of this population can be treated effectively with analgesics following the Guidelines of the original World Health Organisation (WHO). Unfortunately 10-15% of these patients still suffer from severe and refractory cancer pain, especially in the terminal phases of disease and require additional pain management modalities. Therefore, end-stage clinical interventions are particularly needed to minimize the perception of pain. With intrathecal therapy (ITT), drugs are delivered close to their site of action in the central nervous system avoiding first-pass metabolism and blood-brain barrier. It may improve analgesia with a smaller dose and possibly achieve a reduction in systemic or cerebral side effects compared to oral supplied medication alone. Multimodal analgesia enables further dose reduction with improved analgesia and fewer side effects. In this retrospective research we investigated the effectiveness and side-effect profile of intrathecal morphine, bupivacaine and clonidine. Patients were followed until death occurred. Pain scores and side effects were recorded before initiating ITT (T0), just after initiating ITT (T1), at hospital discharge (T2), in the ambulant setting (T3) and the last obtained scores before death occurred (T4). Nine patients were included who suffered from severe and refractory cancer pain, not reacting to conventional pain management or had intolerable side effects. Primary tumour location was pancreatic (4), urothelial (3) and prostate (2). Primary pain was considered neuropathic or mixed neuropathic-nociceptive. The treatment team consisted of an anaesthetist, specialized nurse in coordination with primary physician, treating oncologist and specialized home care. All patients were free of pain after initiation of the intrathecal therapy. The average follow-up period was 11 weeks in which there was a slight increase in NRS-score. In the last days before death

  15. Oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McNicol, Ewan D; Bell, Rae F; Carr, Daniel B; McIntyre, Mairead; Wee, Bee

    2017-07-12

    Pain is a common symptom with cancer, and 30% to 50% of all people with cancer will experience moderate to severe pain that can have a major negative impact on their quality of life. Non-opioid drugs are commonly used to treat mild to moderate cancer pain, and are recommended for this purpose in the WHO cancer pain treatment ladder, either alone or in combination with opioids.A previous Cochrane review that examined the evidence for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or paracetamol, alone or combined with opioids, for cancer pain was withdrawn in 2015 because it was out of date; the date of the last search was 2005. This review, and another on NSAIDs, updates the evidence. To assess the efficacy of oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer pain in adults and children, and the adverse events reported during its use in clinical trials. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase from inception to March 2017, together with reference lists of retrieved papers and reviews, and two online study registries. We included randomised, double-blind, studies of five days' duration or longer, comparing paracetamol alone with placebo, or paracetamol in combination with an opioid compared with the same dose of the opioid alone, for cancer pain of any intensity. Single-blind and open studies were also eligible for inclusion. The minimum study size was 25 participants per treatment arm at the initial randomisation. Two review authors independently searched for studies, extracted efficacy and adverse event data, and examined issues of study quality and potential bias. We did not carry out any pooled analyses. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE and created a 'Summary of findings' table. Three studies in adults satisfied the inclusion criteria, lasting up to one week; 122 participants were randomised initially, and 95 completed treatment. We found no studies in children. One study was parallel-group, and

  16. Integrative Review: Effects of Music on Cancer Pain in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, AnnMarie; Keithley, Joyce K

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the literature for music's effect on adult cancer pain.
. An electronic literature search from 1986-2014 was conducted to evaluate the effects of quantitative music among adults with cancer pain in settings including homes, hospitals, and palliative care units. Databases used were PubMed (MEDLINE) and Scopus.
 The study designs, methods, measures, outcomes, and limitations were evaluated independently by the primary author and verified by the second author. The primary outcome measure of interest was the effect of music in cancer pain. Of 82 studies, 5 of them--totaling 248 participants--met eligibility criteria. Review of findings suggests a paucity of innovative approaches for using music to mitigate cancer pain among adults. Psychological outcomes, anxiety, depression, and mood were understudied. Advanced pain, multiple cancer types, and lack of racial diversity characterize the samples.
 Modern treatments for cancer have improved survival rates; however, patients often experience tumor- and treatment-related pain. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods may minimize cancer pain. The use of music as an adjunct to pain medication requires additional studies, particularly on mechanisms of its effect on pain among diverse, large samples with multiple cancer pain types. A limitation of this review is the small number of available studies to date. The evidence for music therapy in the management of pain is limited. Integrative methods using music may represent an important intervention that nurses may be able to suggest as an inexpensive, nontoxic, and readily available intervention for potentially minimizing cancer pain.

  17. Pain in Survivors of Pediatric Cancer: Applying a Prevention Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Amanda L; Karlson, Cynthia W; Heathcote, Lauren C; Rosenberg, Abby R; Palermo, Tonya M

    2017-08-31

    To apply a biopsychosocial framework to understand factors influencing pain in survivors of pediatric cancer to inform pain prevention efforts and highlight the need for interdisciplinary care. This topical review draws from both pediatric cancer survivorship research and chronic noncancer pain research to illustrate how components of a preventative model can be applied to pain in survivorship. Pain is a common experience among long-term survivors of pediatric cancer. The pain experience in survivorship can be conceptualized in terms of biological disease and treatment factors, cognitive and affective factors, and social and contextual factors. We review literature pertinent to each of these biopsychosocial factors and tailor an existing public health prevention framework for pain in survivors of pediatric cancer. Classifying survivors of pediatric cancer into pain risk categories based on their daily experiences of pain, pain-related functional impairment, and distress could help guide the implementation of pain-related prevention and intervention strategies in this population. Future research is needed to establish the efficacy of screening measures to identify patients in need of psychosocial pain and pain-related fear management services, and interdisciplinary pediatric chronic pain management programs in survivors of pediatric cancer.

  18. Classification of neuropathic pain in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunelli, Cinzia; Bennett, Michael I; Kaasa, Stein

    2014-01-01

    and on the relevance of patient-reported outcome (PRO) descriptors for the screening of NP in this population. An international group of 42 experts was invited to participate in a consensus process through a modified 2-round Internet-based Delphi survey. Relevant topics investigated were: peculiarities of NP...... was found on the statement "the pathophysiology of NP due to cancer can be different from non-cancer NP" (MED=9, IQR=2). Satisfactory consensus was reached for the first 3 NeuPSIG criteria (pain distribution, history, and sensory findings; MEDs⩾8, IQRs⩽3), but not for the fourth one (diagnostic test...

  19. Fentanyl buccal tablet for the relief of breakthrough pain in opioid-tolerant adult patients with chronic neuropathic pain: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, David M; Messina, John; Xie, Fang; Hale, Martin

    2007-04-01

    Patients with chronic noncancer pain, including neuropathic pain, may have transitory exacerbations of pain (median duration, 60 minutes), termed breakthrough pain (BTP), that may reach peak intensity within minutes. Typical short-acting oral opioids may not provide sufficiently rapid relief (30- to 60-minute onset of analgesia). The fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) provides a rapid onset of analgesia (10-15 minutes) by enhancing fentanyl absorption across the buccal mucosa. This study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of FBT in opioid-tolerant patients with BTP associated with chronic noncancer neuropathic pain. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in men and women aged 18 to 80 years who were opioid tolerant; had a >/= 3-month history of chronic persistent neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, traumatic injury, or complex regional pain syndrome; and reported having episodes of BTP. After an open-label titration period to identify an effective FBT dose (the dose at which the patient reported receiving adequate pain relief within 30 minutes after administration of a single tablet of that dose during at least 2 of 3 BTP episodes), patients were randomly assigned to treat 9 consecutive episodes of BTP over the next 21 days with 1 of 3 double-blind dose sequences of FBT and placebo tablets. Pain intensity (PI) (rated on an 11-point pain scale, from 0 = no pain to 10 = worst pain) and other outcomes were assessed before dosing and for 2 hours after dosing. The primary efficacy measure was the sum of PI differences (PIDs) for the first 60 minutes (SPID(60)). Secondary efficacy measures included the proportion of BTP episodes with >/= 33% and >/= 50% improvement in PI from baseline; PID at other time points (5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after dosing); pain relief (PR) at the same time points (rated on a 5-point Likert scale from 0 = none to 4 = complete); proportion

  20. Pain centers professionals' beliefs on non-cancer chronic pain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dayse Maioli Garcia; Cibele Andrucioli de Mattos-Pimenta

    2008-01-01

    ...%) pain centers in the city of S.Paulo. The Survey of Chronic Pain Attitudes-Professionals was employed to evaluate pain professionals' beliefs toward emotions, control, disability, solicitude, cure and harm...

  1. Longitudinal Perioperative Pain Assessment in Head and Neck Cancer Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchakjian, Marisa R; Davis, Andrew B; Sciegienka, Sebastian J; Pagedar, Nitin A; Sperry, Steven M

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate perioperative pain in patients undergoing major head and neck cancer surgery and identify associations between preoperative and postoperative pain characteristics. Patients undergoing head and neck surgery with regional/free tissue transfer were enrolled. Preoperative pain and validated screens for symptoms (neuropathic pain, anxiety, depression, fibromyalgia) were assessed. Postoperatively, patients completed a pain diary for 4 weeks. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled. Seventy-eight percent had pain prior to surgery, and for 38%, the pain had neuropathic characteristics. Thirteen patients (48%) completed at least 2 weeks of the postoperative pain diary. Patients with moderate/severe preoperative pain report significantly greater pain scores postoperatively, though daily pain decreased at a similar linear rate for all patients. Patients with more severe preoperative pain consumed greater amounts of opioids postoperatively, and this correlated with daily postoperative pain scores. Patients who screened positive for neuropathic pain also reported worse postoperative pain. Longitudinal perioperative pain assessment in head and neck patients undergoing surgery suggests that patients with worse preoperative pain continue to endorse worse pain postoperatively and require more narcotics. Patients with preoperative neuropathic pain also report poor pain control postoperatively, suggesting an opportunity to identify these patients and intervene with empiric neuropathic pain treatment.

  2. Pain Management in Patients with Cancer: Focus on Opioid Analgesics

    OpenAIRE

    Leppert, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Cancer pain is generally treated with pharmacological measures, relying on using opioids alone or in combination with adjuvant analgesics. Weak opioids are used for mild-to-moderate pain as monotherapy or in a combination with nonopioids. For patients with moderate-to-severe pain, strong opioids are recommended as initial therapy rather than beginning treatment with weak opioids. Adjunctive therapy plays an important role in the treatment of cancer pain not fully responsive to opioids adminis...

  3. [Prevalence and aetiopathogenesis of neuropathic pain in elderly cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón-Gutiérrez, Luis; Custodio-Cabello, Sara; Khosravi-Shahi, Parham

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of neuropathic pain is difficult to estimate as most studies evaluating chronic pain do not differentiate neuropathic from nociceptive pain. There are only a few studies of neuropathic pain in the elderly, specifically in the oncology population. This article is a non-systematic review of the relevant evidence on the prevalence and aetiopathogenesis of neuropathic cancer pain in the elderly. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Orofacial pain onset predicts transition to head and neck cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAM, D.K.; SCHMIDT, B.L.

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to a clinical aphorism that early head and neck cancer is painless, we show that patients who develop head and neck cancer experience significant pain at the time of initial diagnosis. We compared orofacial pain sensitivity in groups of patients with normal oral mucosa, oral precancer and newly diagnosed oral cancer. The UCSF Oral Cancer Pain Questionnaire was administered to these patients at their initial visit, before being prescribed analgesics for pain and before any treatment. In contrast to those with biopsy-proven normal oral mucosa and oral precancer, only oral cancer patients reported significant levels of spontaneous pain and functional restriction from pain. Moreover, oral cancer patients experienced significantly higher function-related, rather than spontaneous pain qualities. These findings suggest an important predictor for the transition from oral precancer to cancer may be the onset of orofacial pain that is exacerbated during function. Screening patients who have new-onset orofacial pain may lead to a diagnosis of early, resectable head and neck cancer and may improve quality of life and survival for head and neck cancer patients. PMID:21388740

  5. [Improving the quality of cancer pain management in palliative care unit: Targeted clinical audit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricou, Colombe; Ruer, Murielle; Ledoux, Mathilde; Perceau-Chambard, Élise; Decrept, Dorothée; Chabloz, Claire; Filbet, Marilène

    Goal This study aims to assess the quality of the cancer pain management in Palliative care unit. The method used was the targeted clinical audit. The audit grid was built according to the recommendations of the pilot Committee, and tested until the final version with 19 items was obtained. In this retrospective study, 60 consecutive patients were studied on 2 periods of time. The first one (T1) shows the gap between the patient's chart and the expected standard, and proposes corrective measures. The second one (T2) re-assesses, using the same items list, the efficacy of these measures. After the corrective measures, the patients' medical record documentation was significantly improved at T2 for: neuropathic pain assessment improved, from 3% (T1) to 67% (T2) (P<0.001), so did pain assessment during the titration, from 6.7% (T1) to 90% (T2) (P<0.001). The overdoses symptoms assessment improved from 17% at T1 to 93% at T2, (P=0.002) and breakthrough pain evaluation improved from 3% at T1 to 73% at T2, (P<0.001). The pain reassessment after the rescue doses improved from 10% at T1 to 73% at T2 (P<0.001). The other points improved but not significantly. The quality of the pain cancer management was improved during the audit, but some points (patient education and in patient medical record documentation) can be improved. We need to continue to implement the improvement measures in our unit. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Menstrual pain and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babic, Ana; Harris, Holly R; Vitonis, Allison F

    2018-01-01

    to lack of power. We assessed menstrual pain using either direct questions about having experienced menstrual pain, or indirect questions about menstrual pain as indication for use of hormones or medications. We used multivariate logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for the association......Menstrual pain, a common gynecological condition, has been associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer in some, but not all studies. Furthermore, potential variations in the association between menstrual pain and ovarian cancer by histologic subtype have not been adequately evaluated due...... between severe menstrual pain and ovarian cancer, adjusting for potential confounders and multinomial logistic regression to calculate ORs for specific histologic subtypes. We observed no association between ovarian cancer and menstrual pain assessed by indirect questions. Among studies using direct...

  7. Psychological factors and psychosocial interventions for cancer related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucă, Andrada; Băban, Adriana

    2017-06-01

    The present paper is aimed at briefly presenting psychological factors involved in cancer related pain and what psychosocial interventions are efficient in reducing it. Cancer related pain is a complex experience and the most integrative and recommended approach is the biopsychosocial model. It has been proved that chronic pain is more strongly related to psychological factors than to treatment or illness related factors. Psychological factors influencing pain experience can be intuitively grouped starting with awareness of pain (i.e., attentional factor), then with evaluation of pain (i.e., cognitive factors) which is leading to feelings (i.e., emotional factors), and behaviours (i.e., coping strategies) regarding pain. Psychosocial interventions (i.e., skill based and education based interventions) have strong evidence that is effective in reducing cancer related pain.

  8. Cancer and treatment related pains in patients with cervical carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Saikat

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain in carcinoma cervix is a multidimensional experience with sensory, affective and cognitive-evaluative components. Many patients do not receive adequate pain management because of a lack of proper assessment, misconceptions regarding the pharmacologic and non pharmacologic methods of pain management and failure to distinguish between different types of pain. In our audit pelvic and nodal recurrence were the commonest cause of pain presenting as as pelvic pain, [42%], lumbosacral plexopathy [40%] and abdominal pain [34%] [n = 30]. Pain on defaecation caused by rectal obstruction, and suprapubic pain due to pyometra can be relieved by colostomy and drainage. Very little literature is available on the pain syndromes associated with carcinoma cervix. The present article is a review of cancer and treatment related pains in carcinoma cervix.

  9. Drug Reduces Cancer Treatment-Related Joint Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Cancer Currents blog post about a clinical trial demonstrating that duloxetine (Cymbalta®) may reduce joint pain caused by aromatase inhibitors in women being treated for early-stage breast cancer.

  10. Taxane chemotherapy for hormone-naïve prostate cancer with its expanding role as breakthrough strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki eShiota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, androgen-deprivation therapy was the only primary treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. After prostate cancer develops into castration-resistant prostate cancer, there are a few life-prolonging drugs, including taxanes such as docetaxel and cabazitaxel, as well as novel androgen receptor-targeting agents such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide, which have been proved in clinical trials. However, the prognosis of men with castration-resistant prostate cancer is still poor. The duration from initiation of androgen-deprivation therapy to castration-resistant prostate cancer has not improved in recent decades because no novel therapeutic options have emerged. However, recently, up-front docetaxel chemotherapy has been shown to prolong progression-free as well as overall survival in men with metastatic hormone-naïve prostate cancer. This offers a new way to expand the role of chemotherapy for hormone-naïve prostate cancer. In this review, we summarize the proof-of-concept as well as the current status of taxane chemotherapy for hormone-naïve prostate cancer, focusing on phase 3 clinical trials investigating oncological outcome, and discuss the future direction in this field.

  11. Psychological and physical effects of pain on cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of pain and its psychological and physical effects on cancer patients. Method: We ... Sixty-eight (32.4%) subjects had breast cancer, 59 (28.1%) had cervical cancer, 40 (19.0%) had colon/rectal cancer while the remaining ..... physical treatments like radiotherapy and surgery. Sexual.

  12. evaluation/of surgical resident staff knowledge of cancer pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their management of a hypothetical patient who had severe cancer pain and also asked questions on other issues relating to cancer pain therapy. ' Results: Sixteen resident doctors responded to the questionnaire. Mean number of years spent in residency was 2.1. More than 80% of the respondents had adequate ...

  13. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for interventional pain management in cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Bhatnagar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intractable cancer pain not amenable to standard oral or parenteral analgesics is a horrifying truth in 10-15% of patients. Interventional pain management techniques are an indispensable arsenal in pain physician′s armamentarium for severe, intractable pain and can be broadly classified into neuroablative and neuromodulation techniques. An array of neurolytic techniques (chemical, thermal, or surgical can be employed for ablation of individual nerve fibers, plexuses, or intrathecalneurolysis in patients with resistant pain and short life-expectancy. Neuraxial administration of drugs and spinal cord stimulation to modulate or alter the pain perception constitutes the most frequently employed neuromodulation techniques. Lately, there is a rising call for early introduction of interventional techniques in carefully selected patients simultaneously or even before starting strong opioids. After decades of empirical use, it is the need of the hour to head towards professionalism and standardization in order to secure credibility of specialization and those practicing it. Even though the interventional management has found a definite place in cancer pain, there is a dearth of evidence-based practice guidelines for interventional therapies in cancer pain. This may be because of paucity of good quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluating their safety and efficacy in cancer pain. Laying standardized guidelines based on existing and emerging evidence will act as a foundation step towards strengthening, credentialing, and dissemination of the specialty of interventional cancer pain management. This will also ensure an improved decision-making and quality of life (QoL of the suffering patients.

  14. A Significant Breakthrough in the Incidence of Childhood Cancers and Evaluation of its Risk Factors in Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erjaee, Asma; Niknam, Maryam; Sadeghi, Ahmadreza; Dehghani, Maryam; Safaei, Zeinab; Teshnizi, Saeed Hosseini; Karimi, Mehran

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates epidemiologic and practical information about the incidence and risk factors of childhood cancer in a population of Southern Iranian children. A total number of 300 cancer patients along with 600 age- and gender-matched healthy control were interviewed by a trained physician regarding their demographic characteristics, and major family-associated risk factors, childhood malignancies. The average annual percentage change for cancers in the studied population is calculated as 45%. Our study indicated that possible risk factors which could contribute to the development of childhood cancer are maternal oral contraceptive pill use during pregnancy, exposure to radiation during pregnancy, parental smoking, residence near high voltage electricity lines, exposure to pesticides and fertilizers, patient allergy, contact with domestic animals and father's educational degree. Furthermore, new ecological risk factors such as air pollution due to nonstandard petroleum or toxic inhalant particles, nonhealthy food consumption, and satellite jamming are other predisposing factors. Our study reported a higher average annual percentage change of childhood cancers in our area, compared to the existing literature. In conclusion, detection and prevention of the consistent and possible new environmental risk factors such as nonstandard petroleum or satellite jamming from all around the country should be taking into consideration.

  15. Oncology Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cancer Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriary, Shahdad; Shiryazdi, Seyed Mostafa; Shiryazdi, Seyed Ali; Arjomandi, Amir; Haghighi, Fatemeh; Vakili, Fariba Mir; Mostafaie, Naiemeh

    2015-01-01

    Oncology nurses play a crucial role in cancer pain management and must be highly informed to ensure their effective practice in the cancer setting. The aim of this study was to determine the baseline level of knowledge and attitudes of oncology nurses regarding cancer pain management. A cross-sectional survey research design was employed. The sample comprised 58 cancer nurses working in Shahid Sadoughi hospital, Yazd, Iran. The ''Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain'' (NKAS) tool and a demographic form were utilized to ascertain the knowledge and attitudes of oncology nurses working in oncology settings. The average correct response rate for oncology nurses was 66.6%, ranging from 12.1% to 94.8%. The nurses mean score on the knowledge and attitudes survey regarding pain management was 28.5%. Results revealed that the mean percentage score overall was 65.7%. Only 8.6% of nurse participants obtained a passing score of 75% or greater. Widespread knowledge deficits and poor attitudes were noted in this study, particularly regard pharmacological management of pain. The present study provides important information about knowledge deficits in pain management among oncology nurses and limited training regarding pain management. Our results support the universal concern of inadequate knowledge and attitudes of nurses regarding cancer pain. It is suggested educational and quality improvement initiatives in pain management could enhance nurses knowledge in the area of pain and possibly improve practice.

  16. Persistent arm pain is distinct from persistent breast pain following breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Dale J; Paul, Steven M; West, Claudia; Abrams, Gary; Elboim, Charles; Levine, Jon D; Hamolsky, Deborah; Luce, Judith A; Kober, Kord M; Neuhaus, John M; Cooper, Bruce A; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Miaskowski, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Persistent pain following breast cancer surgery is well documented. However, it is not well characterized in terms of the anatomic site affected (ie, breast, arm). In 2 separate growth mixture modeling analyses, we identified subgroups of women (N = 398) with distinct breast pain and arm pain trajectories. The fact that these latent classes differed by anatomic site, types of tissue affected, and neural innervation patterns suggests the need for separate evaluations of these distinct persistent pain conditions. The purposes of this companion study were to identify demographic and clinical characteristics that differed between the 2 arm pain classes and determine if differences existed over time in sensitivity in the upper inner arm and axillary lymph node dissection sites, pain qualities, pain interference, and hand and arm function, as well as to compare findings with persistent breast pain. Higher occurrence rates for depression and lymphedema were found in the moderate arm pain class. Regardless of pain group membership, sensory loss was observed in the upper inner arm and axillary lymph node dissection site. Arm pain was described similarly to neuropathic pain and interfered with daily functioning. Persistent arm pain was associated with sustained impairments in shoulder mobility. For persistent breast and arm pain, changes in sensation following breast cancer surgery were notable. Persistent arm pain was associated with sustained interference with daily functioning and upper body mobility impairments. Long-term management of persistent pain following breast cancer surgery is warranted to improve the quality of survivorship for these women. Copyright © 2014 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analgesic effectiveness and tolerability of oral oxycodone/naloxone and pregabalin in patients with lung cancer and neuropathic pain: an observational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Santis S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stefano De Santis,1 Cristina Borghesi,1 Serena Ricciardi,2 Daniele Giovannoni,1 Alberto Fulvi,2 Maria Rita Migliorino,2 Claudio Marcassa3 1Palliative Care and Cancer Pain Service, Oncological Pulmonary Unit, 2Oncological Pulmonary Unit, San Camillo-Forlanini Hospitals, Rome, 3Cardiologia Fondazione Maugeri IRCCS, Novara, Italy Introduction: Cancer-related pain has a severe negative impact on quality of life. Combination analgesic therapy with oxycodone and pregabalin is effective for treating neuropathic cancer pain. We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of a dose-escalation combination therapy with prolonged-release oxycodone/naloxone (OXN-PR and pregabalin in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and severe neuropathic pain. Methods: This was a 4-week, open-label, observational study. Patients were treated with OXN-PR and pregabalin. Average pain intensity ([API] measured on a 0–10 numerical rating scale and neuropathic pain (Douleur Neuropathique 4 were assessed at study entry and at follow-up visits. The primary endpoint was response to treatment, defined as a reduction of API at T28 ≥30% from baseline. Secondary endpoints included other efficacy measures, as well as patient satisfaction and quality of life (Brief Pain Inventory Short Form, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Symptom Distress Scale; bowel function was also assessed. Results: A total of 56 patients were enrolled. API at baseline was 8.0±0.9, and decreased after 4 weeks by 48% (4.2±1.9; P<0.0001 vs baseline; 46 (82.1% patients responded to treatment. Significant improvements were also reported in number/severity of breakthrough cancer pain episodes (P=0.001, Brief Pain Inventory Short Form (P=0.0002, Symptom Distress Scale (P<0.0001, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression (P=0.0006 and anxiety (P<0.0001 subscales, and bowel function (P=0.0003. At study end, 37 (66.0% patients were satisfied/very satisfied with the new analgesic treatment

  18. Finally a breakthrough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin; Doucouliagos, Hristos

    2015-01-01

    on the new literature from 2007 onward which is divided into: Period (A) 2007-08: where the AEL showed aid ineffectiveness. Period (B) 2009-11: where the results are better. Three hypotheses may explain the upward kink in the results: (i) Aid effectiveness has increased. (ii) A breakthrough has occurred...

  19. Finally a breakthrough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    on the new literature from 2007 onward which is divided into: Period (A) 2007-08: where the AEL showed aid ineffectiveness. Period (B) 2009-12: where the results are better. Three hypotheses may explain the upward kink in the results: (i) Aid effectiveness has increased. (ii) A breakthrough has occurred...

  20. Depression and quality of life in cancer patients with and without pain: the role of pain beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavoli Zahra

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is said to be one of the most feared and distressing symptoms of cancer and one that disrupts all aspects of life. The purposes of this study were: 1 to compare depression and quality of life among Iranian cancer patients with and without pain; and 2 to determine the relationships between pain beliefs and depression and quality of life. Method A consecutive sample of gastrointestinal cancer patients attending to Tehran Cancer Institute were entered into the study. Three standard instruments were used to measure quality of life (the EORTC QLQ-C30, depression (the HADS and pain beliefs (the PBPI. Results A total of 142 hospitalized gastrointestinal cancer patients, 98 with pain and 44 without pain were studied. The main findings of this study were that cancer patients with pain reported significantly lower levels of role functioning, emotional functioning and global quality of life. They also showed higher levels of depression than cancer patients who did not experience pain. Among patients with pain, higher scores on pain permanence and pain consistency were positively and significantly associated with higher depression. Also, higher scores on pain consistency were negatively and significantly associated with global quality of life. Conclusion This study has demonstrated the effect of cancer pain on patients' quality of life and emotional status and has supported the multidimensional notion of the cancer pain experience in cancer patients. Although these data are correlational, they provide additional support for a biopsychosocial model of chronic pain.

  1. Grid-climbing Behaviour as a Pain Measure for Cancer-induced Bone Pain and Neuropathic Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Gallego-Pedersen, Simone; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar

    2017-01-01

    Despite affecting millions of people, chronic pain is generally treated insufficiently. A major point of focus has been the lack of translation from preclinical data to clinical results, with the predictive value of chronic pain models being a major concern. In contrast to current focus on stimulus...... use as a measure of neuropathic and cancer-induced bone pain in mice. In both models, the grid-climbing test demonstrated pain-related sparing of the affected leg during climbing. In both models, the behaviour was reversed by administration of morphine, suggesting that the observed behaviour was pain-specific....

  2. Management of total cancer pain: A case of young adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aanchal Satija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain due to cancer is one of the most distressing symptoms experienced by the patients at some or the other time during the course of treatment or disease progression. The multidimensional nature of cancer pain is characterized by various dimensions including physical, social, psychological, and spiritual; which together constitute the term "total pain". Young cancer patients illustrate their unique psychological and developmental needs. This case report highlights the concept of "total cancer pain" in a young adult and demonstrates his distinctive social, spiritual, and psychological sufferings. The report emphasizes that addressing all these concerns is considerably significant in order to provide optimal pain relief to the patient. In the present scenario, it has been done by a skillful multiprofessional team communicating effectively with both the patient and the carer.

  3. Slow release tramadol in the initial treatment of moderate to severe cancer pain: Open, multicentric clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošnjak Snežana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The analgesic efficacy of slow release tramadol in the titration phase of treatment of moderate to severe cancer pain has been demonstrated in clinical trials. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate this treatment strategy in routine daily practice. Method This was a prospective, non-randomized, open, multicentric, phase IV two-week study. Each patient received 100 mg slow release tramadol orally, twice a day. Patients were allowed to take 20 drops (50 mg of tramadol as needed for breakthrough pain. The pain intensity and tramadol tolerability were recorded every day for the previous 24 hours, in the first week and at the end of the study. Pain relief and the impact of pain on sleep were evaluated on the 8th and 15th day. Results The study included 46 patients with metastatic malignant disease. The total of 46 patients completed the first week of treatment, and 33 patients completed the whole study. At the end of study, the intensity of pain was significantly reduced from 6.75 to 3.03 on numerical scale (NS 0-10 (p<0.001. At the end of study, 60.6% of patients graded the severity of pain as maximally mild on a verbal scale. The pain relief significantly improved from 25.75 to 71.81 on a numerical scale (NS 0-100 (p<0.001. The impact of pain on sleep was significantly reduced from 51.51% to 10.61% on a numerical scale (NS 0-100 (p<0.001. There were no differences in the drowsiness/confusion, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, loss of appetite and constipation, from the beginning to the end of treatment. Conclusion Tramadol slow release was effective in the titration phase of treatment of moderate to severe cancer pain with good tolerability.

  4. Preoperative distress predicts persistent pain after breast cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Mathias Kvist; Mertz, Birgitte Goldschmidt; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold Hansen

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Persistent pain after breast cancer treatment (PPBCT) affects 25% to 60% of breast cancer survivors and is recognized as a clinical problem, with 10% to 15% reporting moderate to severe pain several years after treatment. Psychological comorbidity is known to influence pain perception......, and evidence links signs of depression and anxiety with development of PPBCT. The purpose of this study was to assess preoperative distress as a predictive factor for development of PPBCT. METHODS: Between October 2008 and October 2009, 426 women diagnosed with primary breast cancer, undergoing surgery...... identification of patients at risk for PPBCT allows for further research in psychological and pharmacological treatment of this condition....

  5. Meta-Analysis of Massage Therapy on Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sook-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Yeop; Yeo, Sujung; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lim, Sabina

    2015-07-01

    Cancer pain is the most common complaint among patients with cancer. Conventional treatment does not always relieve cancer pain satisfactorily. Therefore, many patients with cancer have turned to complementary therapies to help them with their physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Massage therapy is increasingly used for symptom relief in patients with cancer. The current study aimed to investigate by meta-analysis the effects of massage therapy for cancer patients experiencing pain. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched for studies published through August 2013 in English, Chinese, and Korean. Methodological quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and Cochrane risk-of-bias scales. Twelve studies, including 559 participants, were used in the meta-analysis. In 9 high-quality studies based on the PEDro scale (standardized mean difference, -1.24; 95% confidence interval, -1.72 to -0.75), we observed reduction in cancer pain after massage. Massage therapy significantly reduced cancer pain compared with no massage treatment or conventional care (standardized mean difference, -1.25; 95% confidence interval, -1.63 to -0.87). Our results indicate that massage is effective for the relief of cancer pain, especially for surgery-related pain. Among the various types of massage, foot reflexology appeared to be more effective than body or aroma massage. Our meta-analysis indicated a beneficial effect of massage for relief of cancer pain. Further well-designed, large studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to be able to draw firmer conclusions regarding the effectiveness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Pain management in patients with cancer: focus on opioid analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppert, Wojciech

    2011-08-01

    Cancer pain is generally treated with pharmacological measures, relying on using opioids alone or in combination with adjuvant analgesics. Weak opioids are used for mild-to-moderate pain as monotherapy or in a combination with nonopioids. For patients with moderate-to-severe pain, strong opioids are recommended as initial therapy rather than beginning treatment with weak opioids. Adjunctive therapy plays an important role in the treatment of cancer pain not fully responsive to opioids administered alone (ie, neuropathic, bone, and visceral colicky pain). Supportive drugs should be used wisely to prevent and treat opioids' adverse effects. Understanding the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, interactions, and cautions with commonly used opioids can help determine appropriate opioid selection for individual cancer patients.

  7. Accelerated approval of cancer drugs: improved access to therapeutic breakthroughs or early release of unsafe and ineffective drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Elizabeth A; Lyons, E Alison; Nebeker, Jonathan R; Shankaran, Veena; McKoy, June M; Luu, Thanh Ha; Nonzee, Narissa; Trifilio, Steven; Sartor, Oliver; Benson, Al B; Carson, Kenneth R; Edwards, Beatrice J; Gilchrist-Scott, Douglas; Kuzel, Timothy M; Raisch, Dennis W; Tallman, Martin S; West, Dennis P; Hirschfeld, Steven; Grillo-Lopez, Antonio J; Bennett, Charles L

    2009-09-10

    Accelerated approval (AA) was initiated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to shorten development times of drugs for serious medical illnesses. Sponsors must confirm efficacy in postapproval trials. Confronted with several drugs that received AA on the basis of phase II trials and for which confirmatory trials were incomplete, FDA officials have encouraged sponsors to design AA applications on the basis of interim analyses of phase III trials. We reviewed data on orphan drug status, development time, safety, and status of confirmatory trials of AAs and regular FDA approvals of new molecular entities (NMEs) for oncology indications since 1995. Median development times for AA NMEs (n = 19 drugs) and regular-approval oncology NMEs (n = 32 drugs) were 7.3 and 7.2 years, respectively. Phase III trials supported efficacy for 75% of regular-approval versus 26% of AA NMEs and for 73% of non-orphan versus 45% of orphan drug approvals. AA accounted for 78% of approvals for oncology NMEs between 2001 and 2003 but accounted for 32% in more recent years. Among AA NMEs, confirmatory trials were nine-fold less likely to be completed for orphan drug versus non-orphan drug indications. Postapproval, black box warnings were added to labels for four oncology NMEs (17%) that had received AA and for two oncology NMEs (9%) that had received regular approval. AA oncology NMEs are safe and effective, although development times are not accelerated. A return to endorsing phase II trial designs for AA for oncology NMEs, particularly for orphan drug indications, may facilitate timely FDA approval of novel cancer drugs.

  8. Many Patients with Cancer Need Better Treatments for Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inadequate pain treatment in patients with cancer remains a significant problem and appears to be more frequent among minorities, according to a new study published online April 16, 2012, in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

  9. Evaluation of surgical resident staff knowledge of cancer pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the resident doctors knew oral, IM and IV routes for analgesic therapy. The most common side effect of opioid analgesia listed was addiction. To the question of unrelieved pain, only 2 residents treated the patient appropriately. Conclusion: It is concluded that the resident's knowledge of cancer pain management id ...

  10. Critical issues on opioids in chronic non-cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sjøgren, Per; Bruera, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was epidemiologically to evaluate the long-term effects of opioids on pain relief, quality of life and functional capacity in long-term/chronic non-cancer pain. The study was based on data from the 2000 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey. As part of a representative National......-related quality of life (SF-36), use of the health care system, functional capabilities, satisfaction with medical pain treatment and regular or continuous use of medications. Participants reporting pain were divided into opioid and non-opioid users. The analyses were adjusted for age, gender, concomitant use...... of anxiolytics and antidepressants and pain intensity. Pain relief, quality of life and functional capacity among opioid users were compared with non-opioid users. Opioid usage was significantly associated with reporting of moderate/severe or very severe pain, poor self-rated health, not being engaged...

  11. Management of Acute Pain in Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The management of acute pain, especially post-operative pain, in patients on high-dose opioids is a challenge that requires in-depth knowledge of pharmacokinetics and the formulation of a careful management plan in order to avoid withdrawal symptoms and inadequate pain management.

  12. Spirituality, religiosity, and spiritual pain in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Guay, Marvin O; Hui, David; Parsons, Henrique A; Govan, Kathy; De la Cruz, Maxine; Thorney, Steven; Bruera, Eduardo

    2011-06-01

    Spirituality, religiosity, and spiritual pain may affect advanced cancer patients' symptom expression, coping strategies, and quality of life. To examine the prevalence and intensity of spirituality, religiosity, and spiritual pain, and how spiritual pain was associated with symptom expression, coping, and spiritual quality of life. We interviewed 100 advanced cancer patients at the M.D. Anderson palliative care outpatient clinic in Houston, TX. Self-rated spirituality, religiosity, and spiritual pain were assessed using numeric rating scales (0=lowest, 10=highest). Patients also completed validated questionnaires assessing symptoms (Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale [ESAS] and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), coping (Brief COPE and Brief R-COPE), the value attributed by the patient to spirituality/religiosity in coping with cancer (Systems of Belief Inventory-15R), and spiritual quality of life (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being-Expanded [FACIT-Sp-Ex]). The median age was 53 years (range 21-85) and 88% were Christians. Almost all patients considered themselves spiritual (98%) and religious (98%), with a median intensity of 9 (interquartile range 7-10) of 10 and 9 (range 5-10) of 10, respectively. Spiritual pain was reported in 40 (44%) of 91 patients, with a median score of 3 (1-6) among those with spiritual pain. Spiritual pain was significantly associated with lower self-perceived religiosity (7 vs. 10, P=0.002) and spiritual quality of life (FACIT-Sp-Ex 68 vs. 81, P=0.001). Patients with spiritual pain reported that it contributed adversely to their physical/emotional symptoms (Pspiritual pain (Pspiritual and religious. Spiritual pain was common and was associated with lower self-perceived religiosity and spiritual quality of life. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oral morphine prescribing practices in severe cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Barathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nearly one million cancer patients in India need oral morphine for pain relief. Despite doctors prescribing oral morphine in our center, many cancer patients with severe pain found to be not facilitated with adequate pain relief. Aim: This audit was conducted to look at the "oral morphine prescribing practices for severe cancer pain" at a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Twenty case files of patients, who were admitted with severe cancer pain, and receiving oral morphine were analyzed in pre- and posteducational session. Local standards were set to assess the adequacy of pain relief. Deficiency in achieving analgesia was found in preinterventional audit. A clinical audit was conducted before and after the educational session on oral morphine prescribing. The education for doctors and nurses focused on starting patients on morphine, titration, and administering rescue dose. Then local guidelines on oral morphine prescribing were circulated. And analysis of following factors were done following pre- and posteducational session: Pain intensity at the beginning of treatment, starting dose of morphine, increments in morphine dose, number of rescue doses given, and fall in pain intensity at the end of 1 week. The outcomes were compared with the standards. Results: Preintervention audit showed that only 50% of patients achieved adequate pain relief. Rescue dose was administered in only 20% of patients. While reaudit following the educational session showed that 80% of patients achieved adequate pain relief and 100% received rescue doses. Conclusion: Educational sessions have significant impact on improving oral morphine prescribing practice among doctors and nurses. It was found failing to administer regular as well as rescue doses resulted in inadequate pain relief in patients receiving oral morphine.

  14. Breakthroughs in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Norman

    This is author-approved bcc: This is the third volume of a collection of seminal papers in the statistical sciences written during the past 110 years. These papers have each had an outstanding influence on the development of statistical theory and practice over the last century. Each paper is preceded by an introduction written by an authority in the field providing background information and assessing its influence. Volume III concerntrates on articles from the 1980's while including some earlier articles not included in Volume I and II. Samuel Kotz is Professor of Statistics in the College of Business and Management at the University of Maryland. Norman L. Johnson is Professor Emeritus of Statistics at the University of North Carolina. Also available: Breakthroughs in Statistics Volume I: Foundations and Basic Theory Samuel Kotz and Norman L. Johnson, Editors 1993. 631 pp. Softcover. ISBN 0-387-94037-5 Breakthroughs in Statistics Volume II: Methodology and Distribution Samuel Kotz and Norman L. Johnson, Edi...

  15. Predicting, preventing and managing persistent pain after breast cancer surgery:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Kristin L; Kehlet, Henrik; Belfer, Inna

    2014-01-01

    Persistent pain after breast cancer surgery (PPBCS) is increasingly recognized as a potential problem facing a sizeable subset of the millions of women who undergo surgery as part of their treatment of breast cancer. Importantly, an increasing number of studies suggest that individual variation......, psychophysical and demographic factors, which may also influence PPBCS risk, as well as discusses potential perioperative therapies to prevent PPBCS....

  16. Recent advances in understanding and managing cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwistek, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Cancer pain remains a significant clinical problem worldwide. Causes of cancer pain are multifactorial and complex and are likely to vary with an array of tumor-related and host-related factors and processes. Pathophysiology is poorly understood; however, new laboratory research points to cross-talk between cancer cells and host's immune and neural systems as an important potential mechanism that may be broadly relevant to many cancer pain syndromes. Opioids remain the most effective pharmaceuticals used in the treatment of cancer pain. However, their role has been evolving due to emerging awareness of risks of chronic opioid therapy. Despite extensive research efforts, no new class of analgesics has been developed. However, many potential therapeutic targets that may lead to the establishment of new pharmaceuticals have been identified in recent years. It is also expected that the role of non-pharmacological modalities of treatment will grow in prominence. Specifically, neuromodulation, a rapidly expanding field, may play a major role in the treatment of neuropathic cancer pain provided that further technological progress permits the development of non-invasive and inexpensive neuromodulation techniques.

  17. Successful Management of a Difficult Cancer Pain Patient by Appropriate Adjuvant and Morphine Titration

    OpenAIRE

    Shiv PS Rana; Arif Ahmed; Vindo Kumar; Chaudhary, Prakash K; Deepa Khurana; Seema Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Morphine has been used for many years to relieve cancer pain. Oral morphine (in either immediate release or modified release form) remains the analgesic of choice for moderate or severe cancer pain. The dose of oral morphine is titrated up to achieve adequate relief from pain with minimal side effects. Antidepressant and anticonvulsant drugs, when used in addition to conventional analgesics, give excellent relief from cancer pain. Most cancer pain responds to pharmacological measures with ora...

  18. Opioids for cancer pain - an overview of Cochrane reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiffen, Philip J; Wee, Bee; Derry, Sheena; Bell, Rae F; Moore, R Andrew

    2017-07-06

    Pain is a common symptom with cancer, and 30% to 50% of all people with cancer will experience moderate to severe pain that can have a major negative impact on their quality of life. Opioid (morphine-like) drugs are commonly used to treat moderate or severe cancer pain, and are recommended for this purpose in the World Health Organization (WHO) pain treatment ladder. The most commonly-used opioid drugs are buprenorphine, codeine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, tramadol, and tapentadol. To provide an overview of the analgesic efficacy of opioids in cancer pain, and to report on adverse events associated with their use. We identified systematic reviews examining any opioid for cancer pain published to 4 May 2017 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in the Cochrane Library. The primary outcomes were no or mild pain within 14 days of starting treatment, withdrawals due to adverse events, and serious adverse events. We included nine reviews with 152 included studies and 13,524 participants, but because some studies appeared in more than one review the number of unique studies and participants was smaller than this. Most participants had moderate or severe pain associated with a range of different types of cancer. Studies in the reviews typically compared one type of opioid or formulation with either a different formulation of the same opioid, or a different opioid; few included a placebo control. Typically the reviews titrated dose to effect, a balance between pain relief and adverse events. Various routes of administration of opioids were considered in the reviews; oral with most opioids, but transdermal administration with fentanyl, and buprenorphine. No review included studies of subcutaneous opioid administration. Pain outcomes reported were varied and inconsistent. The average size of included studies varied considerably between reviews: studies of older opioids, such as codeine, morphine, and methadone, had low

  19. Pain Control In Cancer Patients By Opiate Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohagheghi M A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Opioids are increasingly being recognized as the primary treatment for cancer pain management. Optimal treatment of cancer pain involves assessing its characteristics, considering different management strategies, evaluating side effects and adverse drug reactions and establishing the most appropriate therapeutic regimen. This study was designed to review the current status of pain management for advanced cancer cases using opioid analgesics."nMaterials and Methods: A questionnaire was used to collect data on demographics, disease characteristics, and opioids use indicators in 700 cases of advanced cancer patients."nResults: A total of 700 cancer cases, 42 percent females and 58 percent males, between 17-80 years age range (Mean age of 57.25 were studied retrospectively. Cancers of breast (21 percent, colorectal (12 percent, lung (7 percent, stomach (7 percent and bone either primary or metastatic (6 percent in women and stomach (17 percent, lung (12 percent, colorectal (11 percent, prostate (9 percent , and bone (8 percent in men were the most common causes of opioids prescription in study group respectively. Advanced primary cancer (in 52 percent, bone metastasis (in 32 percent, and treatment complications (in 7 percent were considered as physical basis for pain in patients. Morphine (by injection, Opium (by oral intake and methadone (injection and/or oral were the most common opioids prescribed. Using equianalgesic conversion chart, the daily dosages and therapeutics schedules of morphine administration were as follows:"n43 percent received 21-30 mg. in 2-4 divided doses"n27 percent received >30 mg. in 3-5 divided doses"n21 percent received 11-20 mg. in 2-3 divided doses"n9 percent received 5-10 mg. in 1-2 divided doses"nConclusion: Pain management of cancer patients is not adequate and opioid use is not rational. New educational and managerial strategies are needed to optimize cancer pain treatment in routine medical practice. To overcome

  20. Cancer-Induced Bone Pain Management Through Buddhist Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fung Kei

    2017-04-24

    Dealing with physical pain represents a huge public health expenditure, especially for cancer-induced bone pain, one of the most difficult health issues, which impairs appetite, sleep, and mobility, negatively impacting quality of life and evoking mental problems. Although some literature has reported positive correlation between religion and pain management, there is a dearth of research examining the effectiveness of Buddhism on this topic. This study investigates the usefulness of Buddhist beliefs in managing cancer-induced bone pain through a case example. It illustrates how an advanced cancer patient, with the assistance of a counsellor, perceived pain and coped with it and pain-induced mental problems via Buddhist teachings and practices, including the four noble truths, the law of dependent origination, and karma. It offers alternative perspectives for helping professionals (such as physicians, nurses, counsellors, social workers, hospice and palliative service providers, and pain management practitioners) who are keen to equip themselves with a wider worldview and life view to better serve their clients.

  1. Do cannabinoids have a role in cancer pain management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar-Smith, W Paul

    2009-03-01

    Historically cannabinoids have been used for both therapy and recreation, yet the elucidation of the endocannabinoid system and their chemistry has been relatively recent. Prohibition of cannabis has meant few clinical trials, especially in cancer pain. This review will consider previous animal and clinical data and assess more recent investigations of clinical effectiveness of cannabinoids in pain and specifically cancer pain. Meta-analyses based on historical studies question the utility of cannabinoids in pain due to modest analgesia and problematic central side effects. However, there has been a resurgence in clinical trials of cannabis extracts and analogues. New data have contributed to the understanding of how cannabinoids work and proposed how to obtain analgesia unfettered by adverse effects. Moreover, recent clinical trials have demonstrated the current role of cannabinoids may be to attain small but significant benefit in refractory chronic and cancer pain. Cannabinoids may be a useful addition to current analgesic treatments. The evidence supports a possible role for cannabinoids in refractory cancer pain. However, to realize the full potential of cannabinoids suggested by preclinical data, it is likely that peripheral CB1 or CB2 receptors or modulation of endocannabinoids will have to be targeted to achieve analgesia without dose limiting side effects.

  2. Thoracoscopic Splanchnicectomy for Pain Control in Irresectable Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Tavassoli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Severepain is a major problem in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of Thoracoscopic Splanchnicectomy (TS on pain control in these patients suffering from unresectable pancreatic cancer. Methods:Between years 2000 to 2011, 20 patients suffering from unresectable pancreatic cancer underwent TS due to severe pain. They were studied in terms of age, sex, location of pancreas tumor, history of previous surgery, response to treatments for pain control (assessed with VAS scoring system and complications of surgery. Results:M/F = 14/6 with a mean age of 63 years. The most common tumour site was at the pancreas head (in 8 patients. The most cause of unresectability was local expansion to critical adjacent elements (in 10 patients. Surgery was performed successfully in all patients. Post-operative complication included only pleural effusion on the left side which was cured by proper treatment. There were no post-op mortalities.  15 patients had acceptable levels of pain at the end of a six month follow-up period. ConclusionTS provides good pain control, little side effects and minimal invasiveness, the technique is recommended for pain control in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer.

  3. Long-term administration of high doses of transdermal buprenorphine in cancer patients with severe neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leppert W

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wojciech Leppert, Grzegorz Kowalski Chair and Department of Palliative Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland Background: Buprenorphine is often administered by the transdermal route (transdermal buprenorphine [TB] in cancer patients with severe neuropathic pain. However, high doses of TB of 140 µg/h are rarely used.Patients and methods: Three cancer patients with severe neuropathic Numeric Rating Scale (NRS pain scores of 8–10 who were successfully treated with high doses of TB up to 140 µg/h along with other opioids and adjuvant analgesics.Results: TB was administered for a long period of follow-up (9 months to 4 years, including 34–261 days of treatment with the dose of 140 µg/h, which allowed achievement of satisfactory analgesia (NRS 3–5 and good treatment tolerance. In all three patients, TB dose was gradually titrated from 35 to 140 µg/h, and all patients used morphine at least for some time for breakthrough and background pain management along with adjuvant analgesics. Two patients continued the treatment with TB until the end of life, and one patient is still receiving the treatment.Conclusion: TB at doses of up to 140 µg/h in cancer patients with severe neuropathic pain seems to be effective and safe in combination with other opioids and with adjuvant analgesics, and may significantly improve patients’ quality of life. Clinical studies may explore higher than maximal 140 µg/h TB doses recommended by a manufacturer, and also in combination with other opioids and adjuvant analgesics. Keywords: adverse effects, analgesia, cancer, neuropathic pain, transdermal buprenorphine, treatment

  4. Modern pain neuroscience in clinical practice: applied to post-cancer, paediatric and sports-related pain

    OpenAIRE

    Malfliet, Anneleen; Leysen, Laurence; Pas, Roselien; Kuppens, Kevin; Nijs, Jo; van Wilgen, Paul; Huysmans, Eva; Goudman, Lisa; Ickmans, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Highlights ? Generalized hypersensitivity in post-cancer, sports-related and pediatric pain. ? Rationale for pain education, stress management and cognition targeted exercises. ? Need to change from a biomedical or psychosocial to an integrated approach.

  5. Pain in Breast Cancer Treatment: Aggravating Factors and Coping Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fatima Guerreiro Godoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate pain in women with breast cancer-related lymphedema and the characteristics of aggravating factors and coping mechanisms. The study was conducted in the Clinica Godoy, São Jose do Rio Preto, with a group of 46 women who had undergone surgery for the treatment of breast cancer. The following variables were evaluated: type and length of surgery; number of radiotherapy and chemotherapy sessions; continued feeling of the removed breast (phantom limb, infection, intensity of pain, and factors that improve and worsen the pain. The percentage of events was used for statistical analysis. About half the participants (52.1% performed modified radical surgery, with 91.3% removing only one breast; 82.6% of the participants did not perform breast reconstruction surgery. Insignificant pain was reported by 32.60% of the women and 67.3% said they suffered pain; it was mild in 28.8% of the cases (scale 1–5, moderate in 34.8% (scale 6–9, and severe in 4.3%. The main mechanisms used to cope with pain were painkillers in 41.30% of participants, rest in 21.73%, religious ceremonies in 17.39%, and chatting with friends in 8.69%. In conclusion, many mastectomized patients with lymphedema complain of pain, but pain is often underrecognized and undertreated.

  6. Decreased Cortisol and Pain in Breast Cancer: Biofield Therapy Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Running

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among women of all races. Pain is a common symptom associated with cancer; 75–90% of cancer patients experience pain during their illness and up to 50% of that pain is undertreated. Unrelieved pain leads to increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of bioenergy on fecal cortisol levels for mice injected with murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 in two separate pilot studies. Using a multiple experimental group design, six to eight week old female BALB/c mice were injected with tumor and randomly assigned, in groups of 10, to daily treatment, every other day treatment, and no treatment groups. Five days after tumor cell injection, bioenergy interventions were begun for a period of ten consecutive days. Fecal samples were collected for each study and ELISA analysis was conducted at the end of both studies. For both studies, cortisol levels were decreased in the every other day treatment groups but remained high in the no treatment groups. Future studies utilizing bioenergy therapies on cortisol levels in a murine breast cancer model can begin to describe pain outcomes and therapeutic dose.

  7. Cancer Pain Control for Advanced Cancer Patients by Using Autonomic Nerve Pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwi-joong Kang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to report a case series of advanced cancer patients whose cancer pain was relieved by using autonomic nerve pharmacopuncture (ANP treatment. ANP is a subcutaneous injection therapy of mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture (MGP along the acupoints on the spine (Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue; 0.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous processes of vertebrae to enhance the immune system and to balance autonomic nerve function. Methods: Patients with three different types of cancer (gastric cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer with distant metastases with cancer pain were treated with ANP. 1 mL of MGP was injected into the bilateral Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue on the T1-L5 sites (total 12 ─ 20 mL injection of each patient’s dorsum by using the principle of symptom differentiation. During ANP treatment, the visual analogue scale (VAS for pain was used to assess their levels of cancer pain; also, the dosage and the frequency of analgesic use were measured. Results: The cancer pain levels of all three patients improved with treatment using ANP. The VAS scores of the three patients decreased as the treatment progressed. The dosage and the frequency of analgesics also gradually decreased during the treatment period. Significantly, no related adverse events were found. Conclusion: ANP has shown benefit in controlling cancer pain for the three different types of cancer investigated in this study and in reducing the dosage and the frequency of analgesics. ANP is expected to be beneficial for reducing cancer pain and, thus, to be a promising new treatment for cancer pain.

  8. Pain management strategies used by patients with breast and gynecologic cancer with postoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwekkeboom, K L

    2001-10-01

    Many people with cancer will experience pain when they are outside of structured care settings. Patients must provide their own self-care, drawing on instructions from healthcare providers and on independently developed plans for pain management. With growing interest in complementary therapies, the scope of nonpharmacologic interventions used by patients with cancer to manage pain may be very different than 10-15 years ago. The purpose of this study was to describe steps taken by patients with breast and gynecologic cancer to manage pain after discharge from a surgical hospitalization. A secondary analysis was completed using data from 34 women who participated in a randomized trial of guided imagery. Techniques used included positioning, distraction, relaxation, heat, and eating/drinking. Compared to results of previous studies, increased use of relaxation strategies (breathing, imagery, music, meditation) was noted in the current study. The majority of participants used nonpharmacologic strategies in addition to analgesic medications. Pain-related outcomes were similar among persons who used analgesic medications alone and those who used a combination of analgesics and nonpharmacologic strategies. Nurses may benefit from knowing which pain management strategies patients find helpful so that they can encourage their use and teach similar strategies to the patients who find them useful.

  9. Effect of music therapy on pain behaviors in rats with bone cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ji; Chen, Shaoqin; Lin, Suyong; Han, Hongjing

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of music therapy on the pain behaviors and survival of rats with bone cancer pain and analyze the mediating mechanism of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway. Male Wistar rats aged 5-8 weeks and weighing 160-200 g were collected. The rat models of colorectal cancer bone cancer pain was successfully established. Animals were divided into experimental and control group, each with 10 rats. The animals in the observation group were given Mozart K448 sonata, sound intensity of 60 db, played the sonata once every 1 hr in the daytime, stopped playing during the night, and this cycle was kept for 2 weeks. On the other hand, rats in the control group were kept under the same environment without music. Animals in the experimental group consumed more feed and gained significant weight in comparison to the control group. The tumor volume of the experimental group was significantly smaller than that of the control group (pMusic therapy may improve the pain behaviors in rats with bone cancer pain, which might be related with low expression of p38á and p38β in the MAPK signal transduction pathway.

  10. An open-label, 1-year extension study of the long-term safety and efficacy of once-daily OROS® hydromorphone in patients with chronic cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuca Alberto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opioid analgesics have proven efficacy in the short-term management of chronic cancer pain, but data on their long-term use is more limited. OROS® hydromorphone is a controlled-release formulation of oral hydromorphone that may be particularly well suited to long-term management of chronic cancer pain because it provides stable plasma concentrations and consistent analgesia with convenient once-daily dosing. The objective of this study (DO-118X was to characterise the pain control achieved with long-term repeated dosing of OROS® hydromorphone in patients with chronic cancer pain. Methods In this multicentre, phase III, open-label, single treatment, 1-year extension study, OROS® hydromorphone was administered to 68 patients with moderate-to-severe chronic cancer pain, who had successfully completed a short-term equivalence study, and whose pain was controlled with a stable dose of medication (≥ 8 mg OROS® hydromorphone or equivalent controlled-release morphine. Patients were started on the dose of OROS® hydromorphone equivalent to the opioid dose on which they achieved dose-stable pain control in the equivalence study; dose adjustments were made as necessary and breakthrough pain medication was permitted. Efficacy was assessed with the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI and patient and investigator global evaluations of treatment effectiveness. No formal statistical analysis was done. Results The mean (standard deviation duration of exposure to study medication was 139 (129.9 days and the mean (standard deviation average daily consumption of OROS® hydromorphone was 43.7 (28.14 mg/day. All scores were maintained at a mild to moderate severity throughout the study; however, BPI scores for pain at its worst, pain at its least, pain on average, pain right now, and pain relief were slightly worsened at end point compared with baseline. Mean BPI pain interference with daily activities and patient and investigator global evaluation

  11. Tapentadol for Cancer Pain Management: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Bayonas, Alberto; Jiménez Fonseca, Paula; Virizuela Echaburu, Juan

    2017-01-13

    Pain is one of the most common symptoms in patients with cancer. The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent literature regarding tapentadol use in oncology patients and moderate or severe pain. We have conducted a review of the literature using PubMed, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar for all manuscripts published between 2008 and 2016, using the key words "tapentadol," "cancer," "pain," "tumor," and "malignant." Nine studies met the inclusion criteria (four randomized clinical trials and five prospective cohort studies). The scope of the literature was diverse, with 15 instruments used to measure different aspects of pain (intensity, health status, quality of life, psychometric and well-being, perception of change, and neuropathic pain). All these studies concluded that tapentadol is seemingly a well-tolerated and efficacious agent for moderate-severe cancer pain, with few typically mild adverse reactions. However, the most significant detected weaknesses of research were that (1) existing studies do not clearly show a superiority of tapentadol with respect to previous generation opioids, (2) low-to-moderate sample sizes prevent obtaining robust conclusions about effectiveness, (3) there was an absence of noninferiority trials comparing tapentadol vs. fentanyl or oxycodone-naloxone, and (4) there was scarce generalizability of prospective observational studies. Tapentadol is seemingly an effective, well-tolerated alternative for moderate or severe cancer pain. Most prospective cohort studies have relatively small samples, are restricted to few research centers, and lack detailed subgroup information. More experience is required to draw valid generalizable conclusions. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  12. Chronic pain in breast cancer survivors: comparison of psychosocial, surgical, and medical characteristics between survivors with and without pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou Bredal, Inger; Smeby, Nina A; Ottesen, Stig; Warncke, Torhild; Schlichting, Ellen

    2014-11-01

    According to the literature, 25%-60% of women treated for breast cancer, regardless of the stage, experience pain. Many risk factors have been suggested, with many possible confounding factors. The aim was to investigate psychosocial, surgical, and medical factors associated with chronic pain by comparing breast cancer survivors with chronic pain with survivors without chronic pain. In addition, we investigated the prevalence, intensity, and body location of chronic pain after breast cancer treatment nationwide. A nationwide postal survey of 1332 women who received surgery and adjuvant therapy for breast cancer in Norway two to six years before the onset of this study. A total of 832 women (63%) returned the questionnaires, and 41% reported pain, of which 51% had mild, 41% moderate, and 8% severe pain. Among the women who experienced pain, 33.8% reported symptoms and signs of neuropathic pain. Young age (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98; P pain (OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.72-3.26; P chronic pain. Young age, previous comorbidities (such as back pain, arthritis, arthrosis, and fibromyalgia), and combined treatment with axillary lymph node dissection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy were risk factors for chronic pain. Whether depression or anxiety is a risk factor for chronic pain remains unclear. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Determinants of opioid efficiency in cancer pain: a comprehensive multivariate analysis from a tertiary cancer centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksu, Sema Sezgin; Bozcuk, Hakan; Uysal, Mukremin; Ulukal, Ece; Ay, Seren; Karasu, Gaye; Soydas, Turker; Coskun, Hasan Senol; Ozdogan, Mustafa; Savas, Burhan

    2014-01-01

    Pain is one of the most terrifying symptoms for cancer patients. Although most patients with cancer pain need opioids, complete relief of pain is hard to achieve. This study investigated the factors influencing persistent pain-free survival (PPFS) and opioid efficiency. A prospective study was conducted on 100 patients with cancer pain, hospitalized at the medical oncology clinic of Akdeniz University. Patient records were collected including patient demographics, the disease, treatment characteristics, and details of opioid usage. Pain intensity was measured using a patient self-reported visual analogue scale (VAS). The area under the curve (AUC) reflecting the pain load was calculated from daily VAS tables. PPFS, the primary measure of opioid efficacy, was described as the duration for which a patient reported a greater than or equal to two-point decline in their VAS for pain. Predictors of opioid efficacy were analysed using a multivariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, PPFS was associated with the AUC for pain (Exp (B)=0.39 (0.23-0.67), P=0.001), the cumulative opioid dosage used during hospitalisation (Exp (B)=1.00(0.99-1.00), P=0.003) and changes in the opioid dosage (Exp (B)=1.01 (1.00-1.01), P=0.016). The change in VAS score over the standard dosage of opioids was strongly associated with current cancer treatment (chemotherapy vs. others) (β=-0.31, T=-2.81, P=0.007) and the VAS for pain at the time of hospitalisation (β=-0.34, T=-3.07, P= 0.003). The pain load, opioid dosage, concurrent usage of chemotherapy and initial pain intensity correlate with the benefit received from opioids in cancer patients.

  14. Menstrual pain and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: Results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Ana; Harris, Holly R; Vitonis, Allison F; Titus, Linda J; Jordan, Susan J; Webb, Penelope M; Risch, Harvey A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A; Wicklund, Kristine; Goodman, Marc T; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Kjaer, Susanne K; Schildkraut, Joellen; Berchuck, Andrew; Pearce, Celeste L; Wu, Anna H; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L

    2018-02-01

    Menstrual pain, a common gynecological condition, has been associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer in some, but not all studies. Furthermore, potential variations in the association between menstrual pain and ovarian cancer by histologic subtype have not been adequately evaluated due to lack of power. We assessed menstrual pain using either direct questions about having experienced menstrual pain, or indirect questions about menstrual pain as indication for use of hormones or medications. We used multivariate logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for the association between severe menstrual pain and ovarian cancer, adjusting for potential confounders and multinomial logistic regression to calculate ORs for specific histologic subtypes. We observed no association between ovarian cancer and menstrual pain assessed by indirect questions. Among studies using direct question, severe pain was associated with a small but significant increase in overall risk of ovarian cancer (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01-1.13), after adjusting for endometriosis and other potential confounders. The association appeared to be more relevant for clear cell (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.10-1.99) and serous borderline (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.05-1.63) subtypes. In this large international pooled analysis of case-control studies, we observed a small increase in risk of ovarian cancer for women reporting severe menstrual pain. While we observed an increased ovarian cancer risk with severe menstrual pain, the possibility of recall bias and undiagnosed endometriosis cannot be excluded. Future validation in prospective studies with detailed information on endometriosis is needed. © 2017 UICC.

  15. Assessment of Adequacy of Pain Management and Analgesic Use in Patients With Advanced Cancer Using the Brief Pain Inventory and Pain Management Index Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harminder Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this cross-sectional, noninterventional, 6-month observational study was to assess the adequacy of pain management in patients with cancer admitted to the Oncology Department of Guru Gobind Singh Medical College in Faridkot, India. Methods and Materials: A total of 348 patients with cancer were recruited for evaluation of the prevalence of inadequate cancer pain management using the Brief Pain Inventory Pain Management Index. Results: The current study included 127 males (36.5% and 221 females (63.5%. The most prevalent cancer type was genitourinary; 268 patients (77% had inadequately managed pain. A significant correlation was observed between poorly managed pain and age groups, analgesic used, and body mass index. Conclusion: Our observation of inadequate pain management among 77% of patients indicates that pain management was insufficient in three quarters of the patients in this study. Accumulating data regarding the inadequacy of cancer pain management is crucial to improve symptom management. Better management of pain not only alleviates pain symptoms but also increases the quality of life for patients with cancer.

  16. Successful management of a difficult cancer pain patient by appropriate adjuvant and morphine titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv PS Rana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphine has been used for many years to relieve cancer pain. Oral morphine (in either immediate release or modified release form remains the analgesic of choice for moderate or severe cancer pain. The dose of oral morphine is titrated up to achieve adequate relief from pain with minimal side effects. Antidepressant and anticonvulsant drugs, when used in addition to conventional analgesics, give excellent relief from cancer pain. Most cancer pain responds to pharmacological measures with oral morphine but some pain like neuropathic and bony pain, pain in children and elderly age group, and advanced malignancy pain are very difficult to treat. Here, we report the management of a similar patient of severe cancer pain and the difficulty that we came across during dose titration of oral morphine and adjuvant analgesic.

  17. Pharmacological Treatment of Pain in Cancer Patients: The Role of Adjuvant Analgesics, a Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuken-van Everdingen, M.H.J.; Graeff, A. de; Jongen, J.L.; Dijkstra, D.; Mostovaya, I.; Vissers, K.C.P.

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: In patients with cancer, pain is one of the most feared and burdensome symptoms. Adjuvant analgesics are an important cornerstone on which treatment of pain in patients with cancer is based. OBJECTIVES: To update our guidelines for the treatment of pain in patients with cancer, we performed

  18. Persistent Postmastectomy Pain in Breast Cancer Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belfer, Inna; Schreiber, Kristin L; Shaffer, John R

    2013-01-01

    , medical, and treatment information was abstracted from patients' medical records. One third (32.5%) of patients reported PPMP, defined as ≥3/10 pain severity in the breast, axilla, side, or arm, which did not vary according to time since surgery. Multiple regression analysis revealed significant...

  19. Cannabinoids attenuate cancer pain and proliferation in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghafi, Negin; Lam, David K; Schmidt, Brian L

    2011-01-25

    We investigated the effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on (1) oral cancer cell viability in vitro and (2) oral cancer pain and tumor growth in a mouse cancer model. We utilized immunohistochemistry and Western blot to show that human oral cancer cells express CBr1 and CBr2. When treated with WIN55,212-2 (non-selective), ACEA (CBr1-selective) or AM1241 (CBr2-selective) agonists in vitro, oral cancer cell proliferation was significantly attenuated in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, systemic administration (0.013M) of WIN55,212-2, ACEA, or AM1241 significantly attenuated cancer-induced mechanical allodynia. Tumor growth was also significantly attenuated with systemic AM1241 administration. Our findings suggest a direct role for cannabinoid mechanisms in oral cancer pain and proliferation. The systemic administration of cannabinoid receptor agonists may have important therapeutic implications wherein cannabinoid receptor agonists may reduce morbidity and mortality of oral cancer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Have We Improved Pain Control in Cancer Patients? A Multicenter Study of Ambulatory and Hospitalized Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta-Sales, Josep; Nabal-Vicuna, Maria; Vallano, Antonio; Espinosa, Jose; Planas-Domingo, Josep; Verger-Fransoy, Eugènia; Julià-Torras, Joaquim; Serna, Judith; Pascual-López, Antonio; Rodríguez, Dulce; Grimau, Isidre; Morlans, Germà; Sala-Rovira, Carme; Calsina-Berna, Agnes; Borras-Andrés, Josep Ma; Gomez-Batiste, Xavier

    2015-11-01

    Pain in cancer patients is recognized as a major health problem, yet few studies of both inpatient and outpatient populations have been carried out. The study objective was to assess the frequency, type, and characteristics of pain in adult cancer patients, including both inpatients and outpatients. This cross-sectional study involved 1064 adult cancer patients (437 outpatients and 627 inpatients) from 44 hospitals and/or long-term-care centers in Catalonia, Spain. Cancer patients suffering from pain of any etiology for ≥2 weeks and/or under analgesic treatment ≥2 weeks were enrolled. Demographic and pain data were collected. The Spanish version of the Brief Pain Inventory was used to assess pain. Pain frequency was 55.3%. Pain was less frequent in outpatients than inpatients (41.6% versus 64.7%; ppatients, and intensity was similar in both out- and inpatients; however, outpatients reported less improvement, less pain interference with daily life, and less pain related to the cancer per se. In both groups, patients with multiple myeloma (73%), breast (65%), and lung cancer (61%) were most likely to report pain. Pain in cancer patients, both ambulatory and hospitalized, remains a challenge for health care professionals, health administrators, and stakeholders. Our study reveals the high level of pain and distress that cancer patients continue to suffer, a problem that is particularly notable in outpatients due to the intensity and duration of the pain.

  1. Use of opioid analgesics in the treatment of cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caraceni, Augusto; Hanks, Geoffrey; Kaasa, Stein

    2012-01-01

    Here we provide the updated version of the guidelines of the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) on the use of opioids for the treatment of cancer pain. The update was undertaken by the European Palliative Care Research Collaborative. Previous EAPC guidelines were reviewed and compared...

  2. ORAL OPIOIDS IN THE TREATMENT OF CANCER PAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZYLICZ, Z; TWYCROSS, RG

    Persistent severe cancer pain should be treated with opioid drugs, principally morphine. It can be administered orally, rectally and parenterally. Morphine is metabolised in the liver mainly to glucuronides, of which morphine-6-glucuronide is a powerful analgesic. Oral morphine should be

  3. A Small Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial Comparing Mobile and Traditional Pain Coping Skills Training Protocols for Cancer Patients with Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara J. Somers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial pain management interventions are efficacious for cancer pain but are underutilized. Recent advances in mobile health (mHealth technologies provide new opportunities to decrease barriers to access psychosocial pain management interventions. The objective of this study was to gain information about the accessibility and efficacy of mobile pain coping skills training (mPCST intervention delivered to cancer patients with pain compared to traditional in-person pain coping skills training intervention. This study randomly assigned participants (N=30 to receive either mobile health pain coping skills training intervention delivered via Skype or traditional pain coping skills training delivered face-to-face (PCST-trad. This pilot trial suggests that mPCST is feasible, presents low burden to patients, may lead to high patient engagement, and appears to be acceptable to patients. Cancer patients with pain in the mPCST group reported decreases in pain severity and physical symptoms as well as increases in self-efficacy for pain management that were comparable to changes in the PCST-trad group (p’s < 0.05. These findings suggest that mPCST, which is a highly accessible intervention, may provide benefits similar to an in-person intervention and shows promise for being feasible, acceptable, and engaging to cancer patients with pain.

  4. Barriers to cancer pain management in danish and lithuanian patients treated in pain and palliative care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Samsanaviciene, Jurgita; Liubarskiene, Zita

    2014-01-01

    -related barriers to cancer pain management in patient samples from Denmark and Lithuania. Thirty-three Danish and 30 Lithuanian patients responded to, respectively, Danish and Lithuanian versions of the Brief Pain Inventory pain scale, the Barriers Questionnaire II, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale...

  5. Treatment of Severe Cancer Pain by Transdermal Fentanyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dženita Ljuca

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of research was to determine the frequency, intensity, time of occurrence, duration and causes of breakthrough pain (BTP in patients whose carcinoma pain was treated by transdermal fentanyl. (TDF. A prospective study was conducted in a hospice for recumbent patients of the Centre for Palliative Care (hospice University Clinical Centre Tuzla from October 2009 to December 2010. 33 patients in terminal stage of carcinoma, who had been treated by transdermal fentanyl due to their excruciating pain (7-10 mark on numerica! scale with initial dosage of 25 μg as a strong opiate analgesic, were monitored within the time period of 10 days. In the statistics we used the even T - test, the Wilcox test and Mann -Whitney test. The difference was seen to be significant at p < 0,05. Treatment by transdermal fentanyl significantly reduces the intensity of strong carcinoma pain (p < 0.0001, with a frequent requirement for dose increase with bone metastasis. The intensity of BTP is higher compared to the pain experienced upon reception. The frequency and intensity of BTP are significantly reduced already in the second day of treatment by transdermal fentanyl (p = 0,0024. The BTP is most intense in patients with neck and head tumours (9,26 ± 0,66, and most frequent with abdomen and pelvic tumour. The biggest number of BTP (68.3 % occurs within first three days of treatment. BTP most frequently occurs in the evening or at night (between 18:00 and 06:00 h in 62,2 % of the cases, with the duration of usually less than 15 minutes (65,2% of the cases. In 61,6 % cases the occurrence of BTP is related to physical activities or psychosocial incidents, while the cause is undetermined in 38,4 % of examinees.BTP is most frequent within first three days of treatment by TDF. Using the optimal dosage a good control of carcinoma pain is enabled, regardless of the occurrence of bone metastasis, while it also helps reduce the frequency and intensity of BTP.

  6. Grid-climbing Behaviour as a Pain Measure for Cancer-induced Bone Pain and Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Sarah; Gallego-Pedersen, Simone; Petersen, Nicolas C

    2017-01-01

    Despite affecting millions of people, chronic pain is generally treated insufficiently. A major point of focus has been the lack of translation from preclinical data to clinical results, with the predictive value of chronic pain models being a major concern. In contrast to current focus on stimulus-based nociceptive responses in preclinical research, development of behavioural tests designed to quantify suspension of normal behaviour is likely a more equivalent readout for human pain-assessment tests. In this study, we quantified grid-climbing behaviour as a non-stimulus-evoked behavioural test for potential use as a measure of neuropathic and cancer-induced bone pain in mice. In both models, the grid-climbing test demonstrated pain-related sparing of the affected leg during climbing. In both models, the behaviour was reversed by administration of morphine, suggesting that the observed behaviour was pain-specific. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. Pain management: a review of organisation models with integrated processes for the management of pain in adult cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink-Huis, A.; Achterberg, T. van; Schoonhoven, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This paper reports a review of the literature conducted to identify organisation models in cancer pain management that contain integrated care processes and describe their effectiveness. BACKGROUND: Pain is experienced by 30-50% of cancer patients receiving treatment and by

  8. Pain, movement, and mind: does physical activity mediate the relationship between pain and mental health among survivors of breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Burke, Shaunna

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between pain and mental health outcomes of depression and affect among survivors of breast cancer. The mediating role of physical activity was also tested. Survivors of breast cancer (N=145) completed self-report measures of pain symptoms at baseline, wore an accelerometer for 7 days, and reported levels of depression symptoms and negative and positive affect 3 months later. Hierarchical linear regression analyses, controlling for personal and cancer-related demographics, were used to test the association between pain symptoms and each mental health outcome, as well as the mediation effect of physical activity. Pain positively predicted depression symptoms [F(6,139)=4.31, PPhysical activity was a significant (Pphysical activity is one pathway through which pain influences mental health. Efforts are needed to help survivors of breast cancer manage pain symptoms and increase their level of physical activity to help improve mental health.

  9. Medullary Thyroid Cancer: It is a pain in the neck?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Marlon A.; Lindsay, Sheila; Suh, Insoo; Vriens, Menno R.; Khanafshar, Elham; Shen, Wen T.; Gosnell, Jessica; Kebebew, Electron; Duh, Quan-Yang; Clark, Orlo H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) commonly presents with lymph node (LN) metastases, and has a worse prognosis than papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Tumor size and LN involvement have been shown to affect stage of disease; however, to our knowledge, ours is the first study that attempts to correlate anterior neck pain on presentation with the extent of disease. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients with MTC who underwent an operation from February 1998 through December 2008. We compared the symptom of anterior neck pain with the pathologic extent of disease. Our control group comprised patients who underwent an operation for PTC. Analysis was performed using the Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test. Results: Of the 109 patients with MTC, 50 (46%) met our inclusion criteria. Of the 50 patients with MTC, 11 presented with neck pain, compared to 3 of the 50 patients with PTC (p = 0.041). Of those 11 patients, 9 (82%) had LN involvement on final pathology, as compared with 14 (36%) of the 39 without neck pain (p = 0.014). Of patients with neck pain, 18% were diagnosed at stage I to II and 82% at stage III to IV, compared to 64% at stage I to II and 36% at stage III to IV (p = 0.014). Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that more patients with MTC present with anterior neck pain than do patients with PTC and that patients with MTC and neck pain have an increased risk of LN metastases. The results of this study suggest that MTC patients, who present with concomitant neck pain, should undergo a total thyroidectomy, prophylactic bilateral central neck dissection, and ipsilateral lateral neck dissection. PMID:21509150

  10. Buprenorphine for cancer pain: is it ready for prime time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Buprenorphine (BUP) is a semisynthetic derivative of the opium alkaloid thebaine found in the poppy Papaver somniferum. Its chemical structure contains the morphine structure but differs by having a cyclopropylmethyl group. Buprenorphine is a potent µ opioid agonist. Buprenorphine undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism in the liver and gut. The development of a transdermal BUP formulation in 2001 led to its evaluation in cancer pain. This article provides the practitioner with an update on the current role of BUP in cancer care. It highlights data suggesting effectiveness in various types of cancer pain. The article reviews pharmacology, routes of administration, adverse effects, drug interactions, and cost considerations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Opioids Switching with Transdermal Systems in Chronic Cancer Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbarisi M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to tolerance development and adverse side effects, chronic pain patients frequently need to be switched to alternative opioid therapy Objective To assess the efficacy and tolerability of an alternative transdermally applied (TDS opioid in patients with chronic cancer pain receiving insufficient analgesia using their present treatment. Methods A total of 32 patients received alternative opioid therapy, 16 were switched from buprenorphine to fentanyl and 16 were switched from fentanyl to buprenorphine. The dosage used was 50% of that indicated in equipotency conversion tables. Pain relief was assessed at weekly intervals for the next 3 weeks Results Pain relief as assessed by VAS, PPI, and PRI significantly improved (p Conclusion Opioid switching at 50% of the calculated equianalgesic dose produced a significant reduction in pain levels and rescue medication. The incidence of side effects decreased and no new side effects were noted. Further studies are required to provide individualized treatment for patients according to their different types of cancer.

  12. Neural Blockade for Persistent Pain After Breast Cancer Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijayasinghe, Nelun; Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Kehlet, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    involved in neuropathic pain syndromes or to be used as a treatment in its own right. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence for neural blockade as a potential diagnostic tool or treatment for persistent pain after breast cancer surgery. In this systematic review, we found only 7 studies (n...... = 135) assessing blocks directed at 3 neural structures-stellate ganglion, paravertebral plexus, and intercostal nerves-but none focusing on the intercostobrachial nerve. The quality of the studies was low and efficacy inconclusive, suggesting a need for well-designed, high-quality studies...

  13. Sympathetic blocks for visceral cancer pain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Klepstad, Pal; Kurita, Geana Paula

    2015-01-01

    The neurolytic blocks of sympathetic pathways, including celiac plexus block (CPB) and superior hypogastric plexus block (SHPB) , have been used for years. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence to support the performance of sympathetic blocks in cancer patients with abdominal visceral...

  14. Incidence of myofascial pain syndrome in breast cancer surgery: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Lacomba, María; Mayoral del Moral, Orlando; Coperias Zazo, José Luís; Gerwin, Robert D; Goñí, Alvaro Zapico

    2010-05-01

    Pain after breast cancer therapy is a recognized complication found to have an adverse impact on patient's quality of life, increasing psychosocial distress. In recent years, case reports about myofascial pain syndrome are emerging in thoracic surgery as a cause of postsurgery pain. Myofascial pain syndrome is a regional pain syndrome characterized by myofascial trigger points in palpable taut bands of skeletal muscle that refers pain a distance, and that can cause distant motor and autonomic effects. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of myofascial pain syndrome prospectively 12 months after breast cancer surgery. Each participant was assessed preoperatively, postoperatively between day 3 and day 5, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. A physical therapist, expert in the diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome, performed follow-up assessments. Pain descriptions by the patients and pain pattern drawings in body forms guided the physical examination. The patients were not given any information concerning myofascial pain or other muscle pain syndromes. One year follow-up was completed by 116 women. Of these, 52 women developed myofascial pain syndrome (44.8%, 95% confidence interval: 35.6, 54.3). Myofascial pain syndrome is a common source of pain in women undergoing breast cancer surgery that includes axillary lymph node dissection at least during the first year after surgery. Myofascial pain syndrome is one potential cause of chronic pain in breast cancer survivors who have undergone this kind of surgery.

  15. Parents' relationship to pain during children's cancer treatment - a preliminary validation of the Pain Flexibility Scale for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsell Cederberg, Jenny; Weineland Strandskov, Sandra; Dahl, JoAnne; Ljungman, Gustaf

    2017-01-01

    Pain is one of the most frequent and burdensome symptoms for children with cancer. Psychological acceptance has been shown to be beneficial in chronic pain. Acceptance-based interventions for experimentally induced pain have been shown to predict increased pain tolerance and decreased pain intensity. An acceptance-based pilot study for children with cancer experiencing pain has shown promising results. Further, parental acceptance has been shown to predict decreased child distress. To date, no instruments measuring acceptance in the context of acute pain in children are available. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an instrument to measure acceptance in parents of children experiencing pain during cancer treatment. A test version of the Pain Flexibility Scale for Parents (PFS-P) was sent to parents of all children undergoing cancer treatment in Sweden at the time of the study. Exploratory factor analysis (n=243) examined numerous solutions. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and convergent validity were calculated. A three-factor Promax solution best represented the data. The subscales were pain resistance, valued action and pain fusion. Internal consistency was good ( α =0.81-0.93), and the total scale and the subscales demonstrated temporal stability ( r =0.76-0.87) and good convergent validity (-0.40 to -0.84). The PFS-P measuring acceptance in parents of children experiencing pain during cancer treatment is now available, enabling evaluation of acceptance in the context of acute pain in children. The scale shows good psychometric properties but needs further validation.

  16. Review of cancer pain management in patients receiving maintenance methadone therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowley, Dominic

    2011-05-01

    Methadone is commonly used in the treatment of heroin addiction. Patients with a history of opioid misuse or on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) with cancer often have difficult to manage pain. We studied 12 patients referred to the palliative care service with cancer pain who were on MMT. All had difficult to control pain, and a third required 5 or more analgesic agents. Two patients had documented \\'\\'drug-seeking\\'\\' behavior. Methadone was used subcutaneously as an analgesic agent in 1 patient. We explore why patients on MMT have difficult to manage pain, the optimal management of their pain, and the increasing role of methadone as an analgesic agent in cancer pain.

  17. [Multimodal treatment of pain and nausea in breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gartner, R.; Kroman, N.; Callesen, T.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Every year 4000 women in Denmark undergo surgery for breast cancer. According to published literature approximately 50% suffer from post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and moderate pain. No national guidelines are available regarding the treatment or prevention of pain and PONV...... as under mobilization on the evening of the operation and the next morning. Morphine consumption in the recovery room was, on average, 2 mg per patient. Only 1.5% of the patients were given morphine in the department. Five patients were troubled by light PONV, one by moderate PONV and another suffered from...... severe PONV and vomiting resistant to treatment. Upon arrival at the recovery 15% of the patients were in a state of moderate to severe sedation. This number was 1.5% 75 minutes later. CONCLUSION: It is possible with a multimodal opioid-sparing prevention and treatment regime for pain and PONV to gain...

  18. Kinesiology taping as an adjunct for pain management in cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Gourav; Rebanks, Jonathan; Briggs, Michelle; Johnson, Mark I

    2016-07-14

    We present the case of a 46-year-old woman who developed severe pain described as 'tearing' and 'searing' in the left side of the mid-trapezius region near the thoracic 8 vertebra (T8). The patient had undergone surgery for T8 fracture which had resulted from metastasis (secondary breast cancer). A community nurse referred the patient for physiotherapy assessment and treatment for her musculoskeletal pain and related symptoms that had affected her mobility and functional activities. The patient was treated with soft tissue therapy with the addition of kinesiology taping on follow-up visits. Kinesiology tape was applied over her left side trapezius region and left shoulder. The patient reported significant reductions in pain severity and felt greater control and stability over her left shoulder region, which resulted in better function and overall quality of life measures. She did not report any adverse effects. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. [Shoulder pain as the first sign of disseminated lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenqvist, Charlotte; Majed, Ahmad

    2013-01-28

    The diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer is in 50% of the cases not made until the metastatic stage. Distant metastases commonly involve the adrenal glands, the liver, the bones and the central nervous system. Metastases are very rarely seen in skeletal muscles. We report a case with a 47-year-old man, who suffered from strong pain in his right shoulder. The symptoms turned out to be the initial presentation of a disseminated lung cancer. A magnetic resonance scan showed skeletal muscle metastases to m. subscapularis and m. infraspinatus. Metastases to skeletal muscles are rare but should be kept in mind as part of the differential diagnosis in cases where atypical shoulder pain is the only symptom.

  20. Sensory function and pain in a population of patients treated for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilholm, O J; Cold, S; Rasmussen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is often reported after surgery for breast cancer. This study examined pain and sensory abnormalities in women following breast cancer surgery. METHODS: Sensory tests were carried out on the operated and contra-lateral side in 55 women with chronic pain after breast cance...

  1. Cancer Pain Management Insights and Reality in Southeast Asia: Expert Perspectives From Six Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Francis O; Irawan, Cosphiadi; Mansor, Marzida Binti; Sriraj, Wimonrat; Tan, Kian Hian; Thinh, Dang Huy Quoc

    2016-08-01

    This expert opinion report examines the current realities of the cancer pain management landscape and the various factors that hinder optimal pain control in six countries in Southeast Asia, describes ongoing efforts to advance patient care, and discusses approaches for improving cancer pain management. Information was gathered from leading experts in the field of cancer pain management in each country through an initial meeting and subsequent e-mail discussions. Overall, there are vast disparities in cancer pain management practices and access to opioids in the Southeast Asian countries. The experts considered cancer pain as being generally undermanaged. Access to opioids is inadequate in most countries, and opioid use for analgesia remains inadequate in the region. Several system-, physician-, and patient-related barriers to adequate pain relief were identified, including widespread over-regulation of opioid use, shortage of trained health care workers, inadequacies in pain assessment and knowledge about managing pain, and widespread resistance among patients and physicians toward opioid treatment. According to the experts, many of the ongoing initiatives in the Southeast Asian countries are related to educating patients and physicians on cancer pain management and opioid use. Efforts to improve opioid availability and reduce regulatory barriers in the region are limited, and much work is still needed to improve the status of cancer pain management in the region. Enacting necessary change will require recognition of the unique needs and resources of each country and collaboration across interdisciplinary professional teams to improve cancer pain care in this region.

  2. Sodium Channels in Pain and Cancer: New Therapeutic Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Ana Paula; Wood, John N

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) underpin electrical activity in the nervous system through action potential propagation. First predicted by the modeling studies of Hodgkin and Huxley, they were subsequently identified at the molecular level by groups led by Catterall and Numa. VGSC dysfunction has long been linked to neuronal and cardiac disorders with some nonselective sodium channel blockers in current use in the clinic. The lack of selectivity means that side effect issues are a major impediment to the use of broad spectrum sodium channel blockers. Nine different sodium channels are known to exist, and selective blockers are now being developed. The potential utility of these drugs to target diseases ranging from migraine, multiple sclerosis, muscle, and immune system disorders, to cancer and pain is being explored. Four channels are potential targets for pain disorders. This conclusion comes from mouse knockout studies and human mutations that prove the involvement of Nav1.3, Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 in the development and maintenance of acute and chronic pain. In this chapter, we present a short overview of the possible role of Nav1.3, Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 in human pain and the emerging and unexpected role of sodium channels in cancer pathogenesis. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The cancer pain practice index: a measure of evidence-based practice adherence for cancer pain management in older adults in hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Perry; Herr, Keela; Titler, Marita; Sanders, Sara; Cavanaugh, Joe; Swegle, John; Forcucci, Chris; Tang, Xiongwen; Lane, Kari; Reyes, Jimmy

    2010-05-01

    Various clinical practice guidelines addressing pain assessment and management have been available for several years that pertain, at least to some extent, to older patients with cancer. Nonetheless, systematic evaluations or methodologically sound studies of adherence to pain management practice guidelines within Medicare-certified hospice programs are lacking. As part of a larger translating-research-into-practice pain improvement study involving older patients with cancer in hospice programs, we recognized the need to create a valid and reliable tool that can facilitate critical evaluation of hospice medical records for nurse and physician adherence to pain management guidelines to create a consolidated score for comparative and quality improvement purposes. We report the process used to create this tool, named the Cancer Pain Practice Index, and a guide to its use. Copyright 2010 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An improved behavioural assay demonstrates that ultrasound vocalizations constitute a reliable indicator of chronic cancer pain and neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Deepitha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On-going pain is one of the most debilitating symptoms associated with a variety of chronic pain disorders. An understanding of mechanisms underlying on-going pain, i.e. stimulus-independent pain has been hampered so far by a lack of behavioural parameters which enable studying it in experimental animals. Ultrasound vocalizations (USVs have been proposed to correlate with pain evoked by an acute activation of nociceptors. However, literature on the utility of USVs as an indicator of chronic pain is very controversial. A majority of these inconsistencies arise from parameters confounding behavioural experiments, which include novelty, fear and stress due to restrain, amongst others. Results We have developed an improved assay which overcomes these confounding factors and enables studying USVs in freely moving mice repetitively over several weeks. Using this improved assay, we report here that USVs increase significantly in mice with bone metastases-induced cancer pain or neuropathic pain for several weeks, in comparison to sham-treated mice. Importantly, analgesic drugs which are known to alleviate tumour pain or neuropathic pain in human patients significantly reduce USVs as well as mechanical allodynia in corresponding mouse models. Conclusions We show that studying USVs and mechanical allodynia in the same cohort of mice enables comparing the temporal progression of on-going pain (i.e. stimulus-independent pain and stimulus-evoked pain in these clinically highly-relevant forms of chronic pain.

  5. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) for cancer pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlow, Adam; Bennett, Michael I; Robb, Karen A; Johnson, Mark I; Simpson, Karen H; Oxberry, Stephen G

    2012-03-14

    Cancer-related pain is complex and multi-dimensional but the mainstay of cancer pain management has predominantly used a biomedical approach. There is a need for non-pharmacological and innovative approaches. Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS) may have a role in pain management but the effectiveness of TENS is currently unknown. This is an update of the original review published in Issue 3, 2008. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of TENS for cancer-related pain in adults. The initial review searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, AMED and PEDRO databases in April 2008. We performed an updated search of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PEDRO databases in November 2011. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTS) investigating the use of TENS for the management of cancer-related pain in adults. The search strategy identified a further two studies for possible inclusion. One of the review authors screened each abstract using a study eligibility tool. Where eligibility could not be determined, a second author assessed the full paper. One author used a standardised data extraction sheet to collect information on the studies and independently assess the quality of the studies using the validated five-point Oxford Quality Scale. The small sample sizes and differences in patient study populations of the three included studies (two from the original review and a third included in this update) prevented meta-analysis. For the original review the search strategy identified 37 possible published studies; we divided these between two pairs of review authors who decided on study selection; all four review authors discussed and agreed final scores. Only one additional RCT met the eligibility criteria (24 participants) for this updated review. Although this was a feasibility study, not designed to investigate intervention effect, it suggested that TENS may improve bone pain on movement in a

  6. The Cancer Pain Practice Index (CPPI): A Measure of Evidence-Based Practice Adherence for Cancer Pain Management in Older Adults in Hospice Care

    OpenAIRE

    Fine, Perry; Herr, Keela; Titler, Marita; Sanders, Sara; Cavanaugh, Joe; Swegle, John; Forcucci, Chris; Tang, Xiongwen; Lane, Kari; Reyes, Jimmy

    2010-01-01

    Various clinical practice guidelines addressing pain assessment and management have been available for several years that pertain, at least to some extent, to older patients with cancer. Nonetheless, systematic evaluations or methodologically sound studies of adherence to pain management practice guidelines within Medicare-certified hospice programs are lacking. As part of a larger “translating research into practice” pain improvement study involving older patients with cancer in hospice prog...

  7. A Pilot Study of a Mobile Health Pain Coping Skills Training Protocol for Patients With Persistent Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Tamara J; Abernethy, Amy P; Edmond, Sara N; Kelleher, Sarah A; Wren, Anava A; Samsa, Greg P; Keefe, Francis J

    2015-10-01

    Pain coping skills training (PCST) interventions have shown efficacy for reducing pain and providing other benefits in patients with cancer. However, their reach is often limited because of a variety of barriers (e.g., travel, physical burden, cost, time). This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of a brief PCST intervention delivered to patients in their homes using mobile health (mHealth) technology. Pre-to-post intervention changes in pain, physical functioning, physical symptoms, psychological distress, self-efficacy for pain management, and pain catastrophizing also were examined. Patients with a diagnosis of breast, lung, prostate, or colorectal cancer who reported persistent pain (N = 25) participated in a four-session intervention delivered using mHealth technology (videoconferencing on a tablet computer). Participants completed measures of pain, physical functioning, physical symptoms, psychological distress, self-efficacy for pain management, and pain catastrophizing. We also assessed patient satisfaction. Participants completed an average of 3.36 (SD = 1.11) of the four intervention sessions for an overall session completion rate of 84%. Participants reported that the program was of excellent quality and met their needs. Significant preintervention to postintervention differences were found in pain, physical symptoms, psychological distress, and pain catastrophizing. The use of mHealth technology is a feasible and acceptable option for delivery of PCST for patients with cancer. This delivery mode is likely to dramatically increase intervention access for cancer patients with pain compared to traditional in-person delivery. Preliminary data also suggest that the program is likely to produce pretreatment to post-treatment decreases in pain and other important outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development and pilot test of a new set of good practice indicators for chronic cancer pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturno, P J; Martinez-Nicolas, I; Robles-Garcia, I S; López-Soriano, F; Angel-García, D

    2015-01-01

    Pain is among the most important symptoms in terms of prevalence and cause of distress for cancer patients and their families. However, there is a lack of clearly defined measures of quality pain management to identify problems and monitor changes in improvement initiatives. We built a comprehensive set of evidence-based indicators following a four-step model: (1) review and systematization of existing guidelines to list evidence-based recommendations; (2) review and systematization of existing indicators matching the recommendations; (3) development of new indicators to complete a set of measures for the identified recommendations; and (4) pilot test (in hospital and primary care settings) for feasibility, reliability (kappa), and usefulness for the identification of quality problems using the lot quality acceptance sampling (LQAS) method and estimates of compliance. Twenty-two indicators were eventually pilot tested. Seventeen were feasible in hospitals and 12 in all settings. Feasibility barriers included difficulties in identifying target patients, deficient clinical records and low prevalence of cases for some indicators. Reliability was mostly very good or excellent (k > 0.8). Four indicators, all of them related to medication and prevention of side effects, had acceptable compliance at 75%/40% LQAS level. Other important medication-related indicators (i.e., adjustment to pain intensity, prescription for breakthrough pain) and indicators concerning patient-centred care (i.e., attention to psychological distress and educational needs) had very low compliance, highlighting specific quality gaps. A set of good practice indicators has been built and pilot tested as a feasible, reliable and useful quality monitoring tool, and underscoring particular and important areas for improvement. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  9. Neuropathic pain in cancer: systematic review, performance of screening tools and analysis of symptom profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, M R; Boland, E G; Bouhassira, D; Freynhagen, R; Hardy, J; Hjermstad, M J; Mercadante, S; Pérez, C; Bennett, M I

    2017-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the methodological quality of rigorous neuropathic pain assessment tools in applicable clinical studies, and determine the performance of screening tools for identifying neuropathic pain in patients with cancer. Systematic literature search identified studies reporting use of Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS), Douleur Neuropathique en 4 (DN4) or painDETECT (PDQ) in cancer patients with a clinical diagnosis of neuropathic or not neuropathic pain. Individual patient data were requested to examine descriptor item profiles. Six studies recruited a total of 2301 cancer patients of which 1564 (68%) reported pain. Overall accuracy of screening tools ranged from 73 to 94%. There was variation in description and rigour of clinical assessment, particularly related to the rigour of clinical judgement of pain as the reference standard. Individual data from 1351 patients showed large variation in the selection of neuropathic pain descriptor items by cancer patients with neuropathic pain. LANSS and DN4 items characterized a significantly different neuropathic pain symptom profile from non-neuropathic pain in both tumour- and treatment-related cancer pain aetiologies. We identified concordance between the clinician diagnosis and screening tool outcomes for LANSS, DN4 and PDQ in patients with cancer pain. Shortcomings in relation to standardized clinician assessment are likely to account for variation in screening tool sensitivity, which should include the use of the neuropathic pain grading system. Further research is needed to standardize and improve clinical assessment in patients with cancer pain. Until the standardization of clinical diagnosis for neuropathic cancer pain has been validated, screening tools offer a practical approach to identify potential cases of neuropathic cancer pain.

  10. Nurse Attitude-Related Barriers to Effective Control of Cancer Pain among Iranian Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Name, Name; Mohamadian, Robab; Rahmani, Azad; Fizollah-Zadeh, Hussein; Jabarzadeh, Franak; Azadi, Arman; Rostami, Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Many cancer patients still experience pain worldwide. There are many barriers for effective control of cancer pain and many of these are related to health care providers. There is a need for further investigation of these barriers. The aim of this study was to investigate nurse-related barriers to control of cancer pain among Iranian nurses. In this descriptive study 49 nurses from two hospitals affiliated to Tabriz and Ardebil Universities of Medical Sciences participated using a census sampling method. A demographic and profession related checklist and Barriers Questionnaire II (BQ-II) were used for data collection. The results showed negative attitudes of participants regarding control of cancer pain. Participants believed that cancer pain medications do not manage cancer pain at acceptable levels; patients may become addicted by using these drugs; cancer pain medications have many uncontrollable effects; and controlling cancer pain may distract the physicians from treating disease. Iranian nurses have negative attitudes toward pain control in cancer patients especially about effectiveness of pain medication and their side effects. Educational intervention to reduce these misconceptions is needed.

  11. Systematic Review of the Use of Phytochemicals for Management of Pain in Cancer Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harrison, Andrew M; Heritier, Fabrice; Childs, Bennett G; Bostwick, J. Michael; Dziadzko, Mikhail A

    2015-01-01

    ... inclusion criteria were another reason for this low article inclusion rate. Although phytochemical therapy has historically been used as a treatment for cancer, treatment of cancer pain in general is challenging [3]. The use of phytochemical therapy for the treatment of cancer pain is further confounded by historical folklore and phytochemical isolates...

  12. Use of Lidocaine Patches for Neuropathic Pain in a Comprehensive Cancer Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ann Fleming

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are few reports of the use of the lidocaine 5% patch (L5%P for neuropathic pain (NP in the cancer patient. Within a comprehensive cancer centre, L5%P has been prescribed by the Pain and Palliative Care Service (Peter McCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia for selected patients with NP since 2001.

  13. Morphine as first medication for treatment of cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz C. Nunes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: the medications used according to the recommendation of the World Health Organization do not promote pain relief in a number of patients with cancer pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of morphine as first medication for the treatment of moderate cancer pain in patients with advanced and/or metastatic disease, as an option to the recommendations of the World Health Organization analgesic ladder. METHOD: sixty patients without opioid therapy, with >18 years of age, were randomized into two groups. G1 patients received medication according to the analgesic ladder and started treatment with non-opioids in the first, weak opioids in the second, and strong opioids in the third step; G2 patients received morphine as first analgesic medication. The efficacy and tolerability of initial use of morphine were evaluated every two weeks for three months. RESULTS: the groups were similar with respect to demographic data. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding pain intensity, quality of life, physical capacity, satisfaction with treatment, need for complementation and dose of morphine. In G1 there was a higher incidence of nausea (p = 0.0088, drowsiness (p = 0.0005, constipation (p = 0.0071 and dizziness (p = 0.0376 in the second visit and drowsiness (p = 0.05 in the third. CONCLUSIONS: the use of morphine as first medication for pain treatment did not promote better analgesic effect than the ladder recommended by World Health Organization, with higher incidence of adverse effects.

  14. Pain management of opioid-treated cancer patients in hospital settings in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundorff, L.; Peuckmann, V.; Sjøgren, Per

    2008-01-01

    adjuvant drugs. Regarding opioid side effects only constipation and nausea were treated in the majority of the patients. Average pain intensity in the last 24 h for the total number of patients (n=59) Cancer pain was prevalent in opioid......AIM: To evaluate the performance and quality of cancer pain management in hospital settings. METHODS: Anaesthesiologists specialised in pain and palliative medicine studied pain management in departments of oncology and surgery. Study days were randomly chosen and patients treated with oral opioids...... were included. Information regarding pain aetiology and mechanisms, pain medications and opioid side effects were registered from the medical records and by examining patients. Pain intensity was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory. RESULTS: In total, 59 cancer patients were included. In 49 (83...

  15. Management of cancer pain: 1. Wider implications of orthodox analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Susannah K Lee,1 Jill Dawson,2 Jack A Lee,3 Gizem Osman,4 Maria O Levitin,5 Refika Mine Guzel,5 Mustafa BA Djamgoz5,61Pomona College, Claremont, CA, USA; 2Healthcare Communications Consultancy, Danville, CA, USA; 3College of Arts and Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; 4Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK; 5Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Neuroscience Solutions to Cancer Research Group, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, London, UK; 6Cyprus International University, Biotechnology Research Centre, Haspolat, North Cyprus, Mersin, TurkeyAbstract: In this review, the first of two parts, we first provide an overview of the orthodox analgesics used commonly against cancer pain. Then, we examine in more detail the emerging evidence for the potential impact of analgesic use on cancer risk and disease progression. Increasing findings suggest that long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, particularly aspirin, may reduce cancer occurrence. However, acetaminophen may raise the risk of some hematological malignancies. Drugs acting upon receptors of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and GABA “mimetics” (eg, gabapentin appear generally safe for cancer patients, but there is some evidence of potential carcinogenicity. Some barbiturates appear to slightly raise cancer risks and can affect cancer cell behavior in vitro. For cannabis, studies suggest an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, larynx, and possibly lung. Morphine may stimulate human microvascular endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis; it is not clear whether this might cause harm or produce benefit. The opioid, fentanyl, may promote growth in some tumor cell lines. Opium itself is an emerging risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma and possibly cancers of the esophagus, bladder, larynx, and lung. It is concluded that analgesics currently prescribed for cancer pain can

  16. Cannabinoids in pancreatic cancer: correlation with survival and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Christoph W; Oti, Florian E; Erkan, Mert; Sauliunaite, Danguole; Bergmann, Frank; Pacher, Pal; Batkai, Sandor; Müller, Michael W; Giese, Nathalia A; Friess, Helmut; Kleeff, Jörg

    2008-02-15

    Cannabinoids exert antiproliferative properties in a variety of malignant tumors, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In our study, we quantitatively evaluated the immunoreactivity for cannabinoid-1 (CB1) and cannabinoid-2 (CB2) receptors as well as for the endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacyl glycerol lipase (MGLL). Furthermore, quantitative real-time RT-PCR for CB1, CB2, FAAH and MGLL in normal pancreas and pancreatic cancer tissues was performed. Levels of endocannabinoids were determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Immunoreactivity scores and QRT-PCR expression levels were correlated with the clinico-pathological (TNM, survival, pain) status of the patients. Evaluation of endocannabinoid levels revealed that these remained unchanged in PDAC compared to the normal pancreas. Patients with high CB1 receptor levels in enlarged nerves in PDAC had a lower combined pain score (intensity, frequency, duration; p = 0.012). There was a significant relationship between low CB1 receptor immunoreactivity or mRNA expression levels (p = 0.0011 and p = 0.026, respectively), or high FAAH and MGLL cancer cell immunoreactivity (p = 0.036 and p = 0.017, respectively) and longer survival of PDAC patients. These results are underlined by a significant correlation of high pain scores and increased survival (p = 0.0343). CB2 receptor immunoreactivity, CB2 receptor, FAAH and MGLL mRNA expression levels did not correlate with survival. Therefore, changes in the levels of endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes and cannabinoid receptors on pancreatic cancer cells may affect prognosis and pain status of PDAC patients. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Current Studies of Acupuncture in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Hee Kyoung; Baek, Yong-Hyeon; Park, Yeon-Cheol; Seo, Byung-Kwan

    2014-01-01

    Acupuncture is generally accepted as a safe and harmless treatment option for alleviating pain. To explore the pain mechanism, numerous animal models have been developed to simulate specific human pain conditions, including cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). In this study, we analyzed the current research methodology of acupuncture for the treatment of CIBP. We electronically searched the PubMed database for animal studies published from 2000 onward using these search terms: (bone cancer OR can...

  18. Comparison of numerical and verbal rating scales to measure pain exacerbations in patients with chronic cancer pain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brunelli, Cinzia; Zecca, Ernesto; Martini, Cinzia; Campa, Tiziana; Fagnoni, Elena; Bagnasco, Michela; Lanata, Luigi; Caraceni, Augusto

    2010-01-01

    Numerical rating scales (NRS), and verbal rating scales (VRS) showed to be reliable and valid tools for subjective cancer pain measurement, but no one of them consistently proved to be superior to the other...

  19. Complementary and alternative medicine in cancer pain management: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life (QoL encompasses the physical, psychosocial, social and spiritual dimensions of life lived by a person. Cancer pain is one of the physical component has tremendous impact on the QoL of the patient. Cancer pain is multifaceted and complex to understand and managing cancer pain involves a tool box full of pharmacological and non pharmacological interventions but still there are 50-70% of cancer patients who suffer from uncontrolled pain and they fear pain more than death. Aggressive surgeries, radiotherapy and chemotherapy focus more on prolonging the survival of the patient failing to realize that the QoL lived also matters equally. This paper reviews complementary and alternative therapy approaches for cancer pain and its impact in improving the QoL of cancer patients.

  20. Pain buddy: A novel use of m-health in the management of children’s cancer pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Michelle A.; Chung, Winnie W.; Martinez, Ariana; Gago-Masague, Sergio; Sender, Leonard

    2017-01-01

    Background Over 12,000 children are diagnosed with cancer every year in the United States. In addition to symptoms associated with their disease, children undergoing chemotherapy frequently experience significant pain, which is unfortunately often undertreated. The field of m-Health offers an innovative avenue for pain assessment and intervention in the home setting. The current study describes the development and initial evaluation of a tablet-based program, Pain Buddy, aimed to enhance pain management and foster improved quality of life in children ages 8–18 years undergoing cancer treatment. Methods An animated avatar-based tablet application was developed using state-of-the-art software. Key aspects of Pain Buddy include daily pain and symptom diaries completed by children, remote monitoring of symptoms by uploading patient’s data through internet to a cloud server, cognitive and behavioral skills training, interactive three-dimensional avatars that guide children through the program, and an incentive system to motivate engagement. Twelve children between the ages of 8 and 18 participated in a pilot study of Pain Buddy. Results Children were highly satisfied with the program. Pain and appetite disturbances were most frequently endorsed. Symptom trigger alerts to outside providers were largely related to clinically significant pain. Children infrequently used analgesics, and reported using some non-pharmacological pain management strategies. Conclusion Pain Buddy appears to be a promising tool to improve pain and symptom management in children undergoing cancer treatment. Results from the current study will inform future improvements to Pain Buddy, in preparation for a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of this innovative treatment. PMID:27479493

  1. Cancer pain management in ambulatory care: can we link assessment and action to outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Nancy; McDowell, M Rachel; Hendricks, Patty; Dietrich, Mary S; Murphy, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    Good cancer pain control requires appropriate assessment and treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among physician, nurse practitioner, and nurse knowledge, documentation of assessment, treatment, and pain reduction in cancer patients seen in ambulatory settings. The study method included an assessment of pain knowledge of providers (physicians, nurse practitioners, and nurses) who worked in cancer clinics and a retrospective review of patients' records treated for cancer-related pain in their clinics. Fifty-eight providers from eight cancer clinics completed the knowledge questionnaire; 56 patient records were reviewed for assessment, treatment, and outcome data. Pain relief, the outcome, was obtained from documentation at the next clinic visit. Of the 54 patient records that documented pain relief at the next clinic visit, 61.9% reported no relief. Chi square analysis revealed clinics with a higher level of pain knowledge documented a greater number of elements of an ideal pain assessment (p = 0.03) but was unrelated to treatment and pain relief reported. Assessment and treatment were unrelated to reported pain relief at the next clinic visit. These data suggest that providers' pain knowledge is related to pain assessment but not treatment or outcome. In addition, these data showed no relationship between assessment, treatment prescribed, and pain relief in these ambulatory settings.

  2. Pain and social processes for hospice cancer patients: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Olga; Walker, Rachel K

    2016-12-01

    Hospice cancer patients experience poorly-controlled pain in spite of widely-disseminated evidence-based guidelines for use by hospice care practitioners. Pain management occurs in the context of the interdisciplinary team, centered on a caring triad in the home: the person with pain, their caregiver, and their nurse. This review: 1) Summarizes what is known about differing ways that members of the hospice caring triad (patients, caregivers, and nurses) interpret and respond to cancer pain, in order to develop a cancer pain social processes theoretical framework, 2) Identifies gaps in understanding of hospice cancer pain social processes, and 3) Identifies framework concepts for research-based clinical practice with potential to improve pain outcomes. Our integrative review of the literature resulted in the identification and synthesis of 21 unique studies of cancer pain social processes, which were categorized according to a social processes framework and hospice caring triad member roles, using a social processes concepts matrix. Pain meanings, goals, and related responses vary for persons with pain, caregivers, and nurses. Studies have explored individual social processes concepts or triad member roles. Studies identify the need for pain meaning to be included in hospice pain management plans. To our knowledge, no single study has generated a framework for hospice cancer pain social processes addressing and incorporating the roles of all three caring triad members. Therefore, comprehensive hospice cancer pain clinical evaluation and interventions plans may be missing key elements of pain management, especially for persons with ongoing poorly controlled pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Codeine, alone and with paracetamol (acetaminophen), for cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Carmen; Derry, Sheena; Jackson, Kenneth C; Wiffen, Philip J; Bell, Rae F; Strassels, Scott; Straube, Sebastian

    2014-09-19

    Pain is very common in patients with cancer. Opioid analgesics, including codeine, play a significant role in major guidelines on the management of cancer pain, particularly for mild to moderate pain. Codeine is widely available and inexpensive, which may make it a good choice, especially in low-resource settings. Its use is controversial, in part because codeine is not effective in a minority of patients who cannot convert it to its active metabolite (morphine), and also because of concerns about potential abuse, and safety in children. To determine the efficacy and safety of codeine used alone or in combination with paracetamol for relieving cancer pain. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 2), MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception to 5 March 2014, supplemented by searches of clinical trial registries and screening of the reference lists of the identified studies and reviews in the field. We sought randomised, double-blind, controlled trials using single or multiple doses of codeine, with or without paracetamol, for the treatment of cancer pain. Trials could have either parallel or cross-over design, with at least 10 participants per treatment group. Studies in children or adults reporting on any type, grade, and stage of cancer were eligible. We accepted any formulation, dosage regimen, and route of administration of codeine, and both placebo and active controls. Two review authors independently read the titles and abstracts of all studies identified by the searches and excluded those that clearly did not meet the inclusion criteria. For the remaining studies, two authors read the full manuscripts and assessed them for inclusion. We resolved discrepancies between review authors by discussion. Included studies were described qualitatively, since no meta-analysis was possible because of the small amount of data identified, and clinical and methodological between-study heterogeneity. We included 15

  4. Cancer pain management: safe and effective use of opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruera, Eduardo; Paice, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Pain remains a serious consequence of cancer and its treatment. Although significant advances have been made in providing effective cancer pain control, barriers persist. Lack of knowledge, limited time, financial restrictions, and diminished availability of necessary medications serve as significant obstacles. Safe and effective opioid use in a patient with cancer requires skill to overcome these challenges. Understanding the mechanism of action, along with the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, of opioids will lead to appropriate selection, dosing, and titration of these agents. Rotation from one opioid or route to another is an essential proficiency for oncologists. As opioid-related adverse effects often occur, the oncology team must be expert in preventing and managing constipation, nausea, sedation, and neurotoxicities. An emerging concern is overtreatment-the excessive and prolonged use of opioids in patients when these agents may produce more harm than benefit. This can occur when opioids are used inappropriately to treat comorbid psychologic issues such as anxiety and depression. Recognizing risk factors for overuse along with key components of universal precautions will promote safe use of these medications, supporting adherence and preventing diversion, thereby protecting the patient, the prescriber, and the community. Because substance use disorders are not rare in the oncology setting, attention must be given to the balance of providing analgesia while limiting harm. Caring for patients with substance misuse requires compassionate, multidisciplinary care, with input from supportive oncology/palliative care as well as addiction specialists.

  5. Effectiveness of fentanyl transdermal patch (fentanyl-TTS, durogegic) for radiotherapy induced pain and cancer pain: multi-center trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seong Soo; Choi, Eun Kyung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Seung Jae [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2006-12-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of fentanyl-TTS in the management of radiotherapy induced acute pain and cancer pain treated with radiotherapy. Our study was open labelled prospective phase IV multi-center study, the study population included patients with more 4 numeric rating scale (NRS) score pain although managed with other analgesics or more than 6 NRS score pain without analgesics. Patients divided into two groups: patients with radiotherapy induced pain (Group A) and patients with cancer pain treated with radiotherapy (Group B). All patients received 25 ug/hr of fentanyl transdermal patch. Primary end point was pain relief: second end points were change in patient quality of life, a degree of satisfaction for patients and clinician, side effects. Between March 2005 and June 2005, 312 patients from 26 participating institutes were registered, but 249 patients completed this study. Total number of patients in each group was 185 in Group A, 64 in Group B. Mean age was 60 years and male to female ratio was 76:24. Severe pain NRS score at 2 weeks after the application of fentanyl was decreased from 7.03 to 4.01, {rho} = 0.003. There was a significant improvement in insomnia, social functioning, and quality of life. A degree of satisfaction for patients and clinician was very high. The most common reasons of patients' satisfactions was good pain control. Ninety six patients reported side effect. Nausea was the most common side effect. There was no serious side effect. Fentanyl-TTS was effective in both relieving pain with good tolerability and improving the quality of life for patients with radiotherapy induced acute pain and cancer pain treated with radiotherapy. The satisfaction of the patients and doctors was good. There wa no major side effect.

  6. Prevalence and management of cancer pain in Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatanasapt, Patravoot; Lertsinudom, Sunee; Sookprasert, Aumkhae; Phunmanee, Anakapong; Pratheepawanit, Nutjaree; Wattanaudomrot, Sirintip; Juangpanich, Ubol; Treapkhuntong, Tatiya

    2008-12-01

    Cancer pain remains an invisible problem in cancer care and our study aimed to document its prevalence, characteristics, and patterns of management at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Descriptive, prospective, cohort study. We recruited 335 consecutive adult patients diagnosed with cancers, admitted to Srinagarind Hospital, between February and April 2004. All of the participants were interviewed, and their pain evaluated by direct assessment using a numeric rating scale. The overall prevalence of cancer pain prior to admission was 56.5%, and within the first 24 hours of admission 41.5%. Three-quarters (74%) of patients with pain reported improvement; however one-third of those with pain never received any pain control intervention. Moreover; about half of those with persistent pain only received treatment by requesting it and then only received simple analgesics. Cancer pain remains under-detected and under-treated in many patients. Pain monitoring on a regular basis as well as a training program on pain management should be considered as first-line tools for improving pain control among cancer patients.

  7. Medical students' knowledge and attitude toward cancer pain management in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaki, Abdullah M

    2011-06-01

    To assess the final year medical students' knowledge, beliefs, and attitude toward cancer pain, and the need for a formal pain curriculum in medical schools. An epidemiological study was conducted from May 2008 to October 2009 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the students' knowledge and attitude toward cancer pain management. A survey in the form of self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among them. Response rate was 55% (N=325). Fifty-four percent of the respondents believed that legitimate opioids' prescription. There are 23.1% of students believed that patients are poor judges of their pain, 68% of them limited opioids prescription to patients with poor prognosis, and 77.1% believed that drug tolerance or psychological dependence, rather than advanced stages' cancer is the cause of increasing analgesic doses. The students' knowledge on the causes of cancer pain, pain clinic rule, and pain inclusion in the medical curriculum was poor. The correlation between personal life experience and respondents' attitude toward cancer pain management did not reveal any statistical significant. The study revealed poor knowledge and negative attitude of medical students' toward cancer pain. A structured teaching pain program is needed to improve the knowledge and attitude of future doctors toward pain.

  8. P2X7 receptor-deficient mice are susceptible to bone cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Rie; Nielsen, Christian K.; Nasser, Arafat

    2011-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptor is implicated in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and has been suggested as a possible target in pain treatment. However, the specific role of the P2X7 receptor in bone cancer pain is unknown. We demonstrated that BALB/cJ P2X7 receptor knockout (P2X7R KO) mice...... were susceptible to bone cancer pain and moreover had an earlier onset of pain-related behaviours compared with cancer-bearing, wild-type mice. Furthermore, acute treatment with the selective P2X7 receptor antagonist, A-438079, failed to alleviate pain-related behaviours in models of bone cancer pain...... with and without astrocyte activation (BALB/cJ or C3H mice inoculated with 4T1 mammary cancer cells or NCTC 2472 osteosarcoma cells, respectively), suggesting that astrocytic P2X7 receptors play a negligible role in bone cancer pain. The results support the hypothesis that bone cancer pain is a separate pain state...

  9. Neuropathic cancer pain: What we are dealing with? How to manage it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin E

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ece Esin, Suayib Yalcin Medical Oncology Department, Hacettepe University Cancer Institute, Ankara, Turkey Abstract: Cancer pain is a serious health problem, and imposes a great burden on the lives of patients and their families. Pain can be associated with delay in treatment, denial of treatment, or failure of treatment. If the pain is not treated properly it may impair the quality of life. Neuropathic cancer pain (NCP is one of the most complex phenomena among cancer pain syndromes. NCP may result from direct damage to nerves due to acute diagnostic/therapeutic interventions. Chronic NCP is the result of treatment complications or malignancy itself. Although the reason for pain is different in NCP and noncancer neuropathic pain, the pathophysiologic mechanisms are similar. Data regarding neuropathic pain are primarily obtained from neuropathic pain studies. Evidence pertaining to NCP is limited. NCP due to chemotherapeutic toxicity is a major problem for physicians. In the past two decades, there have been efforts to standardize NCP treatment in order to provide better medical service. Opioids are the mainstay of cancer pain treatment; however, a new group of therapeutics called coanalgesic drugs has been introduced to pain treatment. These coanalgesics include gabapentinoids (gabapentin, pregabalin, antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants, duloxetine, and venlafaxine, corticosteroids, bisphosphonates, N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists, and cannabinoids. Pain can be encountered throughout every step of cancer treatment, and thus all practicing oncologists must be capable of assessing pain, know the possible underlying pathophysiology, and manage it appropriately. The purpose of this review is to discuss neuropathic pain and NCP in detail, the relevance of this topic, clinical features, possible pathology, and treatments of NCP. Keywords: neuropathy, cancer pain, coanalgesics

  10. Innate Immune Signalling Genetics of Pain, Cognitive Dysfunction and Sickness Symptoms in Cancer Pain Patients Treated with Transdermal Fentanyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Daniel T.; Klepstad, Pål; Dale, Ola; Kaasa, Stein; Somogyi, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    Common adverse symptoms of cancer and chemotherapy are a major health burden; chief among these is pain, with opioids including transdermal fentanyl the mainstay of treatment. Innate immune activation has been implicated generally in pain, opioid analgesia, cognitive dysfunction, and sickness type symptoms reported by cancer patients. We aimed to determine if genetic polymorphisms in neuroimmune activation pathways alter the serum fentanyl concentration-response relationships for pain control, cognitive dysfunction, and other adverse symptoms, in cancer pain patients. Cancer pain patients (468) receiving transdermal fentanyl were genotyped for 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 19 genes: CASP1, BDNF, CRP, LY96, IL6, IL1B, TGFB1, TNF, IL10, IL2, TLR2, TLR4, MYD88, IL6R, OPRM1, ARRB2, COMT, STAT6 and ABCB1. Lasso and backward stepwise generalised linear regression were used to identify non-genetic and genetic predictors, respectively, of pain control (average Brief Pain Inventory fentanyl concentrations did not predict between-patient variability in these outcomes, nor did genetic factors predict pain control, sickness response or opioid adverse event complaint. Carriers of the MYD88 rs6853 variant were half as likely to have cognitive dysfunction (11/111) than wild-type patients (69/325), with a relative risk of 0.45 (95% CI: 0.27 to 0.76) when accounting for major non-genetic predictors (age, Karnofsky functional score). This supports the involvement of innate immune signalling in cognitive dysfunction, and identifies MyD88 signalling pathways as a potential focus for predicting and reducing the burden of cognitive dysfunction in cancer pain patients. PMID:26332828

  11. Innate Immune Signalling Genetics of Pain, Cognitive Dysfunction and Sickness Symptoms in Cancer Pain Patients Treated with Transdermal Fentanyl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Barratt

    Full Text Available Common adverse symptoms of cancer and chemotherapy are a major health burden; chief among these is pain, with opioids including transdermal fentanyl the mainstay of treatment. Innate immune activation has been implicated generally in pain, opioid analgesia, cognitive dysfunction, and sickness type symptoms reported by cancer patients. We aimed to determine if genetic polymorphisms in neuroimmune activation pathways alter the serum fentanyl concentration-response relationships for pain control, cognitive dysfunction, and other adverse symptoms, in cancer pain patients. Cancer pain patients (468 receiving transdermal fentanyl were genotyped for 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 19 genes: CASP1, BDNF, CRP, LY96, IL6, IL1B, TGFB1, TNF, IL10, IL2, TLR2, TLR4, MYD88, IL6R, OPRM1, ARRB2, COMT, STAT6 and ABCB1. Lasso and backward stepwise generalised linear regression were used to identify non-genetic and genetic predictors, respectively, of pain control (average Brief Pain Inventory < 4, cognitive dysfunction (Mini-Mental State Examination ≤ 23, sickness response and opioid adverse event complaint. Serum fentanyl concentrations did not predict between-patient variability in these outcomes, nor did genetic factors predict pain control, sickness response or opioid adverse event complaint. Carriers of the MYD88 rs6853 variant were half as likely to have cognitive dysfunction (11/111 than wild-type patients (69/325, with a relative risk of 0.45 (95% CI: 0.27 to 0.76 when accounting for major non-genetic predictors (age, Karnofsky functional score. This supports the involvement of innate immune signalling in cognitive dysfunction, and identifies MyD88 signalling pathways as a potential focus for predicting and reducing the burden of cognitive dysfunction in cancer pain patients.

  12. Women Treated for Breast Cancer Experiences of Chemotherapy-Induced Pain: Memories, Any Present Pain, and Future Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstedt-Börjesson, Susanne; Nordin, Karin; Fjällskog, Marie-Louise; Holmström, Inger K; Arving, Cecilia

    Breast cancer survivors make up a growing population facing treatment that poses long-standing adverse effects including chemotherapy-related body function changes and/or pain. There is limited knowledge of patients' lived experiences of chemotherapy-induced pain (CHIP). The aim of this study was to explore CHIP and any long-standing pain experiences in the lifeworld of breast cancer survivors. Fifteen women participated in a follow-up interview a year after having experienced CHIP. They were interviewed from a lifeworld perspective; the interviews were analyzed through guided phenomenology reflection. A past perspective: CHIP is often described in metaphors, leads to changes in a patient's lifeworld, and impacts lived time. The women become entirely dependent on others but at the same time feel isolated and alone. Existential pain was experienced as increased vulnerability. Present perspective: Pain engages same parts of the body, but at a lower intensity than during CHIP. The pain creates time awareness. Expected normality in relationships/daily life has not yet been achieved, and a painful existence emerges in-between health and illness. Future perspective: There are expectations of pain continuing, and there is insecurity regarding whom to turn to in such cases. A painful awareness emerges about one's own and others' fragile existence. Experiencing CHIP can impact the lifeworld of women with a history of breast cancer. After CHIP, there are continued experiences of pain that trigger insecurity about whether one is healthy. Cancer survivors would likely benefit from communication and information about and evaluation of CHIP.

  13. Tramadol with or without paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2017-05-16

    Tramadol is an opioid analgesic licensed for use in moderate to severe pain. It is considered as a low risk for abuse, so control regulations are not as stringent as for 'strong' opioids such as morphine. It has a potential role as a step 2 option of the World Health Organization (WHO) analgesic ladder. To assess the benefits and adverse effects of tramadol with or without paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer-related pain. We searched the following databases using a wide range of search terms: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS. We also searched three clinical trials registry databases. The date of the last search was 2 November 2016. We selected studies that were randomised, with placebo or active controls, or both, and included a minimum of 10 participants per treatment arm. We were interested particularly in blinded studies, but also included open studies.We excluded non-randomised studies, studies of experimental pain, case reports, and clinical observations. Two review authors independently extracted data using a standard form and checked for agreement before entry into Review Manager 5. We included information about the number of participants treated and demographic details, type of cancer, drug and dosing regimen, study design (placebo or active control) and methods, study duration and follow-up, analgesic outcome measures and results, withdrawals, and adverse events. We collated multiple reports of the same study, so that each study, rather than each report, was the unit of interest in the review. We assessed the evidence using GRADE and created a 'Summary of findings' table.The main outcomes of interest for benefit were pain reduction of 30% or greater and 50% or greater from baseline, participants with pain no worse than mild, and participants feeling much improved or very much improved. We included 10 studies (12 reports) with 958 adult participants. All the studies enrolled participants with

  14. Pain management: a review of organisation models with integrated processes for the management of pain in adult cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink-Huis, Anita; van Achterberg, Theo; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2008-08-01

    This paper reports a review of the literature conducted to identify organisation models in cancer pain management that contain integrated care processes and describe their effectiveness. Pain is experienced by 30-50% of cancer patients receiving treatment and by 70-90% of those with advanced disease. Efforts to improve pain management have been made through the development and dissemination of clinical guidelines. Early improvements in pain management were focussed on just one or two single processes such as pain assessment and patient education. Little is known about organisational models with multiple integrated processes throughout the course of the disease trajectory and concerning all stages of the care process. Systematic review. The review involved a systematic search of the literature, published between 1986-2006. Subject-specific keywords used to describe patients, disease, pain management interventions and integrated care processes, relevant for this review were selected using the thesaurus of the databases. Institutional models, clinical pathways and consultation services are three alternative models for the integration of care processes in cancer pain management. A clinical pathway is a comprehensive institutionalisation model, whereas a pain consultation service is a 'stand-alone' model that can be integrated in a clinical pathway. Positive patient and process outcomes have been described for all three models, although the level of evidence is generally low. Evaluation of the quality of pain management must involve standardised measurements of both patient and process outcomes. We recommend the development of policies for referrals to a pain consultation service. These policies can be integrated within a clinical pathway. To evaluate the effectiveness of pain management models standardised outcome measures are needed.

  15. Inhibition of breast cancer-cell glutamate release with sulfasalazine limits cancer-induced bone pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungard, Robert G; Seidlitz, Eric P; Singh, Gurmit

    2014-01-01

    Cancer in bone is frequently a result of metastases from distant sites, particularly from the breast, lung, and prostate. Pain is a common and often severe pathological feature of cancers in bone, and is a significant impediment to the maintenance of quality of life of patients living with bone metastases. Cancer cell lines have been demonstrated to release significant amounts of the neurotransmitter and cell-signalling molecule l-glutamate via the system xC(-) cystine/glutamate antiporter. We have developed a novel mouse model of breast cancer bone metastases to investigate the impact of inhibiting cancer cell glutamate transporters on nociceptive behaviour. Immunodeficient mice were inoculated intrafemorally with the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231, then treated 14days later via mini-osmotic pumps inserted intraperitoneally with sulfasalazine, (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine, or vehicle. Both sulfasalazine and (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine attenuated in vitro cancer cell glutamate release in a dose-dependent manner via the system xC(-) transporter. Animals treated with sulfasalazine displayed reduced nociceptive behaviours and an extended time until the onset of behavioural evidence of pain. Animals treated with a lower dose of (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine did not display this reduction in nociceptive behaviour. These results suggest that a reduction in glutamate secretion from cancers in bone with the system xC(-) inhibitor sulfasalazine may provide some benefit for treating the often severe and intractable pain associated with bone metastases. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Cancer Pain Practice Index (CPPI): A Measure of Evidence-Based Practice Adherence for Cancer Pain Management in Older Adults in Hospice Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Perry; Herr, Keela; Titler, Marita; Sanders, Sara; Cavanaugh, Joe; Swegle, John; Forcucci, Chris; Tang, Xiongwen; Lane, Kari; Reyes, Jimmy

    2010-01-01

    Various clinical practice guidelines addressing pain assessment and management have been available for several years that pertain, at least to some extent, to older patients with cancer. Nonetheless, systematic evaluations or methodologically sound studies of adherence to pain management practice guidelines within Medicare-certified hospice programs are lacking. As part of a larger “translating research into practice” pain improvement study involving older patients with cancer in hospice programs, we recognized the need to create a valid and reliable tool that can facilitate critical evaluation of hospice medical records for nurse and physician adherence to pain management guidelines in order to create a consolidated score for comparative and quality improvement purposes. We report the process used to create this tool, named the Cancer Pain Practice Index, and a guide to its use. PMID:20471541

  17. Palliation of bone cancer pain by antagonists of platelet-activating factor receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Morita

    Full Text Available Bone cancer pain is the most severe among cancer pain and is often resistant to current analgesics. Thus, the development of novel analgesics effective at treating bone cancer pain are desired. Platelet-activating factor (PAF receptor antagonists were recently demonstrated to have effective pain relieving effects on neuropathic pain in several animal models. The present study examined the pain relieving effect of PAF receptor antagonists on bone cancer pain using the femur bone cancer (FBC model in mice. Animals were injected with osteolytic NCTC2472 cells into the tibia, and subsequently the effects of PAF receptor antagonists on pain behaviors were evaluated. Chemical structurally different type of antagonists, TCV-309, BN 50739 and WEB 2086 ameliorated the allodynia and improved pain behaviors such as guarding behavior and limb-use abnormalities in FBC model mice. The pain relieving effects of these antagonists were achieved with low doses and were long lasting. Blockade of spinal PAF receptors by intrathecal injection of TCV-309 and WEB 2086 or knockdown of the expression of spinal PAF receptor protein by intrathecal transfer of PAF receptor siRNA also produced a pain relieving effect. The amount of an inducible PAF synthesis enzyme, lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2 (LPCAT2 protein significantly increased in the spinal cord after transplantation of NCTC 2472 tumor cells into mouse tibia. The combination of morphine with PAF receptor antagonists develops marked enhancement of the analgesic effect against bone cancer pain without affecting morphine-induced constipation. Repeated administration of TCV-309 suppressed the appearance of pain behaviors and prolonged survival of FBC mice. The present results suggest that PAF receptor antagonists in combination with, or without, opioids may represent a new strategy for the treatment of persistent bone cancer pain and improve the quality of life of patients.

  18. Cancer Health Empowerment for Living without Pain (Ca-HELP): study design and rationale for a tailored education and coaching intervention to enhance care of cancer-related pain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kravitz, Richard L; Tancredi, Daniel J; Street, Jr, Richard L; Kalauokalani, Donna; Grennan, Tim; Wun, Ted; Slee, Christina; Evans Dean, Dionne; Lewis, Linda; Saito, Naomi; Franks, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Cancer-related pain is common and under-treated. This article describes a study designed to test the effectiveness of a theory-driven, patient-centered coaching intervention to improve cancer pain processes and outcomes...

  19. Intrathecal Ziconotide and Morphine for Pain Relief: A Case Series of Eight Patients with Refractory Cancer Pain, Including Five Cases of Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Calle Gil, Ana Bella; Peña Vergara, Isaac; Cormane Bornacelly, María Auxiliadora; Pajuelo Gallego, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Studies have shown that, at low doses and with careful titration, combination therapy with intrathecal ziconotide and morphine results in rapid control of opioid-refractory cancer pain. However, there is a lack of published data regarding the efficacy and safety of intrathecal ziconotide specifically for the treatment of neuropathic cancer pain. Case reports of ziconotide intrathecal infusion in eight patients (age 45-71 years; 75% male) with chronic, uncontrolled cancer pain during therapy with intrathecal morphine plus bupivacaine were reviewed. Neuropathic pain was confirmed in five patients. Treatment was initiated with adjunctive ziconotide when pain ≥5 on a visual analog scale persisted in spite of 3 successive 20% dose increases of intrathecal morphine. Ziconotide was initiated at 0.5-1.0 µg/day, with mean increases of 0.5 µg every 4-7 days if required (maximum dose 10 µg/day; mean dose 4.9 µg/day). Pain intensity was reduced in all patients after 3-5 days. Of the eight patients, three died for reasons unrelated to ziconotide, three discontinued treatment due to adverse effects (predominantly psychoneurological disorders), and one patient is still receiving treatment. One patient discontinued ziconotide due to confusion and delirium. Due to continued lack of pain control with intrathecal morphine, intrathecal fentanyl was initiated; however, effective pain relief was not achieved with 1500 µg/day. Ziconotide was restarted and the patient then achieved pain control. On the basis of our clinical experience, we recommend adding ziconotide to intrathecal opioid-based therapy in cancer patients with neuropathic pain inadequately controlled by intrathecal morphine alone. Eisai, Spain.

  20. P2X7 receptor-deficient mice are susceptible to bone cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, RR; Nielsen, CK; Nasser, A

    2011-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptor is implicated in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and has been suggested as a possible target in pain treatment. However, the specific role of the P2X7 receptor in bone cancer pain is unknown. We demonstrated that BALB/cJ P2X7 receptor knockout (P2X7R KO) mice ...

  1. Identifying factors of psychological distress on the experience of pain and symptom management among cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara A; Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; McMillan, Susan C

    2016-11-02

    Epidemiological evidence suggests the impact psychological distress has on symptomatic outcomes (pain) among cancer patients. While studies have examined distress across various medical illnesses, few have examined the relationship of psychological distress and pain among patients diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to examine the impact psychological distress-related symptoms has on pain frequency, presence of pain, and pain-related distress among oncology patients. Data were collected from a sample of White and Black adults (N = 232) receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center. Participants were surveyed on questions assessing psychological distress (i.e., worry, feeling sad, difficulty sleeping), and health (pain presence, pain frequency, comorbidities, physical functioning), behavioral (pain-related distress), and demographic characteristics. Patients reporting functional limitations were more likely to report pain. Specifically, those reporting difficulty sleeping and feeling irritable were similarly likely to report pain. Data further showed age and feeling irritable as significant indicators of pain-related distress, with younger adults reporting more distress. It must be recognized that psychological distress and experiences of pain frequency are contingent upon a myriad of factors that are not exclusive, but rather coexisting determinants of health. Further assessment of identified predictors such as age, race, socioeconomic status, and other physical and behavioral indicators are necessary, thus allowing for an expansive understanding of the daily challenges and concerns of individuals diagnosed with cancer, while providing the resources for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers to better meet the needs of this patient population.

  2. Self-management support intervention to control cancer pain in the outpatient setting: a randomized controlled trial study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochstenbach, L.M.J.; Courtens, A.M.; Zwakhalen, S.M.G.; van Kleef, M.; de Witte, L.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pain is a prevalent and distressing symptom in patients with cancer, having an enormous impact on functioning and quality of life. Fragmentation of care, inadequate pain communication, and reluctance towards pain medication contribute to difficulties in optimizing outcomes. Integration

  3. An acceptance-based intervention for children and adolescents with cancer experiencing acute pain - a single-subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsell Cederberg, Jenny; Dahl, JoAnne; von Essen, Louise; Ljungman, Gustaf

    2017-01-01

    Children and adolescents with cancer report pain as one of their most recurrent and troublesome symptoms throughout the cancer trajectory. Pain evokes psychological distress, which in turn has an amplifying effect on the pain experience. Acceptance-based interventions for experimentally induced acute pain predict increased pain tolerance, decreased pain intensity and decreased discomfort of pain. The aim of this study was to preliminarily evaluate an acceptance-based intervention for children and adolescents with cancer experiencing acute pain, with regard to feasibility and effect on pain intensity and discomfort of pain. This is a single-subject study with an AB design with a nonconcurrent multiple baseline. Children and adolescents aged four to 18 years undergoing cancer treatment at the Children's University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden, reporting sustained acute pain were offered participation. Pain intensity and discomfort of pain were measured during baseline and at post-intervention. The intervention consisted of a pain exposure exercise lasting approximately 15 minutes. Five children participated in the study. All participants completed the intervention and reported that it had helped them to cope with the pain in the moment. All participants reported decreased discomfort of pain at post-measurement, three of whom also reported decreased pain intensity. The results suggest that an acceptance-based intervention may help children and adolescents with cancer to cope with the pain that is often associated with cancer treatment in spite of pharmacological pain management. The results are tentative but promising and warrant further investigation.

  4. The efficacy of nerve growth factor antibody in a mouse model of neuropathic cancer pain

    OpenAIRE

    Miyagi, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; KAMODA, Hiroto; Suzuki, Miyako; Inoue, Gen; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Uchida,Kentaro; SUZUKI, Takane; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Takaso, Masashi; Ohtori, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic cancer pain is caused by tumors compressing the spinal nerve roots and is usually difficult to treat. The aim of current study was to determine the influence of NGF antibody on pain-related markers and behavior in a mouse model of neuropathic cancer pain. Twenty mice were used to model neuropathic cancer pain by applying murine sarcoma cells to their left sciatic nerve. Ten mice were sham operated. Two weeks after surgery, the murine sarcoma-affected mice were allocated randomly i...

  5. Improving radionuclide therapy in prostate cancer patients with metastatic bone pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, M.G.E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals are indicated in cancer patients with multiple painful skeletal metastases. The majority of these patients are hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients in an advanced stage of their disease. Bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals relieve pain and improve the patients

  6. The effect of pain on physical functioning after breast cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth G.; Christensen, Karl B.; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Persistent postsurgical pain, musculoskeletal pain, sensory disturbances, and lymphedema are major clinical problems after treatment for breast cancer. However, there is little evidence on how these sequelae affects physical function. The aim this study was to develop and validate a p...... qualities, and may be used to evaluate the impact of specific sequelae after breast cancer treatment on physical functioning, as well as to monitor and target interventions to optimize pain treatment and rehabilitation.......Objectives: Persistent postsurgical pain, musculoskeletal pain, sensory disturbances, and lymphedema are major clinical problems after treatment for breast cancer. However, there is little evidence on how these sequelae affects physical function. The aim this study was to develop and validate...... a procedure-specific tool for assessing the impact of pain and other sequelae on physical function after breast cancer treatment. Methods: A literature review, patient and expert interviews were used to identify dimensions of physical function and sequelae. A questionnaire was developed and tested using...

  7. Psychological and behavioural predictors of pain management outcomes in patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Møldrup, Claus; Christrup, Lona Louring

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the phenomenon of patient-related barriers to cancer pain management and address them more effectively in interventional studies, a theoretical model related to psychological aspects of pain experience and pain-related behaviours was elaborated. The aim of the study was to an......To better understand the phenomenon of patient-related barriers to cancer pain management and address them more effectively in interventional studies, a theoretical model related to psychological aspects of pain experience and pain-related behaviours was elaborated. The aim of the study...... Perceived Involvement in Care Scale measuring the quality of patient-physician pain communication, and the Danish version of Medication Adherence Report Scale (DMARS-4). Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 16.00. The results of the multivariable linear regression analyses showed that pain intensity...

  8. Effect of Music Therapy on Pain and Anxiety Levels of Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Priyadharshini Krishnaswamy; Shoba Nair

    2016-01-01

    Background: The pain associated with cancer is highly detrimental to the quality of life of the affected individuals. It also contributes to the anxiety of the patient. There is a need for a nonpharmacological approach in addition to the pharmacological therapy for the management of the pain for a more holistic improvement in the individual. With this study, we wish to achieve this through music. Objective: To assess the effect of music therapy on pain scores and anxiety levels of cancer ...

  9. The Influence of Social Structure on Cancer Pain and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Ok-Kyung; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether social structure is associated with cancer pain and quality of life using the Social Structure and Personality Research Framework. This study was a secondary analysis of data from 480 cancer patients. The measurements included socioeconomic variables, self-reported cancer pain using the McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form (MPQ-SF), and quality of life measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Scale (FACT-G). The data were analyzed using moderated multiple regression. Cancer pain and quality of life differed significantly with income. The associations between income and pain and quality of life were significant only for the high education group (≥ partial college), and these associations were greater for Caucasians than for their counterparts ( p life while considering possible moderating factors such as education.

  10. Tumor Tissue-Derived Formaldehyde and Acidic Microenvironment Synergistically Induce Bone Cancer Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Han, Ying; Li, Hui; Luo, Hongjun; Duan, Bo; Xu, Tianle; Maoying, Qiliang; Tan, Huangying; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Hongmei; Liu, Fengyu; Wan, You

    2010-01-01

    Background There is current interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms of tumor-induced bone pain. Accumulated evidence shows that endogenous formaldehyde concentrations are elevated in the blood or urine of patients with breast, prostate or bladder cancer. These cancers are frequently associated with cancer pain especially after bone metastasis. It is well known that transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) participates in cancer pain. The present study aims to demonstrate that the tumor tissue-derived endogenous formaldehyde induces bone cancer pain via TRPV1 activation under tumor acidic environment. Methodology/Principal Findings Endogenous formaldehyde concentration increased significantly in the cultured breast cancer cell lines in vitro, in the bone marrow of breast MRMT-1 bone cancer pain model in rats and in tissues from breast cancer and lung cancer patients in vivo. Low concentrations (1∼5 mM) of formaldehyde induced pain responses in rat via TRPV1 and this pain response could be significantly enhanced by pH 6.0 (mimicking the acidic tumor microenvironment). Formaldehyde at low concentrations (1 mM to 100 mM) induced a concentration-dependent increase of [Ca2+]i in the freshly isolated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and TRPV1-transfected CHO cells. Furthermore, electrophysiological experiments showed that low concentration formaldehyde-elicited TRPV1 currents could be significantly potentiated by low pH (6.0). TRPV1 antagonists and formaldehyde scavengers attenuated bone cancer pain responses. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that cancer tissues directly secrete endogenous formaldehyde, and this formaldehyde at low concentration induces metastatic bone cancer pain through TRPV1 activation especially under tumor acidic environment. PMID:20422007

  11. A case vignette study to assess the knowledge of pain physicians of neuropathic cancer pain: room for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Virginie; Lanteri-Minet, Michel; Steegers, Monique; Besse, Kees; Donnet, Anne; Verhagen, Stans; Weel, Chris Van; Engels, Yvonne; Vissers, Kris

    2013-01-01

    In more and more countries, a specific pain education curriculum is provided to instruct pain physicians. However, there is little literature on pain education and in particularly how to evaluate their knowledge. One of the modules interesting to assess is the use of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) by pain physicians. The aim was to investigate if a case vignette is useful to evaluate pain physicians' knowledge about recommendations contained in CPGs. An email survey was conducted with the support of the Societe Francaise d'Etude et de Traitement de la Douleur to all pain specialists (primary and secondary care) in France. The survey consisted of a case vignette about a patient with pain suffering from an intractable pancreatic cancer with multiple choice questions about diagnosis and treatment of pain. Percentages of participants who treated the patient as suggested in the CPGs were calculated. A total of 214 of those invited to participate (921) answered the questionnaire (24%). More than 85% of the respondents declared to know and use CPGs. Half of the participants diagnosed and treated neuropathic pain components in the case vignette according to the recommendations in the CPGs. This exercise needed to be explained: pain physicians should be trained to this kind of questionnaire. It explains the low response rate and the progressive diminution of responders during the questionnaire. Case vignette is an interesting instrument for pain education because it is cheap, easy to use, and can be repeated. However, training before using this instrument is needed for pain physicians, in particular during their pain education.

  12. Cancer patient and staff ratings of caring behaviors: relationship to level of pain intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuanmay; Lin, Ya-Ping; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Lin, Chia-Chin

    2005-01-01

    This study explored differences in the perceived importance of nursing caring behaviors between patients with cancer pain and oncology nurses and to explore the relationship between level of pain intensity and the importance of various nursing caring behaviors. The study included 50 matched cancer patient-staff pairs from oncology inpatient units of 3 hospitals in northern Taiwan. The Brief Pain Inventory-Chinese version (BPI-C) and the Caring Assessment Report Evaluation Q-sort (CARE-Q) were used for data collection. Results revealed that cancer pain patients ranked "being accessible," "monitors and follows through," and "anticipates" as being the most important nursing caring behaviors; the nursing staff ranked "being accessible," "explains and facilitates," and "monitors and follows through" as being the most important behaviors. No correlations were found between cancer pain patients and staff rankings of the perceived importance of various caring behaviors. The self-reported level of pain intensity by patients was significantly positively correlated with the patient rating of the "anticipates" behavior. Patient self-reported level of pain interference was significantly positively correlated with the "monitors and follows through" behavior and significantly negatively correlated with the "explains and facilitates" behavior. Staff perception of both a patient's level of pain intensity and pain interference was significantly positively correlated with staff rating of the "being accessible" behavior. Results demonstrated that greater patient-staff communication is needed for staff to more accurately provide caring interventions to make patients with cancer pain feel cared for.

  13. Stomatitis-Related Pain in Women with Breast Cancer Undergoing Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Fall-Dickson, Jane M.; Mock, Victoria; Berk, Ronald A.; Grimm, Patricia M.; Davidson, Nancy; Gaston-Johansson, Fannie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to describe stomatitis-related pain in women with breast cancer undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Hypotheses tested were that significant, positive relationships would exist between oral pain and stomatitis, state anxiety, depression, and alteration in swallowing. Stomatitis, sensory dimension of oral pain, and state anxiety were hypothesized to most accurately predict oral pain overall intensity. Thirty-two ...

  14. The relationship between sensory loss and persistent pain 1 year after breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Duriaud, Helle Molter; Kehlet, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Moderate-to-severe persistent pain after breast cancer surgery (PPBCS) affects 10-20% of the patients. Sensory dysfunction is often concomitantly present suggesting a neuropathic pain state. The relationship between various postoperative pain states and sensory dysfunction has been examined......), mechanical pain threshold (MPT) and thermal thresholds. 290 patients were enrolled and results showed that 38 (13 %) had moderate-to-severe pain and 246 (85%) had hypoesthesia in the surgical area 1 year after surgery. Increased hypoesthesia areas were associated with both pain at rest and during movement (p...

  15. Pain on the first postoperative day after head and neck cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhestern, Johanna; Schuerer, Jenny; Illge, Christina; Thanos, Ira; Meissner, Winfried; Volk, Gerd Fabian; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2015-11-01

    Postoperative pain within the first 24 h after head and neck cancer (HNC) surgery was assessed. Factors influencing postoperative pain were identified. In a prospective cohort single center study 145 HNC patients rated their pain on the first postoperative day using questionnaires of the German-wide project Quality Improvement in Postoperative Pain Treatment (QUIPS) including numeric rating scales (NRS, 0-10) for the determination of patient's pain on ambulation, his maximal and minimal pain. QUIPS allowed a standardized assessment of patients' characteristics and pain-related parameters. The influence of these parameters on the patients' postoperative pain was estimated by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. One-third had already pain prior to the surgical intervention. Overall, the mean pain on ambulation, maximal pain and minimal pain were 2.55 ± 2.36, 3.18 ± 2.86, and 1.38 ± 2.86 (NRS), respectively. 53 % of the patients had maximal pain scores >3. Multivariate analysis revealed independent predictors for more postoperative pain on ambulation: intensity of chronic preoperative pain, usage of non-opioids on ward, and existence of pain documentation on ward. Intensity of chronic preoperative pain and usage of non-opioids on ward were independent risk factors for more maximal pain. Intensity of chronic preoperative pain was independently associated to more minimal pain. Concerning pain management side effects, the risk for drowsiness increased with longer time of surgery. Postoperative pain after HNC surgery is highly variable and seems often to be unnecessarily high. Many patients seem to receive less analgesia than needed or ineffective analgesic drug regimes.

  16. Development and Testing of an Intelligent Pain Management System (IPMS) on Mobile Phones Through a Randomized Trial Among Chinese Cancer Patients: A New Approach in Cancer Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunheng; Jiang, Feng; Gu, Juan J; Wang, Y Ken; Hua, Hongwei; Li, Jing; Cheng, Zhijun; Liao, Zhijun; Huang, Qian; Hu, Weiwei; Ding, Gang

    2017-07-25

    Cancer has become increasingly prevalent in China over the past few decades. Among the factors that determine the quality of life of cancer patients, pain has commonly been recognized as a most critical one; it could also lead to the ineffective treatment of the cancer. Driven by the need for better pain management for cancer patients, our research team developed a mobile-based Intelligent Pain Management System (IPMS). Our objective was to design, develop, and test the IPMS to facilitate real-time pain recording and timely intervention among cancer patients with pain. The system's usability, feasibility, compliance, and satisfaction were also assessed. A sample of 46 patients with cancer pain symptoms were recruited at the Oncology Center of Xinhua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Chongming Branch (hereinafter referred to as "the Oncology Center"). In a pretest, participants completed a pain management knowledge questionnaire and were evaluated using the baseline cancer pain assessment and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) evaluation. The participants were then randomly assigned into two groups (the trial group and the control group). After a 14-day trial period, another round of cancer pain assessment, KPS evaluation and pain management knowledge assessment were repeated. In the trial group, the data were fully automatically collected by the IPMS. In the control group, the data were collected using conventional methods, such as phone interviews or door-to-door visits by physicians. The participants were also asked to complete a satisfaction questionnaire on the use of the IPMS. All participants successfully completed the trial. First, the feasibility of IPMS by observing the number of daily pain assessments recorded among patients was assessed. Second, the users' satisfaction, effectiveness of pain management, and changes in the quality of their lives were evaluated. All the participants gave high satisfaction score after

  17. Spinal neuronal correlates of tapentadol analgesia in cancer pain: A back-translational approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Patel, Ryan; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain is a common and highly debilitating complication for cancer patients significantly compromising their quality of life. Cancer-induced bone pain involves a complex interplay of multiple mechanisms including both inflammatory and neuropathic processes and also some unique changes. S...... to the mechanistic understanding of cancer-induced bone pain and support the sparse clinical data indicating a possible use of the drug as a therapeutic alternative for cancer patients with metastatic pain complication.......Background Pain is a common and highly debilitating complication for cancer patients significantly compromising their quality of life. Cancer-induced bone pain involves a complex interplay of multiple mechanisms including both inflammatory and neuropathic processes and also some unique changes...... α-2 adrenoceptor. It has been demonstrated to treat effectively both acute and chronic pain. We here demonstrate the efficacy in a model of cancer-induced bone pain. Methods MRMT-1 mammary carcinoma cells were inoculated into the tibia of 6-week-old rats and 2 weeks after, the neuronal responses...

  18. Cancer pain: A critical review of mechanism-based classification and physical therapy management in palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil P Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanism-based classification and physical therapy management of pain is essential to effectively manage painful symptoms in patients attending palliative care. The objective of this review is to provide a detailed review of mechanism-based classification and physical therapy management of patients with cancer pain. Cancer pain can be classified based upon pain symptoms, pain mechanisms and pain syndromes. Classification based upon mechanisms not only addresses the underlying pathophysiology but also provides us with an understanding behind patient′s symptoms and treatment responses. Existing evidence suggests that the five mechanisms - central sensitization, peripheral sensitization, sympathetically maintained pain, nociceptive and cognitive-affective - operate in patients with cancer pain. Summary of studies showing evidence for physical therapy treatment methods for cancer pain follows with suggested therapeutic implications. Effective palliative physical therapy care using a mechanism-based classification model should be tailored to suit each patient′s findings, using a biopsychosocial model of pain.

  19. Chemical coping versus pseudoaddiction in patients with cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung Hye; Tanco, Kimberson; Hui, David; Reddy, Akhila; Bruera, Eduardo

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this case series was to describe patients with aberrant drug-related behaviors and similar patterns of dose escalation in whom interdisciplinary assessment revealed different bases for their dose increases. During the period from December 26 to December 30, 2011, the medical records of two patients with opioid-related aberrant behaviors were reviewed. We described two patients with a significant cancer history and different comorbidities who presented with different aberrant drug-related behaviors and opioid requirements. Opioid-related aberrant behaviors can be interpreted in different ways, and two of the more common syndromes in cancer patients are chemical coping and pseudoaddiction. In advanced cancer patients, the boundaries between these conditions are not as clear, and diagnosis is often made retrospectively. Furthermore, there have been relatively limited studies describing these two syndromes. Thus, they continue to pose a diagnostic and treatment challenge that requires different approaches for effective management of symptoms. The key characteristic between the two syndromes is that the behaviors displayed in chemical coping are motivated by obtaining opioids to relieve psychosocial distress, while in pseudoaddiction these behaviors are motivated by uncontrolled nociceptive input. Close monitoring of the pain syndromes, aberrant behaviors, and opioid requirements over several visits is usually necessary to distinguish the two syndromes.

  20. [Pain Intensity and Time to Death of Cancer Patients Referred to Palliative Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Pedro; Santos, Filipa; Mesquita, Graça; Cardoso, Alice; Custódio, Maria Paula; Alves, Marta; Papoila, Ana Luísa; Barbosa, António; Lawlor, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Pain is a common symptom experienced by cancer patients, especially in those with advanced disease. Our aim was to describe pain intensity in advanced cancer patients, referred to the palliative care unit, the factors underlying moderate to severe pain and its prognostic values. This was a prospective observational study. All patients with mestastatic solid tumors and with no specific oncologic treatment were included. Pain intensity was accessed using the pain scale from Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale, rated from 0 to 10 on a numerical scale, where zero = no pain and 10 = worst possible pain. Between October 2012 and June 2015, a total of 301 patients participated in the study. The median age was 69 years, (37 - 94); most of the patients were men (57%) and 64.8% had a performance status of 3/4. About 42% reported pain severity ≥ 4 and 74% were medicated with opioids. Multivariate analysis indicated a correlation between performance status and reported pain (OR: 1.7; IC 95%: 1.0 - 2.7; p = 0.045). Median overall survival was 37 days (IC 95%: 28 - 46). Patients reporting moderate to severe pain (pain severity ≥ 4) had a median survival of 29 days (IC 95%: 21 - 37), comparing with those who had no or moderate pain with median survival of 49 days (IC 95%: 35 - 63) (p = 0.022). The performance status was associated with more intense pain. The performance status, hospitalization, intra-abdominal metastization and opioid analgesia were associated with shorter time to death in advanced cancer patients referred to palliative care. Cancer pain continues to be a major clinical problem in advanced cancer patients.

  1. Reliability and validity of individual and composite recall pain measures in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Wang, Wei; Potts, Susan L; Gould, Errol M

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate and compare the validity and reliability of individual and composite recall pain intensity measures. Secondary analyses using data from a published 14-day open-label crossover clinical trial comparing two active treatments. Multiple settings. Fifty-two adults with a history of chronic cancer pain. Recall ratings of least, worst, and average pain during the past 2 days; composite score representing recalled characteristic pain in the past 2 days; and daily diary ratings of pain intensity from which "actual" least, worst, and average pain scores were derived. Recall ratings of least and average pain, and a composite score representing recalled characteristic pain were accurate (differed no more than three points from "actual" scores on a 0-100 scale). Although the recall rating of worst pain significantly (P recall measures demonstrated validity via their strong associations with the measures of actual pain intensity. The recall measures also demonstrated excellent test-retest stability, although the diary-derived measures tended to be more stable than the recall measures did. The composite measure of recalled characteristic pain demonstrated a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.90). Individual recall ratings and a composite score representing recalled characteristic pain intensity are reliable and valid measures of actual pain in patients with cancer. The findings support their use as outcome measures in clinical trials. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The effectiveness of music in relieving pain in cancer patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Tzu; Good, Marion; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2010-11-01

    To examine effects of sedative music on cancer pain. A randomized controlled trial. Two large medical centers in Kaoshiung City, in southern Taiwan. 126 hospitalized persons with cancer pain. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (n=62) or a control group (n=64), with computerized minimization, stratifying on gender, pain, and hospital unit. Music choices included folk songs, Buddhist hymns (Taiwanese music), plus harp, and piano (American). The experimental group listened to music for 30 min; the control group rested in bed. Sensation and distress of pain were rated on 100mm VAS before and after the 30-min test. Using MANCOVA, there was significantly less posttest pain in the music versus the control group, pmusic was very helpful for pain. Thirty minutes of music provided 50% relief in 42% of the music group compared to 8% of the controls. The number needed to treat (NNT) to find one with 50% sensation relief was three patients. More patients chose Taiwanese music (71%) than American music (29%), but both were liked and effective. Offering a choice of familiar, culturally appropriate music was a key element of the intervention. Findings extend the Good and Moore theory (1996) to cancer pain. Soft music was safe, effective, and liked by participants. It provided greater relief of cancer pain than analgesics alone. Thus nurses should offer calming, familiar music to supplement analgesic medication for persons with cancer pain. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Cancer Pain Assessment Tool (KCPAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong A; Lee, Juneyoung; Park, Jeanno; Lee, Myung Ah; Yeom, Chang Hwan; Jang, Se Kwon; Yoon, Duck Mi; Kim, Jun Suk

    2005-01-01

    The Korean Cancer Pain Assessment Tool (KCPAT), which was developed in 2003, consists of questions concerning the location of pain, the nature of pain, the present pain intensity, the symptoms associated with the pain, and psychosocial/spiritual pain assessments. This study was carried out to evaluate the reliability and validity of the KCPAT. A stratified, proportional-quota, clustered, systematic sampling procedure was used. The study population (903 cancer patients) was 1% of the target population (90,252 cancer patients). A total of 314 (34.8%) questionnaires were collected. The results showed that the average pain score (5 point on Likert scale) according to the cancer type and the at-present average pain score (VAS, 0-10) were correlated (r=0.56, p<0.0001), and showed moderate agreement (kappa=0.364). The mean satisfaction score was 3.8 (1-5). The average time to complete the questionnaire was 8.9 min. In conclusion, the KCPAT is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing cancer pain in Koreans. PMID:16224166

  4. Pain management of opioid-treated cancer patients in hospital settings in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundorff, L; Peuckmann, V; Sjøgren, P

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the performance and quality of cancer pain management in hospital settings. Anaesthesiologists specialised in pain and palliative medicine studied pain management in departments of oncology and surgery. Study days were randomly chosen and patients treated with oral opioids were included. Information regarding pain aetiology and mechanisms, pain medications and opioid side effects were registered from the medical records and by examining patients. Pain intensity was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory. In total, 59 cancer patients were included. In 49 (83%) patients pain aetiology was assessed by the physicians of the departments of oncology and surgery. In only 19 (32%) patients they assessed pain mechanisms. The median oral morphine dose was 120 mg/day (range: 10-720 mg/day). Seventy-eight per cent of patients received opioids at adequate regular intervals according to the duration of action. In 88% of the patients supplemental short-acting oral opioids were given on demand and the median supplemental oral dose was 16.5% of the daily dose. Seven patients with neuropathic pain received adjuvant drugs, whereas six patients with non-neuropathic pain received adjuvant drugs. Regarding opioid side effects only constipation and nausea were treated in the majority of the patients. Average pain intensity in the last 24 h for the total number of patients (n=59) Cancer pain was prevalent in opioid-treated patients in hospital settings: however, focussing on average pain intensity, the outcome seems favourable compared with other countries. Pain mechanisms were seldom examined and adjuvant drugs were not specifically used for neuropathic pain. Opioid dosing intervals and supplemental opioid doses were most often adequate. However, opioid side effects were highly prevalent and most side effects were left untreated.

  5. The Effect of Therapeutic Touch on Pain and Fatigue of Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghabati, Nahid; Pour Esmaiel, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    Despite major advances in pain management, cancer pain is managed poorly in 80% of the patients with cancer. Due to deleterious side effects of pharmacology therapy in these people, there is an urgent need for clinical trials of non-pharmacological interventions. To examine the effect of therapeutic touch (TT) on the pain and fatigue of the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, a randomized and three-groups experimental study—experimental (TT), placebo (placebo TT), and control (usual care)—was carried out. Ninety patients undergoing chemotherapy, exhibiting pain and fatigue of cancer, were randomized into one of the three groups in the Cancer Center of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Pain and fatigue were measured and recorded by participants before and after the intervention for 5 days (once a day). The intervention consisted of 30 min TT given once a day for 5 days between 10:00 a.m. and 10:30 a.m. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of pain and the Rhoten Fatigue Scale (RFS) were completed for 5 days before and after the intervention by the subjects. The TT (significant) was more effective in decreasing pain and fatigue of the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy than the usual care group, while the placebo group indicated a decreasing trend in pain and fatigue scores compared with the usual care group. PMID:18955319

  6. The Effect of Therapeutic Touch on Pain and Fatigue of Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Aghabati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite major advances in pain management, cancer pain is managed poorly in 80% of the patients with cancer. Due to deleterious side effects of pharmacology therapy in these people, there is an urgent need for clinical trials of non-pharmacological interventions. To examine the effect of therapeutic touch (TT on the pain and fatigue of the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, a randomized and three-groups experimental study—experimental (TT, placebo (placebo TT, and control (usual care—was carried out. Ninety patients undergoing chemotherapy, exhibiting pain and fatigue of cancer, were randomized into one of the three groups in the Cancer Center of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Pain and fatigue were measured and recorded by participants before and after the intervention for 5 days (once a day. The intervention consisted of 30 min TT given once a day for 5 days between 10:00 a.m. and 10:30 a.m. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS of pain and the Rhoten Fatigue Scale (RFS were completed for 5 days before and after the intervention by the subjects. The TT (significant was more effective in decreasing pain and fatigue of the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy than the usual care group, while the placebo group indicated a decreasing trend in pain and fatigue scores compared with the usual care group.

  7. Current Studies of Acupuncture in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Kyoung Ryu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is generally accepted as a safe and harmless treatment option for alleviating pain. To explore the pain mechanism, numerous animal models have been developed to simulate specific human pain conditions, including cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP. In this study, we analyzed the current research methodology of acupuncture for the treatment of CIBP. We electronically searched the PubMed database for animal studies published from 2000 onward using these search terms: (bone cancer OR cancer AND (pain OR analgesia AND (acupuncture OR pharmacopuncture OR bee venom. We selected articles that described cancer pain in animal models. We analyzed the methods used to induce cancer pain and the outcome measures used to assess the effects of acupuncture on CIBP in animal models. We reviewed articles that met our inclusion criteria. Injection of mammary cancer cells into the cavity of the tibia was the most frequently used method for inducing CIBP in the animal models. Among the eight selected studies, five studies demonstrated the effects of electroacupuncture on CIBP. The effects of acupuncture were assessed by measuring pain-related behavior. Future researches will be needed to ascertain the effectiveness of acupuncture for treating CIBP and to explore the specific mechanism of CIBP in animal models.

  8. Pulsed radiofrequency therapy for relieving neuropathic bone pain in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic bone pain is among the most commonly reported pain conditions in cancer patients and pharmacological therapy frequently fails to provide satisfactory pain relief. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF is a minimally invasive procedure and may be an effective alternative. However, there is little published data evaluating PRF treatment of metastatic pain. PRF therapy of select lumbar dorsal root ganglia was performed on two patients suffering from uncontrolled metastatic lumbar bone pain. After PRF therapy, the patients reported markedly improved back pain, and the effect lasted for months until they deceased. No complications or adverse events were noted from this minimally invasive procedure. PRF may be considered a potential intervention in treating certain neuropathic cancer pain conditions.

  9. Application of the BPCQ questionnaire to assess pain management in selected types of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerw, Aleksandra; Religioni, Urszula; Deptała, Andrzej; Fronczak, Adam

    2016-12-23

    Pain is one of the most prevalent unpleasant sensation in people that may significantly lower the quality of life. More than a half of cancer patients suffer from various forms of pain, which becomes more frequent and intense as disease progresses. The objective of the study was to assess the degree of pain control in patients diagnosed with breast, lung, colorectal and prostate cancer. The analysis also covered the effect of socio-economic factors on pain management in patients with the above types of cancer. The study included 902 patients treated at the Outpatient's Department of the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center - Institute of Oncology in Warsaw in 2013. The patients consisted of those diagnosed with breast, lung, colorectal or prostate carcinoma. The Paper and Pencil Interview (PAPI) technique was applied. A questionnaire interview included demographic-type questions (socio-economic variables) and the Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire (BPCQ) test which measures the power of factors influencing pain control in patients. It was demonstrated that regarding beliefs in the source of pain control, patients attributed the highest importance to the power of doctors (mean value = 16.60) and the lowest to chance events (mean = 15.82). The internal factors are regarded as having the strongest influence by respondents diagnosed with colorectal or breast cancer. With regards to the locus of pain control, only the internal control of pain is diversified by the primary site. With regards to the source of pain management, only the internal control of pain is diversified by the primary site. The external factors were regarded as having the strongest influence by respondents diagnosed with colorectal or breast cancer. The major socio-economic variables differentiating the way in which pain control is perceived are education and net income-per-household-member. The results of analyses of individual groups of patients revealled strong correlations between

  10. Does gender affect self-perceived pain in cancer patients? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yusuf; Popovic, Marko; Wan, Bo Angela; Lam, Michael; Lam, Henry; Ganesh, Vithusha; Milakovic, Milica; DeAngelis, Carlo; Malek, Leila; Chow, Edward

    2017-09-12

    Pain is reported in approximately 50-70% of cancer patients. Studies on gender differences in perceived pain generally report lower pain thresholds and increased pain prevalence in women, which may be attributed to gender-specific behaviors, stereotypes, and unknown etiological factors. There are sparse and inconclusive results on gender differences in self-perceived pain in the cancer setting. The aim of this article was to examine the effect of gender on baseline perceived pain intensity in cancer patients through a meta-analysis. A literature search was conducted using Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials [1947-2016] to identify observational studies and controlled trials that reported on gender-specific pain intensity in cancer patients. Using random-effects modeling, weighted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the effect of gender on pain severity in cancer patients. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 1,911 search results reviewed, 13 studies were included. The weighted mean difference (95% CI) in pain intensity was as follows: -0.26 (95% CI: -0.57 to 0.04, P=0.09) for the 0-10 Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) group (n=3,752, 9 studies). When restricted to only patients with advanced cancer, the weighted mean difference was -0.08 (95% CI: -0.36 to 0.20, P=0.58) (n=2,762, 4 studies). The weighted mean difference in the Brief Pain Inventory scores between males and females was 0.03 (95% CI: -1.23 to 1.29, P=0.96) (n=521, 4 studies). Baseline perceived pain intensity in cancer patients did not significantly differ based on gender.

  11. Pregabalin reduces acute inflammatory and persistent pain associated with nerve injury and cancer in rat models of orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummig, Wagner; Kopruszinski, Caroline Machado; Chichorro, Juliana Geremias

    2014-01-01

    To assess the analgesic effect of pregabalin in orofacial models of acute inflammatory pain and of persistent pain associated with nerve injury and cancer, and so determine its effectiveness in controlling orofacial pains having different underlying mechanisms. Orofacial capsaicin and formalin tests were employed in male Wistar rats to assess the influence of pregabalin (or vehicle) pretreatment in acute pain models, and the results from these experiments were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Newman Keuls post-hoc test. Pregabalin (or vehicle) treatment was also tested on the facial heat hyperalgesia that was evaluated in rats receiving injection of the inflammatory irritant carrageenan into the upper lip, as well as after constriction of the infraorbital nerve (a model of trigeminal neuropathic pain), or after inoculation of tumor cells into the facial vibrissal pad; two-way repeated measures ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls post-hoc test was used to analyze data from these experiments. Facial grooming induced by capsaicin was abolished by pretreatment with pregabalin at 10 and 30 mg/kg. However, pregabalin failed to modify the first phase of the formalin response, but reduced the second phase at both doses (10 and 30 mg/kg). In addition, treatment of rats with pregabalin reduced the heat hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, as well as by nerve injury and facial cancer. Pregabalin produced a marked antinociceptive effect in rat models of facial inflammatory pain as well as in facial neuropathic and cancer pain models, suggesting that it may represent an important agent for the clinical control of orofacial pain.

  12. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms Relate to Distinct Components of Pain Experience among Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Galloway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among women worldwide, with more than 210,000 new cases and 40,000 deaths per year in the United States. Pain, anxiety, and depression can be significant factors during the course of breast cancer. Pain is a complex experience with sensory, affective, and cognitive dimensions. While depression and anxiety symptoms are relatively common among breast cancer patients, little is known about the relation between these psychiatric factors and distinct components of the pain experience. In the present study 60 females presenting to an NCI-designated Cancer Center with newly diagnosed breast cancer completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies 10-item Depression Scale, the State Instrument of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Findings indicate that anxiety and depression are common among newly diagnosed breast cancer patients; furthermore, patients experience an appreciable amount of pain even before oncologic treatment starts. State anxiety serves as a predictor of the sensory dimension of the pain experience, whereas depression serves as a predictor of the affective dimension of the pain experience.

  13. Modern pain neuroscience in clinical practice: applied to post-cancer, paediatric and sports-related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfliet, Anneleen; Leysen, Laurence; Pas, Roselien; Kuppens, Kevin; Nijs, Jo; Van Wilgen, Paul; Huysmans, Eva; Goudman, Lisa; Ickmans, Kelly

    In the last decade, evidence regarding chronic pain has developed exponentially. Numerous studies show that many chronic pain populations show specific neuroplastic changes in the peripheral and central nervous system. These changes are reflected in clinical manifestations, like a generalized hypersensitivity of the somatosensory system. Besides a hypersensitivity of bottom-up nociceptive transmission, there is also evidence for top-down facilitation of pain due to malfunctioning of the endogenous descending nociceptive modulatory systems. These and other aspects of modern pain neuroscience are starting to be applied within daily clinical practice. However, currently the application of this knowledge is mostly limited to the general adult population with musculoskeletal problems, while evidence is getting stronger that also in other chronic pain populations these neuroplastic processes may contribute to the occurrence and persistence of the pain problem. Therefore, this masterclass article aims at giving an overview of the current modern pain neuroscience knowledge and its potential application in post-cancer, paediatric and sports-related pain problems. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Exercise despite pain – breast cancer patient experiences of muscle and joint pain during adjuvant chemotherapy and concurrent participation in an exercise intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christina; Rørth, M; Ejlertsen, B

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy-related pain is a well-known side effect in cancer patient receiving chemotherapy. However, limited knowledge exists describing whether exercise exacerbates existing pain. Aim of the research was to explore muscle and joint pain experienced by women with breast cancer receiving......-immediate exacerbation of pain and summarised into the essence of chemotherapy related muscle and joint pain in exercise breast cancer patients; exercise despite pain. Findings indicate that the patients' perception of sudden onset of chemotherapy-related muscle and joint pain was not aggravated by training. Pain...... adjuvant chemotherapy with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel and factor support and concurrently participating in an exercise intervention. The study used individual semi-structured interviews (pre- and post-intervention). Fifteen women were interviewed. The multimodal group...

  15. Differential effects of repeated low dose treatment with the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 in experimental models of bone cancer pain and neuropathic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Andreas; Ding, Ming; Egerod, Kristoffer Lihme

    2008-01-01

    Pain due to bone malignancies is one of the most difficult types of cancer pain to fully control and may further decrease the patients' quality of life. Animal models of chronic pain conditions resulting from peripheral inflammatory reactions or nerve injuries are responsive to treatment...... with cannabinoid agonists. However, the use of cannabinoid agonists in humans may be hampered by CNS related side effects and development of tolerance. In the present study, we investigated the effect of repeated low dose administration of the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 on bone cancer pain...... and neuropathic pain in mice. In addition, we investigated the development of CNS related side effects and tolerance. We found that 0.5 mg/kg/day for 18 days reduced pain related behavior and expression of spinal glial fibrillary acidic protein in the bone cancer pain model but not in the neuropathic pain model...

  16. Influence of sex differences on the progression of cancer-induced bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Uldall, Maria; Appel, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    on the progression of cancer-induced bone pain. Materials and Methods: 4T1-luc2 mammary cancer cells were introduced into the femoral cavity of female and male BALB/cJ mice. Bioluminescence tumor signal, pain-related behavior and bone degradation were monitored for 14 days. Results: Female mice demonstrated...... a significantly greater bioluminescence signal on day 2 compared to male mice and, in addition, a significant earlier onset of pain-related behavior was observed in the females. No sex difference was observed for bone degradation. Finally, a strong correlation between pain-related behavior and bone degradation...

  17. From Complication to Diagnosis: Prostate Cancer in an Acetabular Fracture Patient Presenting with Hip Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Terlemez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the Turkish Public Health Institution data, prostate cancer is the 2nd most common cancer in men. Advanced stage patients may apply with pain in the lower back, hips, or upper thighs. In this case report, a 66 year-old man who has hip pain referred to our rheumatology department with sacroiliitis is presented. Further investigations revealed that hip pain was the result of acetabular fracture due to osteoblastic bone metastases. Significant pain palliation was achieved in the patient who is diagnosed with primer prostate carcinoma after radiation therapy.

  18. Adequacy of cancer-related pain management and predictors of undertreatment at referral to a pain clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis-Pina P

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Paulo Reis-Pina,1,2 Peter G Lawlor,3–5 António Barbosa6,7 1Palliative Care Unit, Casa de Saúde da Idanha, Sintra, 2Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal; 3Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 4Bruyère Research Institute, Bruyère Continuing Care, 5Division of Palliative Care, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 6Department of Psychiatry, North Lisbon Hospital Centre, Lisbon, 7Centre of Bioethics and Palliative Care Studies Division, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal Background: Several guidelines have advocated the need for adequate cancer-related pain (CRP management. The pain management index (PMI has been proposed as an auditable measure of the appropriateness for analgesic therapy. Objectives: To determine the adequacy of CRP management based on the PMI status and its patient-related predictors at the point of referral to a pain clinic (PC. Methods: Consecutive patients referred to a PC had standardized initial assessments and status documentation on the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI ratings; pain mechanism, using a neuropathic pain diagnostic questionnaire (the Douleur Neuropathique 4 tool; episodic pain; oral morphine equivalent daily dose; the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale and the Emotion Thermometer scores; and cancer diagnosis, metastases, treatment, and pain duration. Predictors of “negative PMI status” [PMI(−] were examined in logistic regression models. Variables with p<0.25 in an initial bivariable analysis were entered into a multivariable model. Results: Of 371 participants, 95 (25.6% had PMI(−, suggesting undertreatment of CRP. Both female sex and higher scores on the BPI’s “interference with general activity” more strongly predicted PMI(−. Patients who received either radiotherapy or one or more adjuvant analgesics prior to the initial consultation at the PC, those who had neuropathic pain, those who had a greater need

  19. Ketamine as an adjuvant to opioids for cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Rae F; Eccleston, Christopher; Kalso, Eija A

    2017-06-28

    This is an update of a review first published in 2003 and updated in 2012.Ketamine is a commonly used anaesthetic agent, and in subanaesthetic doses is also given as an adjuvant to opioids for the treatment of refractory cancer pain, when opioids alone or in combination with appropriate adjuvant analgesics prove to be ineffective. Ketamine is known to have psychomimetic (including hallucinogenic), urological, and hepatic adverse effects. To determine the effectiveness and adverse effects of ketamine as an adjuvant to opioids for refractory cancer pain in adults. For this update, we searched MEDLINE (OVID) to December 2016. We searched CENTRAL (CRSO), Embase (OVID) and two clinical trial registries to January 2017. The intervention considered by this review was the addition of ketamine, given by any route of administration, in any dose, to pre-existing opioid treatment given by any route and in any dose, compared with placebo or active control. We included studies with a group size of at least 10 participants who completed the trial. Two review authors independently assessed the search results and performed 'Risk of bias' assessments. We aimed to extract data on patient-reported pain intensity, total opioid consumption over the study period; use of rescue medication; adverse events; measures of patient satisfaction/preference; function; and distress. We also assessed participant withdrawal (dropout) from trial. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). One new study (185 participants) was identified by the updated search and included in the review. We included a total of three studies in this update.Two small studies, both with cross-over design, with 20 and 10 participants respectively, were eligible for inclusion in the original review. One study with 20 participants examined the addition of intrathecal ketamine to intrathecal morphine, compared with intrathecal morphine alone. The

  20. Recurring Utterances - Targeting a Breakthrough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Stark

    2014-05-01

    The most interesting phenomenon is KB’s production of words from former sessions indicating that they are still ‘active’ and the production of completely novel incorrect words. The observable features indicate that immediate auditory processing is possible in the form of repeating target words. However, as soon as KB must retrieve information from the (semantic lexicon, even after being able to correctly ‘repeat’ the target word several times, he responds with a RU, perseveration, or paraphasia. Several of his productions can be characterized as aphasic confabulations which stem from a memory gap. Thus, although KB’s language impairment is severe, his responses across time indicate that step-by-step a breakthrough is being made.

  1. Assessing the prognostic features of a pain classification system in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Joseph; Tanco, Kimberson; Haider, Ali; Maligi, Courtney; Park, Minjeong; Liu, Diane; Bruera, Eduardo

    2017-09-01

    The Edmonton Classification System for Cancer Pain (ECS-CP) has been shown to predict pain management complexity based on five features: pain mechanism, incident pain, psychological distress, addictive behavior, and cognitive function. The main objective of our study was to explore the association between ECS-CP features and pain treatment outcomes among outpatients managed by a palliative care specialist-led interdisciplinary team. Initial and follow-up clinical information of 386 eligible supportive care outpatients were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Between the initial consultation and the first follow-up visit, the median ESAS pain intensity improved from 6 to 4.5 (p feature (p = 0.006) used a higher number of adjuvant medications. At follow-up, patients with neuropathic pain were less likely to achieve their personalized pain goal (PPG) (29 vs 72%, p = 0.015). No statistically significant association was found between increasing sum of ECS-CP features and any of the pain treatment outcomes at follow-up. Neuropathy was found to be a poor prognostic feature in advanced cancer pain management. Increasing sum of ECS-CP features was not predictive of pain management complexity at the follow-up visit when pain was managed by a palliative medicine specialist. Further research is needed to further explore these observations.

  2. Concepts within the Chinese culture that influence the cancer pain experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lih-Mih; Miaskowski, Christine; Dodd, Marylin; Pantilat, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe some of the concepts within the Chinese culture that influence the sociocultural dimension of the cancer pain experience. The major concepts that influence Chinese patients' perspectives on cancer pain and its management include Taoism/energy, Buddhism, and Confucianism. Within the beliefs of Taoism/energy, pain occurs if Qi, or blood circulation, is blocked. To relieve pain, the blockage of Qi/blood must be removed and the person needs to maintain harmony with the universe. Within the beliefs of Buddhism, pain/suffering is a power, unwanted but existent, that comes from a barrier in the last life; from the objective world; from a person's own sensation; or from other people, animals, and materials. Only by following the 8 right ways (ie, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration) can an individual end the path of pain/suffering. A Confucian believes that pain is an essential element of life, a "trial" or a "sacrifice." Therefore, when a person suffers with pain, he or she would rather endure the pain and not report it to a clinician until the pain becomes unbearable. Oncology nurses who care for Chinese patients need to understand the fundamental beliefs that influence the sociocultural dimension of the pain experience for these patients. This information will assist the oncology nurse in developing a more effective pain management plan.

  3. Comparison of orofacial pain of patients with different stages of precancer and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjie; Zhang, Peipei; Li, Wenlu

    2017-03-16

    Orofacial pain impairs a patient's speech, swallowing, eating and interpersonal relations. Thirty-seven patients with a premalignant oral lesion, 124 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSSC), and 21 patients with a recurrence of OSSC were evaluated for their orofacial pain. The University of California San Francisco Oral Cancer Pain Questionnaire was administered to these patients at their initial visit, before they were prescribed analgesics for pain and before any treatment. Significant differences with respect to orofacial pain between the groups could be evaluatedwere observed. Patients with recurrence had the highest facial pain and patients with precancer had the lowest. Patients with OSSC and recurrence of OSSC reported significant levels of orofacial pain and functional restriction because of pain. Moreover, patients with recurrence of OSSC experienced significantly higher function-related pain, rather than pain qualities. These findings suggest that an important predictor for recurrence of OSSC may be the onset of orofacial pain that is exacerbated during function. The present study examined orofacial pain depending on the disease severity of precancer and oral cancer patients. Earlier recognition of symptoms of OSSC may improve early detection of its recurrence.

  4. Influence of sex differences on the progression of cancer-induced bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Uldall, Maria Schmidt; Appel, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Pain caused by bone metastases has a severe impact on the quality of life for many patients with cancer. Good translational in vivo models are required to understand the molecular mechanism and develop better treatment. In the current study we evaluated the influence of sex differences on the pro......Pain caused by bone metastases has a severe impact on the quality of life for many patients with cancer. Good translational in vivo models are required to understand the molecular mechanism and develop better treatment. In the current study we evaluated the influence of sex differences...... on the progression of cancer-induced bone pain....

  5. Management of pain in cancer patients with depression and cognitive deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoletini, Ilaria; Caltagirone, Carlo; Ceci, Moira; Gianni, Walter; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2010-09-01

    Patients with cancer are burdened with pain, ranging in prevalence from 14 to 100% in this population, and with comorbid behavioural symptoms such as depression and cognitive decline. However, the complex relationships between cancer pain, depression and cognitive decline, as well as their causes, still need to be clarified. Here, the existing literature on pain and its relationships with depression and cognitive decline in adult patients with cancer is reviewed, in order to understand the impact of pain on these interrelated symptoms, and the importance of its correct assessment and management. From the literature, it emerges that pain in cancer patients has a multidimensional phenomenology, which is the final product of a complex process involving emotional, cognitive, and sensory components. There is a substantial agreement that cancer patients with pain are at higher risk of having depression and cognitive decline. However, it is still controversial if these symptoms may fit into the same cluster, due to the paucity of studies exploring the simultaneous impact of pain on the psychological and cognitive well-being of patients with cancer, which would be consequential on their treatment and management. Finally, recent advances in immunology/oncology have provided novel insights into the pathophysiologic mechanisms supposedly underlying pain-related symptoms. Particularly, immune dysfunction may represent a common pathogenic ground of pain, depression and cognitive decline in cancer patients. In clinical practice, an appropriate assessment of pain should take into account the relationships with depression and cognitive decline, in order to develop more personalised and effective therapies for its management. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationship between ethnicity and the pain experience of cancer patients: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wingfai Kwok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer pain is a complex multidimensional construct. Physicians use a patient-centered approach for its effective management, placing a great emphasis on patient self-reported ratings of pain. In the literature, studies have shown that a patient′s ethnicity may influence the experience of pain as there are variations in pain outcomes among different ethnic groups. At present, little is known regarding the effect of ethnicity on the pain experience of cancer patients; currently, there are no systematic reviews examining this relationship. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the literature in October 2013 using the keywords in Group 1 together with Group 2 and Group 3 was conducted in five online databases (1 Medline (1946-2013, (2 Embase (1980-2012, (3 The Cochrane Library, (4 Pubmed, and (5 Psycinfo (1806-2013. The search returned 684 studies. Following screening by inclusion and exclusion criteria, the full text was retrieved for quality assessment. In total, 11 studies were identified for this review. The keywords used for the search were as follows: Group 1-Cancer; Group 2- Pain, Pain measurement, Analgesic, Analgesia; Group 3- Ethnicity, Ethnic Groups, Minority Groups, Migrant, Culture, Cultural background, Ethnic Background. Results: Two main themes were identified from the included quantitative and qualitative studies, and ethnic differences were found in: (1 The management of cancer pain and (2 The pain experience. Six studies showed that ethnic groups face barriers to pain treatment and one study did not. Three studies showed ethnic differences in symptom severity and one study showed no difference. Interestingly, two qualitative studies highlighted cultural differences in the perception of cancer pain as Asian patients tended to normalize pain compared to Western patients who engage in active health-seeking behavior. Conclusion: There is an evidence to suggest that the cancer pain experience is different between

  7. Pain management in cancer patients using a mobile app: study design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboola, Stephen; Kamdar, Mihir; Flanagan, Clare; Searl, Meghan; Traeger, Lara; Kvedar, Joseph; Jethwani, Kamal

    2014-12-12

    Despite the availability of effective medications and clinical guidelines for pain management, pain control is suboptimal in a sizeable proportion of patients with cancer pain. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend a comprehensive and multimodal approach for management of cancer pain. We developed a mobile phone application, ePAL, based on clinical guidelines to empower patients for cancer pain management by prompting regular pain assessments and coaching for self-management. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of a multidimensional mobile phone-based pain management application, ePAL, on controlling cancer pain and improving quality of life in patients with cancer pain being treated at an academic palliative care clinic. The study will be implemented as a 2-arm randomized controlled trial with 110 adult patients with CP who own a mobile phone over a follow-up period of two months. Participants will be randomized to either the intervention group receiving ePAL and usual care or to a control group receiving only usual care. The brief pain inventory will be used to assess our primary outcome which is pain intensity. We will also evaluate the effect of the intervention on secondary outcomes which include the effect of the intervention on hospital utilization for pain crisis, quality of life, adherence to analgesic medications, barriers to pain control, anxiety and patient engagement. Instruments that will be used in evaluating secondary outcomes include the Brief Pain Inventory, Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, Barriers Questionnaire-II, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General, Edmonton Symptom Assessment System, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale, and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue. The intention-to-treat approach will be used to evaluate outcomes. Our primary outcome, pain intensity, measured longitudinally over eight weeks, will be assessed by mixed model repeated analysis

  8. Cancer pain management at a tertiary care cancer center in India--a retrospective analysis of 3,238 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Sushma; Mishra, Seema; Srikanti, Madhurima; Gupta, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Effective pain control is essential for the management of patients with cancer. About 70-80 percent of patients with cancer present in an advanced stage of disease. Patients with advanced cancer frequently experience intractable pain, with diverse symptoms that can make daily living impossible and affect the quality of life. This article reports the management of 3,238 patients with cancer pain over a period of five years. Nearly 89.6 percent patients had good pain relief with Visual Analogue Scale score less than 3. These promising results were achieved by careful patient assessment, close liaison with clinicians from other specialties, and using a variety of analgesic regimen including oral analgesics, anesthetic procedures, psychological interventions, and supportive care. However, the main stay of treatment was oral analgesics, following the principles of World Health Organization ladder, with continuing follow-up.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors associated with pain 21 months following surgery for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Niamh; Sung, Jennie Man Wai; Kilbreath, Sharon; Dylke, Elizabeth

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated (1) the prevalence of pain following breast cancer treatment including moderate-to-severe persistent pain and (2) the association of risk factors, present 1 month following surgery, with pain at 21 months following surgery. This information may aid the development of clinical guidelines for early pain assessment and intervention in this population. This study was a retrospective analysis of core and breast modules of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) questionnaire from 121 participants with early breast cancer. The relationships between potential risk factors (subscales derived from the EORTC), measured within 1 month following surgery, and pain at 21 months following surgery were analysed using univariable and multi-variable logistic regression. At 21 months following surgery, 46.3 % of participants reported pain, with 24 % categorised as having moderate or severe pain. Prevalence of pain was similar between those who underwent axillary lymph node dissection versus biopsy. Univariate logistic regression identified baseline pain (odds ratio (95 % CI): 2.7 (1.1 to 6.4)); baseline arm symptoms (11.2 (1.4 to 89.8)); emotional function (0.4 (0.1 to 0.8)) and insomnia (2.3 (1.1 to 4.7) as significantly associated with pain at 21 months. In multi-variable analysis, two factors were independently associated with pain at 21 months-baseline arm symptoms and emotional subscale scores. Pain is a significant problem following breast cancer treatment in both the early post-operative period and months following surgery. Risk factors for pain at long-term follow-up included arm symptoms and higher emotional subscale scores at baseline.

  10. Improving cancer pain control with NCCN guideline-based analgesic administration: a patient-centered outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjan, Nora

    2014-09-01

    Improving the control of cancer-related pain (CRP) is a clinical and ethical imperative. Clinical research has documented improved treatment tolerance and survival rates among patients with cancer who have effective pain control. Barriers to CRP control include inadequate patient and physician education. Meta-analyses of patient education studies correlate improvements in CRP control with improved communications with health care providers and the implementation of strategies that assist with adherence to medication schedules. These strategies build patient confidence, allowing better self-management of pain and reduced psychological consequences. For physicians, ample educational resources exist in CRP management. However, in both the inpatient and outpatient settings, compliance with NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Adult Cancer Pain continues to be less than 70%, and more than one-third of patients continue to receive inadequate doses of analgesics. Patient-centered outcomes have become an integral end point in health policy, and the nation's medical training, research, and delivery systems are transforming to a value-based accreditation and reimbursement system. Pain control is a significant patient-centered outcome in cancer care, because pain adversely impacts function and affects all domains of quality of life. Agreement is clear on the value of health care interventions that relieve suffering from cancer pain and restore personal dignity. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  11. Pain in patients attending a specialist cancer service: prevalence and association with emotional distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mark; Weir, Jim; Butcher, Isabella; Kleiboer, Annet; Murray, Gordon; Sharma, Neelom; Thekkumpurath, Parvez; Walker, Jane; Fallon, Marie; Storey, Dawn J; Sharpe, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We know little about how many outpatients of a modern cancer center suffer from clinically significant unrelieved pain and the characteristics of these patients to guide better care. To determine the prevalence of clinically significant pain (CSP) in the outpatients of a regional cancer center and the association with distress and other variables. A secondary analysis of cross-sectional, self-reported and clinical data from 2768 patients reattending selected clinics of a regional National Health Service cancer center in the U.K. Pain was measured using the pain severity scale of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, emotional distress was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and demographic and clinical data were taken from medical records. Fifty-four percent (95% confidence interval [CI] 52-56) of patients reported pain at least "a little" in the previous week and 18% (95% CI 17-20) at least "quite a bit" (CSP). The strongest independent associations of CSP were active disease (odds ratio [OR] 1.95, 95% CI 1.5-2.5) and emotional distress (OR 4.8, 95% CI 4-6). CSP is surprisingly common in outpatients of specialist cancer services, and it is strongly and independently associated with emotional distress. Better symptom management should consider pain and distress together. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Needs assessment of primary care physicians in the management of chronic pain in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ronald; Saunders, Kevin; Burke, Howard; Belanger, Andre; Chow, Edward

    2017-06-07

    Cancer patients live longer with effective anti-cancer therapy and supportive care. About 30% of cancer survivors (non-palliative cancer patients who completed treatment) suffer from chronic pain, which will be managed by their primary care physician (PCP). The aim of this study was to assess practice patterns and treatment barriers in the management of chronic pain in cancer survivors among PCPs. A survey using a 16-item questionnaire was sent to PCPs across Canada. A total of 162 responses were collected. The majority of participants were in group (59%) or solo (33%) practice, with an average of 25 years of clinical experience. Seventy-one percent of PCPs were practicing in communities of 10,000 to 100,000 people. Respondents were treating approximately 10 cancer survivors with chronic pain per month. The majority of PCPs (59%) reported having "little knowledge" or "some understanding" of chronic pain management in cancer survivors. They did not usually refer these patients to other specialists. Patient comorbidities (79%), pain medication side effects (78%), previous pain treatment (76%), effect of pain on daily functioning (75%), and drug interactions (71%) were identified as factors that guided PCP treatment choices. Major barriers included medication cost (54%), concerns about opioid abuse (51%), and patient non-compliance (46%). PCPs indicated that treatment guidelines (74%) and knowledge of pharmacological (64%) and non-pharmacological (62%) treatment options would help their chronic pain management. Most PCPs report a lack of knowledge in the management of chronic pain in cancer survivors but are keen to receive medical education on treatment options and clinical practice guidelines.

  13. Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grant Funding for Pain Initiatives Current Funding Opportunities Research on the Impact of Creative Arts in Military Populations More Health Professional Information Earn CME More Related Topics Chronic Pain ( NINDS ) NIH Pain Seminar Series Pain: You Can Get Help ( NIA ) NIH ...

  14. Implementation of cancer pain guidelines by acute care nurse practitioners using an audit and feedback strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulko, Dorothy; Hertz, Elisheva; Julien, Jerelyn; Beck, Susan; Mooney, Kathi

    2010-01-01

    Despite the availability of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for cancer pain, consistent integration of these principles into practice has not been achieved. The optimal method for implementing CPGs and the impact of guidelines on healthcare outcomes remain uncertain. This study evaluated the effect of an audit and feedback (A/F) intervention on nurse practitioner (NP) implementation of cancer pain CPGs and on hospitalized patients' self-report of pain and satisfaction with pain relief. Eight NPs and two groups of 96 patients were the sources of data. Eligible patients in both groups completed the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF) within 24 h of admission and every 48 h until discharge. During A/F, NPs received weekly feedback on pain scores and guideline adherence. Nurse practitioner adherence to CPGs increased during A/F. Pain intensity did not significantly differ between groups. Intervention group patients reported significantly less overall pain interference (p pain relief increased from 68.4% to 95.1% during A/F (p pain severity underscores the need to consider symptom clusters when studying pain.

  15. Knowledge, Practices, and Perceived Barriers Regarding Cancer Pain Management Among Physicians and Nurses In Korea: A Nationwide Multicenter Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Jho, Hyun Jung; Kim, Yeol; Kong, Kyung Ae; Kim, Dae Hyun; Choi, Jin Young; Nam, Eun Jeong; Choi, Jin Young; Koh, Sujin; Hwang, Kwan Ok; Baek, Sun Kyung; Park, Eun Jung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Medical professionals’ practices and knowledge regarding cancer pain management have often been cited as inadequate. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge, practices and perceived barriers regarding cancer pain management among physicians and nurses in Korea. Methods A nationwide questionnaire survey was administered to physicians and nurses involved in the care of cancer patients. Questionnaire items covered pain assessment and documentation practices, knowledge regarding cancer pai...

  16. The Pain Experience of Hispanic Patients With Cancer in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Guevara, Enrique; Chee, Wonshik

    2008-01-01

    Background: Several plausible reasons for inadequate cancer pain management among Hispanic patients with cancer in the U.S. have been postulated; however, this issue is understudied. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to explore Hispanic patients' cancer pain experience from a feminist perspective in order to find explanations for inadequate pain management for Hispanic patients with cancer. Design: A qualitative online forum study. Setting: Both Internet and community settings. Participants: 15 Hispanic patients with cancer recruited using a convenience sampling method. Methods: A 6-month online forum was conducted using nine discussion topics, and the data were processed using a thematic analysis. Phenomenon of Interest: Cancer Pain Experience Findings: Four major themes emerged: lack of communication with health care providers regarding undermedication; because of traditional gender roles guiding their behaviors, both women and men were enduring pain; participants placed the highest priority on family during the diagnosis and treatment process, thus setting aside their needs for pain management; finally, participants were enduring inconvenience and unfair treatment in the U.S. health care system while simultaneously appreciating what treatment they had been given. Conclusions: Because of cultural factors and marginalized status in the U.S. as Hispanics and as immigrants, most of the participants could not adequately describe and manage their pain. Implications: Findings suggest a need for further investigation of the influences of multiple factors, including financial issues, cultural norms, and gender stereotypes, on cancer pain experience among diverse subgroups of Hispanic patients with cancer. Key Points: Because of their Hispanic identity or immigrant status in the U.S., financial difficulties, language barriers, and cultural values placing family as the highest priority, most of the Hispanic participants of this study could not adequately describe and

  17. Prevalence of and factors associated with persistent pain following breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner, Rune; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Nielsen, Jeanette

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Persistent pain and sensory disturbances following surgical treatment for breast cancer is a significant clinical problem. The pathogenic mechanisms are complex and may be related to patient characteristics, surgical technique, and adjuvant therapy. OBJECTIVE: To examine prevalence of an...

  18. Slit2/Robo1 Mediation of Synaptic Plasticity Contributes to Bone Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Changbin; Gao, Feng; Tian, Xuebi; Li, Caijuan; Shi, Dai; He, Wensheng; Tian, Yuke

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is fundamental to spinal sensitivity of bone cancer pain. Here, we have shown that excitatory synaptogenesis contributes to bone cancer pain. New synapse formation requires neurite outgrowth and an interaction between axons and dendrites, accompanied by the appositional organization of presynaptic and postsynaptic specializations. We have shown that Slit2, Robo1, and RhoA act as such cues that promote neurite outgrowth and guide the axon for synapse formation. Sarcoma inoculation induces excitatory synaptogenesis and bone cancer pain which are reversed by Slit2 knockdown but aggravated by Robo1 knockdown. Synaptogenesis of cultured neurons are inhibited by Slit2 knockdown but enhanced by Robo1 knockdown. Sarcoma implantation induces an increase in Slit2 and decreases Robo1 and RhoA, while Slit2 knockdown results in an increase of Robo1 and RhoA. These results have demonstrated a molecular mechanism of synaptogenesis in bone cancer pain.

  19. Trigger point manual therapy for the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Denneny, D.; Petersen, K.; McLoughlin, R.; Brook, S.; Hassan, S; Williams, ACDEC

    2015-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine the effectiveness of trigger point manual therapy for treating chronic non-cancer pain in adults.

  20. Pain coping behaviors of saudi patients suffering from advanced cancer: a revisited experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babgi, Amani A

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major health problems throughout the world. The number of cancer patients is increasing, out of the estimated nine million new cancer cases every year, more than half are in developing countries. The majority of these patients are incurable by the time their disease is diagnosed. Therefore, cancer mortality is expected to continue to rise in those regions of the world (WHO, 2002). In Saudi Arabia, the latest report from the Saudi Cancer Registry SCR for 2004 registered 9,381 new cases, of these cases 7,138 were Saudis. The crude incidence rate CIR of all cancers among Saudis was 41.9/100,000. The total number of adult cancer incidence cases reported was 8595, and for children were 713 cases (NCR, 2004). The most common feared symptom encountered in advanced cancer is pain. Through their perpetual encounter with pain, advanced cancer patients usually maintain different coping behaviors. Internationally speaking, there are limited researches and investigations that deal with cancer pain, and the importance of using adaptive coping behaviors to control it. In Saudi Arabia, specifically, pain coping behaviors has never been assessed or discussed before, so is the impact of cancer pain on the quality of life. The presence of any maladaptive coping behaviors with cancer pain will interfere with the patient's life style and their quality of life, and will affect the nurse's role in caring, planning, and implementing effective nursing interventions to reduce and control cancer patient's pain. A descriptive design was used for this study to assess the pain coping behavior Among Saudi patients suffering from advanced cancer. The study was conducted at the two tumor centers which deal with cancer patients in Jeddah City. A convenient sample of 132 patients with advanced cancer who were returning to the clinics, radiation therapy and medical oncology departments of the aforementioned tumor centers were included in the study. Data were collected by an

  1. Identifying factors of psychological distress on the experience of pain and symptom management among cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara A. Baker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence suggests the impact psychological distress has on symptomatic outcomes (pain among cancer patients. While studies have examined distress across various medical illnesses, few have examined the relationship of psychological distress and pain among patients diagnosed with cancer. This study aimed to examine the impact psychological distress-related symptoms has on pain frequency, presence of pain, and pain-related distress among oncology patients. Methods Data were collected from a sample of White and Black adults (N = 232 receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center. Participants were surveyed on questions assessing psychological distress (i.e., worry, feeling sad, difficulty sleeping, and health (pain presence, pain frequency, comorbidities, physical functioning, behavioral (pain-related distress, and demographic characteristics. Results Patients reporting functional limitations were more likely to report pain. Specifically, those reporting difficulty sleeping and feeling irritable were similarly likely to report pain. Data further showed age and feeling irritable as significant indicators of pain-related distress, with younger adults reporting more distress. Conclusions It must be recognized that psychological distress and experiences of pain frequency are contingent upon a myriad of factors that are not exclusive, but rather coexisting determinants of health. Further assessment of identified predictors such as age, race, socioeconomic status, and other physical and behavioral indicators are necessary, thus allowing for an expansive understanding of the daily challenges and concerns of individuals diagnosed with cancer, while providing the resources for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers to better meet the needs of this patient population.

  2. Effects of Herbal Acupuncture(Soyeum on Cancer Patients Accompanied by Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Seung Yoo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was designed to evaluate effects of "Soyeum" on cancer patients accompanied by pain. Materials and Methods : We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 9 patients accompanied by pain who had been injected with "Soyeum" for over 14 days continuously in East-West Cancer Center of Oriental Hospital of Daejeon University from June 2002 through August 2002. Results : The statistical significance between the pre-treatment and post-treatment results (Changes of Cytokine Level, QOL, BPQ and Pain relief after pain management were analyzed. Analysis of cytokines (IL-12, IFN-γ level showed that the percentage of increase of IL-12 is 60.0%, IFN-γ is 60.0%. Analysis of QOL showed that the percentage of maintenance and improvement is 77.8%. 55.5% of the patients reported a "worst pain" intensity score of 3 or greater, 44.5% reported a "least pain" intensity score of 2 or greater, and 66.7% reported "average pain" intensity score of 2 or greater. 33.3% of the patients were in pain at the time of interview and 22.2% had a current intensity score of 2 or greater. Analysis of pain relief after pain management showed that the percentage of pain relief score of 2 and 3 is 55.6%. The data was expressed as Mean±SE by using descriptive statistics. Statistical significance examined by using paired t-test. Conclusions : It is suggested that "Soyeum" has effects on pain of cancer patients, also expected that "Soyeum" is useful to improve immunoactivity and for cancer patients.

  3. Cancer pain is not necessarily correlated with spinal overexpression of reactive glia markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducourneau, Vincent R R; Dolique, Tiphaine; Hachem-Delaunay, Sabira; Miraucourt, Loïs S; Amadio, Aurélie; Blaszczyk, Lucie; Jacquot, Florian; Ly, Jennifer; Devoize, Laurent; Oliet, Stéphane H R; Dallel, Radhouane; Mothet, Jean-Pierre; Nagy, Frédéric; Fénelon, Valérie S; Voisin, Daniel L

    2014-02-01

    Bone cancer pain is a common and disruptive symptom in cancer patients. In cancer pain animal models, massive reactive astrogliosis in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord has been reported. Because astrocytes may behave as driving partners for pathological pain, we investigated the temporal development of pain behavior and reactive astrogliosis in a rat bone cancer pain model induced by injecting MRMT-1 rat mammary gland carcinoma cells into the tibia. Along with the development of bone lesions, a gradual mechanical and thermal allodynia and hyperalgesia as well as a reduced use of the affected limb developed in bone cancer-bearing animals, but not in sham-treated animals. Dorsal horn Fos expression after nonpainful palpation of the injected limb was also increased in bone cancer-bearing animals. However, at any time during the evolution of tumor, there was no increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in the dorsal horn. Further analysis at 21days after injection of the tumor showed no increase in GFAP and interleukin (IL) 1β transcripts, number of superficial dorsal horn S100β protein immunoreactive astrocytes, or immunoreactivity for microglial markers (OX-42 and Iba-1). In contrast, all these parameters were increased in the dorsal horn of rats 2weeks after sciatic nerve ligation. This suggests that in some cases, bone cancer pain may not be correlated with spinal overexpression of reactive glia markers, whereas neuropathic pain is. Glia may thus play different roles in the development and maintenance of chronic pain in these 2 situations. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The cost of survival: an exploration of colorectal cancer survivors' experiences of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Amanda; Payne, Sheila; Brady, Anne-Marie

    2017-02-01

    The Institute of Medicine report 'From Cancer Patient to Cancer Survivor' has drawn widespread attention to the experiences of cancer survivors. Research examining the symptom experiences of survivors are proliferative within the literature but limited by samples which include multiple tumor groups and varying inclusion criteria. This cross-sectional quantitative study seeks to examine pain and quality of life (QoL) in the context of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivorship, as defined by the Institute of Medicine. A purposive sample of CRC survivors (n = 252) attending hospitals and cancer support centers in the Republic of Ireland were recruited between September 2014 and January 2016. Self-rated health (SRH), QoL and pain were assessed in the sample using the EuroQOL questionnaire, the Functional Assessment of Therapy-Colorectal (FACT-C) questionnaire, and symptom experience items. One hundred participants (40%) indicated they had pain on the day of the survey or in the past week. Of those with pain, many also experienced a lack of energy (95%), bowel dysfunction (74%), sleep disturbance (76%) or interference with their ability to enjoy life (75%). Pain was associated with younger age, female gender, current chemotherapy treatment, and previous radiotherapy treatment. Although participants reported positive QoL scores, statistical analysis revealed pain was linked to significantly poorer SRH and overall QoL, and poorer physical, emotional, functional, social/family and CRC-specific wellbeing, compared to those who did not indicate pain. Pain was experienced by almost two fifths of CRC survivors up to five years after treatment and was associated with poorer SRH and QoL. In light of these findings, healthcare professionals must endeavor to manage cancer survivors' needs in a manner which is cognizant of the burden of pain and in the context of other symptoms and morbidities experienced by long-term cancer survivors.

  5. Hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors mediate tumor-nerve interactions and bone cancer pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweizerhof, Matthias; Stösser, Sebastian; Kurejova, Martina; Njoo, Christian; Gangadharan, Vijayan; Agarwal, Nitin; Schmelz, Martin; Bali, Kiran Kumar; Michalski, Christoph W.; Brugger, Stefan; Dickenson, Anthony; Simone, Donald A.; Kuner, Rohini

    2009-01-01

    Pain is one of the most severe and debilitating symptoms associated with several forms of cancer. Various types of carcinomas and sarcomas metastasize to skeletal bones and cause spontaneous bone pain and hyperalgesia, which is accompanied by bone degradation and remodeling of peripheral nerves.

  6. Orofacial pain and numb chin syndrome as the presenting symptoms of a metastatic prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaver A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with orofacial pain as the presenting symptom caused by a mandibular metastasis from a previously undiagnosed cancer of the prostate. This possibility should be considered in the differential diagnosis of male patients presenting with orofacial pain.

  7. Multimodal prevention of pain, nausea and vomiting after breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner, Rune; Kroman, N; Callesen, T

    2010-01-01

    Despite many one- or two-modal attempts to relieve postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and pain, postoperative issues following breast cancer surgery remain a substantial problem. Therefore, the aim of this explorative, hypothesis-generating study was to evaluate the effect of a multimodal......, opiate-sparing, evidence-based regimen for prevention of PONV and pain....

  8. Neurohistopathologic findings after a neurolytic celiac plexus block with alcohol in patients with pancreatic cancer pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vranken, J. H.; Zuurmond, W. W. A.; van Kemenade, F. J.; Dzoljic, M.

    2002-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has a very poor prognosis resulting in the death of 98% of patients. Pain may be severe and difficult to treat. Management of pain includes chemotherapy, radiotherapy, pharmacologic treatment, and neurolytic celiac plexus block. Recent reviews of the efficacy of neurolytic celiac

  9. Cancer pain in the opioid-addicted patient: can we treat it right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Girard, Lisa; Chaplin, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Although cancer elicits an array of physical and emotional symptoms, pain is often identified as the most distressing. Cancer pain may result from the primary tumor, metastasis, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or medical comorbidities. Although treatment with opioid analgesics is accepted as appropriate therapy for cancer-related pain, under treatment may persist among certain patients. Opioid-addicted individuals represent a challenging and heterogeneous population to treat. Addiction is linked to psychopathology and antisocial behaviors (eg, lying) which often complicate evaluation. Chronic exposure to opioids may lead to physiologic dependence and its correlates, tolerance and hyperalgesia. Given the variability and subjectivity of the cancer pain experience, there are no objective measures which capture the adequacy of pain control. Thus, when faced with complaints of uncontrolled pain, clinicians must consider a differential diagnosis of tolerance, disease progression, addiction, pseudoaddiction, chemical coping, or even criminal behavior. This article explores the cognitive, behavioral, and physiological correlates of opioid addiction that may impact cancer pain management. It also discusses risk reduction strategies for opioid misuse and research directions that may lead to improved clinical outcomes in these patients.

  10. Development of Pain Endpoint Models for Use in Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials and Drug Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing...manuscript resulting from the work described in Aim 2 has been published in the journal European Urology, titled: “Effects of Cabozantinib on Pain...resulting from work described in Aim 3 has been published by the journal Cancer, titled: “Pain Palliation Measurement in Cancer Clinical Trials: The

  11. Towards a pain free hospital: an in-depth qualitative analysis of the pain experiences of head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Natalie; Brown, Matthew Rd; Gubbay, Anthony; Peacock, Janet; Ross, Joy R; Chapman, Suzanne; Sauzet, Odile; Williams, John

    2016-02-01

    Treatment for head and neck cancer can frequently be a painful experience with implications for patients in terms of quality of life, nutrition and ultimately treatment outcomes. Pain may arise for a number of reasons in this patient group including the influence of localised tissue damage from radiotherapy, the effects of chemotherapeutic agents as well as the disease process itself. Early identification of cancer pain, through screening and early analgesic and pain management are thought to be the most appropriate approaches to the problem. To explore in-depth, patients' views of the experience of pain related to radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, within the context of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of pain screening and intervention. A purposive sample of head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy who were participating in a separate RCT of a proactive pain screening intervention. A qualitative design using one-off, face-to-face, in-depth interviews. Data were inductively analysed for themes using thematic analysis. Data were collected from September 2012 to January 2013. Eight participants were interviewed. Several issues around pain management arose and the influence of various factors became apparent. Four dominant themes emerged: facets of radiotherapy pain in head and neck cancer, facilitators and barriers to pain management, pain services and finally interdisciplinary working. The specific issues faced by head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy highlight the need for pain relieving interventions delivered by pain specialists, in tandem with the development of robust self-management strategies. An integrated approach to care is optimal, comprising pain screening at each outpatient encounter, and review by specialists as necessary.

  12. Cleavage of SNAP-25 ameliorates cancer pain in a mouse model of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbrich, K; Costard, L; Möser, C V; Syhr, K M J; King-Himmelreich, T S; Wolters, M C; Schmidtko, A; Geisslinger, G; Niederberger, E

    2017-01-01

    Cancer pain is associated with increased pain sensitivity to noxious (hyperalgesia) and normally innocuous (allodynia) stimuli due to activation of nociceptors by tumour-derived mediators or tumour infiltration of nerves. The pain sensitization is accompanied by modifications in gene expression, but specifically regulated genes are largely unknown. The 25 kDa synaptosomal-associated protein (SNAP-25) is involved in chemical neurotransmission at the synaptic cleft. Its inhibition by Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) has been associated with antinociceptive effects in migraine, inflammatory and neuropathic pain. However, its potential to reduce tumour-associated pain remains to be clarified. We applied a melanoma model of tumour pain in C57BL/6 mice and investigated SNAP-25 expression and regulation by qRT-PCR, Western Blot and immunofluorescence as well as tumour-associated mechanical allodynia with and without BoNT/A treatment. We found increased SNAP-25 expression in the dorsal root ganglia and the sciatic nerve. Intraplantar injection of BoNT/A induced the cleavage of SNAP-25 in these tissues and was associated with decreased mechanical allodynia after therapeutic treatment at early and late stages of tumour pain while the tumour size was not affected. Our data indicate that SNAP-25 plays a role in tumour pain but has no influence on the initiation and progression of skin cancer. Its cleavage inhibits the development of allodynia in the mouse melanoma model and might be useful as new therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer pain. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: SNAP-25 is differentially regulated during melanoma-induced tumour pain. Its cleavage by BoNT/A might be a suitable therapeutic option for tumour pain patients since tumour-associated pain can be strongly and significantly reduced after preventive and therapeutic BoNT/A treatment, respectively. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  13. The Src family kinase inhibitor dasatinib delays pain-related behaviour and conserves bone in a rat model of cancer-induced bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, Camilla Kristine; Gallego-Pedersen, Simone; Andersen, Line

    2017-01-01

    Pain is a severe and debilitating complication of metastatic bone cancer. Current analgesics do not provide sufficient pain relief for all patients, creating a great need for new treatment options. The Src kinase, a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase, is implicated in processes involved in cancer......-induced bone pain, including cancer growth, osteoclastic bone degradation and nociceptive signalling. Here we investigate the role of dasatinib, an oral Src kinase family and Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in an animal model of cancer-induced bone pain. Daily administration of dasatinib (15 mg/kg, p.......o.) from day 7 after inoculation of MRMT-1 mammary carcinoma cells significantly attenuated movement-evoked and non-evoked pain behaviour in cancer-bearing rats. Radiographic - and microcomputed tomographic analyses showed significantly higher relative bone density and considerably preserved bone micro...

  14. [The pain resource nurse in a cancer unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praud, Vérène

    2015-04-01

    The pain resource nurse in oncology works on the wards, upon the teams' request, in situations of complex pain in the context of serious and chronic diseases. She supports and cares for patients providing specific pain relief, in collaboration with an algologist, and is involved in the continuous training of caregivers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Women with breast cancer: experience of chemotherapy-induced pain: triangulation of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstedt-Börjesson, Susanne; Nordin, Karin; Fjällskog, Marie-Louise; Holmström, Inger K; Arving, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy treatment for cancer diseases can cause body pain during adjuvant therapy. The aim was to describe the perceived impact of adjuvant chemotherapy-induced pain (CHIP) on the daily lives of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, using triangulation. Fifty-seven women scheduled for chemotherapy in doses of 75 mg/m or greater of epirubicin and/or docetaxel participated. Twenty-two of these women registered pain with values of 4 or more on the visual analog scale on day 10 following chemotherapy. Of these 22, 16 participated in an interview and colored a printed body image. A qualitative thematic stepwise analysis of the interviews was performed. Chemotherapy-induced pain had a profound impact on daily life. Ten women reported the worst possible pain, with visual analog scale scores of 8 to 10. Three different categories crystallized: perception (A) of manageable pain, which allowed the women to maintain their daily lives; perception (B) of pain beyond imagination, whereby the impact of pain had become more complex; and perception (C) of crippling pain, challenging the women's confidence in survival. The findings highlight the inability to capture CHIP with 1 method only; it is thus necessary to use complimentary methods to capture pain. We found that pain had a considerable impact on daily life, with surprisingly high scores of perceived pain, findings that to date have been poorly investigated qualitatively. Nurses need to (1) better identify, understand and treat CHIP, using instruments and protocols; and (2) provide improved communication about pain and pain management.

  16. Feasibility study of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) for cancer bone pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Michael I; Johnson, Mark I; Brown, Sarah R; Radford, Helen; Brown, Julia M; Searle, Robert D

    2010-04-01

    This multicenter study assessed the feasibility of conducting a phase III trial of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in patients with cancer bone pain recruited from palliative care services. Eligible patients received active and placebo TENS for 1 hour at site of pain in a randomized crossover design; median interval between applications 3 days. Responses assessed at 30 and 60 minutes included numerical and verbal ratings of pain at rest and on movement, and pain relief. Recruitment, tolerability, adverse events, and effectiveness of blinding were also evaluated. Twenty-four patients were randomised and 19 completed both applications. The intervention was well tolerated. Five patients withdrew: 3 due to deteriorating performance status, and 2 due to increased pain (1 each following active and placebo TENS). Confidence interval estimation around the differences in outcomes between active and placebo TENS suggests that TENS has the potential to decrease pain on movement more than pain on rest. Nine patients did not consider that a placebo was used; the remaining 10 correctly identified placebo TENS. Feasibility studies are important in palliative care prior to undertaking clinical trials. Our findings suggest that further work is required on recruitment strategies and refining the control arm before evaluating TENS in cancer bone pain. Cancer bone pain is common and severe, and partly mediated by hyperexcitability. Animal studies suggest that Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation can reduce hyperalgesia. This study examined the feasibility of evaluating TENS in patients with cancer bone pain in order to optimize methods before a phase III trial. Copyright 2010 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adherence to treatment in patient with severe cancer pain: A qualitative enquiry through illness narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresan, Maria Marina; Garrino, Lorenza; Borraccino, Alberto; Macchi, Giorgia; De Luca, Anna; Dimonte, Valerio

    2015-08-01

    Pain is a common symptom in cancer patients and often the most tangible sign of disease they and their families perceive. Despite currently available treatments, cancer pain frequently remains underrated and undertreated because of lack of adherence to the prescribed drug regimen. With this study we sought to identify elements that could facilitate pain management by exploring through narrative interviews the lived experiences of patients with severe chronic cancer pain in relation to their adherence to pain therapy. A purposive sample of 18 cancer patients, treated at the Centre for Oncology and Haematology (COES), City Hospital for Health and Science, Turin, were interviewed. The interview contents were analysed using a qualitative phenomenological methodology as described by Giorgi. Three themes emerged from analysis of the interview transcripts: the significance of pain in subjective experience; the experience of being a patient pursuing a care pathway and the importance attributed to pain therapy. Factors facilitating adherence included the perception of the physical and psychological benefits of having and following a pain medications plan, subjective self-efficacy in pain control, and trust in the healthcare team. Barriers to adherence were negative attitudes toward opioid analgesic therapy, debilitating drug side effects, and denial of pain as a tangible sign of disease. Probing into the significance of the pain experience and its treatment through these narrative interviews revealed several core constituents of adherence. Healthcare providers can use this better understanding to build a trusting relationship with patients and foster adherence to treatment throughout the care pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Animal models of bone cancer pain: systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Gillian L; Delaney, Ada; Bennett, Michael I; Dickenson, Anthony H; Egan, Kieren J; Vesterinen, Hanna M; Sena, Emily S; Macleod, Malcolm R; Colvin, Lesley A; Fallon, Marie T

    2013-06-01

    Pain can significantly decrease the quality of life of patients with advanced cancer. Current treatment strategies often provide inadequate analgesia and unacceptable side effects. Animal models of bone cancer pain are used in the development of novel pharmacological approaches. Here we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of publications describing in vivo modelling of bone cancer pain in which behavioural, general health, macroscopic, histological, biochemical, or electrophysiological outcomes were reported and compared to appropriate controls. In all, 150 publications met our inclusion criteria, describing 38 different models of bone cancer pain. Reported methodological quality was low; only 31% of publications reported blinded assessment of outcome, and 11% reported random allocation to group. No publication reported a sample size calculation. Studies that reported measures to reduce bias reported smaller differences in behavioural outcomes between tumour-bearing and control animals, and studies that presented a statement regarding a conflict of interest reported larger differences in behavioural outcomes. Larger differences in behavioural outcomes were reported in female animals, when cancer cells were injected into either the tibia or femur, and when MatLyLu prostate or Lewis Lung cancer cells were used. Mechanical-evoked pain behaviours were most commonly reported; however, the largest difference was observed in spontaneous pain behaviours. In the spinal cord astrocyte activation and increased levels of Substance P receptor internalisation, c-Fos, dynorphin, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β have been reported in bone cancer pain models, suggesting several potential therapeutic targets. However, the translational impact of animal models on clinical pain research could be enhanced by improving methodological quality. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Behavioral and neurochemical analysis of ongoing bone cancer pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeniuk, Bethany; Sukhtankar, Devki; Okun, Alec; Navratilova, Edita; Xie, Jennifer Y; King, Tamara; Porreca, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain is described as dull, aching ongoing pain. Ongoing bone cancer pain was characterized after intratibial injection of breast cancer cells in rats. Cancer produced time-dependent bone remodeling and tactile hypersensitivity but no spontaneous flinching. Conditioned place preference (CPP) and enhanced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell was observed after peripheral nerve block (PNB) selectively in tumor-bearing rats revealing nociceptive-driven ongoing pain. Oral diclofenac reversed tumor-induced tactile hypersensitivity but did not block PNB-induced CPP or NAc DA release. Tumor-induced tactile hypersensitivity, and PNB-induced CPP and NAc DA release, was blocked by prior subcutaneous implantation of a morphine pellet. In sham rats, morphine produced a modest but sustained increase in NAc DA release. In contrast, morphine produced a transient 5-fold higher NAc DA release in tumor bearing rats compared with sham morphine rats. The possibility that this increased NAc DA release reflected the reward of pain relief was tested by irreversible blockade of rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) μ-opioid receptors (MORs). The rACC MOR blockade prevented the morphine-induced transient increased NAc DA release in tumor bearing rats but did not affect morphine-induced effects in sham-operated animals. Consistent with clinical experience, ongoing cancer pain was controlled by morphine but not by a dose of diclofenac that reversed evoked hypersensitivity. Additionally, the intrinsic reward of morphine can be dissociated from the reward of relief of cancer pain by blockade of rACC MOR. This approach allows mechanistic and therapeutic assessment of ongoing cancer pain with likely translation relevance.

  20. Experience of adjunctive cannabis use for chronic non-cancer pain: findings from the Pain and Opioids IN Treatment (POINT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Lintzeris, Nicholas; Campbell, Gabrielle; Bruno, Raimondo; Cohen, Milton; Farrell, Michael; Hall, Wayne D

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing debate about cannabis use for medical purposes, including for symptomatic treatment of chronic pain. We investigated patterns and correlates of cannabis use in a large community sample of people who had been prescribed opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. The POINT study included 1514 people in Australia who had been prescribed pharmaceutical opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. Data on cannabis use, ICD-10 cannabis use disorder and cannabis use for pain were collected. We explored associations between demographic, pain and other patient characteristics and cannabis use for pain. One in six (16%) had used cannabis for pain relief, 6% in the previous month. A quarter reported that they would use it for pain relief if they had access. Those using cannabis for pain on average were younger, reported greater pain severity, greater interference from and poorer coping with pain, and more days out of role in the past year. They had been prescribed opioids for longer, were on higher opioid doses, and were more likely to be non-adherent with their opioid use. Those using cannabis for pain had higher pain interference after controlling for reported pain severity. Almost half (43%) of the sample had ever used cannabis for recreational purposes, and 12% of the entire cohort met criteria for an ICD-10 cannabis use disorder. Cannabis use for pain relief purposes appears common among people living with chronic non-cancer pain, and users report greater pain relief in combination with opioids than when opioids are used alone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of chronic widespread pain on the health status and quality of life of women after breast cancer surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Kim D

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most research and treatment of post-breast cancer chronic pain has focused on local or regional pain problems in the operated area. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare and contrast the pain characteristics, symptom impact, health status, and quality of life of post-breast cancer surgery women with regional chronic pain versus those with widespread chronic pain. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive design compared two groups of women with chronic pain that began after surgery: regional pain (n = 11 and widespread pain (n = 12. Demographics, characteristics of the surgery, as well as standardized questionnaires that measured pain (Brief Pain Inventory (BPI, Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ-SF, disease impact (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B, health status (Medical Outcomes Short Form (SF-36 and quality of life (Quality of Life Scale (QOLS were gathered. Results There were no significant differences between the groups on any demographic or type of surgery variable. A majority of both groups described their pain as aching, tender, and sharp on the MPQ-SF. On the BPI, intensity of pain and pain interference were significantly higher in the widespread pain group. Differences between the two groups reached statistical significance on the FIQ total score as well as the FACT-B physical well-being, emotional well-being and breast concerns subscales. The SF-36 physical function, physical role, and body pain subscales were significantly lower in the widespread pain group. QOLS scores were lower in the widespread pain group, but did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion This preliminary work suggests that the women in this study who experienced widespread pain after breast cancer surgery had significantly more severity of pain, pain impact and lower physical health status than those with regional pain.

  2. Knowledge, practices, and perceived barriers regarding cancer pain management among physicians and nurses in Korea: a nationwide multicenter survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Hyun Jung; Kim, Yeol; Kong, Kyung Ae; Kim, Dae Hyun; Choi, Jin Young; Nam, Eun Jeong; Choi, Jin Young; Koh, Sujin; Hwang, Kwan Ok; Baek, Sun Kyung; Park, Eun Jung

    2014-01-01

    Medical professionals' practices and knowledge regarding cancer pain management have often been cited as inadequate. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge, practices and perceived barriers regarding cancer pain management among physicians and nurses in Korea. A nationwide questionnaire survey was administered to physicians and nurses involved in the care of cancer patients. Questionnaire items covered pain assessment and documentation practices, knowledge regarding cancer pain management, the perceived barriers to cancer pain control, and processes perceived as the major causes of delay in opioid administration. A total of 333 questionnaires (149 physicians and 284 nurses) were analyzed. Nurses performed pain assessment and documentation more regularly than physicians did. Although physicians had better knowledge of pain management than did nurses, both groups lacked knowledge regarding the side effects and pharmacology of opioids. Physicians working in the palliative care ward and nurses who had received pain management education obtained higher scores on knowledge. Physicians perceived patients' reluctance to take opioids as a barrier to pain control, more so than did nurses, while nurses perceived patients' tendency to under-report of pain as a barrier, more so than did physicians. Physicians and nurses held different perceptions regarding major cause of delay during opioid administration. There were differences between physicians and nurses in knowledge and practices for cancer pain management. An effective educational strategy for cancer pain management is needed in order to improve medical professionals' knowledge and clinical practices.

  3. Knowledge, practices, and perceived barriers regarding cancer pain management among physicians and nurses in Korea: a nationwide multicenter survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jung Jho

    Full Text Available Medical professionals' practices and knowledge regarding cancer pain management have often been cited as inadequate. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge, practices and perceived barriers regarding cancer pain management among physicians and nurses in Korea.A nationwide questionnaire survey was administered to physicians and nurses involved in the care of cancer patients. Questionnaire items covered pain assessment and documentation practices, knowledge regarding cancer pain management, the perceived barriers to cancer pain control, and processes perceived as the major causes of delay in opioid administration.A total of 333 questionnaires (149 physicians and 284 nurses were analyzed. Nurses performed pain assessment and documentation more regularly than physicians did. Although physicians had better knowledge of pain management than did nurses, both groups lacked knowledge regarding the side effects and pharmacology of opioids. Physicians working in the palliative care ward and nurses who had received pain management education obtained higher scores on knowledge. Physicians perceived patients' reluctance to take opioids as a barrier to pain control, more so than did nurses, while nurses perceived patients' tendency to under-report of pain as a barrier, more so than did physicians. Physicians and nurses held different perceptions regarding major cause of delay during opioid administration.There were differences between physicians and nurses in knowledge and practices for cancer pain management. An effective educational strategy for cancer pain management is needed in order to improve medical professionals' knowledge and clinical practices.

  4. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Cancer Pain: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanju Bao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Now with more and more published systematic reviews of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM on adult cancer pain, it is necessary to use the methods of overview of systematic review to summarize available evidence, appraise the evidence level, and give suggestions to future research and practice. Methods. A comprehensive search (the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and ISI Web of Knowledge was conducted to identify all systematic reviews or meta-analyses of CAM on adult cancer pain. And the evidence levels were evaluated using GRADE approach. Results. 27 systematic reviews were included. Based on available evidence, we could find that psychoeducational interventions, music interventions, acupuncture plus drug therapy, Chinese herbal medicine plus cancer therapy, compound kushen injection, reflexology, lycopene, TENS, qigong, cupping, cannabis, Reiki, homeopathy (Traumeel, and creative arts therapies might have beneficial effects on adult cancer pain. No benefits were found for acupuncture (versus drug therapy or shame acupuncture, and the results were inconsistent for massage therapy, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS, and Viscum album L plus cancer treatment. However, the evidence levels for these interventions were low or moderate due to high risk of bias and/or small sample size of primary studies. Conclusion. CAM may be beneficial for alleviating cancer pain, but the evidence levels were found to be low or moderate. Future large and rigor randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm the benefits of CAM on adult cancer pain.

  5. Complementary and alternative medicine for cancer pain: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yanju; Kong, Xiangying; Yang, Liping; Liu, Rui; Shi, Zhan; Li, Weidong; Hua, Baojin; Hou, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective. Now with more and more published systematic reviews of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) on adult cancer pain, it is necessary to use the methods of overview of systematic review to summarize available evidence, appraise the evidence level, and give suggestions to future research and practice. Methods. A comprehensive search (the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and ISI Web of Knowledge) was conducted to identify all systematic reviews or meta-analyses of CAM on adult cancer pain. And the evidence levels were evaluated using GRADE approach. Results. 27 systematic reviews were included. Based on available evidence, we could find that psychoeducational interventions, music interventions, acupuncture plus drug therapy, Chinese herbal medicine plus cancer therapy, compound kushen injection, reflexology, lycopene, TENS, qigong, cupping, cannabis, Reiki, homeopathy (Traumeel), and creative arts therapies might have beneficial effects on adult cancer pain. No benefits were found for acupuncture (versus drug therapy or shame acupuncture), and the results were inconsistent for massage therapy, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS), and Viscum album L plus cancer treatment. However, the evidence levels for these interventions were low or moderate due to high risk of bias and/or small sample size of primary studies. Conclusion. CAM may be beneficial for alleviating cancer pain, but the evidence levels were found to be low or moderate. Future large and rigor randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm the benefits of CAM on adult cancer pain.

  6. An acceptance-based intervention for children and adolescents with cancer experiencing acute pain – a single-subject study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsell Cederberg, Jenny; Dahl, JoAnne; von Essen, Louise; Ljungman, Gustaf

    2017-01-01

    Background Children and adolescents with cancer report pain as one of their most recurrent and troublesome symptoms throughout the cancer trajectory. Pain evokes psychological distress, which in turn has an amplifying effect on the pain experience. Acceptance-based interventions for experimentally induced acute pain predict increased pain tolerance, decreased pain intensity and decreased discomfort of pain. The aim of this study was to preliminarily evaluate an acceptance-based intervention for children and adolescents with cancer experiencing acute pain, with regard to feasibility and effect on pain intensity and discomfort of pain. Methods This is a single-subject study with an AB design with a nonconcurrent multiple baseline. Children and adolescents aged four to 18 years undergoing cancer treatment at the Children’s University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden, reporting sustained acute pain were offered participation. Pain intensity and discomfort of pain were measured during baseline and at post-intervention. The intervention consisted of a pain exposure exercise lasting approximately 15 minutes. Results Five children participated in the study. All participants completed the intervention and reported that it had helped them to cope with the pain in the moment. All participants reported decreased discomfort of pain at post-measurement, three of whom also reported decreased pain intensity. Conclusion The results suggest that an acceptance-based intervention may help children and adolescents with cancer to cope with the pain that is often associated with cancer treatment in spite of pharmacological pain management. The results are tentative but promising and warrant further investigation. PMID:28919815

  7. Persistent pain after breast cancer treatment: a critical review of risk factors and strategies for prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    . This review is a systematic analysis on methodology and evidence in research into persistent pain after breast cancer treatment during the period 1995 to 2010, in order to clarify the significance and relative role of potential risk factors. Literature was identified by a search in PubMed and OVID, as well...... for prevention and treatment. However, nerve damage and radiotherapy appear to be significant risk factors for chronic pain. A proposal for the design of future prospective studies is presented. PERSPECTIVE: A comprehensive and systematic approach to research in chronic pain after breast cancer treatment...

  8. Are cannabinoids effective for treatment of pain in patients with active cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos Urbina, Diego; Peña Durán, José

    2016-09-14

    Cannabinoids have been proposed for the treatment of patients with cancer pain, especially if standard treatment does not control symptoms. Using Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by searching 30 databases, we identified nine systematic reviews including seven trials that answer the question of interest, of which six are randomized trials. We performed a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. We concluded it is unclear whether cannabinoids decrease pain and improve quality of life in patients with refractory cancer pain because the certainty of the evidence is very low, and it probably increases adverse effects substantially.

  9. Clinical trials focusing on cancer pain educational interventions: core components to include during planning and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Carla R; Biondo, Patricia D; Cummings, Greta; Hagen, Neil A

    2010-08-01

    Robust recommendations on the reporting of methods and results of clinical trials such as therapeutic intervention trials are widely used, such as the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) recommendation. There has not been agreement on analogous publication standards for educational intervention trials, making interpretation of educational intervention studies difficult. The purpose of this report is to describe common deficiencies in reporting of educational intervention trials for cancer pain control, and to offer suggestions for authors to consider as they plan their studies, and report and publish research findings for educational interventions that use randomized controlled trials and other educational trial methodologies. A systematic review of published knowledge translation intervention trials intended to improve cancer pain was undertaken, of which most were educational interventions. Many educational intervention clinical trials designed to improve management of cancer pain appeared methodologically weak, and their results were more difficult to interpret because of reporting deficiencies. In the course of the review, patterns of deficiencies in reporting of methods and trial results were documented. Deficiencies in reporting were compared with the CONSORT recommendations for reporting clinical trials, and parallel recommendations were drafted for educational intervention trials. Patterns of deficiency in reporting cancer pain educational intervention trials were synthesized into seven domains, generically applicable to a range of study designs. Draft recommendations intended to address these deficiencies were constructed to improve communication of educational research results. Development of a standardized reporting template for clinical trials in cancer pain educational interventions could advance knowledge transfer research and thereby increase effectiveness of national and international cancer control policy designed to support cancer

  10. Postmarketing surveillance study of OxyContin tablets for relieving moderate to severe cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shi Ying

    2008-01-01

    To evaluatethe efficacy and safety of OxyContin tablets (controlled-release oxycodone hydrochloride: 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg) in relieving moderate to severe cancer pain. A multicenter, open-label, prospective, self-controlled clinical trial was used. Pain was relieved in 89.1% of patients within 1 h after drug administration. OxyContin tablets showed good clinical efficacy in relieving both moderate and severe cancer pain. Compared with baseline average pain scores of 6.9 +/- 1.4, subjects had lower average pain scores after administration of OxyContin tablets: 2.7 +/- 1.8 after 1 week and 2.1 +/- 1.5 after 2 weeks. Response rate reached 75.0% at the end of the 1st week and was maintained at approximately 90% from the 3rd to the 8th week. The most common adverse drug reactions (ADRs) caused by OxyContintablets were, in descending order of incidence rate: constipation (25.5%), nausea (13.3%), vomiting (6.2%), lethargy (3.7%), and dysuria (2.1%). All these ADRs could be decreased by preventive medications. OxyContin tablets demonstrated fast onset of cancer pain control, superior efficacy in relieving both moderate and severe cancer pain and a good safety profile. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Cancer Pain Management in Resource-Limited Settings: A Practice Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Namukwaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain in cancer is a common and burdensome symptom with different causes but in a significant number of cases it is undiagnosed and undertreated because of lack of skills for its assessment. Pain has significant negative impact on the patient and, therefore, it needs to be managed urgently and appropriately. In resource-limited settings, there are several barriers and challenges to pain management but even in these circumstances pain can be well managed with planned and innovative use of resources and if the World Health Organization public health system approach is used to ensure opioid availability.

  12. Diagnóstico y tratamiento del dolor irruptivo oncológico: recomendaciones de consenso Diagnosis and treatment of breakthrough cancer pain: Consensus recomendations

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Escobar Álvarez; A. Biete i Solà; M. Camba Rodríguez; R. Gálvez Mateos; A. Mañas Rueda; C. A. Rodríguez Sánchez; D. Rodríguez Mesa; A. Tuca i Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Introducción y objetivos: El dolor irruptivo oncológico (DIO) es una exacerbación aguda del dolor que presenta diferentes criterios diagnósticos y de tratamiento por parte de los diferentes especialistas implicados en su manejo. Para facilitar la toma de decisiones en la práctica clínica habitual, ocho especialistas de referencia de 4 sociedades científicas implicadas en el manejo del paciente oncológico, han diseñado este documento de consenso. Métodos: Tras una búsqueda bibliográfica en las...

  13. The Danish Barriers Questionnaire-II: preliminary validation in cancer pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Møldrup, Claus; Christrup, Lona Louring

    2009-01-01

    items addressing the concern that reports of pain distract the physician from treating the cancer, and the belief that "good" patients do not complain. Scale five, Addiction, consisted of two items addressing the fear of becoming addicted to pain medication. Finally, scale six, Tolerance, consisted...... of three items addressing the fear of getting tolerant to analgesic effect of pain medicine. Items related to medication side effects were analyzed as separate units. The DBQ-II total had an internal consistency of 0.87. The DBQ-II total score was related to measures of pain relief and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS......OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the Barriers Questionnaire-II (DBQ-II). METHODS: The validated Norwegian version of the DBQ-II was translated into Danish. Cancer patients for the study were recruited from specialized pain...

  14. The role of purinergic receptors in cancer-induced bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Uldall, Maria; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain severely compromises the quality of life of many patients suffering from bone metastasis, as current therapies leave some patients with inadequate pain relief. The recent development of specific animal models has increased the understanding of the molecular and cellular...... mechanisms underlying cancer-induced bone pain including the involvement of ATP and the purinergic receptors in the progression of the pain state. In nociception, ATP acts as an extracellular messenger to transmit sensory information both at the peripheral site of tissue damage and in the spinal cord....... Several of the purinergic receptors have been shown to be important for the development and maintenance of neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and studies have demonstrated the importance of both peripheral and central mechanisms. We here provide an overview of the current literature on the role...

  15. Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy and Persistent Pain in Women Treated for Primary Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Maja; O'Connor, Maja; O'Toole, Mia S

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate possible statistical mediators in a randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on pain intensity in women treated for primary breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 129 women treated...... for breast cancer, presenting with persistent pain, who were randomly assigned to MBCT or a wait-list control. We previously reported a statistically significant and robust effect of MBCT on pain intensity (11-point numeric rating scale), which was included as the primary outcome. The proposed mediators were...... mindfulness (the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire), self-compassion (the Short-Form Self-Compassion Scale), and pain catastrophizing (the Pain Catastrophizing Scale). Measurement points included baseline (T1), postintervention (T2), and 3- (T3) and 6-month (T4) follow-ups. All indirect effects...

  16. Patient-related barriers to cancer pain management: a systematic exploratory review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Møldrup, Claus; Christrup, Lona Louring

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this review was to systemically explore the current evidence regarding patient-related barriers to cancer pain management to find new areas that might be important for better understanding of patient barriers' phenomenon. The method used in this study was a computerised literature sear...... on pain relief, pain communication and medication adherence. Besides that, validated instruments to assess patients' pain communication and adherence to analgesic regimen are lacking....... and less optimal adherence were also consistent. In conclusions suggestion for the new research areas on patient-related barriers to cancer pain management are made. Firstly, further research is needed to differentiate the role of cognitive, affective and sensory factors with respect to their impact...

  17. Pain management in head and neck cancer patients undergoing chemo-radiotherapy: Clinical practical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile, A; Airoldi, M; Ripamonti, C; Bolner, A; Murphy, B; Russi, E; Numico, G; Licitra, L; Bossi, P

    2016-03-01

    Pain in head and neck cancer represents a major issue, before, during and after the oncological treatments. The most frequent cause of pain is chemo/radiation related oral mucositis, which involves 80% of the patients and worsens their quality of life inhibiting speaking, eating, drinking or swallowing and sometimes reducing the treatment compliance, the maximum dose intensity and thus the potential efficacy of treatment. Nevertheless pain is still often under estimated and undertreated. An Italian multidisciplinary group of head and neck cancer specialists met with the aim of reaching a consensus on pain management in this setting. The Delphi Appropriateness method was used for the consensus. External expert reviewers evaluated the final statements. The paper contains 30 consensus-reached statements about pain management in HNC patients and offers a review of recent literature in these topics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Knee pain and swelling: An atypical presentation of metastatic colon cancer to the patella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Gasagranda, DO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knee pain is a common reason for a patient to seek medical evaluation. Of the many causes of knee pain, malignancy is one of the least common. When malignancy is the etiology of the pain, it is usually due to a primary tumor of the osseous structures or soft tissues of the knee joint. Metastatic disease involving the knee joint is uncommon, with few cases reported in the literature. Of these reported cases, metastatic colon cancer is exceedingly rare. However, in a patient with new onset knee pain and the proper clinical history, metastatic disease should be considered as a potential explanation of symptoms. We report a case of knee pain and swelling due to metastatic colon cancer to the patella.

  19. Pharmacological and Other Interventions for Head and Neck Cancer Pain: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick B. Trotter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pain is a common complication in head and neck cancer. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the evidence from randomised control trials investigating pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods of pain management in head and neck cancer. Material and Methods: Medline, Embase and the Cochrane library databases were searched. Squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck excluding nasopharyngeal and salivary gland cancers were included. The limits were “human” and “randomised clinical trials”. A quality assessment was carried out. Results: 13 studies were included with a total of 644 participants. The primary outcome for most of these papers was pain control post-treatment. Levels of bias varied between the studies. Majority (12 out of the 13 studies reported intervention to be superior to the control or standard therapy in pain management. Only 46% of the studies were carried out on an intention to treat basis. Two studies reported high dropout rates, with one at 66%. Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence from randomised clinical trials to suggest an optimal pharmacological intervention for head and neck cancer pain post-treatment. Further high quality randomised clinical trials should be conducted to develop an optimal management strategy for head and neck cancer pain.

  20. State of the evidence: Cannabinoids and cancer pain-A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateo, Sydney

    2017-02-01

    Cannabinoids are widely used to alleviate intractable symptoms such as pain, nausea, and muscle spasticity. The purpose of this review was to ascertain the current state of the science regarding use of cannabinoids for cancer pain. Four electronic databases were searched for randomized control trials of cannabinoids and cancer pain. Studies included examined the analgesic effects of cannabinoids for cancer pain. Methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Eight randomized control trials met the inclusion criteria for review. Most trials found analgesic effects from cannabinoids when compared to placebo, although not all associations reached statistical significance. The analgesic effects of cannabinoids were also limited by dose-dependent side effects. Side effects most commonly reported were changes in cognition, sedation, and dizziness. There is evidence that cannabinoids are effective adjuvants for cancer pain not completely relieved by opioid therapy, but there is a dearth of high-quality studies to support a stronger conclusion. Cannabinoids appear to be safe in low and medium doses. Methodological limitations of the trials limited the ability to make sound conclusions. Further research is warranted before efficacy, safety, and utility of cannabinoids for cancer pain can be determined. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  1. Predictive factors for the development of persistent pain after breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Duriaud, Helle Molter; Jensen, Helle Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that 15% to 25% of patients treated for breast cancer experience long-term moderate-to-severe pain in the area of surgery, potentially lasting for several years. Few prospective studies have included all potential risk factors for the development of persistent pain...... after breast cancer surgery (PPBCS). The aim of this prospective cohort study was to comprehensively identify factors predicting PPBCS. Patients scheduled for primary breast cancer surgery were recruited. Assessments were conducted preoperatively, the first 3 days postoperatively, and 1 week, 6 months...... were included, and 475 (88%) were available for analysis at 1 year. At 1-year follow-up, the prevalence of moderate-to-severe pain at rest was 14% and during movement was 7%. Factors associated with pain at rest were age breast conserving surgery (OR: 2.0, P...

  2. Use of Animal Models in Understanding Cancer-induced Bone Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M. Slosky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many common cancers have a propensity to metastasize to bone. Although malignancies often go undetected in their native tissues, bone metastases produce excruciating pain that severely compromises patient quality of life. Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP is poorly managed with existing medications, and its multifaceted etiology remains to be fully elucidated. Novel analgesic targets arise as more is learned about this complex and distinct pain state. Over the past two decades, multiple animal models have been developed to study CIBP's unique pathology and identify therapeutic targets. Here, we review animal models of CIBP and the mechanistic insights gained as these models evolve. Findings from immunocompromised and immunocompetent host systems are discussed separately to highlight the effect of model choice on outcome. Gaining an understanding of the unique neuromolecular profile of cancer pain through the use of appropriate animal models will aid in the development of more effective therapeutics for CIBP.

  3. Ultrasound Guided Intercostobrachial Nerve Blockade in Patients with Persistent Pain after Breast Cancer Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijayasinghe, Nelun; Duriaud, Helle M; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent pain after breast cancer surgery (PPBCS) affects 25 - 60% of breast cancer survivors and damage to the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) has been implicated as the cause of this predominantly neuropathic pain. Local anesthetic blockade of the ICBN could provide clues...... determined the sonoanatomy of the ICBN and part 2 examined effects of the ultrasound-guided ICBN blockade in patients with PPBCS. SETTING: Section for Surgical Pathophysiology at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. METHODS: Part 1: Sixteen unoperated, pain free breast cancer patients underwent systematic...... to pathophysiological mechanisms as well as aiding diagnosis and treatment of PPBCS but has never been attempted. OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of ICBN blockade and assess its effects on pain and sensory function in patients with PPBCS. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective pilot study was performed in 2 parts: Part 1...

  4. Ultrasound guided intercostobrachial nerve blockade in patients with persistent pain after breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijayasinghe, Nelun; Duriaud, Helle M; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent pain after breast cancer surgery (PPBCS) affects 25 - 60% of breast cancer survivors and damage to the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) has been implicated as the cause of this predominantly neuropathic pain. Local anesthetic blockade of the ICBN could provide clues...... determined the sonoanatomy of the ICBN and part 2 examined effects of the ultrasound-guided ICBN blockade in patients with PPBCS. SETTING: Section for Surgical Pathophysiology at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. METHODS: Part 1: Sixteen unoperated, pain free breast cancer patients underwent systematic...... to pathophysiological mechanisms as well as aiding diagnosis and treatment of PPBCS but has never been attempted. OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of ICBN blockade and assess its effects on pain and sensory function in patients with PPBCS. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective pilot study was performed in 2 parts: Part 1...

  5. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) for chronic non-cancer pain in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Tess E; Fisher, Emma; Anderson, Brian; Wilkinson, Nick Mr; Williams, David G; Eccleston, Christopher

    2017-08-02

    Pain is a common feature of childhood and adolescence around the world, and for many young people, that pain is chronic. The World Health Organization guidelines for pharmacological treatments for children's persisting pain acknowledge that pain in children is a major public health concern of high significance in most parts of the world. While in the past, pain was largely dismissed and was frequently left untreated, views on children's pain have changed over time, and relief of pain is now seen as important.We designed a suite of seven reviews on chronic non-cancer pain and cancer pain (looking at antidepressants, antiepileptic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, and paracetamol as priority areas) in order to review the evidence for children's pain utilising pharmacological interventions in children and adolescents.As the leading cause of morbidity in children and adolescents in the world today, chronic disease (and its associated pain) is a major health concern. Chronic pain (lasting three months or longer) can arise in the paediatric population in a variety of pathophysiological classifications: nociceptive, neuropathic, idiopathic, visceral, nerve damage pain, chronic musculoskeletal pain, and chronic abdominal pain, and other unknown reasons.Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most widely used analgesics in both adults and children. The recommended dosage in the UK, Europe, Australia, and the USA for children and adolescents is generally 10 to 15 mg/kg every four to six hours, with specific age ranges from 60 mg (6 to 12 months old) up to 500 to 1000 mg (over 12 years old). Paracetamol is the only recommended analgesic for children under 3 months of age. Paracetamol has been proven to be safe in appropriate and controlled dosages, however potential adverse effects of paracetamol if overdosed or overused in children include liver and kidney failure. To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse events of paracetamol (acetaminophen) used

  6. Biopsychosocial predictors of pain among women recovering from surgery for endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honerlaw, Kelsey R; Rumble, Meredith E; Rose, Stephen L; Coe, Christopher L; Costanzo, Erin S

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated post-surgical changes in pain among endometrial cancer patients, as well as the extent to which emotional distress and inflammatory and regulatory cytokine levels were associated with pain. Women (N=71) who underwent surgery for endometrial cancer completed questionnaires assessing pain intensity and interference, depression, and anxiety at 1week, 4weeks, and 16weeks post-surgery. Participants also provided a blood sample for the analysis of a panel of 7 cytokines at the same time points. Participants showed significant declines in pain intensity and pain interference from 1week to 4weeks post-surgery, after which pain remained stable. After adjusting for time since surgery, surgery type, adjuvant therapy, disease stage, age, and BMI, mixed-effects linear regression models indicated that greater depression and anxiety were associated with both greater pain intensity and interference. Higher levels of circulating IL-6 were also correlated with greater pain intensity, but not interference. Fixed-effects linear regression models indicated that temporal variation in depression, anxiety, and IL-6 within individual patients was associated with corresponding changes in pain. Pain symptoms were maximal when anxiety, depression, and IL-6 were highest. No other cytokines were associated with changes in pain. These findings indicate that depression, anxiety, and IL-6 may exacerbate pain during the recovery period following surgery for a gynecologic malignancy. Targeting these psychological processes and the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 in women with more severe and persistent pain may help to reduce suffering and improve post-surgical recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A smartphone-based pain management app for adolescents with cancer: establishing system requirements and a pain care algorithm based on literature review, interviews, and consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibb, Lindsay A; Stevens, Bonnie J; Nathan, Paul C; Seto, Emily; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Stinson, Jennifer N

    2014-03-19

    Pain that occurs both within and outside of the hospital setting is a common and distressing problem for adolescents with cancer. The use of smartphone technology may facilitate rapid, in-the-moment pain support for this population. To ensure the best possible pain management advice is given, evidence-based and expert-vetted care algorithms and system design features, which are designed using user-centered methods, are required. To develop the decision algorithm and system requirements that will inform the pain management advice provided by a real-time smartphone-based pain management app for adolescents with cancer. A systematic approach to algorithm development and system design was utilized. Initially, a comprehensive literature review was undertaken to understand the current body of knowledge pertaining to pediatric cancer pain management. A user-centered approach to development was used as the results of the review were disseminated to 15 international experts (clinicians, scientists, and a consumer) in pediatric pain, pediatric oncology and mHealth design, who participated in a 2-day consensus conference. This conference used nominal group technique to develop consensus on important pain inputs, pain management advice, and system design requirements. Using data generated at the conference, a prototype algorithm was developed. Iterative qualitative testing was conducted with adolescents with cancer, as well as pediatric oncology and pain health care providers to vet and refine the developed algorithm and system requirements for the real-time smartphone app. The systematic literature review established the current state of research related to nonpharmacological pediatric cancer pain management. The 2-day consensus conference established which clinically important pain inputs by adolescents would require action (pain management advice) from the app, the appropriate advice the app should provide to adolescents in pain, and the functional requirements of the app

  8. Neuropathic Pain Components in Patients with Cancer: Prevalence, Treatment, and Interference with Daily Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterling, A.; Boveldt, N.D. te; Verhagen, C.A.; Graaf, W.T. van der; Ham, M.A.P.C. van; Drift, M.A. van der; Vissers, K.; Engels, Y.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain and neuropathic symptoms impact quality of life of patients with cancer. To obtain more insight in the prevalence, severity, and treatment of neuropathic symptoms in patients with cancer and their interference with daily activities, we conducted a cross-sectional study at the

  9. Treatment with bone-seeking radionuclides for painful bone metastases in patients with lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Helle D; Karthigaseu, Nita Nishanthiny; Fuglsang, Randi

    2017-01-01

    Treatment with bone-seeking radionuclides may provide palliation from pain originating from bone metastases. However, most studies have been conducted in patients with prostate cancer and patients with breast cancer. We aimed to perform a systematic review of the use of radionuclide treatment in ...

  10. Health Services for Management of Chronic Non-Cancer Pain in Kuwait: A Case Study Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakha, S Fatima; Pennefather, Peter; Badr, Hanan E; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The experience of chronic pain is universal, yet pain management services delivered by health professionals vary substantially, depending on the context and patient. This review is a part of a series that has examined the issue of chronic non-cancer pain services and management in different global cities. The review is structured as a case study of the availability of management services for people living with chronic non-cancer pain within the context of the Kuwaiti health systems, and the cases are built from evidence in the published literature identified through a comprehensive review process. The evolution of the organizational structure of the public and private health systems in Kuwait is described. These are discussed in terms of their impact on the delivery of comprehensive chronic pain management service by health professionals in Kuwait. This review also includes a description of chronic pain patient personas to highlight expected barriers as well as compliance issues with services likely to be encountered in Kuwait. The case study analysis and persona descriptions illustrate a need to move beyond pain symptom management towards considering the entire person and his/her individual experience of pain such that health care success is judged by enhancement of patient well-being rather than access to services. A road map for improving integrative chronic pain management in Kuwait is discussed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. P2X7 receptor-mediated analgesia in cancer-induced bone pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, S; Schwab, S D; Frøsig-Jørgensen, M; Clausen, R P; Dickenson, A H; Heegaard, A-M

    2015-04-16

    Pain is a common and debilitating complication for cancer patients significantly compromising their quality of life. Cancer-induced bone pain involves a complex interplay of molecular events, including mechanisms observed in inflammatory and neuropathic pain states, but also changes unique for cancer-induced bone pain. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is involved in a variety of cellular functions and has been linked to both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Here we study the analgesic potential of P2X7R antagonism in a rat model of cancer-induced bone pain. In cancer-bearing animals, the P2X7R antagonist A839977 attenuated dorsal horn neuronal responses in a modality and intensity-specific way. Spinal application of 0.4-mg/kg and 1.2-mg/kg A839977 significantly reduced the evoked responses to high-intensity mechanical and thermal stimulation, whereas no effect was seen in response to low-intensity or electrical stimulation. In contrast, A839977 had no effect on the tested parameters in naïve or sham animals. In awake animals, 40-mg/kg A839977 (i.p.) significantly reduced both early- and late-stage pain behavior. In contrast, no effect was observed in sham or vehicle-treated animals. The results suggest that the P2X7R is involved in the mechanisms of cancer-induced bone pain, and that P2X7R antagonism might be a useful analgesic target. No effect was observed in sham or naïve animals, indicating that the P2X7R-mediated effect is state-dependent, and might therefore be an advantageous target compared to traditional analgesics. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Can patient-reported measurements of pain be used to improve cancer pain management? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Rosalind; Burton, Christopher D; Bond, Christine M; de Bruin, Marijn; Murchie, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Cancer pain is a distressing and complex experience. It is feasible that the systematic collection and feedback of patient-reported outcome measurements (PROMs) relating to pain could enhance cancer pain management. We aimed to conduct a systematic review of interventions in which patient-reported pain data were collected and fed back to patients and/or professionals in order to improve cancer pain control. MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases were searched for randomised and non-randomised controlled trials in which patient-reported data were collected and fed back with the intention of improving pain management by adult patients or professionals. We conducted a narrative synthesis. We also conducted a meta-analysis of studies reporting pain intensity. 29 reports from 22 trials of 20 interventions were included. PROM measures were used to alert physicians to poorly controlled pain, to target pain education and to link treatment to management algorithms. Few interventions were underpinned by explicit behavioural theories. Interventions were inconsistently applied or infrequently led to changes in treatment. Narrative synthesis suggested that feedback of PROM data tended to increase discussions between patients and professionals about pain and/or symptoms overall. Meta-analysis of 12 studies showed a reduction in average pain intensity in intervention group participants compared with controls (mean difference=-0.59 (95% CI -0.87 to -0.30)). Interventions that assess and feedback cancer pain data to patients and/or professionals have so far led to modest reductions in cancer pain intensity. Suggestions are given to inform and enhance future PROM feedback interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Recent advances in understanding and managing cancer pain [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Chwistek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer pain remains a significant clinical problem worldwide. Causes of cancer pain are multifactorial and complex and are likely to vary with an array of tumor-related and host-related factors and processes. Pathophysiology is poorly understood; however, new laboratory research points to cross-talk between cancer cells and host’s immune and neural systems as an important potential mechanism that may be broadly relevant to many cancer pain syndromes. Opioids remain the most effective pharmaceuticals used in the treatment of cancer pain. However, their role has been evolving due to emerging awareness of risks of chronic opioid therapy. Despite extensive research efforts, no new class of analgesics has been developed. However, many potential therapeutic targets that may lead to the establishment of new pharmaceuticals have been identified in recent years. It is also expected that the role of non-pharmacological modalities of treatment will grow in prominence. Specifically, neuromodulation, a rapidly expanding field, may play a major role in the treatment of neuropathic cancer pain provided that further technological progress permits the development of non-invasive and inexpensive neuromodulation techniques.

  14. Chronic pain and other sequelae in long-term breast cancer survivors: Nationwide survey in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuckmann, V.; Ekholm, O.; Rasmussen, N.K.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate self-reported chronic pain and other sequelae in a nationally representative sample of long-term breast cancer Survivors (BCS). Design: Age-stratified random sample of 2,000 female BCS >= 5 years after primary surgery without recurrence drawn from the Danish Breast Cancer...... with treatment were investigated. Report of chronic pain was compared to normative data. Results: The response rate was 79%. Chronic pain prevalence of 42% was significantly higher in BCS compared to general population women (SRR: 1.32: 95% Cl: 1.23-1.42). Sequelae related to breast cancer were paraesthesia 47...... (divorced, widowed, separated), radiotherapy, and time since operation general population. Significant predictors for sequelae related to breast cancer...

  15. Process and results of the development of an ICNP® Catalogue for Cancer Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisaulina Wanderley Abrantes de Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This was a methodological study conducted to describe the process and results of the development of an International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP® Catalogue for Cancer Pain. According to the International Council of Nurses (ICN, this catalogue contains a subset of nursing diagnoses, outcomes, and interventions to document the implementation of the nursing process in cancer patients. This catalogue was developed in several steps according to the guidelines recommended by the ICN. As a result, 68 statements on nursing diagnoses/outcomes were obtained, which were classified according to the theoretical model for nursing care related to cancer pain into physical (28, psychological (29, and sociocultural and spiritual (11 aspects. A total of 116 corresponding nursing interventions were obtained. The proposed ICNP® Catalogue for Cancer Pain aims to provide safe and systematic orientation to nurses who work in this field, thus improving the quality of patient care and facilitating the performance of the nursing process.

  16. Effect of music therapy on pain and anxiety levels of cancer patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadharshini Krishnaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pain associated with cancer is highly detrimental to the quality of life of the affected individuals. It also contributes to the anxiety of the patient. There is a need for a nonpharmacological approach in addition to the pharmacological therapy for the management of the pain for a more holistic improvement in the individual. With this study, we wish to achieve this through music. Objective: To assess the effect of music therapy on pain scores and anxiety levels of cancer patients with pain. Study Design: In this quantitative study, a comparative study was done on fourteen cancer patients admitted for pain relief under the Department of Pain and Palliative Medicine, of a tertiary care hospital, having moderate to severe pain (numerical pain rating scale [NRS] - of 4 to 10. Subjects and Methods: Convenience sampling was used. Patients were allocated to test group or control group nonrandomly. The test group patients were subjected to music therapy for 20 min while the control group patients were kept occupied by talking to them for 20 min. The NRS scale was used to assess the pre- and post-interventional pain scores and the Hamilton anxiety rating scale was used to assess the pre- and post-interventional anxiety scores in the two groups. Statistics: Student′s t-test was used for comparing the pre- and post-interventional data. Two sample t-test was used to compare the data obtained from the control and study groups. Results: Statistically significant reduction seen in the pain scores in the test group after music therapy (P = 0.003. No statistically significant reduction seen in the pain score in the control group (P = 0.356. There was a statistically significant reduction in the postintervention pain scores in the test group compared to the control group (P = 0.034. The reduction in anxiety levels in both groups after intervention was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Music therapy was found to lower the pain score of

  17. Effect of Music Therapy on Pain and Anxiety Levels of Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Priyadharshini; Nair, Shoba

    2016-01-01

    The pain associated with cancer is highly detrimental to the quality of life of the affected individuals. It also contributes to the anxiety of the patient. There is a need for a nonpharmacological approach in addition to the pharmacological therapy for the management of the pain for a more holistic improvement in the individual. With this study, we wish to achieve this through music. To assess the effect of music therapy on pain scores and anxiety levels of cancer patients with pain. In this quantitative study, a comparative study was done on fourteen cancer patients admitted for pain relief under the Department of Pain and Palliative Medicine, of a tertiary care hospital, having moderate to severe pain (numerical pain rating scale [NRS] - of 4 to 10). Convenience sampling was used. Patients were allocated to test group or control group nonrandomly. The test group patients were subjected to music therapy for 20 min while the control group patients were kept occupied by talking to them for 20 min. The NRS scale was used to assess the pre- and post-interventional pain scores and the Hamilton anxiety rating scale was used to assess the pre- and post-interventional anxiety scores in the two groups. Student's t-test was used for comparing the pre- and post-interventional data. Two sample t-test was used to compare the data obtained from the control and study groups. Statistically significant reduction seen in the pain scores in the test group after music therapy (P = 0.003). No statistically significant reduction seen in the pain score in the control group (P = 0.356). There was a statistically significant reduction in the postintervention pain scores in the test group compared to the control group (P = 0.034). The reduction in anxiety levels in both groups after intervention was not statistically significant. Music therapy was found to lower the pain score of a patient who had received standard palliative care for pain reduction. It was also more effective than the

  18. Innovation Impact: Breakthrough Research Results (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    The Innovation Impact brochure captures key breakthrough results across NREL's primary areas of renewable energy and energy efficiency research: solar, wind, bioenergy, transportation, buildings, analysis, and manufacturing technologies.

  19. The Breakthrough Behind the Chevy Volt Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Louise

    2011-03-28

    A revolutionary breakthrough cathode for lithium-ion batteries—the kind in your cell phone, laptop and new hybrid cars—makes them last longer, run more safely and perform better than batteries currently on the market.

  20. Encountering a Neglected Area of a Healthcare System: A Decade of Improvement in Cancer Pain Clinical Practice in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharehdaghi, Farid A; Gorginzadeh, Mansoureh; Safari, Saeid

    2016-12-01

    With the increase in the prevalence of cancer, cancer-related issues also deserve more attention especially in developing countries where there is already limited access to high-quality healthcare. Cancer-related pain, the most common and the most annoying one, is not only a symptom but also an important subspecialty and its management is still challenging. To assess the level of pain and cancer pain knowledge in Iran in comparison with the whole world. A search of the literature including papers published in PubMed before March 2016 was carried out. There have been an increasing number of publications on pain since 1842 and a growing number of publications on cancer pain since 1929. There has also been remarkable growth in our understanding of cancer pain, particularly since 2010. More than one-third of studies on pain and cancer-related pain were published after 2010. There is a need to be more inventive with the management of cancer-related issues, especially pain in developing countries, to maximize the quality and quantity of healthcare delivery to cancer-stricken patients. It seems that non-governmental organizations like MAHAK can play a significant role in this goal.

  1. Pain and dyspnea control in cancer patients of an urgency setting: nursing intervention results

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Ana Filipa Nunes; Tavares, Ana Patricia Marques; Mendonça, Susana Maria Sobral

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To outline best practices guidelines to control pain and dyspnea of cancer patients in an urgency setting. CONTENTS: PI[C]O question, with resource to EBSCO (Medline with Full Text, CINAHL, Plus with Full Text, British Nursing Index), retrospectively from September 2009 to 2014 and guidelines issued by reference entities: Oncology Nursing Society (2011), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (2011; 2014) and Cancer Care Ontario (2010), with a total of 15 ...

  2. Targeting A-type K(+) channels in primary sensory neurons for bone cancer pain in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Kai-Zheng; Xu, Qian; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Zhao, Zhi-Qi; Mei, Yan-Ai; Zhang, Yu-Qiu

    2012-03-01

    Cancer pain is one of the most severe types of chronic pain, and the most common cancer pain is bone cancer pain. The treatment of bone cancer pain remains a clinical challenge. Here, we report firstly that A-type K(+) channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) are involved in the neuropathy of rat bone cancer pain and are a new target for diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that can be used for therapy for this distinct pain. There are dynamically functional changes of the A-type K(+) channels in DRG neurons during bone cancer pain. The A-type K(+) currents that mainly express in isolectin B4-positive small DRG neurons are increased on post-tumor day 14 (PTD 14), then faded but still remained at a higher level on PTD 21. Correspondingly, the expression levels of A-type K(+) channel Kv1.4, Kv3.4, and Kv4.3 showed time-dependent changes during bone cancer pain. Diclofenac enhances A-type K(+) currents in the DRG neurons and attenuates bone cancer pain in a dose-dependent manner. The analgesic effect of diclofenac can be reversed or prevented by A-type K(+) channel blocker 4-AP or pandinotoxin-Kα, also by siRNA targeted against rat Kv1.4 or Kv4.3. Repeated diclofenac administration decreased soft tissue swelling adjacent to the tumor and attenuated bone destruction. These results indicate that peripheral A-type K(+) channels were involved in the neuropathy of rat bone cancer pain. Targeting A-type K(+) channels in primary sensory neurons may provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic strategy for bone cancer pain. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Barriers to venipuncture-induced pain prevention in cancer patients: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filbet, Marilène; Larkin, Philip; Chabloz, Claire; Chirac, Anne; Monsarrat, Léa; Ruer, Murielle; Rhondali, Wadih; Collin, Cyrille

    2017-01-17

    Procedural pain reduces the quality of life of cancer patients. Although there are recommendations for its prevention, there are some obstacles for its management. The purpose of this study was to analyze the barriers to procedural pain prophylaxis in cancer patients reflecting the views of the nurses. We used qualitative methodology based on semi-structured interviews conducted with nurses, focusing on practices of venipuncture-induced and needle change for implantable central venous access port (ICVAP) pain management in cancer patients. A thematic analysis approach informed the data analysis. Interviews were conducted with 17 nurses. The study highlighted 4 main themes; technical and relational obstacles, nurses' professional recognition, the role of the team, and organizational issues. Participants understood the painful nature of venipuncture. Despite being aware of the benefits of the anesthetic patch, they did not utilize it in a systematic way. We identified several barriers at different levels: technical, relational and previous experience of incident pain. Several organizational issues were also highlighted (e.g. lack of protocol, lack of time). The prevention of venipuncture-induced cancer pain requires a structured training program, which should reflect the views of nurses in clinical practice.

  4. Pain in cancer. An outcome research project to evaluate the epidemiology, the quality and the effects of pain treatment in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicora Mariaflavia

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of pain related to advanced or metastatic cancer, although the availability of several pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions and the existence of well-known guidelines and protocols, is often difficult and inadequate. Evidence of the relative effectiveness of current options for treating cancer pain from comparative randomized studies is scanty. Methods In the context of a wider project, a multicenter, open label, prospective Outcome Research study will be launched in Italy in 2006 to investigate the epidemiology of cancer pain and of its treatments, the quality of analgesic-drug therapy and the effectiveness of alternative analgesic strategies in a large, prospective, unselected cohort of cancer patients using the state-of-the art of patient-reported-outcomes. About 100 Italian centers will recruit 2500 patients with advanced/progressive/metastatic cancer with pain (related to the cancer disease requiring analgesic treatments. Each center is expected to recruit 25 consecutive and eligible patients during the study inception period. Approximately two months will be allowed for subject recruitment and enrollment. Subject evaluation and follow-up will be for 3 months. The effect on outcomes of various therapeutic analgesic options administered by physicians, given the observational approach where patients are not assigned at random to different treatments, will be compared using the propensity score approach, allowing the adjustment for treatment selection bias. Later, after the launch of the observational study and on the basis of results, in specific subsamples of patients and in select centers of the network, a Randomized Controlled Trial will be carried out to formally compare the efficacy of alternative analgesic strategies, with particular emphasis on oral morphine (as comparator and buprenorphine patch (as experimental arm. Results from the outcome (cohort and experimental (Randomized

  5. The role of ketamine in the treatment of chronic cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgaia, Armeana Olimpia; Irimie, Alexandru; Sandesc, Dorel; Vlad, Catalin; Lisencu, Cosmin; Rogobete, Alexandru; Achimas-Cadariu, Patriciu

    2015-01-01

    Ketamine is a drug used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, for the treatment of postoperative and posttraumatic acute pain, and more recently, for the reduction of postoperative opioid requirements. The main mechanism of action of ketamine is the antagonization of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that are associated with central sensitization. In the pathogenesis of chronic pain and particularly in neuropathic pain, an important role is played by the activation of NMDA receptors. Although ketamine is indicated and used for the treatment of chronic cancer pain as an adjuvant to opioids, there are few clinical studies that clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of ketamine in this type of pain. The aim of this study is to analyze evidence-based clinical data on the effectiveness and safety of ketamine administration in the treatment of chronic neoplastic pain, and to summarize the evidence-based recommendations for the use of ketamine in the treatment of chronic cancer pain. We reviewed the literature from the electronic databases of MEDLINE, COCHRANE, PUBMED, MEDSCAPE (1998-2014), as well as chapters of specialized books (palliative care, pain management, anesthesia). A number of studies support the effectiveness of ketamine in the treatment of chronic cancer pain, one study does not evidence clear clinical benefits for the use of ketamine, and some studies included too few patients to be conclusive. Ketamine represents an option for neoplasic pain that no longer responds to conventional opioid treatment, but this drug should be used with caution, and the development of potential side effects should be carefully monitored.

  6. What are the current challenges of managing cancer pain and could digital technologies help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Rosalind; de Bruin, Marijn; Burton, Christopher David; Bond, Christine M; Giatsi Clausen, Maria; Murchie, Peter

    2017-05-29

    Pain remains a problem for people with cancer despite effective treatments being available. We aimed to explore current pain management strategies used by patients, caregivers and professionals and to investigate opportunities for digital technologies to enhance cancer pain management. A qualitative study comprising semistructured interviews and focus groups. Patients with cancer pain, their caregivers and health professionals from Northeast Scotland were recruited from a purposive sample of general practices. Professionals were recruited from regional networks. Fifty one participants took part in 33 interviews (eight patients alone, six patient/caregiver dyads and 19 professionals) and two focus groups (12 professionals). Living with cancer was hard work for patients and caregivers and comparable to a 'full-time job'. Patients had personal goals which involved controlling pain intensity and balancing this with analgesic use, side effects, overall symptom burden and social/physical activities.Digital technologies were embraced by most patients, and made living life with advanced cancer easier and richer (eg, video calls with family). Technology was underutilised for pain and symptom management. There were suggestions that technology could support self-monitoring and communicating problems to professionals, but patients and professionals were concerned about technological monitoring adding to the work of managing illness. Cancer pain management takes place in the context of multiple, sometimes competing personal goals. It is possible that technology could be used to help patients share individual symptom experiences and goals, thus enhancing tailored care. The challenge is for digital solutions to add value without adding undue burden. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Children’s and adolescents’ relationship to pain during cancer treatment: a preliminary validation of the Pain Flexibility Scale for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsell Cederberg J

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Jenny Thorsell Cederberg,1 Sandra Weineland Strandskov,2 JoAnne Dahl,3 Gustaf Ljungman1 1Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Pediatric Oncology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2Närhälsan, Research and Development Center, Primary Health Care, Södra Älvsborg, Borås, Sweden; 3Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Objectives: Children with cancer often suffer from pain. Pain is associated with psychological distress, which may amplify the pain experience. In chronic pain, it has been shown that psychological acceptance is helpful for both adults and children. For experimentally induced pain, interventions fostering psychological acceptance have been shown to predict increases in pain tolerance and reductions in pain intensity and discomfort of pain. A single subject study aiming to nurture psychological acceptance for children with cancer experiencing pain has shown promising results. No instruments measuring psychological acceptance in acute pain are yet available. The aim of the current study was to develop and preliminarily evaluate an instrument to measure psychological acceptance in children experiencing pain during cancer treatment.Methods: A test version of the Pain Flexibility Scale for Children was sent to all children aged 7–18 years undergoing cancer treatment in Sweden at the time of the study. Exploratory factor analysis was used. Internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and convergent validity were examined.Results: Sixty-one children participated in the study. A two-factor solution with Promax rotation was found to best represent the data. Internal consistency was good to excellent (a =0.87–0.91. The total scale and the subscales demonstrated temporal stability (Intraclass correlation coefficient =0.56–0.61 and satisfactory convergent validity (r=−0.27 to −0.68.Discussion: The Pain Flexibility Scale for Children measuring psychological acceptance in children with cancer

  8. Examining pain, body image, and depressive symptoms in patients with lymphedema secondary to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Irene; Novy, Diane M; Chang, David W; Cox, Matthew G; Fingeret, Michelle Cororve

    2015-11-01

    Depression and reduced quality of life are often reported in patients with upper-extremity lymphedema secondary to breast cancer treatment. Little is known about how pain and body image influence depression in patients with lymphedema. The current study examined the association of pain intensity and body integrity beliefs with depressive symptoms and the extent to which body image dissatisfaction mediated these associations. A cross-sectional sample of patients with lymphedema secondary to breast cancer treatment completed self-report questionnaires of pain, body image, and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses and tests of mediation were conducted to examine the associations among the variables of interest. Pain intensity and body integrity beliefs were positively associated with depressive symptoms. Further, body image dissatisfaction mediated the relationship between pain and depressive symptoms, indicating that higher levels of pain led to higher states of body image dissatisfaction, which, in turn, led to greater depressive symptoms. Body image dissatisfaction also mediated the relationship between body integrity beliefs and depressive symptoms, suggesting that greater body integrity beliefs led to higher dissatisfaction with one's body and subsequently to greater depressive symptoms. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that pain intensity and body image are important factors in understanding depressive symptoms in patients with lymphedema. Clinical implications include screening for pain and body image concerns in this population to identify patients who are in distress. Counseling interventions targeting body image dissatisfaction can also be potentially helpful for patients with lymphedema. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mary E; Campbell, Fiona

    2011-11-01

    Effective therapeutic options for patients living with chronic pain are limited. The pain relieving effect of cannabinoids remains unclear. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining cannabinoids in the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain was conducted according to the PRISMA statement update on the QUORUM guidelines for reporting systematic reviews that evaluate health care interventions. Cannabinoids studied included smoked cannabis, oromucosal extracts of cannabis based medicine, nabilone, dronabinol and a novel THC analogue. Chronic non-cancer pain conditions included neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, and mixed chronic pain. Overall the quality of trials was excellent. Fifteen of the eighteen trials that met the inclusion criteria demonstrated a significant analgesic effect of cannabinoid as compared with placebo and several reported significant improvements in sleep. There were no serious adverse effects. Adverse effects most commonly reported were generally well tolerated, mild to moderate in severity and led to withdrawal from the studies in only a few cases. Overall there is evidence that cannabinoids are safe and modestly effective in neuropathic pain with preliminary evidence of efficacy in fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis. The context of the need for additional treatments for chronic pain is reviewed. Further large studies of longer duration examining specific cannabinoids in homogeneous populations are required. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. [Physicians' knowledge on cancer pain therapy : Comparison of palliative care and prehospital emergency physicians in training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, C H R; Lassen, C L; Vormelker, J; Meyer, N; Popov, A F; Graf, B M; Hanekop, G G; Wirz, S

    2011-12-01

    Palliative care needs a high level of expertise. In particular, there are some potential difficulties in the treatment of patients with the symptom cancer pain (for example lack of education). In Germany, various physicians are involved in cancer pain treatment but in general palliative care patients are treated by a physician who is educated in palliative medicine. In special circumstances prehospital emergency physicians and other physicians are involved in therapy decisions in palliative care patients as well. The authors surveyed different groups of physicians in Germany about their specific knowledge of cancer pain management. A self-designed, standardized questionnaire (50 items) was given to palliative physicians in training (PP). The survey asked prospectively for knowledge on the World Health Organization (WHO) step ladder of cancer pain therapy. The results were retrolectively compared with an earlier investigation with the same background (emergency physicians in training EP). There was a 99.5% response rate with a total of 654 respondents (PP 185, EP 469) and 461 (70.5%) of the respondents had knowledge of the WHO step ladder for the treatment of cancer pain [PP 164/185 (88.6%), EP 297/469 (63.3%), PP versus EP p medical school. Whether this also leads to an improvement of patient care and the relevance of these data for the clinical practice needs to be investigated in further studies.

  11. Pain and hospice care in nursing home residents with dementia and terminal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Todd B; Carter, Michael A; Feldt, Karen S; Dietrich, Mary S; Cowan, Ronald L

    2013-10-01

    One condition associated with severe end-of-life pain that can lead to a poor quality of death is cancer. Cancer pain in people with dementia is of particular concern because of communication problems that occur with worsening disease. The aim of the current pilot study was to examine the association between hospice enrolment, dementia severity and pain among nursing home residents who died from advanced cancer. Between-groups cross-sectional chart audits of 55 nursing home residents with dementia who died from cancer were carried out. A total of 45% of residents were in hospice at the end-of-life. Residents in hospice were more likely to receive an opioid (80% vs 43%, P = 0.005); but less likely to show severe cognitive impairment (20% vs 50%, P = 0.050). Enrolment in hospice was associated with an increased likelihood of receiving an opioid after controlling for level of cognitive impairment (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.1-14.0, P = 0.037). Lower levels of cognitive functioning were associated with a decreased likelihood of receiving an opioid after controlling for enrolment in hospice (OR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1-0.8, P = 0.030). Notably, 40% of nursing home residents with dementia who died from cancer did not receive any opioid during this time. Preliminary results suggest that hospice enrolment might be influenced by the facility or region of this particular country. Hospice enrolment predicts more opioid pain treatment in residents with dementia and terminal cancer; however, no resident with very severe dementia and terminal cancer was placed in hospice care. Severely cognitively impaired nursing home residents requiring opioids are at great risk of suffering from untreated advanced cancer pain. New methods are urgently required to improve end-of-life palliative care for nursing home residents with terminal cancer and severe dementia. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Psychometric evaluation of the arabic brief pain inventory in a sample of Lebanese cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballout, Suha; Noureddine, Samar; Huijer, Huda Abu-Saad; Kanazi, Ghassan

    2011-07-01

    Pain is a common complaint in oncology patients, and success in its treatment requires accurate assessment. Thus, assessment tools that are practical, culturally sensitive, and psychometrically sound are needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and cultural sensitivity of the Arabic Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) in a Lebanese sample of cancer patients. The BPI measures the location and severity of pain; pain relief from treatment; and the pain's interference with life. The BPI was translated into Arabic. Its cultural sensitivity was evaluated by a panel of experts. This instrument and a visual analogue scale for pain were administered to a convenience sample of 75 adult oncology patients receiving pain treatment. The experts' ratings indicated that the tool was culturally sensitive. The majority of the patient sample (88%) was married, male (78.7%), older than 46 years (56%), and with at least a secondary education (84%). The mean pain intensity rating was 5.3 ± 1.7, with interference ratings of 5.3 ± 2.0 to 7.0 ± 2.5. Most patients (78.4%) reported more than 50% pain relief with treatment. Cronbach alpha coefficients were 0.82 and 0.92 for the severity and interference items, respectively. Factor analysis yielded two factors, replicating the severity and interference dimensions. Correlations between the severity and interference items ranged between 0.25 and 0.57 (P < 0.05). The findings support the validity, reliability, and cultural sensitivity of the Arabic BPI in Lebanese oncology patients. This tool can be used to assess pain and improve its management in this population. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in a major cancer center for the treatment of severe cancer-related pain and associated disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Jeffrey; Gulati, Amitabh

    2015-06-01

    Cancer pain is difficult to treat, often requiring a multimodal approach. While medication management remains the mainstay for the treatment of cancer pain, medications are often associated with undesired side effects. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) provides a potential adjunctive method for treating cancer pain with minimal side effects. Few studies have been performed evaluating the efficacy of TENS on cancer pain. We sought to examine the usefulness of TENS on all cancer patients and to specifically look at the use of TENS as a goal-directed therapy to improve functionality. Retrospective cohort study. Since 2008, patients with chronic cancer pain and on multimodal pain regimens were trialed with TENS. Those patients who showed an improvement in pain symptoms or severity were educated about and provided with a TENS unit for use at home. Pain symptoms and scores were monitored with the visual analog scale (VAS), the numerical rating pain (NRP) scale, and Short-Form McGill Questionnaire at the start of TENS treatment and at 2 months follow-up. TENS proved beneficial in 69.7% of patients over the course of 2 months. In TENS responsive patients, VAS scores decreased by 9.8 on a 0-100 mm scale (P TENS provides a beneficial adjunct for the treatment of cancer pain, especially when utilized as a goal-directed therapy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The fear of using tramadol for pain control (tramadolophobia) among Egyptian patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsirafy, Samy A; Saleh, Radfan N; Fawzy, Radwa; Alnagar, Ahmed A; Hammad, Ahmed M; El-Sherief, Wessam; Farag, Dina E; Radwan, Riham H

    2015-01-01

    The fear of using tramadol for pain control (tramadolophobia) by Egyptian patients with cancer is a frequent problem in our practice. This study was conducted to explore the prevalence of and the reasons behind tramadolophobia among Egyptian patients with cancer. A structured interview including open-ended and closed questions. The study included 178 adult patients with cancer from two cancer centers in Cairo and Sharkia, Egypt. The source of information about tramadol was a non-healthcare-related source in 168 (94 percent) patients, mainly the media (50 percent). The believed uses of tramadol were abuse related in 94 (53 percent) patients, stimulant (physical, sexual, and to boost alertness) in 59 (33 percent), and analgesic in 55 (31 percent). Twenty-six (15 percent) patients gave history of tramadol use, largely (69 percent) as a stimulant. In case tramadol was prescribed for pain control, 90 (51 percent) patients refused to take it, 59 (33 percent) patients agreed to take it with concern about addiction, and only 29 (16 percent) patients agreed without concerns. Among those who refused taking tramadol for pain, the mentioned reason of refusal was addiction-related fears in 57 percent. The stigmatization and misconceptions about tramadol may have resulted in tramadolophobia among the majority of Egyptian patients with cancer. This further complicates the barriers to cancer pain control in Egypt. Being the only available World Health Organization step-II analgesic in Egypt, interventions to overcome tramadolophobia should be taken.

  15. [Use of methadone in the elderly with cancer pain: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberna, Miren; Villavicencio-Chávez, Christian; González-Barboteo, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    To identify the clinical use of methadone as an analgesic in the management of cancer pain in elderly patients. We performed a systemic review of the literature on the specific use of methadone in elderly with cancer pain in MEDLINE, COCHRANE DATABASE and SCOPUS. A second search was conducted in MEDLINE to look for clinical trials and systematic review of the use of methadone in cancer pain, selecting only those in which the mean age of patients was ≥ 65 years old. Four articles were obtained in the first search, and from the second 7 clinical trials, none of them specific to methadone use in elderly patients with cancer. There are insufficient data on the use of methadone as an analgesic in the elderly with cancer. Given its pharmacological characteristics it must be used by trained personnel. Several recommendations are proposed for its use as an analgesic in the treatment of cancer pain in the elderly. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Pain in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer: Prevalence, Mechanisms, Management and Future Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouris, Andreas I; Banim, Paul; Hart, Andrew R

    2017-04-01

    Pain affects approximately 80% of patients with pancreatic cancer, with half requiring strong opioid analgesia, namely: morphine-based drugs on step three of the WHO analgesic ladder (as opposed to the weak opioids: codeine and tramadol). The presence of pain is associated with reduced survival. This article reviews the literature regarding pain: prevalence, mechanisms, pharmacological, and endoscopic treatments and identifies areas for research to develop individualized patient pain management pathways. The online literature review was conducted through: PubMed, Clinical Key, Uptodate, and NICE Evidence. There are two principal mechanisms for pain: pancreatic duct obstruction and pancreatic neuropathy which, respectively, activate mechanical and chemical nociceptors. In pancreatic neuropathy, several histological, molecular, and immunological changes occur which correlate with pain including: transient receptor potential cation channel activation and mast cell infiltration. Current pain management is empirical rather etiology-based and is informed by the WHO analgesic ladder for first-line therapies, and then endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN) in patients with resistant pain. For EUS-CPN, there is only one clinical trial reporting a benefit, which has limited generalizability. Case series report pancreatic duct stenting gives effective analgesia, but there are no clinical trials. Progress in understanding the mechanisms for pain and when this occurs in the natural history, together with assessing new therapies both pharmacological and endoscopic, will enable individualized care and may improve patients' quality of life and survival.

  17. Intrathecal Drug Delivery Systems for Cancer Pain: A Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Intrathecal drug delivery systems can be used to manage refractory or persistent cancer pain. We investigated the benefits, harms, cost-effectiveness, and budget impact of these systems compared with current standards of care for adult patients with chronic pain due owing to cancer. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, the Cochrane Library databases, National Health Service's Economic Evaluation Database, and Tufts Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry from January 1994 to April 2014 for evidence of effectiveness, harms, and cost-effectiveness. We used existing systematic reviews that had employed reliable search and screen methods and searched for studies published after the search date reported in the latest systematic review to identify studies. Two reviewers screened records and assessed study validity. The cost burden of publicly funding intrathecal drug delivery systems for cancer pain was estimated for a 5-year timeframe using a combination of published literature, information from the device manufacturer, administrative data, and expert opinion for the inputs. We included one randomized trial that examined effectiveness and harms, and one case series that reported an eligible economic evaluation. We found very low quality evidence that intrathecal drug delivery systems added to comprehensive pain management reduce overall drug toxicity; no significant reduction in pain scores was observed. Weak conclusions from economic evidence suggested that intrathecal drug delivery systems had the potential to be more cost-effective than high-cost oral therapy if administered for 7 months or longer. The cost burden of publicly funding this therapy is estimated to be $100,000 in the first year, increasing to $500,000 by the fifth year. Current evidence could not establish the benefit, harm, or cost-effectiveness of intrathecal drug delivery systems compared with current standards of care for managing refractory cancer pain in adults. Publicly funding intrathecal drug

  18. Epidural opiates and local anesthetics for the management of cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Q; Haddox, J D; Abram, S; Weissman, D; Taylor, M L; Janjan, N

    1991-09-01

    The role of epidural morphine in chronic cancer pain treatment is unresolved. In a population of 1205 cancer patients, the aggressive use of systemic opiates limited the trial of epidural analgesia to 16 cases. Successful analgesia was achieved with epidural morphine alone in 6 of these 16 cases following systemic opiate failure. The addition of bupivacaine produced analgesia in all of the 10 remaining cases and was successful chronically in 6 cases. Complications occurred in 11 of the 16 cases of epidural analgesia and included dislodged or broken catheters, pain on injection, hyperesthesia from epidural morphine and bleeding or infection related to the epidural catheter. Epidural morphine is indicated only in selected cancer pain patients and, although bupivacaine extends the efficacy of epidural analgesia, these methods are accompanied by problems and limitations.

  19. A Case-Based Approach to Integrating Opioid Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Concepts in Cancer Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lisa H; Pirrello, Rosene D; Ma, Joseph D

    2016-07-01

    Opioids are prescribed for cancer pain. Over the past decade, the annual increase in opioid prescriptions has been accompanied by an increase in opioid-associated deaths. Health care professionals must be proficient in proper dosing, titrating, and monitoring of opioid medications. With the numerous opioid medications and formulations available, an understanding of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) concepts is necessary to appropriately individualize opioid-based cancer pain regimens. The purpose of this review is to highlight PK/PD concepts that are clinically relevant to the use of opioids. By way of a cancer pain patient case scenario, PK/PD concepts that are relevant in the initiation, titration, and rotation of an opioid regimen are discussed. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  20. Could kinesiology taping help mitigate pain, breathlessness and abdominal-related symptoms in cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Gourav; Rose, Alison; Briggs, Michelle; Johnson, Mark I

    2017-02-24

    We present the case of a woman who was an amateur athlete diagnosed with primary breast cancer, and 10 years later with terminal metastatic cancer. This case report was prepared posthumously in co-operation with her next of kin (husband). The patient first presented to a sports physiotherapist (AR) for her pain-management and to help maintain physical fitness so that she could continue with sports and an active lifestyle. The patient continued with physiotherapy for several months to enable her to be active. However, when her health deteriorated significantly due to advancing cancer, the treatment was modified and aimed at improving the patient's general well-being. The physiotherapist applied kinesiology tape over the patient's lower rib cage, diaphragm and abdomen in an attempt to manage pain, breathlessness and abdominal bloating. The patient reported alleviation of pain, breathlessness, abdominal discomfort and nausea, accompanied by improvements in eating, drinking, energy levels and physical function. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Could kinesiology taping help mitigate pain, breathlessness and abdominal-related symptoms in cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Gourav; Rose, Alison; Briggs, Michelle; Johnson, Mark I

    2017-01-01

    We present the case of a woman who was an amateur athlete diagnosed with primary breast cancer, and 10 years later with terminal metastatic cancer. This case report was prepared posthumously in co-operation with her next of kin (husband). The patient first presented to a sports physiotherapist (AR) for her pain-management and to help maintain physical fitness so that she could continue with sports and an active lifestyle. The patient continued with physiotherapy for several months to enable her to be active. However, when her health deteriorated significantly due to advancing cancer, the treatment was modified and aimed at improving the patient's general well-being. The physiotherapist applied kinesiology tape over the patient's lower rib cage, diaphragm and abdomen in an attempt to manage pain, breathlessness and abdominal bloating. The patient reported alleviation of pain, breathlessness, abdominal discomfort and nausea, accompanied by improvements in eating, drinking, energy levels and physical function. PMID:28237944

  2. The Danish version of the Medication Adherence Report Scale: preliminary validation in cancer pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Møldrup, Claus; Christrup, Lona Louring

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the Medication Adherence Report Scale (DMARS-4) adapted to measure adherence to analgesic regimen among cancer patients. METHODS: The validated English version of the Medication Adherence Report Scale was translated...... measuring the quality of patient-physician pain communication, and the Danish Brief Pain Inventory pain severity scale. RESULTS: A factor analysis of the DMARS-4 resulted in one factor. Mean (SD) score on the cumulative scale ranging from 4 to 20, with higher scores indicating better medication adherence......, was 17.8 (0.42). The DMARS-4 scores were related to the measures of patients' concerns about pain management and patients' pain communication. The internal consistency of the DMARS-4 was 0.70. CONCLUSIONS: The DMARS-4 seems to be a valid and reliable measure of self-reported adherence to analgesic...

  3. Home-based application of sphenopalatine ganglion block for head and neck cancer pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti R Sanghavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Head and neck cancer pain is intractable and difficult to manage. Many a times it is difficult to treat with oral opioids and adjuvants. Aim: This study aims to study the effects of transnasal sphenopalatine ganglion block (SPGB, administered using cotton swab/ear bud by patients' caretaker, at home, for pain management. Study Design: This is a prospective, single-arm observational study conducted on 100 head and neck cancer patients, from January 2014 to December 2015. Patients and caretaker were given a demonstration of the procedure using sterile cotton swab/ear buds. They were advised to repeat the procedure when their visual analog score (VAS was more than 5. They continued with the oral analgesics. They kept the records of pre- and post-procedure pain score (VAS, the frequency of repetition, ease of performance of procedure, and morphine requirement. A paired t-test (SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Results: A significant reduction in pain was noted by a decrease in mean VAS from 8.57 ± 1.31 to 2.46 ± 1.23 (P 0.05 mg per day, at the end of 2 months. Ease of performance was observed in 88 patients. Conclusion: The home-based application of SPGB is an easy, safe, and cost-effective method to manage cancer pain. It provides excellent immediate pain relief with a minimum side effect. It can be performed bilaterally, repeatedly and even with a feeding tube in place.

  4. Association between sensory dysfunction and pain 1 week after breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, K G; Duriaud, H M; Aasvang, E K

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer patients treated with axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) have a higher risk of both acute and persistent pain than those treated with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). This could be attributed to a higher risk of nerve injury with ALND. We hypothesized that (1) pain......-seven patients treated with ALND and 27 with SLNB examined with a standardized Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) protocol, including sensory mapping, mechanical and thermal thresholds, as well as recording intraoperative ICBN handling and pain status 1 week post-operative. RESULTS: The area of cold...

  5. Hyperalgesia and Persistent Pain after Breast Cancer Surgery: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial with Perioperative COX-2 Inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, N. van; Steegers, M.A.H.; Filippini-de Moor, G.P.G.; Vissers, K.C.P.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent pain is a challenging clinical problem after breast cancer treatment. After surgery, inflammatory pain and nociceptive input from nerve injury induce central sensitization which may play a role in the genesis of persistent pain. Using quantitative sensory testing, we tested

  6. Opioid therapy for chronic non-cancer pain: guidelines for Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, C W; Chan, T Cw; Chen, P P; Chu, M C; Chui, W Cm; Ho, P T; Lam, F; Law, S W; Lee, J Ly; Wong, S Hs; Wong, V Kc

    2016-10-01

    Opioids are increasingly used to control chronic non-cancer pain globally. International opioid guidelines have been issued in many different countries but a similar document is not generally available in Hong Kong. Chronic opioid therapy has a role in multidisciplinary management of chronic non-cancer pain despite insufficient evidence for its effectiveness and safety for long-term use. This document reviews the current literature to inform Hong Kong practitioners about the rational use of chronic opioid therapy in chronic non-cancer pain. It also aims to provide useful recommendations for the appropriate, effective, and safe use of such therapy in the management of chronic non-cancer pain in adults. Physicians should conduct a comprehensive biopsychosocial evaluation of patients prior to the commencement of opioid therapy. When opioid use is deemed appropriate, the patient should provide informed consent within an agreement that specifies treatment goals and expectations. A trial of opioid can be commenced and, provided there is progress towards treatment goals, then chronic therapy can be considered at a dose that minimises harm. Monitoring of effectiveness, safety, and drug misuse should be continued. Treatment should be stopped when opioids become ineffective, intolerable, or misused. The driving principles for opioid prescription in chronic pain management should be: start with a low dose, titrate slowly, and maintain within the shortest possible time.

  7. P2X7 receptor-mediated analgesia in cancer-induced bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; D. Schwab, Samantha; Frøsig-Jørgensen, Majbrit

    2015-01-01

    for cancer-induced bone pain. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is involved in a variety of cellular functions and has been linked to both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Here we study the analgesic potential of P2X7 receptor antagonism in a rat model of cancer-induced bone pain. In cancer-bearing animals, the P2...... to low intensity or electrical stimulation. In contrast, A839977 had no effect on the tested parameters in naïve or sham animals. In awake animals, 40mg/kg A839977 (i.p) significantly reduced both early and late stage pain behavior. In contrast, no effect was observed in sham or vehicle-treated animals....... The results suggest that the P2X7R is involved in the mechanisms of cancer-induced bone pain, and that P2X7R antagonism might be a useful analgesic target. No effect was observed in sham or naïve animals, indicating that the P2X7R-mediated effect is state-dependent, and might therefore be an advantageous...

  8. Systematic Review of the Use of Phytochemicals for Management of Pain in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Andrew M; Heritier, Fabrice; Childs, Bennett G; Bostwick, J Michael; Dziadzko, Mikhail A

    2015-01-01

    Pain in cancer therapy is a common condition and there is a need for new options in therapeutic management. While phytochemicals have been proposed as one pain management solution, knowledge of their utility is limited. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the biomedical literature for the use of phytochemicals for management of cancer therapy pain in human subjects. Of an initial database search of 1,603 abstracts, 32 full-text articles were eligible for further assessment. Only 7 of these articles met all inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The average relative risk of phytochemical versus control was 1.03 [95% CI 0.59 to 2.06]. In other words (although not statistically significant), patients treated with phytochemicals were slightly more likely than patients treated with control to obtain successful management of pain in cancer therapy. We identified a lack of quality research literature on this subject and thus were unable to demonstrate a clear therapeutic benefit for either general or specific use of phytochemicals in the management of cancer pain. This lack of data is especially apparent for psychotropic phytochemicals, such as the Cannabis plant (marijuana). Additional implications of our findings are also explored.

  9. Systematic Review of the Use of Phytochemicals for Management of Pain in Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Harrison

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain in cancer therapy is a common condition and there is a need for new options in therapeutic management. While phytochemicals have been proposed as one pain management solution, knowledge of their utility is limited. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the biomedical literature for the use of phytochemicals for management of cancer therapy pain in human subjects. Of an initial database search of 1,603 abstracts, 32 full-text articles were eligible for further assessment. Only 7 of these articles met all inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The average relative risk of phytochemical versus control was 1.03 [95% CI 0.59 to 2.06]. In other words (although not statistically significant, patients treated with phytochemicals were slightly more likely than patients treated with control to obtain successful management of pain in cancer therapy. We identified a lack of quality research literature on this subject and thus were unable to demonstrate a clear therapeutic benefit for either general or specific use of phytochemicals in the management of cancer pain. This lack of data is especially apparent for psychotropic phytochemicals, such as the Cannabis plant (marijuana. Additional implications of our findings are also explored.

  10. Breakthrough Listen on MWA Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, S.; Siemion, A.; Kaplan, D. L.; Tremblay, S.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a pilot study, using the Voltage Capture System, for Breakthrough Listen on the MWA. Breakthrough Listen (BL) is a major new project that aims to dramatically improve the coverage of parameter space in the search for intelligent life beyond Earth. BL has already deployed hardware and software to the Green Bank Telescope, and will bring a similar program with the Parkes Telescope online in the second half of 2016. The low frequency sky is however currently very poorly explored. The superb capabilities of the MWA (large field of view, low frequency of operation, and location in a very radio quiet site) provide a unique opportunity for a pilot study to obtain voltage data for a SETI (Search For Extraterrestrial Intelligence) study of the Galactic Plane. We propose commensal observations, piggybacking on the proposed pulsar search of Tremblay et al. Using existing VCS software, combined with the pipeline developed for Breakthrough Listen at GBT and Parkes, we will perform a blind search for candidate signals from extraterrestrial intelligence. Although the chances of a detection are not large, particularly for a pilot study such as that proposed here, the Breakthrough Listen team plan to perform extensive testing and analysis on the data obtained which should be useful for other users of the MWA VCS. We will make the secondary SETI data products and associated documentation available as a resource to the community via the Breakthrough Listen online archive.

  11. Physician-related barriers to cancer pain management with opioid analgesics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Sjøgren, Per; Møldrup, Claus

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of studies on physician-related barriers to cancer pain management with opioid analgesics. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in PUBMED, using a combined text word and MeSH heading search strategy. Those articles whose full...... texts were not available in PUBMED were retrieved from the electronic databases of specific journals. RESULTS: Sixty-five relevant articles, published in the period from 1986 to 2006, were identified. Physicians' barriers to cancer pain management were studied in questionnaire surveys and in the reviews...

  12. Does adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines improve pain-related outcomes? An evaluation of inpatient cancer pain management at an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearis, Michael; Shega, Joseph W; Knoebel, Randall W

    2014-09-01

    Evidence-based guidelines are in place for the management of cancer-related pain, yet adherence remains problematic throughout health systems because of efficacy and safety concerns. To evaluate adherence to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines on pain management among cancer inpatients and assess whether adherence is associated with pain control. A retrospective chart review of patients admitted to the hematology/oncology service at an academic medical center between April 1, 2011 and September 30, 2011 was conducted, and patients were allocated into groups based on adherence to NCCN guidelines. Pain control and safety outcomes were compared between adherence groups for the first 24 hours of hospital admission. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of regimens nonadherent to guidelines and predictors of inadequate achievement of analgesia. Among a random sample of 193 inpatients, 109 met the inclusion criteria of which 70 were guideline adherent and 39 nonadherent. A total of 63% of the patients initiated on NCCN adherent guidelines obtained analgesia at 24 hours compared with 41% in the nonadherent group (P=0.028). Average pain scores across the 24-hour period were lower in the adherent compared with the nonadherent group (3.5 vs. 4.4, respectively, P<0.001). Naloxone use, respiratory depression, and hypoxia did not significantly vary between adherence groups. Chronic home opioid exposure was significantly associated with nonadherent therapy (vs. adherent; odds ratio=3.04, confidence interval=1.28-7.18, P=0.01) and achievement of analgesia at 24 hours (vs. not; odds ratio=0.30, confidence interval=0.12-0.73, P<0.01). Adherence to NCCN guidelines remains insufficient, with nonadherence being associated with inadequate analgesia. Opioid-tolerant patients remain at higher risk for guideline nonadherence and inadequate analgesia. Quality improvement initiatives should target opioid-tolerant patients. Copyright © 2014

  13. Pancreatic Tail Cancer with Sole Manifestation of Left Flank Pain: A Very Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Lin Lin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is sometimes called a “silent disease” because it often causes no symptoms in the early stage. The symptoms can be quite vague and various depending on the location of cancer in the pancreas. The anatomic site distribution is 78% in the head of the pancreas, 11% in the body, and 11% in the tail. Pancreatic cancer is rarely detected in the early stage, and it is very uncommon to diagnose pancreatic tail cancer during an emergency department visit. The manifestation of pancreatic tail cancer as left flank pain is very rare and has seldom been identified in the literature. We present a case of pancreatic tail cancer with the sole manifestation of dull left flank pain. Having negative findings on an ultrasound study initially, this female patient was misdiagnosed as having possible acute gastritis, urolithiasis or muscle strain after she received gastroendoscopy and colonofiberscopy. Her symptoms persisted for several months and she visited our emergency department due to an acute exacerbation of a persistent dull pain in the left flank area. Radiographic evaluation with computed tomography was performed, and pancreatic tail tumor with multiple metastases was found unexpectedly. We review the literature and discuss this rare presentation of pancreatic tail cancer.

  14. Clinical efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of a newly developed controlled release morphine sulphate suppository in patients with cancer pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, F.; Meijler, W.J.; Frijlink, H.W.; Visser, Jan; Proost, J.H.

    Objective: To compare the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of a newly developed controlled-release suppository (MSR) with MS Contin tablets (MSC) in cancer patients with pain. Methods: In a double-blind, randomised, two-way crossover trial, 25 patients with cancer pain were selected with a

  15. Neuropathic pain in cancer patients treated with bortezomib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expósito Vizcaíno, S; Casanova-Mollà, J; Escoda, L; Galán, S; Miró, J

    The neuropathic pain is the most habitual problem in the neuropathy induced by chemotherapy (NIQ) and the one that more interferes in the quality of life of the patients. His precocious detection turns out to be fundamental to reduce or to eliminate the problems that from this one stem. The aims of this study were: 1) determine the incident and NIQ's characteristics and neuropathic pain in patients with mieloma multiple (MM) treated with bortezomib, and 2) to evaluate the impact of the neuropathic pain in the activities of the daily life (AVD). All the patients diagnosed of MM candidates for treatment with bortezomib attended in the Hospital Joan XXIII during 2013, took part. The participants were interviewed individually and were reporting on the presence, the characteristics and the impact of the pain, as well as of the adverse effects of the bortezomib. There took part 22 persons, of which NIQ presented the half, being the degree 2 the predominant one. The most habitual location of the neuropathic pain was hands and feet; it was appearing in a spontaneous and progressive way deteriorating in rest and during the night, with predominance of positive symptoms. The impact of the pain was reflected in all the AVD. The principal limitation was the disability to enjoy the life. The peripheral neuropathy occupied the first place in order of subjective importance for the patient followed by the fatigue and the constipation. A proper assessment and early detection of neuropathic pain is critical to minimizing its impact on the quality of life of patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Scapuloplasty alleviates scapular pain resulting from lung cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hey-Ran; Lee, Pyung-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Osteoplasty, a highly effective minimally invasive procedure that alleviates the painful effects of metastatic bone disease by injecting bone cement to support weakened bones, provides immediate and substantial pain relief. However, it is rarely performed in non-weight bearing flat bones such as the scapula. Fractures of the body of the scapula are rarely treated surgically, except for cases of marked displacement of fragments that limit the function of the scapula. According to the reported incidences of operative treatment of different scapula fracture types, 99% of all isolated scapula body fractures are treated nonoperatively A 54-year-old man had been experiencing metastatic bone pain in the lateral border, medial border, and medial infraspinatus fossa of the left scapula for the past 2 months; this pain originated from adenocarcinoma of the right lung. He could not sleep on his back even after completion of radiation therapy. We decided to perform scapuloplasty. The patient was placed in the prone position on a radiolucent table with an inflatable adjustable axillary pillow. Three 13-gauge, 10-cm long bone biopsy needles were simultaneously inserted from the 3 different entry points to fill the osteolytic lesion with the bone cement with fluoroscopic guidance under local anesthesia and intravenous analgesia. After confirming needle placement and ensuring that no contrast medium was extravasated, a total of 8 mL of the cement was injected. Immediately after the operation, the patient could lie on his back without pain. Scapuloplasty is a new variant of osteoplasty used to alleviate the painful effects of metastatic bone disease. It may be an option of shoulder motion-preserving minimally invasive procedure for alleviating intractable pain induced by lying on the back.

  17. Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Myofascial Pain: Association of Cancer, Colon Polyps, and Tendon Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Jane M; Dalessandri, Kathie M; Pope, Karl; Hernández, Germán T

    2017-08-01

    Myofascial pain that has been associated with cancer and increased risk of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients is intrinsically associated with low magnesium and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Therefore, this physical finding was used as a clinical diagnostic proxy. The objective of this study was to assess the association and prevalence of disease in individuals with myofascial pain and low 25(OH)D in a county with low magnesium in the drinking water. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of a chart review of 269 subjects to assess subjects presenting with myofascial pain (assessed by tender trigger points) and 25(OH)D concentrations below 30 ng/mL or a history of 25(OH)D deficiency compared to those without these exposures. The association between the exposure of low 25(OH)D levels and myofascial pain was compared to all cancers, colon polyps, and tendon ruptures. The odds of having cancer with the combined exposures was 10.14 times the odds of not having either exposure (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.08, 20.25, p D less than 30 ng/mL, 74 were tested for red blood cell (RBC) magnesium. Half of those subjects had RBC magnesium concentrations D deficiency showed a significant association with cancer, adenomatous colon polyps, and tendon rupture. Further studies to verify these results are needed, especially in areas where there is low magnesium in the drinking water.

  18. Chronic pain has a negative impact on sexuality in testis cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pühse, Gerald; Wachsmuth, Julia Urte; Kemper, Sebastian; Husstedt, Ingo W; Evers, Stefan; Kliesch, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Testis cancer is a disease that directly affects a man's sense of masculinity and involves treatments compromising sexual function. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and the influence of chronic pain on sexuality in long-term testis cancer survivors. Thus, we examined 539 patients after they had one testis removed because of a testicular germ cell tumor. Having completed oncologic therapy, all patients received a detailed questionnaire asking about the occurrence and clinical presentation of testis pain before and after orchiectomy. In addition, items from the abridged International Index of Erectile Function and Brief Sexual Function Inventory were used to gain precise information on individual sexual function. Overall, 34.5% of our testicular cancer survivors complained of reduced sexual desire, and sexual activity was reduced in 41.6%. Erectile dysfunction was present in up to 31.5% of patients. In 24.4%, the ability to maintain an erection during intercourse was impaired. Ejaculatory disorders (premature, delayed, retrograde, or anejaculation) occurred in 84.9% of our testis cancer survivors. A total of 32.4% of our participants experienced a reduced intensity of orgasm, and 95.4% experienced reduced overall sexual satisfaction. There was a significant correlation between the occurrence of chronic pain symptoms and the relative frequency and intensity of erectile dysfunction, inability to maintain an erection, ejaculation disorders, and reduced intensity of orgasm. In conclusion, chronic pain has a negative impact on sexuality in testis cancer survivors.

  19. Development and testing of a multidimensional iPhone pain assessment application for adolescents with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Jennifer N; Jibb, Lindsay A; Nguyen, Cynthia; Nathan, Paul C; Maloney, Anne Marie; Dupuis, L Lee; Gerstle, J Ted; Alman, Benjamin; Hopyan, Sevan; Strahlendorf, Caron; Portwine, Carol; Johnston, Donna L; Orr, Mike

    2013-03-08

    Pain is one of the most common and distressing symptoms reported by adolescents with cancer. Despite advancements in pain assessment and management research, pain due to cancer and/or its treatments continues to be poorly managed. Our research group has developed a native iPhone application (app) called Pain Squad to tackle the problem of poorly managed pain in the adolescent with cancer group. The app functions as an electronic pain diary and is unique in its ability to collect data on pain intensity, duration, location, and the impact pain has on an adolescent's life (ie, relationships, school work, sleep, mood). It also evaluates medications and other physical and psychological pain management strategies used. Users are prompted twice daily at configurable times to complete 20 questions characterizing their pain and the app transmits results to a database for aggregate reporting through a Web interface. Each diary entry represents a pain case filed by an adolescent with cancer and a reward system (ie, moving up through law-enforcement team ranks, built-in videotaped acknowledgements from fictitious officers) encourages consistent use of the diary. Our objective was to design, develop, and test the usability, feasibility, compliance, and satisfaction of a game-based smartphone pain assessment tool for adolescents with cancer. We used both low- and high-fidelity qualitative usability testing with qualitative semi-structured, audio-taped interviews and iterative cycles to design and refine the iPhone based Pain Squad app. Qualitative thematic analysis of interviews using constant comparative methodology captured emergent themes related to app usability. Content validity was assessed using question importance-rating surveys completed by participants. Compliance and satisfaction data were collected following a 2-week feasibility trial where users were alarmed to record their pain twice daily on the app. Thematic analysis of usability interviews showed the app to be

  20. Sleep Disturbance Mediates the Association of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Pain in Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Teresa A; Gerhart, James; Bouchard, Laura C; Cvengros, Jamie; O'Mahony, Sean; Kopkash, Katherine; Kabaker, Katherine B; Burns, John

    2017-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common complaint of patients with cancer and is well established in both pain conditions and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). An estimated one-third of patients with cancer develop symptoms of PTSD at some point in their treatment. However, few studies have evaluated the contributions of PTSD and sleep disturbance to pain processes in cancer populations. The current study used mediation models to test the hypothesis that sleep disturbance would mediate the relationships between PTSD symptoms and pain intensity and PTSD symptoms and pain interference in a sample of patients with cancer. A cross-sectional, retrospective chart review was conducted of the electronic medical records of 85 adult patients with cancer (89.4% female; 59% white; 42% metastatic) who sought individual psychosocial support services at our institution. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, sleep disturbance, pain intensity, and pain interference were all positively correlated ( P symptoms were reported by 30% to 60% of the sample. Even after controlling for metastatic disease, race, and cancer type, sleep disturbance mediated the relationships between PTSD symptoms and pain intensity ( B = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10-0.44) and PTSD symptoms and pain-related interference ( B = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.28-0.87). The relationships among PTSD symptoms, pain intensity, and pain interference could be explained by co-occurring sleep disturbance. Given the high frequency of PTSD symptoms among patients with cancer and PTSD's known links to sleep problems and pain, clinicians should be attentive to the role that traumatogenic processes may play in eliciting sleep and pain-related complaints among patients with cancer.

  1. Quality of life during early radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer and pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaller A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anne Schaller,1 Elena Dragioti,1 Gunilla M Liedberg,2 Britt Larsson1 1Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping, 2Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden Background: Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC have a potentially severe diagnosis and often suffer from tumor-related pain as well as from adverse side effects of treatment such as radiotherapy (RT. Knowledge about quality of life (QoL during early RT in this group is limited and should be assessed in relation to diagnosis and treatment.Purpose: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to identify potential factors that may influence QoL in patients with HNC during the early stages of RT (no later than two weeks of ongoing RT. We hypothesized that pain intensity, pain interference, catastrophizing, and mood disturbances are associated with QoL during early RT.Patients and methods: In this study, 54 patients (53% of eligible patients diagnosed with HNC were consecutively recruited from the regular flow to the Pain and Rehabilitation Center at Linköping University. The patients completed self-reported questionnaires on sociodemographics, pain intensity, pain interference, anxiety, depression, pain catastrophizing, and QoL.Results: The patients in this study scored high for QoL, low for pain intensity, and low for pain interference. The patients reported minor depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms. Regression analyses showed that pain intensity and depressive symptoms negatively influenced QoL. Conclusion: No later than two weeks of RT, pain intensity and depression negatively influenced QoL in patients with HNC. Early screening for pain and depression in a targeted preventive strategy might maintain QoL during the course of the RT for patients with HNC. This assumption needs to

  2. Quality of life, pain, anxiety and depression in patients surgically treated with cancer of rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Letácio José Freire; Garcia, João Batista dos Santos; Pacheco, Jairo Sousa; Vieira, Erica Brandão de Morais; Santos, Alcione Miranda dos

    2014-01-01

    The rectum cancer is associated with high rates of complications and morbidities with great impact on the lives of affected individuals. To evaluate quality of life, pain, anxiety and depression in patients treated for medium and lower rectum cancer, submitted to surgical intervention. A descriptive cross-sectional study. Eighty-eight records of patients with medium and lower rectum cancer, submitted to surgical intervention were selected, and enrolled. Forty-seven patients died within the study period, and the other 41 were studied. Question forms EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-CR38 were used to assess quality of life. Pain evaluation was carried out using the Visual Analogical Scale, depression and anxiety were assessed through Depression Inventories and Beck's Anxiety, respectively. The correlation between pain intensity, depression and anxiety was carried out, and between these and the EORTC QLQ-C30 General Scale for Health Status and overall quality of life, as well as the EORTC QLQ-CR38 functional and symptom scales. Of the 41 patients of the study, 52% presented pain, depression in 47%, and anxiety in 39%. There was a marking positive correlation between pain intensity and depression. There was a moderate negative correlation between depression and general health status, and overall quality of life as well as pain intensity with the latter. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between future depression perspective and sexual function, and also a strong positive correlation between depression and sexual impairments. A positive correlation between anxiety and gastro-intestinal problems, both statistically significant, was observed. Evaluation scales showed detriment on quality life evaluation, besides an elevated incidence of pain, depression, and anxiety; a correlation among these, and factors which influence on the quality of life of post-surgical medium and lower rectum cancer patients was observed.

  3. Post-operative breast cancer patients diagnosed with skeletal metastasis without bone pain had fewer skeletal-related events and deaths than those with bone pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koizumi Mitsuru

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal metastases are often accompanied by bone pain. To investigate the clinical meaning of bone pain associated with skeletal metastasis in breast cancer patients after surgery, we explored whether the presence of bone pain was due to skeletal-related events (SREs or survival (cause specific death, CSD, retrospectively. Methods Consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing surgery between 1988 and 1998 were examined for signs of skeletal metastasis until December 2006. Patients who were diagnosed as having skeletal metastasis were the subjects of this study. Bone scans were performed annually for 5, 7 or 10 years; they were also conducted if skeletal metastasis was suspected. Data concerning bone pain and tumor markers at the time of skeletal metastasis diagnosis, and data relating to various factors including tumors, lymph nodes and hormone receptors at the time of surgery, were investigated. The relationships between factors such as bone pain, SRE and CSD were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox's analysis. Results Skeletal metastasis occurred in 668 patients but the pain status of two patients was unknown, therefore 666 patients were included in the study. At the time of skeletal metastasis diagnosis 270 patients complained of pain; however, 396 patients did not. Analysis of data using Cox's and Kaplan-Meier methods demonstrated that patients without pain had fewer SREs and better survival rates than those with pain. Hazard ratios regarding SRE (base = patients without pain were 2.331 in univariate analysis and 2.243 in multivariate analysis. Hazard ratios regarding CSD (base = patients without pain were 1.441 in univariate analysis and 1.535 in multivariate analysis. Similar results were obtained when analyses were carried out using the date of surgery as the starting point. Conclusion Bone pain at diagnosis of skeletal metastasis was an indicator of increased SRE and CSD. However, these data did not

  4. Intrathecal Drug Delivery and Spinal Cord Stimulation for the Treatment of Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangfang; Yong, R Jason; Kaye, Alan David; Urman, Richard D

    2018-02-05

    The purpose of the present investigation is to summarize the body and quality of evidence including the most recent studies in support of intrathecal drug delivery systems and spinal cord stimulation for the treatment of cancer-related pain. In the past 3 years, a number of prospective studies have been published supporting intrathecal drug delivery systems for cancer pain. Additional investigation with adjuvants to morphine-based analgesia including dexmedetomidine and ziconotide support drug-induced benefits of patient-controlled intrathecal analgesia. A study has also been recently published regarding cost-savings for intrathecal drug delivery system compared to pharmacologic management, but an analysis in the Ontario, Canada healthcare system projects additional financial costs. Finally, the Polyanalgesic Consensus Committee has updated its recommendations regarding clinical guidelines for intrathecal drug delivery systems to include new information on dosing, trialing, safety, and systemic opioid reduction. There is still a paucity of clinical evidence for spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of cancer pain. There are new intrathecal drugs under investigation including various conopeptides and AYX1. Large, prospective, modern, randomized controlled studies are still needed to support the use of both intrathecal drug delivery systems as well as spinal cord stimulation for cancer pain populations. There are multiple prospective and small randomized controlled studies that highlight a potential promising future for these interventional modalities. Related to the challenge and urgency of cancer pain, the pain practitioner community is moving toward a multimodal approach that includes discussions regarding the role of intrathecal therapies and spinal cord stimulation to the individualized treatment of patients.

  5. Optimising pain management- An update

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Types of pain. There are three types of pain, namely acute pain, chronic non- cancer (non-malignant) pain and cancer pain (chronic malignant pain). These types are explained in more detail below. Acute pain. This is defined as pain of recent onset and of short or limited duration. The pain is related to an identifiable cause.

  6. Attitude and knowledge of physicians about cancer pain management: young doctors of South Korea in their early career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hyun; Park, Hyeonggeun; Park, Eun Chul; Park, Keeho

    2011-06-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the attitude and knowledge about the optimal use of opioids and finding out the barriers to cancer pain management especially for young doctors in South Korea. A survey through questionnaire form was conducted on 1204 physicians. Physicians were grouped by their medical specialties and personal characteristics. Specialties were grouped into internal medicine and family medicine doctors, surgeons, anesthesiologists, pediatricians, other board holders and general physicians. Personal characteristics were grouped by their past experiences and current surroundings. Though many doctors thought that they were fairly well educated for pain management strategy, a large population of physicians showed a negative attitude and inadequate knowledge status about cancer pain management. The degree of attitude and knowledge status was different as their specialties and personal experiences. The factors that affected doctors' attitude and knowledge were: (i) medical specialty, (ii) past history of using practical pain assessment tool, (iii) self-perception of knowledge status about pain management, (iv) experience of prescribing opioids, (v) experience of education for cancer pain management. Although many physicians had a passive attitude in prescribing opioid analgesics, they are willingly open to use opioids for cancer pain management in the future. The most important perceived barriers to optimal cancer pain management were the fear for risk of tolerance, drug addiction, side effects of opioid analgesics and knowledge deficit about opioid analgesics. From this study, we found that further education and practical training will be needed for adequate cancer pain management for young physicians in their early career.

  7. Investigation and analysis of oncologists' knowledge of morphine usage in cancer pain treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu W

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Weiran Liu,1,* Shumin Xie,2,* Lin Yue,3,* Jiahao Liu,2 Stephanie Mu-Lian Woo,4 Weilin Liu,2 Adam R Miller,5 Jing Zhang,6 Lijun Huang,7 Lei Zhang8,*1Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Department of Anesthesia, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 2The Xiangya Medical School of Central-South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 3Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Outpatient Service, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 4Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA; 5Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 6Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 7Hunan Provincial Tumor Hospital, Department of Lymphoma and Hematology, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 8Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Lung Cancer Center, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tianjin, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this paperPurpose: To examine oncologists' knowledge of cancer pain and morphine's clinical application in the People's Republic of China. In addition, this study analyzes and discusses the negative factors that currently affect the clinical application of morphine.Patients and methods: A questionnaire survey was given to a random sample of 150 oncologists from Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital. The statistical results were analyzed and processed using SPSS version 21.0 and Matlab version 2012a statistical software. Single-factor analysis of variance, Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric test, and independent samples t-test were adopted to analyze the difference in knowledge scores of morphine usage. The study

  8. Inducible Lentivirus-Mediated siRNA against TLR4 Reduces Nociception in a Rat Model of Bone Cancer Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruirui Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bone cancer pain is still not fully understood by scientists and clinicians alike, studies suggest that toll like receptor 4 (TLR4 plays an important role in the initiation and/or maintenance of pathological pain state in bone cancer pain. A promising treatment for bone cancer pain is the downregulation of TLR4 by RNA interference; however, naked siRNA (small interference RNA is not effective in long-term treatments. In order to concoct a viable prolonged treatment for bone cancer pain, an inducible lentivirus LvOn-siTLR4 (tetracycline inducible lentivirus carrying siRNA targeting TLR4 was prepared and the antinociception effects were observed in bone cancer pain rats induced by Walker 256 cells injection in left leg. Results showed that LvOn-siTLR4 intrathecal injection with doxycycline (Dox oral administration effectively reduced the nociception induced by Walker 256 cells while inhibiting the mRNA and protein expression of TLR4. Proinflammatory cytokines as TNF-α and IL-1β in spinal cord were also decreased. These findings suggest that TLR4 could be a target for bone cancer pain treatment and tetracycline inducible lentivirus LvOn-siTLR4 represents a new potential option for long-term treatment of bone cancer pain.

  9. A Young Female Athlete With Acute Low Back Pain Caused by Stage IV Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Evan A

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the case of a young female athlete with low back pain caused by metastatic breast cancer. A 27-year-old woman presented with low back pain after striking a ball during kickball 3 days earlier. Because of the mechanism of injury and onset, the patient was originally diagnosed with a lumbar spine sprain/strain. After radiographs were obtained and were read as unremarkable, a 2-week trial of care was initiated that included soft-tissue mobilizations, anti-inflammatory medications from her primary care physician, and therapeutic rehabilitation exercises. After this trial concluded, the patient did not improve and continued to be in significant pain. Magnetic resonance imaging was then ordered and revealed an expansile lesion at L2 with cortical compromise. Referral to an oncologist prompted the diagnosis of stage IV breast cancer. Poor response to conservative treatment may indicate the working diagnosis is incorrect and that it must be reconsidered. In this case, a lack of response to care with persistent high severity of pain despite a multimodal approach justified further investigation with advanced imaging, which revealed spinal metastases secondary to breast cancer. Clinicians should be aware of history and physical exam indicators of red flag conditions that may present as low back pain.

  10. The Danish version of the questionnaire on pain communication: preliminary validation in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Møldrup, Claus; Christrup, Lona Louring

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The modified version of the patients' Perceived Involvement in Care Scale (M-PICS) is a tool designed to assess cancer patients' perceptions of patient-health care provider pain communication process. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the shorte......BACKGROUND: The modified version of the patients' Perceived Involvement in Care Scale (M-PICS) is a tool designed to assess cancer patients' perceptions of patient-health care provider pain communication process. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties...... of the shortened Danish version of the M-PICS (SDM-PICS). METHODS: The validated English version of the M-PICS was translated into Danish following the repeated back-translation procedure. Cancer patients were recruited for the study from specialized pain management facilities. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients...... responded to the SDM-PICS, Danish Barriers Questionnaire II, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Brief Pain Inventory Pain Severity Scale. A factor analysis of the SDM-PICS resulted in two factors: Factor one, patient information, consisted of four items assessing the extent to which the patient...

  11. Evidence-based practice for pain management for cancer patients in an acute care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mona; Kim, Hee Sun; Chung, Su Kyoung; Ahn, Mee Jung; Yoo, Jae Yong; Park, Ok Sun; Woo, So Rah; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Sun Ah; Oh, Eui Geum

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to implement an evidence utilization project using an audit and feedback approach to improve cancer pain management. A three-phased audit and feedback approach was used. A 46-bed oncology nursing unit in the university's cancer centre was selected as a research site. Nursing records extracted from 137 patients (65 for the baseline assessment and 72 for the follow-up audit) were used to examine nurse compliance with four audit criteria derived from best practice guidelines related to the assessment and management of pain. We observed a significant improvement in compliance from baseline to follow-up for the following criteria: documenting the side effects of opioids (2-83%), use of a formalized pain assessment tool (22-75%), and providing education for pain assessment and management to patients and caregivers (0-47%). The audit and feedback method was applicable to the implementation of clinical practice guidelines for cancer pain management. Leadership from both administrative personnel and staff nurses working together contributes to the spread of an evidence-based practice culture in clinical settings. As it was conducted in a single oncology nursing unit and was implemented over a short period of time, the results should be carefully interpreted. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Music versus distraction for procedural pain and anxiety in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwekkeboom, Kristine L

    2003-01-01

    To test the hypotheses that the effects of a music intervention are greater than those of simple distraction and that either intervention is better at controlling procedural pain and anxiety than treatment as usual. Randomized, controlled experiment. A midwestern comprehensive cancer center. 60 people with cancer having noxious medical procedures such as tissue biopsy or port placement or removal; 58 provided usable data. Participants completed measures of pain and anxiety before and after their medical procedures and provided a rating of perceived control over pain and anxiety after the procedure. Procedural pain, state anxiety, and perceived control over pain and anxiety. Contrary to hypotheses, outcomes achieved with music did not differ from those achieved with simple distraction. Moreover, outcomes achieved under treatment as usual were not significantly different from those obtained with music or distraction interventions. Some patients found that the interventions were bothersome and reported that they wanted to attend to the activities of the surgeon and the medical procedure itself. The effects of music, distraction, and treatment as usual are equivocal. In addition, patients have individual preferences for use of distraction during painful or anxiety-provoking procedures. Patients having noxious medical procedures should be asked about their desire to be distracted before and during the procedure and offered a strategy that is consistent with their preferences.

  13. Mechanism of neuroadenolysis of the pituitary for cancer pain control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, A.; Yanagida, H.; Erdmann, W.; Kok, A.

    1984-01-01

    Studied whether neuronal activity of the pituitary gland, as related to the primary somatosensory cortex, may be involved in the pain perception pathway influenced by neuroadenolysis of the pituitary. EEG and tooth-pulp EPs (TPEPs) were examined in 3 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Findings

  14. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided coeliac plexus neurolysis to reduce pain in patients with pancreatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Andreas Slot; Karstensen, John Gésdal; Cherciu, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Pain is among the most common symptoms in patients with pancreatic cancer and up to 80% require analgesics, most often as opioids. Unfortunately the analgesic effect is frequently insufficient, and increasing doses are required, resulting in unpleasant side effects. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided n...

  15. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain:patient report vs. systematic assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Torsten; Christrup, Lona Louring; Højsted, Jette

    2011-01-01

    relieving distressing symptoms and managing the side effects of analgesics are essential in order to improve quality of life and functional capacity in chronic non-cancer pain patients. A quick, reliable and valid tool for assessing symptoms and side effects is needed in order to optimize treatment...

  16. Changes in symptoms and pain intensity of cancer patients after enrollment in palliative care at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumitrescu, Luminita; van den Heuvel-Olaroiu, Marinela; van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the activities and interventions carried out by an at-home palliative care team treating cancer patients who died within two years of being enrolled in a palliative care program. It analyzes which changes in symptoms and pain occurred and which sociodemographic and medical

  17. Multimodal prevention of pain, nausea and vomiting after breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner, Rune; Kroman, N; Callesen, T

    2010-01-01

    Despite many one- or two-modal attempts to relieve postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and pain, postoperative issues following breast cancer surgery remain a substantial problem. Therefore, the aim of this explorative, hypothesis-generating study was to evaluate the effect of a multimodal...

  18. Spiritual Needs among Patients with Chronic Pain Diseases and Cancer Living in a Secular Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büssing, Arndt; Janko, Annina; Baumann, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    . Methods In an anonymous cross-sectional study, standardized questionnaires were provided to German patients with chronic pain diseases (and cancer), i.e., Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ), Spirituality/Religiosity and Coping (SpREUK-15), Spiritual Well-being (FACIT-Sp), Brief Multidimensional Life...

  19. Pain characteristics and management of inpatients admitted to a comprehensive cancer centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurita, G P; Tange, U B; Farholt, H

    2013-01-01

    Health Organization performance status, health-related quality of life, pain and data regarding analgesic treatment were registered. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-four (71.3%) patients agreed to participate in the study. Most frequent diagnoses were leukaemia (27.6%) and lung cancer (14.2%). A high...

  20. Increasing the efficacy of a celiac plexus block in patients with severe pancreatic cancer pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vranken, J. H.; Zuurmond, W. W.; de Lange, J. J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical possibilities of placing a catheter near the celiac plexus for performance of a celiac plexus block, and to study the efficacy of repeated neurolytic celiac plexus blocks with alcohol in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer pain resistant

  1. Hemi body irradiation: An economical way of palliation of pain in bone metastasis in advanced cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary aim of this prospective non-randomized study was to evaluate the effect of hemi-body irradiation (HBI on pain and quality of life in cancer patients with extensive bone metastases. The secondary aim was to evaluate side-effects and cost-effectiveness of the treatment. Materials and Methods: Between March 2008 and December 2010, a total of 23 (male = 14, female = 9, median age = 60 years diagnosed cases of metastatic cancer patients (prostate = 11, breast = 6, and lung = 6 received HBI, which was delivered as lower (n = 7 (dose = 8 Gy, upper (n = 8 (dose = 6 Gy, or sequential HBI (n = 8 with a Telecobalt unit (Theratron 780C. Among them, one lung cancer patient died at 2 months and one prostate cancer patient defaulted after the second follow-up. Thus, 21 patients (male = 13, female = 8, median age = 65 years (prostatic cancer = 10, breast cancer = 6, and lung cancer = 5 were followed up for a minimum of 6 months. Evaluations were performed before and at 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks after treatment. Pain evaluation was done by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Verbal Rating Scale (VRS, Percentage of Pain Relief (PRR, and Global Pain Score (GPS. Toxicity was assessed by CTC v-3 toxicity scores in the medical record. Assessment of oral morphine consumption was done before and after radiation using paired t-test, and correlation analysis was also done with decrease of morphine consumption and reduction of pain score using statistical analysis. Results: Response (control of pain was partial (PR in 67% and complete (CR in 22% of patients. For most patients, the pain control lasted throughout the follow-up period (6 months. From 66.66% patients requiring 13 or more Morphine (10 mg tablets per day prior to HBI, none of the patients required to consume 13 or more Morphine (10 mg tablets per day following HBI, which was correlated with significant reduction in various pain scores (P < 0.05. One way ANOVA with Dunnett′s Multiple Comparison

  2. Evaluation of Bone Cancer Pain Induced by Different Doses of Walker 256 Mammary Gland Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Changsheng; Wu, RuiXin; Wu, Jing; Guo, Jing; Wang, Fangyuan; Fu, Yanli; Wang, Qing; Xu, Ling; Wang, Juyong

    2016-01-01

    Cancer pain is a complex medical syndrome. Understanding its underlying mechanisms relies on the use of animal models which can mimic the human condition. A crucial component of this model is the quantity of tumor cells; however, the exact relationship between the doses of tumor cells on bone cancer pain is yet unknown. We explored the relationship of different doses of Walker 256 carcinoma cells using a bone cancer pain model in rats, and evaluated its success and stability. Experimental animal study using a comparative design. Experimental Animal Center and Tumor Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine. We constructed the bone cancer pain model by implanting Walker 256 carcinoma cells into the right tibia of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (150 - 170 g). Spontaneous pain, mechanical threshold, and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) were measured and x-ray, bone mineral density (BMD), histological, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) mRNA, carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were analyzed for bone pain model evaluation. The results showed that: (1) the 3 doses (3×105, 3.5×105, 4×105) of Walker 256 carcinoma cells can induce bone cancer pain from day 7 to day 21 after implantation into the right tibia of SD rats; (2) compared to the control group, 3×105, 3.5×105, and 4×105 Walker 256 carcinoma cells produced different pain manifestations, where the 3.5×105 dose of Walker 256 carcinoma cells resulted in the greatest bone cancer pain response; (3) the 3.5×105 dose induced the lowest mortality rate in rats; (4) Walker 256 carcinoma cells (3×105, 3.5×105, and 4×105) resulted in a significant decrease in the general condition and body weight of rats, where the 3.5×105 and 4×105 doses of carcinoma cells produced a greater effect than 3×105 dose of carcinoma cells; (5) progressive spontaneous pain, PWL, and mechanical threshold were exacerbated by 3.5×105 and 4×105 doses of carcinoma cells; (6) implantation of 3.5×105

  3. Antinociceptive Effect of Intrathecal Microencapsulated Human Pheochromocytoma Cell in a Rat Model of Bone Cancer Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human pheochromocytoma cells, which are demonstrated to contain and release met-enkephalin and norepinephrine, may be a promising resource for cell therapy in cancer-induced intractable pain. Intrathecal injection of alginate-poly (l lysine-alginate (APA microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells leads to antinociceptive effect in a rat model of bone cancer pain, and this effect was blocked by opioid antagonist naloxone and alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist rauwolscine. Neurochemical changes of cerebrospinal fluid are in accordance with the analgesic responses. Taken together, these data support that human pheochromocytoma cell implant-induced antinociception was mediated by met-enkephalin and norepinephrine secreted from the cell implants and acting at spinal receptors. Spinal implantation of microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells may provide an alternative approach for the therapy of chronic intractable pain.

  4. The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Steve; Siemion, Andrew; De Boer, David; Enriquez, J. Emilio; Foster, Griffin; Gajjar, Vishal; Hellbourg, Greg; Hickish, Jack; Isaacson, Howard; Lebofsky, Matt; MacMahon, David; Price, Daniel; Werthimer, Dan

    2018-01-01

    The $100M, 10-year philanthropic "Breakthrough Listen" project is driving an unprecedented expansion of the search for intelligent life beyond Earth. Modern instruments allow ever larger regions of parameter space (luminosity function, duty cycle, beaming fraction, frequency coverage) to be explored, which is enabling us to place meaningful physical limits on the prevalence of transmitting civilizations. Data volumes are huge, and preclude long-term storage of the raw data products, so real-time and machine learning processing techniques must be employed to identify candidate signals as well as simultaneously classifying interfering sources. However, the Galaxy is now known to be a target-rich environment, teeming with habitable planets.Data from Breakthrough Listen can also be used by researchers in other areas of astronomy to study pulsars, fast radio bursts, and a range of other science targets. Breakthrough Listen is already underway in the optical and radio bands, and is also engaging with facilities across the world, including Square Kilometer Array precursors and pathfinders. I will give an overview of the technology, science goals, data products, and roadmap of Breakthrough Listen, as we attempt to answer one of humanity's oldest questions: Are we alone?

  5. Information and Announcements The Breakthrough Prize

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 10. Breakthrough Prize. B Sury Rajaram Nityananda Dipshikha Chakravortty. Information and Announcements Volume 19 Issue 10 October 2014 pp 966-969. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Simulation of experimental breakthrough curves using multiprocess ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we have studied the behaviour of reactive solute trans- port through stratified porous medium under the influence of multi-process non- equilibrium transport model. Various experiments were carried out in the laboratory and the experimental breakthrough curves were observed at spatially placed sam ...

  7. Study of breakthrough operations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuy, T.N.; Hayes, G.P.; Martell, P.; Lyons, V.E.; Andrews, J.A.C.

    1976-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine breakthrough operations in past wars of recent history so as to provide a basic understanding of the essentials of such operations, and to assist those in the nuclear community who are modeling breakthrough operations, as well as those decision-makers who will shape the US capability to defeat a potential breakthrough in conventional or tactical nuclear combat. The twelve operations selected were: (1) Megiddo Campaign, September 19 to 21, 1918; (2) Battle of Flanders, May 10 to 21, 1940; (3) Ukraine Invasion, June 21 to 26, 1941; (4) Battle of Jitra, Malaya, December 8 to 12, 1941; (5) Leningrad Breakthrough, January 12 to 18, 1943; (6) Operations ''Citadel'' (Kursk), July 4 to 15, 1943; (7) Belgorod-Kharkov Offensive, August 3 to 11, 1943; ((8) Operation ''Cobra'' (Normandy), July 24 to 28, 1944; (9) Battle of Mutangkiang, Manchuria, August 9 to 15, 1945; (10) Korean Invasion, June 25 to 28, 1950; (11) Second Sinai Campaign, June 5 to 8, 1967; and (12) Golan Heights Assault, June 9 to 10, 1967.

  8. Exploring the Market for Breakthrough Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortt, J. Roland; Langley, David J.; Pals, Nico

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the gap between futures research (long term) and market research (short term) is closed in two ways. Firstly, by describing methods of market exploration that can be used earlier on in the process of development and diffusion of breakthrough technologies, so market research can be

  9. Breakthroughs in Action Research through Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Terry

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses how major breakthroughs in generating, analysing and disseminating action research about problem-based learning were made through the medium of poetry. I used poetry in three ways: as data, as an interpretive device and as a reflective medium. Poetry helped me to disseminate my research in provocative, memorable and…

  10. Flipped Instruction: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    IGI Global, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The integration of technology into modern classrooms has enhanced learning opportunities for students. With increased access to educational content, students gain a better understanding of the concepts being taught. "Flipped Instruction: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice" is a comprehensive reference source for the latest scholarly…

  11. Cancer patients with pain: the spouse/partner relationship and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Mary Ann; Small, Brent J; Donovan, Kristine A; Overcash, Janine; McMillan, Susan

    2011-01-01

    A diagnosis of cancer affects not only the patient but also his/her spouse/partner. In addition to facing a life-threatening illness, changes in role and financial threats can impact the dyad. This dyadic study examined the effects of financial concerns and pain on the quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients and their partners. The partner relationship and the partners' coping style were explored for mediating the couples' outcomes. Participants consisted of 177 dyads with both sexes as patients and partners in committed, heterosexual relationships. Patients had a mix of cancer diagnoses and were in various phases of treatment. Each participant completed 4 of the same instruments. Partners also completed coping and financial concerns measures, and patients completed pain and symptom distress measures. Pathway analysis, using structural equation modeling, examined the effects of pain and financial concerns on relationship quality, partners' coping style, and QOL for the dyad. Partners' coping style affected only their own QOL (0.16; P = .05). Pain had a significantly negative direct effect (-0.51; P = .05) on patients' QOL and no direct relationship to the partner's QOL. Financial concerns affected the QOL of both patients (-0.13; P = .05) and partners (-0.36; P = .05). The relationship mediated a decrease in patient pain from -0.51 to -0.58, a significant total effect (P = .05). The partners' relationship lessened pain's negative effect. Financial concerns were a significant issue for both dyad members, but the quality of the relationship was not compromised. Patients' pain may be affected by the quality of the marital relationship.

  12. Clinical Prediction Model and Tool for Assessing Risk of Persistent Pain After Breast Cancer Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meretoja, Tuomo J; Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Bruce, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Persistent pain after breast cancer surgery is a well-recognized problem, with moderate to severe pain affecting 15% to 20% of women at 1 year from surgery. Several risk factors for persistent pain have been recognized, but tools to identify high-risk patients and preventive interventions...... are missing. The aim was to develop a clinically applicable risk prediction tool. Methods The prediction models were developed and tested using three prospective data sets from Finland (n = 860), Denmark (n = 453), and Scotland (n = 231). Prediction models for persistent pain of moderate to severe intensity...... at 1 year postoperatively were developed by logistic regression analyses in the Finnish patient cohort. The models were tested in two independent cohorts from Denmark and Scotland by assessing the areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC-AUCs). The outcome variable was moderate...

  13. Central Pain and Complex Motoric Symptoms after Gosarelin Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ernst

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old man with prostate cancer T3N0M0 and increasing PSA was treated with goserelin three times in a half year. As soon as the first treatment, he described subjective muscle weakness. After the third treatment, he developed complex motoric symptoms and atypical central pain with a likely association to goserelin. His left arm had signs of spastic movement; pain deteriorated after relaxation. The right hand showed muscle cramps under passive movements of the left arm that were not typical for rigor. He felt aching and partial burning pain in his whole body. There were few allodynic areas, mainly in the left arm. Several treatment approaches failed and the patient died some weeks after the first contact with our pain clinic due to pneumonia.

  14. The efficacy of nerve growth factor antibody in a mouse model of neuropathic cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Kamoda, Hiroto; Suzuki, Miyako; Inoue, Gen; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Kentaro; Suzuki, Takane; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Takaso, Masashi; Ohtori, Seiji

    2016-11-01

    Neuropathic cancer pain is caused by tumors compressing the spinal nerve roots and is usually difficult to treat. The aim of current study was to determine the influence of NGF antibody on pain-related markers and behavior in a mouse model of neuropathic cancer pain. Twenty mice were used to model neuropathic cancer pain by applying murine sarcoma cells to their left sciatic nerve. Ten mice were sham operated. Two weeks after surgery, the murine sarcoma-affected mice were allocated randomly into treatment groups receiving either sterile saline (saline group) or an anti-nerve growth factor antibody (anti-NGF group). Three weeks after surgery (a week after treatment), the pain-related behavior of mice was evaluated using a CatWalk system. Subsequently, bilateral dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) from the L4-L6 levels and spinal cords at L4-L6 levels were resected. DRGs were immunostained for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF-3), and spinal cords were immunostained for ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 (iba-1). Mechanical allodynia was observed in mice from the saline group and was improved in mice from the anti-NGF group. CGRP and ATF-3-immunoreactivity in DRGs and microglia expression in the spinal dorsal horn were upregulated in the saline group compared with the sham group, and they were suppressed in the anti-NGF group compared with the saline group (P<0.05). These findings suggest that anti-NGF therapy might be valuable for treating neuropathic cancer pain.

  15. An ethnographic study of barriers to cancer pain management and opioid availability in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaron, Virginia; Beck, Susan L; Maurer, Martha; Black, Fraser; Palat, Gayatri

    2014-05-01

    The world's global cancer burden disproportionally affects lower income countries, where 80% of patients present with late-stage disease and have limited access to palliative care and effective pain-relieving medications, such as morphine. Consequently, millions die each year with unrelieved pain. Objective. The objective of this study was to examine barriers to opioid availability and cancer pain management in India, with an emphasis on the experiences of nurses, who are often the front-line providers of palliative care. Methods. Fifty-nine participants were recruited using a purposive, snowball sampling strategy. Ethnographic data collection included in-depth, semistructured interviews (n = 54), 400+ hours of participant observation, and review of documents over 9 months at a government cancer hospital in South India. Systematic qualitative analysis led to identification of key barriers that are exemplified by representative quotes. Results. Morphine is more available at this study site than in most of India, but access is limited to patients seen by the palliative care service, and significant gaps in supply still occur. Systems to measure and improve pain outcomes are largely absent. Key barriers related to pain management include the role of nursing, opioid misperceptions, bureaucratic hurdles, and sociocultural/infrastructure challenges. Implications. Interventions must streamline process details of morphine procurement, work within the existing sociocultural infrastructure to ensure opioids reach patients most in need, target unexpected audiences for symptom management education, and account for role expectations of health care providers. Conclusion. Macro- and micro-level policy and practice changes are needed to improve opioid availability and cancer pain management in India.

  16. Disease burden and pain in obese cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox-Martin, Emily; Trahan, Lisa H; Cox, Matthew G; Dougherty, Patrick M; Lai, Emily A; Novy, Diane M

    2017-06-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) and obesity are prevalent in cancer survivors and decrease quality of life; however, the impact of the co-occurrence of these conditions has garnered little attention. This study investigated differences between obese and non-obese cancer survivors with CIPN and predictors of symptom burden and pain. Patients with CIPN were administered the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory and a modified version of pain descriptors from the McGill Pain Inventory. Independent t tests assessed group differences between obese and non-obese survivors, and linear regression analyses explored predictors of patient outcomes. Results indicated a significant difference in symptom severity scores for obese (M = 32.89, SD = 25.53) versus non-obese (M = 19.35, SD = 16.08) patients (t(37.86) = -2.49, p = .02). Significant differences were also found for a total number of pain descriptors endorsed by obese (M = 4.21, SD = 3.45) versus non-obese (M = 2.42, SD = 2.69) participants (t(74) = -2.53, p = .01). Obesity was a significant predictor of symptom severity and total pain descriptors endorsed. Other significant predictors included age and months since treatment. Cancer survivors with CIPN and co-occurring obesity may be more at risk for decreased quality of life through increased symptom severity and pain compared to non-obese survivors. This paper identified risk factors, including obesity, age, and months since treatment, that can be clinically identified for monitoring distress in CIPN patients. Future research should focus on the longitudinal relationship between obesity and CIPN, and robust interventions to address the multifaceted issues faced by cancer survivors.

  17. Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121

  18. Phantom limb pain in young cancer-related amputees: Recent experience at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, Laura L.; Billups, Catherine A.; Jirón, José L.; Kaddoum, Roland N.; Wright, Becky B.; Bikhazi, George B.; Parish, Mary Edna; Pereiras, Lilia A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study in children and young adults having cancer-related amputation aimed to examine the incidence of phantom limb pain in the first year after amputation and also the proportion of patients who had pre-amputation pain. Methods A retrospective review of medical records was undertaken. The proportion of patients with phantom limb pain was reported. Fisher’s exact test was used to examine the association between phantom limb pain and the presence of pre-amputation pain and between phantom limb pain and age (≤18 years vs. >18 years). Results 26 amputations were performed on 25 patients. During the year following amputation, 76% of patients had experienced phantom limb pain at some time. After 1 year, though, only 10% still had phantom limb pain. Pre-amputation pain was present in 64% of patients. Although both of our patients with PLP at 1 year were young adults (≥18 years) and both had pre-amputation pain, we found no statistically significant associations between age or the presence of pre-amputation pain with phantom limb pain. Discussion Phantom limb pain following cancer related amputation in children and young adults appears to be common but generally short lived in most patients. PMID:21785344

  19. Bupivacaine administered intrathecally versus rectally in the management of intractable rectal cancer pain in palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporowska-Stachowiak I

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Iwona Zaporowska-Stachowiak,1,2 Grzegorz Kowalski,3 Jacek Łuczak,2 Katarzyna Kosicka,4 Aleksandra Kotlinska-Lemieszek,3 Maciej Sopata,3 Franciszek Główka4 1Chair and Department of Pharmacology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 2Palliative Medicine In-patient Unit, University Hospital of Lord's Transfiguration, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 3Palliative Medicine Chair and Department, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 4Department of Physical Pharmacy and Pharmacokinetics, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland Background: Unacceptable adverse effects, contraindications to and/or ineffectiveness of World Health Organization step III "pain ladder" drugs causes needless suffering among a population of cancer patients. Successful management of severe cancer pain may require invasive treatment. However, a patient's refusal of an invasive procedure necessitates that clinicians consider alternative options. Objective: Intrathecal bupivacaine delivery as a viable treatment of intractable pain is well documented. There are no data on rectal bupivacaine use in cancer patients or in the treatment of cancer tenesmoid pain. This study aims to demonstrate that bupivacaine administered rectally could be a step in between the current treatment options for intractable cancer pain (conventional/conservative analgesia or invasive procedures, and to evaluate the effect of the mode of administration (intrathecal versus rectal on the bupivacaine plasma concentration.Cases: We present two Caucasian, elderly inpatients admitted to hospice due to intractable rectal/tenesmoid pain. The first case is a female with vulvar cancer, and malignant infiltration of the rectum/vagina. Bupivacaine was used intrathecally (0.25–0.5%, 1–2 mL every 6 hours. The second case is a female with ovarian cancer and malignant rectal infiltration. Bupivacaine was adminstered rectally (0.05–0.1%, 100 m

  20. Quality of life and impact of pain in women treated with aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer. A multicenter cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Françoise; Perrot, Serge; Medkour, Terkia; Cottu, Paul-Henri; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Lotz, Jean-Pierre; Beerblock, Karine; Tournigand, Christophe; Chauvenet, Laure; Bouhassira, Didier; Coste, Joël

    2017-01-01

    Women with hormone-dependent breast cancer are treated with aromatase inhibitors (AI) to slow disease progression by decreasing estrogen levels. However, AI have adverse effects, including pain, with potentially serious impact on quality of life (QOL) and treatment compliance. We evaluated quality of life during the first year of AI treatment, focusing particularly on the impact of pain. In a multicenter cohort study of 135 women with early-stage breast cancer, free of pain at the initiation of AI treatment, quality of life (by the EORTC QLQ-BR23), somatic and psychic symptoms, psychological characters, temperament and coping strategies were assessed at baseline and at each follow-up visit (1, 3, 6 and 12 months). The impact of treatment-induced pain on quality of life during follow-up was determined with repeated-measures regression models. These models were constructed to assess the effects of pain and pain type on quality of life during follow-up, taking into account predictors associated with quality of life at baseline. Prior ganglion resection, taxane treatment and chemotherapy, a high amplification score on the pain catastrophizing scale, and a high harm avoidance score on the personality questionnaire were associated with a significantly lower baseline QOL. Fifty-seven percent of women developed pain of five different types: upper or lower limb joint pain, diffuse pain, neuropathic pain, tendon pain and mixed pain. A significant decrease in QOL was noted in the women with pain, particularly for body image, sexual functioning and future perspectives. Moreover, the impact of pain on QOL depended on the type of pain experienced. In conclusion, women treated with aromatase inhibitors display changes in quality of life and the degree of change in quality of life depends mostly on the type of pain experienced. Oncologists and patients should be aware of painful adverse effects of AI and encouraged to provide or receive earlier and more appropriate management of

  1. Use of Art-Making Intervention for Pain and Quality of Life Among Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Soo; Loring, Sarah; Kwekkeboom, Kristine

    2017-08-01

    Although pain is one of the most prevalent symptoms among cancer patients, medications do not always result in sufficient pain relief. Furthermore, these medications only address the physical component of pain. Art making, a holistic approach, may distract the user's attention from pain and allow expression of the nonphysical (e.g., psychological, spiritual) components of pain. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate evidence for the efficacy of art-making interventions in reducing pain and improving health-related quality of life (QoL) among cancer patients. PubMed, Academic Search Premier, ProQuest, and CINAHL were searched from database inception to September 2016 using the following search terms: neoplasm, cancer, tumor, pain, pain management, quality of life (QoL), well-being, art therapy, painting, and drawing. Fourteen articles reporting 13 studies were reviewed. Some studies reported beneficial effects of art making on pain and QoL, but the evidence was weakened by poor study quality ratings, heterogeneity in art-making interventions and outcome measures, interventions including non-art-making components, and few randomized controlled studies. More rigorous research is needed to demonstrate the efficacy of art making in relieving cancer-related pain and improving QoL.

  2. Patient Preferences for Pain Management in Advanced Cancer: Results from a Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meads, David M; O'Dwyer, John L; Hulme, Claire T; Chintakayala, Phani; Vinall-Collier, Karen; Bennett, Michael I

    2017-10-01

    Pain from advanced cancer remains prevalent, severe and often under-treated. The aim of this study was to conduct a discrete choice experiment with patients to understand their preferences for pain management services and inform service development. Focus groups were used to develop the attributes and levels of the discrete choice experiment. The attributes were: waiting time, type of healthcare professional, out-of-pocket costs, side-effect control, quality of communication, quality of information and pain control. Patients completed the discrete choice experiment along with clinical and health-related quality of life questions. Conditional and mixed logit models were used to analyse the data. Patients with cancer pain (n = 221) and within palliative care services completed the survey (45% were female, mean age 64.6 years; age range 21-92 years). The most important aspects of pain management were: good pain control, zero out-of-pocket costs and good side-effect control. Poor or moderate pain control and £30 costs drew the highest negative preferences. Respondents preferred control of side effects and provision of better information and communication, over access to certain healthcare professionals. Those with lower health-related quality of life were less willing to wait for treatment and willing to incur higher costs. The presence of a carer influenced preferences. Outcome attributes were more important than process attributes but the latter were still valued. Thus, supporting self-management, for example by providing better information on pain may be a worthwhile endeavour. However, service provision may need to account for individual characteristics given the heterogeneity in preferences.

  3. Associations between education and physical functioning and pain in adult Danish cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Dorte; Nygaard, Tina K; Horsbøl, Trine A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Late effects after cancer diagnosis and treatment are common, but only few studies have examined the role of social factors in developing these late effects. The aim of this study was to examine the association between educational level and physical function and pain among cancer...... survivors two years after diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population consisted of adult Danish patients with a first-time cancer diagnosis who were sent a questionnaire in 2010 and followed up in 2012. In total, 4346 returned the first questionnaire shortly after diagnosis and 2568 returned...

  4. Associations between education and physical functioning and pain in adult Danish cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Dorte; Nygaard, Tina K; Horsbøl, Trine A; Kjær, Trille; Vedsted, Peter; Johansen, Christoffer; Hovaldt, Hanna B; Sandager, Mette; Dalton, Susanne O

    2017-02-01

    Late effects after cancer diagnosis and treatment are common, but only few studies have examined the role of social factors in developing these late effects. The aim of this study was to examine the association between educational level and physical function and pain among cancer survivors two years after diagnosis. The study population consisted of adult Danish patients with a first-time cancer diagnosis who were sent a questionnaire in 2010 and followed up in 2012. In total, 4346 returned the first questionnaire shortly after diagnosis and 2568 returned the follow-up questionnaire. After exclusion of 177 due to missing information, we included 2391 cancer survivors in the analyses. Physical function and pain were measured using the EORTC QLQ-C30. Linear regression analyses were conducted separately for men and women, and adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics. Additionally, analyses were stratified on comorbidity. Differences in mean scores according to educational level were small. Physical function was better in women with medium (2.8; 95% CI 0.1;5.4) and higher education (3.4; 95% CI 0.9;5.9) compared to women with short education. In contrast, men with medium education reported lower physical function (-2.9; 95% CI -5.7;-0.1) than men with short education. Compared to women with short education, we found lower pain scores among women with medium (-5.0; 95% CI -8.7;-1.4) and higher education (-3.4; 95% CI -6.7;0.0). Similarly, men with higher education experienced lower pain score (-3.4; 95% CI -6.9;0.1) than men with short education. The role of educational level differed between those with and without comorbidity. Educational level is slightly associated with physical function and pain among cancer survivors. However, mean differences in this study were small and below what is considered clinically relevant.

  5. Pain Management Skills for Minority Breast Cancer Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Backonja, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    .... Despite improvements in cancer care for patients with early stage disease, a large number of patients will still develop metastatic disease, and mortality rates for these patients remain relatively constant...

  6. Physical activity and obesity in endometrial cancer survivors: associations with pain, fatigue, and physical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basen-Engquist, Karen; Scruggs, Stacie; Jhingran, Anuja; Bodurka, Diane C; Lu, Karen; Ramondetta, Lois; Hughes, Daniel; Carmack Taylor, Cindy

    2009-03-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence of physical activity and obesity and their relationship to physical functioning (PF), fatigue, and pain in endometrial cancer survivors. Surveys were mailed to 200 survivors of endometrial cancer diagnosed within the last 5 years; 61% were returned. Surveys assessed physical activity, height and weight, comorbid health problems, PF, fatigue, and pain. In all, 22% exercised in the past month at the level of current public health recommendations, 41% reported no physical activity, and 38% reported some activity. A total of 16% were overweight and 50% were obese. Both lower body mass index (BMI) and higher physical activity were related to better PF. Higher physical activity was related to less fatigue, primarily for patients of normal BMI. Results suggest endometrial cancer survivors' obesity and inactivity contributes to poorer quality of life. This population could benefit from quality-of-life interventions incorporating physical activity.

  7. Risk Factors of Developing Long-Lasting Breast Pain After Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstedt, Dan, E-mail: dan.lundstedt@vgregion.se [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Gustafsson, Magnus [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Steineck, Gunnar [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Malmstroem, Per [Skane Department of Oncology, Skane University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Alsadius, David [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Sundberg, Agnetha [Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wilderaeng, Ulrica [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Holmberg, Erik [Oncologic Centre, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Johansson, Karl-Axel [Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Karlsson, Per [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Postoperative radiotherapy decreases breast cancer mortality. However, studies have revealed a long-lasting breast pain among some women after radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors that contribute to breast pain after breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We identified 1,027 recurrence-free women in two cohorts of Swedish women treated for breast cancer. The women had breast-conserving surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, the breast was treated to 48 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions or to 50 Gy in 2.0-Gy fractions. Young women received a boost of up to 16 Gy. Women with more than three lymph node metastases had locoregional radiotherapy. Systemic treatments were given according to health-care guidelines. Three to 17 years after radiotherapy, we collected data using a study-specific questionnaire. We investigated the relation between breast pain and potential risk modifiers: age at treatment, time since treatment, chemotherapy, photon energy, fractionation size, boost, loco-regional radiotherapy, axillary surgery, overweight, and smoking. Results: Eight hundred seventy-seven women (85%) returned the questionnaires. Among women up to 39 years of age at treatment, 23.1% had breast pain, compared with 8.7% among women older than 60 years (RR 2.66; 95% CI 1.33-5.36). Higher age at treatment (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.94-0.98, annual decrease) and longer time since treatment (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98, annual decrease) were related to a lower occurrence of breast pain. Chemotherapy increased the occurrence of breast pain (RR 1.72; 95% CI 1.19-2.47). In the multivariable model only age and time since treatment were statistically significantly related to the occurrence of breast pain. We found no statistically significant relation between breast pain and the other potential risk modifiers. Conclusions: Younger women having undergone breast-conserving surgery with postoperative radiotherapy report a higher occurrence of long

  8. Fentanyl Formulations in the Management of Pain: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Stephan A; Ting, Sonya

    2017-05-01

    Fentanyl is a synthetic, highly selective opioid with many desirable physicochemical properties, including a high lipophilicity and predictable pharmacokinetics. These properties have an established record in the management of pain in a variety of settings, particularly acute pain and breakthrough cancer pain. Fentanyl was initially developed for parenteral use; however, this is invasive and impractical in the outpatient setting. Unfortunately, the high first-pass metabolism of fentanyl makes oral formulations unfeasible. However, its high lipophilicity allows fentanyl to be absorbed via a number of other routes. Thus new formulations were designed to allow non-invasive methods of administration. Transmucosal and transdermal fentanyl formulations are well established, and have proven useful in the settings of breakthrough cancer pain, emergencies and in the paediatric population. The iontophoretic transdermal system was developed to provide a needle-free system of delivering bolus doses of fentanyl on demand, a novel way of delivering patient-controlled opioid analgesia. Transpulmonary administration of fentanyl remains experimental. The aim of this review is to provide an update on current non-parenteral fentanyl formulations, with attention to their particular pharmacokinetics and features relevant to clinical use in pain management.

  9. Reporting characteristics of cancer pain: A systematic review and quantitative analysis of research publications in palliative care journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil P Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A common disorder requiring symptom palliation in palliative and end-of-life care is cancer. Cancer pain is recognized as a global health burden. This paper sought to systematically examine the extent to which there is an adequate scientific research base on cancer pain and its reporting characteristics in the palliative care journal literature. Materials and Methods: Search conducted in MEDLINE and CINAHL sought to locate all studies published in 19 palliative/ hospice/ supportive/ end-of-life care journals from 2009 to 2010. The journals included were: American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care, BMC Palliative Care, Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care, End of Life Care Journal, European Journal of Palliative Care, Hospice Management Advisor, Indian Journal of Palliative Care, International Journal of Palliative Nursing, Internet Journal of Pain Symptom Control and Palliative Care, Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, Journal of Palliative Care, Journal of Palliative Medicine, Journal of Social Work in End-of-life and Palliative Care, Journal of Supportive Oncology, Palliative Medicine, Palliative and Supportive Care, and Supportive Care in Cancer. Journal contents were searched to identify studies that included cancer pain in abstract. Results: During the years 2009 and 2010, of the selected 1,569 articles published in the journals reviewed, only 5.86% (92 articles were on cancer pain. Conclusion: While researchers in the field of palliative care have studied cancer pain, the total percentage for studies is still a low 5.86%. To move the field of palliative care forward so that appropriate guidelines for cancer pain management can be developed, it is critical that more research be reported upon which to base cancer pain therapy in an evidence-based palliative care model.

  10. Preoperative coping mechanisms have no predictive value for postoperative pain in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Maria Luiza; Vieira, Joaquim Edson; Mathias, Lígia Andrade Silva Telles; Gozzani, Judymara Lauzi

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between psychological coping mechanisms and symptoms of anxiety and depression in the preoperative and postoperative periods in relation to the intensity of postoperative pain among patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. Female patients who were scheduled to receive immediate surgical treatment for breast cancer were invited to participate, and answered the following questionnaires: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20), the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), and the visual analogue scale (VAS). Of the 139 patients, 122 (87.8%) had an aggressive procedure. Eighty-five patients (61.2%) had a history of preoperative pain while 54 (38.7%) had not. There was no difference in VAS scores between patients subjected to aggressive or non-aggressive surgery. Only the CSQ subscale catastrophizing showed correlation with VAS at 24 hours and with HADS/D postoperatively. The HADS scores indicated both anxiety and depression, but did not distinguish patients subjected to aggressive or non-aggressive surgery. The majority of patients did not exhibit depression and anxiety. Coping mechanisms and pain in the preoperative period did not have a strong predictive value for additional postoperative pain, but those with a higher anxiety score had greater pain.

  11. Effect of axillary lymph node dissection on prevalence and intensity of chronic and phantom pain after breast cancer surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegers, M.A.H.; Wolters, B.; Evers, A.W.; Strobbe, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pain after breast cancer surgery is a major problem and is expected to increase in the coming years because of an increased prevalence of breast cancer coupled with better survival. Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients with breast cancer is associated with nerve damage. The

  12. MODERN POSSIBILITIES OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION IN THE TREATMENT OF PAIN SYNDROME IN CANCER P ATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Abuzarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of prosidol in cheek tablets in the treatment of chronic pain syndrome in cancer patients.Material and methods. The study was conducted at 152 cancer patients with chronic pain syndrome caused by  malignant neoplasms. The objectification of pain intensity was conducted on a 5 — point verbal scale assessments (SVA, assessed the state of physical activity of patients on a 5‑point scale ECOG, objectified the mental status and a night’s sleep: 0‑no pain; 1 — slight pain; 2 — moderate pain; 3 — severe pain; 4 points unbearable pain. We registered the duration of analgesic effect of prosidol, calculated single and daily doses of analgesic in the dynamics on the stages of therapy and its side effects. The results of the study were assessed on stages: 1 — initial, before treatment, 2 — first day of therapy, 3 — completion of the selection of doses of analgesic (3–4 days, 4 — a week after the start of treatment, 5–2 weeks after the start of treatment, 6 — at the end of the 3rd week of treatment.Results. Initial single dose of buccal prosidol (20 mg caused effective analgesia after 10 to 45 (21,3+8,9 minutes after the first dose and lasted from 1 to 8 (6,0+1,8 hours: 21.8% of patients complete elimination of pain (more than 50% from baseline; in 63.6% of the pain was reduced by 30–50%; reduction of pain less than 30% — in 14.6% of patients. In General, a significant decrease in the intensity of pain with 2,47+0.37 to 0.5 to+0.30 VAS score (p<0.05. The failures of the drug were observed. All patients continued prosidol therapy after a 3‑week study period. The initial average daily dose of prosidol was 82.2 + 9,7 mg; 1 week of therapy — 112,3+16 mg, by the end of the 3rd week increased to 148,2+57 mg/day mg Tolerability was judged as good. Side effects: drowsiness and nausea most noted for 1–3 days of therapy was expressed moderately or

  13. EFFECT OF THERAPEUTIC TOUCH ON PAIN RELATED PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH CANCER: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaee, Amir; Tafreshi, Mansoureh Zagheri; Rassouli, Maryam; Aledavood, Seyed Amir; AlaviMajd, Hamid; Farahmand, Seyed Kazem

    2016-06-01

    In patients with cancer, pain may influence their life style, and feeling of satisfaction and comfort, leading to fatigue, and cause impairment of their quality of life, personal relationships, sleep and daily activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of therapeutic touch (TT) on pain related parameters of in patients with cancer. In a randomized clinical trial a total of 90 male patients referring to Specialized Oncology Hospital in Mashhad, were conveniently selected and randomly divided into three intervention, placebo, and control groups. The intervention consisted of TT in 7 sessions for a 4-week period. The data were collected using a demographic questionnaire along with the Brief Pain Inventory, which were then analyzed and compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. By comparing scores parameters of pain scales (general activity, mood, walking ability, relations with other people and sleep) in the three groups, there was no significant difference at the beginning of the first session. However, a significant difference was observed at the end of TT sessions between the three groups (p= 0.001). Furthermore, the groups were compared two-by-two by using Mann-Whitney test and Bonferroni correction, and the result indicated significant differences between the two intervention and placebo groups as well as between the two intervention and control groups. The results of the study showed that TT had a positive impact on the positive management of pain related parameters in cancer patients. Therefore, TT is suggested to be used by healthcare providers as a complementary method for managing pain and its parameters.

  14. Cancer Patients with Pain: The Spouse/Partner Relationship and Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Mary Ann; Small, Brent J.; Donovan, Kristine A.; Overcash, Janine; McMillan, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background A diagnosis of cancer affects not only the patient, but also their spouse/partner. In addition to facing a life-threatening illness, changes in role and financial threats can impact the dyad. Objective This dyadic study examined effects of financial concerns and pain on cancer patients’ and their partners’ quality of life (QOL). The partner relationship and the partners’ coping style were explored for mediating the couples’ outcomes. Methods Participants consisted of 177 dyads with both genders as patients and partners in committed, heterosexual relationships. Patients had a mix of cancer diagnoses and were in various phases of treatment. Each participant completed four of the same instruments. Partners also completed coping and financial concerns measures and patients completed pain and symptom distress measures. Results Pathway analysis, using Structural Equation Modeling, examined effects of pain and financial concerns on relationship quality, partners’ coping style and QOL for the dyad. Partners’ coping style affected only their own QOL .16 (p=0.05). Pain had a significantly negative direct effect -.51 (p=0.05) on patients’ QOL and no direct relationship to the partner’s QOL. Financial concerns affected both participants; patient -.13 (p=0.05) and partner QOL -.36 (p=0.05). The relationship mediated a decrease in patient pain from -.51 to -.58, a significant total effect (p=0.05). Conclusions The partners’ relationship lessened pain’s negative effect. Financial concerns were a significant issue for both dyad members, but the quality of the relationship was not compromised. Implications for Practice Patients’ pain may be affected by the quality of the marital relationship. PMID:21139453

  15. Influence from genetic variability on opioid use for cancer pain: a European genetic association study of 2294 cancer pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klepstad, P; Fladvad, T; Skorpen, F

    2011-01-01

    mechanisms. The patients' mean age was 62.5 years, and the average pain intensity was 3.5. The patients' primary opioids were morphine (n=830), oxycodone (n=446), fentanyl (n=699), or other opioids (n=234). Pain intensity, time on opioids, age, gender, performance status, and bone or CNS metastases predicted...... variability with opioid doses in a large population using a confirmatory validation population was warranted. We recruited 2294 adult European patients using a World Health Organization (WHO) step III opioid and analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes with a putative influence on opioid......C, HTR3D, HTR3E, HTR1, or CNR1 showed significant associations with opioid dose in both the development and the validation analyzes. These findings do not support the use of pharmacogenetic analyses for the assessed SNPs to guide opioid treatment. The study also demonstrates the importance...

  16. Mechanism-based classification and physical therapy management of persons with cancer pain: A prospective case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil P Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Mechanism-based classification (MBC was established with current evidence and physical therapy (PT management methods for both cancer and for noncancer pain. Aims: This study aims to describe the efficacy of MBC-based PT in persons with primary complaints of cancer pain. Settings and Design: A prospective case series of patients who attended the physiotherapy department of a multispecialty university-affiliated teaching hospital. Material and Methods: A total of 24 adults (18 female, 6 male aged 47.5 ± 10.6 years, with primary diagnosis of heterogeneous group of cancer, chief complaints of chronic disabling pain were included in the study on their consent for participation The patients were evaluated and classified on the basis of five predominant mechanisms for pain. Physical therapy interventions were recommended based on mechanisms identified and home program was prescribed with a patient log to ensure compliance. Treatments were given in five consecutive weekly sessions for five weeks each of 30 min duration. Statistical Analysis Used: Pre-post comparisons for pain severity (PS and pain interference (PI subscales of Brief pain inventory-Cancer pain (BPI-CP and, European organization for research and treatment in cancer-quality of life questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30 were done using Wilcoxon signed-rank test at 95% confidence interval using SPSS for Windows version 16.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL. Results: There were statistically significant ( P < 0.05 reduction in pain severity, pain interference and total BPI-CP scores, and the EORTC-QLQ-C30. Conclusion: MBC-PT was effective for improving BPI-CP and EORTC-QLQ-C30 scores in people with cancer pain.

  17. Clinical characteristics of veterans prescribed high doses of opioid medications for chronic non-cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasco, Benjamin J; Duckart, Jonathan P; Carr, Thomas P; Deyo, Richard A; Dobscha, Steven K

    2010-12-01

    Little is known about patients prescribed high doses of opioids to treat chronic non-cancer pain, though these patients may be at higher risk for medication-related complications. We describe the prevalence of high-dose opioid use and associated demographic and clinical characteristics among veterans treated in a VA regional healthcare network. Veterans with chronic non-cancer pain prescribed high doses of opioids (≥ 180 mg/day morphine equivalent; n=478) for 90+ consecutive days were compared to two groups with chronic pain: Traditional-dose (5-179 mg/day; n=500) or no opioid (n=500). High-dose opioid use occurred in 2.4% of all chronic pain patients and in 8.2% of all chronic pain patients prescribed opioids long-term. The average dose in the high-dose group was 324.9 (SD=285.1)mg/day. The only significant demographic difference among groups was race (p=0.03) with black veterans less likely to receive high doses. High-dose patients were more likely to have four or more pain diagnoses and the highest rates of medical, psychiatric, and substance use disorders. After controlling for demographic factors and VA facility, neuropathy, low back pain, and nicotine dependence diagnoses were associated with increased likelihood of high-dose prescriptions. High-dose patients frequently did not receive care consistent with treatment guidelines: there was frequent use of short-acting opioids, urine drug screens were administered to only 25.7% of patients in the prior year, and 32.0% received concurrent benzodiazepine prescriptions, which may increase risk for overdose and death. Further study is needed to identify better predictors of high-dose usage, as well as the efficacy and safety of such dosing. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Imaging of Posttraumatic Arthritis, Avascular Necrosis, Septic Arthritis, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, and Cancer Mimicking Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupasov, Andrey; Cain, Usa; Montoya, Simone; Blickman, Johan G

    2017-09-01

    This article focuses on the imaging of 5 discrete entities with a common end result of disability: posttraumatic arthritis, a common form of secondary osteoarthritis that results from a prior insult to the joint; avascular necrosis, a disease of impaired osseous blood flow, leading to cellular death and subsequent osseous collapse; septic arthritis, an infectious process leading to destructive changes within the joint; complex regional pain syndrome, a chronic limb-confined painful condition arising after injury; and cases of cancer mimicking arthritis, in which the initial findings seem to represent arthritis, despite a more insidious cause. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of pain on physical functioning after breast cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Christensen, Karl Bang; Kehlet, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    interviews, and field tested among 389 patients treated for primary breast cancer without recurrence (response rate 81%). Median follow-up was 14 months. Using item response theory we identified 5 cause scales of reduced physical functioning; pain after surgery, musculoskeletal pain, sensory disturbances......, lymphedema and other causes. Convergent validity was assessed using the "Quick-disability of arm, shoulder and hand" scale (Q-DASH). RESULTS:: About half of the patients reported decreased physical function. All 5 scales displayed good fit, unidimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, and lack...

  20. Prediction of opioid dose in cancer pain patients using genetic profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Grønlund, Debbie; Gram, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Use of opioids for pain management has increased over the past decade; however, inadequate analgesic response is common. Genetic variability may be related to opioid efficacy, but due to the many possible combinations and variables, statistical computations may be difficult. This study...... investigated whether data processing with support vector machine learning could predict required opioid dose in cancer pain patients, using genetic profiling. Eighteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the µ and δ opioid receptor genes and the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene were selected...... dose using genetic profiling....

  1. Persian-McGill pain questionnaire; translation, adaptation and reliability in cancer patients: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravi M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: McGill pain questionnaire is the most useful standard tools for assessing pain. McGill pain questionnaire contains 78-word descriptive of the 20 subclasses form-ing in three main sensory, affective and evaluative domains. Due to cultural differences, the questionnaire has been translated into several languages. This study aimed to transl-ate MPQ into Persian language and assess its reliability, validity and acceptability in patients with cancer.Methods: The study performed in Medical Oncology Department of Cancer Institute in Imam Khomeini Hospital in the Spring 2012. After translation of MPQ by two experts fluent in English, Persian version was returned to English. Then that backward transla-tion was compared with the original questionnaire and words that did not match were reviewed.  Patients with different types of cancer who suffering from chronic pain were admitted in our study. They did not receive any kind of pain killer drugs during the pre-vious 24 hours. There was no restriction of age, sex, education, type of cancer or treat-ment modality. The reliability and validity of Persian-McGill pain questionnaire after interviewing patients was assessed by test–retest reliability and internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha.Results: In total, 84 patients were interviewed and 30 patients who were available after 24 hour with the same condition recomplete the questionnaire. Cronbach’alpha of each domain was in 0.622-0.743 and total Crobach’s alpha (n=84 was 0.85. Evaluative aspect has only one subgroup and because of this, it is not have Crobach’s alpha. The stability coefficient (n=30 in all areas (sensory, emotional, and other domains were 0.812-0.964. Stability coefficient among the 20 Persian McGill Pain Questionnaire (PMPQ subclasses showed significant and reliable relationships over time for all groups.Conclusion: This study is the first study that assessed psychometric properties and use-fulness of the MPQ in Iranian

  2. The Src family kinase inhibitor dasatinib delays pain-related behaviour and conserves bone in a rat model of cancer-induced bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, Camilla Kristine; Gallego-Pedersen, Simone; Andersen, Line

    2017-01-01

    .o.) from day 7 after inoculation of MRMT-1 mammary carcinoma cells significantly attenuated movement-evoked and non-evoked pain behaviour in cancer-bearing rats. Radiographic - and microcomputed tomographic analyses showed significantly higher relative bone density and considerably preserved bone micro...... subunit 2B. These findings support a role of dasatinib as a disease modifying drug in pain pathologies characterized by increased osteoclast activity, such as bone metastases....

  3. A qualitative study of patient and provider perspectives on using web-based pain coping skills training to treat persistent cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rini, Christine; Vu, Maihan B; Lerner, Hannah; Bloom, Catherine; Carda-Auten, Jessica; Wood, William A; Basch, Ethan M; Voorhees, Peter M; Reeder-Hayes, Katherine E; Keefe, Francis J

    2017-03-07

    Persistent pain is common and inadequately treated in cancer patients. Behavioral pain interventions are a recommended part of multimodal pain treatments, but they are underused in clinical care due to barriers such as a lack of the resources needed to deliver them in person and difficulties coordinating their use with clinical care. Pain coping skills training (PCST) is an evidence-based behavioral pain intervention traditionally delivered in person. Delivering this training via the web would increase access to it by addressing barriers that currently limit its use. We conducted a patient pilot study of an 8-week web-based PCST program to determine the acceptability of this approach to patients and the program features needed to meet their needs. Focus groups with healthcare providers identified strategies for coordinating the use of web-based PCST in clinical care. Participants included 7 adults with bone pain due to multiple myeloma or metastasized breast or prostate cancer and 12 healthcare providers (4 physicians and 8 advanced practice providers) who treat cancer-related bone pain. Patients completed web-based PCST at home and then took part in an in-depth qualitative interview. Providers attended focus groups led by a trained moderator. Qualitative analyses identified themes in the patient and provider data. Patients reported strongly favorable responses to web-based PCST and described emotional and physical benefits. They offered suggestions for adapting the approach to better fit their needs and to overcome barriers to completion. Focus groups indicated a need to familiarize healthcare providers with PCST and to address concerns about overburdening patients. Providers would recommend the program to patients they felt could benefit. They suggested applying a broad definition of cancer pain and having various types of providers help coordinate program its use with clinical care. Web-based PCST was acceptable to patients and providers. Our findings suggest

  4. Side Effects: Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling pain is an important part of your cancer treatment plan. Learn how to track levels of pain. Find out how pain, a side effect of cancer treatment, is treated using acupuncture, biofeedback, and physical therapy.

  5. Pregabalin for the management of neuropathic pain in adults with cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Michael I; Laird, Barry; van Litsenburg, Chantal; Nimour, Meryem

    2013-11-01

    To systematically identify and appraise the current literature of pregabalin in the treatment of neuropathic pain resulting from cancer or cancer treatment. A systematic review of the literature was conducted based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Studies reporting pregabalin data for adult (>18 years) patients with cancer experiencing neuropathic pain due to cancer or cancer treatment/surgery were considered eligible for inclusion. A literature search was conducted in PubMed on February 22, 2012 using the following search terms: "neuropath* AND pain AND cancer OR oncology OR tumor OR tumour AND pregabalin." Open access journals were also searched. Abstracts were screened and reviewed for eligibility based on predetermined criteria for inclusion. Data reporting pain intensity, pain interference, quality of life, symptom quality and intensity, global impression of change, treatment satisfaction, and adverse effects were the predefined factors for analysis. Data were summarized descriptively due to variations in study outcome measures. Five articles were eligible for inclusion; one double-blind National Cancer Institute common toxicity criteria controlled trial, one single-arm open-label study, two observational analyses, and one case report. There were limited published data reporting efficacy and safety outcomes for pregabalin in the treatment of neuropathic pain in adult patients with cancer. Due to limitations within the studies included in this review, it is not possible to draw any conclusions on the descriptive summary of pregabalin for the treatment of cancer-related neuropathic pain, and further studies are required. © 2013 Pfizer Inc. Pain Medicine © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Improvement in pain after lumbar surgery in cancer patients with mechanical radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliterno, Jennifer; Veselis, Clinton A; Hershey, Michael A; Lis, Eric; Laufer, Ilya; Bilsky, Mark H

    2014-10-01

    Lumbar metastases can result in spinal instability and mechanical radiculopathy, characterized by radicular pain produced by axial loading. This pain pattern represents a definitive symptom of neoplastic instability and may serve as a reliable indication for surgical stabilization. We examined the results of surgical decompression and fixation in the treatment of mechanical radiculopathy. A retrospective clinical study. An internally maintained spine neurosurgery database was queried between February 2002 and April 2010. Patients were identified and deemed eligible for inclusion in this study based on the presence of all the following: metastatic tumor, lumbar surgery, and lumbar radiculopathy. Visual analog scale (VAS) of pain and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Department of Neurosurgery operative database was queried over an 8-year period to identify all patients with spinal metastases who underwent lumbar surgery. Only patients whose operative indication included mechanical radiculopathy were included. Pre- and postoperative pain was assessed with the VAS of pain, whereas pre- and postoperative performance status was evaluated using the ECOG. Fifty-five patients were included in the cohort. L2 and L3 were the most common levels involved, and most patients underwent multilevel posterior decompression and instrumented fusion. After surgery, 98% of patients reported pain relief. A significant difference between average pre- and postoperative pain scores was found (pradiculopathy in patients with spinal metastases represents a highly reliable surgical indication.