WorldWideScience

Sample records for breakers resolve trip

  1. Investigation of a turbulent spot and a tripped turbulent boundary layer flow using time-resolved tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, A.; Geisler, R.; Elsinga, G.E.; Scarano, F.; Dierksheide, U.

    2007-01-01

    In this feasibility study the tomographic PIV technique has been applied to time resolved PIV recordings for the study of the growth of a turbulent spot in a laminar flat plate boundary layer and to visualize the topology of coherent flow structures within a tripped turbulent flat plate boundary

  2. Development of a HVDC prototype breaker. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damsky, B L; Barkan, P; Imam, I; Permerlani, W; Anderson, J M; Carroll, J J; Hudson, J E; Pohl, R V; Solberg, W D; Sharbaugh, A H

    1980-06-01

    The significant design features of a high-voltage dc (HVDC) circuit breaker based on the commutation concept were developed. Tests of components indicate the breaker is capable of interrupting a fault current of 10 kA on a 400 kV system and absorbing up to 10 MJ of system energy without generating more than 1.6 per unit (P.U.) voltage of the system. Interactions of the breaker with a three-terminal network were studied, using a system simulator. An ultrafast hydraulic actuator system was developed for this program which enables the breaker to initiate the current limiting process within 5 ms after receipt of a trip signal. A new hydraulic valve, operated by a repulsion coil, minimizes the delay before motion begins. Interruption will occur in series-connected vacuum interrupters. A 400 kV circuit breaker is estimated to require eight breaks in series. Only a single break was tested as part of this program because of the scale and cost required for multibreak tests. System energy will be absorbed by zinc-oxide-based surge suppressors included as an integral part of the breaker. The overall design is envisioned as a dead tank type using pressurized SF/sub 6/ gas as a dielectric medium. The actuator and all control functions are located at ground potential, with easy access for inspection or adjustment. Operational specifications have been carried over from NEMA standards for ac power circuit breakers where applicable. The cost of one pole of this circuit breaker, when in regular production, has been estimated as two times the cost of a three-phase 500 kV ac circuit breaker.

  3. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF BREAKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Farhadzade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakers relate to Electric Power Systems’ equipment, the reliability of which influence, to a great extend, on reliability of Power Plants. In particular, the breakers determine structural reliability of switchgear circuit of Power Stations and network substations. Failure in short-circuit switching off by breaker with further failure of reservation unit or system of long-distance protection lead quite often to system emergency.The problem of breakers’ reliability improvement and the reduction of maintenance expenses is becoming ever more urgent in conditions of systematic increasing of maintenance cost and repair expenses of oil circuit and air-break circuit breakers. The main direction of this problem solution is the improvement of diagnostic control methods and organization of on-condition maintenance. But this demands to use a great amount of statistic information about nameplate data of breakers and their operating conditions, about their failures, testing and repairing, advanced developments (software of computer technologies and specific automated information system (AIS.The new AIS with AISV logo was developed at the department: “Reliability of power equipment” of AzRDSI of Energy. The main features of AISV are:· to provide the security and data base accuracy;· to carry out systematic control of breakers conformity with operating conditions;· to make the estimation of individual  reliability’s value and characteristics of its changing for given combination of characteristics variety;· to provide personnel, who is responsible for technical maintenance of breakers, not only with information but also with methodological support, including recommendations for the given problem solving  and advanced methods for its realization.

  4. Real-time observation of round-trip resolved spectral dynamics in a stabilized fs fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bowen; Yu, Ying; Wei, Xiaoming; Xu, Yiqing; Tsia, Kevin K; Wong, Kenneth K Y

    2017-04-17

    Fiber-stretcher based phase-lock loop (PLL) is a mature technique in fiber mode-locked lasers for repetition-rate stabilization. However, undesired side effects may be induced if not properly handled, which is easily overlooked owing to the lack of single-shot spectral analyzers. Thanks to the ultrafast spectral analyzing capability of optical time-stretch, an intriguing spectral dynamics is observed in a repetition-rate-stabilized nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) mode-locked laser. Under the dynamic state, the optical spectra of pulses undergo dramatic evolution in every round trip while the pulse energy is relatively constant. Indicated by estimated cross-spectral densities, such spectral dynamics results in noticeable degradation in optical spectral coherence. The physical origin of the round-trip evolved spectral dynamics is attributed to the local birefringence induced by the fiber stretcher. Therefore, the results are helpful for a proper use of fiber-stretcher based PLL in fiber lasers, particularly when a good spectral coherence is desired. Furthermore, our study has also provided a potentially useful optical source for applications where fast spectral modulation is desired.

  5. Shotgun cartridge rock breaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzzi, Peter L. (Eagan, NM); Morrell, Roger J. (Bloomington, MN)

    1995-01-01

    A rock breaker uses shotgun cartridges or other firearm ammunition as the explosive charge at the bottom of a drilled borehole. The breaker includes a heavy steel rod or bar, a gun with a firing chamber for the ammunition which screws onto the rod, a long firing pin running through a central passage in the rod, and a firing trigger mechanism at the external end of the bar which strikes the firing pin to fire the cartridge within the borehole. A tubular sleeve surround the main body of the rod and includes slits the end to allow it to expand. The rod has a conical taper at the internal end against which the end of the sleeve expands when the sleeve is forced along the rod toward the taper by a nut threaded onto the external end of the rod. As the sleeve end expands, it pushes against the borehole and holds the explosive gasses within, and also prevents the breaker from flying out of the borehole. The trigger mechanism includes a hammer with a slot and a hole for accepting a drawbar or drawpin which, when pulled by a long cord, allows the cartridge to be fired from a remote location.

  6. Reliability centered maintenance of power transformers and circuit breakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purucker, S.L.; Goeltz, R.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hemmelman, K.; Price, R. [Bonneville Power Administration, Van Couver, WA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    At the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), we have historically maintained high voltage equipment. Including transformers and power circuit breakers, on a time driven basis. While this has served our needs in the past, newer methods are needed to effectively maintain the power system in future years. Today aging equipment, maintenance backlogs, and budget constraints are a reality. BPA has initiated a research and development project to examine reliability centered maintenance (RCM) as an alternative to time based maintenance on high voltage equipment. Under RCM, the performance of each place of equipment is to be monitored by observing many operating parameters. For example, with circuit breakers we will observe (measure) the trip time, accumulated contact wear using I{sup 2}T, timing of the mechanism, plus several other parameters. Equipment performing below a predetermined level, or equipment having accumulated a large amount of ``usage`` will receive maintenance. The maintenance will restore full performance and preserve an acceptable service life for that piece of equipment. To develop and evaluate RCM concepts, BPA is installing a prototype system at our Alvey Substation on 4 transformers and 25 breakers.

  7. Design of Protection Coordination for Overcurrent on Electrical System in Tanker Ship Plan Using Electro Mechanical Trip Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Ranu Kusuma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Disturbance of power system in ship is unavoidable case that required a function from safety system to separate the affected parts of system. The disturbance in electrical system generally is a short-circuit current. It is affected when there are two conductors having lowest impedance in normal condition that have two different voltages thus causing an overcurrent. There is one of the device protection to prevent a disturbance like short circuit current, is circuit breaker. It opens the contact with component or system that disturbance using electromechanical trip device. The principal operating of trip device is using electric current flow in the circuit breaker and the magnet induces the tripping part to moving the contact from closed position to the opened position. The main discussion is to coordinate circuit breakers in four operating conditions of the ship's generator using software ETAP. The simulation of the result obtained value of short circuit in main bus one at sailing condition is 8.2 kA. Tripping time for the circuit breakers in sailing condition at one typical disturbance are 0.75 seconds for circuit breaker number 29; 0.83 seconds for circuit breaker number 37 and 1 second for circuit breaker number 28.

  8. Smart Circuit Breaker Communication Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Mihai MACHIDON

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the Internet of Things has fostered the development of smart technologies in fields such as power transmission and distribution systems (as is the Smart Grid and also in regard to home automation (the Smart Home concept. This paper addresses the network communication infrastructure for a Smart Circuit Breaker system, a novel application at the edge of the two afore-mentioned systems (Smart Grid and Smart Home. Such a communication interface has high requirements from functionality, performance and security point of views, given the large amount of distributed connected elements and the real-time information transmission and system management. The paper describes the design and implementation of the data server, Web interface and the embedded networking capabilities of the smart circuit breakers, underlining the protocols and communication technologies used.

  9. ICARUS trip

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2017-01-01

    It’s lived in two different countries and is about to make its way to a third. It’s the largest machine of its kind, designed to find extremely elusive particles and tell us more about them. Its pioneering technology is the blueprint for some of the most advanced science experiments in the world. And this summer, it will travel across the Atlantic Ocean to its new home (and its new mission) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. It’s called ICARUS, and you can follow its journey over land and sea with the help of an interactive map at IcarusTrip.fnal.gov (link is external), or on Facebook (link is external), Twitter (link is external) and Instagram (link is external) using the hashtag #IcarusTrip.

  10. Insulation coordination for 38 KV circuit breakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Few, R.A.; Harder, J.E.

    1985-09-01

    Based on a review of the impulse insulation requirements for 38 kV circuit breakers and the impact of insulation coordination using modern arresters, a change is suggested in the way the impulse requirements are stated for the circuit breaker. The facets of circuit breaker design which may be affected are indicated. While the general principles of this paper apply to the insulation coordination of all ratings of circuit breakers, a number of factors seem to make the 38 kV vaccum circuit breaker a particularly attractive candidate to consider for revision. Most of these factors are outlined to provide a basis for the consideration of other ratings and types of circuit breakers. Specifically it is suggested that in the present state of the art, circuit breakers for general application at 34.5 kV should have a standard requirement for 150 kV BIL phase to ground, and 200 kV BIL phase to phase and across the open break.

  11. History of Circuit Breakers and Expectations of Japanese Original Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Yoshio; Yoshinaga, Kiyoshi; Yanabu, Satoru

    This paper studies the history of high voltage circuit breaker engineering. Methods of analysis are (1) to collect facts in regard to its development, (2) to review the history in order to find essential factors and (3) to identify its pros and cons from engineering point of view. The amount of electric power consumption has increased and gradually the circuit breaker concept was developed. At first the oil circuit breakers were developed in Europe and the air circuit breaker and vacuum circuit breaker were developed. Finally the SF6gas circuit breakers are developed together with the gas insulated switchgear and what is next? The future research and development policy is also discussed.

  12. Monitoring power breakers using vibro acoustic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia Balan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Speaking about the commutation’s equipment, it can be said that the best solution in increasing reliability and lowering the maintenance costs is a continuous monitoring of the equipment. However, if the price/quality ratio is considered, it is obvious that, for the moment, the diagnosis can be also an acceptable solution. Nowadays the predictive maintenance for equipment’s diagnosis is currently replacing the preventive diagnosis. An efficient modality of lowering the maintenance costs is to online monitoring the power breakers, during their operation in the power systems. Consequently any connecting/disconnecting operations may be used in diagnosing a power breaker. Thus any supplementary and superfluous tests and/or maintenance maneuvers are avoided. The paper presents the operational maintenance in a power station with three high voltage active breakers, Areva type. The method of establishing the state of a breaker consists in the comparison between the signature of the acoustic signal provided by the manufacturer and the signal issued from the testing operation of the breaker’s state. The software processing procedure and the methodology of determining the faults of the monitored equipment are also developed. All the tests on the circuit breaker are made according the prescriptions of normative.

  13. Hydraulically-activated operating system for an electric circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Imdad; Barkan, Philip

    1979-01-01

    This operating system comprises a fluid motor having a piston, a breaker-opening space at one side of the piston, and a breaker-closing space at its opposite side. An accumulator freely communicates with the breaker-opening space for supplying pressurized fluid thereto during a circuit-breaker opening operation. A normally-closed valve located on the breaker-closing-side of the piston is openable to release liquid from the breaker-closing space so that pressurized liquid in the breaker-opening space can drive the piston in an opening direction. Means is provided for restoring the valve to its closed position following the circuit-breaker opening operation. An impeded passage affords communication between the accumulator and the breaker-closing space to allow pressurized liquid to flow from the accumulator to the breaker-closing space and develop a pressure therein substantially equal to accumulator pressure when the valve is restored to closed position following breaker-opening. This passage is so impeded that the flow therethrough from the accumulator into the breaker-closing space is sufficiently low during initial opening motion of the piston through a substantial portion of its opening stroke as to avoid interference with said initial opening motion of the piston.

  14. Healthy Ride Trip Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A dataset that shows trips taken using the Healthy Ride system by quarter. The dataset includes bike number, membership type, trip start and end timestamp, and...

  15. DC-breaker for a thyristor inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuebart, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics

    1996-11-01

    It was shown that the dc-breaker works satisfactorily. Currents up to 90 A were turned off with the present test set-up in a sufficiently short time of about 3 ms. The theory and calculation rules, explained in this report, correspond with the measured results. 2 refs, 19 figs

  16. Statins: antimicrobial resistance breakers or makers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey H.T. Ko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The repurposing of non-antibiotic drugs as adjuvant antibiotics may help break antimicrobial resistance (AMR. Statins are commonly prescribed worldwide to lower cholesterol. They also possess qualities of AMR “breakers”, namely direct antibacterial activity, synergism with antibiotics, and ability to stimulate the host immune system. However, statins’ role as AMR breakers may be limited. Their current extensive use for cardiovascular protection might result in selective pressures for resistance, ironically causing statins to be AMR “makers” instead. This review examines statins’ potential as AMR breakers, probable AMR makers, and identifies knowledge gaps in a statin-bacteria-human-environment continuum. The most suitable statin for repurposing is identified, and a mechanism of antibacterial action is postulated based on structure-activity relationship analysis. Methods A literature search using keywords “statin” or “statins” combined with “minimum inhibitory concentration” (MIC was performed in six databases on 7th April 2017. After screening 793 abstracts, 16 relevant studies were identified. Unrelated studies on drug interactions; antifungal or antiviral properties of statins; and antibacterial properties of mevastatin, cerivastatin, antibiotics, or natural products were excluded. Studies involving only statins currently registered for human use were included. Results Against Gram-positive bacteria, simvastatin generally exerted the greatest antibacterial activity (lowest MIC compared to atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, and fluvastatin. Against Gram-negative bacteria, atorvastatin generally exhibited similar or slightly better activity compared to simvastatin, but both were more potent than rosuvastatin and fluvastatin. Discussion Statins may serve as AMR breakers by working synergistically with existing topical antibiotics, attenuating virulence factors, boosting human immunity, or aiding in wound healing. It

  17. Synchronous transmission circuit breaker development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, R D

    1976-08-01

    The need for the development of a synchronous transmission breaker is discussed and the basic preliminary specifications for such a circuit breaker are established and tabulated. The initial exploratory work designed to establish the preferred designs for a synchronous pulse generator, (or current zero predictor), for an operating mechanism and for a suitable interrupter are described in detail. The experimental results obtained with vacuum interrupters and with axial blast interrupters using pure SF/sub 6/, mixtures of SF/sub 6/ and N/sub 2/, and high pressure liquid SF/sub 6/ are reported. The results are then evaluated and the performances obtained with each interrupting media are compared arriving at the end to a choice of a preferred design. This preferred design, an interrupter that uses SF/sub 6/ in the liquid state at pressures of 13.8 megapascals (2000 psi), is completely described. The results obtained in a series of experiments designed to establish limits of performance for this interrupter are also discussed.

  18. Calculation and comparison of circuit breaker parameters in Power World Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Kuljinder Kaur,; Er. Simerpreet Singh

    2016-01-01

    A circuit breaker has ratings that an engineer uses for their application. These ratings define circuit breaker performance characteristics. A good understanding of Ratings allow the electrical engineer to make a proper comparison of various circuit breaker designs. In this research work, the different ratings of circuit breaker were calculated. The other objective of this work was comparison between ratings of existing circuit breaker and calculated ratings in POWER WORLD SIMU...

  19. The wave vane - A device to measure the breaker angle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; Anand, N.M.

    can easily be fabricated and used to measure the breaker angle. ERROR IN VISUAL ESTIMATION Three trained persons were asked to stand at the same location on the Kar- war beach on the west coast of India, and observe independently the breaker angle... and parallel, the wave directions measured at 16 m water depth were corrected for refraction effects using Snell's law (Shore TABLE 1 Measurement of breaker angles by various methods Date Buoy Visual Wave vane OL b O~ b Hs Tz o~ b (m) (s) (~) (~) (~) 20...

  20. Palm oil anionic surfactants based emulsion breaker (Case study of emulsions breaker at Semanggi Field production wells)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhpidah; Hambali, E.; Suryani, A.; Kartika, I. A.

    2017-05-01

    The presence of emulsion in oil production process is undesirable. The emulsion will increase the production costs, transportation and costs related to emulsion separation process between water and oil. The development of palm oil-based surfactant as an emulsion breaker needs to be conducted given the availability of abundant raw materials in Indonesia and as an alternative to petroleum-based surfactant. The purpose of this study is to produce palm oil-based emulsion breaker, assessing the effect of additive application to the emulsion breaker and analyze the performance of the emulsion breaker. This research was conducted by formulating palm oil anionic surfactant in water formation with the addition of co-surfactant additive and co-solvent. Palm oil anionic surfactant-based emulsion breaker with 0.5% concentration in water can reduce 50% of emulsions with the interfacial tension (IFT) of 2.33x10-2 dyne/cm. The addition of co-solvent (toluene: xylene) is able to remove the emulsion formed with a lower IFT namely 10-3 dyne / cm. The resulting emulsion breaker is capable to remove the emulsion between water and oil. The performance test of emulsion breaker show that the emulsion is able to maintain its performance at reservoir temperature with no indicate of plugging and the value generated incremental oil recovery values is 13%.

  1. Peculiarities of the relays intended for operating trip coils of the high-voltage circuit breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurevich Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Parameters of the subminiature electromagnetic relays used as output elements in microprocessor relay protection, do not correspond to technical specifications on these relay protection. The reasons of this discrepancy are analyzed. Contradictions and discrepancies of the international standards in this area are considered. It is shown, that absence of clearness in standards and mistakes in technical specifications of manufacturers of microprocessor protection do not allow estimating correctly technical parameters and lead to decrease in reliability of relay protection.

  2. Response of crownvetch planted on anthracite breaker refuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj; John P. Mikulecky; Edward A. Sowa

    1968-01-01

    Lime applications were essential to establishment of crownvetch (Coronilla vuria L.) on coal breaker refuse in the Pennsylvania Anthracite Region, and mulch treatments were highly beneficial. Fertilizer applications had only slight effect on either establishment or growth.

  3. Guam Commercial Purchases (Trip Ticket)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DAWR collects Trip Ticket or purchase invoice data from vendors that buy fish directly from the fishermen. Similar to the trip ticket system in Saipan, this is a...

  4. Design Improvement for the Reactor Trip Switchgear System for APR1400 Design Certification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Gyu; Choi, Woong Seock; Sohn, Se Do [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Reactor Trip Switchgear System (RTSS) performs the function to open the Reactor Trip Circuit Breaker (RTCB) when the RTSS receives trip signals from the Plant Protection System (PPS). The RTSS for Shin-Hanul Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2 (SHN 1 and 2) receives the reactor trip signals from four independent PPS divisions and performs the function to interrupt power from the Motor Generator Set (MG Set) to the Digital Rod Control System (DRCS). The RTSS for SHN 1 and 2 consists of four Reactor Trip Switchgears (RTSGs) which form the selective 2-out-of-4 logic. The RTSS design for APR 1400 DC has been changed from selective 2-out-of-4 to full 2-out-of-4 logic by configuring two independent sets of RTSS for diversity. The RTSS with the full 2-out-of-4 logic decreases the chances of generating an inadvertent reactor trip by a failure during maintenance or testing. We expect this design change to contribute to enhancing the plant availability. After all, the quantitative reliability analysis will be necessary to visualize the degree of the plant availability enhancement from the design change described in this paper.

  5. Case study on impact performance optimization of hydraulic breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Dae-Kyung; Kang, Young-Ky; Cho, Jae-Sang; Jang, Joo-Sup

    2016-01-01

    In order to expand the range of activities of an excavator, attachments, such as hydraulic breakers have been developed to be applied to buckets. However, it is very difficult to predict the dynamic behavior of hydraulic impact devices such as breakers because of high non-linearity. Thus, the purpose of this study is to optimize the impact performance of hydraulic breakers. The ultimate goal of the optimization is to increase the impact energy and impact frequency and to reduce the pressure pulsation of the supply and return lines. The optimization results indicated that the four parameters used to optimize the impact performance of the breaker showed considerable improvement over the results reported in the literature. A test was also conducted and the results were compared with those obtained through optimization in order to verify the optimization results. The comparison showed an average relative error of 8.24 %, which seems to be in good agreement. The results of this study can be used to optimize the impact performance of hydraulic impact devices such as breakers, thus facilitating its application to excavators and increasing the range of activities of an excavator.

  6. Calculation and comparison of circuit breaker parameters in Power World Simulator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuljinder Kaur; Er. Simerpreet Singh

    2016-01-01

    .... In this research work, the different ratings of circuit breaker were calculated. The other objective of this work was comparison between ratings of existing circuit breaker and calculated ratings in POWER WORLD SIMULATOR...

  7. Characterization of Tribological Properties of Greases for Industrial Circuit Breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Castaños

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Proper grease selection is essential for the electrical industry to minimize friction and wear between the components of circuit breakers under mechanical contact. In this investigation, the tribological properties of commercially available greases for industrial circuit breakers were evaluated. Three tribological tests were performed: the ITeE-PIB Polish Method for testing lubricants under scuffing conditions (extreme pressure, EP, a four-ball test under ASTM D 2266 (anti-wear, AW, and a ball-on-disk test based on ASTM G-99. The worn materials were characterized with an optical 3D profilometer measurement system and a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Additionally, selected greases with the best tribological performance were tested on a testing bench intended for circuit breakers, according to electrical safety standards, which validated the results obtained in the laboratory.

  8. 46 CFR 111.30-4 - Circuit breakers removable from the front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit breakers removable from the front. 111.30-4... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-4 Circuit breakers removable from the front... such a manner that the circuit breaker may be removed from the front without unbolting bus or cable...

  9. Programmable Low-Voltage Circuit Breaker and Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Terry

    2008-01-01

    An instrumentation system that would comprise a remotely controllable and programmable low-voltage circuit breaker plus several electric-circuit-testing subsystems has been conceived, originally for use aboard a spacecraft during all phases of operation from pre-launch testing through launch, ascent, orbit, descent, and landing. The system could also be adapted to similar use aboard aircraft. In comparison with remotely controllable circuit breakers heretofore commercially available, this system would be smaller, less massive, and capable of performing more functions, as needed for aerospace applications.

  10. Study on the new structure and its influencing factors of miniature circuit breaker for short circuit protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gong; Ming, Zong

    2017-01-01

    Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB) is widely used in terminal power distributions and civil buildings, its annual production has more than 500 million poles. However, in terms of the short circuit protection of MCB, and there's no short circuit delay function, so it can not reach the full selective protection, even through the cooperation between the time selection and the current selection. In paper, a new structure of MCB's electromagnetic tripping device is proposed, which is able to realize short-circuit delay protection. The new is on the traditional structure added a secondary winding, then controlling the on or off of the secondary winding, using its demagnetization effect to realize the short time delay function when the secondary winding is closed. This is a new idea in the field of low-voltage circuit breakers. In addition, take the U type electromagnet as an example, through the analysis of the magnetic circuit, the main factors that affect the magnetic effect of the secondary winding are studied by using MATLAB.

  11. Formation and development of a breaker bar under regular waves. Part 2: Sediment transport and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    In Part 2 of this work, the hydrodynamic model described in Part 1 is applied for the simulation of sediment transport and the associated morphological development of breaker bars. The sediment description is split into bed load and suspended load, and like the hydrodynamics the sediment transport...... is phase-resolved in order to get on- and offshore directed contributions to the sediment transport from phase lags between the suspended sediment and the hydrodynamics.First, the sediment transport over a morphologically fixed bed of a constant slope is considered, and the transport rates are discussed......) is discussed relative to the reference simulation.The coupling between sediment transport rate and morphology is analysed and discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V....

  12. 30 CFR 77.904 - Identification of circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of circuit breakers. 77.904... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.904 Identification of circuit...

  13. Roofmijten tegen trips in roos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnakker, J.; Leman, A.

    2012-01-01

    De californische trips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) van de familie van de Thripidae komt oorspronkelijk uit de westkust van Californië (Bryan & Smith, 1956). Haar introductie in Europa dateert van 1984. In de glastuinbouw is californische trips, één van de belangrijkste plagen. Ze vormt

  14. Make My Trip Count 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Make My Trip Count (MMTC) commuter survey, conducted in September and October 2015 by GBA, the Pittsburgh 2030 District, and 10 other regional transportation...

  15. Trip report Rainwater Basin Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary a trip to Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District in 1991, and focuses on the hydrology and soil habitat types. It is part of the...

  16. CNMI Commercial Purchases (Trip Ticket)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Division of Fish and Wildlife (DFW) collects 'Trip Ticket' or purchase invoice data from vendors that buy fish...

  17. Contextual influences on trip generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This study examines the ways in which urban context affects vehicle trip generation rates across a variety of land uses. An establishment intercept travel survey was administered at 78 establishments in the Portland, Oregon region during the summer o...

  18. Lime retention in anthracite coal-breaker refuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj; Edward A. Sowa

    1973-01-01

    Hydrated lime was applied to extremely acid anthracite coal-breaker refuse at rates of 2.5 and 5.0 tons per acre. The lime raised the pH to neutral range, and this range was still in evidence 7 years after treatment. The pH readings decreased with the depth of the refuse profile, and below 9 inches they approximated those of the control plots. The 2.5-tons-of-lime-per-...

  19. Lime helps establish crownvetch on coal-breaker refuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj; Edward A. Sowa

    1976-01-01

    A study was begun in 1965 to determine the effect of lime fertilizer, and mulch on the establishment and growth of crownvetch crowns planted on anthracite coal-breaker refuse. After 7 years the lime application had by far the strongest effect. Both 2.5 and 5.0 tons per acre increased survival and ground cover manyfold, and both treatments were equally beneficial from...

  20. Structure design of and experimental research on a two-stage laval foam breaker for foam fluid recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-song; Cao, Pin-lu; Yin, Kun

    2015-07-01

    Environmental, economical and efficient antifoaming technology is the basis for achievement of foam drilling fluid recycling. The present study designed a novel two-stage laval mechanical foam breaker that primarily uses vacuum generated by Coanda effect and Laval principle to break foam. Numerical simulation results showed that the value and distribution of negative pressure of two-stage laval foam breaker were larger than that of the normal foam breaker. Experimental results showed that foam-breaking efficiency of two-stage laval foam breaker was higher than that of normal foam breaker, when gas-to-liquid ratio and liquid flow rate changed. The foam-breaking efficiency of normal foam breaker decreased rapidly with increasing foam stability, whereas the two-stage laval foam breaker remained unchanged. Foam base fluid would be recycled using two-stage laval foam breaker, which would reduce the foam drilling cost sharply and waste disposals that adverse by affect the environment.

  1. "I just wanted to get away": An analysis of spring breakers' travel motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuno F. Ribeiro; Paul E. Durrenberger; Careen M. Yarnal; Garry E. Chick

    2010-01-01

    Scholarly research on Spring Break has grown substantially and has often associated spring breakers' motivations with a number of risky behaviors. Recent research, however, has challenged these assumptions. The purpose of this study was to examine spring breakers' motivations for going on Spring Break. Unlike the media portrayal of Spring Break as a time of...

  2. Experimental and theoretical analysis of vacuum circuit breaker prestrike effect on a transformer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov, M.; Smeets, R.P.P.; Van der Sluis, L.; De Herdt, H.; Declerq, J.

    2009-01-01

    The work presented in this paper deals with the investigation of circuit breaker prestrike effect that occurs during energizing a distribution transformer. An experimental test setup that consists of a supply transformer, a vacuum circuit breaker (VCB), a cable and a test transformer is built, and

  3. Revision of TRV Requirements for the Application of Generator Circuit-Breakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palazzo, M.; Popov, M.; Marmolejo, A.; Delfanti, M.

    2015-01-01

    The requirements imposed on generator circuitbreakers greatly differ from the requirements imposed on other transmission and distribution circuit-breakers. Due to the location of installation between the generator and the associated step-up transformer, a generator circuit-breaker must meet high

  4. 30 CFR 75.800 - High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. 75.800... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.800 High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. High-voltage circuits entering the underground area...

  5. 30 CFR 77.800 - High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. 77.800... COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.800 High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. High-voltage circuits supplying power to portable or mobile equipment shall be protected by suitable circuit...

  6. Design of Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker on Sensitivity 20 MA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandung Sarungallo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrics current can flow out to the ground by using a human body. This electric current will be dangerous to the human when it exceed 20mA. A very sensitive earth leakage circuit breaker (ELCB is needed to anticipate the leaky current but most of ELCB can only be found in the market with sensitivitas 30mA or bigger. This research is succees to design an ELCB with sensitivity 20mA. Characteristic of an ELCB is very influenced by the current transformer characteristic and the relay which are used.

  7. Learning from a Bike Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Mike

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a bike trip which marks the culmination of a unit reviewing map-reading capabilities. In seventh grade, students develop various map skills, including cardinal and intermediate directions, how to measure distance on a map using a scale of miles, how to interpret the legend of a map, and how to locate places…

  8. Trip generation characteristics of special generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Special generators are introduced in the sequential four-step modeling procedure to represent certain types of facilities whose trip generation characteristics are not fully captured by the standard trip generation module. They are also used in the t...

  9. Trip generation studies for special generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    This research examines the effects of town centers and senior housing developments on : surrounding roadways and nearby transit. The Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) : Trip Generation Manual, which determines number of trips produced or at...

  10. Trip generation and data analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Through the Trip Generation and Data Analysis Study, the District of Columbia Department of : Transportation (DDOT) is undertaking research to better understand multimodal urban trip generation : at mixed-use sites in the District. The study is helpi...

  11. Hydraulically-actuated operating system for an electric circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Philip; Imam, Imdad

    1978-01-01

    This hydraulically-actuated operating system comprises a cylinder, a piston movable therein in an opening direction to open a circuit breaker, and an accumulator for supplying pressurized liquid to a piston-actuating space within the cylinder. A normally-closed valve between the accumulator and the actuating space is openable to allow pressurized liquid from the accumulator to flow through the valve into the actuating space to drive the piston in an opening direction. A vent is located hydraulically between the actuating space and the valve for affording communication between said actuating space and a low pressure region. Flow control means is provided for restricting leakage through said vent to a rate that prevents said leakage from substantially detracting from the development of pressure within said actuatng space during the period from initial opening of the valve to the time when said piston has moved through most of its opening stroke. Following such period and while the valve is still open, said flow control means allows effective leakage through said vent. The accumulator has a limited capacity that results in the pressure within said actuating space decaying promptly to a low value as a result of effective leakage through said vent after the piston has moved through a circuit-breaker opening stroke and while the valve is in its open state. Means is provided for resetting the valve to its closed state in response to said pressure decay in the actuating space.

  12. Tourism, Field Trips and Geographic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilsaver, Lary M.

    In university level geography education, both a market and a need exist for "learning trips" combining the elements of a field trip with those of a commercial tour. Planning such trips involves four steps. The first of these is to establish the conditions of the tour, including identification of the topical focus, specific destinations and sites…

  13. Mobile Collector for Field Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Terrenghi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Current e-Learning is based on learning management systems that provide certain standard services - course authoring and delivery, tutoring, administration and collaboration facilities. Rapid development of mobile technologies opens a new area of m-Learning to enhance the current educational opportunities. Field trips are a relevant part of the curriculum, but for various reasons it is often difficult to organize them. The aim of the RAFT project is development of a system that would enable virtual field trips. One mobile learning application prototype created in this project, called Mobile Collector, enables data gathering and annotation in the field, together with real time collaboration. The application supports learner-centred education in real world context.

  14. Suppression of breakers of stormy seas by oil films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, C. S.; Zhang, X.

    2013-12-01

    In the late 19th century the USN Hydrographic Office encouraged spreading of oil on the sea to reduce damage by storm waves breaking on ships. Many accounts by ship masters of effective use of oil were recorded by the USNHO. They leave little doubt that small amounts of vegetable or animal oil, if allowed to form a slick to windward, do in fact inhibit large, storm generated breakers that would otherwise damage the ships of that day. The USNHO reports contain little quantitative information. There is no information on storm wave heights and only one statement of estimated wind speed, but they do inform us that release of refined petroleum products was much less effective than vegetable or animal oils. This fact indicates that the ability of the latter to form monolayers is important. Hydrocarbons do not form monolayers on water. A release rate as low as 2 liters per hour of vegetable oil was successful. We have found only one reference to the time required for the oil film to take effect (roughly estimated at 20 minutes). There have been very few related modern studies, and no scientific measurements of wind and seas when oil is released on stormy seas. The suppression of capillary-gravity waves by oil films is understood but a quantitative understanding of why the formation of large breakers can be stopped is wanting. We report here numerical estimates that show how suppression of wave growth in the equilibrium range of wavelengths (20 - 80 m in storm conditions, see example in figure below) over a distance of one or two kilometers would be capable of preventing large breakers at the leeward edge of an oil slicked area. There is no known mechanism by which the growth of such long waves would be annulled by an oil film. Proper understanding of the process will supply useful information on the importance of very short waves in controlling air flow over the sea and on the influence of breaking seas on wave growth and wind stress. Breaking seas in a gale

  15. The Influence of Vacuum Circuit Breakers and Different Motor Models on Switching Overvoltages in Motor Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Cat S. M.; Snider, L. A.; Lo, Edward W. C.; Chung, T. S.

    Switching of induction motors with vacuum circuit breakers continues to be a concern. In this paper the influence on statistical overvoltages of the stochastic characteristics of vacuum circuit breakers, high frequency models of motors and transformers, and network characteristics, including cable lengths and network topology are evaluated and a general view of the overvoltages phenomena is presented. Finally, a real case study on the statistical voltage levels and risk-of-failure resulting from switching of a vacuum circuit breaker in an industrial installation in Hong Kong is presented.

  16. The Impact of a Deep-Water Plunging Breaker

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, Christine; Brucker, Kyle A; Drazen, David A; Dommermuth, Douglas G; Fu, Thomas; Fullerton, Anne M; Duncan, James H

    2014-01-01

    The impact of a plunging breaking wave (wavelength approximately 1.3m) on a rigidly mounted rigid cube structure (dimension 0.31m) that is partially submerged is explored through experiments and numerical calculations. The experiments are carried out in a wave tank and the breaker is generated with a mechanical wave maker using a dispersive focusing technique. The water-surface profile upstream of the front face of the cube and in its vertical centerplane is measured using a cinematic laser-induced fluorescence technique. The three-dimensional flow in the wave tank is simulated directly using the Numerical Flow Analysis (NFA) code. The experiments and the calculations are used to explore the details of the wave-impact process and, in particular, the formation of the high-speed vertical jet that is found on the front face of the cube under some impact conditions.

  17. Deal breakers in the organ donation request process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Alicia; Guy, Bonnie S

    2008-01-01

    Organ donation consent rates have stagnated at about 50%, while the need for transplantable organs continues to increase. This article focuses on consent rates of families who make a donation decision for a deceased loved one, and how social marketing efforts to increase organ donation can be enhanced by better understanding the decision-making process these families use. Three categories of factors bear significantly on that decision which, if not addressed properly, will very likely result in a refusal to donate. These "deal breaker" categories include (1) family predisposition and family care, (2) requestor characteristics, and (3) request dynamics. Recommendations are made toward developing best practices protocols which roughly parallel promotion activities and the selling process utilized in commercial marketing for overcoming these barriers.

  18. Aircraft Age-Related Degradation Study on Single- and Three-Phase Circuit Breakers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peterson, Ronnie

    2002-01-01

    This report provides technical data and brief observations generated for a controlled series of tests on circuit breakers removed from an aging Boeing 727-232 and a McDonnell Douglas DC-10 aircraft...

  19. ON SELECTION OF CIRCUIT-BREAKERS SWITCHING ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS OF HIGH AND EXTRA-HIGH VOLTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Lazimov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes some additional conditions for high-voltage circuit-breaker selection keeping in mind coordination of the switched over-voltages and voltages induced in secondary circuits with their permissible values.

  20. Lessons Learned "Establishing an Electrically Safe Work Condition" Specifically related to Racking Electrical Breakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Tommy Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Philbert Roland [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garcia, Samuel Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-09

    During low voltage electrical equipment maintenance, a bad breaker was identified. The breaker was racked out from the substation cubicle without following the hazardous energy control process identified in the Integrated Work Document (IWD). The IWD required the substation to be in an electrically safe work condition prior to racking the breaker. Per NFPA 70E requirements, electrical equipment shall be put into an electrically safe work condition before an employee performs work on or interacts with equipment in a manner that increases the likelihood of creating an arc flash. Racking in or out a breaker on an energized bus may increase the likelihood of creating an arc flash dependent on equipment conditions. A thorough risk assessment must be performed prior to performing such a task. The risk assessment determines the risk control measures to be put in place prior to performing the work. Electrical Safety Officers (ESO) can assist in performing risk assessments and incorporating risk control measures.

  1. Recreational trip timing and duration prediction: A research note

    OpenAIRE

    Hailu, Atakelty; Gao, Lei

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents models that predict two recreational fishing trip parameters: the length of a trip and the timing of a trip within a year. A discrete choice (logit) model linking the choice of trip timing to calendar events, the demographic characteristics of anglers as well as the nature of the trip is econometrically estimated. A Tobit model is used to evaluate the relationship between fishing trip length and personal and trip characteristics. The results indicate that timing choice and...

  2. TRIP RATES FOR CONDOMINIUM CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirach Hirun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of large scale condominium construction projects had dramatically increased in Bangkok. Many projects had occurred in either densely populated areas or in central business districts, where traffic conditions were usually highly congested. To prevent traffic problems, a traffic impact study must be prepared and submitted for review by concerned public authorities. Unit trip generation rates were important data in traffic impact analysis. Without accurate unit trip generation rates, public agencies could not obtain accurate information on the traffic that will be generated. This study aimed to study trip rates and the factors affecting them for condominium construction project in Bangkok. The data were collected from 30 condominium construction sites located in 15 districts of Bangkok. The analysis used the linear regression method and was divided into three cases: 1 trip rates for all vehicles, 2 trip rates for classified vehicles, and 3 trip rates for all types of condominium. All case analyses considered weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday. The results found that trip rates related to the number of dwellings in the condominium. The trip rates for all vehicle types on weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday were 10.636, 4.647, and 9.294 vehicles per 100 dwelling units per day respectively. The trip rates for six-wheeled and ten-wheeled trucks on weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday were 2.046, 0.975, and 0.575 vehicles per 100 dwelling units per day respectively. The trip rate for four-wheeled trucks and passenger cars on weekdays was 1.960. Regarding condominium types, the trip rate for low rise condominiums for all vehicle types on weekdays was 5.315 while the trip rates for high rise condominiums for weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday were 3.965, 2.667, and 1.261 respectively.

  3. Calibrating a trip distribution gravity model stratified by the trip purposes for the city of Alexandria

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Aal, Mounir Mahmoud Moghazy

    2014-01-01

    The trip distribution is the most important yet the most misunderstood model in the Urban Transportation Planning Process (UTPP). One overlooked aspect is the different sensitivities in choosing the destinations based on the trip purposes. This paper proposes a framework to calibrate a doubly-constrained gravity model for the trip distribution of the city of Alexandria based on a Household Travel Survey carried out in 2002. The trip ends are estimated from the available census data. Important...

  4. Predictive Trip Detection for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Drew J.; Jiang, Jin

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the use of a Kalman filter (KF) to predict, within the shutdown system (SDS) of a nuclear power plant (NPP), whether safety parameter measurements have reached a trip set-point. In addition, least squares (LS) estimation compensates for prediction error due to system-model mismatch. The motivation behind predictive shutdown is to reduce the amount of time between the occurrence of a fault or failure and the time of trip detection, referred to as time-to-trip. These reductions in time-to-trip can ultimately lead to increases in safety and productivity margins. The proposed predictive SDS differs from conventional SDSs in that it compares point-predictions of the measurements, rather than sensor measurements, against trip set-points. The predictive SDS is validated through simulation and experiments for the steam generator water level safety parameter. Performance of the proposed predictive SDS is compared against benchmark conventional SDS with respect to time-to-trip. In addition, this paper analyzes: prediction uncertainty, as well as; the conditions under which it is possible to achieve reduced time-to-trip. Simulation results demonstrate that on average the predictive SDS reduces time-to-trip by an amount of time equal to the length of the prediction horizon and that the distribution of times-to-trip is approximately Gaussian. Experimental results reveal that a reduced time-to-trip can be achieved in a real-world system with unknown system-model mismatch and that the predictive SDS can be implemented with a scan time of under 100ms. Thus, this paper is a proof of concept for KF/LS-based predictive trip detection.

  5. Spatial pattern and organisational structure of intra - urban trips in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intra-urban trips are generated for work, school, religious, recreation, shopping, social and others [errands, pleasure visit, etc].Work and school trips dominate with 34 and 35% of aggregate trips respectively. Religious trips follow with 14% while other trip types feature in lower proportion: shopping [7%], social [4.12%], ...

  6. Multimodal Trip Planner System final evaluation report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This evaluation of the Multimodal Trip Planning System (MMTPS) is the culmination of a multi-year project evaluating the development and deployment of a multimodal trip planner in the Chicagoland area between 2004 and 2010. The report includes an ove...

  7. 45 CFR 1310.20 - Trip routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trip routing. 1310.20 Section 1310.20 Public... PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Special Requirements § 1310.20 Trip routing. (a) Each agency providing... routing are adhered to: (1) The time a child is in transit to and from the Head Start or Early Head Start...

  8. A model for TRIP steel constitutive behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Menari, G

    2011-01-01

    A constitutive model is developed for TRIP steel. This is a steel which contains three or four different phases in its microstructure. One of the phases in TRIP steels is metastable austenite (Retained Austenite) which transforms to martensite upon deformation. The accompanying transformation strain

  9. Fault current limiter with solid-state circuit breakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bălan, H.; Neamț, L.; Buzdugan, M. I.; Varodi, T.; Pop, E.

    2016-08-01

    Switching of power circuit breakers is an important technical issue, especially at short circuit, since the fault current cause thermal and dynamic stresses, and the power quality worsens. Recently, the development of distributed renewable electricity induces the short circuit protection problematic because the distributed production of electric energy cause the transport networks to lose their radial character and disturbs the protective relays coordination. The modern technologies for power switching uses static fault current limiters, which offers a viable solution to remove the problems caused by large fault currents in the system. An appropriate design of the current limiting device reduces the thermal and dynamic stress and limits the fault current to a low value. The static switches are based on high power semiconductor devices that offer advantages compared to mechanical switches. Using a fault current limiter that minimizes the effect of distributed generation of electricity in a radial network on the co-ordination of protective relays is a solution to this problem in terms of switching speed and lifespan of power switches.

  10. The ice-breaker effect: singing mediates fast social bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2015-10-01

    It has been proposed that singing evolved to facilitate social cohesion. However, it remains unclear whether bonding arises out of properties intrinsic to singing or whether any social engagement can have a similar effect. Furthermore, previous research has used one-off singing sessions without exploring the emergence of social bonding over time. In this semi-naturalistic study, we followed newly formed singing and non-singing (crafts or creative writing) adult education classes over seven months. Participants rated their closeness to their group and their affect, and were given a proxy measure of endorphin release, before and after their class, at three timepoints (months 1, 3 and 7). We show that although singers and non-singers felt equally connected by timepoint 3, singers experienced much faster bonding: singers demonstrated a significantly greater increase in closeness at timepoint 1, but the more gradual increase shown by non-singers caught up over time. This represents the first evidence for an 'ice-breaker effect' of singing in promoting fast cohesion between unfamiliar individuals, which bypasses the need for personal knowledge of group members gained through prolonged interaction. We argue that singing may have evolved to quickly bond large human groups of relative strangers, potentially through encouraging willingness to coordinate by enhancing positive affect.

  11. Optimization of Train Trip Package Operation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Tong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Train trip package transportation is an advanced form of railway freight transportation, realized by a specialized train which has fixed stations, fixed time, and fixed path. Train trip package transportation has lots of advantages, such as large volume, long distance, high speed, simple forms of organization, and high margin, so it has become the main way of railway freight transportation. This paper firstly analyzes the related factors of train trip package transportation from its organizational forms and characteristics. Then an optimization model for train trip package transportation is established to provide optimum operation schemes. The proposed model is solved by the genetic algorithm. At last, the paper tests the model on the basis of the data of 8 regions. The results show that the proposed method is feasible for solving operation scheme issues of train trip package.

  12. INVESTIGATION OF MECHANICAL STRESSES IN THE DRIVE SHAFT OF MV VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Baida

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the last 10-15 years a dominant position in the market of medium voltage circuit breakers, vacuum circuit breakers have taken in which as an actuator mono- or bistable actuators with permanent magnets are used. Such circuit breakers are characterized by simplicity of design, high reliability, require preventive maintenance for many years. Development, research and improvement of vacuum circuit breakers are carried out at the Department for Electrical Apparatus, National Technical University «Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute». While working on the circuit breakers, developers have to deal with two related objectives – electrical and mechanical. This paper considers the solution of one of these problems – calculation of mechanical forces in the drive shaft of the vacuum circuit breaker in static and dynamic modes. This work was preceded by the failure of the results of measurements of the prototype circuit breakers’ contacts. Measurements have shown that these values do not match the expected values (there were less than the value of 0.8 to 1 mm. The assumption about the reasons for this discrepancy needed to be detailed checked. The results of the work done are presented in this paper. Purpose. Investigation of static and dynamic mechanical stresses and strains in the drive shaft of the vacuum circuit breaker mechanism to determine its characteristics and material selection. Methods. The investigation of mechanical processes is performed by the finite element method in the COMSOL software package. Results. We obtain the static and dynamic characteristics of the circuit breaker drive shaft: deformations, reaction forces, stresses. These characteristics made it possible to determine the actual course of the contacts, select shaft material and calculate the forces acting on the bearings. Conclusions. It is shown that the contact velocity and contact pressure are different from the theoretical value due to the deformation of the

  13. Reprises textuelles dans The Dew Breaker d’Edwidge Danticat Rewriting / Reprising in Edwidge Danticat’s The Dew Breaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Duboin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In her recent novel, The Dew Breaker (2004, Haitian-American writer Edwidge Danticat weaves together the lives of her bruised Haitian characters and their torturer, a former Tonton Macoute, all in exile in the US. Seven of the nine chapters were previously published as separate short stories and have been rearranged to form a novel. The reader is then led to unravel a narrative tangle made of many threads. The disparate nature of the book, its non-linear narrative, the plurality of stories and voices, the gaps in a fragmented, elliptic text all bear witness to an alternative approach to creative writing. Like a seamstress, the novelist pieces together individual stories, connecting them as the multifarious facets of a great whole. In the wake of francophone Haitian writers (namely Jacques Roumain, the author of Masters of the Dew, and Jacques Stephen Alexis who wrote General Sun, My Brother, Edwidge Danticat fictionalizes the traumatic history of a people confronted with violence and terror and engages in a complex intertextual game. Combining ethics and aesthetics, temporal and textual memory, the novelist explores facts and, rather than giving answers, raises difficult questions. Her characters, whether victims or perpetrators, all strive to free themselves from a haunting past: is it ever possible to forgive so as to heal the pain? Can one make amends for the harm that has been done to victims who seek redress?

  14. Biocompatible circuit-breaker chip for thermal management of biomedical microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Dahmardeh, Masoud; Takahata, Kenichi

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a thermoresponsive micro circuit breaker for biomedical applications specifically targeted at electronic intelligent implants. The circuit breaker is micromachined to have a shape-memory-alloy cantilever actuator as a normally closed temperature-sensitive switch to protect the device of interest from overheating, a critical safety feature for smart implants including those that are electrothermally driven with wireless micro heaters. The device is fabricated in a size of 1.5  ×  2.0  ×  0.46 mm3 using biocompatible materials and a chip-based titanium package, exhibiting a nominal cold-state resistance of 14 Ω. The breaker rapidly enters the full open condition when the chip temperature exceeds 63 °C, temporarily breaking the circuit of interest to lower its temperature until chip temperature drops to 51 °C, at which the breaker closes the circuit to allow current to flow through it again, physically limiting the maximum temperature of the circuit. This functionality is tested in combination with a wireless resonant heater powered by radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation, demonstrating self-regulation of heater temperature. The developed circuit-breaker chip operates in a fully passive manner that removes the need for active sensor and circuitry to achieve temperature regulation in a target device, contributing to the miniaturization of biomedical microsystems including electronic smart implants where thermal management is essential.

  15. Simulation Analysis for Opening Performance of Medium Voltage Vacuum Circuit Breaker Based on ADAMS and Maxwell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Xianliang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The circuit breakers play a important role in control and protect the power systemand the vacuum circuit breaker has beenwidely used in the field of medium voltage with its excellent opening performance.Virtual prototyping technology is alsobecamemore and more popularin design and optimization of the vacuum circuit breaker. In this paper, the electromagnetic simulation software Ansoft Maxwell is used to analyze the electric repulsion of the circuit breaker in the case of open the rated short circuit breaking current. The 3D model that wasbuilt by CREOis imported into ADAMS. Thenconstraints, contact force, and the electric repulsion forcethat was analysezed in Ansoft Maxwell is added into the 3D model.Therefore, we can carry on the multi-body dynamics simulation to the 3D model. Then We can get the openingperformance of the vacuum circuit breakerin the condition of open circuit rated short circuit breaking current. The simulation results show that the circuit breaker can still meet the performance requirements in the condition of open circuit rated short circuit breaking current.

  16. Research on burnout fault of moulded case circuit breaker based on finite element simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yang; Chang, Shuai; Zhang, Penghe; Xu, Yinghui; Peng, Chuning; Shi, Erwei

    2017-09-01

    In the failure event of molded case circuit breaker, overheating of the molded case near the wiring terminal has a very important proportion. The burnout fault has become an important factor restricting the development of molded case circuit breaker. This paper uses the finite element simulation software to establish the model of molded case circuit breaker by coupling multi-physics field. This model can simulate the operation and study the law of the temperature distribution. The simulation results show that the temperature near the wiring terminal, especially the incoming side of the live wire, of the molded case circuit breaker is much higher than that of the other areas. The steady-state and transient simulation results show that the temperature at the wiring terminals is abnormally increased by increasing the contact resistance of the wiring terminals. This is consistent with the frequent occurrence of burnout of the molded case in this area. Therefore, this paper holds that the burnout failure of the molded case circuit breaker is mainly caused by the abnormal increase of the contact resistance of the wiring terminal.

  17. Fellows in the Middle: Fabulous Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Mary Lou

    2008-05-01

    Montclair State University's NSF GK-12 Program focuses on grades 7 and 8 in five urban public school districts in northern New Jersey. Each year four fieldtrips are taken by the students, middle school teachers, and graduate student Fellows. Many interdisciplinary hands-on lessons are written for use before, during and after each trip with this year's theme of Earth history. The Sterling Hill Mine trip evoked lessons on geology, economics, crystal structure, density, and pH. A virtual trip (webcam link) to scientists in the rainforest of Panama prompted critical thinking, categorizing layers and animals, and construction of model food webs. In the field trip to the NJ School of Conservation the students will build model aquifers, measure tree heights, and measure stream flow to compare to their Hackensack River. Finally the students will travel to MSU for a Math/Science Day with research talks, lab tours, hands-on activities, and a poster session. In January 2008 seventeen teachers, Fellows, and grant personnel took a field trip to China to set up collaborations with researchers and schools in Beijing and Xi'an, including the Beijing Ancient Observatory. All field trips are fabulous! Next year (IYA) our theme will be planetary science and will feature field trips to the Newark Museum's Dreyfuss Planetarium, BCC Buehler Challenger & Science Center, and star parties. We look forward to invigorating middle school science and mathematics with exciting astronomy. Funded by NSF #0638708

  18. The Effect of Current-Limiting Reactors on the Tripping of Short Circuits in High-Voltage Electrical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, M. S.; Gusev, Yu. P., E-mail: GusevYP@mpei.ru; Monakov, Yu. V.; Cho, Gvan Chun [National Research University “Moscow Power Engineering Institute,” (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The insertion of current-limiting reactors into electrical equipment operating at a voltage of 110 and 220 kV produces a change in the parameters of the transient recovery voltages at the contacts of the circuit breakers for disconnecting short circuits, which could be the reason for the increase in the duration of the short circuit, damage to the electrical equipment and losses in the power system. The results of mathematical modeling of the transients, caused by tripping of the short circuit in a reactive electric power transmission line are presented, and data are given on the negative effect of a current-limiting resistor on the rate of increase and peak value of the transient recovery voltages. Methods of ensuring the standard requirements imposed on the parameters of the transient recovery voltages when using current-limiting reactors in the high-voltage electrical equipment of power plants and substations are proposed and analyzed.

  19. Optimizing the switching time for 400 kV SF6 circuit breakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciulica, D.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents real-time voltage and current analysis for optimizing the wave switching point of the circuit breaker SF6. Circuit Breaker plays an important role in power systems. It provides protection for equipment in embedded stations in transport networks. SF6 Circuit Breaker is very important equipment in Power Systems, which is used for up to 400 kV due to its excellent performance. The controlled switching is used to eliminate transient modes and electrodynamic and dielectric charges in the network at manual switching of capacitor, shunt reactors and power transformers. These effects reduce the reliability and lifetime of the equipment installed on the network, or may lead to erroneous protection.

  20. Test setups for the development of high voltage circuit breakers for high short circuit capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, R.; Ruhnau, W.; Zemann, E.

    1981-10-01

    A number of test setups and procedures are described for measuring and simulating the current and voltage conditions prevailing in short circuit breakers designed to interrupt short circuit currents from 80 to 100 kA. A synthetic test circuit was successfully developed, using the principles of both voltage and current injection. A capacitance current injection procedure allows for the establishment of the influence of iron in the magnetic circuit on the prospective transient recovery voltage of the breaker. Methods for measuring the post-arc current are indicated, and developed meshed grid and tube shunts are described. Synthetic test circuits are presented which are suitable for testing the capacitive switching capabilities of breakers.

  1. Movement characteristic of a circuit breaker with repulsion force compensated contact system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Niu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a new structure of contact system to improve short-time withstand capacity of direct current circuit breaker. With this new contact system, the electrodynamic repulsion force is compensated. The principle of compensation is illustrated at the beginning. Then the electrodynamic force of the contact system is quantified by analyzing the Lorentz force in conductive loop and the Holm force between contacts. The factors and their influences on electrodynamic force are also investigated. Subsequently, based on multibody dynamics, the movement characteristic model is established. The opening and closing characteristics of breaker and the dynamic stress distribution of closing putters are investigated. The results are verified by experiments. It is indicated that this contact system can improve the short-time withstand capacity. The research could provide theoretical references to large-capacity medium-voltage air direct current circuit breaker development.

  2. Research on current sharing of paralleled IGBTs in different DC breaker circuit topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IGBT modules used in series and parallel to satisfy the requirement in high-power DC circuit breakers are often prone to large-current destruction due to current unbalance between paralleled IGBTs. It is of great importance to identify the current unbalance causes and to find a method optimizing the current sharing of paralleled IGBTs. In this paper the current-sharing influencing factors are discussed and verified by simulation. Two possible circuit topologies used in DC circuit breakers are proposed and simulated to see their performance in current sharing. The results show that one of them can provide us with a simple and effective method to achieve good current balancing in the DC circuit breaker application.

  3. Optimization of the Switch Mechanism in a Circuit Breaker Using MBD Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Seok Jang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A circuit breaker is widely used to protect electric power system from fault currents or system errors; in particular, the opening mechanism in a circuit breaker is important to protect current overflow in the electric system. In this paper, multibody dynamic model of a circuit breaker including switch mechanism was developed including the electromagnetic actuator system. Since the opening mechanism operates sequentially, optimization of the switch mechanism was carried out to improve the current breaking time. In the optimization process, design parameters were selected from length and shape of each latch, which changes pivot points of bearings to shorten the breaking time. To validate optimization results, computational results were compared to physical tests with a high speed camera. Opening time of the optimized mechanism was decreased by 2.3 ms, which was proved by experiments. Switch mechanism design process can be improved including contact-latch system by using this process.

  4. CFD Simulation of Transonic Flow in High-Voltage Circuit Breaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Ye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-voltage circuit breaker is an indispensable piece of equipment in the electric transmission and distribution systems. Transonic flow typically occurs inside breaking chamber during the current interruption, which determines the insulating characteristics of gas. Therefore, accurate compressible flow simulations are required to improve the prediction of the breakdown voltages in various test duties of high-voltage circuit breakers. In this work, investigation of the impact of the solvers on the prediction capability of the breakdown voltages in capacitive switching is presented. For this purpose, a number of compressible nozzle flow validation cases have been presented. The investigation is then further extended for a real high-voltage circuit breaker geometry. The correlation between the flow prediction accuracy and the breakdown voltage prediction capability is identified.

  5. Analysis of the Cold Gas Flow in Puffer Type Circuit Breaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Kyu; Jung, Hyun Kyo [Seoul National University (Korea); Shin, Seong Rok [Samsung SDI R and D Center (Korea); Kim, Doo Sung; Kweon, KI Yeoung [Hyosung Heavy Industry (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    There are many difficult problems in analyzing the gas flow in puffer type circuit breaker such as complex geometry, moving boundary, shock wave and so on. To predict the interruption performance accurately, these should be considered in the simulation. In this paper, the analysis procedure of the cold gas flow in the circuit breaker is presented. Euler equation is solved by FVFLIC method which is an explicit time difference scheme for an unsteady flow computation. Moving boundaries are treated with a cell elimination-addition technique. The pressure and density in front of piston are calculated from the rate of the cell volume change. The presented method is applied to the real circuit breaker model and the pressure in front of the piston is good agreement with the experimental one. (author). 8 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Formation and Development of a Breaker Bar under Regular Waves. Part 1: Model Description and Hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    of the free surface and turbulence over a fixed breaker bar profile. A test matrix covering a large interval of the surf similarity parameter is simulated, and the phase lag between the breakpoint and the initiation of the setup is described. The relation of this phase lag to a cross-shore delay......-shore sediment transport and morphodynamic response are considered. All simulations are presented for regular waves and for values of the deep-water surf similarity parameter, ζ0, in the range from 0.08 to 1.19, i.e. covering both spilling and plunging breakers. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. Trip generation data collection in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    There is currently limited data on urban, multimodal trip generation at the individual site level. This lack of : data limits the ability of transportation agencies to assess development impacts on the transportation system : in urban and multimodal ...

  8. Pre-Trip Notification Database (PTNS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The PTNS contains pre-trip notification data from vessels participating in the Northeast Multispecies groundfish fishery from 2010 to present and the Longfin squid...

  9. Lobster Processing and Sales Trip Report Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a federally mandated log which is required to be mailed in to NMFS after a fishing trip. This data set includes lobster processing and sales information...

  10. Large Pelagic Logbook Trip Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch and effort for fishing trips that are taken by vessels with a Federal permit issued for the swordfish and sharks under the Highly...

  11. Field Trip - Conservation of Carnivores in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Amanda

    2017-04-01

    Field trips are a key component of our curriculum at ISWB. Classroom teaching is invaluable but field trips provide pupils with a tangible connection to pertinent issues of conservation. ISWB realises the importance of out of the classroom learning in field trips and to this end our students have an opportunity to partake in a number of 3-5 day field trips per academic year. In 2016, several Year 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 students visited the AfriCat Foundation on Okonjima in central Namibia for 4 days to learn about the conservation of the predator population in Namibia. The trips were very successful and another trip this year to AfriCat North close to Etosha National Park, where the students will work closely with the local farming communities, is planned. AfriCat provides Environmental Education programmes for the youth of Namibia giving them a greater understanding of the importance of wildlife conservation. Their main objective is promoting predator and environmental awareness amongst the youth of Namibia. AfriCat Environmental Education Programme is based on 1997 UNESCO-UNEP Environmental Education objectives. "Attitudes: To raise concern about problems, values, personal responsibility and willingness to participate/act. In the end, we conserve only what we love. We will love only what we understand. We will understand only what we are taught."

  12. Analysis of electric vehicle's trip cost without late arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jun-Qiang; Zhao, Lin

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we use a car-following model to study each electric vehicle's trip cost and the corresponding total trip cost without late arrival. The numerical result show that the electricity cost has significant effects on each electric vehicle's trip cost and the corresponding total trip costs and that the effects are dependent on its time headway at the origin, but the electricity cost has no prominent effects on the minimum value of the system's total trip cost.

  13. Performance of red pine and Japanese larch planted on anthracite coal-breaker refuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj

    1973-01-01

    Red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis (Sieb. and Zucc.) Gord.) seedlings were planted on coal-breaker refuse with all combinations of two levels of lime, two levels of fertilizer, and four mulch treatments. The site was highly unfavorable as a medium for tree growth, and the 4-year results show...

  14. Transient Studies in Large Offshore Wind Farms, Employing Detailed Circuit Breaker Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Jakob Bærholm; Bak, Claus Leth; Hjerrild, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    in order to ensure reliable switching operations. Transient measurement results in an OWF are compared with simulation results in PSCAD EMTDC and DigSILENT Power Factory. A user-defined model of the vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) is included in both tools, capable of simulating multiple prestrikes during...

  15. Transient studies in large offshore wind farms, taking into account network/circuit breaker interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Jacob Bærholm; Bak, Claus Leth; Hjerrild, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    to ensure reliable switching operations. Transient measurement results in an OWF are compared with simulation results in PSCAD EMTDC and DigSILENT Power Factory, where a user-defined model of the vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) is included, capable of simulating multiple prestrikes during the closing operation...

  16. 30 CFR 77.900-2 - Testing, examination, and maintenance of circuit breakers; record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... protecting low- and medium-voltage circuits serving three-phase alternating current equipment and such record... circuit breakers; record. 77.900-2 Section 77.900-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits...

  17. 30 CFR 75.900-3 - Testing, examination, and maintenance of circuit breakers; procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... current circuits serving three-phase alternating current equipment and their auxiliary devices shall be... circuit breakers; procedures. 75.900-3 Section 75.900-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Underground Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 75.900-3 Testing, examination, and...

  18. 30 CFR 75.900-4 - Testing, examination, and maintenance of circuit breakers; record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... circuits serving three-phase alternating current equipment used in the mine. Such record shall be kept in a... circuit breakers; record. 75.900-4 Section 75.900-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Underground Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 75.900-4 Testing, examination, and...

  19. 30 CFR 77.900-1 - Testing, examination, and maintenance of circuit breakers; procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... protecting low- and medium-voltage circuits serving portable or mobile three-phase alternating current... circuit breakers; procedures. 77.900-1 Section 77.900-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits...

  20. Suspended sediment transport around a large-scale laboratory breaker bar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zanden, Joep; van der A, D.A.; Hurther, D.; Caceres, I.; O' Donoghue, T.; Ribberink, Jan S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents novel insights into suspended sediment concentrations and fluxes under a large-scale laboratory plunging wave. Measurements of sediment concentrations and velocities were taken at 12 locations around an evolving breaker bar, covering the complete breaking region from shoaling to

  1. Based On Intrinsic Mode Function Energy Tracking Method of Circuit Breaker Vibration Signal Feature Extraction Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yi-Hang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect a mechanical type of structural failure of the circuit breaker, the characteristics of the circuit breaker mechanical vibration signal is analyzed in this paper. A combination of medium voltage circuit breaker based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD amount of energy and support vector machine (SVM theory vibration signal feature vector extraction and analysis of fault classification method is proposed. First, the vibration signal of the circuit breaker is decomposed by EMD, then intrinsic mode function (IMF is obtain. The major fault feature information intrinsic mode functions the amount of energy of the component is obtained by discrete sampling points and the amount of energy. Using the amount of energy of IMF component as a feature vector, the failure of the test sample signal as input feature vector into trained “BT-SVM” support vector machine classification mechanism for fault classification. The differences and fault type of vibration signals can be identified by this method through the experimental analysis.

  2. 30 CFR 77.809 - Identification of circuit breakers and disconnecting switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.809 Identification of... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of circuit breakers and... to show which units they control, unless identification can be made readily by location. ...

  3. A study of plunging breaker mechanics by PIV measurements and a Navier-Stokes solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emarat, Narumon; Forehand, David I. M.; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of a surf-zone plunging breaker are studied from Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements and a numerical model based on the Navier-Stokes equations, using a Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. An additional numerical model using a Boundary-Integral Method (BIM) is also used in order...

  4. Some notes on the big trip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: pedrogonzalez@mi.madritel.es

    2006-03-30

    The big trip is a cosmological process thought to occur in the future by which the entire universe would be engulfed inside a gigantic wormhole and might travel through it along space and time. In this Letter we discuss different arguments that have been raised against the viability of that process, reaching the conclusions that the process can actually occur by accretion of phantom energy onto the wormholes and that it is stable and might occur in the global context of a multiverse model. We finally argue that the big trip does not contradict any holographic bounds on entropy and information.

  5. Approaching the Processes in the Generator Circuit Breaker at Disconnection through Sustainability Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen A. Bulucea

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the electric connection circuits of power plants (based on fossil fuels as well as renewable sources entail generator circuit-breakers (GCBs at the generator terminals, since the presence of that electric equipment offers many advantages related to the sustainability of a power plant. In an alternating current (a.c. circuit the interruption of a short circuit is performed by the circuit-breaker at the natural passing through zero of the short-circuit current. During the current interruption, an electric arc is generated between the opened contacts of the circuit-breaker. This arc must be cooled and extinguished in a controlled way. Since the synchronous generator stator can flow via highly asymmetrical short-circuit currents, the phenomena which occur in the case of short-circuit currents interruption determine the main stresses of the generator circuit-breaker; the current interruption requirements of a GCB are significantly higher than for the distribution network circuit breakers. For shedding light on the proper moment when the generator circuit-breaker must operate, using the space phasor of the short-circuit currents, the time expression to the first zero passing of the short-circuit current is determined. Here, the manner is investigated in which various factors influence the delay of the zero passing of the short-circuit current. It is shown that the delay time is influenced by the synchronous machine parameters and by the load conditions which precede the short-circuit. Numerical simulations were conducted of the asymmetrical currents in the case of the sudden three-phase short circuit at the terminals of synchronous generators. Further in this study it is emphasized that although the phenomena produced in the electric arc at the terminals of the circuit-breaker are complicated and not completely explained, the concept of exergy is useful in understanding the physical phenomena. The article points out that just after the short

  6. NEWS: A trip to CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, A. D.

    2000-07-01

    the canteen. Over lunch we mixed with physicists of many different nationalities and backgrounds. Figure 1 Figure 1. In the afternoon we visited Microcosm, the CERN visitors centre, and the LEP control room and also the SPS. Here the students learned new applications for much of the physics of standing waves and resonance that they had been taught in the classroom. Later that night, we visited a bowling alley where momentum and collision theory were put into practice. The following morning we returned to CERN and visited the large magnet testing facility. Here again physics was brought to life. We saw superconducting magnets being assembled and tested and the students gained a real appreciation of the problems and principles involved. The afternoon was rounded off by a visit to a science museum in Geneva - well worth a visit, as some of us still use some of the apparatus on display. Friday was our last full day so we visited Chamonix in the northern Alps. In the morning, we ascended the Aiguille de Midi - by cable car. Twenty minutes and 3842 m later we emerged into 50 km h-1 winds and -10 °C temperature, not counting the -10 °C wind chill factor. A crisp packet provided an unusual demonstration of the effects of air pressure (figure 2). Figure 2 Figure 2. The views from the summit were very spectacular though a few people experienced mild altitude sickness. That afternoon the party went to the Mer de Glace. Being inside a 3 million year-old structure moving down a mountain at 3 cm per day was an interesting experience, as was a tot of whisky with 3 million year-old water. Once again the local scenery was very photogenic and the click and whirr of cameras was a constant background noise. Saturday morning saw an early start for the long drive home. Most students - and some staff - took the opportunity to catch up on their sleep. Thanks are due to many people without whom the trip would never have taken place. Anne Craige, Stuart Williams

  7. Mechanical Fault Diagnosis for HV Circuit Breakers Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Energy Entropy and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the operation process of the high voltage circuit breaker, the changes of vibration signals can reflect the machinery states of the circuit breaker. The extraction of the vibration signal feature will directly influence the accuracy and practicability of fault diagnosis. This paper presents an extraction method based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD. Firstly, the original vibration signals are decomposed into a finite number of stationary intrinsic mode functions (IMFs. Secondly, calculating the envelope of each IMF and separating the envelope by equal-time segment and then forming equal-time segment energy entropy to reflect the change of vibration signal are performed. At last, the energy entropies could serve as input vectors of support vector machine (SVM to identify the working state and fault pattern of the circuit breaker. Practical examples show that this diagnosis approach can identify effectively fault patterns of HV circuit breaker.

  8. The SMS-GPS-Trip-Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Harder, Henrik; Weber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new method for collecting travel behavior data, based on a combination of GPS tracking and SMS technology, coined the SMS–GPS-Trip method. The state-of-the-art method for collecting data for activity based traffic models is a combination of travel diaries and GPS tracking...

  9. Procedural Aspects of Compulsory Licensing Under TRIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, Indian authorities granted a compulsory license to NATCO Pharmaceuticals for a patented pharmaceutical product sold by Bayer. This decision raised several complex issues regarding the grant a CL and their consistency with the principles and objectives of TRIPS. Furthermore, in January 20...

  10. A Fault Diagnosis Method of High Voltage Circuit Breaker Based on Moving Contact Motion Trajectory and ELM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Niu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid the deficiencies of conventional high voltage circuit breaker mechanical properties detection methods, a new algorithm based on image block matching with diamond search strategy is presented in this paper. The motion of auxiliary mark on the pull rod or shaft is firstly recorded by a high-speed and high-definition digital camera when the circuit breaker is open or close. Then the motion trajectory is acquired through diamond image block matching method. The mechanical parameters, such as travel and open and close velocity, are calculated according to the travel-time curve of the circuit breaker. Finally, evaluation model is constructed taking mechanical parameters characteristic values as inputs of ELM. Comparing to the existing techniques, our method is a noncontact measurement based on computer vision. It is easy and convenient for practical application since it need not any electrical and mechanical connection to the breaker. Another advantage of our method is that it can obtain the line and angle displacement simultaneously. The experiment results on the circuit breaker of 220 kv show that our method is effective for breaker mechanical properties detection.

  11. Trip generation studies for special generators : final report, December 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This research examines the effects of town centers and senior housing developments on surrounding roadways and nearby transit. The Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) Trip Generation Manual, which determines number of trips produced or attrac...

  12. Field Trips: An Effective Supplement to Humane Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Bill

    1986-01-01

    Applies research on the instructional effectiveness of science-oriented field trips to humane education programs. Advocates the use of animal-related field trips and provides guidelines for excursion activities. (ML)

  13. Thermal radiation effect on the extinction properties of electric arcs in HV circuit breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziani Abderrahmane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the formation of the electric arc at the opening of a high voltage circuit breaker, the generated plasma will be the seat of a very important thermal exchange. Models founded only on conduction and convection thermal transfers don't reproduce the whole thermal exchanges that are governing the extinction process. This paper is devoted to the development of a model of the electric arc extinction in a high voltage circuit breaker taking in account the thermal radiation of the plasma, in addition to the conduction and convection phenomena. The Stefan-Boltzman equation is coupled with the heat equation, and both equations are solved simultaneously in order to follow the evolution of the arc voltage and the conductance of the thermal plasma. The obtained results are found in good agreement with experimental recordings.

  14. Effect of Circuit Breaker Shunt Resistance on Chaotic Ferroresonance in Voltage Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADMANESH, H.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ferroresonance or nonlinear resonance is a complex electrical phenomenon, which may cause over voltages and over currents in the electrical power system which endangers the system reliability and continuous safe operating. This paper studies the effect of circuit breaker shunt resistance on the control of chaotic ferroresonance in a voltage transformer. It is expected that this resistance generally can cause ferroresonance dropout. For confirmation this aspect Simulation has been done on a one phase voltage transformer rated 100VA, 275kV. The magnetization characteristic of the transformer is modeled by a single-value two-term polynomial with q=7. The simulation results reveal that considering the shunt resistance on the circuit breaker, exhibits a great mitigating effect on ferroresonance over voltages. Significant effect on the onset of chaos, the range of parameter values that may lead to chaos along with ferroresonance voltages has been obtained and presented.

  15. Interrupting Short-Circuit Direct Current Using an AC Circuit Breaker in Series with a Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and demonstrates the principle and efficacy of a novel direct current fault interruption scheme using a reactor in series with a controlled rectifier and a conventional AC circuit breaker. The presence of the series reactor limits the capacitive discharge current from the DC filter capacitor at the output terminals of the phase-controlled rectifier. In addition, the series reactor along with the filter capacitor forms an underdamped series RLC circuit which forces the fault current to oscillate about zero. This synthetic alternating current can then be interrupted using a conventional AC circuit breaker. The selection criteria for the series reactor and overcurrent protection are presented as well. Using the proposed scheme for an example case, a DC fault current magnitude is reduced from 56 kA to 14 kA, while the interruption time is reduced from 44 ms to 25 ms.

  16. Arc-induced turbulent mixing in an SF{sub 6} circuit breaker model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bini, Riccardo; Basse, Nils T; Seeger, Martin, E-mail: riccardo.bini@ch.abb.com, E-mail: nils.basse@ch.abb.com, E-mail: martin.seeger@ch.abb.com [ABB Corporate Research, Segelhof 1K, 5405 Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2011-01-19

    Dielectric interruption performance of SF{sub 6} high-voltage gas circuit breakers depends on the temperature distribution of the gas during the post-arc phase. Understanding the details of the mixing process occurring inside the breaker during arcing is therefore fundamental for the design. Multiphysics simulations are nowadays used to predict the flow field and the energy distribution inside the interrupter during and after the arcing phase. In this paper we make use of an optical technique to observe the arc-induced SF{sub 6} mixing process inside a dedicated test device. We extract qualitative and quantitative information and we compare this with simulations to conclude on the suitability of the models used.

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY: SCHOOL TRIP AND SCIENTIFIC EDUCATIONAL ACADEMIC TRIP IN THE NORTH-WEST OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIANCA SORINA RĂCĂŞAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study proposes a comparative approach of two forms of non-formal educational activities: the school trip and the scientific educational academic trip with their similarities and differences regarding both tourist and pedagogical levels. In order to acquire this goal the following objectives have been set: analysing a geographical-tourist itinerary, analysing the involved tourist services, analysing the trip planner for the specified itinerary, analysing certain teaching activities, differentiated based on the level of study (pre-university/superior, analysing students and undergraduates’ worksheets after they have been completed according to the requirements. Consequently a series of similarities have appeared between the school trip and the academic trip, especially related to the theme, purpose, evaluation form, participants’ involvement degree, structure and integrated tourist elements (from attractions to services. On the other hand, the main differences that were highlighted, starting with educational level, age difference, and participants’ number have had repercussions on the quantitative and qualitative particularities of the tasks and last but not least, on the evaluation product (students’ portfolios and undergraduates’ trip notebooks.

  18. A circuit-breaker use-case operated by a humanoid in aircraft manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotnikova, Anastasia; Chappellet, Kévin; Paolillo, Antonio; Escande, Adrien; Anbarjafari, Gholamreza; Suarez-Roos, Adolfo; Rabaté, Patrice; Kheddar, Abderrahmane

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Automation of large-scale aircraft manufacturing with wheeled or embedded platforms requires costly changes of the manufacturing process and the environment. Humanoid robots could address this issue. We present a use-case of HRP-4 humanoid operating circuit-breakers. We show the feasibility of using visual feedback and force control in an integrated and unified multi-contact and multimodal task space quadratic programming (QP) whole-body control framework to enable HRP...

  19. Detusking fence-breaker elephants as an approach in human-elephant conflict mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutinda, Matthew; Chenge, Geoffrey; Gakuya, Francis; Otiende, Moses; Omondi, Patrick; Kasiki, Samuel; Soriguer, Ramón C; Alasaad, Samer

    2014-01-01

    Human-elephant conflict (HEC) is a recurring problem that appears wherever the range of elephants and humans overlap. Different methods including the use of electric fences are used worldwide to mitigate this conflict. Nonetheless, elephants learn quickly that their tusks do not conduct electricity and use them to break down fences (fence-breakers). In Lewa Wildlife Conservancy, Kenya, destructive elephants (Loxodonta africana) were monitored between 2010 and 2013. The fence-breaking rate reached four incidents (fence-breaking) per elephant per 100 days. Ten bull males and 57 females were identified as fence-breakers. The bulls were involved in 85.07% and the females in 14.93% of incidents. The Kenya Wildlife Service approved detusking (partial cutting of tusks) in four of the 10 fence-breakers as a way of preventing them from breaking down fences, thereby mitigating HEC in the Conservancy. The result of the detusking was a drastic six-fold reduction in damage to fences (range: 1.67 to 14.5 times less fence-breaking) by the four worst fence-breaker elephants, because with trimmed tusks elephants lack the tools to break down fences. Detusking could not totally eliminate fence destruction because, despite lacking their tools, elephants can still destroy fences using their heads, bodies and trunks, albeit less effectively. On the other hand, apart from inherent aesthetic considerations, the detusking of elephants may have certain negative effects on factors such as elephants' social hierarchies, breeding, mate selection and their access to essential minerals and food. Elephant detusking seems to be effective in drastically reducing fence-breaking incidents, nonetheless its negative effects on behaviour, access to food and its aesthetical consequences still need to be further studied and investigated.

  20. Simulation of Low Nickel Content Alloys For Industrial Ground Fault Circuit-Breaker Relays

    OpenAIRE

    Messal, Oualid; Sixdenier, Fabien; Morel, Laurent; Burais, Noël; Waeckerle, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this paper is to simulate the performances of a ground fault circuit-breaker (GFCB) relay with new low nickel content alloys. Indeed, in the construction industry, the materials become more expensive as their nickel content increases. Moreover, the demand for nickel is particularly sensitive to the economic conjuncture. Therefore, an original electromagnetic relay model has been developed and validated in different working conditions (current amplitude, freq...

  1. Ballplayer or barrier breaker? Branding through the seven statues of Jackie Robinson

    OpenAIRE

    Stride, C.B.; Thomas, F; Smith, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Jackie Robinson is the baseball player most frequently depicted by a public statue within the USA, a ubiquity explained by his unique position as barrier breaker of the Major League colour bar. Utilising a detailed inspection of statue designs, locations and inscriptions, and comparisons with wider baseball statuary, Robinson's monuments reveal a distinctive set of cultural projections. These are commemorations distinguished by their age, location away from MLB ballparks, lack of action poses...

  2. Detusking Fence-Breaker Elephants as an Approach in Human-Elephant Conflict Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutinda, Matthew; Chenge, Geoffrey; Gakuya, Francis; Otiende, Moses; Omondi, Patrick; Kasiki, Samuel; Soriguer, Ramón C.; Alasaad, Samer

    2014-01-01

    Background Human-elephant conflict (HEC) is a recurring problem that appears wherever the range of elephants and humans overlap. Different methods including the use of electric fences are used worldwide to mitigate this conflict. Nonetheless, elephants learn quickly that their tusks do not conduct electricity and use them to break down fences (fence-breakers). Methodology/Principal Findings In Lewa Wildlife Conservancy, Kenya, destructive elephants (Loxodonta africana) were monitored between 2010 and 2013. The fence-breaking rate reached four incidents (fence-breaking) per elephant per 100 days. Ten bull males and 57 females were identified as fence-breakers. The bulls were involved in 85.07% and the females in 14.93% of incidents. The Kenya Wildlife Service approved detusking (partial cutting of tusks) in four of the 10 fence-breakers as a way of preventing them from breaking down fences, thereby mitigating HEC in the Conservancy. The result of the detusking was a drastic six-fold reduction in damage to fences (range: 1.67 to 14.5 times less fence-breaking) by the four worst fence-breaker elephants, because with trimmed tusks elephants lack the tools to break down fences. Detusking could not totally eliminate fence destruction because, despite lacking their tools, elephants can still destroy fences using their heads, bodies and trunks, albeit less effectively. On the other hand, apart from inherent aesthetic considerations, the detusking of elephants may have certain negative effects on factors such as elephants' social hierarchies, breeding, mate selection and their access to essential minerals and food. Conclusions Elephant detusking seems to be effective in drastically reducing fence-breaking incidents, nonetheless its negative effects on behaviour, access to food and its aesthetical consequences still need to be further studied and investigated. PMID:24614538

  3. Reversion of prion protein conformational changes by synthetic beta-sheet breaker peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, C; Kascsak, R J; Saborío, G P; Aucouturier, P; Wisniewski, T; Prelli, F; Kascsak, R; Mendez, E; Harris, D A; Ironside, J; Tagliavini, F; Carp, R I; Frangione, B

    2000-01-15

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are associated with a structural transition in the prion protein that results in the conversion of the physiological PrPc to pathological PrP(Sc). We investigated whether this conformational transition can be inhibited and reversed by peptides homologous to the PrP fragments implicated in the abnormal folding, which contain specific residues acting as beta-sheet blockers (beta-sheet breaker peptides). We studied the effect of a 13-residue beta-sheet breaker peptide (iPrP13) on the reversion of the abnormal structure and properties of PrP(Sc) purified from the brains of mice with experimental scrapie and from human beings affected by sporadic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In a cellular model of familial prion disease, we studied the effect of the peptide in the production of the abnormal form of PrP in intact cells. The influence of the peptide on prion infectivity was studied in vivo by incubation time assays in mice with experimental scrapie. The beta-sheet breaker peptide partly reversed in-vitro PrP(Sc) to a biochemical and structural state similar to that of PrPc. The effect of the peptide was also detected in intact cells. Treatment of prion infectious material with iPrP13 delayed the appearance of clinical symptoms and decreased infectivity by 90-95% in mice with experimental scrapie. Beta-sheet breaker peptides reverse PrP conformational changes implicated in the pathogenesis of spongiform encephalopathies. These peptides or their derivatives provide a useful tool to study the role of PrP conformation and might represent a novel therapeutic approach for prion-related disorders.

  4. 46 CFR 58.01-30 - Trial-trip observance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trial-trip observance. 58.01-30 Section 58.01-30... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-30 Trial-trip observance. The operation of main and auxiliary engines, boilers, steering gear, and auxiliaries shall be observed on the trial trip of...

  5. Travel Survey Design and Description of Multimodal Trips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goeverden, C.D.; van Nes, R.; van Arem, B.

    2016-01-01

    A majority of the trips are made by just one transport mode that is mostly the car, walking, or –in some countries– the bicycle. For a small proportion of the trips, generally a few percent, two or more modes are used. The latter include particularly trips where a collective mode (e.g. bus, train,

  6. Austenite stability in TRIP steels studied by synchrotron radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blondé, R.

    2014-01-01

    TRIP steel is a material providing great mechanical properties. Such steels show a good balance between high-strength and ductility, not only as a result of the fine microstructure, but also because of the well-known TRIP effect. The Transformation Induced-Plasticity (TRIP) phenomenon is the

  7. Microstructure characterization of Friction Stir Spot Welded TRIP steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding; Adachi, Yoshitaka; Peterson, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels have not yet been successfully joined by any welding technique. It is desirable to search for a suitable welding technique that opens up for full usability of TRIP steels. In this study, the potential of joining TRIP steel with Friction Stir Spot...

  8. Fuzzy Diagnostic System for Oleo-Pneumatic Drive Mechanism of High-Voltage Circuit Breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Nicolau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many oil-based high-voltage circuit breakers are still in use in national power networks of developing countries, like those in Eastern Europe. Changing these breakers with new more reliable ones is not an easy task, due to their implementing costs. The acting device, called oleo-pneumatic mechanism (MOP, presents the highest fault rate from all components of circuit breaker. Therefore, online predictive diagnosis and early detection of the MOP fault tendencies are very important for their good functioning state. In this paper, fuzzy logic approach is used for the diagnosis of MOP-type drive mechanisms. Expert rules are generated to estimate the MOP functioning state, and a fuzzy system is proposed for predictive diagnosis. The fuzzy inputs give information about the number of starts and time of functioning per hour, in terms of short-term components, and their mean values. Several fuzzy systems were generated, using different sets of membership functions and rule bases, and their output performances are studied. Simulation results are presented based on an input data set, which contains hourly records of operating points for a time horizon of five years. The fuzzy systems work well, making an early detection of the MOP fault tendencies.

  9. METHOD FOR SEISMIC CAPABILITY ASSESSMENT OF THE HIGH VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion MANEA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The international norms recommend verification of the circuit breakers seismic capability by tests on seismic platform, but accept assessment through experimental and theoretical combined analysis, too. The paper presents a methodology for seismic capability assessment of the high voltage electric equipments using combined analysis through experimental modal analysis methods. The methodology was applied on some representative types of circuit breakers and disconnecting switchers situated in the working place. The same methodology was applied on a circuit breaker type IO 220 kV/2500A, situated on seismic platform from SC EUROTEST SA Bucharest, after finishing the tests with vibratory signals applied to the base. The equipment, in the same mounting conditions, was tested by means of the present methodology. Were determined the frequency response functions, modal parameters, and theoretical response of some representative points to theoretical vibratory motions applied to base, the same as applied during the direct experimental tests. At the end of paper it is effectuated the comparative analyses of the results obtained through the two methods: direct tests on seismic platform and combined analysis by modal analysis methods.

  10. Modeling and Simulation of Flexible Transmission Mechanism with Multiclearance Joints for Ultrahigh Voltage Circuit Breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangang Meng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission mechanism, of which the dynamic characteristics determine the reliability of the circuit breaker, is the principal component of the ultrahigh voltage (UHV circuit breaker. The characteristics of transmission mechanism are quick motion, high sensibility, and high reliability. The transmission mechanism with multiclearance joints present strong no-linear vibration feature which strongly affects the reliability of the UHV circuit breaker. In this investigation, a planar rigid-flexible coupling model of the transmission mechanism considering the clearance joints and the flexibility of components is established by using ADAMS software. The dynamic contact model in clearance joints is performed, based on clearance vector model of clearance joint. Then, the reliability of the model is proved by means of comparing the results of experiments. The simulation results show that the dynamic response of the mechanism is greatly influenced by the clearance and the flexibility of components has a role of suspension for the mechanism. Moreover, the influence of the clearance size, input speed, and number of clearance joints on the dynamic characteristics of the mechanism are also investigated.

  11. A Novel Approach to Power Circuit Breaker Design for Replacement of SF6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Telfer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the role of PTFE ablation in enhancing current interruption for various background gases in high voltage circuit breakers. An assessment of the current interruption capability has been made in terms of the arcing duration and the contact gap length at which critical arc extinction is achieved. These observations are supported by measurements of the magnitude of extinction and re-ignition voltage peaks. Most previous and other current experimental work on gas filled circuit breaker design follows conventional wisdom in investigating arcing behaviours at elevated gas pressures (usually up to 6 bar. But in this work we concentrate on the effects of using low gas pressures (less than 1 bar in the presence of a close-fitting shield of ablatant polymer material (PTFE that surrounds the electrode assembly of an experimental high power circuit breaker. We demonstrate that for several different gases, arc extinction capability compares well under these conditions with SF6, suggesting that SF6 could be replaced entirely in this novel system by more environmentally friendly gases. Moreover, the critical contact gap lengths at extinction are only slightly greater than when using SF6 at 6 bar. Weight loss measurements from the ablatant shield suggest that a chemical puffer action is the most likely mechanism for achieving the observed arc extinctions in this system.

  12. RESOLVE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ray O.

    2012-01-01

    The RESOLVE project is a lunar prospecting mission whose primary goal is to characterize water and other volatiles in lunar regolith. The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem is comprised of a fluid subsystem that transports flow to the gas chromatograph- mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instruments that characterize volatiles and the Water Droplet Demonstration (WDD) that will capture and display water condensation in the gas stream. The LAVA Engineering Test Unit (ETU) is undergoing risk reduction testing this summer and fall within a vacuum chamber to understand and characterize C!Jmponent and integrated system performance. Ray will be assisting with component testing of line heaters, printed circuit heaters, pressure transducers, temperature sensors, regulators, and valves in atmospheric and vacuum environments. He will be developing procedures to guide these tests and test reports to analyze and draw conclusions from the data. In addition, he will gain experience with preparing a vacuum chamber with fluid and electrical connections. Further testing will include integrated testing of the fluid subsystem with the gas supply system, near-infrared spectrometer, WDD, Sample Delivery System, and GC-MS in the vacuum chamber. This testing will provide hands-on exposure to a flight forward spaceflight subsystem, the processes associated with testing equipment in a vacuum chamber, and experience working in a laboratory setting. Examples of specific analysis Ray will conduct include: pneumatic analysis to calculate the WOO's efficiency at extracting water vapor from the gas stream to form condensation; thermal analysis of the conduction and radiation along a line connecting two thermal masses; and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) heater control analysis. In this Research and Technology environment, Ray will be asked to problem solve real-time as issues arise. Since LAVA is a scientific subsystem, Ray will be utilizing his chemical engineering background to

  13. Analysis of electric vehicle's trip cost allowing late arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jun-Qiang; Liu, Wei-Yi; Zhao, Lin

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we use a car-following model to study each electric vehicle's trip cost and the total trip cost allowing late arrival. The numerical result show that the electricity cost has great effects on each commuter's trip cost and the total trip costs and that these effects are dependent on each commuter's time headway at the origin, but the electricity cost has no prominent impacts on the minimum value of total trip cost under each commuter's different time headway at the origin.

  14. Propagation of the trip behavior in the VENUS vertex chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohama, Taro; Yamada, Yoshikazu

    1995-03-01

    The high voltage system of the VENUS vertex chamber occasionally trips by a discharge somewhere among cathode electrodes during data taking. This trip behavior induces often additional trips at other electrodes such as the skin and the grid electrodes in the vertex chamber. This propagation mechanism of trips is so complicated in this system related with multi-electrodes. Although the vertex chamber is already installed inside the VENUS detector and consequently the discharge is not able to observe directly, a trial to estimate the propagation has been done using only the information which appears around the trip circuits and the power supply of the vertex chamber. (author).

  15. Your private trips with Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    2015-01-01

    Your Carlson Wagonlit Travel agency at CERN (building 62) also organizes private trips!     Do not hesitate to contact the “Tourism” team, at your disposal from Monday to Friday from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Phone: 72763. E-mail: cern@carlsonwagonlit.ch. Since 1 January 2015, everyone working at CERN benefits from lower booking fees.

  16. TRIPs Agreement, Important Multilateral WTO Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Maria Florescu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the content and the frame of the TRIPs. Agreement. It starts by introducing the reader to the terms that defined the world economical climate by the time of the Agreement negociation. Also, it explains the need of having an Agreement on intellectual property rights with impact on the business world. Moreover, the article reviews the main provisions of the Agreement and the most important intellectual property rights.

  17. Predictors of trips to food destinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Frank, Lawrence; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian; Glanz, Karen; Chapman, Jim

    2012-05-20

    Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Atlanta residents (N = 4800) who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of trips by participants and households, person-level variables (e.g. demographics), neighborhood-level urban form measures, created in GIS, and trip characteristics (e.g. time of day, origin and destination) were investigated as correlates of distance travelled for food and frequency of grocery store and fast food outlet trips. Mean travel distance for food ranged from 4.5 miles for coffee shops to 6.3 miles for superstores. Type of store, urban form, type of tour, day of the week and ethnicity were all significantly related to distance travelled for food. Origin and destination environment, type of tour, day of week, age, gender, income, ethnicity, vehicle access and obesity status were all significantly related to visiting a grocery store. Home neighborhood environment, day of week, type of tour, gender, income, education level, age, and obesity status were all significantly related to likelihood of visiting a fastfood outlet. The present study demonstrated that people travel sizeable distances for food and this distance is related to urban. Results suggest that researchers need to employ different methods to characterize food environments than have been used to assess urban form in studies of physical activity. Food is most often purchased while traveling from locations other than home, so future studies should assess the food environment around

  18. 2005 Earth-Mars Round Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, the 2005 Earth-Mars Round Trip. The contents include: 1) Lander; 2) Mars Sample Return Project; 3) Rover; 4) Rover Size Comparison; 5) Mars Ascent Vehicle; 6) Return Orbiter; 7) A New Mars Surveyor Program Architecture; 8) Definition Study Summary Result; 9) Mars Surveyor Proposed Architecture 2003, 2005 Opportunities; 10) Mars Micromissions Using Ariane 5; 11) Potential International Partnerships; 12) Proposed Integrated Architecture; and 13) Mars Exploration Program Report of the Architecture Team.

  19. VEHICLE OWNERSHIP AND TRIP GENERATION MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattarathep SILLAPARCHARN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address some important issues of a rapid growth in vehicle ownership, how different types of vehicles interact and how these growths affect a number of trip generations, especially in a country undergoing fast economic development, such as Thailand. The forecasts of such growth are important for strategic transport decision-making, travel demand forecasts and other policy issues at both regional and national levels. For these reasons, a series of vehicle ownership models, which include: (1 car, (2 motorcycle, (3 truck and heavy goods vehicle and (4 bus and coach models, are proposed together with a trip generation model. These models are built upon the limited aggregate data, both time series and cross sectional and disaggregated spatially by province, using non-log-linear weighted least squares regression for motor vehicle ownership models and exponential modelling for a trip generation model. The inputs required are basically forecasted gross provincial products per capita and population level. All proposed models have good statistical properties, i.e. all statistically significant coefficients and high adjusted R squared value and very good fits which are within 12% of observed values during the base years. The car ownership model also gives reasonable car ownership elasticities with respect to income and a sensible saturation level when compared with other studies. The forecast for a case of increasing income shows that the car and truck ownership level will increase together with the trip generation level. However, as people own more cars, the motorcycle and bus ownership levels will decrease as there might be a switch to car ownership.

  20. Fast round-trip Mars trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sam

    This paper is concerned with the effect of limiting the overall duration or else the one-way flight time of a round trip to Mars, as reflected in the sum of impulsive velocity increments required of the spacecraft propulsion system. Ignition-to-burnout mass ratios for a hypothetical single stage spacecraft, obtained from the rocket equation by combining these delta-V sums with appropriate values of specific impulse, are used to evaluate the relative effectiveness of four high-thrust propulsion alternatives. If the flight crew goes to the surface of Mars and stays there for the duration of their stopover, it is much cheaper (in terms of delta-V) to minimize their zero-g exposure by limiting the interplanetary transit time of a conjunction-class mission (round trip time = 800-1000 days, Mars stopover = 450-700 days) than to impose the same limit on an opposition-class mission (round trip time less than 600 days, stopover = 40 days). Using solid-core nuclear thermal propulsion to fly a conjunction-class mission, for a moderate mass penalty the interplanetary transit time (each way) probably could be limited to something in the range of 4 to 6 months, depending on the launch year.

  1. Evaluation of pediatric community field trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, E T; Knasel, A L

    1987-05-01

    A field trip program for junior medical students on a pediatric clinical clerkship acquainted students with the care of normal and handicapped children in community settings of school, day care center, residential treatment, or diagnostic facilities.A program evaluation by pre and post-trip survey demonstrated a positive change in students' knowledge and attitude in general, which was unaffected by such factors as sex, previous experience in a medical setting, and previous experience with handicapped children.As an integral part of the pediatric clerkship, the field trip appears to have been a positive experience for students, as it met their educational and emotional needs. Subjective evaluation indicated that many students formed insightful and compassionate judgments about handicapped children.Although the increase in knowledge and sensitivity of the students, as reflected in the pre-and post-test, was not statistically significant, the benefit to the students, to the personnel of the agencies, and ultimately to the children and families with whom they dealt during their professional careers was important.

  2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC STUDY OF SUPLIT STONE BREAKER WOMEN IN SUPPORTING FAMILY LIFE: A CASE STUDY OF INFORMAL SECTOR STONE BREAKER WORKER IN THE NORTH MORAMO, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambolong M.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A socio-economic study of Suplit Stone breaker women In Supporting Family life is a study of the Informal Sector Workers carried out in the form of a survey. This study aims to assess the socio-economic level of the workers, educational level, results achieved, income levels, health effects, and household's social condition. This research will specifically study and analyze income received, identify and examine the issues that arise in performing stone breaker as an occupation: deficiencies, expectations, and negative impacts. Ten urban villages/villages in Moramo North District was taken as research population. Area samples taken were five (5 urban/rural where workers are concentrated in Lalowaru Village, Puasana Village, Mata Mawatu Village, Sanggula Village, and Lamokula Village. Samples community were 5 percent of all household. Therefore total samples taken were 93 people scattered in villages. Research informants are Head of North Morano district, Stone Processing owner, and stone carrier driver. Data collection was conducted by observation, interview using a list of questions, as well as documentation of objective conditions. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis techniques, which describe the objective conditions of the field in accordance with the purpose of research. Research result shows workers are housewives who help their husbands and families to supplement the household income to support family life. In general, socio-economic conditions of women suplit stone breaker is relatively low, their education level is generally elementary or none. The results achieved are still limited by an average of IDR 30,000, per day/worker is calculated based on the total stone yield. These women perform their work using simple tools such as hammer and gloves. The negative impact on eye health and breathing difficulty caused by inhaling stone dust every day. The problems faced by the workers is the lack of working capital to be trying to own

  3. Optimal planning of series resistor to control time constant of test circuit for high-voltage AC circuit-breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Ho Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The equivalent test circuit that can deliver both short-circuit current and recovery voltage is used to verify the performance of high-voltage circuit breakers. Most of the parameters in this circuit can be obtained by using a simple calculation or a simulation program. The ratings of the circuit breaker include rated short-circuit breaking current, rated short-circuit making current, rated operating sequence of the circuit breaker and rated short-time current. Among these ratings, the short-circuit making capacity of the circuit breaker is expressed in peak value and not in RMS value similar to breaking capacity. A series resistor or super-excitation is used to control the peak value of the short-circuit current in the equivalent test circuit. When using a series resistor, a higher rating of circuit breakers leads to a higher thermal capacity, thereby requiring additional space. Therefore, an effective, optimal design of the series resistor is essential. This paper proposes a method for reducing thermal capacity and selecting the optimal resistance to limit the making current by controlling the DC time constant of the test circuit.

  4. Air blast circuit breaker noise and hearing loss: a multifactorial model for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, D I; Williams, S

    2000-04-01

    The assessment of the risk to hearing from impulse noise exposure may be a problem for the occupational physician because existing legislative and international noise exposure standards deal primarily with continuous noise, and are not valid in excess of the peak exposure limit of 200 pa (140 dB). Noise exposure in excess of this level, for example that due to firearms, is frequently perceived as harmful, but this is not necessarily the case, as impulse noise standards do, in fact, allow exposure with a maximum in the order of 6.3 kPa (170 dB). To illustrate this, a cross-sectional group of electrical transmission workers have been studied who were exposed to significant levels of impulse noise from air blast circuit breakers and firearms. Important hearing loss factors have been identified by means of a specially designed questionnaire. Using the Health & Safety Executive definition, the risk of hearing loss was determined by calculating prevalence odds ratios (ORs) for exposure to these factors. The OR for those with fewer than eight unprotected air blast circuit breaker exposures was 2.27 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-5.08), whilst for those with more than eight exposures the OR was 2.10 (95% CI, 0.97-4.54). For firearm exposure, ORs of 1.61 (95% CI, 0.95-2.74) were noted in the medium exposure group and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.08-3.86) in the high exposure group. When all the factors were included in the model, the most significant factor was age. The study gives support to the impulse noise exposure criteria, confirming the borderline risk from air blast circuit breaker noise exposure and the relative safety of moderate gunfire exposure.

  5. The effect of β-sheet breaker peptides on metal associated Amyloid-β peptide aggregation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellato, F; Fusco, Z; Chiaraluce, R; Consalvi, V; Dinarelli, S; Placidi, E; Petrosino, M; Rossi, G C; Minicozzi, V; Morante, S

    2017-10-01

    Far-UV Circular Dichroism experiments and Atomic Force Microscopy tomography are employed to assess the impact of β-sheet breakers on the Aβ1-40 peptide aggregation process in the presence of Cu2+ or Zn2+ transition metals. In this work we focus on two specific 5-amino acids long β-sheet breakers, namely the LPFFD Soto peptide, already known in the literature, and the LPFFN peptide recently designed and studied by our team. We provide evidence that both β-sheet breakers are effective in reducing the Aβ1-40 aggregation propensity, even in the presence of metal ions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Real Students and Virtual Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bailey, J. E.; Schott, R. C.; Treves, R.; Scientific Team Of Www. Digitalplanet. Org

    2010-12-01

    Field trips have always been one of the major attractions of geoscience education, distinguishing courses in geology, geography, oceanography, etc., from laboratory-bound sciences such as nuclear physics or biochemistry. However, traditional field trips have been limited to regions with educationally useful exposures and to student populations with the necessary free time and financial resources. Two-year or commuter colleges serving worker-students cannot realistically insist on completion of field assignments and even well-endowed universities cannot take students to more than a handful of the best available field localities. Many instructors have attempted to bring the field into the classroom with the aid of technology. So-called Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) cannot replace the real experience for those that experience it but they are much better than nothing at all. We have been working to create transformative improvements in VFTs using four concepts: (i) self-drive virtual vehicles that students use to navigate the virtual globe under their own control; (ii) GigaPan outcrops that reveal successively more details views of key locations; (iii) virtual specimens scanned from real rocks, minerals, and fossils; and (iv) embedded assessment via logging of student actions. Students are represented by avatars of their own choosing and travel either together in a virtual field vehicle, or separately. When they approach virtual outcrops, virtual specimens become collectable and can be examined using Javascript controls that change magnification and orientation. These instructional resources are being made available via a new server under the domain name www.DigitalPlanet.org. The server will log student progress and provide immediate feedback. We aim to disseminate these resources widely and welcome feedback from instructors and students.

  7. Hunton Group core workshop and field trip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.S. [ed.

    1993-12-31

    The Late Ordovician-Silurian-Devonian Hunton Group is a moderately thick sequence of shallow-marine carbonates deposited on the south edge of the North American craton. This rock unit is a major target for petroleum exploration and reservoir development in the southern Midcontinent. The workshop described here was held to display cores, outcrop samples, and other reservoir-characterization studies of the Hunton Group and equivalent strata throughout the region. A field trip was organized to complement the workshop by allowing examination of excellent outcrops of the Hunton Group of the Arbuckle Mountains.

  8. Predictors of trips to food destinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Methods Atlanta residents (N = 4800) who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of trips by participants and households, person-level variables (e.g. demographics), neighborhood-level urban form measures, created in GIS, and trip characteristics (e.g. time of day, origin and destination) were investigated as correlates of distance travelled for food and frequency of grocery store and fast food outlet trips. Results Mean travel distance for food ranged from 4.5 miles for coffee shops to 6.3 miles for superstores. Type of store, urban form, type of tour, day of the week and ethnicity were all significantly related to distance travelled for food. Origin and destination environment, type of tour, day of week, age, gender, income, ethnicity, vehicle access and obesity status were all significantly related to visiting a grocery store. Home neighborhood environment, day of week, type of tour, gender, income, education level, age, and obesity status were all significantly related to likelihood of visiting a fastfood outlet. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that people travel sizeable distances for food and this distance is related to urban. Results suggest that researchers need to employ different methods to characterize food environments than have been used to assess urban form in studies of physical activity. Food is most often purchased while traveling from locations other than home, so future studies

  9. Chaplygin gas may prevent big trip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Madrid, Jose A. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain) and Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Camino Bajo de Huetor 50, 18008 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: madrid@iaa.es

    2006-03-09

    This Letter deals with the study of the accretion of a generalized Chaplygin gas with equation of state p=-A/{rho}{sup {alpha}} onto wormholes. We have obtained that when dominant energy condition is violated the size of wormhole increases with the scale factor up to a given plateau. On the regime where the dominant energy condition is satisfied our model predicts a steady decreasing of the wormhole size as generalized Chaplygin gas is accreted. Our main conclusion is that the big trip mechanism is prevented in a large region of the physical parameters of the used model.

  10. Predictors of trips to food destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Jacqueline

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Methods Atlanta residents (N = 4800 who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of trips by participants and households, person-level variables (e.g. demographics, neighborhood-level urban form measures, created in GIS, and trip characteristics (e.g. time of day, origin and destination were investigated as correlates of distance travelled for food and frequency of grocery store and fast food outlet trips. Results Mean travel distance for food ranged from 4.5 miles for coffee shops to 6.3 miles for superstores. Type of store, urban form, type of tour, day of the week and ethnicity were all significantly related to distance travelled for food. Origin and destination environment, type of tour, day of week, age, gender, income, ethnicity, vehicle access and obesity status were all significantly related to visiting a grocery store. Home neighborhood environment, day of week, type of tour, gender, income, education level, age, and obesity status were all significantly related to likelihood of visiting a fastfood outlet. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that people travel sizeable distances for food and this distance is related to urban. Results suggest that researchers need to employ different methods to characterize food environments than have been used to assess urban form in studies of physical activity. Food is most often purchased while traveling from locations other

  11. Ant Colony Optimization on Crowdsourced Delivery Trip Consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Paskalathis; SN, Azhari

    2017-01-01

    Common practice in crowdsourced delivery services is through direct delivery. That  is by dispatching direct trip to a driver nearby the origin location. The total distance can be reduced through multiple pickup and delivery by increasing the number of requests in a trip. The research implements exact algorithm to solve the consolidation problem with up to 3 requests in a trip. Greedy heuristic is performed to construct initial route based on highest savings. The result is then optimized ...

  12. Mediating cultural borders during science field trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebak, Kimberly

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, I analyze teacher and student roles in the teaching and learning of science at an informal learning center, The Outdoor Classroom. As a white middle class informal learning science teacher, I examine my struggles to teach science to students across boundaries of race, class, gender, and experience with the outdoors during field trips. Through the field trip I did not have the time or face-to-face experience to make sense of the students' culture, see their culture in terms of capital, and align my enactment to benefit their learning. Likewise, the students did not have the time or face-to-face experience with me in order to adapt their cultural capital and build the essential stocks of symbolic and social capital. This research demonstrates how the classroom teacher draws upon previous transactions and emotions to successfully engage her students in practices that promote the participation and learning of science. Through creating culturally adaptive ways of transacting, teachers can provide opportunities for their students to generate positive emotional energy and group solidarity in the learning of science at an informal science center.

  13. Experimental study on PTFE ablation in high voltage circuit-breakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, M [Corporate Research, ABB Switzerland Ltd., CH-5405 Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland); Tepper, J [Corporate Research, ABB Switzerland Ltd., CH-5405 Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland); Christen, T [Corporate Research, ABB Switzerland Ltd., CH-5405 Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland); Abrahamson, J [High Voltage Technologies, ABB Switzerland Ltd., CH-8050 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-12-07

    The average surface ablation of poly-tetra-fluro-ethylene (PTFE) nozzles in high voltage circuit-breakers was investigated experimentally by means of the specific ablation. Experiments were done with a test device in the current and arcing time range of 2-40 kA{sub rms} and 5-17 ms, respectively. This allowed determining the dependences of the specific PTFE ablation on current and arcing time. Additionally, the specific PTFE nozzle ablation in commercial high voltage circuit-breakers was analysed in a broad range of current amplitudes and arcing times. For understanding the results more in detail, experiments with a small scale test device were performed. The different experiments yielded consistent values for the PTFE ablation. The ablation depends mainly on the total arc energy. The total ablation is given by the ablation of walls surrounding the arc and by the ablation in regions where plasma from the arc cools down. Different specific ablation values can be observed for the axial blown arc mode and the ablation controlled arc mode.

  14. Influence of Field Trip on the Development of Students Interest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result of the study showed that; field trip increased students' interest towards studying fine and applied art theory and practicals. Male interest towards studying fine and applied art after embarking on field trip is slightly higher than their female counterpart but the difference is not significant at 0.05 alpha level under 56 ...

  15. The "Science" Behind a Successful Field Trip to the Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Catherine Marie; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    A field trip to the local zoo is often a staple in many elementary school curricula. Many zoos offer free entry to local teachers and their students. Teachers take students on field trips to enrich the curriculum, make connections to what students are learning in school, and provide students with meaningful learning experiences (Kisiel 2007).…

  16. Development of Teacher Attitude Scale towards the Field Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2012-01-01

    A field trip is an excursion by group of students with teachers to a place away from classroom such as natural field, science center, and zoo. So, it is an important tool for renewable energy education. This study was carried out to develop a new scale for measuring teacher attitudes towards the field trip. Teacher attitude scale towards the field…

  17. Valuation of a transfer in a multimodal public transport trip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakenbos, Rik; La Paix Puello, Lissy Cesarina; Nijenstein, S.; Geurs, Karst Teunis

    2016-01-01

    Improvement of chain mobility is considered a major issue in public transport use. Transfers within a public transport trip are the least appreciated part of the trip. This research quantifies the experienced transfer disutility of a transfer between BTM and train. The influence of travel time,

  18. Assessment of vehicle trip production rates in Ilorin (Nigeria) | Jimoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The city was divided into 5 zones, and origin and destination traffic survey questionnaires were administered to 110 households in each zone, to obtain primary data on socio-economic characteristics of daily trip patterns and preferred modes of travel. The data was analyz-ed for trip production rates by regression and cross ...

  19. The Field Trip in Teacher Education: Expanding Horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L. M.; Edelson, R.

    Field trips for preservice teachers as an integral part of academic coursework appear to positively influence student understanding of diverse educational techniques and problems, and the educational needs of diverse cultural and ethnic populations. A description is given of a field trip to Mexico for students in an introductory early childhood…

  20. Collecting Planarians: A Good Choice for a Field Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Heeyoung

    2001-01-01

    Describes a field trip to collect planarians as successful in generating interest in the sciences. This activity is suitable for all grade levels as a field trip or biology lab. Planarians can be easily collected from streams across the United States. Once in the classroom, planaria are easily fed and cared for. (SAH)

  1. Transient Studies in Large Offshore Wind Farms, Tak-ing Into Account Network/Circuit Breaker Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Jakob; Bak, Claus Leth; Hjerrild, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    to ensure reliable switching operations. Transient measurement results in an OWF are compared with simulation results in PSCAD EMTDC and DigSILENT Power Factory, where a user-defined model of the vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) is included, capable of simulating multiple prestrikes during the closing operation...

  2. Medium voltage SF6 switch rooms with switch breakers; Cubiculos de media tensao em SF6 com disjuntores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matias, Marcos [Schneider Electric Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the technology using SF6 as breaking gas and the application in medium and high voltage switch rooms. The paper also describes the metal clad panel, the ring main unit, the medium voltage, and the panel saw and circuit breakers with SF6.

  3. User oriented trajectory search for trip recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2012-01-01

    Trajectory sharing and searching have received significant attentions in recent years. In this paper, we propose and investigate a novel problem called User Oriented Trajectory Search (UOTS) for trip recommendation. In contrast to conventional trajectory search by locations (spatial domain only), we consider both spatial and textual domains in the new UOTS query. Given a trajectory data set, the query input contains a set of intended places given by the traveler and a set of textual attributes describing the traveler\\'s preference. If a trajectory is connecting/close to the specified query locations, and the textual attributes of the trajectory are similar to the traveler\\'e preference, it will be recommended to the traveler for reference. This type of queries can bring significant benefits to travelers in many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation. There are two challenges in the UOTS problem, (i) how to constrain the searching range in two domains and (ii) how to schedule multiple query sources effectively. To overcome the challenges and answer the UOTS query efficiently, a novel collaborative searching approach is developed. Conceptually, the UOTS query processing is conducted in the spatial and textual domains alternately. A pair of upper and lower bounds are devised to constrain the searching range in two domains. In the meantime, a heuristic searching strategy based on priority ranking is adopted for scheduling the multiple query sources, which can further reduce the searching range and enhance the query efficiency notably. Furthermore, the devised collaborative searching approach can be extended to situations where the query locations are ordered. The performance of the proposed UOTS query is verified by extensive experiments based on real and synthetic trajectory data in road networks. © 2012 ACM.

  4. HOW DO YOUNG PEOPLE SELECT INFORMATION TO PLAN A TRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana ŢUGULEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to reveal the young tourists preferences in the process of planning a trip. Sources of information used, the utility of Internet/travel agencies in planning travel trip activities, preferred means of transportation and types of accommodation are investigated. As research methods, there used both qualitative and quantitative methods: focus group and survey. Internet is more used by young tourists in planning trips than travel agencies are. Internet is considered more useful in the documentation stage and when buying airline tickets. Young tourists are more influenced by friends when planning a trip. Young tourists prefer cars and planes as means of transportation for a trip and hotels and guesthouses as accommodation when traveling.

  5. Record breakers

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In the sixties, CERN’s Fellows were but a handful of about 50 young experimentalists present on site to complete their training. Today, their number has increased to a record-breaking 500. They come from many different fields and are spread across CERN’s different activity areas.   “Diversifying the Fellowship programme has been the key theme in recent years,” comments James Purvis, Head of the Recruitment, Programmes and Monitoring group in the HR Department. “In particular, the 2005 five-yearly review introduced the notion of ‘senior’ and ‘junior’ Fellowships, broadening the target audience to include those with Bachelor-level qualifications.” Diversification made CERN’s Fellowship programme attractive to a wider audience but the number of Fellows on site could not have increased so much without the support of EU-funded projects, which were instrumental in the growth of the programme. ...

  6. Experimental and numerical investigation of the internal kinetics of a surf-zone plunging breaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emarat, Narumon; Forehand, David I.M.; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2012-01-01

    for surfzone breaking waves have been reported. In this study, a comparison is made between the experimental and numerical investigation of the internal kinematics of a surf-zone plunging breaker. The full-field velocity measuring technique known as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used in the experiments...... that this was due to the small amount of smoothing applied in the BIM to enable it to continue to supply input data to the Navier–Stokes solver well beyond the breaking of the wave. In addition, some small differences were also found between the numerically predicted velocity distributions and those measured...... in the experiments. These disagreements occurred mostly in the aerated region and it is proposed that they could be caused by errors in the PIV velocity data due to air bubble effects. However, they could also be attributed to the fact that no turbulence model is used in the numerical scheme and it is these aerated...

  7. The Impact Of Surface Shape Of Chip-Breaker On Machined Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šajgalík, Michal; Czán, Andrej; Martinček, Juraj; Varga, Daniel; Hemžský, Pavel; Pitela, David

    2015-12-01

    Machined surface is one of the most used indicators of workpiece quality. But machined surface is influenced by several factors such as cutting parameters, cutting material, shape of cutting tool or cutting insert, micro-structure of machined material and other known as technological parameters. By improving of these parameters, we can improve machined surface. In the machining, there is important to identify the characteristics of main product of these processes - workpiece, but also the byproduct - the chip. Size and shape of chip has impact on lifetime of cutting tools and its inappropriate form can influence the machine functionality and lifetime, too. This article deals with elimination of long chip created when machining of shaft in automotive industry and with impact of shape of chip-breaker on shape of chip in various cutting conditions based on production requirements.

  8. Estimation of Impact Loads in a Hydraulic Breaker by Transfer Path Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changheon Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to estimate the impact loads delivered to the housing of a hydraulic breaker quantitatively. Striking forces caused vibrations in the equipment housing, which were experimentally measured, and frequency response functions were also found through modal impact experiments. Transfer path analysis (TPA method of the data quantified the impact loads delivered to the housing. TPA method can analyze the relationship between the vibration energy and the transfer path of an excitation source and so explore the way in which vibrations on each path contribute to the entire vibration profile. The impact loads of each part derived by TPA method were compared with the impact loads in the chisel derived from strain gauge measurements of the striking energy. This comparison validated the TPA approach. This study describes the basic concepts and components of TPA method and also reviews its applicability to mechanical equipment that experiences impact vibrations and impact loads.

  9. Analysis and improvement in repulsive force of 630 A frame Moulded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digpalsinh Parmar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Moulded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB is a protective device used for low voltage protection in the range of 12–1250 A. It is having fast breaking and making ability due to special contact structure. In case of transformer it is generally placed in secondary side and in case of motor protection it is used as backup protection. The existing design is suffering from chattering of contact tip which lead to erosion and in turn affect electrical life. It also reduces interrupting/breaking capacity of MCCB. In this paper, detailed study of the factors and constraints related to repulsion threshold current (Irp and consistency of magnetic release for 630 A MCCB is carried out using Finite Element tool JMAG to find out limitations and scope of design improvements in existing design. The proposed suggestion is validated by testing.

  10. Cross-shore redistribution of nourished sand near a breaker bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    over the profile is consider as a means of imposing the net recirculation resulting from longshore nonuniformities or the impact of wind-induced shear stresses. The impact of wave height, irregularity in incident waves, and the size of the sediment grains on the cross-shore distribution of suspended......This paper focuses on the optimal location for dumping nourished sand on a barred coastline. This is done by investigating the short-term behavior of the cross-shore redistribution of nourished sediment on a breaker-bar profile in a two-dimensional vertical plane. This is achieved by the use...... of a complete numerical description of the surf-zone processes with respect to both hydrodynamics and sediment transport. The numerical model is based on the finite-volume approach with a free surface-tracking method, also known as the volume of fluid (VOF), and the sediment transport is calculated applying...

  11. Smooth criminal: convicted rule-breakers show reduced cognitive conflict during deliberate rule violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusyte, Aiste; Pfister, Roland; Mayer, Sarah V; Schwarz, Katharina A; Wirth, Robert; Kunde, Wilfried; Schönenberg, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Classic findings on conformity and obedience document a strong and automatic drive of human agents to follow any type of rule or social norm. At the same time, most individuals tend to violate rules on occasion, and such deliberate rule violations have recently been shown to yield cognitive conflict for the rule-breaker. These findings indicate persistent difficulty to suppress the rule representation, even though rule violations were studied in a controlled experimental setting with neither gains nor possible sanctions for violators. In the current study, we validate these findings by showing that convicted criminals, i.e., individuals with a history of habitual and severe forms of rule violations, can free themselves from such cognitive conflict in a similarly controlled laboratory task. These findings support an emerging view that aims at understanding rule violations from the perspective of the violating agent rather than from the perspective of outside observer.

  12. Swirling flow and its influence on dc arcs in a duo-flow hybrid circuit breaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, K Y; Lee, H S [Power and Industrial Systems R and D Center, Hyosung Corporation, Changwon, Kyungnam 641-712 (Korea, Republic of); Yan, J D; Fang, M T C [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Park, K Y [Advanced Power Apparatus Group, Korea Electro-technology Research Institute (KERI), Changwon, Kyungnam 641-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-21

    The effects of swirling flow on the behaviour of dc SF{sub 6} arcs in a duo-flow nozzle are computationally investigated in the electric current range 3-7 kA. A swirling flow is produced by the interaction of the magnetic field of a current-carrying coil and the plasma. Results show that a strong swirling flow is generated in regions where a large radial current density exists as a result of the conducting arc column rapidly changing its radial dimension. The presence of the swirling flow reduces the axis pressure, modifies the arc shape and slightly lowers the arc voltage (2-5%) in comparison with the case without considering the swirling flow. The different natures of swirling flows in a plasma jet/arc heater and in a hybrid circuit breaker are also discussed.

  13. Vacuum circuit breaker modelling for the assessment of transient recovery voltages: application to various network configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Borghetti, Alberto; Glasdam, Jakob Bærholm

    2018-01-01

    for both VCB sizing and insulation coordination studies of the components nearby the switching device. In this respect, their accurate modelling, which is the object of the paper, becomes crucial. In particular, the paper presents (the concept of) a VCB model and two relevant applications showing the model......Vacuum circuit breakers (VCBs) are widely used for medium voltage applications when low maintenance, long operating life, and large number of allowable switching cycles are required. The accurate estimation of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) associated with their manoeuvres is indispensable...... capabilities of simulating TRVs due to opening/closing manoeuvres, namely the switching of large electrical motors and the switching of cables collecting offshore wind farms (OWFs). Data from digital fault recorder (DFR) in a water-pumping plant and from a measurement campaign in an OWF using a high...

  14. Advanced transportation concept for round-trip space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chen-Wan L.

    1988-01-01

    A departure from the conventional concept of round-trip space travel is introduced. It is shown that a substantial reduction in the initial load required of the Shuttle or other launch vehicle can be achieved by staging the ascent orbit and leaving fuel for the return trip at each stage of the orbit. Examples of round trips from a low-inclination LEO to a high-inclination LEO and from an LEO to a GEO are used to show the merits of the new concept. Potential problem areas and research needed for the development of an efficient space transportation network are discussed.

  15. The effect of an advanced glycation end-product crosslink breaker and exercise training on vascular function in older individuals: a randomized factorial design trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudegeest-Sander, M.H.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Smits, P.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Levine, B.D.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aging leads to accumulation of irreversible advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), contributing to vascular stiffening and endothelial dysfunction. When combined with the AGE-crosslink breaker Alagebrium, exercise training reverses cardiovascular aging in experimental animals. This study is the

  16. Scaled photographs of surf over the full range of breaker sizes on the north shore of Oahu and Jaws, Maui, Hawaiian Islands (NODC Accession 0001753)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital surf photographs were scaled using surfers as height benchmarks to estimate the size of the breakers. Historical databases for surf height in Hawaii are...

  17. Peer Pressure Road Trip 2012 - A Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popnoe, Olivia

    2012-10-01

    Each year since 2005 the Angelo State University SPS ``Peer Pressure Team'' has travelled for a week in May to promote physics and other sciences for grades K-12. This year, the Peer Pressure Team visited schools in West Texas and New Mexico. This was the first year the team has traveled outside of Texas, inspired by the SPS 2012 theme ``Physics Beyond Borders.'' The purpose of the Road Tours is to encourage an interest in science in children in grades K-12 and give experience in presenting and explaining physics to the undergraduate volunteers. The schools attended are carefully selected based on socioeconomic need and an underrepresentation in physics, as well as other sciences. During this week, the Peer Pressure Team saw about 1,500 students over 10 shows. Surveys were given to teachers post-demonstration to have students complete and return so the Team could gauge the effectiveness of the outreach program. In addition, the surveys allow the Team to determine which demonstrations had the most impact. We present the details of this year's road trip with the results and analysis of the survey data.

  18. You Can't Reach for the Stars if You are Tripping Over the Ground! (Preventing Slips, Trips, and Falls)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Darcy; Raysich, Mark; Kirkland, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Although there are very few mishaps related to ground, vehicle or payload processing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), employees have experienced a significant number of injuries due to slips, trips, and falls outside of performing flight processing operations. Slips, trips, and falls are major causes of occupational injuries at KSC, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and in general industry. To help KSC employees avoid these injuries, and allow them to be fully productive, KSC launched an initiative in 2013 to reduce slips, trips, and falls. This initiative is based on a four-part model focusing on DATA analysis, HAZARD awareness, PREVENTIVE methods, and BALANCE.

  19. Ambassador Zomlot Briefs Press Ahead of Kushner Mideast Trip

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delinda C Hanley

    2017-01-01

    Ambassador Husam Zomlot, the Chief Representative of the General Delegation of the PLO to the US, gave a press briefing on August 17, a week before senior White House adviser Jared Kushner's trip to the Middle East...

  20. Hawaii Longline Fishery Trip Expenditure (2004 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a time-series dataset of trip expenditure data for the Hawaii-based longline fleet for the period August 2004 to present. The data collection includes 10...

  1. American Samoa Longline Fishery Trip Expenditure (2006 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a time-series dataset for trip expenditure data for the American Samoa-based longline fleet from August 2006 to present. The dataset includes 10 variable...

  2. Astronaut Neil Armstrong studies rock samples during geological field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, studies rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  3. Prediction of the mechanical behaviour of TRIP steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Tekkaya, A.E.; Hirt, G.

    2011-01-01

    TRIP steel typically contains four different phases, ferrite, bainite, austenite and martensite. During deformation the metastable retained austenite tends to transform to stable martensite. The accompanying transformation strain has a beneficial effect on the ductility of the steel during forming.

  4. Harvesting Collective Trend Observations from Large Scale Study Trips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare; Ovesen, Nis

    2014-01-01

    trips for engineering students in architecture & design and the results from crowd-collecting a large amount of trend observations as well as the derived experience from using the method on a large scale study trip. The method has been developed and formalized in relation to study trips with large......To enhance industrial design students’ decoding and understanding of the technological possibilities and the diversity of needs and preferences in different cultures it is not unusual to arrange study trips where such students acquire a broader view to strengthen their professional skills...... numbers of students to the annual Milan Design Week and the Milan fair ‘I Saloni’ in Italy. The present paper describes and evaluates the method, the theory behind it, the practical execution of the trend registration, the results from the activities and future perspectives....

  5. Trip report : Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge : August 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a summary of the August 28, 1998 trip to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge to review the hydrology, current conditions, habitat and wildlife....

  6. Test plan : Branson TRIP travel time/data accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The Branson Travel and Recreational Information Program (TRIP) in Branson, Missouri, and the I-40 Traveler and Tourist Information System (TTIS) in the I-40 corridor of Northern Arizona are two Field Operational Tests (FOTs) of Traveler Information S...

  7. Accommodation of the spinal cat to a tripping perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui eZhong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult cats with a complete spinal cord transection at T12-T13 can relearn over a period of days-to-weeks how to generate full weight-bearing stepping on a treadmill or standing ability if trained specifically for that task. In the present study, we assessed short-term (msec-min adaptations by repetitively imposing a mechanical perturbation on the hindlimb of chronic spinal cats by placing a rod in the path of the leg during the swing phase to trigger a tripping response. The kinematics and EMG were recorded during control (10 steps, trip (1 to 60 steps with various patterns and then release (without any tripping stimulus, 10 to 20 steps sequences. Our data show that the activation patterns and kinematics of the hindlimb in the step cycle immediately following the initial trip (mechanosensory stimulation of the dorsal surface of the paw was modified in a way that increased the probability of avoiding the obstacle in the subsequent step. This indicates that the spinal sensorimotor circuitry reprogrammed the trajectory of the swing following a perturbation prior to the initiation of the swing phase of the subsequent step, in effect attempting to avoid the re-occurrence of the perturbation. The average height of the release steps was elevated compared to control regardless of the pattern and the length of the trip sequences. In addition, the average impact force on the tripping rod tended to be lower with repeated exposure to the tripping stimulus. EMG recordings suggest that the semitendinosus, a primary knee flexor, was a major contributor to the adaptive tripping response. These results demonstrate that the lumbosacral locomotor circuitry can modulate the activation patterns of the hindlimb motor pools within the time frame of single step in a manner that tends to minimize repeated perturbations. Furthermore, these adaptations remained evident for a number of steps after removal of the mechanosensory stimulation.

  8. User Oriented Trajectory Search for Trip Recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Ruogu

    2012-07-08

    Trajectory sharing and searching have received significant attention in recent years. In this thesis, we propose and investigate the methods to find and recommend the best trajectory to the traveler, and mainly focus on a novel technique named User Oriented Trajectory Search (UOTS) query processing. In contrast to conventional trajectory search by locations (spatial domain only), we consider both spatial and textual domains in the new UOTS query. Given a trajectory data set, the query input contains a set of intended places given by the traveler and a set of textual attributes describing the traveler’s preference. If a trajectory is connecting/close to the specified query locations, and the textual attributes of the trajectory are similar to the traveler’s preference, it will be recommended to the traveler. This type of queries can enable many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation. There are two challenges in UOTS query processing, (i) how to constrain the searching range in two domains and (ii) how to schedule multiple query sources effectively. To overcome the challenges and answer the UOTS query efficiently, a novel collaborative searching approach is developed. Conceptually, the UOTS query processing is conducted in the spatial and textual domains alternately. A pair of upper and lower bounds are devised to constrain the searching range in two domains. In the meantime, a heuristic searching strategy based on priority ranking is adopted for scheduling the multiple query sources, which can further reduce the searching range and enhance the query efficiency notably. Furthermore, the devised collaborative searching approach can be extended to situations where the query locations are ordered. Extensive experiments are conducted on both real and synthetic trajectory data in road networks. Our approach is verified to be effective in reducing both CPU time and disk I/O time.

  9. Immersive, interactive virtual field trips promote learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, G.; Mead, C.; Buxner, S.; Taylor, W.; Semken, S. C.; Anbar, A. D.; Sundstrom, J.

    2016-12-01

    We are assessing the educational effectiveness of a new type of immersive virtual field trip (iVFT) that we are developing, grounded in active, inquiry-based learning, and accessible via web browsers. To this end, we collected data from five high school AP biology classes (n = 153) that were assigned an iVFT lesson focused on life and environment during the Ediacaran time period, 550 million years ago. Students explore a series of fossil beds using high resolution imagery and video acquired during a field expedition to the Nilpena site in the Flinders Ranges, South Australia. They first encounter an immersive spherical image, which orients them to the area. Then, they identify fossils in the iVFT, using a dichotomous key. Finally, they explore an interactive simulation of this ancient ecosystem. The average time spent on the experience was approximately two hours. The learning objective is for students to be able to describe the Ediacaran ecosystem preserved in the rocks at Nilpena. To assess this outcome, we administered identical pre- and post-lesson quizzes to students. Results showed a statistically significant improvement on the six-item quiz with a normalized gain of 0.96 (pre-lesson mean: 2.4, post-lesson mean: 5.9, p lesson scores are close to what would be expected from guessing, so these results represent a substantial growth in understanding. These findings encourage the use of iVFT-based learning experiences in education (an evolving suite is publicly available at http://vft.asu.edu). In the future, we will explore in more detail which aspects of the experience provide greatest educational benefit, and the effectiveness in teaching scientific reasoning skills in addition to content knowledge. To answer these questions, we will supplement content-based questions with mixed-methods data including interviews.

  10. Single Point Vulnerability Analysis of Automatic Seismic Trip System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seo Bin; Chung, Soon Il; Lee, Yong Suk [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Pil [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Single Point Vulnerability (SPV) analysis is a process used to identify individual equipment whose failure alone will result in a reactor trip, turbine generator failure, or power reduction of more than 50%. Automatic Seismic Trip System (ASTS) is a newly installed system to ensure the safety of plant when earthquake occurs. Since this system directly shuts down the reactor, the failure or malfunction of its system component can cause a reactor trip more frequently than other systems. Therefore, an SPV analysis of ASTS is necessary to maintain its essential performance. To analyze SPV for ASTS, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and fault tree analysis (FTA) was performed. In this study, FMEA and FTA methods were performed to select SPV equipment of ASTS. D/O, D/I, A/I card, seismic sensor, and trip relay had an effect on the reactor trip but their single failure will not cause reactor trip. In conclusion, ASTS is excluded as SPV. These results can be utilized as the basis data for ways to enhance facility reliability such as design modification and improvement of preventive maintenance procedure.

  11. Hybrid intelligent monironing systems for thermal power plant trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Nader; Ismail, Firas Basim

    2012-11-01

    Steam boiler is one of the main equipment in thermal power plants. If the steam boiler trips it may lead to entire shutdown of the plant, which is economically burdensome. Early boiler trips monitoring is crucial to maintain normal and safe operational conditions. In the present work two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler trips have been proposed and coded within the MATLAB environment. The training and validation of the two systems has been performed using real operational data captured from the plant control system of selected power plant. An integrated plant data preparation framework for seven boiler trips with related operational variables has been proposed for IMSs data analysis. The first IMS represents the use of pure Artificial Neural Network system for boiler trip detection. All seven boiler trips under consideration have been detected by IMSs before or at the same time of the plant control system. The second IMS represents the use of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks as a hybrid intelligent system. A slightly lower root mean square error was observed in the second system which reveals that the hybrid intelligent system performed better than the pure neural network system. Also, the optimal selection of the most influencing variables performed successfully by the hybrid intelligent system.

  12. Test set-ups for developing high voltage circuit-breaker for high short-circuit capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzelt, R.; Ruhnau, W.; Zemann, E.

    1981-10-01

    The increasing short-circuit power in networks requires short-circuit breakers which are capable of interrupting short-circuit currents from 80 to 100 kA. The investigation and research development of a synthetic test circuit according to the principles of voltage- and current-injection respectively for short-circuit currents stated above comprises the first part of this report. The second part deals with the influence of Ferrum in the magnetic circuit on the transient recovery voltage wave form which is not influenced by the arc voltage. Investigations on the measurement of the post-arc current is described in the third chapter. In this case the construction and measurement of meshed grid- and tube shunts represent the major constituent. The fourth and last chapter deals with the investigation of synthetic test circuits in order to prove the capacitive switching capabilities of circuit-breakers. Two different switching circuits were subjected to test and subsequently developed for service.

  13. Teachers as Secondary Players: Involvement in Field Trips to Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Nirit Lavie; Tal, Tali

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on field trips to natural environments where the teacher plays a secondary role alongside a professional guide. We investigated teachers' and field trip guides' views of the teacher's role, the teacher's actual function on the field trip, and the relationship between them. We observed field trips, interviewed teachers and…

  14. PENGGUNAAN DAN PEMILIHAN PENGAMAN MINI CIRCUIT BREAKER (MCB) SECARA TEPAT MENYEBABKAN BANGUNAN LEBIH AMAN DARI KEBAKARAN AKIBAT LISTRIK

    OpenAIRE

    i Ketut Wijaya

    2009-01-01

    Diperlukan suatu penelitian tentang alat pengaman yang sederhana dan sangat diperlukan untuk menjaga instalasi rumah agar menjadi aman. Tidak jarang akibat ketidaktahuan tentang listrik akan berakibat patal. Alat pengaman sederhana ini Mini Circuit Breaker atau MCB banyak dijual dipasaranYang menjadi masalah adalah jika membeli suatu alat pengaman MCB : harus tahu kapasitas, berapa harga, kwalitas, dilihat secara seksama dan bila perlu dicoba. Begitu banyak macam dan ragam merek dari alat pen...

  15. A new method for the experimental assessment of finger haemodynamic effects induced by a hydraulic breaker in operative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Matteo; Rapisarda, Venerando; Scalise, Lorenzo; Paone, Nicola; Santarelli, Lory; Fenga, Concettina; Rossi, Gian Luca

    2004-07-01

    The haemodynamic effects, in terms of grip force and hand-transmitted accelerations, produced on the fingers of 10 healthy subjects by operation of a hydraulic breaker held with a low or a high grip were investigated with a new experimental set-up. A novel apparatus consisting of a capacitive sensor matrix and a laser Doppler vibrometer was used to measure the two parameters during breaker operation. Finger blood flow in basal conditions and after each test was evaluated in the four long fingers of both hands with a photoplethysmograph and superficial skin thermometry. The amplitude of the accelerations transmitted to the hand surface was greater during the test with the low grip. Photoplethysmographic and thermometric values were significantly lower than basal values after either test. The amplitude of photoplethysmographic values during the tests was significantly lower with the low than with the high grip in 6 subjects, in both index fingers, and in the right middle finger. The authors show that the level of grip force used for holding the breaker causes transmission of vibrations of wider amplitude, resulting in greater reduction in finger blood flow. In line with the literature, stimulus magnitude, frequency and duration affected finger blood flow, especially in the index finger.

  16. Technical-economic evaluation of the utilization of closing resistor in CEMIG extra-high voltage circuit breakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Angelica C.O.; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Teixeira, Jose Cleber; Fonseca, Rodrigo Assuncao; F. Junior, Sebastiao V. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the technical and economic studies performed by CEMIG, Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais, Brazil, concerning the use of closing resistor in its extra-high voltage (EHV) breakers. The analysis emphasizes the advantages which could be achieved with the elimination of the resistor as far as costs and reliability are concerned. This evaluation was motivated by two 500 kV breaker failures resulting from the breakdown of the closing resistor operation mechanism. These occurrences resulted in operative restriction for CEMIG EHV system. The analysis demanded a review of the capability criteria of silicon carbide (Si C) gap arresters, which are still greatly used in CEMIG EHV System, and of the procedures to be applied when carrying out the transient studies. The investigation resulted in the prompt removal of closing resistors from circuit breakers in CEMIG extra-high voltage system generating an economy of approximately U$ 840,00 and an improvement in safety and system reliability. (author) 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Current identification in vacuum circuit breakers as a least squares problem*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghezzi Luca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a magnetostatic inverse problem is solved, in order to reconstruct the electric current distribution inside high voltage, vacuum circuit breakers from measurements of the outside magnetic field. The (rectangular final algebraic linear system is solved in the least square sense, by involving a regularized singular value decomposition of the system matrix. An approximated distribution of the electric current is thus returned, without the theoretical problem which is encountered with optical methods of matching light to temperature and finally to current density. The feasibility is justified from the computational point of view as the (industrial goal is to evaluate whether, or to what extent in terms of accuracy, a given experimental set-up (number and noise level of sensors is adequate to work as a “magnetic camera” for a given circuit breaker. Dans cet article, on résout un problème inverse magnétostatique pour déterminer la distribution du courant électrique dans le vide d’un disjoncteur à haute tension à partir des mesures du champ magnétique extérieur. Le système algébrique (rectangulaire final est résolu au sens des moindres carrés en faisant appel à une décomposition en valeurs singulières regularisée de la matrice du système. On obtient ainsi une approximation de la distribution du courant électrique sans le problème théorique propre des méthodes optiques qui est celui de relier la lumière à la température et donc à la densité du courant. La faisabilité est justifiée d’un point de vue numérique car le but (industriel est d’évaluer si, ou à quelle précision, un dispositif expérimental donné (nombre et seuil limite de bruit des senseurs peut travailler comme une “caméra magnétique” pour un certain disjoncteur.

  18. Trip Chaining Behavior in Developing Countries: A Study of Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India

    OpenAIRE

    Subbarao, SSV; Krishna Rao, KV

    2013-01-01

    Trip making behavior of people is becoming complex day by day due to their modern and hectic life style. This exhibits that a better understanding of trip chain decision making is necessary to transportation researchers and policy makers. Hence, this paper explores trip chaining behavior of Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) residents using the activity-travel survey conducted by the authors in 2011. This paper proposes a typology of trip chains based on the structure of trips and activity purp...

  19. Proposal for Remodeling the Sedimentation System of the CONCREPAL Material Breaker at Barranca, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazareth Arguedas-Zumbado

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to a change in environmental paradigm and the production increase, this document is a proposal for remodeling the CONCREPAL’s settler located in Barranca, Costa Rica. It is presented as an eco-efficient alternative that simultaneously enables compliance with current legislation on landfill and wastewater reuse. Initially, an environmental diagnosis of the characteristics and performance of the current sedimentation tank was made. Subsequently, the design of the proposed remodeling of the treatment system, incorporating the recirculation of treated water in the breaker material production process, was developed. Finally, a life-size settler model was created in a test environment in order to start measurements tests and determine the functionality; successfully, after all tests, positive results within the range allowed by national legislation on total suspended-solids concentration (40 ± 0.01 mg/l were obtained. Thanks to the cost-benefit and environmental management analysis, a new settler system can be implemented with positive short and long term results for the company.

  20. Transient Studies in Large Offshore Wind Farms Employing Detailed Circuit Breaker Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Hjerrild

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Switching overvoltages (SOV are considered a possible source of component failures experienced in existing offshore wind farms (OWFs. The inclusion of sufficiently accurate and validated models of the main electrical components in the OWF in the simulation tool is therefore an important issue in order to ensure reliable switching operations. Transient measurement results in an OWF are compared with simulation results in PSCAD EMTDC and DigSILENT Power Factory. A user-defined model of the vacuum circuit breaker (VCB is included in both tools, capable of simulating multiple prestrikes during the closing operation. An analysis of the switching transients that might occur in OWFs will be made on the basis of the validated model, and the importance of the inclusion of a sufficiently accurate representation of the VCB in the simulation tool will be described. The inclusion of the VCB model in PSCAD greatly improves the simulation results, whereas little improvement is found in DigSILENT. Based on the transient study it is found that the simulated SOV can be up to 60% higher at the sending end when using the detailed VCB representation compared to the built-in switch, which emphasises the need for accurate representation of the VCB for energisation studies.

  1. Investigation of the dielectric recovery in synthetic air in a high voltage circuit breaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, M [ABB Switzerland Ltd., Corporate Research, CH-5405 Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland); Naidis, G [Institute for High Temperatures RAS, 127412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Steffens, A [ABB Switzerland Ltd., Corporate Research, CH-5405 Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland); Nordborg, H [ABB Switzerland Ltd., Corporate Research, CH-5405 Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland); Claessens, M [ABB Switzerland Ltd., High Voltage Technologies, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-06-07

    The dielectric recovery of an axially blown arc in an experimental set-up based on a conventional HV circuit breaker was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. As a quenching gas, synthetic air was used. The investigated time range was from 10 {mu}s to 10 ms after current zero (CZ). A fast rise in the dielectric strength during the first 100 {mu}s, followed by a plateau and further rise later was observed. The dependences on the breaking current and pressure were determined. The measured dielectric recovery during the first 100 {mu}s after CZ could be reproduced with good accuracy by computational fluid dynamics simulations. From that it could be deduced that the temperature decay in the axis does not depend sensitively on the pressure. The dielectric recovery during the first 100 {mu}s scales therefore mainly with the filling pressure. The plateau in the breakdown characteristic is due to a hot vapour layer from the still evaporating PTFE nozzle surface.

  2. Sistem Proteksi Arus Bocor Menggunakan Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker Berbasis Arduino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syukriyadin Syukriyadin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Touching a live part of electrical equipment either intentionally or unintentionally can cause an electric shock. The touch can occur directly or indirectly and results in the flow of electric current through the human body to the ground. This electric current is known as the leakage current and can have fatal effects on the human body such as burns, cramps, faint and death. This paper aims to design a prototype protection model of the earth leakage circuit breaker device based on Arduino (ELCBA to protect the human body from the electrical hazards. The performance of the ELCBA is investigated by detecting the earth leakage current to the grounding system (TN.  The prototype is designed and simulated by using Proteus software. Based on the response test carried out on the prototype, it can be concluded that the ELCBA can operate properly to disconnect the electric circuit if the leakage current is detected greater than or equal to 30 mA with a time delay of 15 ms and to reclose the circuit again after 5 minutes.

  3. Failure Prognosis of High Voltage Circuit Breakers with Temporal Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoyang Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The continual accumulation of power grid failure logs provides a valuable but rarely used source for data mining. Sequential analysis, aiming at exploiting the temporal evolution and exploring the future trend in power grid failures, is an increasingly promising alternative for predictive scheduling and decision-making. In this paper, a temporal Latent Dirichlet Allocation (TLDA framework is proposed to proactively reduce the cardinality of the event categories and estimate the future failure distributions by automatically uncovering the hidden patterns. The aim was to model the failure sequence as a mixture of several failure patterns, each of which was characterized by an infinite mixture of failures with certain probabilities. This state space dependency was captured by a hierarchical Bayesian framework. The model was temporally extended by establishing the long-term dependency with new co-occurrence patterns. Evaluation of the high voltage circuit breakers (HVCBs demonstrated that the TLDA model had higher fidelities of 51.13%, 73.86%, and 92.93% in the Top-1, Top-5, and Top-10 failure prediction tasks over the baselines, respectively. In addition to the quantitative results, we showed that the TLDA can be successfully used for extracting the time-varying failure patterns and capture the failure association with a cluster coalition method.

  4. Hybrid Intelligent Warning System for Boiler tube Leak Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Deshvin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated boiler tube leak trips in coal fired power plants can increase operating cost significantly. An early detection and diagnosis of boiler trips is essential for continuous safe operations in the plant. In this study two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler tube leak trips have been proposed. The first intelligent warning system (IWS-1 represents the use of pure artificial neural network system whereas the second intelligent warning system (IWS-2 represents merging of genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks as a hybrid intelligent system. The Extreme Learning Machine (ELM methodology was also adopted in IWS-1 and compared with traditional training algorithms. Genetic algorithm (GA was adopted in IWS-2 to optimize the ANN topology and the boiler parameters. An integrated data preparation framework was established for 3 real cases of boiler tube leak trip based on a thermal power plant in Malaysia. Both the IWSs were developed using MATLAB coding for training and validation. The hybrid IWS-2 performed better than IWS-1.The developed system was validated to be able to predict trips before the plant monitoring system. The proposed artificial intelligent system could be adopted as a reliable monitoring system of the thermal power plant boilers.

  5. Vanpool trip planning based on evolutionary multiple objective optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Yang, Disheng; Feng, Shibing; Liu, Hengchang

    2017-08-01

    Carpool and vanpool draw a lot of researchers’ attention, which is the emphasis of this paper. A concrete vanpool operation definition is given, based on the given definition, this paper tackles vanpool operation optimization using user experience decline index(UEDI). This paper is focused on making each user having identical UEDI and the system having minimum sum of all users’ UEDI. Three contributions are made, the first contribution is a vanpool operation scheme diagram, each component of the scheme is explained in detail. The second contribution is getting all customer’s UEDI as a set, standard deviation and sum of all users’ UEDI set are used as objectives in multiple objective optimization to decide trip start address, trip start time and trip destination address. The third contribution is a trip planning algorithm, which tries to minimize the sum of all users’ UEDI. Geographical distribution of the charging stations and utilization rate of the charging stations are considered in the trip planning process.

  6. Ant Colony Optimization on Crowdsourced Delivery Trip Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Paskalathis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Common practice in crowdsourced delivery services is through direct delivery. That  is by dispatching direct trip to a driver nearby the origin location. The total distance can be reduced through multiple pickup and delivery by increasing the number of requests in a trip. The research implements exact algorithm to solve the consolidation problem with up to 3 requests in a trip. Greedy heuristic is performed to construct initial route based on highest savings. The result is then optimized using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO. Four scenarios are compared. A direct delivery scenarios and three multiple pickup and delivery scenarios. These include 2-consolidated delivery, 3-consolidated delivery, and 3-consolidated delivery optimized with ACO. Four parameters are used to evaluate using Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP. These include the number of trips, total distance, total duration, and security concerns. The case study is based on Yogyakarta area for a whole day. The final route optimized with ACO shows 178 requests can be completed in 94 trips. Compared to direct delivery, consolidation can provides savings up to 20% in distance and 14% in duration. The evaluation result using AHP shows that ACO scenario is the best scenario.

  7. Resolving Environmental Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jane E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental approach now being tried to resolve environmental conflicts is the use of the negotiation-mediation process. The role of the mediator and the nature of the mediation process as applied to environmental disputes are outlined. (BT)

  8. Potential conflict between TRIPS and GATT concerning parallel importation of drugs and possible solution to prevent undesirable market segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chang-Fa

    2011-01-01

    From international perspective, parallel importation, especially with respect to drugs, has to do with the exhaustion principle in Article 6 of the TRIPS Agreement and the general exception in Article XX of the GATT 1994. Issues concerning the TRIPS Agreement have been constant topics of discussion. However, parallel importation in relation to the general rules of the GATT 1994 as well as to its exceptions provided in Article XX was not seriously discussed. In the view of the paper, there is a conflict between the provisions in these two agreements. The paper explains such conflict and tries to propose a method of interpretation to resolve the conflict between GATT Article XX and TRIPS Article 6 concerning parallel importation for the purpose of reducing the possible undesirable market segmentation in pharmaceutical sector. The method suggested in the paper is a proper application of good faith principle in the Vienna Convention to interpret GATT Article XX, so that there could be some flexibility for those prohibitions of parallel importation which have positive effect on international trade.

  9. Estimation of Origin-Destination Trip Matrices for Small Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Novačko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of data assessment for the requirements of a classical four-step model of traffic demand in individual traffic in small cities. The procedure is carried out by creating an initial origin-destination trip matrix using data from the traffic count and by defining the average rate of trip generation within single households. The research applied fuzzy logic for the correction of the initial trip matrix. The paper also presents the recommendations for defining the borders of traffic zones, as well as the locations of traffic counts. A flowchart has been used to show a summarized presentation of the proposed model. In the last part of the paper the model was tested on an example of a smaller city in the Republic of Croatia.

  10. Trip and Control System Models in SPACE Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Park, Chan Eok; Lee, Gyu Cheon [Korea Power Engineering Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    KOPEC has been developing a hydraulic solver of SPACE, which is a nuclear power plant safety analysis code, using two-fluid, three-field governing equations. Several numerical schemes, such as collocated, staggered, semi-implicit, and implicit schemes, have been tried so far. In this paper, the trip and control system model of SPACE will be described. The trip system of SPACE is developed to evaluate logical statements. Each trip statement is a simple logical statement that has a true or false result and an associated variable. The control system provides the capability to evaluate simultaneous algebraic and ordinary differential equations. The capability is primarily intended to simulate control systems typically used in nuclear reactor systems, but it can also model other phenomena described by algebraic and ordinary differential equations.

  11. Transforming an Exposure trip to Botanical Expedition: Introducing Ecological Research thru Exposure Trip in an Eco-tourism Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo C. Lunar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available – Fieldtrips can be considered as one of the three avenues through which science can be taught - through formal classroom teaching, practical work and field trips. An exposure trip at Bangkong Kahoy Valley Field Study Center was arranged for a class of BS Biology and BS Education students enrolled in Ecology Course. This approach purposefully transformed the usual exposure trip from being a casual site visit into a focused and productive learning experience. This transformation from exposure trip to a botanical expedition has exceeded the initial activity goals. Rather than a day off from learning, the time spent at the study center has been a meaningful opportunity to engage students in an active ecological research project while delivering valuable science content. Employing the descriptive survey design, the learning gains of the students were assessed and students were directed to do a guided reflection writing using the ORID Model of Focused Conversation. The learning gains and reflections of the students confirmed that students can collaboratively develop focused research questions, make meaning from a variety of sources, carry out a vegetation analysis and conduct surveys on socio-economic status, plant resource utilization and ecotourism assessment of the host community. As students prepared for their trip and synthesized their learning afterward, they were able to come up with very impressive and scientifically sound research outputs.

  12. Are short daily trips compensated by higher leisure mobility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    Studies in several cities have shown that inner-city residents travel shorter distances and use cars less for local transport than suburbanites do. However, according to some authors, a low daily amount of travel is likely to be compensated through more extensive leisure mobility at weekends...... of a higher frequency of medium-distance leisure trips. Probably, this reflects a shortage of nature in the immediate surroundings of the dwelling as well as less leisure time tied to gardening and house maintenance. These compensatory trips imply a slight reduction of the transport-reducing effect of inner...

  13. A Novel Topology of Hybrid HVDC Circuit Breaker for VSC-HVDC Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Vinh Nguyen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of high voltage direct current (HVDC circuit breakers (CBs with the capabilities of bidirectional fault interruption, reclosing, and rebreaking can improve the reliable and safe operation of HVDC grids. Although several topologies of CBs have been proposed to perform these capabilities, the limitation of these topologies is either high on-state losses or long time interruption in the case bidirectional fault current interruption. Long time interruption results in the large magnitude of the fault current in the voltage source converter based HVDC (VSC-HVDC system due to the high rate of rise of fault current. This paper proposes a new topology of hybrid CB (HCB with lower conduction loss and lower interruption time to solve the problems. The proposed topology is based on the inverse current injection method, which uses the capacitor to enforce the fault current to zero. In the case of the bidirectional fault current interruption, the capacitor does not change its polarity after identifying the direction of fault current, which can reduce the interruption time accordingly. A switching control algorithm for the proposed topology is presented in detail. Different operation modes of proposed HCB, such as normal current mode, breaking fault current mode, discharging, and reversing capacitor voltage modes after clearing the fault, are considered in the proposed algorithm. The proposed topology with the switching control algorithm is tested in a simulation-based system. Different simulation scenarios such as temporary and permanent faults are carried out to verify the performance of the proposed topology. The simulation is performed in the Matlab/Simulink environment.

  14. Ethnopharmacological use of babassu (Orbignya phalerata Mart) in communities of babassu nut breakers in Maranhão, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Mércia H S L; Monteiro, Cristina A; Figueredo, Patricia M S; Nascimento, Flavia Raquel F; Guerra, Rosane N M

    2011-01-07

    Products derived from the palm tree Orbignya phalerata Mart, a species popularly known in Brazil as babassu, are used for the treatment of different diseases such as rheumatism, ulcers and inflammatory processes. The objective of this study was to perform a sociodemographic survey among communities of babassu nut breakers in the region of Médio Mearim, Esperantinópolis, Maranhão, Brazil, and to evaluate the frequency and main forms of therapeutic use of babassu products and subproducts. A semiquantitative method was used for the survey, with the application of semistructured interviews consisting of closed and semi-open questions. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 16.0 software for Windows (2007). The results showed that 82% of female nut breakers had a household income of less than US$ 280.00 and only 2% earned more than US$ 500.00. With respect to race and educational level, 61% of the interviewed women were mulattoes and 33% had a low educational level. The babassu-derived products most frequently used for medicinal purposes were the mesocarp, a residue called "borra", and oil. The mesocarp flour was used by 90% of nut breakers for the treatment of gastritis and inflammation and by 77% for leukorrhea. Babassu residue was mainly used for the treatment of wounds (60%) and the oil was used for woundhealing (16%) and leukorrhea (8%). In conclusion, the products derived from babassu are used for the treatment of gastritis, leukorrhea and wounds. In addition, most of the interviewed subjects apply these products topically. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chelation: a fundamental mechanism of action of AGE inhibitors, AGE breakers, and other inhibitors of diabetes complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Ryoji; Murray, David B; Metz, Thomas O; Baynes, John W

    2012-03-01

    This article outlines evidence that advanced glycation end product (AGE) inhibitors and breakers act primarily as chelators, inhibiting metal-catalyzed oxidation reactions that catalyze AGE formation. We then present evidence that chelation is the most likely mechanism by which ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldose reductase inhibitors inhibit AGE formation in diabetes. Finally, we note several recent studies demonstrating therapeutic benefits of chelators for diabetic cardiovascular and renal disease. We conclude that chronic, low-dose chelation therapy deserves serious consideration as a clinical tool for prevention and treatment of diabetes complications.

  16. Development of a Risk Monitor for Assessing Plant Trips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, K., J. Liming, T. Morgan

    2002-04-30

    The report describes how to use a module of the risk and reliability workstation or a safety monitor to develop a trip monitor. Improvements in safety are achieved through averting or lowering the potential for an initiating event. Elements of safety are also improved through better maintenance scheduling.

  17. Special and Differential Treatments provisions in the TRIPs negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alavi, Amin

    2008-01-01

     A fundamental concept in our understanding of justice is the nature of equality of legal responsibility, which is the basis upon which World Trade Organization (WTO) membership and adherence to the TRIPs Agreement is based. In reality, however, while an ideal world would require all countries to...

  18. ESTIMATION OF TRIP MODE PROBABILITY CHOICE USING MULTINOMIAL LOGISTIC MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilous, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The step of modal split of the four step model for determination of urban travel demand is analyzed. Utility functions are composed, their coefficients are calibrated in TransCAD. Equations for estimation of trip mode choice probability are shown and the numerical illustration of estimation is given.

  19. Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin study rock samples during field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, and Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, Lunar module pilot for Apollo 11, study rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  20. What drives people? Analyzing leisure-shopping trip decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ceunynck, T.; Kusumastuti, Diana; Hannes, E.; Janssens, D.; Wets, G.

    2011-01-01

    Because of the strong increase in the number of leisure-shopping trips, a shift towards more sustainable leisure-shopping behaviour is desirable. This can be attained by having a better insight into people’s reasoning in choosing a transport mode and shopping location for this type of activities.

  1. INTERNET TRAFFIC AND PACKET ROUND TRIP DELAY SELF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long Range Dependence(LRD). In this work, it has been shown that the Internet traffic and Packet. Round Trip Delay visuaiized as a time series are statistically selfsimilar. The autocorrelation function decays reveals the data ..... satisfied by the well-known family of "Pareto. Distribution", originally introduced for modelling.

  2. Un Viaje al Aeropuerto (A Trip to the Airport).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This illustrated, bilingual Spanish-English intermediate reader describes a class trip to an airport, in which the class tours the airport, and learns about airport activities, the parts of an airplane, and other related topics. Each page of the text is illustrated with a drawing. The narrative is followed by a list of 24 suggested learning…

  3. Applying Knowledge Discovery and Semantics for Detecting Anomalous Container Trips

    OpenAIRE

    Camossi, Elena; DIMITROVA TATYANA; MAZZOLA LUCA; TSOIS Aris; VILLA PAOLA

    2013-01-01

    Containers have become one of the most concrete breach for global security, and there is a pressing need of novel methods to target highly risky container shipments. In this paper we present the ongoing research carried out at the European Commission Joint Research Centre for the development of data mining and semantic approaches for route based risk indicators to discover anomalous container trips.

  4. Systematic comparison of trip distribution laws and models

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Ramasco, José J

    2016-01-01

    Trip distribution laws are basic for the travel demand characterization needed in transport and urban planning. Several approaches have been considered in the last years. One of them is the so-called gravity law, in which the number of trips is assumed to be related to the population at origin and destination and to decrease with the distance. The mathematical expression of this law resembles Newton's law of gravity, which explains its name. Another popular approach is inspired by the theory of intervening opportunities and it has been concreted into the so-called radiation models. Individuals are supposed to travel until they find a job opportunity, so the population and jobs spatial distributions naturally lead to a trip flow network. In this paper, we perform a thorough comparison between the gravity and the radiation approaches in their ability at estimating commuting flows. We test the gravity and the radiation laws against empirical trip data at different scales and coming from different countries. Diff...

  5. Using a National Park for a Field Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Roy K.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a one-week camping trip to Acadia National Park (Maine) as a non-credit educational experience. Includes activities such as population studies in intertidal zones, wild life sketching, nature list hikes (forest devastation by fire, beaver ponds, glacial ponds and streams), fishing and clamming rips, and student projects. (CS)

  6. Diagnosis technique for the detection of mechanical faults in power breakers; Tecnica de diagnostico para la deteccion de fallas mecanicas en interruptores de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linan, Roberto; Perez, Marciano; Estrada, J. Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This article reports a non-invasive diagnosis technique for the detection of mechanical faults in power breakers, supporting it with the recording and analysis of vibration signals of the equipment under test. Also, an assessment of four breakers using this technique is presented. [Espanol] En el presente articulo se reporta una tecnica de diagnostico no invasiva para detectar fallas mecanicas en interruptores de potencia, apoyandose en el registro y analisis de senales de vibracion del equipo bajo prueba. Asimismo, se presenta la evaluacion de cuatro interruptores usando esta tecnica.

  7. CNMI, American Samoa, and Guam Small Boat Fishery Trip Expenditure (2009 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a time-series dataset of trip expenditure data including actual fishing trip expenses, input usage, and input prices, for boat-based reef fish, bottomfish,...

  8. Improved trip generation data for Texas using workplace and special generator surveys : workshop materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Workshop Objectives: : Present Texas Trip Generation Manual : How developed : How it can be used, built upon : Provide examples and discuss : Present Generic WP Attraction Rates : Review Trip Attractions and Advanced Models

  9. Operation: Inherent Resolve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Larsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet giver læseren indsigt i den internationale koalitions engagement mod IS igennem Operaton Inherent Resolve; herunder koalitionens strategi i forhold til IS strategi, ligesom det belyser kampagnens legalitet og folkeretlige grundlag, ligesom det giver et bud på overvejelser om kampagnens l...

  10. Resolving-Power Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Neuberger, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Starting with a general discussion, a program is sketched for a quantization based on dilations. This resolving-power quantization is simplest for scalar field theories. The hope is to find a way to relax the requirement of locality so that the necessity to fine tune mass parameters is eliminated while universality is still preserved.

  11. Using GIS for planning field trips: In-situ assessment of Geopoints for field trips with mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Sarah; Kisser, Thomas; Ditter, Raimund

    2016-04-01

    Up to now no application is existing for collecting data via mobile devices using a geographical information system referring to the evaluation of Geopoints. Classified in different geographical topics a Geopark can be rated for suitability of Geopoints for field trips. The systematically acquisition of the suitability of Geopoints is necessary, especially when doing field trips with lower grade students who see a physical-geographic phenomenon for the first time. For this reason, the development of such an application is an invention for easy handling evaluations of Geopoints on the basis of commonly valid criteria like esthetic attraction, interestingness, and pithiness (Streifinger 2010). Collecting data provides the opportunity of receiving information of particularly suitable Geopoints out of the sight from students, tourists and others. One solution for collecting data in a simple and intuitive form is Survey123 for ArcGIS (http://survey123.esri.com/#/). You can create surveys using an ArcGIS Online organizational account and download your own survey or surveys "that may have been shared with you" (https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/survey-123-for-arcgis/id993015031?mt=8) on your mobile device. "Once a form is downloaded, you will be able to start collecting data."(https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/survey-123-for-arcgis/id993015031?mt=8) Free of cost and use while disconnected the application can easily be used via mobile device on field trips. On a 3-day field trip which is held three times per year in the Geopark Bergstraße-Odenwald Survey123 is being used to evaluate the suitability of different Geopoints for different topics (geology, soils, vegetation, climate). With every field trip about 25 students take part in the survey and evaluate each Geopoint at the route. So, over the time, the docents know exactly which Geopoints suites perfect for teaching geology for example, and why it suites that good. The field trip is organized in an innovative way. Before

  12. Nuevos atrayentes de trips ayudan a los agricultores en el control de plagas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Kogel, de W.J.; Teulon, D.

    2007-01-01

    Los trips constituyen una plaga importante que afecta a muchos cultivos diferentes. El año pasado se probaron con éxito, en situaciones prácticas, aromas atrayentes de trips de las flores y trips de la cebolla. El producto, que estará a disposición de los cultivadores en junio, resultó efectivo en

  13. 49 CFR 236.531 - Trip arm; height and distance from rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trip arm; height and distance from rail. 236.531... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Roadway § 236.531 Trip arm; height and distance from rail. Trip arm of automatic train stop device when in the stop position shall be...

  14. Chelation: A Fundamental Mechanism of Action of AGE Inhibitors, AGE Breakers, and Other Inhibitors of Diabetes Complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Rhoji; Murray, David B.; Metz, Thomas O.; Baynes, John

    2012-03-01

    Advanced glycation or glycoxidation end-products (AGE) increase in tissue proteins with age, and their rate of accumulation is increased in diabetes, nephropathy and inflammatory diseases. AGE inhibitors include a range of compounds that are proposed to act by trapping carbonyl and dicarbonyl intermediates in AGE formation. However, some among the newer generation of AGE inhibitors lack reactive functional groups that would trap reaction intermediates, indicating an alternative mechanism of action. We propose that AGE inhibitors function primarily as chelators, inhibiting metal-catalyzed oxidation reactions. The AGE-inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers is also consistent with their chelating activity. Finally, compounds described as AGE breakers, or their hydrolysis products, also have strong chelating activity, suggesting that these compounds also act through their chelating activity. We conclude that chelation is the common, and perhaps the primary, mechanism of action of AGE inhibitors and breakers, and that chronic, mild chelation therapy should prove useful in treatment of diabetes and age-related diseases characterized by oxidative stress, inflammation and increased chemical modification of tissue proteins by advanced glycoxidation and lipoxidation end-products.

  15. Influence of the axial magnetic field on sheath development after current zero in a vacuum circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Yang, Fei; Sun, Hao; Wu, Yi; Niu, Chunping; Rong, Mingzhe

    2017-06-01

    After current zero, which is the moment when the vacuum circuit breaker interrupts a vacuum arc, sheath development is the first process in the dielectric recovery process. An axial magnetic field (AMF) is widely used in the vacuum circuit breaker when the high-current vacuum arc is interrupted. Therefore, it is very important to study the influence of different AMF amplitudes on the sheath development. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of different AMF amplitudes on the sheath development from a micro perspective. Thus, the particle in cell-Monte Carlo collisions (PIC-MCC) method was adopted to develop the sheath development model. We compared the simulation results with the experimental results and then validated the simulation. We also obtained the speed of the sheath development and the energy density of the ions under different AMF amplitudes. The results showed that the larger the AMF amplitudes are, the faster the sheath develops and the lower the ion energy density is, meaning the breakdown is correspondingly more difficult.

  16. Surge Analysis during Making-Operation of Circuit Breaker in 345kV Network of KEPCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Y.H.; Song, W.P.; Ohk, T.H.; Kim, D.S. [HYOSUNG CORPORATION (Korea); Moon, B.S. [KEPCO (Korea); Kho, H.S. [Kyoungnam University (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    We have reviewed the making surge of GCB without closing resistor of Sanchung Power Plant in 345kV network of KEPCO. In 345kV GCB with closing resistor (520Ohm) to suppress the making-surge of circuit breaker. But, in this case of Sanchung power plant, we didn't insert the closing resistor between the contacts of circuit breaker even though it is 345kV network because we thought there was no problem as the length of transmission line between Sanchung power plant and Ueryoung Substation is very short (about 46km). But, KEPCO didn't accept this design and than we had to the making-surge analysis of line between Sanchung and Ueryoung. By the analysis results, we knew that the max making-surge was below the design criteria KEPCO's network (2.3pu) with thinking all con of network, substations and GIS. Consequ KEPCO has accepted the design of HYOSUNG 345kV GIS-CB without closing resistors in network between Sanchung and Ueryoung. (author). 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tabs.

  17. Using a Field Trip Inventory to Determine If Listening to Elementary School Students' Conversations, While on a Zoo Field Trip, Enhances Preservice Teachers' Abilities to Plan Zoo Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Patricia; Mathews, Cathy; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether listening to spontaneous conversations of elementary students and their teachers/chaperones, while they were visiting a zoo, affected preservice elementary teachers' conceptions about planning a field trip to the zoo. One hundred five preservice elementary teachers designed field trips prior to and after…

  18. Acquisition of background and technical information and class trip planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, R. M.; Wake, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    Instructors who are very familiar with a study area, as well as those who are not, find the field trip information acquisition and planning process speeded and made more effective by organizing it in stages. The stage follow a deductive progression: from the associated context region, to the study area, to the specific sample window sites, and from generalized background information on the study region to specific technical data on the environmental and human use systems to be interpreted at each site. On the class trip and in the follow up laboratory, the learning/interpretive process are at first deductive in applying previously learned information and skills to analysis of the study site, then inductive in reading and interpreting the landscape, imagery, and maps of the site, correlating them with information of other samples sites and building valid generalizations about the larger study area, its context region, and other (similar and/or contrasting) regions.

  19. Pig herd monitoring and undesirable tripping and stepping prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronskyte, Ruta; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Hviid, Marchen Sonja

    2015-01-01

    at the slaughterhouse and identify undesirable events such as pigs tripping or stepping on each other. In this paper, we monitor pig behavior in color videos recorded during unloading from transportation trucks. We monitor the movement of a pig herd where the pigs enter and leave a surveyed area. The method is based...... on optical flow, which is not well explored for monitoring all types of animals, but is the method of choice for human crowd monitoring. We recommend using modified angular histograms to summarize the optical flow vectors. We show that the classification rate based on support vector machines is 93% of all...... performed the unloading of the pigs from the trucks in the available datasets, indicates that the drivers perform significantly differently. Driver 1 has 2.95 times higher odds to have pigs tripping and stepping on each other than the two others, and Driver 2 has 1.11 times higher odds than Driver 3. (C...

  20. Visiting the USSR: a trip of a lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    To Russia, who me? That is actually how it all began. A decade or more ago, I had the opportunity to visit what was then known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Russia. Although, this place held high priority on my list of places to go, I never thought such a trip was within my reach. This idea was quite fascinating to me because of the events that did happen there, including the Russian space ship Sputnik and the dog, the high stepping military officers, Red Square and the St. Basil's Cathedral. After reading a lot about Russia, I thought it would be great to see a clean place, where it was unlawful to throw paper on the streets, and ride in public transportation such as the buses, taxis and the subway system, which were immaculately clean. It was an exciting trip, one, I will always remember, but would be a difficult adjustment to make, to live.

  1. Kinetic Studies of Inhibition of the Aβ(1–42) Aggregation Using a Ferrocene-tagged β-Sheet Breaker Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yagnik, Gargey; Peng, Yong; Wang, Jianxiu; Xu, H. Howard; Hao, Yuanqiang; Liu, You-Nian; Zhou, Feimeng

    2013-01-01

    The aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins/peptides has been closely linked to the neuropathology of several important neurological disorders. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides and their aggregation are believed to be at least partially responsible for the etiology of AD. The aggregate-inflicted cellular toxicity can be inhibited by short peptides whose sequence are homologous to segments of the Aβ(1–42) peptide responsible for β-sheet stacking (referred to as the β-sheet breaker peptides). Herein a water-soluble ferrocene (Fc)-tagged β-sheet breaker peptide (Fc-KLVFFK6) is used as an electrochemical probe for kinetic studies of the inhibition of the Aβ(1–42) fibrillation process and for determination of the optimal concentration of β-sheet breaker peptide for efficient inhibition. Our results demonstrated that Fc-KLVFFK6 interacts with the Aβ aggregates instantaneously in solution, and sub-stoichiometric amount of Fc-KLVFFK6 is sufficient to inhibit the formation of the Aβ oligomers and fibrils and to reduce the toxicity of Aβ(1–42). The interaction between Fc-KLVFFK6 and Aβ(1–42) follows a pseudo-first-order reaction, with a rate constant of 1.89 ± 0.05 × 10−4 s−1. Tagging β-sheet breaker peptides with a redox label facilitates design, screening, and rational use of peptidic inhibitors for impeding/altering Aβ aggregation. PMID:23232068

  2. Trips and the Life Sciences - Perspectives on Limitations to Patentability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    This report is based on the material and input that was presented and discussed at the webinar with the title: “Perspectives on limitations to patentability”. The Webinar and the theme where introduced by Prof. Timo Minssen. Then Prof. Nari Lee gave a presentation introducing some of the context...... and Minssen, Timo, Trips and the Life Sciences - Perspectives on Limitations to Patentability (June 15, 2017). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2986751...

  3. Trips and the Life Sciences - Perspectives on Limitations to Patentability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    This report is based on the material and input that was presented and discussed at the webinar with the title: “Perspectives on limitations to patentability”. The Webinar and the theme where introduced by Prof. Timo Minssen. Then Prof. Nari Lee gave a presentation introducing some of the context ...... and Minssen, Timo, Trips and the Life Sciences - Perspectives on Limitations to Patentability (June 15, 2017). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2986751...

  4. Do first trips matter? exploring unfamiliar public transport travel

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Lorelei

    2017-01-01

    Attracting and retaining public transport passengers is a common policy goal amongst cities worldwide. Understanding new users of services is crucial to achieving this goal. This thesis addresses this challenge by examining unfamiliar public transport travel. The overarching aim of the research is: To explore unfamiliar public transport trips to better understand their circumstances, experiences and significance to mode choice. This aim is being addressed through exploration of ‘firs...

  5. First Trip Abroad: Expectations, Experiences and Stories of Transnational Romanians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croitoru Alin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes transnational Romanians’ stories about their first trip abroad. The concept of physical mobility is seen in a broader framework for understanding transnational and cosmopolitan behaviours as well as international migration. In order to distinguish between different types of travelling for the first trip abroad the article is constructed keeping in mind the structural changes and constraints regarding physical mobility for Romanian citizens. During the process of transition from a communist country to the status of EU member, Romanian citizens’ stories about travelling abroad for the first time fundamentally changed. Labour migrants, asylum seekers, business travellers, students or tourists left the countries with different expectations and faced different problems at destination. Their attitudes toward origin and destination framed their images about the first trip abroad. Using a qualitative approach and samples of Romanians who live in Denmark, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom, the analysis emphasizes certain differences between different types of travelling for the first time abroad and reconstructs how Romanians started their transnational careers

  6. SnapVideo: Personalized Video Generation for a Sightseeing Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luming; Jing, Peiguang; Su, Yuting; Zhang, Chao; Shaoz, Ling

    2017-11-01

    Leisure tourism is an indispensable activity in urban people's life. Due to the popularity of intelligent mobile devices, a large number of photos and videos are recorded during a trip. Therefore, the ability to vividly and interestingly display these media data is a useful technique. In this paper, we propose SnapVideo, a new method that intelligently converts a personal album describing of a trip into a comprehensive, aesthetically pleasing, and coherent video clip. The proposed framework contains three main components. The scenic spot identification model first personalizes the video clips based on multiple prespecified audience classes. We then search for some auxiliary related videos from YouTube 1 according to the selected photos. To comprehensively describe a scenery, the view generation module clusters the crawled video frames into a number of views. Finally, a probabilistic model is developed to fit the frames from multiple views into an aesthetically pleasing and coherent video clip, which optimally captures the semantics of a sightseeing trip. Extensive user studies demonstrated the competitiveness of our method from an aesthetic point of view. Moreover, quantitative analysis reflects that semantically important spots are well preserved in the final video clip. 1 https://www.youtube.com/.

  7. Understanding Social Learning Behaviors via a Virtual Field Trip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Bai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a multidisciplinary study investigating how a virtual rather than face-to-face field trip can be conducted in a real-world setting and how students respond to such a social learning opportunity. Our participants followed a story of a stroke patient at her virtual home and in a virtual hospital via a teaching vignette. They were then given a new case and got on a virtual trip via a multiuser virtual environment. They played the roles of patients, relatives, doctors, or nurses, experiencing the emotional, physical, or social impacts those stakeholders may go through. Our study finds the overall participation of the Virtual Group is 50% more than the Text Group. Although the Virtual Group generates much more nodes in total, they focused much less on knowledge sharing and comparing than the Text Group (46 vs. 67, but more on other higher-level aspects of social interactions, such as knowledge discovery (57 vs. 42, co-construction (66 vs. 39, testing and modification (58 vs. 24 and application of newly constructed meaning (60 vs. 16. Analysis of students’ virtual field activities and in-depth discussions of important issues implied are included to help understand social learning behaviors during a virtual field trip. Sustainability of such systems is discussed.

  8. Urban association rules: uncovering linked trips for shopping behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimura, Yuji; Hobin, Juan N Bautista; Ratti, Carlo; Blat, Josep

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the method of urban association rules and its uses for extracting frequently appearing combinations of stores that are visited together to characterize shoppers' behaviors. The Apriori algorithm is used to extract the association rules (i.e., if -> result) from customer transaction datasets in a market-basket analysis. An application to our large-scale and anonymized bank card transaction dataset enables us to output linked trips for shopping all over the city: the method enables us to predict the other shops most likely to be visited by a customer given a particular shop that was already visited as an input. In addition, our methodology can consider all transaction activities conducted by customers for a whole city in addition to the location of stores dispersed in the city. This approach enables us to uncover not only simple linked trips such as transition movements between stores but also the edge weight for each linked trip in the specific district. Thus, the proposed methodo...

  9. A Heuristic for Locating Electric Vehicle Charging Stations for Trip Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min; Røpke, Stefan

    We present the problem of locating a limited number of electric vehiclecharging stations for a given set of trip chains, each of which consistsof a series of linked short trips and is represented by a sequence ofintervening stops along the trip chain. The objective of this problemis to maximize t...... the number of trip chains that can be completed by the electric vehicle without running out of battery. A mixed-integer programmingformulation as well as a heuristic for solving this problemwill be presented.......We present the problem of locating a limited number of electric vehiclecharging stations for a given set of trip chains, each of which consistsof a series of linked short trips and is represented by a sequence ofintervening stops along the trip chain. The objective of this problemis to maximize...

  10. Spreading Geodiversity awareness in schools through field trips and ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magagna, Alessandra; Giardino, Marco; Ferrero, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Geodiversity, unlike Biodiversity, is not a topic included in the Italian schools curriculum. Nevertheless, Geomorphology is taught at all levels, and it seems to be the right tool for introducing the students to the concepts related to Geodiversity. In this context, a research on the use of field trips and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is being carried out for spreading the value of Geodiversity in Secondary Schools. Relevant international literature states that field trips are effective didactic tools for Earth Science education, because they stimulate an active learning process and allow students to appreciate the geological complexity of an area. On the other side, ICT allow students to get knowledge about the variety of landforms of their own territory by staying indoor, using virtual field trips and free software like Google Earth, Google Maps, Bing etc. In order to connect the two strategies, an innovative educational project is proposed here; it involves both the indoor and the outdoor activities, by enhancing a critical approach to the complexity of geological processes. As a starting point, a multimedia product on 20 Italian geological tours, designed for analyzing Geodiversity at a regional scale, has been tested with teachers and students, in order to understand its effectiveness by using it solely indoor. In a second phase, teachers and students have been proposed to compare and integrate indoor and outdoor activities to approach Geodiversity directly at a local scale, by means of targeted field trips. For achieving this goal, during the field trips, students used their mobile devices (smartphone and tablet) equipped with free and/or open source applications (Epicollect, Trimble Outdoor Navigator). These tools allow to track field trips, to gather data (geomorphological observations and related photographs), and to elaborate them in the laboratory; a process useful for reasoning on concepts such as spatial and temporal scales and for

  11. Observing Trip Chain Characteristics of Round-Trip Carsharing Users in China: A Case Study Based on GPS Data in Hangzhou City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Hui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carsharing as a means to provide individuals with access to automobiles to complete a personal trip has grown significantly in recent years in China. However, there are few case studies based on operational data to show the role carsharing systems play in citizens’ daily trips. In this study, vehicle GPS data of a round-trip carsharing system in Hangzhou, China was used to describe the trip chain characteristics of users. For clearer delineation of carshare usage, the car use time length of all observations chosen in the study was within 24 h or less. Through data preprocessing, a large pool (26,085 of valid behavior samples was obtained, and several trip chaining attributes were selected to describe the characteristics. The pool of observations was then classified into five clusters, with each cluster having significant differences in one or two trip chain characteristics. The cluster results reflected that different use patterns exist. By a comparative analysis with trip survey data in Hangzhou, differences in trip chain characteristics exist between carsharing and private cars, but in some cases, shared vehicles can be a substitute for private cars to satisfy motorized travel. The proposed method could facilitate companies in formulating a flexible pricing strategy and determining target customers. In addition, traffic administration agencies could have a deeper understanding of the position and function of various carsharing modes in an urban transportation system.

  12. Optimizing the service area and trip selection of an electric automated taxi system used for the last mile of train trips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, X.; Homem de Almeida Correia, G.; van Arem, B.

    2016-01-01

    We propose two integer programming models for optimizing an automated taxi (AT) system for last mile of train trips. Model S1: trip reservations are accepted or rejected by the operator according to the profit maximization; model S2: any reservation on a selected zone by the model must be

  13. Dual Brushless Resolver Rate Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A resolver rate sensor is disclosed in which dual brushless resolvers are mechanically coupled to the same output shaft. Diverse inputs are provided to each resolver by providing the first resolver with a DC input and the second resolver with an AC sinusoidal input. A trigonometric identity in which the sum of the squares of the sin and cosine components equal one is used to advantage in providing a sensor of increased accuracy. The first resolver may have a fixed or variable DC input to permit dynamic adjustment of resolver sensitivity thus permitting a wide range of coverage. In one embodiment of the invention the outputs of the first resolver are directly inputted into two separate multipliers and the outputs of the second resolver are inputted into the two separate multipliers, after being demodulated in a pair of demodulator circuits. The multiplied signals are then added in an adder circuit to provide a directional sensitive output. In another embodiment the outputs from the first resolver is modulated in separate modulator circuits and the output from the modulator circuits are used to excite the second resolver. The outputs from the second resolver are demodulated in separate demodulator circuit and added in an adder circuit to provide a direction sensitive rate output.

  14. Three-dimensional modelling of electric-arc development in a low-voltage circuit-breaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piqueras, L.; Henry, D.; Jeandel, D.; Scott, J. [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et d' Acoustique, CNRS/Universite de Lyon, Ecole Centrale de Lyon/Universite Lyon 1/INSA de Lyon, ECL, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Wild, J. [Schneider Electric, 37 quai Merlin, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-09-15

    This article describes direct numerical simulation of the first three milliseconds following ignition of the arc in a low-voltage circuit-breaker using a computational-fluid-dynamics code adapted for electric-arc modelling. The mobile electrode is allowed for by a moving mesh. The results describe the evolution of the arc with time in terms of its detailed electrical, thermal and fluid dynamic properties. They allow the identification of several phases during the overall arc development process studied here: arc initialisation in the widening electrode gap, arc-thermal expansion, displacement of the arc towards the tip of the mobile electrode, and the beginning of commutation to the fixed electrode. (author)

  15. Transient Recovery Voltages at the Main 132kV Line Bay GIS Circuit Breaker in a Windfarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Okholm, J.; Holbøll, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations of the Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV) across the terminals of the main 132kV Line Bay GIS circuit breaker (GIS CB) for Walney 2, second phase of the Walney Offshore Wind Farm. Several simulations were performed where the influence of different...... parameters in the network was evaluated during a fault in the onshore substation. The rate of rise of recovery voltage (RRRV) and the maximum crest voltage (Uc) of the TRV across the GIS CB were compared against the standard values based on the type test results from the GIS. The investigations were...... performed by means of time domain simulations using the EMT software PSCAD/HVDC. Based on the results, it was concluded that the highest RRRV appears on a system without additional stray capacitances, and the highest Uc appears when the fault is a single phase to ground....

  16. Advanced glycation end product cross-link breaker attenuates diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction by improving sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson eKranstuber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic heart disease is a distinct clinical entity that can progress to heart failure and sudden death. However, the mechanisms responsible for the alterations in excitation-contraction coupling leading to cardiac dysfunction during diabetes are not well known. Hyperglycemia, the landmark of diabetes, leads to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE on long-lived proteins, including SR Ca2+ regulatory proteins. However, their pathogenic role on SR Ca2+ handling in cardiac myocytes is unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether an AGE cross-link breaker could prevent the alterations in SR Ca2+ cycling that lead to in vivo cardiac dysfunction during diabetes. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with Alagebrium Chloride (ALT-711 for 8 weeks and compared to age-matched placebo-treated diabetic rats and healthy rats. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiographic examination. Ventricular myocytes were isolated to assess SR Ca2+ cycling by confocal imaging and quantitative Western blots. Diabetes resulted in in vivo cardiac dysfunction and ALT-711 therapy partially alleviated diastolic dysfunction by decreasing isovolumetric relaxation time and myocardial performance index (by 27 and 41% vs. untreated diabetic rats, respectively, P<0.05. In cardiac myocytes, diabetes induced prolongation of cytosolic Ca2+ transient clearance by 43% and decreased SR Ca2+ load by 25% (P<0.05; these parameters were partially improved after ALT-711 therapy. SERCA2a and RyR2 protein expression was significantly decreased in the myocardium of untreated diabetic rats (by 64 and 36% vs. controls, respectively, P<0.05, but preserved in the treated diabetic group compared to controls. Collectively, our result suggest that, in a model of type 1 diabetes, AGE accumulation primarily impairs SR Ca2+ reuptake in cardiac myocytes and that long term treatment with an AGE cross-link breaker partially normalized SR Ca2+ handling and improved diabetic

  17. Factors that influence learning during a scientific field trip in a natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orion, Nir; Hofstein, Avi

    This study deals with the educational effectiveness of field trips. The main purpose was to obtain insight concerning factors that might influence the ability of students to learn during a scientific field trip in a natural environment. The research was conducted in the context of a 1-day geologic field trip by 296 students in Grades 9 through 11 in high schools in Israel. The study combined qualitative and quantitative research methods. Data were collected from three different sources (student, teacher, and outside observer) in three stages (before, after, and during the field trip). Using observations and questionnaires we investigated: a) the nature of student learning during the field trip, b) student attitudes toward the field trip, and c) changes in student knowledge and attitudes after the field trip. Our findings suggest that the educational effectiveness of a field trip is controlled by two major factors: the field trip quality and the Novelty space (or Familiarity Index). The educational quality of a field trip is determined by its structure, learning materials, and teaching method, and the ability to direct learning to a concrete interaction with the environment. The novelty space consists of three prefield variables: cognitive, psychological, and geographic. The learning performance of students whose Novelty Space was reduced before the field trip was significantly higher than that of students whose Novelty Space had not been so reduced. Thus, the former group gained significantly higher achievement and attitude levels. It is suggested that a field trip should occur early in the concrete part of the curriculum, and should be preceded by a relatively short preparatory unit that focuses on increasing familiarity with the learning setting of the field trip, thereby limiting the Novelty Space factors.Received: 23 March 1993; Revised: 24 January 1994;

  18. How combined trip purposes are associated with transport choice for short distance trips. Results from a cross-sectional study in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Scheepers

    Full Text Available One way to increase physical activity is to stimulate a shift from car use to walking or cycling. In single-purpose trips, purpose was found to be an important predictor of transport choice. However, as far as known, no studies have been conducted to see how trips with combined purposes affect this decision. This study was designed to provide insight into associations between combined purposes and transport choice.An online questionnaire (N = 3,663 was used to collect data concerning transport choice for four primary purposes: shopping, going to public natural spaces, sports, and commuting. Per combination of primary trip purpose and transport choice, participants were asked to give examples of secondary purposes that they combine with the primary purpose. Logistic regression analyses were used to model the odds of both cycling and walking versus car use.Primary trip purposes combined with commuting, shopping, visiting private contacts or medical care were more likely to be made by car than by cycling or walking. Combinations with visiting catering facilities, trips to social infrastructure facilities, recreational outings, trips to facilities for the provision of daily requirements or private contacts during the trip were more likely to be made by walking and/or cycling than by car.Combined trip purposes were found to be associated with transport choice. When stimulating active transport focus should be on the combined-trip purposes which were more likely to be made by car, namely trips combined with commuting, other shopping, visiting private contacts or medical care.

  19. Field trips and their effect on student achievement in and attitudes toward science: A comparison of a physical versus a virtual field trip to the Indian River Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Lesley Cochran

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of physical and virtual field trips on students' achievement in estuarine ecology and their attitudes toward science. The study also assessed the effect of students' learning styles, the interaction between group membership and learning styles, and the effect of group membership on students' ability to answer questions at different levels of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy. Working with a convenient sample of 67 freshmen and sophomore non-science majors, students were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (physical, n = 32 and virtual, n = 35). Prior to treatment, students' learning styles were determined, students were pre-assessed on the two targeted measures, and all students attended four consecutive, in-class, 75-minute lectures on estuarine ecology and the Indian River Lagoon (IRL). Pre-assessed data indicated no significant differences between the groups on the two dependent measures. On the weekend following the lecture series, the physical field trip group engaged in a set of predetermined activities at the IRL for 2 hours in the morning. Later that afternoon, the virtual field trip group participated in a 2-hour virtual trip to the IRL that exactly matched the physical field trip activities. This virtual trip incorporated the CD-ROM The Living Lagoon: An Electronic Field Trip. Following each trip, students were post-assessed using the same pre-assessment instruments. MANCOVA results indicated no significant differences on all research factors (i.e., group membership, learning style, and group-learning style interaction). Data analysis also revealed that there was no significant effect of group membership on students' ability to answer questions at different levels of Bloom's taxonomy. These findings imply that educators can integrate virtual field trips that are structured in the same manner as their corresponding physical field trips without significantly impacting student achievement or attitudes.

  20. Spatially resolved multicomponent gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Emily R.; Eden, Edward G. B.; McDonald, Tom O.; Adams, Dave J.

    2015-10-01

    Multicomponent supramolecular systems could be used to prepare exciting new functional materials, but it is often challenging to control the assembly across multiple length scales. Here we report a simple approach to forming patterned, spatially resolved multicomponent supramolecular hydrogels. A multicomponent gel is first formed from two low-molecular-weight gelators and consists of two types of fibre, each formed by only one gelator. One type of fibre in this ‘self-sorted network’ is then removed selectively by a light-triggered gel-to-sol transition. We show that the remaining network has the same mechanical properties as it would have done if it initially formed alone. The selective irradiation of sections of the gel through a mask leads to the formation of patterned multicomponent networks, in which either one or two networks can be present at a particular position with a high degree of spatial control.

  1. Spatially resolved multicomponent gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Emily R; Eden, Edward G B; McDonald, Tom O; Adams, Dave J

    2015-10-01

    Multicomponent supramolecular systems could be used to prepare exciting new functional materials, but it is often challenging to control the assembly across multiple length scales. Here we report a simple approach to forming patterned, spatially resolved multicomponent supramolecular hydrogels. A multicomponent gel is first formed from two low-molecular-weight gelators and consists of two types of fibre, each formed by only one gelator. One type of fibre in this 'self-sorted network' is then removed selectively by a light-triggered gel-to-sol transition. We show that the remaining network has the same mechanical properties as it would have done if it initially formed alone. The selective irradiation of sections of the gel through a mask leads to the formation of patterned multicomponent networks, in which either one or two networks can be present at a particular position with a high degree of spatial control.

  2. New topology of hybrid circuit breaker/current limiter for AES MV networks; Nouvelle topologie de disjoncteur hybride-limiteur de courant pour les reseaux HT des navires tout electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, M. [Areva Technicatome, 75 - Paris (France); Dupraz, J.P. [AREVA T et D, 75 - Paris (France); Bats, G. [Capsim, 13 - Meyrargues (France); Ladoux, Ph. [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique et d' Electronique Industrielle (LEEI), 31 - Toulouse (France); Armata, J.M. [Delegation Generale pour l' Armement (DGA CTSN) Centre Technique des Systemes Navals, 83 - Toulon (France)

    2006-04-15

    This paper presents a new topology of hybrid circuit breaker based on the use of serial and parallel semiconductors. This new topology improves drastically the accessible performances of hybrid circuit breakers. This arc-free patented solution (patent n 03 293 050.5) performs additionally the current limitation function. A marine application, with 6.6 kV AC breakers, have been taken as reference and studied for the DGA (Delegation generale pour l'armement - French defence procurement agency). A functional test bench has been developed at LEEI (Laboratoire d'electrotechnique et d'electronique industrielle) of Toulouse in order to validate the basic working sequence. This new circuit breaker shows interesting performances and functionalities that should be able to give additional margins on network design. (authors)

  3. Scaled photographs of surf over the full range of breaker sizes on the north shore of Oahu and Jaws, Maui, Hawaiian Islands, 1998-01 to 2004-05 (NODC Accession 0001753)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital surf photographs were scaled using surfers as height benchmarks to estimate the size of the breakers. Historical databases for surf height in Hawaii are...

  4. Highly Scalable Trip Grouping for Large Scale Collective Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Risch, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Transportation-related problems, like road congestion, parking, and pollution, are increasing in most cities. In order to reduce traffic, recent work has proposed methods for vehicle sharing, for example for sharing cabs by grouping "closeby" cab requests and thus minimizing transportation cost...... and utilizing cab space. However, the methods published so far do not scale to large data volumes, which is necessary to facilitate large-scale collective transportation systems, e.g., ride-sharing systems for large cities. This paper presents highly scalable trip grouping algorithms, which generalize previous...

  5. Trip optimization system and method for a train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajith Kuttannair; Shaffer, Glenn Robert; Houpt, Paul Kenneth; Movsichoff, Bernardo Adrian; Chan, David So Keung

    2017-08-15

    A system for operating a train having one or more locomotive consists with each locomotive consist comprising one or more locomotives, the system including a locator element to determine a location of the train, a track characterization element to provide information about a track, a sensor for measuring an operating condition of the locomotive consist, a processor operable to receive information from the locator element, the track characterizing element, and the sensor, and an algorithm embodied within the processor having access to the information to create a trip plan that optimizes performance of the locomotive consist in accordance with one or more operational criteria for the train.

  6. Microstructure Evolution during Friction Stir Spot Welding of TRIP Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding; Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of friction stir spot welding of TRIP steel is investigated. In addition to manufacturing successful welds, the present study aims at a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms occurring at the (sub)micron scale during friction stir spot welding. As one of the main...... parameters to control friction stir welding, the influence of the rotational speed of the tool was investigated. Three different rotational speeds (500 rpm, 1000 rpm and 1500 rpm, respectively) were applied. The microstructure of the welded samples was investigated with reflected light microscopy, scanning...

  7. Arizona Geology Trip - February 25-28, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gretchen A.; Ross, Amy J.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of hardware developers, crew, mission planners, and headquarters personnel traveled to Gila Bend, Arizona, in February 2008 for a CxP Lunar Surface Systems Team geology experience. Participating in this field trip were the CxP Space Suit System (EC5) leads: Thomas (PLSS) and Ross (PGS), who presented the activities and findings learned from being in the field during this KC. As for the design of a new spacesuit system, this allowed the engineers to understand the demands this type of activity will have on NASA's hardware, systems, and planning efforts. The engineers also experienced the methods and tools required for lunar surface activity.

  8. The Scope of Gene Patent Protection and the TRIPS Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Tine

    2007-01-01

    The Scope of Gene Patent Protection and the TRIPS Agreement - An Exclusively Nondiscriminatory Approach?   Gene patenting in Europe has provoked much debate both before and since the adoption of Directive 98/44/EC on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions. Some of the major points...... of discussion have been focused on the scope of protection (e.g. purpose-bound protection) and gene patents being subject to a specific DNA regime on patent rights. The Directive can be interpreted as favouring such a solution, but so far the European Commission has decided neither to support nor reject...

  9. Activity time budget during foraging trips of emperor penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinichi; Sato, Katsufumi; Ponganis, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    We developed an automated method using depth and one axis of body acceleration data recorded by animal-borne data loggers to identify activities of penguins over long-term deployments. Using this technique, we evaluated the activity time budget of emperor penguins (n = 10) both in water and on sea ice during foraging trips in chick-rearing season. During the foraging trips, emperor penguins alternated dive bouts (4.8 ± 4.5 h) and rest periods on sea ice (2.5 ± 2.3 h). After recorder deployment and release near the colony, the birds spent 17.9 ± 8.4% of their time traveling until they reached the ice edge. Once at the ice edge, they stayed there more than 4 hours before the first dive. After the first dive, the mean proportions of time spent on the ice and in water were 30.8 ± 7.4% and 69.2 ± 7.4%, respectively. When in the water, they spent 67.9 ± 3.1% of time making dives deeper than 5 m. Dive activity had no typical diurnal pattern for individual birds. While in the water between dives, the birds had short resting periods (1.2 ± 1.7 min) and periods of swimming at depths shallower than 5 m (0.25 ± 0.38 min). When the birds were on the ice, they primarily used time for resting (90.3 ± 4.1% of time) and spent only 9.7 ± 4.1% of time traveling. Thus, it appears that, during foraging trips at sea, emperor penguins traveled during dives >5 m depth, and that sea ice was primarily used for resting. Sea ice probably provides refuge from natural predators such as leopard seals. We also suggest that 24 hours of sunlight and the cycling of dive bouts with short rest periods on sea ice allow emperor penguins to dive continuously throughout the day during foraging trips to sea.

  10. Activity time budget during foraging trips of emperor penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Watanabe

    Full Text Available We developed an automated method using depth and one axis of body acceleration data recorded by animal-borne data loggers to identify activities of penguins over long-term deployments. Using this technique, we evaluated the activity time budget of emperor penguins (n = 10 both in water and on sea ice during foraging trips in chick-rearing season. During the foraging trips, emperor penguins alternated dive bouts (4.8 ± 4.5 h and rest periods on sea ice (2.5 ± 2.3 h. After recorder deployment and release near the colony, the birds spent 17.9 ± 8.4% of their time traveling until they reached the ice edge. Once at the ice edge, they stayed there more than 4 hours before the first dive. After the first dive, the mean proportions of time spent on the ice and in water were 30.8 ± 7.4% and 69.2 ± 7.4%, respectively. When in the water, they spent 67.9 ± 3.1% of time making dives deeper than 5 m. Dive activity had no typical diurnal pattern for individual birds. While in the water between dives, the birds had short resting periods (1.2 ± 1.7 min and periods of swimming at depths shallower than 5 m (0.25 ± 0.38 min. When the birds were on the ice, they primarily used time for resting (90.3 ± 4.1% of time and spent only 9.7 ± 4.1% of time traveling. Thus, it appears that, during foraging trips at sea, emperor penguins traveled during dives >5 m depth, and that sea ice was primarily used for resting. Sea ice probably provides refuge from natural predators such as leopard seals. We also suggest that 24 hours of sunlight and the cycling of dive bouts with short rest periods on sea ice allow emperor penguins to dive continuously throughout the day during foraging trips to sea.

  11. Cultivating the Pedagogy of Experience Through International Field Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yigitcanlar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban and regional planners, in the era of globalization, require being equipped with necessary skill sets to better deal with complex and rapidly changing economic, sociocultural, political, and environmental fabrics of cities and their regions. To provide such skill sets, urban and regional planning curriculum of Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia, offers planning practice in the international context. This article, first, reports the findings of pedagogic analyses of the international field trips conducted to Malaysia, Korea, Turkey, and Taiwan. The article, then, discusses the opportunities and constraints of exposure of students to planning practice beyond the Australian context.

  12. Multilateral Organization vs. Bilateral Negotiations: A Case of the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namhoon Kwon

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s, the issue of intellectual property rights (IPR protection gained a prominent place on the international trade agenda, which led to the establishment of the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPs as a part of the WTO regime. Two questions are asked regarding this development: whether a multilateral organization such as the WTO performs better than bilateral negotiations in resolving IPR disputes, and what happened around the 1990s to create an environment favorable to the establishment of a multilateral organization. To deal with these issues, this paper takes the IPE (international political economy approach. Using a very simple game theory model, I derive the cases in which a multilateral organization has better performances. Then, it is used to show that political pressures due to the growth of the US trade deficit in the late 1980s could have been the reason that a multilateral organization became the institutional equilibrium.

  13. A Way to Change Learning: Field Trips as a University Pedagogical Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez Salazar, Érika

    2014-01-01

    This article represents the systematization of different experiences related to educational field trips in higher education taking place between 2005 and 2012 within the Primary Education Division (DEB) at Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica. Field trips were used as an educational resource to develop attitudes and aptitudes in students from various education majors. The author proposes pedagogical field trips as a possible strategy to promote innovation in higher education and achieve a positiv...

  14. Teachers as Secondary Players: Involvement in Field Trips to Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Nirit Lavie; Tal, Tali

    2017-08-01

    This study focused on field trips to natural environments where the teacher plays a secondary role alongside a professional guide. We investigated teachers' and field trip guides' views of the teacher's role, the teacher's actual function on the field trip, and the relationship between them. We observed field trips, interviewed teachers and guides, and administered questionnaires. We found different levels of teacher involvement, ranging from mainly supervising and giving technical help, to high involvement especially in the cognitive domain and sometimes in the social domain. Analysis of students' self-reported outcomes showed that the more students believe their teachers are involved, the higher the self-reported learning outcomes.

  15. A Novel Trip Coverage Index for Transit Accessibility Assessment Using Mobile Phone Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transit accessibility is an important measure on the service performance of transit systems. To assess whether the public transit service is well accessible for trips of specific origins, destinations, and origin-destination (OD pairs, a novel measure, the Trip Coverage Index (TCI, is proposed in this paper. TCI considers both the transit trip coverage and spatial distribution of individual travel demands. Massive trips between cellular base stations are estimated by using over four-million mobile phone users. An easy-to-implement method is also developed to extract the transit information and driving routes for millions of requests. Then the trip coverage of each OD pair is calculated. For demonstrative purposes, TCI is applied to the transit network of Hangzhou, China. The results show that TCI represents the better transit trip coverage and provides a more powerful assessment tool of transit quality of service. Since the calculation is based on trips of all modes, but not only the transit trips, TCI offers an overall accessibility for the transit system performance. It enables decision makers to assess transit accessibility in a finer-grained manner on the individual trip level and can be well transformed to measure transit services of other cities.

  16. A Virtual Field Trip to the Gemini Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R. Scott; Michaud, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    Live from Gemini (LfG) is a virtual field trip using video conferencing technology to connect primary, secondary and post-secondary students with scientists and educators at the Gemini Observatory. As a pilot project, LfG is rapidly becoming one of the observatory's most often-requested educational programs for learners of all ages. The program aligns exceptionally well with national science (and technology) standards, as well as existing school curricula. This combination makes it easy for teachers to justify participation in the program, especially as the necessary video conferencing technology becomes ever more ubiquitous in classrooms and technology learning centers around the world. In developing and testing this pilot project, a programmatic approach and philosophy evolved that includes post-field-trip educational materials, multi-disciplinary subject matter (astronomy, geology, mathematics, meteorology, engineering and even language - the program is offered in Spanish from Gemini South in Chile), and the establishment of a personal connection and rapport with students. The presenters work to create a comfortable interaction despite the perceived technological barriers. The authors’ experiences with the LfG pilot project convince us that this model is viable for almost any astronomical observatory and should be considered by any dynamic, technology- and education-oriented facility.

  17. Psychedelic pleasures: An affective understanding of the joys of tripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøhling, Frederik

    2017-11-01

    This paper considers the pleasures of psychedelic drugs and proposes a Deleuzian understanding of drugged pleasures as affects. In spite of a large body of work on psychedelics, not least on their therapeutic potentials, the literature is almost completely devoid of discussions of the recreational practices and pleasures of entheogenic drugs. Yet, most people do not use psychedelics because of their curative powers, but because they are fun and enjoyable ways to alter the experience of reality. In the analytical part of the paper, I examine 100 trip reports from an internet forum in order to explore the pleasures of tripping. The analyses map out how drugs such as LSD and mushrooms - in combination with contextual factors such as other people, music and nature - give rise to a set of affective modifications of the drug user's capacities to feel, sense and act. In conclusion it is argued that taking seriously the large group of recreational users of hallucinogens is important not only because it broadens our understanding of how entheogenic drugs work in different bodies and settings, but also because it may enable a more productive and harm reductive transmission of knowledge between the scientific and recreational psychedelic communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pure intelligent monitoring system for steam economizer trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim Ismail Firas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam economizer represents one of the main equipment in the power plant. Some steam economizer's behavior lead to failure and shutdown in the entire power plant. This will lead to increase in operating and maintenance cost. By detecting the cause in the early stages maintain normal and safe operational conditions of power plant. However, these methodologies are hard to be achieved due to certain boundaries such as system learning ability and the weakness of the system beyond its domain of expertise. The best solution for these problems, an intelligent modeling system specialized in steam economizer trips have been proposed and coded within MATLAB environment to be as a potential solution to insure a fault detection and diagnosis system (FDD. An integrated plant data preparation framework for 10 trips was studied as framework variables. The most influential operational variables have been trained and validated by adopting Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The Extreme Learning Machine (ELM neural network methodology has been proposed as a major computational intelligent tool in the system. It is shown that ANN can be implemented for monitoring any process faults in thermal power plants. Better speed of learning algorithms by using the Extreme Learning Machine has been approved as well.

  19. Effective Lesson Planning: Field Trips in the Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, C. R.

    2010-10-01

    Science field trips can positively impact and motivate students. However, if a field trip is not executed properly, with appropriate preparation and follow-up reinforcement, it can result in a loss of valuable educational time and promote misconceptions in the students. This study was undertaken to determine if a classroom lesson before an out-of-the-classroom activity would affect learner gain more or less than a lesson after the activity. The study was based on the immersive theater movie ``Earth's Wild Ride'' coupled with a teacher-led Power Point lesson. The participants in the study were students in a sixth grade physical science class. The order of lessons showed no detectable effect on final learner outcomes. Based on pre- and post-testing, improvement in mean learning gain came from the teacher-led lesson independent of the movie. The visit to the immersive theater, however, had significant positive effects that did not show up in the quantitative results of the testing.

  20. Obtaining a TRIP microstructure by thermomechanical treatment without isothermal holding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, B.; Jirkova, H.; Kucerova, L.; F-X Wagner, M.

    2016-03-01

    The contemporary development of technological processes for the production of modern multiphase steels can be characterized by the need for precise control of their technological parameters. The design of modern technological processes that allow sophisticated microstructures to be obtained usually cannot be carried out on real production equipment for technical as well as economical reasons. Therefore, new processes and test devices are continuously being developed to make it possible to simulate and model thermomechanical treatments on small specimens with precise control and monitoring of process parameters. A simulator for experimental modelling of thermomechanical processes has been developed at the University of West Bohemia. In this paper, to demonstrate the feasibility of simulating thermomechanical treatments with this setup on a lab scale, we discuss the thermomechanical treatment of TRIP steels without isothermal holding - a processing route that is difficult to handle and thus poses several technological as well as economic problems. The realistic processing of wire rolling with different cooling strategies is tested on the TRIP CMnSiNb steel. Our results show that the processing route without isothermal holding allows to obtain multiphase microstructures with a tensile strength of up to 835 MPa and a ductility A5mm = 25%.

  1. Transforming the radiological interpretation process: the SCAR TRIP initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Katherine P.; Morin, Richard L.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Carrino, John A.; Erickson, Bradley J.; Horii, Steven C.; Piraino, David W.; Reiner, Bruce I.; Seibert, James A.; Siegel, Eliot L.

    2004-04-01

    The Society for Computer Applications in Radiology (SCAR) Transforming the Radiological Interpretation Process (TRIP) Initiative aims to spearhead research, education, and discovery of innovative solutions to address the problem of information and image data overload. The initiative will foster inter-disciplinary research on technological, environmental and human factors to better manage and exploit the massive amounts of data. TRIP will focus on the following basic objectives: improving the efficiency of interpretation of large data sets, improving the timeliness and effectiveness of communication, and decreasing medical errors. The ultimate goal of the initiative is to improve the quality and safety of patient care. Interdisciplinary research into several broad areas will be necessary to make progress in managing the ever-increasing volume of data. The six concepts involved include: human perception, image processing and computer-aided detection (CAD), visualization, navigation and usability, databases and integration, and evaluation and validation of methods and performance. The result of this transformation will affect several key processes in radiology, including image interpretation; communication of imaging results; workflow and efficiency within the health care enterprise; diagnostic accuracy and a reduction in medical errors; and, ultimately, the overall quality of care.

  2. Resolving inventory differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.H.; Clark, J.P.

    1991-12-31

    Determining the cause of an inventory difference (ID) that exceeds warning or alarm limits should not only involve investigation into measurement methods and reexamination of the model assumptions used in the calculation of the limits, but also result in corrective actions that improve the quality of the accountability measurements. An example illustrating methods used by Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel to resolve an ID is presented that may be useful to other facilities faced with a similar problem. After first determining that no theft or diversion of material occurred and correcting any accountability calculation errors, investigation into the IDs focused on volume and analytical measurements, limit of error of inventory difference (LEID) modeling assumptions, and changes in the measurement procedures and methods prior to the alarm. There had been a gradual gain trend in IDs prior to the alarm which was reversed by the alarm inventory. The majority of the NM in the facility was stored in four large tanks which helped identify causes for the alarm. The investigation, while indicating no diversion or theft, resulted in changes in the analytical method and in improvements in the measurement and accountability that produced a 67% improvement in the LEID.

  3. El aprendizaje bajo incertidumbre aplicado al mantenimiento de interruptores de potencia; Machine learning applied to the maintenance in high voltage breaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Gondres Torné

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La gestión del mantenimiento en las subestaciones eléctricas, así como en los interruptores de potencia ha evolucionado en el transcurso de los años de acuerdo a los equipos de medición de parámetros eléctricos y a las filosofías de mantenimiento mundial. El presente trabajo trata dichos avances desde una visión diferente, se utiliza la inteligencia artificial, específicamente el aprendizaje bajo incertidumbre para la toma de decisiones en la planificación del mantenimiento a los interruptores de potencia de una subestación. Se determina el índice de deterioro, los coeficientes de importancia del deterioro de cada tipo y del elemento del interruptor con la ayuda de los expertos. Posteriormente se obtienen los índices de membresías con los procesos correspondientes para la fusificación y defusificación; finalmente se realiza la evaluación de las reglas y defusificación para el tiempo de mantenimiento, implementando dicho método en diferentes interruptores de potencia. The maintenance management in electrical substations over the years has evolved according to the measurement equipment and the electrical parameters of global maintenance philosophies, and in particular the high voltage breakers have not been left behind. This paper is such advances from a different vision, artificial intelligence, specifically machine learning for decision-making in planning maintenance high voltage breaker sused in a substation. It determines the rate of deterioration, the coefficients of importance of each type of the deterioration and the high voltage breaker element with the help of experts. Subsequently are obtained the membership rates with the corresponding processes for fuzzification and defuzzification; finally the rule evaluation and defuzzification for the time maintenance is performed, the method is appliance in different high voltage breakers.

  4. El aprendizaje bajo incertidumbre aplicado al mantenimiento de interruptores de potencia. Machine learning applied to the maintenance in high voltage breaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Gondres Torné

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available La gestión del mantenimiento en las subestaciones eléctricas, así como en los interruptores de potencia ha evolucionado en el transcurso de los años de acuerdo a los equipos de medición de parámetros eléctricos y a las filosofías de mantenimiento mundial. El presente trabajo trata dichos avances desde una visión diferente, se utiliza la inteligencia artificial, específicamente el aprendizaje bajo incertidumbre para la toma de decisiones en la planificación del mantenimiento a los interruptores de potencia de una subestación. Se determina el índice de deterioro, los coeficientes de importancia del deterioro de cada tipo y del elemento del interruptor con la ayuda de los expertos. Posteriormente se obtienen los índices de membresías con los procesos correspondientes para la fusificación y defusificación; finalmente se realiza la evaluación de las reglas y defusificación para el tiempo de mantenimiento, implementando dicho método en diferentes interruptores de potencia.  The maintenance management in electrical substations over the years has evolved according to the measurement equipment and the electrical parameters of global maintenance philosophies, and in particular the high voltage breakers have not been left behind. This paper is such advances from a different vision, artificial intelligence, specifically machine learning for decision-making in planning maintenance high voltage breaker sused in a substation. It determines the rate of deterioration, the coefficients of importance of each type of the deterioration and the high voltage breaker element with the help of experts. Subsequently are obtained the membership rates with the corresponding processes for fuzzification and defuzzification; finally the rule evaluation and defuzzification for the time maintenance is performed, the method is appliance in different high voltage breakers.

  5. Analysis of the trip costs of a traffic corridor with two entrances and one exit under car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Wang, Tao; Chen, Liang; Shang, Hua-Yan

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we first define each commuter's first, second and third trip costs, and then apply the full velocity difference model and the VT-Micro model to explore each commuter's three trip costs and the system's corresponding total trip costs in a traffic corridor with two entrances and one exit. The numerical results show that one entrance has prominent effects on the commuter's three trip costs and the system's corresponding total trip cost and that the impacts are directly related to the commuter's departure interval at this entrance. The results can provide some suggestions for reducing the commuters' trip costs in a traffic corridor with two entrances and one exit.

  6. Forest Field Trips among High School Science Teachers in the Southern Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Shannon M.; Munsell, John F.; Seiler, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Students benefit in many ways by taking field trips to forests. Improved academic performance, increased participation in outdoor recreation, and a better grasp of natural resources management are some of the advantages. However, trips are not easy for teachers to organize and lead. Declining budgets, on-campus schedules, and standards of learning…

  7. Wolves Are Beautiful and Proud: Science Learning from a School Field Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Marilyn Petty; Samarapungavan, Ala

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the impact of related classroom activities on fourth grade students' science learning from a school field trip. The current study draws upon research in psychology and education to create an intervention that is designed to enhance what students learn from school science field trips. The intervention comprises a set of…

  8. Cultural Immersion Trip to Southeast Asia: A Study of Cross-Cultural Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustambekov, Elzotbek; Mohan, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to demonstrate the execution of a successful short-term study trip to Southeast Asia and its influence on a student's cultural intelligence. This article discusses an academic component of an international study trip that was developed for sophomores at a private university in the New England region of the…

  9. Study Abroad Field Trip Improves Test Performance through Engagement and New Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Chris; Brannstrom, Christian; Quiring, Steven M.; Lemmons, Kelly K.

    2011-01-01

    Although study abroad trips provide an opportunity for affective and cognitive learning, it is largely assumed that they improve learning outcomes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a study abroad field trip improved cognitive learning by comparing test performance between the study abroad participants (n = 20) and their peers who…

  10. 46 CFR 31.10-40 - Inspection during trial trip-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection during trial trip-T/ALL. 31.10-40 Section 31.10-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-40 Inspection during trial trip—T/ALL. On the trial trip of each new or converted tankship...

  11. Pedagogical Souvenirs: An Art Educator's Reflections on Field Trips as Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushins, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    This essay explores the nature and importance of field trips as sites for artistic development, intellectual fulfillment, and pedagogical inspiration. The author weaves personal reflections from a professional field trip and experience teaching art education online with creative and pedagogical references to make a case for experiential learning…

  12. Student Attitudes toward and Recall of Outside Day: An Environmental Science Field Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelson, Louis S.; Jordan, J. Richard

    2012-01-01

    Field trips are effective because they situate learning and facilitate knowledge transfer, thereby influencing students learning attitudes, interests, and motivation. Variations in field trip configurations and the subsequent affective and cognitive influences provided the motivation for this study of Outside Day--an environmental education field…

  13. The AAA+ ATPase TRIP13 remodels HORMA domains through N-terminal engagement and unfolding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Qiaozhen; Kim, Dong Hyun; Dereli, Ihsan; Rosenberg, Scott C.; Hagemann, Goetz; Herzog, Franz; Tóth, Attila; Cleveland, Don W.; Corbett, Kevin D.

    2017-06-28

    Proteins of the conserved HORMA domain family, including the spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2 and the meiotic HORMADs, assemble into signaling complexes by binding short peptides termed “closure motifs”. The AAA+ ATPase TRIP13 regulates both MAD2 and meiotic HORMADs by disassembling these HORMA domain–closure motif complexes, but its mechanisms of substrate recognition and remodeling are unknown. Here, we combine X-ray crystallography and crosslinking mass spectrometry to outline how TRIP13 recognizes MAD2 with the help of the adapter protein p31comet. We show that p31comet binding to the TRIP13 N-terminal domain positions the disordered MAD2 N-terminus for engagement by the TRIP13 “pore loops”, which then unfold MAD2 in the presence of ATP. N-terminal truncation of MAD2 renders it refractory to TRIP13 action in vitro, and in cells causes spindle assembly checkpoint defects consistent with loss of TRIP13 function. Similar truncation of HORMAD1 in mouse spermatocytes compromises its TRIP13-mediated removal from meiotic chromosomes, highlighting a conserved mechanism for recognition and disassembly of HORMA domain–closure motif complexes by TRIP13.

  14. Take A Trip Reference Manual: An Authoring and Storage System for Designing and Sharing Challenging Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Evaluation Section.

    The Take a Trip program is an authoring and storage system for designing challenging curriculum. Using the power of hypermedia, specifically Apple Computer's HyperCard, Take a Trip provides course file stacks, help stacks, and personalized learning plan stacks. Designed to assist the user when new units are written, the help stacks provide an…

  15. 76 FR 18661 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Southern New England (SNE)/Mid-Atlantic (MA) yellowtail flounder, and reduces the trip limit GOM cod and... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XA304 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Adjustments for the Common Pool Fishery...

  16. Trip generation studies for special generators : research summary , December 17, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-17

    The Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) Trip Generation, 7th ed., which determines the number of : trips produced or attracted by different developments, does not include town centers as a type of land use. It : has also been argued that the ...

  17. Field Trip to the Moon. Informal Educator's Guide. EG-2007-09-121-MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Field Trip to the Moon program uses an inquiry-based learning approach that fosters team building and introduces young people to careers in science and engineering. The program components include the Field Trip to the Moon show (either on DVD or presented in a planetarium dome) and workshop investigations. The compelling show provides…

  18. Exchanging car trips by cycling in the Netherlands : a first estimation of the health benefits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, E.E.M.M. Swart, W. Wendel-Vos, G.C.W. Steinberger, P.E. Knol, A.B. Stipdonk, H.L. & Reurings, M.C.B.

    2010-01-01

    As commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, the authors assessed the possible health benefits of the substitution of short-distance car trips with short-distance cycling trips. To this end they used existing methods for Health Impact Assessment and

  19. Anticipatory freight selection in intermodal long-haul round-trips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Rivera, Arturo Eduardo; Mes, Martijn R.K.

    2015-01-01

    We consider a Logistic Service Provider (LSP) that transports freight periodically in a long-haul round-trip. At the start of a round-trip, the LSP consolidates freights in a long-haul vehicle and delivers them to multiple destinations in a region. Within this region, the LSP picks up freights using

  20. Effect of Field Trip on Students' Academic Performance in Basic Technology in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosa, Abdul Ganiyu Alasela; Ogunlade, Oyeronke Olufunmilola; Atobatele, Adunni Suliat

    2015-01-01

    The use of field trip in teaching and learning helps to bring about effective and efficient learning in Basic Technology. Field trip is a group excursion away from the normal education environment for firsthand experience of an historic site or place of special interest. This study therefore was geared towards finding out the effect of field trip…

  1. Current Practices for Providing School Field Trip Meals: Perspectives of School Nutrition Managers and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Jeannie; Vaterlaus Patten, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The Healthy, Hunger Free Kids Act of 2010 extended the requirements for a school food safety program to wherever food is stored, prepared, or served, including meals for field trips. The purpose of this study was to determine what foods are used for field trip meals, how those foods are transported and stored, and what standard…

  2. Anticipatory Freight Selection in Intermodal Long-haul Round-trips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Rivera, Arturo Eduardo; Mes, Martijn R.K.

    We consider the planning problem faced by Logistic Service Providers (LSPs) transporting freights periodically, using long-haul round-trips. In each round-trip, freights are delivered and picked up at different locations within one region. Freights have time-windows and become known gradually over

  3. Chasing the shadows, a trip to spice island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani, A.; Soegijoko, W.; Baskoro, A. A.; Satyaningsih, R.; Simatupang, F. M.; Maulana, F.; Suherli, J.; Syamara, R.; Canas, L.; Stevenson, T.; Oktariani, F.; Santosa, I.; Ariadi, F.; Carvalho, N.; Soegijoko, K.

    2016-11-01

    The 2016 Total Solar Eclipse provided us an opportunity to introduce astronomy to a much wider audience. The path of totality crossed the Indonesia from Sumatra to the Maluku Islands and ended its journey in the Pacific Ocean. Its path crossed over 4 major islands, 12 provinces and many cities. Most of the cities have minimum exposure to astronomy. langitselatan travelled to observe the eclipse and to do astronomy outreach at the eastern most island under the eclipse path. We chose Maba, a small village in East Halmahera, North Maluku as our site to observe the eclipse as well as conduct a workshop for teachers and students. The aim of the workshop is to introduce astronomy taking advantage of the eclipse as well as raise awareness and curiosity among students. In this paper, we will share a short report regarding the whole trip and event in Maba.

  4. Vehicle Routing Problem with Backhaul, Multiple Trips and Time Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Oscar Ong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation planning is one of the important components to increase efficiency and effectiveness in the supply chain system. Good planning will give a saving in total cost of the supply chain. This paper develops the new VRP variants’, VRP with backhauls, multiple trips, and time window (VRPBMTTW along with its problem solving techniques by using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO and Sequential Insertion as initial solution algorithm. ACO is modified by adding the decoding process in order to determine the number of vehicles, total duration time, and range of duration time regardless of checking capacity constraint and time window. This algorithm is tested by using set of random data and verified as well as analyzed its parameter changing’s. The computational results for hypothetical data with 50% backhaul and mix time windows are reported.

  5. Microstructural Aspects of Bifocal Laser Welding of Trip Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grajcar A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with comparative tests involving single-spot and twin-spot laser welding of thermomechanically rolled TRIP steel. The welding tests were carried out using keyhole welding and a solid state laser. In the case of twin-spot laser beam welding, the power distribution of beams was 50%:50%. The changes in macro- and microstructures were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. Three main zones subjected to the tests included the fusion zone, the heat affected zone and the intercritical heat affected zone (transition zone between the base material and the HAZ. Special attention was paid to the effect of various thermal cycles on the microstructure of each zone and on martensite morphology. The tests involved hardness measurements carried out in order to investigate the effect of different microstructures on mechanical properties of welds.

  6. Development of INSTEC(INformation System of Trip Event Cases)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Woon; Shim, Bong Sik; Park, Keun Oak; Cheon, Se Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-09-01

    In this research, we established an incident analysis procedure based on the concept of interaction between plant components and developed INSTEC(INformation System of Trip Event Cases) which can manage data obtained as the result of incident analysis. The analysis procedure is consisted of the following steps; reconfiguration of incident context, identification of the paths and contents of the interaction between plant components, identification of unit event obstructing normal plant operation, identification of possible erroneous actions, decision of error modes, identification of likely causes, summarization of analysis results. INSTEC was developed to effectively present the result of incident analysis. This system offers the analyzed information such as analysis results of human error cases, operating issues and problems, recommendations to prevent a similar incident, etc. 24 tabs., 18 figs., 10 refs. (Author).

  7. Geologic field-trip guide to Long Valley Caldera, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2017-07-26

    This guide to the geology of Long Valley Caldera is presented in four parts: (1) An overview of the volcanic geology; (2) a chronological summary of the principal geologic events; (3) a road log with directions and descriptions for 38 field-trip stops; and (4) a summary of the geophysical unrest since 1978 and discussion of its causes. The sequence of stops is arranged as a four-day excursion for the quadrennial General Assembly of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI), centered in Portland, Oregon, in August 2017. Most stops, however, are written freestanding, with directions that allow each one to be visited independently, in any order selected.

  8. How travellers’ schedule their trips under uncertain travel times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine

    Travel times play an important role when people decide where, when and how much to travel. But travel times are not always predictable from the traveller’s point of view: They may vary from day to day due to demand fluctuations, weather conditions, accidents and other unforeseen events that cause...... road capacity to decrease. We refer to this uncertainty as travel time variability (TTV). TTV is likely to affect how travellers schedule their trips, since it affects their probability of arriving late at their destination. We would like to account for TTV in traffic models and cost-benefit analyses......, but in practice there are limits to the kinds of behaviour that can be accommodated in such applications. For that reason, we are not solely interested in explaining travellers’ behaviour, but also in whether this behaviour can be approximated by behavioural models that are simple enough to be applied in traffic...

  9. A case study of urban student and teacher experiences surrounding an outdoor environmental science field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preusch, Peggy L.

    2009-12-01

    Field trips provide opportunities for students to experience many different contexts beyond the classroom, and are a popular choice of K-12 teachers in the US. Recent interest in learning that occurs at informal science education centers such as museums, zoos and aquariums has stimulated studies of the relationship between learning in and outside of schools. Although many studies focus on the teachers, the contexts, and/or the students during the field trip, only a few look at the entire process of learning by including the classroom setting before and after the field trip. This study was designed to develop understandings of the student process of learning during and surrounding an environmental science field trip to an outdoor setting. John Dewey's extensive writings on the relationship between experience and learning informed the analysis, creating a focus on active and passive elements of the experience, continuity within and across contexts, the interactive nature of the experience and the importance of subject matter. An exploration of environmental education (EE), environmental science (ES), and nature study as content revealed the complexities of the subject matter of the field trip that make its presentation problematic. An urban school was chosen to contribute to the research literature about urban student learning in outdoor environments. During the field trip, the students' active engagement with each other and the environment supported meaningful remembrances of the field trip experiences during interviews after the field trip. The students accurately described plants and animals they had observed in different habitats during the field trip. They also made connections with their home life and prior experiences in the outdoors as they discussed the field trip and drew pictures that represented their experiences. One student integrated his outdoor experience with a language arts assignment as he reflected deeply on the field trip. One implication of this

  10. Testing of the TriP Chip Running at 132 nsec Using a Modified AFE Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan Estrada et al.

    2003-12-19

    In this note we describe the first set of tests done with a sample of TriP chips that were mounted on a modified AFE board. The modifications consisted of different firmware and the replacement of one power supply switch. The board used was a standard AFEIc board (red type) on which new MCMs (MCMIIs) were mounted. The new MCMs were designed to support the TriP and emulate the SVX for readout when mounted on an AFEIc board. The TriP and the MCMs are described in Ref. [1]. Two versions of the MCMII were designed and built: one (MCMIIb) supports two TriP chips wirebonded directly to the MCM substrate. The other, (MCMIIc) supports one TriP which can be either wirebonded directly or packaged into a standard TQFP surface mount package. Due to space constraints, this MCM can support only 1 TriP. We tested 6 TriP chips on 3 different MCMIIb (MCMIIb-1, MCMIIb-2 and MCMIIb-3) and 2 other TriPs were tested on MCMIIc, one of them with an unpackaged TriP (MCMIIc-1) and the other with a packaged TriP (MCMIIc-2). A set of 10 programable internal registers control the TriP operation, the description of these registers can be found in [1]. Table 1 shows the values used for the tests described in this note. In Ref. [1] there is a description of the signals that are needed to operate the TriP chip. We implemented in a Field Programable Gate Array (FPGA), also part of the MCM, a set of shift registers that allow us to download via the 1553 interface to the AFE board, any desired timing for the signals that the FPGA has to send to the TriP chip. These registers are run with a 121.21 MHz clock (which is 16x the crossing clock and phase locked to it), which means that each bit corresponds to a time interval of 8.25 nsec. Finer control of timing is possible, but this changing the programing of the FPGA and recompiling. The bits downloaded to these shift registers inside the TriP are listed in Table 2.

  11. An integrative conceptual framework for analyzing customer satisfaction with shopping trip experiences in grocery retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2012-01-01

    Grocery retailers aim to satisfy customers, and because grocery shopping trips are frequently recurring, they must do socontinuously. Surprisingly, little research has addressed satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trips. This article therefore develops a conceptual framework for analyzing...... customer satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trip experiences within a overall ‘disconfirmation of expectations model’ of customer satisfaction. The contribution of the framework is twofold. First, by focusing on satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trips, previous research...... on satisfaction is extended to a context marked by frequently recurring, often tedious and routine activities. Understanding what causes satisfaction/dissatisfaction with individual shopping trips is required to explain overall, cumulative satisfaction with a retailer, which has been the focus of prior research...

  12. Field Experiments on 10 kV Switching Shunt Capacitor Banks Using Ordinary and Phase-Controlled Vacuum Circuit Breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Sima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the switching on/off of shunt capacitor banks in substations, vacuum circuit breakers (VCBs are required to switch off or to switch on the capacitive current. Therefore, the VCBs have to be operated under a harsh condition to ensure the reliability of the equipment. This study presents a complete comparison study of ordinary and phase-controlled VCBs on switching 10 kV shunt capacitor banks. An analytical analysis for switching 10 kV shunt capacitor banks is presented on the basis of a reduced circuit with an ungrounded neutral. A phase selection strategy for VCBs to switch 10 kV shunt capacitor banks is proposed. Switching on current waveforms and switching off overvoltage waveforms with, and without, phase selection were measured and discussed by field experiments in a 110 kV substation in Chongqing, China. Results show that the operation of phase-controlled VCBs for 10 kV switching shunt capacitor banks is stable, and phase-controlled VCBs can be used to implement the 10 kV switching on/off shunt capacitor banks to limit the transient overvoltage and overcurrent. The values of overvoltage and inrush current using phase-controlled VCBs are all below those with ordinary VCBs.

  13. Feasibility of a continuous surface mining machine using impact breakers. Phase I report, 1 October 1979-31 March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, A. T.; Simpson, R. J.

    1980-04-01

    This is the first phase report of the efforts to evaluate the feasibility of excavating coal and overburden from surface mines using impact breakers. Phase I is divided into four task groups. Those tasks are as follows: Selection of Field Sites for Parametric, Selection of Impact Hammers for Field, Design Test System, and Prepare Parametric Test Plan. A detailed description and accounting of each task is given in the body of this report. Included as appendices are the FMA internal reports on the individual mines visited. These reports are the basis of test site selection. The basic finding of this phase are that industry interest in the concept of impact mining tends toward the removal of multiple thin seams of coal and parting rather than deep coal or overburden and, while the intent of this contract is to explore the feasibility of impactors in a vertical array for use in a terraced mine plan, future design of a continuous mining machine should take industry acceptance into account.

  14. A novel STK1-targeted small-molecule as an "antibiotic resistance breaker" against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Sashi; Asthana, Shailendra; Missiakas, Dominique; Pancholi, Vijay

    2017-07-11

    Ser/Thr protein kinase (STK1) plays a critical role in cell wall biosynthesis of and drug resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA strains lacking STK1 become susceptible to failing cephalosporins, such as Ceftriaxone and Cefotaxime. STK1, despite being nonessential protein for MRSA survival, it can serve as an important therapeutic agent for combination therapy. Here, we report a novel small molecule quinazoline compound, Inh2-B1, which specifically inhibits STK1 activity by directly binding to its ATP-binding catalytic domain. Functional analyses encompassing in vitro growth inhibition of MRSA, and in vivo protection studies in mice against the lethal MRSA challenge indicated that at high concentration neither Inh2-B1 nor Ceftriaxone or Cefotaxime alone was able to inhibit the growth of bacteria or protect the challenged mice. However, the growth of MRSA was inhibited, and a significant protection in mice against the bacterial challenge was observed at a micromolar concentration of Ceftriaxone or Cefotaxime in the presence of Inh2-B1. Cell-dependent minimal to no toxicity of Inh2-B1, and its abilities to down-regulate cell wall hydrolase genes and disrupt the biofilm formation of MRSA clearly indicated that Inh2-B1 serves as a therapeutically important "antibiotic-resistance-breaker," which enhances the bactericidal activity of Ceftriaxone/Cefotaxime against highly pathogenic MRSA infection.

  15. RESOLVE and ECO: Survey Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannappan, Sheila; Moffett, Amanda J.; Norris, Mark A.; Eckert, Kathleen D.; Stark, David; Berlind, Andreas A.; Snyder, Elaine M.; Norman, Dara J.; Hoversten, Erik A.; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    The REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local VolumE (RESOLVE) survey is a volume-limited census of stellar, gas, and dynamical mass as well as star formation and galaxy interactions within >50,000 cubic Mpc of the nearby cosmic web, reaching down to dwarf galaxies of baryonic mass ~10^9 Msun and spanning multiple large-scale filaments, walls, and voids. RESOLVE is surrounded by the ~10x larger Environmental COntext (ECO) catalog, with matched custom photometry and environment metrics enabling analysis of cosmic variance with greater statistical power. For the ~1500 galaxies in its two equatorial footprints, RESOLVE goes beyond ECO in providing (i) deep 21cm data with adaptive sensitivity ensuring HI mass detections or upper limits <10% of the stellar mass and (ii) 3D optical spectroscopy including both high-resolution ionized gas or stellar kinematic data for each galaxy and broad 320-725nm spectroscopy spanning [OII] 3727, Halpha, and Hbeta. RESOLVE is designed to complement other radio and optical surveys in providing diverse, contiguous, and uniform local/global environment data as well as unusually high completeness extending into the gas-dominated dwarf galaxy regime. RESOLVE also offers superb reprocessed photometry including full, deep NUV coverage and synergy with other equatorial surveys as well as unique northern and southern facilities such as Arecibo, the GBT, and ALMA. The RESOLVE and ECO surveys have been supported by funding from NSF grants AST-0955368 and OCI-1156614.

  16. Establishment of Local Trip Generation Rates or Equations for Mixed-Use Developments in Kansas : Technical Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Currently, the trip generation rates and equations contained in the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) Trip Generation Manual, 8th Edition are based on the information collected at single-use, free-standing sites and cannot be directly appli...

  17. Impacts of energy consumption and emissions on the trip cost without late arrival at the equilibrium state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Wang, Tao; Chen, Liang; Shang, Hua-Yan

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we apply a car-following model, fuel consumption model, emission model and electricity consumption model to explore the influences of energy consumption and emissions on each commuter's trip costs without late arrival at the equilibrium state. The numerical results show that the energy consumption and emissions have significant impacts on each commuter's trip cost without late arrival at the equilibrium state. The fuel cost and emission cost prominently enhance each commuter's trip cost and the trip cost increases with the number of vehicles, which shows that considering the fuel cost and emission cost in the trip cost will destroy the equilibrium state. However, the electricity cost slightly enhances each commuter's trip cost, but the trip cost is still approximately a constant, which indicates that considering the electricity cost in the trip cost does not destroy the equilibrium state.

  18. Personal and trip characteristics associated with safety equipment use by injured adult bicyclists: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Kay; Brubacher, Jeff R; Friedman, Steven M; Cripton, Peter A; Harris, M Anne; Reynolds, Conor C O; Shen, Hui; Monro, Melody; Hunte, Garth; Chipman, Mary; Cusimano, Michael D; Lea, Nancy Smith; Babul, Shelina; Winters, Meghan

    2012-09-11

    The aim of this study was to estimate use of helmets, lights, and visible clothing among cyclists and to examine trip and personal characteristics associated with their use. Using data from a study of transportation infrastructure and injuries to 690 adult cyclists in Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, we examined the proportion who used bike lights, conspicuous clothing on the torso, and helmets on their injury trip. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between personal and trip characteristics and each type of safety equipment. Bike lights were the least frequently used (20% of all trips) although they were used on 77% of trips at night. Conspicuous clothing (white, yellow, orange, red) was worn on 33% of trips. Helmets were used on 69% of trips, 76% in Vancouver where adult helmet use is required by law and 59% in Toronto where it is not. Factors positively associated with bike light use included night, dawn and dusk trips, poor weather conditions, weekday trips, male sex, and helmet use. Factors positively associated with conspicuous clothing use included good weather conditions, older age, and more frequent cycling. Factors positively associated with helmet use included bike light use, longer trip distances, hybrid bike type, not using alcohol in the 6 hours prior to the trip, female sex, older age, higher income, and higher education. In two of Canada's largest cities, helmets were the most widely used safety equipment. Measures to increase use of visibility aids on both daytime and night-time cycling trips may help prevent crashes.

  19. The View at the Zoo: Using a Photographic Scavenger Hunt as the Basis for an Interdisciplinary Field Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lynn; Breitbarth, Pamela; Brungardt, Matthew; Dorr, Carrie; Balgopal, Meena

    2010-01-01

    Most educators have a love-hate relationship with field trips. On the one hand, field trips are a great way to get students out of the building, enhance learning, and have some fun. On the other hand, field trips are a lot of work and worry. Especially now, with the increased cost of transportation and the need for curricular ties, field trips…

  20. 41 CFR 301-11.4 - May I be reimbursed actual expense and per diem on the same trip?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I be reimbursed actual expense and per diem on the same trip? 301-11.4 Section 301-11.4 Public Contracts and Property... same trip? Yes, you may be reimbursed both actual expense and per diem during a single trip, but only...

  1. Principles of TRIP Steel Optimization for Passive Damping Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, George Jay

    Globally many historic structures of cultural significance which do not have systems to mitigate seismic damage are located in areas with heavy seismic activity. Efforts have been undertaken to develop strategies to retrofit such structures, however any intervention must be limited in size for aesthetic reasons. To contribute to this effort, ArcelorMittal aims to create steel-based solutions for passive energy dissipation through plastic deformation during cyclic loading. High-strength TRansformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels are proposed as an excellent candidate material for this application, due to the extreme combination of high strength and large ductility they are well-known to exhibit. To evaluate high-strength TRIP steels for passive damping applications, isothermal, fully-reversed, displacement-controlled Ultra-Low Cycle Fatigue (ULCF) experiments (Nf sigma = -8 °C) was found to have approximately twice the fatigue life and a lower rate of cyclic hardening at fixed displacement amplitudes for low to intermediate levels of plastic strain range (2-10%) compared to the lower stability austenite condition (Mssigma = 27 °C). However, at higher levels of plastic straining (10-16% strain range) the fatigue lives and strain hardening behavior converged for the two stabilities, indicating a likely exhaustion of transformation during the first few cycles. ULCF life behavior for the high-stability austenite condition compared favorably with literature values for structural stainless steel 316, despite having a yield strength approximately four times larger. For a similar number of cycles to failure the high stability condition dissipated 2.4 times more energy than stainless steel 316 upon initial cycling. The stress-strain hysteresis curves and fatigue life data generated can be input into computational models of passive damping devices for initial concurrent material/device design iterations. Evidence of shear lips, large primary inclusions serving as

  2. Heat transfer in rotating serpentine passages with trips skewed to the flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.V.; Wagner, J.H. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)); Steuber, G.D. (Pratt and Whitney, East Hartford, CT (United States)); Yeh, F.C. (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of buoyancy and Coriolis forces on heat transfer in turbine blade internal coolant passages. The experiments were conducted with a large-scale, multipass, heat transfer model with both radially inward and outward flow. Trip strips, skewed at 45 deg to the flow direction, were machined on the leading and trailing surfaces of the radial coolant passages. An analysis of the governing flow equations showed that four parameters influence the heat transfer in rotating passages: coolant-to-wall temperature ratio, rotation number, Reynolds number, and radius-to-passage hydraulic diameter ratio. The first three of these four parameters were varied over ranges that are typical of advanced gas turbine engine operating conditions. Results were correlated and compared to previous results from similar stationary and rotating models with smooth walls and with trip strips normal to the flow direction. It was concluded that (1) both Coriolis and buoyancy effects must be considered in turbine blade cooling designs with trip strips, (2) the effects of rotation are markedly different depending upon the flow direction, and (3) the heat transfer with skewed trip strips is less sensitive to buoyancy than the heat transfer in models with either smooth walls or normal trips. Therefore, skewed trip strips rather than normal trip strips are recommended and geometry-specific tests will be required for accurate design information.

  3. Biaxial fatigue behavior of a powder metallurgical TRIP steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ackermann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxial fatigue behavior is an important topic in critical structural components. In the present study the biaxial-planar fatigue behavior of a powder metallurgical TRIP steel (Transformation Induced Plasticity was studied by taking into account martensitic phase transformation and crack growth behavior. Biaxial cyclic deformation tests were carried out on a servo hydraulic biaxial tension-compression test rig using cruciform specimens. Different states of strain were studied by varying the strain ratio between the axial strain amplitudes in the range of -1 (shear loading to 1 (equibiaxial loading. The investigated loading conditions were proportional due to fixed directions of principal strains. The studied TRIP steel exhibits martensitic phase transformation from -austenite via ε-martensite into α‘- martensite which causes pronounced cyclic hardening. The α‘-martensite formation increased with increasing plastic strain amplitude. Shear loading promoted martensite formation and caused the highest α‘-martensite volume fractions at fatigue failure in comparison to uniaxial and other biaxial states of strain. Moreover, the fatigue lives of shear tests were higher than those of uniaxial and other biaxial tests. The von Mises equivalent strain hypothesis was found to be appropriate for uniaxial and biaxial fatigue, but too conservative for shear fatigue, according to literature for torsional fatigue. The COD strain amplitude which is based on crack opening displacement gave a better correlation of the investigated fatigue lives, especially those for shear loading. Different types of major cracks were observed on the sample surfaces after biaxial cyclic deformation by using electron monitoring in an electron beam universal system and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Specimens with strain ratios of 1, 0.5, -0.1 and -0.5 showed mode I major cracks (perpendicular to the axis of maximum principal strain. Major cracks after shear fatigue

  4. Evaluation of HIV testing algorithms in Ethiopia: the role of the tie-breaker algorithm and weakly reacting test lines in contributing to a high rate of false positive HIV diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Leslie; Siddiqui, M Ruby; Kliescikova, Jarmila; Pearce, Neil; Ariti, Cono; Muluneh, Libsework; Pirou, Erwan; Ritmeijer, Koert; Masiga, Johnson; Abebe, Almaz

    2015-02-03

    In Ethiopia a tiebreaker algorithm using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in series is used to diagnose HIV. Discordant results between the first 2 RDTs are resolved by a third 'tiebreaker' RDT. Médecins Sans Frontières uses an alternate serial algorithm of 2 RDTs followed by a confirmation test for all double positive RDT results. The primary objective was to compare the performance of the tiebreaker algorithm with a serial algorithm, and to evaluate the addition of a confirmation test to both algorithms. A secondary objective looked at the positive predictive value (PPV) of weakly reactive test lines. The study was conducted in two HIV testing sites in Ethiopia. Study participants were recruited sequentially until 200 positive samples were reached. Each sample was re-tested in the laboratory on the 3 RDTs and on a simple to use confirmation test, the Orgenics Immunocomb Combfirm® (OIC). The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. 2620 subjects were included with a HIV prevalence of 7.7%. Each of the 3 RDTs had an individual specificity of at least 99%. The serial algorithm with 2 RDTs had a single false positive result (1 out of 204) to give a PPV of 99.5% (95% CI 97.3%-100%). The tiebreaker algorithm resulted in 16 false positive results (PPV 92.7%, 95% CI: 88.4%-95.8%). Adding the OIC confirmation test to either algorithm eliminated the false positives. All the false positives had at least one weakly reactive test line in the algorithm. The PPV of weakly reacting RDTs was significantly lower than those with strongly positive test lines. The risk of false positive HIV diagnosis in a tiebreaker algorithm is significant. We recommend abandoning the tie-breaker algorithm in favour of WHO recommended serial or parallel algorithms, interpreting weakly reactive test lines as indeterminate results requiring further testing except in the setting of blood transfusion, and most importantly, adding a confirmation test

  5. Angelo State Society of Physics Students Science Outreach: West Texas Road Trip 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Lacy; Sauncy, Toni

    2008-10-01

    The Angelo State Society of Physics Students readily embraces the opportunity to give back to the community. For the past three years, the ASU Peer Pressure Team has presented science demonstrations to elementary and junior high students in the West Texas area. The annual week-long trip involves college students seeking to inspire a younger generation about physics and science in general. The Road Trip 2008 took ten undergraduate students on a nearly 600 mile round trip. The reactions and responses from the students, teachers and administrators received by the local SPS chapter's efforts have been overwhelmingly positive, and opportunities continue to present themselves.

  6. Trip Travel Time Forecasting Based on Selective Forgetting Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Gui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Travel time estimation on road networks is a valuable traffic metric. In this paper, we propose a machine learning based method for trip travel time estimation in road networks. The method uses the historical trip information extracted from taxis trace data as the training data. An optimized online sequential extreme machine, selective forgetting extreme learning machine, is adopted to make the prediction. Its selective forgetting learning ability enables the prediction algorithm to adapt to trip conditions changes well. Experimental results using real-life taxis trace data show that the forecasting model provides an effective and practical way for the travel time forecasting.

  7. Collective human mobility pattern from taxi trips in urban area

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2012-04-18

    We analyze the passengers\\' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously. 2012 Peng et al.

  8. IMPROVING STUDENTS' WRITING SKILLS THROUGH FIELD TRIP METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Meiranti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to improve the students’ writing skill and learning activity by applying the implementation of field trip method in English subject in class VIII-2 SMPN 1 Luragung. The problem in this research contents is about the low of students’ skill in writing and learning activity. The kind of this research is classroom action research which was conducted in two cycles. The subject of this research is English subject in class VIII-2 with total number of students 34. The research instrument that had been used is the test and also the observation sheet for observation the learning activity of the students and teacher. Based on the result, the improvement could be seen from the increase of students’ mean writing score from 47 in the preliminary study and 70,51 at the first cycle to 73,24 in the second cycle. The result of field notes showed that the class condition during teaching learning process creates the positive atmosphere in the classroom and makes students creative in finding the ideas, organize the text and can use better grammar. Students who had been afraid of learning in the second cycle looked more confident. Students in the second cycle was more confident in working task of the students and students’ participation in learning increased, they actively asked, answered questions from teacher.

  9. Meaningful Field Trip in Education of Renewable Energy Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Said Tortop

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources, in terms of countries‟ obtaining their energy needs from clean and without harming the environment is becoming increasingly important. This situation also requires improving the quality of science education will be given in this field. In this activity, in a field trip to the center for the renewable energy resources technologies, the application of learning cycle model appropriate for constructivist approach is shown. In the example of solar chimney activity according to 5E model, in elaboration step, students, by using their imagination and creativity, put out recommendations and new designs for the efficiency of the application of solar chimney. It is quite important for educators to follow what kind of acquisitions that students will gain and what kind of changes will occur in their perceptions and attitudes towards renewable energy technologies thanks to this activity. Related documents are in attachments. This activity has been very helpful in the education of young scientists on the field of renewable energy sources technologies.

  10. Field trip guide to selected outcrops, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-11-17

    The Arbuckle Mountains, named for Brigadier General Matthew Arbuckle, are located in south-central Oklahoma. The formations that comprise the Arbuckle Mountains have been extensively studied for hydrocarbon source rock and reservoir rock characteristics that can be applied to the subsurface in the adjacent Anadarko and Ardmore basins. Numerous reports and guidebooks have been written concerning the Arbuckle Mountains. A few important general publications are provided in the list of selected references. The purpose of this handout is to provide general information on the geology of the Arbuckle Mountains and specific information on the four field trip stops, adapted from the literature. The four stops were at: (1) Sooner Rock and Sand Quarry; (2) Woodford Shale; (3) Hunton Anticline and Hunton Quarry; and (4) Tar Sands of Sulfur Area. As part of this report, two papers are included for more detail: Paleomagnetic dating of basinal fluid migration, base-metal mineralization, and hydrocarbon maturation in the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma and Laminated black shale-bedded chert cyclicity in the Woodford Formation, southern Oklahoma.

  11. Collective human mobility pattern from taxi trips in urban area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbin Peng

    Full Text Available We analyze the passengers' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously.

  12. Public Transport Service Provisions and Policy Implications for Columbarium Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Y. Szeto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grave-sweeping is one of the popular special events in Asian cities, especially in Chinese societies, in which families express filial piety to their ancestors during two traditional grave-sweeping festivals in a year. The extraordinary high travel demand is often attracted to columbaria within a relative short period around the festivals, and induces severe impacts to the local traffic. It is challenging for the government and private operators to formulate a public transport service setting to satisfactorily cater all the visitors' travel demand. This paper aims to propose an optimization framework to identify the optimal provisions of public transport services for columbarium trips to achieve consumer surplus or profit maximization. Numerical studies are carried out using the travel demand data collected from a selected columbarium, to examine the effects of different public transport service settings to the policy objectives in various cases. The model results show that the current situation is neither consumer surplus nor profit optimum. Improvement schemes are suggested in relation to allow various fares during different visit periods and provide multiple public transport feeder services to serve the visitors during the high travel demand period.

  13. Virtual field trips: exploring a new approach to ocean education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, C.; Bryant, T.

    2003-04-01

    During the past four years with primary support from the National Science Foundation, the University of Delaware College of Marine Studies has launched the "Extreme series" of virtual field trips to get students and the public excited -- and learning -- about science by enabling them to follow along with researchers as they explore hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean. The Extreme series has blossomed from a small pilot project involving about 800 students in 14 schools primarily in Delaware, to a thriving program that last year welcomed aboard more than 500 schools representing over 42,000 students from across the United States and in several foreign countries. Participants range from small, rural schools on American Indian reservations and in the landlocked states of America's "heartland," to large public schools in major coastal cities such as New York and Los Angeles. Each participating teacher receives a resource package containing student guides, curricula, evaluation tools, and a documentary video. During the expedition, an interactive Web site serves as the program's "lifeline." Education coordinators aboard ship -- a UD graduate student and a schoolteacher -- post daily journals, conduct experiments submitted by classrooms, and relay photos and video clips back to shore each day for uploading to the Web site. The project also involves selected classrooms in teleconferences with scientists working live on the seafloor aboard the submersible Alvin. Evaluated for its educational quality and impact, the Extreme series continues to grow and develop with the enthusiastic support of teachers.

  14. Mechanical Fault Diagnosis of High Voltage Circuit Breakers Based on Variational Mode Decomposition and Multi-Layer Classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Nantian; Chen, Huaijin; Cai, Guowei; Fang, Lihua; Wang, Yuqiang

    2016-11-10

    Mechanical fault diagnosis of high-voltage circuit breakers (HVCBs) based on vibration signal analysis is one of the most significant issues in improving the reliability and reducing the outage cost for power systems. The limitation of training samples and types of machine faults in HVCBs causes the existing mechanical fault diagnostic methods to recognize new types of machine faults easily without training samples as either a normal condition or a wrong fault type. A new mechanical fault diagnosis method for HVCBs based on variational mode decomposition (VMD) and multi-layer classifier (MLC) is proposed to improve the accuracy of fault diagnosis. First, HVCB vibration signals during operation are measured using an acceleration sensor. Second, a VMD algorithm is used to decompose the vibration signals into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The IMF matrix is divided into submatrices to compute the local singular values (LSV). The maximum singular values of each submatrix are selected as the feature vectors for fault diagnosis. Finally, a MLC composed of two one-class support vector machines (OCSVMs) and a support vector machine (SVM) is constructed to identify the fault type. Two layers of independent OCSVM are adopted to distinguish normal or fault conditions with known or unknown fault types, respectively. On this basis, SVM recognizes the specific fault type. Real diagnostic experiments are conducted with a real SF₆ HVCB with normal and fault states. Three different faults (i.e., jam fault of the iron core, looseness of the base screw, and poor lubrication of the connecting lever) are simulated in a field experiment on a real HVCB to test the feasibility of the proposed method. Results show that the classification accuracy of the new method is superior to other traditional methods.

  15. Mechanical Fault Diagnosis of High Voltage Circuit Breakers Based on Variational Mode Decomposition and Multi-Layer Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantian Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical fault diagnosis of high-voltage circuit breakers (HVCBs based on vibration signal analysis is one of the most significant issues in improving the reliability and reducing the outage cost for power systems. The limitation of training samples and types of machine faults in HVCBs causes the existing mechanical fault diagnostic methods to recognize new types of machine faults easily without training samples as either a normal condition or a wrong fault type. A new mechanical fault diagnosis method for HVCBs based on variational mode decomposition (VMD and multi-layer classifier (MLC is proposed to improve the accuracy of fault diagnosis. First, HVCB vibration signals during operation are measured using an acceleration sensor. Second, a VMD algorithm is used to decompose the vibration signals into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs. The IMF matrix is divided into submatrices to compute the local singular values (LSV. The maximum singular values of each submatrix are selected as the feature vectors for fault diagnosis. Finally, a MLC composed of two one-class support vector machines (OCSVMs and a support vector machine (SVM is constructed to identify the fault type. Two layers of independent OCSVM are adopted to distinguish normal or fault conditions with known or unknown fault types, respectively. On this basis, SVM recognizes the specific fault type. Real diagnostic experiments are conducted with a real SF6 HVCB with normal and fault states. Three different faults (i.e., jam fault of the iron core, looseness of the base screw, and poor lubrication of the connecting lever are simulated in a field experiment on a real HVCB to test the feasibility of the proposed method. Results show that the classification accuracy of the new method is superior to other traditional methods.

  16. HARMONISASI PRINSIP-PRINSIP TRIPS AGREEMENT DALAM HAK KEKAYAAN INTELEKTUAL DENGAN KEPENTINGAN NASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tri setiady

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to find a legal politics of harmonization the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR of Indonesia with WTO/TRIPs agreement. Based on the juridical approach of secondary data, it was concluded that there is a harmonization between legal arrangements of IPR with the WTO/TRIPs agreement. The reason given by the government is because Indonesia has ratified the WTO/TRIPs agreement, and it is 'full complience' and 'non-reservation', and due to the insistence of developed countries of IPR owners against Indonesia and the needs of national IPRs. There is no courage to create legal politics of our own IPR, which is derived from the philosophy of Pancasila, 1945 Constitution and national interests. Fear of the threat of developed countries must be resisted and overcome by intelligence. Keywords: Trips Agreement, Intellectual Property Rights , National Interest 

  17. Recommendations for Planning and Managing International Short-term Pharmacy Service Trips

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalin L Johnson; Naser Z Alsharif; John Rovers; Sharon Connor; Nicole D White; Michael D Hogue

    2017-01-01

    .... Considerations and current recommendations are provided for the key aspects of the home institution and the host country requirements for pharmacy service trips based on findings from a literature...

  18. Health Effect of Forest Bathing Trip on Elderly Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bing Bing; Yang, Zhou Xin; Mao, Gen Xiang; Lyu, Yuan Dong; Wen, Xiao Lin; Xu, Wei Hong; Lyu, Xiao Ling; Cao, Yong Bao; Wang, Guo Fu

    2016-03-01

    Forest bathing trip is a short, leisurely visit to forest. In this study we determined the health effects of forest bathing trip on elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The patients were randomly divided into two groups. One group was sent to forest, and the other was sent to an urban area as control. Flow cytometry, ELISA, and profile of mood states (POMS) evaluation were performed. In the forest group, we found a significant decrease of perforin and granzyme B expressions, accompanied by decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stress hormones. Meanwhile, the scores in the negative subscales of POMS decreased after forest bathing trip. These results indicate that forest bathing trip has health effect on elderly COPD patients by reducing inflammation and stress level. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  19. Reflections on a Medical Service Trip: Did we do the right thing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Franco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Medical service trips have a long and distinguished history. In the United States,interest in medical outreach trips has grown substantially, as medical schools andnon-governmental organizations support numerous overseas endeavors at an estimatedcost of 250 million dollars a year. Although providing care to those in need is arewarding experience, the question that needs to be answered is whether these tripsdo more harm than good. We describe our experience during a medical service trip toEnsenada, Mexico. We treated over 500 people for numerous problems, but due to thelack of services were not able to monitor or ensure follow-up. Did we do more harmby providing medications that can have serious side effects? Recommendations havebeen developed to help short-term international medical service trips provide the bestoverall experience for the participants and the best care for the patients.

  20. SmartTrips Ithaca : encouraging sustainable transportation options through a personalized educational campaign : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    SmartTrips Ithaca is a neighborhood-based personalized educational campaign that encouraged residents : of downtown Ithaca to try out sustainable modes of transportation such as walking, biking, transit, and : carsharing through incentives and commun...

  1. Quantifying the benefits of the Florida Transit Research Inspection Procurement Services (TRIPS) program : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Established in 1995 as the Florida Vehicle : Procurement Program (FVPP), Florida Transit : Research Inspection Procurement Services (TRIPS) : is a vehicle sourcing and procurement system for : Floridas public transit agencies that integrates : ins...

  2. Improved trip generation data for Texas using work place and special generator survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Travel estimates from models and manuals developed from trip attraction rates having high variances due to few : survey observations can reduce confidence and accuracy in estimates. This project compiled and analyzed data from : more than a decade of...

  3. Planning a pharmacy-led medical mission trip, part 2: servant leadership and team dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dana A; Brown, Daniel L; Yocum, Christine K

    2012-06-01

    While pharmacy curricula can prepare students for the cognitive domains of pharmacy practice, mastery of the affective aspects can prove to be more challenging. At the Gregory School of Pharmacy, medical mission trips have been highly effective means of impacting student attitudes and beliefs. Specifically, these trips have led to transformational changes in student leadership capacity, turning an act of service into an act of influence. Additionally, building team unity is invaluable to the overall effectiveness of the trip. Pre-trip preparation for teams includes activities such as routine team meetings, team-building activities, and implementation of committees, as a means of promoting positive team dynamics. While in the field, team dynamics can be fostered through activities such as daily debriefing sessions, team disclosure times, and provision of medical services.

  4. Field trip guide to the Valles Caldera and its geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.E.; Bolivar, S.L.

    1983-12-01

    This field trip guide has been compiled from extensive field trips led at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the past six years. The original version of this guide was designed to augment a workshop on the Valles Caldera for the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). This workshop was held at Los Alamos, New Mexico, 5-7 October 1982. More stops were added to this guide to display the volcanic and geothermal features at the Valles Caldera. The trip covers about 90 miles (one way) and takes two days to complete; however, those who wish to compress the trip into one day are advised to use the designated stops listed in the Introduction. Valles Caldera and vicinity comprise both one of the most exciting geothermal areas in the United States and one of the best preserved Quaternary caldera complexes in the world.

  5. Resolving boosted jets with XCone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaler, Jesse; Wilkason, Thomas F. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States)

    2015-12-09

    We show how the recently proposed XCone jet algorithm http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2015)072 smoothly interpolates between resolved and boosted kinematics. When using standard jet algorithms to reconstruct the decays of hadronic resonances like top quarks and Higgs bosons, one typically needs separate analysis strategies to handle the resolved regime of well-separated jets and the boosted regime of fat jets with substructure. XCone, by contrast, is an exclusive cone jet algorithm that always returns a fixed number of jets, so jet regions remain resolved even when (sub)jets are overlapping in the boosted regime. In this paper, we perform three LHC case studies — dijet resonances, Higgs decays to bottom quarks, and all-hadronic top pairs — that demonstrate the physics applications of XCone over a wide kinematic range.

  6. Exchanging car trips by cycling in the Netherlands : a first estimation of the health benefits.

    OpenAIRE

    Kempen, E.E.M.M. Swart, W. Wendel-Vos, G.C.W. Steinberger, P.E. Knol, A.B. Stipdonk, H.L. & Reurings, M.C.B.

    2010-01-01

    As commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, the authors assessed the possible health benefits of the substitution of short-distance car trips with short-distance cycling trips. To this end they used existing methods for Health Impact Assessment and evaluated the availability and quality of data, models and tools that were needed. In this assessment not only the classic environmental pollutants noise and air pollution were taken into account, but als...

  7. Linking Immersive Virtual Field Trips with an Adaptive Learning Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, G.; Taylor, W.; Anbar, A. D.; Semken, S. C.; Buxner, S.; Mead, C.; El-Moujaber, E.; Summons, R. E.; Oliver, C.

    2016-12-01

    The use of virtual environments in science education has been constrained by the difficulty of guiding a learner's actions within the those environments. In this work, we demonstrate how advances in education software technology allow educators to create interactive learning experiences that respond and adapt intelligently to learner input within the virtual environment. This innovative technology provides a far greater capacity for delivering authentic inquiry-driven educational experiences in unique settings from around the world. Our immersive virtual field trips (iVFT) bring students virtually to geologically significant but inaccessible environments, where they learn through authentic practices of scientific inquiry. In one recent example, students explore the fossil beds in Nilpena, South Australia to learn about the Ediacaran fauna. Students interactively engage in 360° recreations of the environment, uncover the nature of the historical ecosystem by identifying fossils with a dichotomous key, explore actual fossil beds in high resolution imagery, and reconstruct what an ecosystem might have looked like millions of years ago in an interactive simulation. With the new capacity to connect actions within the iVFT to an intelligent tutoring system, these learning experiences can be tracked, guided, and tailored individually to the immediate actions of the student. This new capacity also has great potential for learning designers to take a data-driven approach to lesson improvement and for education researchers to study learning in virtual environments. Thus, we expect iVFT will be fertile ground for novel research. Such iVFT are currently in use in several introductory classes offered online at Arizona State University in anthropology, introductory biology, and astrobiology, reaching thousands of students to date. Drawing from these experiences, we are designing a curriculum for historical geology that will be built around iVFT-based exploration of Earth

  8. Trip report for field visit to Fayetteville Shale gas wells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-09-30

    This report describes a visit to several gas well sites in the Fayetteville Shale on August 9, 2007. I met with George Sheffer, Desoto Field Manager for SEECO, Inc. (a large gas producer in Arkansas). We talked in his Conway, Arkansas, office for an hour and a half about the processes and technologies that SEECO uses. We then drove into the field to some of SEECO's properties to see first-hand what the well sites looked like. In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) made several funding awards under a program called Low Impact Natural Gas and Oil (LINGO). One of the projects that received an award is 'Probabilistic Risk-Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems'. The University of Arkansas at Fayetteville has the lead on the project, and Argonne National Laboratory is a partner. The goal of the project is to develop a Web-based decision support tool that will be used by mid- and small-sized oil and gas companies as well as environmental regulators and other stakeholders to proactively minimize adverse ecosystem impacts associated with the recovery of gas reserves in sensitive areas. The project focuses on a large new natural gas field called the Fayetteville Shale. Part of the project involves learning how the natural gas operators do business in the area and the technologies they employ. The field trip on August 9 provided an opportunity to do that.

  9. Slips, trips and falls at a chemical manufacturing company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaen, G; Burns, C J; Collins, J J; Bodner, K M; Dizor, J F; Craun, B A; Bonner, E M

    2014-03-01

    Slips, trips and falls (STF) are a major cause of workplace injury. To examine risk factors for STF at a large US chemical manufacturing company. We conducted a case-control study of occupational STF. Cases were identified from company injury records between 1 April 2009 and 1 May 2011. Four controls per case were randomly selected from all active company workers employed during the same time. Data were collected through a questionnaire and from company medical examinations. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for personal, environmental and health-related risk factors for STF. There were 74 cases and 309 controls. The response rate was 65% for the cases and 68% for the controls. Most STF were unrelated to production activities. When examining all factors in a logistic regression model, increased OR were observed for increased body mass index (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.03-2.02), having arthritis (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.01-4.37), lack of exercise (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.01-5.05), carrying materials (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.41-6.43) and being female (OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.17-5.19). Reduced risk of STF was observed for never having smoked (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.24-0.95), long service (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34-0.81) and persons working over 8h a day (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20-0.88). Risk factors for STF in a large US chemical company are similar to those reported from other workplaces, but we found that staying fit and healthy is important for reducing risk.

  10. United States: Ukraine Technical Exchange II trip report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moak, D.J.; Wendling, M.A.

    1995-02-01

    May 15--21, 1994, the first technical conference was held at Hanford between Ukraine-Chornobyl, Westinghouse Hanford, and SAIC, to exchange technical information and experience gained in cleanup and stabilization of radioactive contamination at Hanford and Chornobyl. Protocol was signed for a second exchange and technology demonstration program in Kiev and near Chornobyl power plants. Technical Exchange No. 2 was held from August 28--September 9, 1994, with 3 focus areas: field demonstration of DOE-Hanford technologies and application to cleanup of contaminated lands resulting from 1986 Chornobyl accident; application of other US DOE-technologies; and observation/evaluation of Ukraine-developed technologies for potential application in USA. Three radiological mapping systems were demonstrated near Chornobyl: man-carried Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System, a mobile radiological data system, and NOMAD field gamma spectroscopy system. The Ukraine-Chornobyl team hosted technical presentations, discussions and field trips for 4.5 days, providing insight on the Chornobyl problem and allowing the US team to present overviews on DOE technologies that may be applicable to the Chornobyl situation. It is concluded that Ukrainian scientists have tremendous talent and expended considerable energy in attempting to tackle such a problem, but economic and cultural conditions with Ukraine have prevented them from acquiring the resources to implement basic aspects of characterization and remediation activities. Most of their publications are in Russian only. Their translation, plus resources to carry out proposals for bench scale and field demonstration projects, could benefit the DOE complex and other nuclear programs. The considerable cultural and economic change occurring in Ukraine, is providing opportunities for private industries to assist in the changes and for DOE, others to apply cleanup technologies, and it is essential that close institutional relations be established.

  11. Study on the Strain Hardening Behaviors of TWIP/TRIP Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T. T.; Dan, W. J.; Zhang, W. G.

    2017-10-01

    Due to the complex coupling of twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP), transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP), and dislocation glide in TWIP/TRIP steels, it is difficult as well as essential to build a comprehensive strain hardening model to describe the interactions between different deformation mechanisms ( i.e., deformation twinning, martensitic transformation, and dislocation glide) and the resulted strain hardening behaviors. To address this issue, a micromechanical model is established in this paper to predict the deformation process of TWIP/TRIP steels considering both TWIP and TRIP effects. In the proposed model, the generation of deformation twinning and martensitic transformation is controlled by the stacking fault energy (SFE) of the material. In the thermodynamic calculation of SFE, deformation temperature, chemical compositions, microstrain, and temperature rise during deformation are taken into account. Varied by experimental results, the developed model can predict the stress-strain response and strain hardening behaviors of TWIP/TRIP steels precisely. In addition, the improved strength and enhanced strain hardening in Fe-Mn-C TWIP/TRIP steels due to the increased carbon content is also analyzed, which consists with literature.

  12. Unveiling E-Bike Potential for Commuting Trips from GPS Traces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel J. Lopez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Common goals of sustainable mobility approaches are to reduce the need for travel, to facilitate modal shifts, to decrease trip distances and to improve energy efficiency in the transportation systems. Among these issues, modal shift plays an important role for the adoption of vehicles with fewer or zero emissions. Nowadays, the electric bike (e-bike is becoming a valid alternative to cars in urban areas. However, to promote modal shift, a better understanding of the mobility behaviour of e-bike users is required. In this paper, we investigate the mobility habits of e-bikers using GPS data collected in Belgium from 2014 to 2015. By analysing more than 10,000 trips, we provide insights about e-bike trip features such as: distance, duration and speed. In addition, we offer a deep look into which routes are preferred by bike owners in terms of their physical characteristics and how weather influences e-bike usage. Results show that trips with higher travel distances are performed during working days and are correlated with higher average speeds. Usage patterns extracted from our data set also indicate that e-bikes are preferred for commuting (home-work and business (work related trips rather than for recreational trips.

  13. Spatial interaction models from Irish commuting data: variations in trip length by occupation and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, Morton E.; Niedzielski, Michael A.; Gleeson, Justin

    2012-10-01

    Core and peripheral contrasts in journey-to-work trip length can be interpreted as imputing the relative value of origin and destination accessibility (yielding theoretical proxies for rent and wages). Because the main variables are shown to be critically dependent on spatial structure, they may be interpreted as showing the shadow prices due to comparative location. There is also a unifying connection between these results and the existing literature on many dimensions: rent gradients, accessibility, and emissivity. In an empirical example, the advantages of a panoramic view of national commuting statistics are shown, using an Irish data set. Variations in the rates of participation in trip making by location, occupation, and gender are examined. Places that emit more trips than would be expected from their relative location are identified. Further, examining ways in which such emissivity is sensitive to a change in trip length highlights the regions where trips could possibly be adjusted to produce a shorter average trip length or which might be especially sensitive to reduction in employment. A careful reinterpretation of one of the key outputs from a calibrated spatial interaction model is shown to be consistent with the declining rent gradient expected from Alonso's theory of land use.

  14. PERSPECTIVE: The tripping points of sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Alan D.

    2009-12-01

    When President Nixon created the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1970 he said the environment must be perceived as a single, interrelated system. We are nowhere close to achieving this vision. Jim Titus and his colleagues [1] highlight one example of where one set of regulations or permits may be in conflict with another and where regulations were crafted in the absence of understanding the cumulative impact of global warming. The issue here is how to deal with the impacts of climate change on sea level and the latter's impact on wetland polices, clean water regulations, and ecosystem services. The Titus paper could also be called `The tripping points of sea level rise'. Titus and his colleagues have looked at the impact of such sea level rise on the east coast of the United States. Adaptive responses include costly large- scale investment in shore protection (e.g. dikes, sand replenishment) and/or ecosystem migration (retreat), where coastal ecosystems move inland. Shore protection is limited by available funds, while ecosystem migrations are limited by available land use. The driving factor is the high probability of sea level rise due to climate change. Estimating sea level rise is difficult because of local land and coastal dynamics including rising or falling land areas. It is estimated that sea level could rise between 8 inches and 2 feet by the end of this century [2]. The extensive data analysis done by Titus et al of current land use is important because, as they observe, `property owners and land use agencies have generally not decided how they will respond to sea level rise, nor have they prepared maps delineating where shore protection and retreat are likely'. This is the first of two `tripping points', namely the need for adaptive planning for a pending environmental challenge that will create economic and environment conflict among land owners, federal and state agencies, and businesses. One way to address this gap in adaptive management

  15. Time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verano-Braga, Thiago; Schwämmle, Veit; Sylvester, Marc

    2012-01-01

    proteins involved in the Ang-(1-7) signaling, we performed a mass spectrometry-based time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteome study of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) treated with Ang-(1-7). We identified 1288 unique phosphosites on 699 different proteins with 99% certainty of correct peptide...

  16. Resolving Ethical Issues at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninga, Jacques S.

    2013-01-01

    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

  17. Strategies for Resolving Value Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymchuk, Alexander J.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a model that can be used by social scientists to formulate and test choice alternatives to select the most ethical course of action when values are in conflict. Graduate students in psychology, education, and medicine have used the model to recognize and resolve ethical problems. (RM)

  18. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokmakoff, Andrei [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Champion, Paul [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Heilweil, Edwin J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Nelson, Keith A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ziegler, Larry [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2009-05-14

    This document contains the Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, which was held in Meredith, NH from May 9-14, 2009. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time-resolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOE's Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy is central to all fiveof DOE's grand challenges for fundamental energy science. The Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy conference is organized biennially to bring the leaders in this field from around the globe together with young scientists to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.

  19. Post-arc current simulation based on measurement in vacuum circuit breaker with a one-dimensional particle-in-cell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shenli; Mo, Yongpeng; Shi, Zongqian; Li, Junliang; Wang, Lijun

    2017-10-01

    The post-arc dielectric recovery process has a decisive effect on the current interruption performance in a vacuum circuit breaker. The dissipation of residual plasma at the moment of current zero under the transient recovery voltage, which is the first stage of the post-arc dielectric recovery process and forms the post-arc current, has attracted many concerns. A one-dimensional particle-in-cell model is developed to simulate the measured post-arc current in the vacuum circuit breaker in this paper. At first, the parameters of the residual plasma are estimated roughly by the waveform of the post-arc current which is taken from measurements. After that, different components of the post-arc current, which are formed by the movement of charged particles in the residual plasma, are discussed. Then, the residual plasma density is adjusted according to the proportion of electrons and ions absorbed by the post-arc anode derived from the particle-in-cell simulation. After this adjustment, the post-arc current waveform obtained from the simulation is closer to that obtained from measurements.

  20. Transfemoral amputee recovery strategies following trips to their sound and prosthesis sides throughout swing phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirota, Camila; Simon, Ann M; Kuiken, Todd A

    2015-09-09

    Recovering from trips is challenging for transfemoral amputees, and attempts often result in falls. Better understanding of the effects of the sensory-motor deficits brought by amputation and the functional limitations of prosthetic devices could help guide therapy and fall prevention mechanisms in prostheses. However, how transfemoral amputees attempt to recover from trips on the sound and prosthesis sides throughout swing phase is poorly understood. We tripped eight able-bodied subjects and eight unilateral transfemoral amputees wearing their prescribed prostheses. The protocol consisted of six repetitions of 6 and 4 points throughout swing phase, respectively. We compared recovery strategies in able-bodied, sound side and prosthesis side limbs. The number of kinematic recovery strategies used, when they were used throughout swing phase, and kinematic characteristics (tripped limb joint angles, bilateral trochanter height and time from foot arrest to foot strike) of each strategy were compared across limb groups. Non-parametric statistical tests with corrections for post-hoc tests were used. Amputees used the same recovery strategies as able-bodied subjects on both sound and prosthesis sides, although not all subjects used all strategies. Compared to able-bodied subjects, amputees used delayed-lowering strategies less often from 30-60 % of swing phase on the sound side, and from 45-60 % of swing phase on the prosthesis side. Within-strategy kinematic differences occurred across limbs; however, these differences were not consistent across all strategies. Amputee-specific recovery strategies-that are not used by control subjects-occurred following trips on both the sound and prosthesis sides in mid- to late swing. Collectively, these results suggest that sensory input from the distal tripped leg is not necessary to trigger able-bodied trip recovery strategies. In addition, the differences between sound and prosthesis side recoveries indicate that the ability of the

  1. PENGGUNAAN DAN PEMILIHAN PENGAMAN MINI CIRCUIT BREAKER (MCB SECARA TEPAT MENYEBABKAN BANGUNAN LEBIH AMAN DARI KEBAKARAN AKIBAT LISTRIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Wijaya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Diperlukan suatu penelitian tentang alat pengaman yang sederhana dan sangat diperlukan untuk menjaga instalasi rumah agar menjadi aman. Tidak jarang akibat ketidaktahuan tentang listrik akan berakibat patal. Alat pengaman sederhana ini Mini Circuit Breaker atau MCB banyak dijual dipasaranYang menjadi masalah adalah jika membeli suatu alat pengaman MCB : harus tahu kapasitas, berapa harga, kwalitas, dilihat secara seksama dan bila perlu dicoba. Begitu banyak macam dan ragam merek dari alat pengaman MCB ini, sehingga perlu suatu penelitian, betulkah alat pengaman ini dapat andal dan aman jika dipergunakan. Penelitian mempergunakan MCB MG, MCB Daiko dan MCB King’s. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang dilakukan dengam beban yang sama pada masing-masing kapasitas didapat hasil selisih waktu putus dantara MCB MG 2A dan MCB Daiko 2A sebesar (109,800 ± 31,428 detik dan t = 0,001. Pada MCB MG 4A dan MCB King’s 4A didapat selisih waktu putus sebesar (126 ± 64,293 detik dan t = 0,012. Untuk MCB MG 6A dan MCB King’s 6A didapatselisih waktu putus sebesar (126,920 ± 12,982 detik dengan t = 0,000. Sedangkan untuk MCB MG 10A dan MCB King’s 10A didapat selisih waktu putus sebesar (116,200 ± 45,899 detik dengan t = 0,005. Keempat nilai penelitianMCB ini menghasilkan nilai yang berbeda dan sangat bermakna. Dari ketiga MCB yang dipergunakan sebagai sampel penelitian hanya MCB MG yang memiliki waktu putus sedangkan MCB Daiko dan MCB King’s memiliki waktu putus = 0 detik (gagal putus. Dengan demikian dari ketiga MCB yang mengalami penelitian hanya MCB MG yang pantas sebagai alat pengaman. Cara memilih alat pengaman sebaiknya dipilih secara seksama, memeriksa kapasitas, merek, kwalitas dan alat pengaman MCB dipilih tidak berdasarkan harga yang murah

  2. A cross-link breaker has sustained effects on arterial and ventricular properties in older rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkevicius, Peter V.; Lane, Mark; Spurgeon, Harold; Ingram, Donald K.; Roth, George S.; Egan, John J.; Vasan, Sara; Wagle, Dilip R.; Ulrich, Peter; Brines, Michael; Wuerth, Jean Paul; Cerami, Anthony; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2001-01-01

    Nonenzymatic glycosylation and cross-linking of proteins by glucose contributes to an age-associated increase in vascular and myocardial stiffness. Some recently sythesized thiazolium compounds selectively break these protein cross-links, reducing collagen stiffness. We investigated the effects of 3-phenacyl-4,5-dimethylthiazolium chloride (ALT-711) on arterial and left ventricular (LV) properties and their coupling in old, healthy, nondiabetic Macaca mulatta primates (age 21 ± 3.6 years). Serial measurements of arterial stiffness indices [i.e., aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation (AGI) of carotid arterial pressure waveform] as well as echocardiographic determinations of LV structure and function were made before and for 39 weeks after 11 intramuscular injections of ALT-711 at 1.0 mg/kg body weight every other day. Heart rate, brachial blood pressure, and body weight were unchanged by the drug. PWV and AGI decreased to a nadir at 6 weeks [PWV to 74.2 ± 4.4% of baseline (B), P = 0.007; AGI to 41 ± 7.3% of B, P = 0.046], and thereafter gradually returned to baseline. Concomitant increases in LV end diastolic diameter to 116.7 ± 2.7% of B, P = 0.02; stroke volume index (SVindex) to 173.1 ± 40.1% of B, P = 0.01; and systolic fractional shortening to 180 ± 29.7% of B, P = 0.01 occurred after drug treatment. The LV end systolic pressure/SVindex, an estimate of total LV vascular load, decreased to 60 ± 12.1% of B (P = 0.02). The LV end systolic diameter/SVindex, an estimate of arterio-ventricular coupling, was improved (decreased to 54.3 ± 11% of B, P < 0.002). Thus, in healthy older primates without diabetes, ALT-711 improved both arterial and ventricular function and optimized ventriculo-vascular coupling. This previously unidentified cross-link breaker may be an effective pharmacological therapy to improve impaired cardiovascular function that occurs in the context of heart failure associated with aging, diabetes, or hypertension, conditions in

  3. Factors affecting trip generation of motorcyclist for the purpose of non-mandatory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraini, Renni; Sugiarto, Sugiarto; Pramanda, Heru

    2017-11-01

    The inadequate facilities and limited access to public transport reflect many people using private vehicles, in particular, motorcycle. The motorcycle is most widely used in Indonesia, recently, including Aceh Province. As a result, the number of motorcycle ownership is increasing significantly. The increasing number of motorcycles leads to complex traffic problems. Several factors tend to affect the trip generation of the motorcyclist, i.e., the social demographics of individuals and families, accessibility, etc. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of motorcyclists for non-mandatory activities, i.e. activities other than to work and school. It also aims to determine the dominant factors that affect their trips through trip generation models. The required data consist of primary data and secondary data. Primary data consists of a home interview survey that collects individual's daily trips. It is conducted by distributing the questionnaires to 400 families residing in Lhokseumawe City. Modeling the trip generation of the motorcyclist is done by multiple linear regression analysis. Parameters calibration uses OLS (Ordinary Least Square) method. The results showed that the dominant variables that affect the trip generation of motorcyclist for non-mandatory activities are license ownership, housewife, school-age children, middle-income household, and lower education level. It can be concluded that some factors affecting trip generation to non-work activities were female motorcyclists from the middle-income household with lower education level. As their status is mostly as the housewife, escorting children to non-school activities seems to the mother's task, instead of the father. It is clear that, most female ride motorcycle for doing household tasks. However, it should be noted that the use of the motorcycle in long-term does not suit for sustainable transportation.

  4. Exploring the use of Virtual Field Trips with elementary school teachers: A collaborative action research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jeffrey Lance

    This research examines how elementary school teachers, when supported, use Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) to address the curricula in meaningful ways. I conducted a qualitative study with six teachers, in a collaborative action research context over a six month period. The teachers, five males and one female, all taught either grade five or six and utilized Virtual Field Trips within a variety of curricula areas including science, social studies, music and language arts. In addition, the thesis examines resulting integration of technology into the regular classroom program as a product of the utilization of Virtual Field Trips. The process of collaborative action research was applied as a means of personal and professional growth both for the participants and the researcher/facilitator. By the end of the research study, all participants had learned to integrate Virtual Field Trips into their classroom program, albeit with different levels of success and in different curricula areas. The development of attitudes, skills and knowledge for students and teachers alike was fostered through the participation in Virtual Field Trips. A common concern regarding the utilization of Virtual Field Trips was the time spent locating an appropriate site that met curricula expectations. Participation in the collaborative action research process allowed each teacher to grow professionally, personally and socially. Each participant strongly encouraged the utilization of a long term project with a common area of exploration as a means for positive professional development. Implications and recommendations for future research on the utilization of Virtual Field Trips, as well as the viability of collaborative action research to facilitate teacher development are presented.

  5. AN INTEGRATED MODELING FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY EFFICIENT CAR OWNERSHIP AND TRIP BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao FENG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban transport emissions generated by automobile trips are greatly responsible for atmospheric pollution in both developed and developing countries. To match the long-term target of sustainable development, it seems to be important to specify the feasible level of car ownership and travel demand from environmental considerations. This research intends to propose an integrated modeling framework for optimal construction of a comprehensive transportation system by taking into consideration environmental constraints. The modeling system is actually a combination of multiple essential models and illustrated by using a bi-level programming approach. In the upper level, the maximization of both total car ownership and total number of trips by private and public travel modes is set as the objective function and as the constraints, the total emission levels at all the zones are set to not exceed the relating environmental capacities. Maximizing the total trips by private and public travel modes allows policy makers to take into account trip balance to meet both the mobility levels required by travelers and the environmentally friendly transportation system goals. The lower level problem is a combined trip distribution and assignment model incorporating traveler's route choice behavior. A logit-type aggregate modal split model is established to connect the two level problems. In terms of the solution method for the integrated model, a genetic algorithm is applied. A case study is conducted using road network data and person-trip (PT data collected in Dalian city, China. The analysis results showed that the amount of environmentally efficient car ownership and number of trips by different travel modes could be obtained simultaneously when considering the zonal control of environmental capacity within the framework of the proposed integrated model. The observed car ownership in zones could be increased or decreased towards the macroscopic optimization

  6. Medical and pharmacy student concerns about participating on international service-learning trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chih; Khatri, Siddique H; Gill, Manpal S; Trehan, Naveen; Masineni, Silpa; Chikkam, Vineela; Farah, Guillaume G; Khan, Amber; Levine, Diane L

    2015-12-23

    International Service Learning Trips (ISLT) provide health professional students the opportunity to provide healthcare, under the direction of trained faculty, to underserved populations in developing countries. Despite recent increases in international service learning trips, there is scant literature addressing concerns students have prior to attending such trips. This study focuses on identifying concerns before and after attending an ISLT and their impact on students. A survey comprised of closed and open-ended questions was developed to elucidate student concerns prior to attending an ISLT and experiences which might influence concerns. A five-point Likert-scale (extremely concerned = 1, minimally concerned = 5) was used to rate apprehension and satisfaction. Paired t-test was used to compare pre- and post-trip concerns; Chi-Square test was used to compare groups. Thirty-five students (27 medical, 8 pharmacy) attended ISLTs in December 2013. All completed pre and post-trip surveys. Significant decreases were seen in concerns related to cultural barriers (4.14 vs 4.46, P = .047), disease/epidemics (3.34 vs 4.60, P travel (3.86 vs 4.51, P hospitality (3.94 vs 4.74, P = .001) and food (3.83 vs 4.60, P < .001). Language and group dynamics remained concerns post-trip. On open-ended questions, students described benefits of attending an ISLT. Students had multiple concerns prior to attending an ISLT. Most decreased upon return. Addressing concerns has the potential to decrease student apprehension. The results of this study highlight the benefits of providing ISLTs and supporting development of a curriculum incorporating trip-related concerns.

  7. Microstructural Development in a TRIP-780 Steel Joined by Friction Stir Welding (FSW: Quantitative Evaluations and Comparisons with EBSD Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Perez Medina

    Full Text Available Abstract The present work describes the effect of FSW on the result microstructure in the stir zone (SZ, thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ, heat affected zone (HAZ and base metal (BM of a TRIP-780 steel. X-ray diffraction (XRD, optical microscopy (OM and EBSD were used for determinations retained austenite (RA in the SZ, It was found that the amount of RA developed in SZ was relatively large, (approximately 11% to 15%. In addition, recrystallization and the formation of a grain texture were resolved using EBSD. During FSW, the SZ experienced severe plastic deformation which lead to an increase in the temperature and consequently grain recrystallization. Moreover, it was found that the recrystallized grain structure and relatively high martensite levels developed in the SZ lead to a significant drop in the mechanical properties of the steel. In addition, microhardness profiles of the welded regions indicated that the hardness in both the SZ and TMAZ were relatively elevated confirming the development of martensite in these regions. In particular, to evaluate the mechanical strength of the weld, lap shear tensile test was conducted; exhibited the fracture zone in the SZ with shear fracture with uniformly distributed elongation shear dimples.

  8. Minimum resolvable power contrast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shuai; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    Signal-to-noise ratio and MTF are important indexs to evaluate the performance of optical systems. However,whether they are used alone or joint assessment cannot intuitively describe the overall performance of the system. Therefore, an index is proposed to reflect the comprehensive system performance-Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast (MRP) model. MRP is an evaluation model without human eyes. It starts from the radiance of the target and the background, transforms the target and background into the equivalent strips,and considers attenuation of the atmosphere, the optical imaging system, and the detector. Combining with the signal-to-noise ratio and the MTF, the Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast is obtained. Finally the detection probability model of MRP is given.

  9. Development of static rock breaker using TiNi shape memory alloy as pressure source. TiNi keijo kioku gokin wo atsuryokugen to shita seiteki ganseki hasaiki no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, K. (Tokin Corporation, Sendai (Japan)); Inaba, T. (Nishimatsu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kaneko, K. (Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan))

    1992-06-20

    Development has been made on a static rock breaker using TiNi shape memory alloy as a solid pressure source to break rocks and concrete structures. An experiment was carried out to find TiNi alloy composition and treatment conditions in which shape restoration characteristics after compression become optimal as a pressure source for the breaker. A comprehensive judgment over the experimental result concluded that the optimal material is a low-temperature annealed Ni alloy with Ti at 50.5 by atom (annealed after having been retained at 400{degree}C for one hour). The procedure for its use is as follows: Insert the breaker mounted with pre-compressed TiNi alloy into a bore hole. When the alloy is applied with electric power and heated, the alloy generates a restoring power and attempts to return to the shape before the compression. This movement gives a single axial compression load to the hole wall from which cracks develop in a direction perpendicular to the loading axis. The alloy can be used over when the initial compression is given after a crushing has been performed. A site test to break reinforced concrete and andesite proved the breaker to work satisfactorily for both cases. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Career-focused field trips as experienced by at-risk rural students: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Tommye L.

    A lack of recent research focused on field trips as pedagogy in K-12 settings established the foundation for this work. The research design followed multiple-case case study model. The participants were four male students from a small rural high school in central Texas. Each participant, previously labeled as academically "at-risk", had identified an inability to describe connections between academic science content as presented in their common classes and future jobs, vocational training, and/or careers requiring higher education. Because the participants had no directed field excursions addressing this desirable knowledge and/or skill, a career-focused field trip was designed to address the self-identified deficit reported by the participants. The specific research questions were: (1) How does the ability to describe connections between academic science content (biology, chemistry, and physics) and future careers change as rural students experience a purposeful excursion to a post-secondary facility providing vocational training? (2) When do the connection(s) between content and future careers become evident to students? (3) What effects or impact do newly discovered connections have on rural students' aspirations with regard to future career or higher education options? Data were gathered using existing school records, an initial survey, one-to-one interviews conducted before and after the field trip, focus groups conducted before and after the field trip, and observations during the field trip. Data analysis revealed that all participants were able to describe various connections between academic content and careers after the field trip, as well as identify a specific incident that initially established those connections. In addition, all of the participants reported discovering options for careers during the field trip not previously realized or considered. Each participant indicated that they found field trips to be effective. As a result of their singular

  11. Personal and trip characteristics associated with safety equipment use by injured adult bicyclists: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teschke Kay

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate use of helmets, lights, and visible clothing among cyclists and to examine trip and personal characteristics associated with their use. Methods Using data from a study of transportation infrastructure and injuries to 690 adult cyclists in Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, we examined the proportion who used bike lights, conspicuous clothing on the torso, and helmets on their injury trip. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between personal and trip characteristics and each type of safety equipment. Results Bike lights were the least frequently used (20% of all trips although they were used on 77% of trips at night. Conspicuous clothing (white, yellow, orange, red was worn on 33% of trips. Helmets were used on 69% of trips, 76% in Vancouver where adult helmet use is required by law and 59% in Toronto where it is not. Factors positively associated with bike light use included night, dawn and dusk trips, poor weather conditions, weekday trips, male sex, and helmet use. Factors positively associated with conspicuous clothing use included good weather conditions, older age, and more frequent cycling. Factors positively associated with helmet use included bike light use, longer trip distances, hybrid bike type, not using alcohol in the 6 hours prior to the trip, female sex, older age, higher income, and higher education. Conclusions In two of Canada’s largest cities, helmets were the most widely used safety equipment. Measures to increase use of visibility aids on both daytime and night-time cycling trips may help prevent crashes.

  12. Effects of RCP trip when recovering HPSI during LOCA in a Westinghouse PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero-Mayorga, Javier, E-mail: fj.montero@alumnos.upm.es; Queral, César; Rivas-Lewicky, Julio; González-Cadelo, Juan

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • If HPSI is recovered during SBLOCA and RCPs are tripped core damage can be reached. • If the RCPs are tripped once the accumulators have injected the damage can be avoided. • If only 2 out of 3 RCPs are tripped the damage can be also avoided. • Improvements are proposed to the EOPs in order to avoid possible damage. - Abstract: Current Westinghouse Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) indicate initially that the operator must keep the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) running during a Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) if there is unavailability of high pressure safety injection (HPSI) system in order to cool the core by forced convection. However, the crew must follow different EOPs along the transient depending on its evolution. In these EOPs there are several conditions which indicate the necessity of tripping one or more RCPs when HPSI is recovered. In this paper the occurrence of a SBLOCA with unavailability of HPSI has been analyzed with a model of Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant (Westinghouse 3 Loop) for TRACE code V5.0 patch 1. Two different approaches have been considered: the first one, taking into account Optimal Recovery Guidelines (ORGs) and in the second approach, the transition to Function Restoration Guidelines (FRGs) due to inadequate core cooling (ICC) conditions is considered. Results of this paper lead to the implementation of an improvement in current EOPs regarding how many RCPs should be tripped during SBLOCA sequences.

  13. THE TRIPS AGREEMENT, INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND DEVELOPMENT: SOME LESSONS FROM STRENGTHENING IPR PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shugurov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the impact of the TRIPS Agreement provisions on further development of international technology transfer (ITT mainly to developing countries. The authors review the critical specificity of ITT connected with the adoption of TRIPS. Much attention is paid to an analysis of what is most discussed among international experts in the area of the issues on the dual results of stronger intellectual property rights (IPRs concerning various groups of developing countries. Their study also examines a number of problems with implementation of the TRIPS provisions, conducive to ITT, in the context of the TRIPS-plus era as a new stage in strengthening IPR protection. Bearing in mind the fragmentation of the international regime of IPR protection because of the adoption of numerous regional free trade agreements, the authors outline the possible position of advanced developing and least developed countries with respect to using TRIPS potentials for development of ITT under reasonable and just terms, with the aim of overall prosperity.

  14. TRIP8b independent trafficking and plasticity of adult cortical pre-synaptic HCN1 channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhuo; Lujan, Rafael; Martinez-Hernandez, Jose; Lewis, Alan S.; Chetkovich, Dane M.; Shah, Mala M.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are subthreshold activated voltage-gated ion channels. In the cortex, these channels are predominantly expressed in dendrites where they significantly modify dendritic intrinsic excitability as well synaptic potential shapes and integration. HCN channel trafficking to dendrites is regulated by the protein, TRIP8b. Additionally, altered TRIP8b expression may be one mechanism underlying seizure-induced dendritic HCN channel plasticity. HCN channels, though, are also located in certain mature cortical synaptic terminals, where they play a vital role in modulating synaptic transmission. In this study, using electrophysiological recordings as well as electron microscopy we show that pre-synaptic, but not dendritic, cortical HCN channel expression and function is comparable in adult TRIP8b null mice and wildtype littermates. We further investigated if pre-synaptic HCN channels undergo seizure-dependent plasticity. We found that, like dendritic channels, wildtype pre-synaptic HCN channel function was persistently decreased following induction of kainic acid-induced seizures. Since TRIP8b does not affect pre-synaptic HCN subunit trafficking, seizure dependent plasticity of these cortical HCN channels is not conditional upon TRIP8b. Our results, thus, suggest that the molecular mechanisms underlying HCN subunit targeting, expression and plasticity in adult neurons is compartment selective, providing a means by which pre- and post-synaptic processes that are critically dependent upon HCN channel function may be distinctly influenced. PMID:23077068

  15. Application for developing countries: Estimating trip attraction in urban zones based on centrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Jayasinghe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduced a network centrality-based method to estimate the volume of trip attraction in traffic analysis zones. Usually trip attraction volumes are estimated based on land use characteristics. However, executing of land use-based trip attraction models are severely constrained by the lack of updated land use data in developing countries. The proposed method used network centrality-based explanatory variables as “connectivity”, “local integration” and “global integration”. Space syntax tools were used to compute the centrality of road segments. GIS-based kernel density estimation method was used to transform computed road segment-based centrality values into traffic analysis zone. Trip attraction values exhibited significant high correlation with connectivity, global and local integration values. The study developed and validated model to estimate trip attraction by using connectivity, local integration and global integration values as endogenous variables with an accepted level of accuracy (R2 > 0.75. The proposed approach required minimal data, and it was easily executed using a geographic information system. The study recommended the proposed method as a practical tool for transport planners and engineers, especially who work in developing countries and where updated land use data is unavailable.

  16. Methods for analysis of passenger trip performance in a complex networked transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danyi

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the Air Transportation System (ATS) is to provide safe and efficient transportation service of passengers and cargo. The on-time performance of a passenger's trip is a critical performance measurement of the Quality of Service (QOS) provided by any Air Transportation System. QOS has been correlated with airline profitability, productivity, customer loyalty and customer satisfaction (Heskett et al. 1994). Btatu and Barnhart have shown that official government and airline on-time performance metrics (i.e. flight-centric measures of air transportation) fail to accurately reflect the passenger experience (Btatu and Barnhart, 2005). Flight-based metrics do not include the trip delays accrued by passengers who were re-booked due to cancelled flights or missed connections. Also, flight-based metrics do not quantify the magnitude of the delay (only the likelihood) and thus fails to provide the consumer with a useful assessment of the impact of a delay. Passenger-centric metrics have not been developed because of the unavailability of airline proprietary data, which is also protected by anti-trust collusion concerns and civil liberty privacy restrictions. Moveover, the growth of the ATS is trending out of the historical range. The objectives of this research were to (1) estimate ATS-wide passenger trip delay using publicly accessible flight data, and (2) investigate passenger trip dynamics out of the range of historical data by building a passenger flow simulation model to predict impact on passenger trip time given anticipated changes in the future. The first objective enables researchers to conduct historical analysis on passenger on-time performance without proprietary itinerary data, and the second objective enables researchers to conduct experiments outside the range of historic data. The estimated passenger trip delay was for 1,030 routes between the 35 busiest airports in the United States in 2006. The major findings of this research are listed as

  17. Active dorsiflexing prostheses may reduce trip-related fall risk in people with transtibial amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Noah J; Bauer, Angela; Rotter, David; Grabiner, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    People with amputation are at increased risk of falling compared with age-matched, nondisabled individuals. This may partly reflect amputation-related changes to minimum toe clearance (MTC) that could increase the incidence of trips and fall risk. This study determined the contribution of an active dorsiflexing prosthesis to MTC. We hypothesized that regardless of speed or incline the active dorsiflexion qualities of the ProprioFoot would significantly increase MTC and decrease the likelihood of tripping. Eight people with transtibial amputation walked on a treadmill with their current foot at two grades and three velocities, then repeated the protocol after 4 wk of accommodation with the ProprioFoot. A mixed-model, repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare MTC. Curves representing the likelihood of tripping were derived from the MTC distributions and a multiple regression was used to determine the relative contributions of hip, knee, and ankle angles to MTC. Regardless of condition, MTC was approximately 70% larger with the ProprioFoot (p < 0.001) and the likelihood of tripping was reduced. Regression analysis revealed that MTC with the ProprioFoot was sensitive to all three angles, with sensitivity of hip and ankle being greater. Overall, the ProprioFoot may increase user safety by decreasing the likelihood of tripping and thus the pursuant likelihood of a fall.

  18. Getting out and about in older adults: the nature of daily trips and their association with objectively assessed physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharp Debbie J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key public health objective is increasing health-enhancing physical activity (PA for older adults (OAs. Daily trip frequency is independently associated with objectively assessed PA volumes (OAs. Little is known about correlates and these trips' transport mode, and how these elements relate to PA. Purpose: to describe the frequency, purpose, and travel mode of daily trips in OAs, and their association with participant characteristics and objectively-assessed PA. Methods Participants (n = 214, aged 78.1 SD 5.7 years, completed a seven-day trips log recording daily-trip frequency, purpose and transport mode. Concurrently participants wore an accelerometer which provided mean daily steps (steps·d-1, and minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA·d-1. Participants' physical function (PF was estimated and demographic, height and weight data obtained. Results Trip frequency was associated with gender, age, physical function, walking-aid use, educational attainment, number of amenities within walking distance and cars in the household. Participants reported 9.6 (SD 4.2 trips per week (trips·wk-1. Most trips (61% were by car (driver 44%, passenger 17%, 30% walking or cycling (active and 9% public transport/other. Driving trips·wk-1 were more common in participants who were males (5.3 SD 3.6, well-educated (5.0 SD 4.3, high functioning (5.1 SD 4.6, younger (5.6 SD 4.9, affluent area residents (5.1 SD 4.2 and accessing > one car (7.2 SD 4.7. Active trips·wk-1 were more frequent in participants who were males (3.4 SD 3.6, normal weight (3.2 SD 3.4, not requiring walking aids (3.5 SD 3.3, well-educated (3.7 SD 0.7, from less deprived neighbourhoods (3.9 SD 3.9 and with ≥ 8 amenities nearby (4.4 SD 3.8. Public transport, and active trip frequency, were significantly associated with steps·d-1 (p -1 (p Conclusions Daily trips are associated with objectively-measured PA as indicated by daily MVPA and steps. Public transport and

  19. Bayes Ice-Breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessop, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Showing simply how statistical thinking can help in weighing evidence and reaching decisions can be useful both as an introduction to an extended presentation of statistical theory and as an introduction to a looser discussion of the nature and value of data.

  20. [Essential medicines and the TRIPS Agreement: collision between the right to health and intellectual property rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard Soto, Raúl

    2015-03-01

    The strengthening of pharmaceutical patent protection globally puts strains on access to essential medicines. According to the present paper, this process has led to the collision of the intellectual property rights adopted in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement and the right to health stated in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). Several controversies disputed in the WTO illustrate the confrontation between countries with a powerful pharmaceutical industry and the interests of developing countries. It is concluded that the TRIPS-plus rules subscribed to by developing countries in free trade agreements which give the pharmaceutical patent holder more rights than those stipulated in the original TRIPS Agreement are incompatible with the obligations to provide access to essential medicines under the right to health of the ICESCR.

  1. Thinking of serving nursing abroad: how technology assists nurses on mission trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M

    2015-06-01

    Advances in technology have assisted in the proliferation of short-term, faith-based international medical mission trips. Many of these mission trips include health care not only to local citizens but also building schools and churches and sharing the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Included in this article are my own personal experiences in short-term, faith-based medical missions. A step-by-step guide is offered to help prepare inexperienced mission participants gain insight into short-term mission trips. Advanced planning, fundraising, collaboration, and being open to change are key elements to successful participation in these life-changing missions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Round-Trip System Available to Measure Path Length Variation in Korea VLBI System for Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hongjong; Kondo, Tetsuro; Lee, Jinoo; Kim, Tuhwan; Kim, Myungho; Kim, Suchul; Park, Jinsik; Ju, Hyunhee

    2010-01-01

    The construction project of Korea Geodetic VLBI officially started in October 2008. The construction of all systems will be completed by the end of 2011. The project was named Korea VLBI system for Geodesy (KVG), and its main purpose is to maintain the Korea Geodetic Datum. In case of the KVG system, an observation room with an H-maser frequency standard is located in a building separated from the antenna by several tens of meters. Therefore KVG system will adopt a so-called round-trip system to transmit reference signals to the antenna with reduction of the effect of path length variations. KVG s round-trip system is designed not only to use either metal or optical fiber cables, but also to measure path length variations directly. We present this unique round trip system for KVG.

  3. Effect of boundary layer trip on reduction of jet noise in over-expanded nozzle flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyoji, Masayuki; Tabaru, Issei

    2017-10-01

    A flow resonance accompanied by the emission of acoustic tones occurs in an over-expanded convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzle when operated at comparatively low pressure ratios. This phenomenon is distinguished from conventional screech tones and is referred to as "transonic tones". In contrast to screech tones, the peak resonant frequency for transonic tones increases with pressure ratio; the peak sound pressure level exceeds 110 dB. In this study, we investigated the basic characteristics of transonic resonance and tones using a circular C-D nozzle in an anechoic room. The effects of the boundary layer trip were also evaluated using a tripping wire for the suppressing transonic resonance and tones. The results of acoustic measurements show that several predominant peaks correspond to transonic tones. However, the boundary layer trip inside the nozzle effectively eliminated these tones and suppressed the unsteadiness of the flow inside the nozzle.

  4. A neural networks based ``trip`` analysis system for PWR-type reactors; Um sistema de analise de ``trip`` em reatores PWR usando redes neuronais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Antonio Carlos Pinto Dias

    1993-12-31

    The analysis short after automatic shutdown (trip) of a PWR-type nuclear reactor takes a considerable amount of time, not only because of the great number of variables involved in transients, but also the various equipment that compose a reactor of this kind. On the other hand, the transients`inter-relationship, intended to the detection of the type of the accident is an arduous task, since some of these accidents (like loss of FEEDWATER and station BLACKOUT, for example), generate transients similar in behavior (as cold leg temperature and steam generators mixture levels, for example). Also, the sequence-of-events analysis is not always sufficient for correctly pin point the causes of the trip. (author) 11 refs., 39 figs.

  5. Spectrally resolved frequency comb interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, S.

    2014-04-01

    In this contribution a novel method for interferometric distance measurement is presented, that is based on unraveling the spectrum of a femtosecond frequency comb. The light of a frequency comb is sent into a Michelson interferometer. The output of the interferometer is analyzed by a high-resolution spectrometer, resolving the individual comb modes. The path-length difference between the two arms is determined on the level of tens of nm, by utilizing the wealth of information present in the unraveled spectrum, showing homodyne interference for each individual frequency comb mode. The measurement method allows for high-accuracy measurements in combination with a large range of non-ambiguity.

  6. Mediation for resolving family disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamenecka-Usova M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the understanding of the institute of marriage and its importance in the society has changed. Marriage is no longer assumed to be a commitment for a lifetime. As the principle of equality has replaced hierarchy as the guiding principle of family law it gave more grounds for family disputes and it became socially acceptable to leave marriages that are intolerable or merely unfulfilling. The aim of this article is to suggest an alternative dispute resolution method-mediation as a worthy option for resolving family conflicts.

  7. Effects of Microalloying on the Impact Toughness of Ultrahigh-Strength TRIP-Aided Martensitic Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Junya; Ina, Daiki; Nakajima, Yuji; Sugimoto, Koh-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the addition of Cr, Mo, and/or Ni on the Charpy impact toughness of a 0.2 pct C-1.5 pct Si-1.5 pct Mn-0.05 pct Nb transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP)-aided steel with a lath-martensite structure matrix (i.e., a TRIP-aided martensitic steel or TM steel) were investigated with the aim of using the steel in automotive applications. In addition, the relationship between the toughness of the various alloyed steels and their metallurgical characteristics was determined. When Cr,...

  8. Round-Trip Solar Electric Propulsion Missions for Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Zachary J.; Sturm, Erick J.; Kowalkowski, Theresa D.; Lock, Robert E.; Woolley, Ryan C.; Nicholas, Austin K.

    2014-01-01

    Mars Sample Return (MSR) missions could benefit from the high specific impulse of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to achieve lower launch masses than with chemical propulsion. SEP presents formulation challenges due to the coupled nature of launch vehicle performance, propulsion system, power system, and mission timeline. This paper describes a SEP orbiter-sizing tool, which models spacecraft mass & timeline in conjunction with low thrust round-trip Earth-Mars trajectories, and presents selected concept designs. A variety of system designs are possible for SEP MSR orbiters, with large dry mass allocations, similar round-trip durations to chemical orbiters, and reduced design variability between opportunities.

  9. Bridging contexts and interpretations: Mobile blogging on art museum field trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmyre Pierroux

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study of art museum field trips by high school students, we investigate the ways in which features of different social and mobile technologies, specifically blogs and mobile phones, are able to bridge and support meaning making in young people’s encounters with contemporary art. Empirical material is presented from Gidder, a web-based learning environment with a mobile blogging feature. Through close examination of students’ use of contextual resources and the writing and editing of blog entries, this study contributes a deeper understanding of the ways in which digital technologies may be designed for pedagogical use on museum field trips.

  10. Os tratados de livre comércio e o acordo TRIPS

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Francisco Viegas Neves da

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Jurídicas. Programa de Pós-graduação em Direito A adesão ao Acordo sobre Aspectos dos Direitos de Propriedade Intelectual relacionados ao Comércio (Acordo TRIPS) em 1994, no âmbito da Organização Mundial do Comércio, representava o fortalecimento da proteção da propriedade intelectual, notadamente das patentes farmacêuticas, a nível mundial. No entanto, no Acordo TRIPS foram incluídas cláusulas que permitem...

  11. Japanski cvjetni trips (Thrips setosus Moulton, 1928) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) – prvi nalaz u Hrvatskoj

    OpenAIRE

    Šimala, Mladen; Pintar, Maja; Masten Milek, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Japanski cvjetni trips (Thrips setosus Moulton, 1928) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) nađen je u svibnju 2016. na ulončenim biljkama hortenzije (Hydrangea spp.) iz domaćeg uzgoja. Štetnik je zabilježen na otvorenom, u vrtnom centru u Turnju (N 43°58'18.5“ E 15°25'1.5“). Ovo je prvi nalaz te invazivne vrste u Hrvatskoj. Trips je detektiran tijekom fitosanitarnog nadzora bilja, kada su na listovima hortenzija uočene nespecifične štete. Pregledom naličja listova određena je niska populacija odraslih s...

  12. Modelling mode choice in short trips - shifting from car to bicycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2011-01-01

    -economic variables of a representative sample of the population. The investigated sample includes 11,072 observations. The model considers five alternatives (i.e., car driver, car passenger, public transport, walk and obviously bike), for which level of service variables are calculated through assignment procedures...... relevance of the cost for short trips. Expectedly, the selection of bicycle as mode for short trips is positively related to owning a bicycle and negatively linked to owning one or more cars. Urban density has also positive correlation with the selection of sustainable transport modes....

  13. Design of Protection Coordination for Overcurrent on Electrical System in Tanker Ship Plan Using Electro Mechanical Trip Device

    OpenAIRE

    Indra Ranu Kusuma; Eddy Setyo Koenhardhono; Riantini Karmina

    2017-01-01

    Disturbance of power system in ship is unavoidable case that required a function from safety system to separate the affected parts of system. The disturbance in electrical system generally is a short-circuit current. It is affected when there are two conductors having lowest impedance in normal condition that have two different voltages thus causing an overcurrent. There is one of the device protection to prevent a disturbance like short circuit current, is circuit breaker. It opens the conta...

  14. Learning on Zoo Field Trips: The Interaction of the Agendas and Practices of Students, Teachers, and Zoo Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Susan Kay; Passmore, Cynthia; Anderson, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a case study that investigated the interaction of the agendas and practices of students, teachers, and zoo educators during a class field trip to a zoo. The study reports on findings of the analysis of two case classes of students and their perceptions of their learning experiences during the field trip. The…

  15. A comparison of estimates of statewide pleasure trip volume and expenditures derived from telephone versus mail surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dae-Kwan Kim; Daniel M. Spotts; Donald F. Holecek

    1998-01-01

    This paper compares estimates of pleasure trip volume and expenditures derived from a regional telephone survey to those derived from the TravelScope mail panel survey. Significantly different estimates emerged, suggesting that survey-based estimates of pleasure trip volume and expenditures, at least in the case of the two surveys examined, appear to be affected by...

  16. Field Trip to the Moon. LRO/LCROSS Edition. Informal Educator's Guide. EG-2008-09-48-MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Field Trip to the Moon uses an inquiry-based learning approach that fosters team building and introduces participants to careers in science and engineering. The program components include the Field Trip to the Moon DVD [not included here], Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)/Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Activities, and…

  17. Highly Resolved Paleoclimatic Aerosol Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Ernesto

    with frequently changing signs are preserved. Therefore, these aerosol records can be used for dating by annual layer counting. However, with increasing depth the annual layer thicknesses decreases due to pressure and ice flow and accurate dating is possible only as long as the rapid variations can be resolved...... soluble aerosols can be analysed for concentration changes only, insoluble aeolian dust can reveal additional information on its atmospheric residence time via changes in the mean grain sizes. Volumes of particulate matter in ice cores are most reliably determined with Coulter counters, but since...... a Coulter counter performs measurements on discrete samples, it cannot be connected to a CFA system. Attenuation sensors, on the other hand, can be integrated into a CFA set-up, but are known to yield poor dust size records. The dilemma between high quality sizing and high depth resolution was found...

  18. 49 CFR 236.560 - Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with respect to rail. 236.560 Section 236.560 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Instructions; Locomotives § 236.560 Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail... above the plane of the tops of the rails, and at a horizontal distance from the gage side of the rail...

  19. Field Trip as an Effective Method of Teaching Apiculture/Beekeeping among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja’afar-Furo, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Various methods of teaching beekeeping in the very few institutions of higher learning that offer such courses have been studied. This survey attempted to review the numerous methods of instructions applied in achieving better learning outcomes on apiculture in tertiary institutions. Secondary information were mainly used to source for data for the survey. However, interview schedules were conducted to solicit for primary data from the students on their perception on best methodology for learning the subject. Descriptive statistics and percentage score were used to analyse the involvement of institutions in instructing learners, and capture learners’ perception on most preferred teaching methods of the course, respectively. Although findings indicated that a classroom lectures method, a combination of lecture and demonstration methods, field trip method, laboratory method, project methods, among others, existed as pedagogies used for ensuring that learners have had thorough understanding of the subject matter, majority of learners opted for the field trip method of teaching apiculture as the most preferred way of stimulating students toward enhanced learning outcomes. Based on the findings of the study, it’s concluded that a combination of field trip and lecture methods of instruction is the most effective way of teaching beekeeping in tertiary schools. Therefore, institutions and organisations of public and private origins that intend to improve on the knowledge of apiculture among youths and all, should capture field trip and lecture methods in their curricula of learning as the most preferred way of instruction.

  20. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP (VFT MODULE IN LEARNING BIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbaizura HARIS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Field Trip is a computer aided module of science developed to study the Colonisation and Succession in Mangrove Swamps, as an alternative to the real field trip in Form for Biology. This study is to identify the effectiveness of the Virtual Field Trip (VFT module towards the level of achievement in the formative test for this topic. This study was conducted to 60 students employing a quasi-experimental design involving a treatment group taught using the VFT module and a control group who were taught using conventional methods. Analysis into the effectiveness of the virtual module was done descriptively, followed by inferential analysis involving the two-way ANOVA. The results showed significant differences in the mean scores of pre and post achievement between students taught using VFT and students who were taught using conventional methods for objective, structure and essay type questions. The study concluded that teaching and learning by using the VFT module, integrated with ICT, has a positive impact on student achievement whencompared to conventional methods. This study focuses on the use of the VFT recognizing that teachers are often unable to conduct a real field trip on location.

  1. Fire and Water Make Steam - Redefining the Role of Competition Law in TRIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2011-01-01

    The paper points out the relevance of competition law to international issues of Intellectual Property Law (IPR) and demonstrates how competition law internationally has come to function as an indispensable instrument to balance IPR. The perspective is international and focused on TRIPS. The rule...

  2. Evaluating the Learning Outcomes of An International Field Trip in Postgraduate Lighting Design Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoardi, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Lighting industry professionals work in an international marketplace and encounter a range of social, geographical and cultural challenges associated with this. Education in lighting should introduce students to aspects of these challenges. To achieve this, an international field trip was recently undertaken that sought to provide an authentic…

  3. A Trip to the Statler Hilton Hotel. The Special Education Curriculum Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Muriel

    A program designed for high school level work-study classes for students of limited mental ability presents specific curriculum methods and materials to teach information regarding positions available in the hotel industry. A field trip tour of the Boston Statler Hilton Hotel if the focal activity of the unit, and is accompanied by a history of…

  4. Outside the ivory tower: visualizing university students’ top transit-trip destinations and popular corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingshu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Universities are where innovations, face-to-face interactions and social capital are commonplace. Nevertheless, often regarded as ‘the ivory tower’, universities cannot be separated from the social and economic transformations outside of them. Traffic, information and financial flows between universities and other locations can be used to reveal connections between the ivory tower and other locales. Therefore, this paper uses the weekday public transit smartcard records from 6 to 9 April 2010 (158,262 transit trips in total, including bus-only, bus plus subway and subway-only trips to identify and profile the most popular destinations of student riders from the ‘985 universities’ (a short list of top universities designated by the Chinese Central Government in 1999 and associated transit trip flows in Beijing. It identifies destination hotspots for the 985 universities’ students in Beijing, allocates traffic volume to major roads and delineates the transit trips of students from each campus. The results indicate that there exist only weak ties and little movement between the top universities and the most disadvantaged areas.

  5. A robust and high-performance queue management controller for large round trip time networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnevisan, Ladan; Salmasi, Farzad R.

    2016-05-01

    Congestion management for transmission control protocol is of utmost importance to prevent packet loss within a network. This necessitates strategies for active queue management. The most applied active queue management strategies have their inherent disadvantages which lead to suboptimal performance and even instability in the case of large round trip time and/or external disturbance. This paper presents an internal model control robust queue management scheme with two degrees of freedom in order to restrict the undesired effects of large and small round trip time and parameter variations in the queue management. Conventional approaches such as proportional integral and random early detection procedures lead to unstable behaviour due to large delay. Moreover, internal model control-Smith scheme suffers from large oscillations due to the large round trip time. On the other hand, other schemes such as internal model control-proportional integral and derivative show excessive sluggish performance for small round trip time values. To overcome these shortcomings, we introduce a system entailing two individual controllers for queue management and disturbance rejection, simultaneously. Simulation results based on Matlab/Simulink and also Network Simulator 2 (NS2) demonstrate the effectiveness of the procedure and verify the analytical approach.

  6. FieldTrip: Open source software for advanced analysis of MEG, EEG, and invasive electrophysiological data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostenveld, R.; Fries, P.; Maris, E.G.G.; Schoffelen, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes FieldTrip, an open source software package that we developed for the analysis of MEG, EEG, and other electrophysiological data. The software is implemented as a MATLAB toolbox and includes a complete set of consistent and user-friendly high-level functions that allow

  7. Design of Thermo Mechanicaln Processing and Transformation Behaviour of Bulk Si-Mn Trip Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrnik, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, a lot of effort has been paid to optimising the thermomechanical processing of TRIP steels that stands for transformation induced plasticity. The precise characterization of the resulting multiphase microstructure of low alloyed TRIP steels is of great importance for the interpretation and optimisation of their mechanical properties. The results obtained in situ neutron diffraction laboratory experiment concerning the austenite to ferrite transformation in Si-Mn bulk TRIP steel specimens, displaying the transformation induced plasticity (TRIP, are presented. The advancement of ferrite formation during transformation in conditioned austenite is investigated at different transformation temperatures and has been monitored using neutron diffraction method. The relevant information on transformation proceeding is extracted from neutron diffraction spectra. The integrated intensities of austenite and ferrite neutron diffraction profiles developed during the transformation are then assumed as a measure of the phase volume fractions of both phases in dependence on transformation temperature and austenite conditioning. According to the yielding information on ferrite volume fractions from isothermal transformation kinetics data the thermo mechanical processing of bulk specimen was designed in order to support austenite stabilization through bainitic transformation. The volume fractions of retained austenite resulting at alternating transformation conditions were measured by neutron and X-ray diffraction respectively. The stability of retained austenite in bulk specimens during room temperature mechanical testing was characterized by in situ neutron diffraction experiments as well.

  8. Shopping Context and Consumers' Mental Representation of Complex Shopping Trip Decision Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); T.A. Arentze (Theo); H.J.P. Timmermans (Harry)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractDepending on the shopping context, consumers may develop different mental representations of complex shopping trip decision problems to help them interpret the decision situation that they face and evaluate alternative courses of action. To investigate these mental representations and

  9. Control of support limb muscles in recovery after tripping in young and older subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; Bobbert, M.F.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Older people fall more often after tripping than young people due to a slower development of mechanical responses. This might be due to age-related changes in muscle properties, but also to changes in motor control. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether (a) timing and sequencing

  10. Geologic field-trip guide to the Lassen segment of the Cascades Arc, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynne, Michael A.; Muffler, L. J. Patrick

    2017-08-17

    This field-trip guide provides an overview of Quaternary volcanism in and around Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, emphasizing the stratigraphy of the Lassen Volcanic Center. The guide is designed to be self-guided and to focus on geologic features and stratigraphy that can be seen easily from the road network.

  11. Design and implementation of a genomics field trip program aimed at secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Jennifer; Wright, Jody J; Fox, Joanne A

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid pace of advancements in biological research brought about by the application of computer science and information technology, we believe the time is right for introducing genomics and bioinformatics tools and concepts to secondary school students. Our approach has been to offer a full-day field trip in our research facility where secondary school students carry out experiments at the laboratory bench and on a laptop computer. This experience offers benefits for students, teachers, and field trip instructors. In delivering a wide variety of science outreach and education programs, we have learned that a number of factors contribute to designing a successful experience for secondary school students. First, it is important to engage students with authentic and fun activities that are linked to real-world applications and/or research questions. Second, connecting with a local high school teacher to pilot programs and linking to curricula taught in secondary schools will enrich the field trip experience. Whether or not programs are linked directly to local teachers, it is important to be flexible and build in mechanisms for collecting feedback in field trip programs. Finally, graduate students can be very powerful mentors for students and should be encouraged to share their enthusiasm for science and to talk about career paths. Our experiences suggest a real need for effective science outreach programs at the secondary school level and that genomics and bioinformatics are ideal areas to explore.

  12. TripSense: A Trust-Based Vehicular Platoon Crowdsensing Scheme with Privacy Preservation in VANETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Lu, Rongxing; Huang, Cheng; Zhang, Zonghua

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a trust-based vehicular platoon crowdsensing scheme, named TripSense, in VANET. The proposed TripSense scheme introduces a trust-based system to evaluate vehicles' sensing abilities and then selects the more capable vehicles in order to improve sensing results accuracy. In addition, the sensing tasks are accomplished by platoon member vehicles and preprocessed by platoon head vehicles before the data are uploaded to server. Hence, it is less time-consuming and more efficient compared with the way where the data are submitted by individual platoon member vehicles. Hence it is more suitable in ephemeral networks like VANET. Moreover, our proposed TripSense scheme integrates unlinkable pseudo-ID techniques to achieve PM vehicle identity privacy, and employs a privacy-preserving sensing vehicle selection scheme without involving the PM vehicle's trust score to keep its location privacy. Detailed security analysis shows that our proposed TripSense scheme not only achieves desirable privacy requirements but also resists against attacks launched by adversaries. In addition, extensive simulations are conducted to show the correctness and effectiveness of our proposed scheme.

  13. TripSense: A Trust-Based Vehicular Platoon Crowdsensing Scheme with Privacy Preservation in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a trust-based vehicular platoon crowdsensing scheme, named TripSense, in VANET. The proposed TripSense scheme introduces a trust-based system to evaluate vehicles’ sensing abilities and then selects the more capable vehicles in order to improve sensing results accuracy. In addition, the sensing tasks are accomplished by platoon member vehicles and preprocessed by platoon head vehicles before the data are uploaded to server. Hence, it is less time-consuming and more efficient compared with the way where the data are submitted by individual platoon member vehicles. Hence it is more suitable in ephemeral networks like VANET. Moreover, our proposed TripSense scheme integrates unlinkable pseudo-ID techniques to achieve PM vehicle identity privacy, and employs a privacy-preserving sensing vehicle selection scheme without involving the PM vehicle’s trust score to keep its location privacy. Detailed security analysis shows that our proposed TripSense scheme not only achieves desirable privacy requirements but also resists against attacks launched by adversaries. In addition, extensive simulations are conducted to show the correctness and effectiveness of our proposed scheme.

  14. Utilizing Geo-Referenced Mobile Game Technology for Universally Accessible Virtual Geology Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztyn, Natalie; Pederson, Joel; Shelton, Brett; Walker, Andrew; Campbell, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Declining interest and low persistence is well documented among undergraduate students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math in the United States. For geoscience, field trips are important attractors to students, however with high enrollment courses and increasing costs they are becoming rare. We propose in this concept paper that the…

  15. Learning to Be a Culturally Responsive Teacher through International Study Trips: Transformation or Tourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Ninetta; Major, Jae

    2012-01-01

    Recent rapid changes in the ethnic and cultural make-up of school communities have highlighted the need for teacher education to prepare teachers for culturally diverse contexts. International study trips provide direct experience and interaction with culturally diverse "others" as a way to extend pre-service teachers' understandings of…

  16. Modeling of the Austenite-Martensite Transformation in Stainless and TRIP Steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Hilkhuijsen, P.; Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Zhang, S.-H.; Liu, X.-H.; Gheng, M.; Li, J.

    2013-01-01

    The transformation of austenite to martensite is a dominant factor in the description of the constitutive behavior during forming of TRIP assisted steels. To predict this transformation different models are currently available. In this paper the transformation is regarded as a stress induced process

  17. Internet traffic and packet round trip delay self-similarity | Abdulkadir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical analysis was carried out on the Internet traffic data grabbed at Internet Service Provider gateway. The analysis reveals the "bursty" nature, which was explained through SelfSimilarity and Long Range Dependence(LRD). In this work, it has been shown that the Internet traffic and Packet Round Trip Delay visuaiized ...

  18. The Poles, the Jews and the Holocaust: Reflections on an AME Trip to Auschwitz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    Two trips to Auschwitz (in 1989 and 2003) provide a context for reflection on fundamental issues in civic and moral education. Custodians of the Auschwitz historical site are currently aware of its responsibility to humanity to educate about the genocide against the Jews, as a morally distinct element in its presentation of Nazi crimes at…

  19. The "Real Value" of Field Trips in the Early Weeks of Higher Education: The Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, C.; Walsh, C.; Almond, N.; Myers, C.

    2017-01-01

    The benefits attributed to field trips by science educators are: social development; observation and perception skills; giving meaning to learning; providing first-hand experience and stimulating interest and motivation. Arguably, the "real value" of field work is attributed by students. In this study, 100 first-year students took part…

  20. Contribution of the support limb in control of angular momentum after tripping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; Bobbert, M.F.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Tripping over an obstacle can result in a fall when the forward angular momentum, obtained from impact with the obstacle, is not arrested. Angular momentum can be restrained by proper placement of the recovery limb, anteriorly of the body, but possibly also by a reaction in the contralateral support

  1. Field Trip to the Moon. Educator's Guide. EG-2007-09-120-MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Field Trip to the Moon program uses an inquiry-based learning approach that fosters team building and introduces students to careers in science and engineering. The program components include a DVD and classroom investigations. The compelling DVD (not included here) provides essential information about Earth and the Moon. The hands-on…

  2. 77 FR 14697 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... possession limits for Georges Bank (GB) cod and Southern New England (SNE)/Mid-Atlantic (MA) yellowtail... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XB059 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Adjustments for the Common Pool Fishery...

  3. 78 FR 10556 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... facilitate the harvest of Georges Bank cod, Gulf of Maine cod, and Southern New England/Mid-Atlantic... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XC456 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Adjustments for the Common Pool Fishery...

  4. Texas trip generation manual : 1st edition-volume 1 : user's guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this Manual is to provide a summary of Texas trip generation data for various : Land Use Codes (LUCs) and time periods, for data obtained from workplace and special : generator (WSG) surveys performed as part of the Texas Travel Survey...

  5. Taking an Internet Field Trip: Promoting Cultural and Historical Diversity through Mayan Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furner, Joseph; Holbein, Marie F. Doan; Scullion, Karin Jackson

    2000-01-01

    Introduces Internet field trips as a means of instruction for diverse student populations; explores the Mayan mathematics system in an interdisciplinary fourth grade math lesson; suggests strategies for students with limited English proficiency base on TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages); and includes a sample lesson plan.…

  6. Effect of Field Trip On Students’ Academic Performance in Basic Technology in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ganiyu Alasela Amosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of field trip in teaching and learning helps to bring about effective and efficient learning in Basic Technology. Field trip is a group excursion away from the normal education environment for firsthand experience of an historic site or place of special interest. This study therefore was geared toward finding out the effect of field trip on students’ academic performance in learning practical skills in Basic Technology in Ilorin, Nigeria. A pre‐test, post‐test and control group quasi‐experimental design was adopted for this study. Two sampled upper basic Schools were selected from Ilorin East Local Government Area of Kwara State using purposive sampling technique. The two sampled upper basic Schools comprised 50 students who were randomly assigned to treatment (25 students and control (25 students groups. Analysis of Co‐variance (ANCOVA was used to analyze the data collected. The findings revealed that at significant level, the value produced F (2, 22 = 3.44 > 0.109 Therefore, hypothesis one was rejected. Also, at 0.05 significant level, the value produced F (2, 9 = 4.26 > 0.433. Therefore, hypothesis two was rejected. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that; teachers should take students on field trip so as to promote and encourage active engagement in learning, self‐motivation, discovery learning and learning by experience.

  7. Road Tripping Down the Digital Preservation Highway: Part III. Rolls Royce, Ford, or Dune Buggy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colati, Jessica Branco; Colati, Gregory C.

    2011-01-01

    "Road Tripping Down the Digital Preservation Highway" follows the continuing adventures of Peter Palmer, erstwhile librarian at Bellaluna University and manager of the library's and University's digital content, as he journeys down the Digital Preservation Highway. In this article, Palmer is put in charge of a task force to determine…

  8. Quarry Quest. A Field Trip Guide to the Indiana Limestone District, Monroe and Lawrence Counties, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewmaker, Sherman N.

    This guide provides information for planning a field trip to the Indiana Limestone District. This district, located in Monroe and Lawrence Counties, Indiana, is responsible for material that has dominated the building-limestone market in the United States for nearly a century. A few of the many well-known buildings using Indiana limestone are the…

  9. How early reactions in the support limb contribute to balance recovery after tripping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; Bobbert, M.F.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Tripping causes a forward angular momentum that has to be arrested to prevent a fall. The support limb, contralateral to the obstructed swing limb, can contribute to an adequate recovery by providing time and clearance for proper positioning of the recovery limb, and by restraining the angular

  10. Meer zicht op Trips in aardbeienteelt : elk bedrijf zijn eigen dierentuin; biodiversiteit speelt een duidelijke rol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, K.; Brink, van den W.J.

    2003-01-01

    PRI onderzocht de ecologie van trips in de vollegronds aardbeienteelt en de mogelijkheden voor biologische bestrijding d.m.v. roofwantsen. Op een aantal biologische bedrijven werden tripssoorten geteld en infectiebronnen (waardplanten) geïnventariseerd. De variatie tussen bedrijven blijkt groot te

  11. The Impact of Immersion Trips on Development of Compassion among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Thomas G.; Lackey, Katy; Hwang, Jeong Yeon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the possible enhancement of compassion in college students as a result of participating in community-based learning immersion trips. In two separate experiments, a total of 123 college students were given a series of questionnaires immediately before and after university-sponsored immersion experiences to…

  12. Mobility and Gender Aspects of Hospital Trips of the Urban Elderly in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accessibility to health care facilities is one characteristic that have the potential to impact the health and well-being of the elderly. Using data from a multistage sample survey of 378 elderly, this study examines intra- urban mobility and gender differences in hospital trips of elderly in the city of Ilesa, South-western, Nigeria.

  13. Promoting physical activity and reducing climate change : Opportunities to replace short car trips with active transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maibach, E.; Steg, L.; Anable, J.

    2009-01-01

    Automobile use is a significant contributor to climate change, local air pollution, pedestrian injuries and deaths, declines in physical activity and obesity. A significant proportion of car use is for short trips that can relatively easily be taken with active transportation options - walking or

  14. Designing Mobile Learning Environments to Support Teacher-Led Field Trips within Informal Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    Mobile devices have become increasingly more visible within classrooms and informal learning spaces. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the impact of mobile learning (m-learning) tools to support student learning during teacher-led field trips. Specifically, the research questions for this study are: (a) What conditions affect student…

  15. How does a modal shift from short car trips to cycling affect road safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, J. P.; Heinen, E.

    Governments aim to promote a shift from car to bicycle, but concerns about road safety seem to represent an important argument against this encouragement. This study examines the road safety impact of a modal shift from short car trips to cycling in Dutch municipalities. The road safety effect is

  16. 78 FR 54194 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XC823 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Adjustments for the Common Pool Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...

  17. 76 FR 53832 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Decrease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XA652 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Decrease for the Common Pool Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...

  18. Towards ultra-high ductility TRIP-assisted multiphase steels controlled by strain gradient plasticity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami, M. K.; Pardoen, T.; Lacroix, G.; Berke, P.; Jacques, P. J.; Massart, T. J.

    2017-01-01

    TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) is a very effective mechanism to increase the strain hardening capacity of multiphase steels containing a fraction of metastable austenite, leading to both high strength and large uniform elongation. Excellent performances have been reached in the past 20 years, with recent renewed interest through the development of the 3rd generation of high strength steels often involving a TRIP effect. The microstructure and composition optimization is complex due to the interplay of coupled effects on the transformation kinetics and work hardening such as phase stability, size of retained austenite grains, temperature and loading path. In particular, recent studies have shown that the TRIP effect can only be quantitatively captured for realistic microstructures if strain gradient plasticity effects are taken into account, although direct experimental validation of this claim is missing. Here, an original computational averaging scheme is developed for predicting the elastoplastic response of TRIP aided multiphase steels based on a strain gradient plasticity model. The microstructure is represented by an aggregate of many elementary unit cells involving each a fraction of retained austenite with a specified stability. The model parameters, involving the transformation kinetics, are identified based on experimental tensile tests performed at different temperatures. The model is further assessed towards original experiments, involving temperature changes during deformation. A classical size independent plasticity model is shown unable to capture the TRIP effect on the mechanical response. Conversely, the strain gradient formulation properly predicts substantial variations of the strain hardening with deformation and temperature, hence of the uniform elongation in good agreement with the experiments. A parametric study is performed to get more insight on the effect of the material length scale as well as to determine optimum transformation

  19. The influence of TripAdvisor portal on hotel bussines in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čačić Krunoslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous researches have shown the existence of influence of specialized Web 2.0 portals on hotel business. One of most famous portals of that kind is TripAdvisor. The goal of this work is to determine the degree and mode of representation of hotels in Serbia on TripAdvisor portal. The results of the conducted research show that in past years the number of hotels from Serbia represented on this portal has increased significantly. At the end of 2012 there have been registered 3.288 comments which evaluated the service quality of 165 hotels from Serbia. The average vote, on five-degree scale, calculated at the level of all represented hotels at the end of 2012 was 3,92. Considering that Belgrade represents the primarily business, administrative and touristic center of Serbia, on the Belgrade's hotels specimen there has been analyzed the connection between business performances of hotels expressed through indicator TREVPAR and their image on TripAdvisor expressed through average vote determined based on user's comments, as well as in relation with TripAdvisor Popularity Index (TPI. The results show the high degree of correlation between analyzed features on the specimen of Belgrade's hotels, in range of hotels of second (4* and third category (3*. Having in mind the results of conducted research it is obvious that the hotels managers from Serbia should adopt and implement the corresponding procedures of monitoring and adequate reactions on contents on TripAdvisor, considering their influence on behavior of modern consumer in hotels.

  20. Geologic field-trip guide to Medicine Lake Volcano, northern California, including Lava Beds National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Grove, Timothy L.

    2017-08-17

    Medicine Lake volcano is among the very best places in the United States to see and walk on a variety of well-exposed young lava flows that range in composition from basalt to rhyolite. This field-trip guide to the volcano and to Lava Beds National Monument, which occupies part of the north flank, directs visitors to a wide range of lava flow compositions and volcanic phenomena, many of them well exposed and Holocene in age. The writing of the guide was prompted by a field trip to the California Cascades Arc organized in conjunction with the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) quadrennial meeting in Portland, Oregon, in August of 2017. This report is one of a group of three guides describing the three major volcanic centers of the southern Cascades Volcanic Arc. The guides describing the Mount Shasta and Lassen Volcanic Center parts of the trip share an introduction, written as an overview to the IAVCEI field trip. However, this guide to Medicine Lake volcano has descriptions of many more stops than are included in the 2017 field trip. The 23 stops described here feature a range of compositions and volcanic phenomena. Many other stops are possible and some have been previously described, but these 23 have been selected to highlight the variety of volcanic phenomena at this rear-arc center, the range of compositions, and for the practical reason that they are readily accessible. Open ground cracks, various vent features, tuffs, lava-tube caves, evidence for glaciation, and lava flows that contain inclusions and show visible evidence of compositional zonation are described and visited along the route.

  1. Clinical and immunological effects of a forest trip in children with asthma and atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sung Chul; Park, Su Jin; Park, Chan-Woo; Yoon, Won Suck; Choung, Ji Tae; Yoo, Young

    2015-02-01

    Asthma and atopic dermatitis are common allergic diseases, and their prevalence has increased in urban children. Recently, it is becoming understood that forest environment has favorable health effects in patients with chronic diseases. To investigate favorable clinical and immunologic effects of forest, we examined changes in clinical symptoms, indirect airway inflammatory marker, and serum chemokines before and after a short-term forest trip. The forest trips were performed with 21 children with asthma and 27 children with atopic dermatitis. All participating children were living in air polluted urban inner-city. We measured spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in children with asthma and measured scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) index and Thymus and Activation-Regulated Chemokine (TARC)/CCL17 and Macrophage-Derived Chemokine (MDC)/CCL22 levels in children with atopic dermatitis before and after the forest trip. Indoor air pollutants such as indoor mold, particulate matter 10 (PM10) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) of each child's home and the accommodations within forest were measured. A significant increase in forced vital capacity (FVC) and a significant decrease in FeNO were observed after the forest trip in children with asthma. SCORAD indices and MDC/CCL22 levels were significantly decreased after the forest trip in children with atopic dermatitis. Airborne mold and PM10 levels in indoor were significantly lower in the forest accommodations than those of children's homes; however, TVOC levels were not different between the two measured sites. Short-term exposure to forest environment may have clinical and immunological effects in children with allergic diseases who were living in the urban community.

  2. With the help of a foreign ally: biopharmaceutical innovation in India after TRIPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Federica

    2014-05-01

    This article investigates the implications of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which reached full-fledged implementation in 2005, for the patenting activity of Indian biopharmaceutical companies. The Indian biopharmaceutical industry is well-known for its generic producers, whose business models capitalize on the opportunity to reverse-engineer patented compounds and produce them at low costs through process innovation. By strengthening intellectual property rights, TRIPS determined a major regulative change, which presents the characteristics of an institutional shock. The examination of the patenting and alliance activity of 123 Indian biopharmaceutical firms between 1999 and 2009 reveals two important insights. First, the innovation outcome of Indian biopharmaceuticals has sharply increased during the transition to TRIPS-compliant regulation, suggesting that Indian companies have been capable and willing to transit from an imitation-based to an innovation-based business model. Second, those biopharmaceutical firms holding cross-border alliances to foreign partners have proved significantly more successful at enhancing their innovative capability. This research delivers a multifold contribution to the policy debate surrounding the enforcement of TRIPS in emerging economies. First, it suggests that such regulatory change may have encouraged biopharmaceutical innovation in India, despite the sceptical voices who did not foresee any benefits because of inherent inertia of the industry. Second, by arguing and testing the advantages of foreign partnerships, this research highlights that the much feared return of pharmaceutical foreign companies to India could instead favour adaptation to institutional change. Implications for Indian public health are particularly critical. The impact of TRIPS on drug pricing and on the capability--and willingness--of Indian biopharmaceuticals to invest in local health conditions are two

  3. Individual phase constitutive properties of a TRIP-assisted QP980 steel from a combined synchrotron X-ray diffraction and crystal plasticity approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, X. H.; Sun, X.; Hector, L. G.; Ren, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Microstructure-based constitutive models for multiphase steels require accurate constitutive properties of the individual phases for component forming and performance simulations. We address this requirement with a combined experimental/theoretical methodology which determines the critical resolved shear stresses and hardening parameters of the constituent phases in QP980, a TRIP assisted steel subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning heat treatment. High energy X-Ray diffraction (HEXRD) from a synchrotron source provided the average lattice strains of the ferrite, martensite, and austenite phases from the measured volume during in situ tensile deformation. The HEXRD data was then input to a computationally efficient, elastic-plastic self-consistent (EPSC) crystal plasticity model which estimated the constitutive parameters of different slip systems for the three phases via a trial-and-error approach. The EPSC-estimated parameters are then input to a finite element crystal plasticity (CPFE) model representing the QP980 tensile sample. The predicted lattice strains and global stress versus strain curves are found to be 8% lower that the EPSC model predicted values and from the HEXRD measurements, respectively. This discrepancy, which is attributed to the stiff secant assumption in the EPSC formulation, is resolved with a second step in which CPFE is used to iteratively refine the EPSC-estimated parameters. Remarkably close agreement is obtained between the theoretically-predicted and experimentally derived flow curve for the QP980 material.

  4. Confessions of a Tenured Professor: Knowing Your Place--A "Professor" and "Travel-Writing Teacher" Returns to Scotland on a Study-Abroad Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Colin Irvine shares that being "lashed to the mast" by virtue of his recent tenure, he often finds himself seeking imaginative ways within the profession to turn trips and long weekends into work. This particular trip was one in which he ended up heading off to Scotland with mostly Medieval Studies majors on a study-abroad trip. Having…

  5. Collaborative Research: Bringing Problem Solving in the Field into the Classroom: Developing and Assessing Virtual Field Trips for Teaching Sedimentary and Introductory Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Caldwell, M.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal Florida offers a unique setting for the facilitation of learning about a variety of modern sedimentary environments. Despite the conflicting concept of "virtual" and "actual" field trip, and the uncertainties associated with the implementation and effectiveness, virtual trips provide likely the only way to reach a large diversified student population and eliminate travel time and expenses. In addition, with rapidly improving web and visualization technology, field trips can be simulated virtually. It is therefore essential to systematically develop and assess the educational effectiveness of virtual field trips. This project is developing, implementing, and assessing a series of virtual field trips for teaching undergraduate sedimentary geology at a large four-year research university and introductory geology at a large two-year community college. The virtual field trip is based on a four-day actual field trip for a senior level sedimentary geology class. Two versions of the virtual field trip, one for advanced class and one for introductory class, are being produced. The educational outcome of the virtual field trip will be compared to that from actual field trip. This presentation summarizes Year 1 achievements of the three-year project. The filming, editing, and initial production of the virtual field trip have been completed. Formative assessments were conducted by the Coalition for Science Literacy at the University of South Florida. Once tested and refined, the virtual field trips will be disseminated through broadly used web portals and workshops at regional and national meetings.

  6. Impact of travel mode shift and trip distance on active and non-active transportation in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Hérick de Sá

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Transport and urban planning policies to reduce individual motorized trips and the number of long trips might produce important health benefits, both by increasing population levels of active transportation and reducing the non-active and the total time of daily trips.

  7. Analysis of Freight Trip Generation Model for Food and Beverage in Belo Horizonte (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leise Kelli de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, one of the main challenges faced in urban logistics is the distribution of goods. In Brazil, mid to large cities have experienced consequences of unplanned urban sprawl and lack of adequate transportation infrastructure. The relationship between urban planning and transport stands out the attractiveness of some urban activities with direct impacts on the movement of people and goods and other component elements of urban space. The segment of bars and restaurants falls within this context, therefore is a vital activity responsible for significant percentage of jobs and revenue in a city. Altogether, foods & beverages commercial activities move daily large volumes of goods to meet the need of customers. This paper presents the results of a freight trip generation model developed for pubs and restaurants in Belo Horizonte (Brazil. Once performed the model determined the number of trips generated per day per establishment. In order to expand the discrete result to a continuous one, the results were geographically interpolated to a continuous surface and extrapolated within the city limits. The data for the freight trip generation model were obtained by survey. For this, we designed a structured questionnaire to obtain information about goods, frequency, operational time, place of performance of the loading/unloading of goods, establishment size and the number of employees. Besides these information, we investigated the acceptance of alternative practices in the delivery of goods, such as off-peak delivery. To accomplish the proposed models, we applied a simple linear regression, correlating the following variables: (i Number of trips versus area of the establishment; (ii Number of trips versus number of employees; (iii Number of trips versus operation day of the establishment. With the results of the linear regression for travel generations, conducted the data interpolation based on the standard deviation of the results to define the sample

  8. Full Random Coefficients Multilevel Modeling of the Relationship between Land Use and Trip Time on Weekdays and Weekends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyoung Tommy Gim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Interests in weekend trips are increasing, but few have studied how they are affected by land use. In this study, we analyze the relationship between compact land use characteristics and trip time in Seoul, Korea by comparing two research models, each of which uses the weekday and weekend data of the same travelers. To secure sufficient numbers of subjects and groups, full random coefficients multilevel models define the trip as level one and the neighborhood as level two, and find that level-two land use characteristics account for less variation in trip time than level-one individual characteristics. At level one, weekday trip time is found to be reduced by the choice of the automobile as a travel mode, but not by its ownership per se. In addition, it becomes reduced if made by high income travelers and extended to travel to quality jobs. Among four land use characteristics at level two, population density, road connectivity, and subway availability are shown to be significant in the weekday model. Only subway availability has a positive relationship with trip time and this finding is consistent with the level-one result that the choice of automobile alternatives increases trip time. The other land use characteristic, land use balance, turns out to be a single significant land use variable in the weekend model, implying that it is concerned mainly with non-work, non-mandatory travel.

  9. Direct angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Condensed matter physics; high-c superconductivity; electronic properties; photoemission spectroscopy; angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy; cuprates; films; strain; pulsed laser deposition.

  10. PyTRiP - a toolbox and GUI for the proton/ion therapy planning system TRiP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toftegaard, J.; Petersen, J. B.; Bassler, N.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Only very few treatment planning systems (TPS) are capable of handling heavy ions. Commercial heavy ion TPS are costly and normally restrict the possibility to implement new functionalities. PyTRiP provides Python bindings and a platform-independent graphical user interface (GUI) for the heavy ion treatment program TRiP, and adds seamless support of DICOM files. We aim to provide a front-end for TRiP which does not require any special computer skills. Methods: PyTRiP is written in Python combined with C for fast computing. Routines for DICOM file import/export to TRiPs native file format are implemented. The GUI comes as an executable with all its dependencies including PyTRiP making it easy to install on Windows, Mac and Linux. Results: PyTRiP is a comprehensive toolbox for handling TRiP. Treatment plans are handled using an object oriented structure. Bindings to TRiP (which only runs on Linux, either locally or on a remote server) are performed through a single function call. GUI users can intuitively create treatment plans without much knowledge about the TRiP user interface. Advanced users still have full access to all TRiP functionality. The user interface comes with a comprehensive plotting tool, which can visualize 2D contours, volume histograms, as well as dose- and linear energy transfer (LET) distributions. Conclusion: We developed a powerful toolbox for ion therapy research using TRiP as backend. The corresponding GUI allows to easily and intuitively create, calculate and visualize treatment plans. TRiP is thereby more accessible and simpler to use.

  11. A Topographic Field Trip of Washington, D.C. - A Cartographic Multimedia Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced ?A Topographic Field Trip of Washington, D.C.,' a multimedia CD-ROM that uses topographic maps to tour Washington, D.C. Although designed for the middle school grade level, it can also be used to teach introductory topographic map reading skills to any level. Two versions of ?A Topographic Field Trip of Washington, D.C.,? are available. The first version, for Macintosh? systems only, was developed and produced as a prototype with educational resources funds and is available free of charge. The second version, for dual platforms, Macintosh?, and Windows? systems, is a sales item. The dual platform version contains improvements in content and navigational capabilities.

  12. Fire and Water Make Steam - Redefining the Role of Competition Law in TRIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    The paper points out the relevance of competition law to international issues of Intellectual Property Law (IPR) and demonstrates how competition law internationally has come to function as an indispensable instrument to balance IPR. The perspective is international and focused on TRIPS. The rules...... in TRIPS which define the obligations of member states to protect rightholders are detailed, comprehensive, and aimed at a high level of protection. The few rules in the Treaty which deals with competition law and the role of competition as a balancing instrument to IPR are weak and imprecise....... This disparity does not reflect the conclusion in national law where it is now generally acknowledged that IPR and competition law serve the same goal, viz. dynamic efficiency and consumer welfare and where competition law has come to function as a second tier of balancing norms. The paper claims...

  13. The Impact of Field Trips and Family Involvement on Mental Models of the Desert Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Eugene

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the mental models of the desert environment held by fourth- and seventh-grade students in the USA and whether those mental models could be affected by: (1) classroom field trips to a desert riparian preserve, and (2) interaction with family members at the same preserve. Results generally indicated that students in this study were resolute in their models and that field trips did not impact the types of models students adhered to. Twenty-three seventh-grade students who self-selected to participate in a Family Science Club with their parents did demonstrate a shift in their mental models and developed significantly more sophisticated models over time. A critical implication of the study is that unless transformation of mental models of the environment is an explicit goal of instruction, simple exposure to the environment (even within the context of life science instruction) will not transform understandings of how organisms within an environment act and interact interdependently.

  14. TRIP12 and UBR5 Suppress Spreading of Chromatin Ubiquitylation at Damaged Chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudjónsson, Thorkell; Altmeyer, Matthias Florian; Savic, Velibor

    2012-01-01

    Histone ubiquitylation is a prominent response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), but how these modifications are confined to DNA lesions is not understood. Here, we show that TRIP12 and UBR5, two HECT domain ubiquitin E3 ligases, control accumulation of RNF168, a rate-limiting component of...... a pathway that ubiquitylates histones after DNA breakage. We find that RNF168 can be saturated by increasing amounts of DSBs. Depletion of TRIP12 and UBR5 allows accumulation of RNF168 to supraphysiological levels, followed by massive spreading of ubiquitin conjugates and hyperaccumulation of ubiquitin......-regulated genome caretakers such as 53BP1 and BRCA1. Thus, regulatory and proteolytic ubiquitylations are wired in a self-limiting circuit that promotes histone ubiquitylation near the DNA lesions but at the same time counteracts its excessive spreading to undamaged chromosomes. We provide evidence...

  15. Hotel assessment through social media: The case of TripAdvisor

    OpenAIRE

    Molinillo, Sebastian; Fernández-Morales, Antonio; Ximénez-de-Sandoval, Jose Luis; Coca-Stefaniak, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Hotel booking decisions are increasingly influenced by consumer feedback available on social media sites. Using data submitted by customers on TripAdvisor, this study analyzes the customer satisfaction ratings posted for 2,211 hotels. The study provides four key contributions to our knowledge on this subject. Firstly, a comparative analysis was conducted of customer ratings for hotels located on the Spanish coast and Portugal's southern coast. Secondly, significant differences were found in t...

  16. Overview for geologic field-trip guides to volcanoes of the Cascades Arc in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffler, L. J. Patrick; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Grove, Timothy L.; Clynne, Michael A.; Christiansen, Robert L.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Ryan-Davis, Juliet

    2017-08-15

    The California Cascades field trip is a loop beginning and ending in Portland, Oregon. The route of day 1 goes eastward across the Cascades just south of Mount Hood, travels south along the east side of the Cascades for an overview of the central Oregon volcanoes (including Three Sisters and Newberry Volcano), and ends at Klamath Falls, Oregon. Day 2 and much of day 3 focus on Medicine Lake Volcano. The latter part of day 3 consists of a drive south across the Pit River into the Hat Creek Valley and then clockwise around Lassen Volcanic Center to the town of Chester, California. Day 4 goes from south to north across Lassen Volcanic Center, ending at Burney, California. Day 5 and the first part of day 6 follow a clockwise route around Mount Shasta. The trip returns to Portland on the latter part of day 6, west of the Cascades through the Klamath Mountains and the Willamette Valley. Each of the three sections of this guidebook addresses one of the major volcanic regions: Lassen Volcanic Center (a volcanic field that spans the volcanic arc), Mount Shasta (a fore-arc stratocone), and Medicine Lake Volcano (a rear-arc, shield-shaped edifice). Each section of the guide provides (1) an overview of the extensive field and laboratory studies, (2) an introduction to the literature, and (3) directions to the most important and accessible field localities. The field-trip sections contain far more stops than can possibly be visited in the actual 6-day 2017 IAVCEI excursion from Portland. We have included extra stops in order to provide a field-trip guide that will have lasting utility for those who may have more time or may want to emphasize one particular volcanic area.

  17. TRIPS and the PHILIPPINES : Pharmaceutical patents and the right to health on access to essential medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Riksaasen, Charlie May Simon

    2008-01-01

    This thesis discusses about the key provisions of the TRIPS Agreement and their effects on the realization of the right to health on access to essential medicines. It explores also the relationship between the trade right to intellectual property and the fundamental human rights to health on access to affordable medicines and how can such be reconciled.The Philippines' experience with regard to property rights is used in the illustration.

  18. Resistance of trip 800 steels in a sour environment containing H{sub 2}S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sojka, J.; Vodarek, V.; Vanova, P.; Schindler, I.; Wenglorzova, A.; Filus, F. [VSB-TU Ostrava, Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33, Ostrava (Czech Republic); Kander, L. [Materialovy a metalurgicky vyzkum, s.r.o., Pohranicni 31, 706 02 Ostrava-Vitkovice (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-15

    We have evaluated the resistance of two samples of TRIP 800 steel prepared under laboratory conditions at the Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (FMME) VSB (Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic) in a sour environment containing H{sub 2}S. The first steel investigated had a C-Mn-Si composition, and the second steel had a C-Mn-Si-Al composition. Both TRIP steels were characterized using the yield strength in the range 420 to 450 MPa and tensile strength in the range 880 to 900 MPa. The TRIP steel samples were in the form of sheets with a thickness of 1.5 mm. The residual austenite content was 11% and 13%, respectively, in the two steels studied. The resistance to hydrogen embrittlement was evaluated in a sour environment that contained hydrogen sulphide using hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) and sulphide stress cracking (SSC) tests performed in accordance with NACE standards. Both TRIP 800 steels showed a high resistance to hydrogen embrittlement, and no SSC cracks were observed. Some cracking arising from HIC was observed in both steels. The measured parameters showed some variation; in some cases they were lower than recommended limits, but in other cases the measured parameters were higher (e.g., the crack length ratio was up to 70%). The cracks initiated preferentially at non-metallic inclusions, either at elongated manganese sulphide particles, or at oxide stringers that were rich in Al. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Leveraging Field Trips in Higher Education for Local Engagement and Impact: An Example from Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riker, J.; Watson, M.; Liu, E. J.; Chigna, G.; Purvis, M.; Naismith, A.

    2016-12-01

    For over ten years, the University of Bristol (U.K.) has run a field trip for masters students in Natural Hazards in the volcanically active areas of southern Guatemala, home to more than 13 million people. This trip has obvious benefits to its participants - it serves as an immersive and formative experience for students studying volcanic hazard, as well as a springboard for the work of the researchers who lead it. Over the years, it has helped to build strong collaborative ties between academic researchers at Bristol and Guatemala's geologic survey (INSIVUMEH) and emergency management agency (CONRED), facilitating the sharing of data, expertise, and monitoring equipment. The students' regular presence has also enabled infrastructure improvements at Fuego Volcano Observatory, which is itself hosted and partly staffed by the residents of Panimache, a small village just a few miles from the volcano's summit. This field trip does raise challenges, however - an influx of foreign students can draw questions from community members for whom the benefits are indirect (i.e., local job creation or infrastructure improvement) or intangible (i.e., incremental contributions to the body of knowledge regarding volcanic hazard). In this presentation, we'll share stories of our experiences of effective community collaboration in Guatemala. In the spirit of discussion, we would also like to explore the opportunities that exist to better utilise this trip, along with the energy and expertise of its participants, to maximise the positive impact on (and resilience of) local communities, particularly those in the small and largely indigenous villages that populate Fuego Volcano's flanks.

  20. Virtual field trips as physically active lessons for children: a pilot study.

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, E; Shelton, N.; Dunsmuir, S.; Duke-Williams, O.; Stamatakis, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The modern classroom is an inherently sedentary environment. Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) using interactive whiteboards to explore virtual scenes are a potential method of converting sedentary class-time into physically active teaching. This pilot aimed to assess the effects of a developed VFT on physical activity and learning in primary-school children. Methods Participants (n?=?85) were randomly assigned to a) a 30-minute physically active London 2012 Olympics-themed VFT, or b) a 3...

  1. Energy consumption and work-travel trips: London, Birmingham, and Manchester, 1981 – 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Frost; Nigel Spence

    2008-01-01

    The changing modal composition and volume of work travel in London, Birmingham, and Manchester and their resultant energy consumption implications are considered in this research. Essentially, the mechanism is to calculate the passenger km travelled by mode and then to apply mode-specific energy consumption parameters to calculate energy consumption. By classifying work-travel trips according to their travel mode and their location and orientation (within, out of, and into town) it is possibl...

  2. Educational Field Trips at the World’s Largest Physics Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    This video documents the educational field trip to CERN by high-school students of Ellinogermaniki Agogi, Greece. The aim of this video is to demonstrate a methodological approach, structured into three steps, that other schools can follow in order to get the most out of the CERN experience. The video has been supported but the Go-Lab and Inspiring Science Education Projects, co-funded by the EU’s 7th Framework Programme.

  3. Notes on my trip through Nebraska, or some alternative marketing principles for parks and recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan R. Graefe

    2001-01-01

    I started working on this talk on December 19th last year. That was the day I began my trip home from Colorado at the end of my fall semester sabbatical. While traveling through Nebraska I started seeing things that I just couldn't believe. Not just a single thing, but one thing after another. This had to be an omen. I knew immediately that I had found the topic...

  4. Labeling Residential Community Characteristics from Collective Activity Patterns Using Taxi Trip Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2017-09-01

    There existing a significant social and spatial differentiation in the residential communities in urban city. People live in different places have different socioeconomic background, resulting in various geographically activity patterns. This paper aims to label the characteristics of residential communities in a city using collective activity patterns derived from taxi trip data. Specifically, we first present a method to allocate the O/D (Origin/Destination) points of taxi trips to the land use parcels where the activities taken place in. Then several indices are employed to describe the collective activity patterns, including both activity intensity, travel distance, travel time, and activity space of residents by taking account of the geographical distribution of all O/Ds of the taxi trip related to that residential community. Followed by that, an agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm is introduced to cluster the residential communities with similar activity patterns. In the case study of Wuhan, the residential communities are clearly divided into eight clusters, which could be labelled as ordinary communities, privileged communities, old isolated communities, suburban communities, and so on. In this paper, we provide a new perspective to label the land use under same type from people's mobility patterns with the support of big trajectory data.

  5. Effects of Ar and He on Microstructures and Properties of Laser Welded 800MPa TRIP Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wen-Quan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber laser welding of cold rolled TRIP steel (transformation Induced Plasticity steel sheet with tensile strength of 820MPa and thickness of 1.4mm was carried out using shielding gases Ar and He, respectively. For the same laser power and welding speed, the effects of different shielding gases on penetration and bead section morphologies were investigated. The microstructures and properties of the TRIP steel joints were also studied. The investigation showed that higher penetration and lower porosity could be obtained under shielding gas He using the same laser power and welding speed. The microstructures of the TRIP joint mainly included martensite and retained austenite. But the joint microhardness and tensile strength were higher under the shielding gas He. The tensile strength of the welded joint perpendicular to the weld line was equal to that of the base metal. But the tensile strength of the joint parallel with the weld line was higher than that of the base metal. The plasticity and formability of the welded joint were impaired due to the formation of martensite in the weld metal.

  6. The AttentionTrip: A game-like tool for measuring the networks of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Raymond M; Hassan, Tariq; Wilson, Graham; Ishigami, Yoko; Mulle, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Recognizing that attention is not a unitary system, the Attention Network Test (ANT) and its variants were developed to measure the efficacy of the multiple components of attention. One potential weakness of these tests (ANTs) is that they are unengaging. This poses a problem when particular groups are tested (e.g., young children), when more stable measures of performance are desirable (and can only be achieved in longer testing sessions) and when repeated testing is necessary. Here we describe the evolution of a game-like tool, which we call the AttentionTrip©, that is suitable for investigating three isolable attentional networks (alerting, orienting, and executive functions). Utilizing this tool we were able to generate reasonable network scores for alerting, executive control (from both the flanker and Simon effects), endogenous orienting and, after some motivated modifications, exogenous orienting. Split-half reliabilities of the alerting and executive (flanker) network scores were considerably higher than those reported by MacLeod et al. (2010) in their psychometric review of the ANT. Informal observations (e.g., some participants asking if they could keep doing the task when their session was over) suggesting that the AttentionTrip is considerably more engaging than the traditional ANT have been confirmed in a head-to-head comparison (Vallis & Klein, 2016). The AttentionTrip@ is available now for research purposes. A tablet version, which will have greater clinical utility, is under development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 3D finite element simulation of effects of deflection rate on energy absorption for TRIP steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Asuka; Pham, Hang; Iwamoto, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    Recently, with the requirement of lighter weight and more safety for a design of automobile, energy absorption capability of structural materials has become important. TRIP (Transformation-induced Plasticity) steel is expected to apply to safety members because of excellent energy absorption capability and ductility. Past studies proved that such excellent characteristics in TRIP steel are dominated by strain-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT) during plastic deformation. Because SIMT strongly depends on deformation rate and temperature, an investigation of the effects of deformation rate and temperature on energy absorption in TRIP is essential. Although energy absorption capability of material can be estimated by J-integral experimentally by using pre-cracked specimen, it is difficult to determine volume fraction of martensite and temperature rise during the crack extension. In addition, their effects on J-integral, especially at high deformation rate in experiment might be quite hard. Thus, a computational prediction needs to be performed. In this study, bending deformation behavior of pre-cracked specimen until the onset point of crack extension are predicted by 3D finite element simulation based on the transformation kinetics model proposed by Iwamoto et al. (1998). It is challenged to take effects of temperature, volume fraction of martensite and deformation rate into account. Then, the mechanism for higher energy absorption characteristic will be discussed.

  8. Exploratory gazes. Unpublished photographs of Asís Cabrero's Italian trip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Aldea Hernández

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As was the case in not just a few of his contemporaries, Francisco Cabrero's modern advent is centred on his initial trip, in this case the one made to Italy in 1941. The historiography of Spanish architecture in general and the specific studies on the architect have shown the impact and the scope of this two-month trip on his later career. Fleeing the ruling academicism in Spain, Cabrero 'discovers' in Italy the rationalist and abstract expression of monumentality. Nevertheless, the access to a wide photographic reportage —unpublished up to now— accomplished by the architect during the trip, allows us to document his journey but also to put in to question those claims. The photographs introduce us for the first time to Cabrero the photographer —to his particular way of constructing an image— and as a result they pave the way for the recognition of this visual tool as an exploratory instrument of the gaze to the detriment of the pencil and notebook. Above all and paradoxically, they contradict the supposed fascination for modern language in Cabrero since discovering that historical architecture was almost the only objective of his selective photographic look and as a result, the primary source, of his transforming inspiration.

  9. Field trips as a novel means of experiential learning in ambulatory pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Allen R; Rintel-Queller, Hayley C; Unnikrishnan, Devi; Paul, David A

    2012-06-01

    Parents and caregivers look to pediatric health care providers for guidance on feeding, safety issues, and child-care products for children, but trainees have infrequent first-hand exposure to child products marketed to parents. To conduct a pilot study to assess an experiential field trip as a novel method of enhancing medical knowledge in ambulatory pediatric feeding and safety. Resident physicians and medical students visited a local children's store, where they took part in an interactive store tour, product discussions, and product demonstrations led by a physician educator. Participants also completed a 20-question pretest and a 20-question posttest related to common ambulatory pediatric feeding and safety issues, based on recent American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) policy statements and practice guidelines. Sixty-seven medical students and resident physicians participated in the study. Overall, participants' short-term knowledge significantly increased from 9.9 ± 2.6 to 15.4 ± 2.2 questions correct (P  =  .001), with statistically significant gains (P pediatric training and that such field trip sessions should continue. The inclusion of experiential learning through an interactive field trip in the curriculum of medical training was acceptable and feasible and showed short-term improvements in knowledge of AAP safety and feeding concepts.

  10. Basic survival needs and access to medicines--coming to grips with TRIPS: conversion + calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Puymbroeck, Rudolf V

    2010-01-01

    "Access to medicines" is a broad concept. After a review of three authoritative frameworks that help to identify its constitutive components, this essay summarizes the actual situation on the ground in low- and middle-income countries on the basis of recent empirical work. An analysis of survey data from 36 countries concluded that developing countries should promote generic medicines as a key policy option for improving access to medicines. Taking an international perspective to that recommendation, this essay reviews the World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and, particularly, how this agreement has been applied in practice. As shown by the experience of Thailand, Brazil, and the Philippines, in order to deal effectively with international pressures for an excessive application of the TRIPS Agreement, some sort of conversion experience appears to be required, which then leads to a switch from a private enterprise, supply-driven approach to a public health vision that insists on universal and affordable access. But moral conviction is not sufficient. In order to muster and sustain the political will to face down international forces, civil society and government offices must be able and ready to show the costs and other adverse consequences of the TRIPS-based model for medicines. This calculation needs to reach beyond the health sector and calls for new alliances, nationally as well as internationally. © 2010 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  11. DISPAQ: Distributed Profitable-Area Query from Big Taxi Trip Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Fadhilah Kurnia; Song, Giltae; Kwon, Joonho; Rao, Praveen

    2017-09-25

    One of the crucial problems for taxi drivers is to efficiently locate passengers in order to increase profits. The rapid advancement and ubiquitous penetration of Internet of Things (IoT) technology into transportation industries enables us to provide taxi drivers with locations that have more potential passengers (more profitable areas) by analyzing and querying taxi trip data. In this paper, we propose a query processing system, called Distributed Profitable-Area Query ( DISPAQ ) which efficiently identifies profitable areas by exploiting the Apache Software Foundation's Spark framework and a MongoDB database. DISPAQ first maintains a profitable-area query index (PQ-index) by extracting area summaries and route summaries from raw taxi trip data. It then identifies candidate profitable areas by searching the PQ-index during query processing. Then, it exploits a Z-Skyline algorithm, which is an extension of skyline processing with a Z-order space filling curve, to quickly refine the candidate profitable areas. To improve the performance of distributed query processing, we also propose local Z-Skyline optimization, which reduces the number of dominant tests by distributing killer profitable areas to each cluster node. Through extensive evaluation with real datasets, we demonstrate that our DISPAQ system provides a scalable and efficient solution for processing profitable-area queries from huge amounts of big taxi trip data.

  12. Design of Round-trip Trajectories to Near-Earth Asteroids Utilizing a Lunar Flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Sonia; Barbee, Brent W.

    2011-01-01

    There are currently over 7,700 known Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs), and more are being discovered on a continual basis. Current models predict that the actual order of magnitude of the NEA population may range from 10' to 10 6 . The close proximity of NEA orbits to Earth's orbit makes it possible to design short duration round-trip trajectories to NEAs under the proper conditions. In previous work, 59 potentially accessible NEAs were identified for missions that depart Earth between the years 2016 and 2050 and have round-trip flight times of a year or less. We now present a new method for designing round-trip trajectories to NEAs in which the Moon's gravity aids the outbound trajectory via a lunar flyby. In some cases this gravity assist can reduce the overall spacecraft propellant required for the mission, which in turn can allow NEAs to be reached which would otherwise be inaccessible to a given mission architecture. Results are presented for a specific case study on NEA 2003 LN6.

  13. Trip Report for Site Visit to the Ritidian Point Unit of Guam National Wildlife Refuge, September 21-25, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of activities undertaken by Honolulu-based USFWS personnel to Guam NWR to assist with invasive plant issues. Recommendations are included in the trip report.

  14. Quantifying the net social benefits of vehicle trip reductions : guidance for customizing the TRIMMS(c) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This study details the development of a series of enhancements to the Trip Reduction Impacts of : Mobility Management Strategies (TRIMMS) model. TRIMMS allows quantifying the net social : benefits of a wide range of transportation demand management...

  15. Advantages of the synthetic technique for the conduction of short circuit tests to breakers; Ventajas de la tecnica sintetica para realizar pruebas de corto circuito a interruptores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibilski, Henry [Instituto Electrotecnico de Varsovia, Varsovia (Poland); Ochoa Vivanco, Ruben [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    In this article the operational principle of the synthetic test is described; specifically of the current injection circuit in parallel. Its utilization in the research and development of new breaker models and its wide possibilities regarding its testing characteristics is outlined. Likewise the different tests that can be performed by means of the synthetic technique are described. Finally the importance of the synthetic tests is outlined for the development of own technology in the area of interruption equipment and emphasis is made that in industrialized countries this technique is of common practice. [Espanol] En este articulo se describe el principio de operacion de la prueba sintetica; especificamente del circuito de inyeccion de corriente en paralelo. Se destaca su utilizacion en la investigacion y desarrollo de nuevos modelos de interruptores y sus amplias posibilidades en cuanto a caracteristicas de prueba. Asimismo, se describen las diferentes pruebas que pueden realizarse mediante la tecnica sintetica. Por ultimo, se destaca la importancia de las pruebas sinteticas para el desarrollo de tecnologia propia en el area de equipos de interrupcion, y se hace notar que en paises desarrollados, esta tecnica es practica comun.

  16. Sea Ice Changes in the Adelie Depression during the Ice-Trapping Period of the Chinese Ice-Breaker RV Xuelong in January 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, F.; Zhai, M.; Li, X.; Cheng, X.; Heil, P.; Zhao, T.

    2014-12-01

    During the 30th Chinese Antarctic Expedition in 2013/14, the Chinese ice-breaker vessel RV Xuelong answered a rescue call for the Russian vessel Akademik Shokalskiy. While assisting the repatriation of personnel from the Russian vessel to the Australian RV Australis, the RV Xuelong itself became entrapped within the compacted ice in the Adelie Depression region. Here we present our analysis of MODIS and SAR imagery, to provide an in detail description of the regional sea ice conditions, which led to beset the RV Xuelong for ~6 days. The remotely sensed imagery clearly revealed the sea-ice characteristics during the four stages of the entrapment: gathering stage, compaction stage, dispersion stage and calving stage. Here we present our evaluation of the four factors characterizing the local sea-ice conditions during the late Dec 2013 and early January 2014: coastal current, wind, tide and temperature. This study demonstrates that high spatio-temporal resolution remote sensing data are required to monitor the local and regional sea-ice changes with view to avoid future entrapping of vessels due to drastic changes and to work towards improved understanding of sea-atmosphere-ice interactions.

  17. Daily variations in Spring Break alcohol and sexual behaviors based on intentions, perceived norms, and daily trip context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Lee, Christine M

    2012-07-01

    Given the known risks of alcohol use and sexual behavior for college students on Spring Break, this study was designed to document the behaviors and correlates associated with being on a Spring Break trip on a given day (controlling for average time on a trip). Participants were undergraduate students (n = 261; 55% women) who reported that they planned to go on a Spring Break trip. Web-based survey responses before and after Spring Break documented perceived norms, intentions, and actual behavior on each of the 10 days of Spring Break. Students who went on longer trips, who previously engaged in more heavy episodic drinking, or who had greater pre-Spring Break intentions to drink reported greater alcohol use during Spring Break. Similarly, students with greater pre-Spring Break intentions to have sex, greater perceived norms for sex, or more previous sexual partners had greater odds of having sex. On days students were on trips, they had a greater likelihood of having sex, drinking to higher estimated blood alcohol concentrations, consuming more drinks, and reporting perceived drunkenness than on nontrip days, especially if they had intentions to have sex and drink alcohol (and, for models predicting sexual behavior and drunkenness, had greater perceived norms for sex and drinking). Students who went on Spring Break trips engaged in more risk behaviors. In addition, the context of being on a trip on a given day was associated with increased risk, especially if they had stronger intentions and, in some cases, higher perceived norms. Further research is needed to describe the contexts of Spring Break trips and how to intervene effectively.

  18. Boundary Layer Transition and Trip Effectiveness on an Apollo Capsule in the JAXA High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel (HIEST) Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Lindsay C.; Lillard, Randolph P.; Olejniczak, Joseph; Tanno, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Computational assessments were performed to size boundary layer trips for a scaled Apollo capsule model in the High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel (HIEST) facility at the JAXA Kakuda Space Center in Japan. For stagnation conditions between 2 MJ/kg and 20 MJ/kg and between 10 MPa and 60 MPa, the appropriate trips were determined to be between 0.2 mm and 1.3 mm high, which provided kappa/delta values on the heatshield from 0.15 to 2.25. The tripped configuration consisted of an insert with a series of diamond shaped trips along the heatshield downstream of the stagnation point. Surface heat flux measurements were obtained on a capsule with a 250 mm diameter, 6.4% scale model, and pressure measurements were taken at axial stations along the nozzle walls. At low enthalpy conditions, the computational predictions agree favorably to the test data along the heatshield centerline. However, agreement becomes less favorable as the enthalpy increases conditions. The measured surface heat flux on the heatshield from the HIEST facility was under-predicted by the computations in these cases. Both smooth and tripped configurations were tested for comparison, and a post-test computational analysis showed that kappa/delta values based on the as-measured stagnation conditions ranged between 0.5 and 1.2. Tripped configurations for both 0.6 mm and 0.8 mm trip heights were able to effectively trip the flow to fully turbulent for a range of freestream conditions.

  19. The obesity-induced transcriptional regulator TRIP-Br2 mediates visceral fat endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang, Guifen; Kong, Hyerim Whang; Fang, Difeng; McCann, Maximilian; Yang, Xiuying; Du, Guanhua; Bl?her, Matthias; Zhu, Jinfang; Liew, Chong Wee

    2016-01-01

    The intimate link between location of fat accumulation and metabolic disease risk and depot-specific differences is well established, but how these differences between depots are regulated at the molecular level remains largely unclear. Here we show that TRIP-Br2 mediates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced inflammatory responses in visceral fat. Using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we demonstrate that obesity-induced circulating factors upregulate TRIP-Br2 specifically in vi...

  20. A Transformative Undergraduate Field Trip to the Grand Canyon and Death Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Seeing the iconic Grand Canyon and Death Valley in person is a transformative experience for most geologists, including nine undergraduate geology students from upstate New York. The students were enrolled in a one-credit course designed around a nine-day spring-break field trip to Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) and Death Valley National Park (DVNP). We met once a week before the trip to plan day-to-day activities and discuss background geologic information. Students selected a research topic related to our itinerary and wrote a guidebook entry for the topic. Students' entries were combined with papers, maps, and background material to make a guidebook. The printed guidebooks provided students with a "publication" of their work to show to others and refer to in the field. The nine-day field trip started with a flight into Las Vegas, NV, on 3/1/14. We spent three nights camping at the South Rim of the Grand Canyon, one night camping in Valley of Fire State Park (VOFSP, 55 mi N of Las Vegas), and three nights staying at the Shoshone Education and Research Center (SHEAR) east of Death Valley. Highlights of the trip included the hike along the Bright Angel Trail (and fault) to Plateau Point and recognition of the Great Unconformity at GCNP; the White Domes loop hike, camping at the Beehives, and observation of the Muddy Mountain Overthrust in VOFSP; and hikes at Ubehebe Crater, Badwater Salt Flat, and Natural Bridge Canyon in DVNP. Each student presented his/her research topic at a pertinent point in the field trip; students were impressively well-prepared. One requirement of the course was a poster presentation on each student's research topic at our Undergraduate Research Symposium in April. For most of the students, the poster session was the first experience preparing and presenting a poster. In addition, the class gave a joint colloquium presentation to several hundred science majors and a number of science faculty at Saint Rose. Each student spoke for five

  1. Effect of weather on pedestrian trip count and duration: City-scale evaluations using mobile phone application data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanky, Anthony P; Verma, Santosh K; Courtney, Theodore K; Santi, Paolo; Ratti, Carlo

    2017-12-01

    We examined the association between meteorological (weather) conditions in a given locale and pedestrian trips frequency and duration, through the use of locative digital data. These associations were determined for seasonality, urban microclimate, and commuting. We analyzed GPS data from a broadly available activity tracking mobile phone application that automatically recorded 247,814 trips from 5432 unique users in Boston and 257,697 trips from 8256 users in San Francisco over a 50-week period. Generally, we observed increased air temperature and the presence of light cloud cover had a positive association with hourly trip frequency in both cities, regardless of seasonality. Temperature and weather conditions generally showed greater associations with weekend and discretionary travel, than with weekday and required travel. Weather conditions had minimal association with the duration of the trip, once the trip was initiated. The observed associations in some cases differed between the two cities. Our study illustrates the opportunity that emerging technology presents to study active transportation, and exposes new methods to wider consideration in preventive medicine.

  2. Differential resolvents of minimal order and weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Michael Nahay

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We will determine the number of powers of α that appear with nonzero coefficient in an α-power linear differential resolvent of smallest possible order of a univariate polynomial P(t whose coefficients lie in an ordinary differential field and whose distinct roots are differentially independent over constants. We will then give an upper bound on the weight of an α-resolvent of smallest possible weight. We will then compute the indicial equation, apparent singularities, and Wronskian of the Cockle α-resolvent of a trinomial and finish with a related determinantal formula.

  3. TRIPS 與羅爾斯的國際正義理論初探 The TRIPS Agreement and John Rawls’s Theory of International Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    王敏銓 Eric Min-Chiuan Wang

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available 本文探討政治哲學家約翰〃羅爾斯(John Rawls)於1990 年代後期發展的國際正義理論如何適用於對「與貿易有關的智財權協定」(TRIPS)的訂定背景的分析,目的是在建立一個對於TRIPS 加以批判的觀點。羅爾斯的國際正義理論主要發展於他的「人民間法」(The Law of Peoples)一書,但與羅爾斯以前的著作,包括「正義論」(A Theory of Justice)與「政治自由主義」(Political Liberalism)有脈絡上密不可分的關係。本文詴圖應用在這些著作中提出的概念,包括第二(國際)原始立場、無知面紗、暫時狀態與重疊共識的區別等。在另一面,TRIPS 的訂立過程呈現的問題,如貿易與智財權的連結、對於國際智財權體制的功能的基本不合意、對開發中國家的不帄衡負擔等,都是「政治自由主義」所要解釋的問題,也就是基於暫時協定的體制,如何能克服穩定性上的困難,而達成重疊共識的目標。本文係針對此問題所提出的初步的看法。 The topic of this article is how the theory of international justice developed by political philosopher John Rawls in the mid-1990s can be applied to analyzing TRIPS, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, and its drafting process. The purpose here is to construct a point of view for the critique of TRIPS. Rawls’s theory of international justice was primarily developed in his The Law of Peoples but also bore imprints from the previous works, including A Theory of Justice and Political Liberalism. The author of this article has intended to apply several concepts proposed by Rawls in these works, including the second stage of the original position, the veil of ignorance, modus vivendi, and overlapping consensus. Many issues relating to TRIPS’ drafting process are in effect the questions that Political Liberalism has intended to answer; these

  4. Component resolved testing for allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, Kirsten; Poulsen, Lars K

    2010-01-01

    Component resolved diagnostics introduces new possibilities regarding diagnosis of allergic diseases and individualized, allergen-specific treatment. Furthermore, refinement of IgE-based testing may help elucidate the correlation or lack of correlation between allergenic sensitization and allergi...

  5. Knowledge Extraction from Atomically Resolved Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlcek, Lukas; Maksov, Artem; Pan, Minghu; Vasudevan, Rama K; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2017-10-24

    Tremendous strides in experimental capabilities of scanning transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) over the past 30 years made atomically resolved imaging routine. However, consistent integration and use of atomically resolved data with generative models is unavailable, so information on local thermodynamics and other microscopic driving forces encoded in the observed atomic configurations remains hidden. Here, we present a framework based on statistical distance minimization to consistently utilize the information available from atomic configurations obtained from an atomically resolved image and extract meaningful physical interaction parameters. We illustrate the applicability of the framework on an STM image of a FeSe x Te 1-x superconductor, with the segregation of the chalcogen atoms investigated using a nonideal interacting solid solution model. This universal method makes full use of the microscopic degrees of freedom sampled in an atomically resolved image and can be extended via Bayesian inference toward unbiased model selection with uncertainty quantification.

  6. Component resolved testing for allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, Kirsten; Poulsen, Lars K

    2010-01-01

    Component resolved diagnostics introduces new possibilities regarding diagnosis of allergic diseases and individualized, allergen-specific treatment. Furthermore, refinement of IgE-based testing may help elucidate the correlation or lack of correlation between allergenic sensitization and allergic...

  7. per trip

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 oct. 2017 ... CAYMAN ISLANDS / ÎLES CAÏMANS. Everywhere / Dans tout le ... COMORO ISLANDS / ÎLES COMORES. Everywhere / Dans tout le ... MADAGASCAR. Everywhere / Dans tout le pays. 246. MALAWI. Everywhere / Dans tout le pays. 205. MALAYSIA / MALAISIE. Everywhere / Dans tout le pays. 242. MALI.

  8. Surprise Trips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Kawash, Raghid; Andersen, Lisbet Møller

    We report on a platform that augments the natural experience of exploration in diverse indoor and outdoor environments. The system builds on the theme of surprises in terms of user expectations and finding points of interest. It utilizes physical icons as representations of users' interests and a...... and as notification tokens to alert users when they are within proximity of a surprise. To evaluate the concept, we developed mock-ups, a video prototype and conducted a wizard-of-oz user test for a national park in Denmark....

  9. Multifocal spectacles increase variability in toe clearance and risk of tripping in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Louise; Buckley, John G; Scally, Andy J; Elliott, David B

    2007-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies have indicated that elderly people who wear multifocal spectacles have an increased risk of tripping, particularly on stairs. Yet no studies have experimentally examined how wearing multifocal spectacles affects stair and step negotiation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of wearing multifocal compared with single-distance vision spectacles on minimum toe clearance and risk of tripping during step negotiation in the elderly. Nineteen healthy subjects (mean age, 71.4 years) performed a single step up to a new level (heights, 7.5, 15, and 22 cm) while wearing multifocal (bifocals and progressive addition lenses) or single-distance vision spectacles. Minimum horizontal and vertical toe clearance were assessed by analyzing data collected with a five-camera, three-dimensional motion-analysis system. There was no difference in mean minimum toe clearance in subjects when wearing multifocal compared with single-distance vision spectacles. However, there was greater within-subject variability in vertical toe clearance when wearing multifocal spectacles (variance ratio, 1.53; P = 0.0004). Subjects were also significantly more likely to trip when wearing multifocal compared with single-vision spectacles (one-sided Fisher's exact test P = 0.025). Because of increased within-subject variability in vertical toe clearance when wearing multifocal spectacles, elderly individuals may be at greater risk of falling when negotiating steps and stairs if they do not also consistently increase margins of safety (mean vertical toe clearance). This suggests that some elderly who are at high risk of falling may benefit from wearing single-distance vision rather than multifocal spectacles when walking.

  10. Trace coupled with PARCS benchmark against Leibstadt plant data during the turbine trip test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekhri, Abdelkrim; Baumann, Peter, E-mail: abdelkrim.sekhri@kkl.ch, E-mail: peter.Baumann@kkl.ch [KernkraftwerkLeibstadt AG, Leibstadt (Switzerland); Hidalga, Patricio; Morera, Daniel; Miro, Rafael; Barrachina, Teresa; Verdu, Gumersindo, E-mail: pathigar@etsii.upv.es, E-mail: dmorera@isirym.upv.es, E-mail: rmiro@isirym.upv.es, E-mail: tbarrachina@isirym.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@isirym.upv.es [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (ISIRYM/UPV), Valencia, (Spain). Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety

    2013-07-01

    In order to enhance the modeling of Nuclear Power Plant Leibstadt (KKL), the coupling of 3D neutron kinetics PARCS code with TRACE has been developed. To test its performance a complex transient of Turbine Trip has been simulated comparing the results with the existing plant data of Turbine Trip test. For this transient also Cross Sections have been generated and used by PARCS. The thermal-hydraulic TRACE model is retrieved from the already existing model. For the benchmarking the Turbine Trip transient has been simulated according to the test resulting in the closure of the turbine control valve (TCV) and the following opening of the bypass valve (TBV). This transient caused a pressure shock wave towards the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) which provoked the decreasing of the void level and the consequent slight power excursion. The power control capacity of the system showed a good response with the procedure of a Selected Rod Insertion (SRI) and the recirculation loops performance which resulted in the proper thermal power reduction comparable to APRM data recorder from the plant. The comparison with plant data shows good agreement in general and assesses the performance of the coupled model. Due to this, it can be concluded that the coupling of PARCS and TRACE codes in addition with the Cross Section used works successfully for simulating the behavior of the reactor core during complex plant transients. Nevertheless the TRACE model shall be improved and the core neutronics corresponding to the test shall be used in the future to allow quantitative comparison between TRACE and plant recorded data. (author)

  11. Hot Ductility and Compression Deformation Behavior of TRIP980 at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Li, Haiyang; Gan, Bin; Zhao, Xue; Yao, Yi; Wang, Li

    2018-02-01

    The hot ductility tests of a kind of 980 MPa class Fe-0.31C (wt pct) TRIP steel (TRIP980) with the addition of Ti/V/Nb were conducted on a Gleeble-3500 thermomechanical simulator in the temperatures ranging from 873 K to 1573 K (600 °C to 1300 °C) at a constant strain rate of 0.001 s-1. It is found that the hot ductility trough ranges from 873 K to 1123 K (600 °C to 850 °C). The recommended straightening temperatures are from 1173 K to 1523 K (900 °C to 1250 °C). The isothermal hot compression deformation behavior was also studied by means of Gleeble-3500 in the temperatures ranging from 1173 K to 1373 K (900 °C to 1100 °C) at strain rates ranging from 0.01 s-1 to 10 s-1. The results show that the peak stress decreases with the increasing temperature and the decreasing strain rate. The deformation activation energy of the test steel is 436.7 kJ/mol. The hot deformation equation of the steel has been established, and the processing maps have been developed on the basis of experimental data and the principle of dynamic materials model (DMM). By analyzing the processing maps of strains of 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9, it is found that dynamic recrystallization occurs in the peak power dissipation efficiency domain, which is the optimal area of hot working. Finally, the factors influencing hot ductility and thermal activation energy of the test steel were investigated by means of microscopic analysis. It indicates that the additional microalloying elements play important roles both in the loss of hot ductility and in the enormous increase of deformation activation energy for the TRIP980 steel.

  12. Sink fast and swim harder! Round-trip cost-of-transport for buoyant divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patrick J O; Biuw, Martin; Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Thompson, Dave; Fedak, Mike A

    2012-10-15

    Efficient locomotion between prey resources at depth and oxygen at the surface is crucial for breath-hold divers to maximize time spent in the foraging layer, and thereby net energy intake rates. The body density of divers, which changes with body condition, determines the apparent weight (buoyancy) of divers, which may affect round-trip cost-of-transport (COT) between the surface and depth. We evaluated alternative predictions from external-work and actuator-disc theory of how non-neutral buoyancy affects round-trip COT to depth, and the minimum COT speed for steady-state vertical transit. Not surprisingly, the models predict that one-way COT decreases (increases) when buoyancy aids (hinders) one-way transit. At extreme deviations from neutral buoyancy, gliding at terminal velocity is the minimum COT strategy in the direction aided by buoyancy. In the transit direction hindered by buoyancy, the external-work model predicted that minimum COT speeds would not change at greater deviations from neutral buoyancy, but minimum COT speeds were predicted to increase under the actuator disc model. As previously documented for grey seals, we found that vertical transit rates of 36 elephant seals increased in both directions as body density deviated from neutral buoyancy, indicating that actuator disc theory may more closely predict the power requirements of divers affected by gravity than an external work model. For both models, minor deviations from neutral buoyancy did not affect minimum COT speed or round-trip COT itself. However, at body-density extremes, both models predict that savings in the aided direction do not fully offset the increased COT imposed by the greater thrusting required in the hindered direction.

  13. Monitoring and Managing Cabin Crew Sleep and Fatigue During an Ultra-Long Range Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Margo J; Signal, T Leigh; Mulrine, Hannah M; Smith, Alexander A T; Gander, Philippa H; Serfontein, Wynand

    2015-08-01

    The aims of this study were to monitor cabin crew fatigue, sleep, and performance on an ultra-long range (ULR) trip and to evaluate the appropriateness of applying data collection methods developed for flight crew to cabin crew operations under a fatigue risk management system (FRMS). Prior to, throughout, and following the ULR trip (outbound flight ULR; mean layover duration=52.6 h; inbound flight long range), 55 cabin crew (29 women; mean age 36.5 yr; 25 men; mean age 36.6 yr; one missing data) completed a sleep/duty diary and wore an actigraph. Across each flight, crewmembers rated their fatigue (Samn-Perelli Crew Status Check) and sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) and completed a 5-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) at key times. Of crewmembers approached, 73% (N=134) agreed to participate and 41% (N=55) provided data of suitable quality for analysis. In the 24 h before departure, sleep averaged 7.0 h and 40% took a preflight nap. All crewmembers slept in flight (mean total sleep time=3.6 h outbound, 2.9 h inbound). Sleepiness and fatigue were lower, and performance better, on the longer outbound flight than on the inbound flight. Post-trip, crewmembers slept more on day 1 (mean=7.9 h) compared to baseline days, but there was no difference from day 2 onwards. The present study demonstrates that cabin crew fatigue can be managed effectively on a ULR flight and that FRMS data collection is feasible for cabin crew, but operational differences between cabin crew and flight crew need to be considered.

  14. Microstructure-hardness relationship in the fusion zone of TRIP steel welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, S.S., E-mail: sashank@uwaterloo.ca [Center for Advanced Materials Joining, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Baltazar Hernandez, V.H. [Center for Advanced Materials Joining, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); MPyM-EPMM Academic Unit of Engineering, Autonomous University of Zacatecas, C.P. 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Okita, Y. [Center for Advanced Materials Joining, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Joining and Strength Research Department, JFE Steel Corporation, Chiba 260-0835 (Japan); Zhou, Y. [Center for Advanced Materials Joining, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fusion zone of TRIP steels in resistance spot welding was analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used for characterizing microstructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fusion zone microstructure was found to depend on the chemistry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hardness values were in accordance with the microstructural constituents in the fusion zone. - Abstract: Fusion zone of three TRIP steels, categorized as AT: C-Mn-Al, AST: C-Mn-Al-Si and ST: C-Mn-Si, in resistance spot welding was characterized with respect to microstructure, phase analysis, and hardness. The fusion zone microstructure was found to depend on chemistry: (i) AT steel contained ferrite phase surrounded by bainite and martensite regions, (ii) AST steel showed a bainite structures along with martensite laths and interlath retained austenite, whereas (iii) ST steel constituted single phase martensite laths with interlath austenite. X-ray diffraction study indicated that retained austenite fraction in the fusion zone increases with increase in Si content in it. The AST fusion zone hardness lies between those of the AT and ST steels; the ST fusion zone hardness was higher than that of AT steel because of the single phase martensite microstructure. Comparison of fusion zone microstructure and hardness to earlier study on laser welding of the TRIP steels with similar chemistries revealed that higher cooling rate in resistance spot welding led to higher fusion zone hardness compared to laser welding; which was attributed either to decrease in softer ferrite phase (AT steel) in the microstructure or refinement of martensite laths (ST steel).

  15. Galvannealing of (high-)manganese-alloyed TRIP- and X-IP registered -steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenau, M. [ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG, Bamenohler Strasse 211, D-57402 Finnentrop (Germany); Norden, M. [DOC Dortmunder Oberflaechencentrum GmbH, Eberhardstrasse 12, D-44145 Dortmund (Germany); Friedel, F.; Peters, K. [ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Strasse 100, D-47166 Duisburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In this study the influence of Mn on galvannealed coatings of 1.7% Mn-1.5% Al TRIP- and 23% Mn X-IP registered -steels was investigated. It is shown that the external selective oxides like Mn, Al and Si of the TRIP steel which occur after annealing at 800 C for 60 s at a dew point (DP) of -25 C (5% H{sub 2}) hamper the Fe/Zn-reaction during subsequent galvannealing. Preoxidation was beneficially utilized to increase the surface-reactivity of the TRIP steel under the same dew point conditions. The influence of Mn on the steel alloy was investigated by using a 23% Mn containing X-IP registered -steel which was bright annealed at 1100 C for 60 s at DP -50 C (5% H{sub 2}) to obtain a mainly oxide free surface prior to hot dip galvanizing (hdg) and subsequent galvannealing. As well known from the literature Mn alloyed to the liquid zinc melt stabilizes {delta}-phase at lower temperatures by participating in the Fe-Zn-phase reactions, it was expected that the metallic Mn of the X-IP registered -steel increases the Fe/Zn-reactivity in the same manner. The approximation of the effective diffusion coefficient (D{sub eff}(Fe)) during galvannealing was found to be higher than compared to a low alloyed steel reference. Contrary to the expectation no increased Fe/Zn-reaction was found by microscopic investigations. Residual {eta}- and {zeta}-phase fractions prove a hampered Fe/Zn-reaction. As explanation for the observed hampered Fe/Zn-reaction the lower Fe-content of the high-Mn-alloyed X-IP registered -steel was suggested as the dominating factor for galvannealing. (Copyright copyright 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Field-trip guide to Mount Hood, Oregon, highlighting eruptive history and hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William E.; Gardner, Cynthia A.

    2017-06-22

    This guidebook describes stops of interest for a geological field trip around Mount Hood volcano. It was developed for the 2017 International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly in Portland, Oregon. The intent of this guidebook and accompanying contributions is to provide an overview of Mount Hood, including its chief geologic processes, magmatic system, eruptive history, local tectonics, and hazards, by visiting a variety of readily accessible localities. We also describe coeval, largely monogenetic, volcanoes in the region. Accompanying the field-trip guidebook are separately authored contributions that discuss in detail the Mount Hood magmatic system and its products and behavior (Kent and Koleszar, this volume); Mount Hood earthquakes and their relation to regional tectonics and the volcanic system (Thelen and Moran, this volume); and young surface faults cutting the broader Mount Hood area whose extent has come to light after acquisition of regional light detection and ranging coverage (Madin and others, this volume).The trip makes an approximately 175-mile (280-kilometer) clockwise loop around Mount Hood, starting and ending in Portland. The route heads east on Interstate 84 through the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. The guidebook points out only a few conspicuous features of note in the gorge, but many other guides to the gorge are available. The route continues south on the Mount Hood National Scenic Byway on Oregon Route 35 following Hood River, and returns to Portland on U.S. Highway 26 following Sandy River. The route traverses rocks as old as the early Miocene Eagle Creek Formation and overlying Columbia River Basalt Group of middle Miocene age, but chiefly lava flows and clastic products of arc volcanism of late Miocene to Holocene age.

  17. Reflexion on linear regression trip production modelling method for ensuring good model quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprayitno, Hitapriya; Ratnasari, Vita

    2017-11-01

    Transport Modelling is important. For certain cases, the conventional model still has to be used, in which having a good trip production model is capital. A good model can only be obtained from a good sample. Two of the basic principles of a good sampling is having a sample capable to represent the population characteristics and capable to produce an acceptable error at a certain confidence level. It seems that this principle is not yet quite understood and used in trip production modeling. Therefore, investigating the Trip Production Modelling practice in Indonesia and try to formulate a better modeling method for ensuring the Model Quality is necessary. This research result is presented as follows. Statistics knows a method to calculate span of prediction value at a certain confidence level for linear regression, which is called Confidence Interval of Predicted Value. The common modeling practice uses R2 as the principal quality measure, the sampling practice varies and not always conform to the sampling principles. An experiment indicates that small sample is already capable to give excellent R2 value and sample composition can significantly change the model. Hence, good R2 value, in fact, does not always mean good model quality. These lead to three basic ideas for ensuring good model quality, i.e. reformulating quality measure, calculation procedure, and sampling method. A quality measure is defined as having a good R2 value and a good Confidence Interval of Predicted Value. Calculation procedure must incorporate statistical calculation method and appropriate statistical tests needed. A good sampling method must incorporate random well distributed stratified sampling with a certain minimum number of samples. These three ideas need to be more developed and tested.

  18. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ACCESS TO PATENTED HIV/AIDS PHARMACEUTICAL MEDICINES THROUGH THE CANADIAN AND EU TRIPS FLEXIBILITIES MEASURES: ARE THEY EFFICACIOUS OR OVERLY BURDENSOME AND INEFFECTIVE MEASURES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omphemetse S Sibanda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the Canadian and the European Union's (EU implementation of the World Trade Organisation (WTO General Council Decision of 2003, which resolved that developed nations could export patented pharmaceutical drugs to member states in order to address public health challenges such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other epidemics, such states including Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The author makes a primarily textual appraisal of how and to what extent the Canada Access to Medicine Regime (CAMR and European Union (EU Regulations benefit, for instance, SSA countries in the WTO in their quest to make essential medicine more accessible. The author argues that although there are identifiable complexities inherent in the Canadian and the EU's access to pharmaceutical product regimes, there are far more important incentives and benefits that can be reaped in taking advantage of the respective systems. The author recommends that countries facing public health crises/emergencies, such as SSA countries, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs take advantage of the regulatory flexibilities of Canada and the EU in their efforts to provide their communities with essential HIV/AIDS treatment, and treatment for other diseases such as malaria. The author dismisses the arguments against TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property flexibilities-inspired legislation and similar measures as mostly mere rhetoric and hair-splitting, because they sometimes unwarrantedly dismiss a workable solution to public-health problems.

  19. β-Sheet Breaker Peptide-HPYD for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: Primary Studies on Behavioral Test and Transcriptional Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiying Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD, is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by cognitive loss. Most researchers believe that aggregation and accumulation of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ in brain cells are the central pathological hallmark of this disease.Methods: Based on the amyloid hypothesis, a 10 amino acids β-sheet breaker peptide HPYD (His-Lys-Gln-Leu-Pro-Phe-Tyr-Glu-Glu-Asp was designed according to the structure and sequence of the previous designed peptide H102. Accelerated stability test, thioflavine T (ThT fluorescence spectral analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM imaging were performed to detect the stability and inhibitory effects on the aggregation of Aβ1−42 by H102 and HPYD. FITC-labeled HPYD was first tested to determine whether it could be transferred along the olfactory pathway to the brain after nasal administration to mice. Subsequently, the Morris Water Maze (MWM test for behavioral analysis was used to investigate the learning and memory ability of APP/PS1 transgenic mice by HPYD. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis was performed to determine the role of HPYD on Aβ and APP protein levels. In addition, microarray analysis was used to evaluate the effect of HPYD on gene expression in AD mouse models.Results: Our in vitro results demonstrated that HPYD had enhanced stability and inhibitory effects on Aβ1−42 aggregation compared to H102. HPYD could be delivered into the brain through nasal administration and improved the learning and memory ability in APP/PS1 transgenic mouse models by reducing Aβ and APP protein levels. In addition, microarray analyses suggested that several genes related to the inflammatory pathway, AD and gluco-lipid metabolism were dysregulated and could be restored to almost normal levels after HPYD administration to mice.Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that HPYD could be a potential therapeutic drug candidate for the treatment of AD.

  20. Eastern Europe as the source of horror and humor: Examples films, "Hostel" and "Euro Trip"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Trifunović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the period from 2004. to 2007. three films belonging to two different genres were complete in the American production-a horror and a comedy. These being, Hostel (I and II and Euro Trip. The only similarity found in these films is the same stimulus that motivates the horror and the humor segment in them. That stimulus was identifies where all three films are placed, and that is Eastern Europe, more precisely Slovakia. This phenomenon was considered in Noel Carroll’s theory concerning the relationship of horror and humor in order to explain and understand their existence.