WorldWideScience

Sample records for breadfruits

  1. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nochera, Carmen L.; Ragone, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk (Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit. PMID:28231132

  2. nutritional factors in differently processed breadfruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... diet if properly processed. Key words: Nutrient composition, energy value, residual anti-nutritional factors, breadfruit meal. INTRODUCTION. The use of unconventional energy feed resources that are cheaper than maize has been advocated in most tropical countries of the world. Energy feed resources.

  3. The Effects of Substituting Soyabean Meal for Breadfruit Meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of substituting soyabean meal for breadfruit (Tricuria africana) meal in diets fed to Heterobranchus bidorsalis (♂) x Clarias gariepinus (♀) hybrid fingerlings on diet acceptability, growth responses and cost benefit of fed catfishes were studied. The acceptability of breadfruit based diets by Heterobranchus ...

  4. Effect of supplementation of African breadfruit (Treculia africana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African breadfruit (Treculia africana) hulls were supplemented at different levels with other organic food processing wastes (orange, plantain, cassava and soybean). Optimum supplementation of 40:60 (breadfruit hulls to each waste) was obtained. Proximate and mineral composition of the unsupplemented and the ...

  5. THE PRODUCTION OF BREADFRUIT FLOUR: EFFECT OF HEATER TEMPERATURE TO THE DRYING RATE AND TIME OF THE BREADFRUIT

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    Denni Kartika Sari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of mineral and vitamin from breadfruit is particularly known of having benefits compared to rice which is a main source of carbohydrate consumed by societies. The process of drying is one of the factors that affects foodstuffs quality. The aim of this research was to provide an understanding of drying phenomena from data experiment and discover the influence of drying air temperature to breadfruit drying time and rates. This research was conducted in several stages which are material preparation (breadfruit by through downsizing process, then weigh the material (breadfruit once every 5 minutes on each drying air temperature variations (50 ºC, 60 oC, 70 oC, and 80 oC. The research were conducted using breadfruit with the best drying time which is obtained at 60 0C for 100 minutes. The lowest water content obtained was 0.4%, while the highest drying rate was 0.00144 Kg2/m2.s at 80 ºC of temperature.

  6. Ethnobotany of Breadfruit in Vanuatu: Review and Prospects

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    Jean-Pierre Labouisse

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Breadfruit is a traditional staple crop and an important component of Pacific Island agrosystems. This article reviews documentation related to breadfruit in Vanuatu with a focus on ethnobotanical data recorded from the first contacts with European voyagers and missionaries to the most recent survey conducted on several islands in 2009. Tree management practices, food and non-food uses, conservation techniques, as well as ritual magic intended to increase yields and protect the crop, are described. A database of 539 cultivar names has been compiled. Some lines for future research within the social and biological sciences are proposed.

  7. Bio-deterioration of breadfruit (Artocarpus Communis) in storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bio-deterioration of breadfruit in storage and its effects on the nutrient composition of the fruit was investigated at Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. Freshly dropped fruits were stored under laboratory conditions for a period of 9 days. Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Mycovellosiella fulva, ...

  8. Performance Evaluation of a Prototyped Breadfruit Seed Dehulling Machine

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    Nnamdi Anosike

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The drudgery involved in dehulling breadfruit seed by traditional methods has been highlighted as one of the major problems hindering the realization of the full potential of breadfruit as a field to food material. This paper describes a development in an African breadfruit seed dehulling machine with increased throughput of about 70% above reported machines. The machine consists of a 20 mm diameter shaft, carrying a spiral wound around its circumference (feeder. The feeder provides the required rotational motion and turns a circular disk that rotates against a fixed disk. The two disks can be adjusted to maintain a pre-determined gap for dehulling. An inbuilt drying unit reduces the moisture content of the breadfruit for easy separation of the cotyledon from the endosperm immediately after the dehulling process. The sifting unit that separates the shell from the seed is achieved in this design with an electric fan. The machine is design to run at a speed of 250 rpm with an electric motor as the prime mover. The dehulling efficiency up to 86% and breakage of less than 1.3% was obtained at a clearance setting of 12.4 mm between disks. A sifting efficiency of 100% was achieved. Based on the design diameter and clearance between the dehulling disks, the machine throughput was 216 kg/h with an electric power requirement of 1.207 kW.

  9. Physical and mechanical of breadfruit leaves-polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoto, R.; Rohmah, S.; Suhandi, A.

    2017-03-01

    A degradable polymeric composite was prepared from polyethylene (PE) and breadfruit leaves tree powders. Breadfruit leaves tree powders were mixed with PE in an internal mixer at a temperature above the glass transition of PE without additives. Formulations were based on PE/leaves ratio of 100/0, 90/10, 85/15, 80/20 and 75/25 on a dry weight basis. The effect of leaves powders of 140 and 100 meshon the composite mechanical properties was evaluated by means of universal testing machine (UTM) and hardness Rockwell tester. The results showed increases of elastic modulus and flexural modulus of the composites with increasing leaves powders. Tensile strength, yield strength, yield strain, and hardness decreased with increasing percentage of leaves powders in the composites. Flexural strength was slightly decreased with the presence of the leaves powders but independent on the percentage of the leaves powders. In general, the composite properties of 140 mesh leaves powders were more enhanced compare with that of 100 mesh. PE/leaves composites increased water absorption and caused the bulk composite surface more porous. Hence, oxo-biodegradation processes will more easily take place in the PE/leaves composites.

  10. Dried fruit breadfruit slices by Refractive Window™ technique

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    Diego F. Tirado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of products are dried due several reasons as preservation, weight reduction and improvement of stability. However, on the market are not offered low-cost and high quality products simultaneously. Although there are effective methods of dehydrating foods such as freeze drying, which preserves the flavor, color and vitamins, they are poor accessibility technologies. Therefore, alternative processes are required to be efficient and economical. The aim of this research was compare drying kinetics of sliced of breadfruit (Artocarpus communis using the technique of Refractive Window® (VR with the tray drying. To carry out this study, sliced of 1 and 2 mm thick were used. Refractive window drying was performed with the water bath temperature to 92 °C; and tray drying at 62 °C and an air velocity of 0.52 m/s. During the Refractive window drying technique, the moisture content reached the lower than tray drying levels. Similarly it happened with samples of 1 mm, which, having a smaller diameter reached lower moisture levels than samples 2 mm. The higher diffusivities were obtained during drying sliced VR 1 and 2 mm with coefficients of 6.13 and 3.90*10-9 m2/s respectively.

  11. New development and validation of 50 SSR markers in breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) by next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Fabien; Malapa, Roger; Kagy, Valérie; Lebegin, Stéphane; Billot, Claire; Labouisse, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Using next-generation sequencing technology, new microsatellite loci were characterized in Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae) and two congeners to increase the number of available markers for genotyping breadfruit cultivars. A total of 47,607 simple sequence repeat loci were obtained by sequencing a library of breadfruit genomic DNA with an Illumina MiSeq system. Among them, 50 single-locus markers were selected and assessed using 41 samples (39 A. altilis, one A. camansi, and one A. heterophyllus). All loci were polymorphic in A. altilis, 44 in A. camansi, and 21 in A. heterophyllus. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 19. The new markers will be useful for assessing the identity and genetic diversity of breadfruit cultivars on a small geographical scale, gaining a better understanding of farmer management practices, and will help to optimize breadfruit genebank management.

  12. New development and validation of 50 SSR markers in breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) by next-generation sequencing1

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Fabien; Malapa, Roger; Kagy, Valérie; Lebegin, Stéphane; Billot, Claire; Labouisse, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Using next-generation sequencing technology, new microsatellite loci were characterized in Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae) and two congeners to increase the number of available markers for genotyping breadfruit cultivars. Methods and Results: A total of 47,607 simple sequence repeat loci were obtained by sequencing a library of breadfruit genomic DNA with an Illumina MiSeq system. Among them, 50 single-locus markers were selected and assessed using 41 samples (39 A. altilis, one A. camansi, and one A. heterophyllus). All loci were polymorphic in A. altilis, 44 in A. camansi, and 21 in A. heterophyllus. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 19. Conclusions: The new markers will be useful for assessing the identity and genetic diversity of breadfruit cultivars on a small geographical scale, gaining a better understanding of farmer management practices, and will help to optimize breadfruit genebank management. PMID:27610273

  13. Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) gibberellin 2-oxidase genes in stem elongation and abiotic stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuchan; Underhill, Steven J R

    2016-01-01

    Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a traditional staple tree crop in the Oceania. Susceptibility to windstorm damage is a primary constraint on breadfruit cultivation. Significant tree loss due to intense tropical windstorm in the past decades has driven a widespread interest in developing breadfruit with dwarf stature. Gibberellin (GA) is one of the most important determinants of plant height. GA 2-oxidase is a key enzyme regulating the flux of GA through deactivating biologically active GAs in plants. As a first step toward understanding the molecular mechanism of growth regulation in the species, we isolated a cohort of four full-length GA2-oxidase cDNAs, AaGA2ox1- AaGA2ox4 from breadfruit. Sequence analysis indicated the deduced proteins encoded by these AaGA2oxs clustered together under the C19 GA2ox group. Transcripts of AaGA2ox1, AaGA2ox2 and AaGA2ox3 were detected in all plant organs, but exhibited highest level in source leaves and stems. In contrast, transcript of AaGA2ox4 was predominantly expressed in roots and flowers, and displayed very low expression in leaves and stems. AaGA2ox1, AaGA2ox2 and AaGA2ox3, but not AaGA2ox4 were subjected to GA feedback regulation where application of exogenous GA3 or gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol was shown to manipulate the first internode elongation of breadfruit. Treatments of drought or high salinity increased the expression of AaGA2ox1, AaGA2ox2 and AaGA2ox4. But AaGA2ox3 was down-regulated under salt stress. The function of AaGA2oxs is discussed with particular reference to their role in stem elongation and involvement in abiotic stress response in breadfruit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Fermentation by amylolytic lactic acid bacteria and consequences for starch digestibility of plantain, breadfruit, and sweet potato flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydersah, Julien; Chevallier, Isabelle; Rochette, Isabelle; Mouquet-Rivier, Claire; Picq, Christian; Marianne-Pépin, Thérèse; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2012-08-01

    The potential of tropical starchy plants such as plantain (Musa paradisiaca), breadfruit (Artocarpus communis), and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) for the development of new fermented foods was investigated by exploiting the capacity of some lactic acid bacteria to hydrolyze starch. The amylolytic lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) Lactobacillus plantarum A6 and Lactobacillus fermentum Ogi E1 were able to change the consistency of thick sticky gelatinized slurries of these starchy fruits and tubers into semiliquid to liquid products. Consequently, a decrease in apparent viscosity and an increase in Bostwick flow were observed. These changes and the production of maltooligosaccharides confirmed starch hydrolysis. Sucrose in sweet potato was not fermented by strain A6 and poorly fermented by strain Ogi E1, suggesting possible inhibition of sucrose fermentation. In all 3 starchy plants, rapidly digestible starch (RDS) was higher than slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) represented between 17% and 30% dry matter (DM). The digestibility of plantain was not affected by fermentation, whereas the RDS content of breadfruit and sweet potato decreased and the RS content increased after fermentation. The characteristics resulting from different combinations of gluten free starchy plants (plantain, breadfruit, sweet potato) and amylolytic lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) offer opportunities to develop new functional fermented beverages, mainly for breadfruit and sweet potato, after further investigation of their formulation, sensory attributes, nutritional, and prebiotic characteristics. Journal of Food Science © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  15. Isolation and identification of mosquito (Aedes aegypti) biting deterrent fatty acids from male inflorescences of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson)Fosberg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dried male inflorescences of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) are burned in communities throughout Oceania to repel flying insects, including mosquitoes. This study was conducted to identify chemicals responsible for mosquito deterrence. Various crude extracts were evaluated, and the most a...

  16. Urticaria and rhinitis to shrubs of Ficus benjamina and breadfruit in a banana-allergic road worker: evidence for a cross-sensitization between Moracea, banana and latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greef, J M; Lieutier-Colas, F; Bessot, J C; Vérot, A; Gallerand, A M; Pauli, G; de Blay, F

    2001-06-01

    We report the case of a road worker with a food allergy to banana, who developed urticaria and rhinitis when cutting shrubs of Ficus benjamina and breadfruit. He did not develop an allergy to latex of Hevea brasiliensis. Sensitization to latex of F. benjamina, H. brasiliensis, breadfruit and banana was demonstrated using skin tests and specific IgE measurements. RAST inhibitions procedures showed that specific IgE to breadfruit latex cross-reacted more strongly with latex of H. brasiliensis and banana than with latex of F. benjamina with the same extract. Given the wide distribution of Moracea trees in tropical regions, sensitization to latex of H. brasiliensis and banana could be a consequence of sensitization to Moracea members; F. benjamina does not seem to be the only Moracea responsible for cross-allergy with latex and fruit. Consequently, it seems interesting to test other members of the Moracea family in patients sensitized to latex of H. brasiliensis and banana. Sensitization to breadfruit could be a risk factor for sensitization to latex of H. brasiliensis. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Isotherm Studies of Equilibrium Sorption of Cu2+ and Cd2+ from Aqueous Solutions by Modified and Unmodified Breadfruit Seed Hull

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    Christopher Uchechukwu Sonde

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of an economically cheap adsorbent material of natural origin, African breadfruit seed hull, was assessed for Cu(II and Cd(II ions’ adsorption from aqueous solutions. The effects of adsorbent dose, particle size and initial metal ion concentrations were investigated in a batch adsorption process. The experimental data were analyzed using five two-parameter isotherm equations (i.e., Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Harkins-Jura and Halsey isotherm models. Freundlich and Halsey models provided the best description for the adsorption data while the other three models gave fairly good interpretation to the experimental adsorption data. The maximum adsorption capacity corresponding to saturation of sites (qmax, obtained from the Langmuir plots, were 7.76 and 8.06 mg g-1 for Cu(II and Cd(II onto the unmodified breadfruit seed hull (UBSH and 12.67 and 13.97 mg g-1, respectively for Cu(II and Cd(II adsorption onto the modified breadfruit seed hull (MBSH. The experimental results showed that there was an enhancement in the removal of the metal ions by the mercaptoacetic acid-modified breadfruit seed hull. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i3.625 

  18. Direct Ethanol Production from Breadfruit Starch (Artocarpus communis Forst. by Engineered Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (ESSF using Microbes Consortium

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    Iftachul Farida

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst. is one of sources for ethanol production, which has high starch content (89%. Ethanol production from breadfruit starch was conducted by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF technology using microbes consortium. The aim of the research was to examine a method to produce ethanol by SSF technology using microbes consortium at high yield and efficiency. The main research consisted of two treatments, namely normal SSF and enginereed SSF. The results showed that normal SSF using aeration and agitation during cultivation could produce ethanol at 11.15 ± 0.18 g/L, with the yield of product (Yp/s 0.34 g ethanol/g substrate; and yield of biomass (Yx/s 0.29 g cell/g substrate, respectively. A better result was obtained using engineered SSF in which aeration was stopped after biomass condition has reached the end of the exponential phase. The ethanol produced was 12.75 ± 0.04 g/L, with the yields of product (Yp/s 0.41 g ethanol/g substrate, and the yield of cell (Yx/s 0.09 g cell/g substrate.

  19. The effect of processing parameters on the functional and pasting properties of breadfruit (Artocarpus Altilis “elubo” flour

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    H. A. Bakare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis elubo was produced using various processing parameters. A second order Box-Benhken Response Surface Design was adopted in designing the experiment which generated 17 runs on selected process parameters, including parboiling temperature (30, 50 and 60 °C, parboiling time (90, 120 and 150 min, and steeping time (6, 12 and 18 hrs on the functional and pasting properties (bulk density, water absorption capacity, swelling power, solubility, dispersibility, and pasting characteristics of the elubo. At high parboiling temperature and time there was an increase in bulk density, water absorption, and swelling power of the BE, while the increase in parboiling temperature and steeping time led to a decrease in peak and final viscosity. The generated models were adequately explained as their adjusted regression coefficients (Adjusted R2 were between 0.56 and 0.99, this revealed that R2 gave a good (5075% explanation of the model. BE can be produced at an optimum condition of 60 °C, 133 min, and 10 hrs for parboiling temperature, time and steeping time, respectively, based on the desirability concept of 0.80.

  20. Effect of heat-moisture treatment on multi-scale structures and physicochemical properties of breadfruit starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiaoxi; Chen, Ling; Xie, Fengwei; Li, Lin; Huang, Jidong

    2017-04-01

    Breadfruit starch was subjected to heat-moisture treatment (HMT) at different moisture content (MC). HMT did not apparently change the starch granule morphology but decreased the molecular weight and increased the amylose content. With increased MC, HMT transformed the crystalline structure (B→A+B→A) and decreased the relative crystallinity. With ≥25% MC, the scattering peak at ca. 0.6nm(-1) disappeared, suggesting the lamellar structure was damaged. Compared with native starch, HMT-modified samples showed greater thermostability. Increased MC contributed to a higher pasting temperature, lower viscosity, and no breakdown. The pasting temperature of native and HMT samples ranged from 68.8 to 86.2°C. HMT increased the slowly-digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) contents. The SDS content was 13.24% with 35% MC, which was 10.25% higher than that of native starch. The increased enzyme resistance could be ascribed to the rearrangement of molecular chains and more compact granule structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of enriched compost with efficient microorganisms on the germination of recalcitrant seeds of breadfruit (Parkinson) Fosberg and Theobroma cacao L.

    OpenAIRE

    Yánez Yánez Wilfrido; Villacís-Aldaz Luis Alfredo; León-Gordón Olguer Alfredo; Velástegui-Espín Giovanny Patricio; López-Villacís Isabel Cristina; Cruz-Tobar Saúl Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The research was conducted at the Center for Research, Graduate Studies and Amazon Conservation (CIPA) of the Amazon State University, Ecuador. The purpose was to assess the effect of enriched compost Germination, day and day’s emergency transplantation two species of tropical origin and breadfruit Theobroma cacao. The experimental field is located in the province of Napo, 16'-1 and S and 77º 36'' 58'y 76'' W, at an altitude of 556 meters, with temperature between 18 and 32oC, average annual ...

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant, total phenol and flavonoid content and antimicrobial activities of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) of underutilized tropical fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Tara Kamal; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam; Momand, Lailuma; Draman, Samsul; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Abdull Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari; Nor Omar, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Abdul Wahab, Ridhwan

    2015-04-01

    Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) pulp, peel and whole fruit were extracted with various solvents such as hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol. The antioxidant activity of these extracts were examined using the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test. IC50 was 55 ± 5.89 μg/ml for the pulp part of methanol extract. In the β-carotene bleaching assay, the antioxidant activity was 90.02 ± 1.51 % for the positive control (Trolox) and 88.34 ± 1.31 % for the pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the crude extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure; methanol pulp part demonstrated the highest phenol content value of 781 ± 52.97 mg GAE/g of dry sample. While the total flavonoid content was determined using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, the highest value of 6213.33 ± 142.22 mg QE/g was indicated by pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was tested using disc diffusion method against pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans. Methanol extract of pulp part was recorded to have the highest zone of inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and MBC/minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) for the extracts were also determined using the microdilution method ranging from 4000 to 63 μg/ml against pathogenic microbes. The MBC/MFC values varied from 250 to 4000 μg/ml. A correlation between antioxidant activity assays, antimicrobial activity and phenolic content was established. The results shows that the various parts of A. altilis fruit extracts promising antioxidant activities have potential bioactivities due to high content of phenolic compounds.

  3. Effects of enriched compost with efficient microorganisms on the germination of recalcitrant seeds of breadfruit (Parkinson Fosberg and Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yánez Yánez Wilfrido

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted at the Center for Research, Graduate Studies and Amazon Conservation (CIPA of the Amazon State University, Ecuador. The purpose was to assess the effect of enriched compost Germination, day and day’s emergency transplantation two species of tropical origin and breadfruit Theobroma cacao. The experimental field is located in the province of Napo, 16'-1 and S and 77º 36'' 58'y 76'' W, at an altitude of 556 meters, with temperature between 18 and 32oC, average annual precipitation above 3000mm and relative humidity between 87 and 89%. An experimental design with five treatments in a randomized complete block design with three replications was applied. Treatments consisted of compost (1 MS, (2 lactic acid bacteria, (3 commercial yeast, (4 a combination thereof and (5 only compost, witness. It was determined that the compost mixture (T4 as a whole, has the greatest effect on the parameters of the seeds. Germination was found that in two of the T3 and T4 treatments significantly decreased the number of days to germination, in relation to the witness, 33 days and 13 days Artocarpus altilis, Theobroma cacao. The number of emerged plants, increase in both species with the addition of EM, lactic acid bacteria and commercial yeast (T4. a reduction is also reported in the days to transplant species studied to be significant particularly in cocoa. It was also determined that most bioburden corresponded to bacteria.

  4. Elaboração de farinha instantânea a partir da polpa de fruta-pão (Artocarpus altilis Preparation of instant flour from the pulp of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis

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    Danilo Santos Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se elaborar uma farinha instantânea utilizando do mesocarpo de fruta-pão, variedade apyrena, e avaliar sua composição físico-química, bem como desenvolver um purê a base da farinha e determinar sua aceitação sensorial por consumidores potenciais utilizando o teste de consumidor. A fruta-pão in natura apresentou valores de umidade em base úmida, pH, teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável aproximadamente 74,58±2,84%, 6,01±0,04, 5,6±0,01Brix e 1,64±0,01%, respectivamente, e a farinha instantânea com umidade, pH, densidade, acidez álcool solúvel e atividade de água de 9,4±0,28%, 5,55±0,2, 0,61±0,01g mL-1, 2,098±0,01% e 0,538±0,14, respectivamente. A equação adaptada de Brooker, usada para ajustar o comportamento da secagem, foi eficiente para descrever o processo de secagem da polpa de fruta-pão cozida. O purê de fruta-pão apresentou boa aceitabilidade pelos consumidores para os atributos sensoriais avaliados, exceto para a cor, sendo que a maioria declarou comprar o produto.This work aimed to develop an instant flour using the mesocarp of breadfruit, variety apyrena, and assess its physicochemical composition, as well as to develop a flour based puree and determine its potential sensory acceptance by potential consumers, employing the consumer testing. The in natura breadfruit presented moisture in dry basis, pH, soluble solids and total acidity values of 74.58%, 6.01, 5.6°Brix and 1.64%, respectively, while the instant flour presented moisture, pH, density, alcohol content, soluble acidity and water activity values of 9.4%, 5.55, 0.61 g mL-1, 2.098% and 0.538, respectively. The equation adapted from Brooker, used to adjust the drying behavior, was efficient to describe the process of breadfruit drying. The puree breadfruit presented good acceptability by the consumers, considering the sensorial attributes evaluated, except for color, and most of them declared that they would buy the

  5. Utilización de harina de frutos y hojas del árbol del pan (Artocarpus altilis en la ceba de conejos Nueva Zelanda Blanco Utilization of fruit and leaf meals from breadfruit tree (Artocarpus altilis for fattening New Zealand White rabbits

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    Coralia S Leyva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron 36 conejos de la raza Nueva Zelanda Blanco, de 35 días de edad y 506 g de peso vivo, con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de tres dietas en los indicadores productivos y económicos de los animales durante la ceba. Las dietas consistieron en: 1 pienso comercial más forraje fresco de glycine (Neonotonia wightii, como control; 2 harina de frutos del árbol del pan (Artocarpus altilis más glycine; y 3 pienso integral compuesto por una mezcla de harina de frutos y hojas del árbol del pan, más vitaminas y minerales. Se realizó un análisis de varianza, según un diseño completamente aleatorizado, con tres tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones. Después de 90 días en ceba, el peso vivo al sacrificio fue de: 2 347, 2 223 y 2 127 g/conejo, respectivamente; la ganancia media, de 20, 19 y 18 g/día; y la viabilidad fue del 100% en todos los tratamientos. Económicamente, el pienso balanceado con harina de frutos y hojas del árbol del pan tuvo una utilidad de 1,05 USD/conejo cebado, el sistema de alimentación con harina de frutos del árbol del pan más follaje de glycine alcanzó utilidades de 0,89 USD/conejo cebado; mientras que el sistema control generó pérdidas económicas, debido a los altos costos de las materias primas que componían el pienso convencional. Se concluye que los sistemas de alimentación alternativos que emplean la harina de frutos y hojas del árbol del pan resultan económica y biológicamente apropiados para los conejos en cebaThirty-six New Zealand White rabbits, 35 days old and with 506 g of live weight were used, in order to evaluate the effects of three diets on the productive and economic indicators of the animals during fattening. The diets consisted in: 1 commercial concentrate feed plus fresh forage of perennial soybean (Neonotonia wightií, as control; 2 breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis meal plus perennial soybean and 3 integral concentrate feed composed by a mixture of fruit and leaf meal from the

  6. Producción sostenible de carne de ovinos a partir de la harina del fruto y la hoja del árbol del pan (Artocarpus altilis Sustainable production of sheep meat from the fruit and leaf meal of the breadfruit tree (Artocarpus altilis

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    Coralia S Leyva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Un total de 27 corderos machos sin castrar, de la raza Pelibuey, en la etapa de crecimiento-ceba, con un peso inicial promedio de 19,5 kg, fueron suplementados a razón de 0 (T1; 12 (T2 y 20 (T3 g de pienso fruta del pan por kilogramo de PV. A los 90 días de la prueba el peso vivo final (T1:25,7; T2:28,2 y T3:29,6 kg y la ganancia media diaria (T1:67; T2:97 y T3:113 g se incrementaron significativamente (PA total of 27 uncastrated male lambs, of the Pelibuey breed, in the growing-fattening stage, with an average initial weight of 19,5 kg, were supplemented at a rate of 0 (T1; 12 (T2 and 20 (T3 g of breadfruit feed per kilogram of LW. Ninety days after the beginning of the test the final live weight (T1: 25,7; T2: 28,2 and T3: 29,6 kg and the mean daily gain (T1: 67; T2:97 and T3: 113 g increased significantly (P<0,001 as the level of the breadfruit feed increased; the same happened to the carcass weight (T1: 11,8; T2: 13,1 and T3: 14,0 kg, which differed for P<0,01. The economic results showed a significant saving with the alternative diets used, which reduced the production costs. The palatability test did not show differences among the treatments regarding the degree of acceptance, taste and juiciness of the meat. Thus, it was demonstrated that the presence of the breadfruit feed in the diets for sheep, in the concentrations studied, does not alter the organoleptic properties of the meat. The use of this plant in sheep feeding is concluded to be feasible, with which the productive yields and economic incomes increase.

  7. the effect of feeding differently prepared breadfruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    groups, while the fifth group receive a 100 % commercial basic diet (poultry growers mash, vital® feed) served as the control. .... dietary intake of a 50 % feed supplementation .... TABLE 1: Chemical composition (9/9 dry matter) ol'differently prepared bread fruit ( Armcarpus ri/ti/is) .... copper containing foods lead to high liver.

  8. Socio-economic contribution of African breadfruit ( Treculia africana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The product was best harvested during rainy season (68.00%) when fruits are most abundant (48.90%). Majority of respondents (57.80%) sold Treculia africana kernel in cigarette cup ranging from ₦110−₦160 while the weekly income was between ₦2500−₦4500. The major problem affecting price rate of Traculia fruits and ...

  9. Nutritional Composition of the Flour of African Breadfruit ( Treculia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %), which included high levels of aspartic and glutamic acids. Cystine was the limiting amino acid based on the whole hen's egg amino acid scoring pattern whilst methionine + cystine were the limiting amino acids with reference to the ...

  10. Chemical, Functional and Organoleptic Evaluation of African Breadfruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sci. and Technol 1. 9, 66-69. Sosulsk, F.W., Kasirya-Alemu, E.N. and Summer, A.K.. 1987. Microscopic, nutriltional and functional proper- ties of cowpea flours and protein concentrate during storage 1. Food Sci. 53, 700-706. Spergel, M.R. 1972. "Theory and Problems of Statistics in. SI Uinits" I" Edn Schaum's Outline Series.

  11. Design of Breadfruit Shelling Machine | Nwigbo | African Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    would reduce the tedium of the traditional manual shelling methods which though are quite efficient, are rather time-consuming. In the engineering design of this machine, the action zone consisted essentially of two rollers; one adjustable and the other rotating. A separating unit that cleans the seed while pneumatically ...

  12. The effect of Treculia africana African breadfruit on serum electrolyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sub-chronic effect of diet of Treculia africana (Bread fruit BF) on serum electrolyte, enzyme and some haematological parameters in rats was studied. The test-diets were administered for 21 days after which, serum electrolyte enzyme and heamatological parameters were assayed. The control group were similarly treated ...

  13. Nutrient composition, energy value and residual anti- nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    nutritional factors in peeled and unpeeled raw, cooked and soaked breadfruit meal were determined. Results indicated that breadfruit meals processed in various ways contained 4.31 - 4.85% crude protein, 5.00 - 5.38% crude.

  14. Chemical, Functional and Sensory Properties of Instant Yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical, Functional and Sensory Properties of Instant Yam - Breadfruit Flour. AA Adebowale, SA Sanni, FO Oladapo. Abstract. Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) tubers and breadfruits (Artocarpus communis) were processed separately into instant flour and mixed at different proportions (100% yam flour; 100% breadfruit flour; ...

  15. Quality characteristics of biscuits made from wheat and African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composite biscuit was made from breadfruit/wheat flour. Dehulled breadfruit was sorted, washed, sun dried, milled and sieved to get flour. The breadfruit/wheat flour was mixed in the ratio 0:100%, 10:90%, 20:80%, 30:70%, 40:60%, 50:50% and 60:40% respectively and used to produce biscuits. Proximate analysis, sensory ...

  16. Surface sterilization and duration of seed storage influenced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-08-03

    Aug 3, 2006 ... sterilization with three dilution levels of sodium hypochlorite on seedling emergence and seedling quality of African breadfruit were ... guineensis Jacq) as roadside snack. The flour has high potential usage for ..... Response to Water Stress of African breadfruit (Treculia africana. Decne). Afr. J. Biotechnol.

  17. Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Haematology of Grower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of two hundred seventy growing Japanese male quail birds were fed with parboiled (PB) and varying boiling time of African Breadfruit, ABF (Treculia africana) seed to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and haematological parameters of the growing male quail fed the African Breadfruit seed. Six dietary ...

  18. Microbiological, proximate analysis and sensory evaluation of baked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility of making bread of good nutritional, microbiological and sensory qualities from blends of wheat-breadfruit flours was examined. Blends of wheat flour (WF) with percentages of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 of breadfruits flour (BF) were used in the production process. The proximate analysis, sensory evaluation and ...

  19. Chemical Changes during the Fortification of Cassava Meal (Gari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional enrichment of a cassava meal (gari) with African breadfruit seed residue was investigated. Grated cassava (70%) was fermented for 3 days with the incorporation of African breadfruit seed residue (30%) at different stages of the fermentation. The fortified and unfortified gari samples were subjected to ...

  20. Weight analyses and nitrogen balance assay in rats fed extruded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weight analyses and nitrogen balance assay in adult rats in raw and extruded African breadfruit (Treculia africana) based diets were carried out using response surface methodology in a central composite design. Process variables were feed composition (40 - 100 % African breadfruit, 0 - 5 % corn and 0 - 55 % soybean, ...

  1. Karakteristik Cookies Berbahan Dasar Tepung Sukun (Artocarpus communis Bagi Anak Penderita Autis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Sukandar

    2017-03-01

    Abstract Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis has been reported as a functional food ingredient for autistic children. This study aims to determine the level of A panelist on cookies breadfruit and various formulations compared to other flour-based cookies which include the effect of additives on the properties of chemistry, physics, power accept cookies breadfruit, calcium and phosphorus levels cookies breadfruit, breadfruit cookies and find out the most preferred if it meets quality standards according to SNI 01-2973-1992 cookies or not. Organoleptic test was conducted to determine the level of preference and acceptance panelist on cookies breadfruit compared with other flour-based cookies     (wheat, rice, sago and breadfruit cookies in a variety of formulation. The parameters used include, colour, frageance, texture, flavor and overall acceptance. Calcium level test performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy method at λ 422.7 nm and phosphorus levels using UV-Vis spectroscopy at λ 880 nm. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance anova and Duncan analysis. The test results showed Cookies breadfruit organoleptif have low enrollment compared to other flour cookies views of the average revenue flavor and general acceptance of cookies breadfruit, breadfruit cookies formulations can improve the physical properties (fragrance, flavor, color, and texture and acceptance of cookies breadfruit by panelists. An increase in the average value of A formulation compared breadfruit cookies before formulation. Cookies are breadfruit tersukai 718 formulations with soy milk additives. Quality breadfruit cookies tersukai 718 formulations in general accordance with SNI 01-2973-1992 except protein content and contained 8.05% Cu content with a small concentration (1.56 ppm. Cookies breadfruit tersukai have the highest levels of calcium and phosphorus compared with breadfruit flour and commercial cookies for autistic children so that the most preferred breadfruit cookies very

  2. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 5, No 16 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of supplementation of African breadfruit (Treculia africana) hulls with organic wastes on growth characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. TU Nwabueze, U Otunwa ...

  3. Hidrolisis Pati Sukun dengan Katalisator H2SO4 untuk Pembuatan Perekat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Breadfruit starch is a unique resource which benefits for raw material of adhesive making. This study investigates hydrolysis method of breadfruit starch into dextrin with Sulphate Acid (H2SO4 catalysator. Dextrin hydrolysis is carry out in order to produce high dextrin percentage by subtracting the total glucose with free glucose. This study evaluates composition change because of breadfruit starch in various time and temperature. Optimum dextrin percentage is obtained at hydrolysis temperature of 100ºC, hydrolysis time 10 minutes, and 0.5 N H2SO4 concentration, with dextrin percentage of 77.12%. Furthermore, dextrin obtained is added by casein, cold water, triethanolamine, and water in order to form adhesive. The reserch result showed that the shear strength of the dextrin glue is 14 kg/cm2 which is larger than that of glue of Fox brands sold in the market that is only 12.48 kg/cm2. Because there is previous study regarding starch hydrolysis from breadfruit by using chloride acid catalysator, then data in this research show the influence of the sulphate acid usage as catalysator of adhesive. Based on the comparison, it seems that for breadfruit starch hydrolyzed at 100oC for 10 minutes, dextrin produced is less than that obtained by using chloride acid catalysator. The less dextrin percentage from breadfruit starch is caused by not all hydro sulphate ions are dissociated while mixing with starch. The mass balance is necessary to be completed including analysis of the breadfruit starch composition after hydrolysis to determine whether the starch has been degraded or not. Keywords: adhesive, dextrin, hydrolysis, shear strength

  4. Utilización de harina de frutos y hojas del árbol del pan (Artocarpus altilis) en la ceba de conejos Nueva Zelanda Blanco Utilization of fruit and leaf meals from breadfruit tree (Artocarpus altilis) for fattening New Zealand White rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Coralia S Leyva; M Valdivié; Ortiz, A

    2012-01-01

    Se utilizaron 36 conejos de la raza Nueva Zelanda Blanco, de 35 días de edad y 506 g de peso vivo, con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de tres dietas en los indicadores productivos y económicos de los animales durante la ceba. Las dietas consistieron en: 1) pienso comercial más forraje fresco de glycine (Neonotonia wightii), como control; 2) harina de frutos del árbol del pan (Artocarpus altilis) más glycine; y 3) pienso integral compuesto por una mezcla de harina de frutos y hojas del árbol...

  5. Artocarpus altilis proving its worth in toxic metal removal from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artocarpus altilis proving its worth in toxic metal removal from the environment. PO Okolo, EEI Irabor, TP Abugu. Abstract. Nuts of breadfruit tree (Artocarpus altilis) obtained from Ugbowo Campus of University of Benin, Benin City, were dehusked and the husk thoroughly washed with distilled water, air-dried, pulverized and ...

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Onuegbu, NC. Vol 23, No 1 (2005) - Articles Physico-chemical changes in velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense Wild) during fruit development and ripening. Abstract · Vol 27, No 2 (2009) - Articles Functional properties and the performance of alum treated African breadfruit (Treculia africana ) as a composite flour in cake ...

  7. 722-IJBCS-Article-S A Aboaba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    man's groundnut' found in Puerto Rico. (Kennard and Winters, 1960; Reeve, 1973) while the seedless cultivar is known as breadfruit. It is widely cultivated in the West. Indies and South Pacific Island where it serves as a staple for many. It also has a wide distribution in most tropical countries. The seeded form was used for ...

  8. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    due to- lactose intolerance. Furthermore, the breadfruit was available, affordable and acceptable to the people whilst the children accepted it freely and often asked for more. In addition to these advantages, the place of health education as an integral part of nutritional rehabilitation would appear to have been established by ...

  9. Production and evaluation of noodles from flour blends of cocoyam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flour blends were prepared from two cultivars of cocoyam ( and . ), African breadfruit ( ) and wheat ( ) at different proportions and extruded into noodles with a locally fabricated and manually operated singlescrew extruder. Proximate composition and the functional properties of the different flour blends were evaluated. The

  10. Effect of hydration and screw speed on the nutrient and acceptability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of hydration and screw speed on the nutrient and acceptability of extruded ready-to-eat African breadfruit (Treculia africana) snack. TU Nwabeze. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Food Journal Vol. 24(1) 2006: 107-113. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  11. SEABEE Combat Handbook. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    a large plume-like cluster of The meat of rats and mice is palatable, flowers that usually droop. It bears berries particularly if cooked in a stew...breadfruits, papaya , and barrel cactus. dangerous as strychnine. If you kill a seal or polar bear, don’t eat its liver. This liver is too high in * Guard

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Badifu, GIO. Vol 3, No 1 (2000) - Articles Chemical, functional and organoleptic evaluation of african breadfruit (Treculia africana Decne) kernel flour for making cookies. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0856 668X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akpapunam, MA. Vol 3, No 1 (2000) - Articles Chemical, functional and organoleptic evaluation of african breadfruit (Treculia africana Decne) kernel flour for making cookies. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0856 668X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  14. r Emcacyar the mean Bteadfiuit metllll'a afiicana)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breadfruit (Tmculia afii'cana) in the Nutritional Rehabilitation of Children with Protein-energy. I Malnutrition. Nigerian journal of Paediatrics ..... as the P2 value got less significant. The statistically. significant difference in the ... over some other proteinous food items, e.g cowpea and. V cow-milk, the ingestion of which has ...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 3901 - 3950 of 11090 ... Vol 5, No 16 (2006), Effect of supplementation of African breadfruit (Treculia africana) hulls with organic wastes on growth characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Abstract PDF. TU Nwabueze, U Otunwa. Vol 9, No 25 (2010), Effect of surface roughness on drying speed of drying lamellas in ...

  16. 1203-IJBCS-Article-Isaac Oluwalana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    This study was to assess the quality of the flour and bread produced from sweet potato wheat composite ... cocoyam, sweet potato, breadfruit, breadnut .... sufficient cooling. The reflective surface colour of bread samples were measured by changing the surfaces of the bread towards light rays. Sensory evaluation.

  17. Physico-chemical properties of oil from some selected underutilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the feasibility of using some selected tropical seeds: palm kernel, breadfruit, groundnut, bambara groundnut, pumpkin, African oil bean, melon, sesame, coconut, soybean, Cucumeropsis manii, and Dacryodes edulis as sources of biodiesel production were investigated. These results suggest that these seeds ...

  18. Surface sterilization and duration of seed storage influenced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of factorial combinations of four storage duration (in days after seed extraction) and surface sterilization with three dilution levels of sodium hypochlorite on seedling emergence and seedling quality of African breadfruit were studied. Storage duration significantly influenced days to seedling emergence, ...

  19. 3.0. and EZEMA'. ws

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    described for each experimental group. Four kilograms of the unpeeled raw breadfruit was divided into four parts of 1kg each and treated differently. Sun drying was by exposure to ultraviolet radiation for 21 days during which it was kept away from moisture. Parboiling was by soaking in water for 5 minutes before heating to.

  20. Nitrogen solubility index and amino acid profile of extruded African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen solubility index decreased with extrusion cooking by more than 50% in all the point blends. Soybean lowered nitrogen solubility index while African breadfruit increased it from 17 to 22% in the raw and 7.25 to 9% in the extruded samples. The model developed in the study accounted for 60.21% of the total variation ...

  1. Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen metabolism in West African dwarf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine nutrient digestibility and nitrogen metabolism in sheep fed differently processed breadfruit meal. ... Results obtained showed that ash digestibility (56.72%), faecal nitrogen (7.63g/day) and urinary nitrogen (4.20g/day) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in sheep on diet A than ...

  2. Kinetics of saponification of Treculia africana oil using a locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigation on the saponification of Treculia africana (breadfruit) oil using a locally obtained alkaline (Ngu) extracted from the burnt female inflorescence of oil palm bunch using kinetic approach proved successful and showed a high probability of producing good quality toilet soap. The result obtained revealed that ...

  3. Development of microsatellite loci in Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae) and cross-amplification in congeneric species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherup, Colby; Ragone, Diane; Wiesner-Hanks, Tyr; Irish, Brian; Scheffler, Brian; Simpson, Sheron; Zee, Francis; Zuberi, M Iqbal; Zerega, Nyree J C

    2013-07-01

    Microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized from enriched genomic libraries of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) and tested in four Artocarpus species and one hybrid. The microsatellite markers provide new tools for further studies in Artocarpus. • A total of 25 microsatellite loci were evaluated across four Artocarpus species and one hybrid. Twenty-one microsatellite loci were evaluated on A. altilis (241), A. camansi (34), A. mariannensis (15), and A. altilis × mariannensis (64) samples. Nine of those loci plus four additional loci were evaluated on A. heterophyllus (jackfruit, 426) samples. All loci are polymorphic for at least one species. The average number of alleles ranges from two to nine within taxa. • These microsatellite primers will facilitate further studies on the genetic structure and evolutionary and domestication history of Artocarpus species. They will aid in cultivar identification and establishing germplasm conservation strategies for breadfruit and jackfruit.

  4. Development of Microsatellite Loci in Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae and Cross-Amplification in Congeneric Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colby Witherup

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized from enriched genomic libraries of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit and tested in four Artocarpus species and one hybrid. The microsatellite markers provide new tools for further studies in Artocarpus. Methods and Results: A total of 25 microsatellite loci were evaluated across four Artocarpus species and one hybrid. Twenty-one microsatellite loci were evaluated on A. altilis (241, A. camansi (34, A. mariannensis (15, and A. altilis × mariannensis (64 samples. Nine of those loci plus four additional loci were evaluated on A. heterophyllus (jackfruit, 426 samples. All loci are polymorphic for at least one species. The average number of alleles ranges from two to nine within taxa. Conclusions: These microsatellite primers will facilitate further studies on the genetic structure and evolutionary and domestication history of Artocarpus species. They will aid in cultivar identification and establishing germplasm conservation strategies for breadfruit and jackfruit.

  5. Development of microsatellite loci in Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae) and cross-amplification in congeneric species1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherup, Colby; Ragone, Diane; Wiesner-Hanks, Tyr; Irish, Brian; Scheffler, Brian; Simpson, Sheron; Zee, Francis; Zuberi, M. Iqbal; Zerega, Nyree J. C.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized from enriched genomic libraries of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) and tested in four Artocarpus species and one hybrid. The microsatellite markers provide new tools for further studies in Artocarpus. • Methods and Results: A total of 25 microsatellite loci were evaluated across four Artocarpus species and one hybrid. Twenty-one microsatellite loci were evaluated on A. altilis (241), A. camansi (34), A. mariannensis (15), and A. altilis × mariannensis (64) samples. Nine of those loci plus four additional loci were evaluated on A. heterophyllus (jackfruit, 426) samples. All loci are polymorphic for at least one species. The average number of alleles ranges from two to nine within taxa. • Conclusions: These microsatellite primers will facilitate further studies on the genetic structure and evolutionary and domestication history of Artocarpus species. They will aid in cultivar identification and establishing germplasm conservation strategies for breadfruit and jackfruit. PMID:25202565

  6. Preparasi Dan Karakterisasi Edible Film Dari Poliblend Pati Sukun-Kitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wini Setiani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak   Plastik biodegradable dan terbuat dari bahan terbarukan seperti edible film merupakan salah satu solusi permasalahan lingkungan. Bahan baku utamanya yaitu pati, karena keberadaannya melimpah serta beragam di Indonesia, salah satunya pati sukun yang memiliki kandungan pati cukup tinggi (60 %. Namun edible film berbahan dasar pati saja memberikan sifat mekanik dan ketahanan air yang masih rendah. Pada penelitian ini akan dipreparasi edible film dari poliblend pati sukun-kitosan dengan plasticizer sorbitol. Metode yang dilakukan yaitu preparasi dan karakterisasi pati sukun kemudian preparasi dan karakterisasi edible film. Hasil karakterisasi pati sukun yang diperoleh yaitu kadar pati total 76,39 %, kadar amilosa dan amilopektin berturut-turut 26,76 % dan 73,24 %, suhu gelatinisasi pati sukun 73,98 ºC, kadar air 22,38 % serta derajat kecerahan yang menunjukkan karakteristik cerah dan berwarna abu-abu pucat. Hasil karakterisasi edible film menunjukkan, dengan bertambahnya kitosan maka kuat tarik dan ketahanan air cenderung meningkat. Secara umum hasil terbaik edible film adalah pada formulasi pati sukun-kitosan 6:4 dengan nilai water uptake sebesar 212,98 %, nilai kuat tarik sebesar 16,34 MPa, nilai elongasi sebesar 6,00 % dan modulus young sebesar 2,72 MPa. Meskipun demikian, hasil analisis morfologi edible film pada formulasi pati sukun-kitosan 6:4 masih terdapat pori dan retakan.   Kata kunci : edible film, pati sukun, kitosa.   Abstract   Biodegradable and renewable plastic such as edible film is one of solution the environmental problem. The main raw material is from starch, because of it is abundant and varied in Indonesia, one of them is breadfruit starch which has enough high starch content (60 %. But edible film based on starch give less mechanical properties and less water resistance. In this research the edible film was made from poliblend of breadfruit starch-chitosan with sorbitol addition. The Method was done, preparation

  7. A Cultural Resources Reconnaissance of the Susupe-Chalan-Kanoa Flood Control Study Area, Saipan, Mariana Islands,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    of coconut palms (Cocos nuciferza), breadfruit (Artocarpue incisus ), papaya (Carica papaya ) , banana (Msa sp.) * ( .. . . . .. *’ I. . l r l[. . . . i...interconnecting ones are generally composed of limestone gravel. Flametrees ( DeZonix regia ) are common along thorough-fares and bananas, papayas ...recovered from the 27 cm level 7Figure 10). It is possible that this artifact cluster and coincident soil change represents a former living surface, but it

  8. Study on Composition and Generation of Food Waste in Makanan Ringan Mas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Kadir Aeslina; Azhari Nur Wahidah; Jamaludin Siti Noratifah

    2017-01-01

    Food waste management is a major problem for most food premises in Malaysia. This study was conducted at one of the Small Medium Industries (SMIs) called Makanan Ringan Mas Industry that is located in Parit Kuari Darat, Parit Raja, Johor. This premise generates food waste almost every day including processed food waste (chips and coconut candy) and raw food waste (banana peels, tapioca peels, breadfruit peels and grated coconut). The objective of the study was to determine the waste generatio...

  9. Migan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Price

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Our friend Charlemagne (a.k.a. Émilien, who lives down the road and considers himself a breadfruit connoisseur, says that there's only one other tree in southern Martinique whose fruit compares with ours. From our back porch, during the tree's several flowerings each year, we can reach out and piek low-growing fruit by hand, or with a knife-and-pole contraption cut down a milk-flecked orb from higher up in the broad green leaves. This particular tree may even be descended from the oldest breadfruit in the Caribbean, for Martinique was already blessed with trees, transported from "L'ïle-de-France" (Mauritius, by the time Captain Bligh made his 1791-93 voyage from Polynesia, "bringing breadfruit from what was seen to be a Tree of Life in the islands of Paradise ... the very symbol of a free and unencumbered life ... to feed slaves, the living dead of the Caribbean" (Dening 1992:4, 11.

  10. Study on Composition and Generation of Food Waste in Makanan Ringan Mas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Kadir Aeslina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food waste management is a major problem for most food premises in Malaysia. This study was conducted at one of the Small Medium Industries (SMIs called Makanan Ringan Mas Industry that is located in Parit Kuari Darat, Parit Raja, Johor. This premise generates food waste almost every day including processed food waste (chips and coconut candy and raw food waste (banana peels, tapioca peels, breadfruit peels and grated coconut. The objective of the study was to determine the waste generation and composition of food waste generated by the premise. Food waste collected from the premise once a week and tested for moisture content and density. The results demonstrated that Makanan Ringan Mas Industry generated more raw food waste compared to processed food waste. Banana peels recorded the highest amount at 27.15kg per month compared to other food waste. To conclude, banana peels were found to be the highest component in the food waste composition by Makanan Ringan Mas Industry whereas breadfruit peels were found to be the lowest.

  11. PEMANFAATAN TEPUNG SUKUN (Artocarpus altilis sp. PADA PEMBUATAN ANEKA KUDAPAN SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF MAKANAN BERGIZI UNTUK PMT-AS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewanti Putri Pratiwi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBreadfruit is valuable fruit and has a good of nutrient content, but its usage is limited by poor storage properties of fresh fruit. Processing into flour, can increase its utilization. The aim of this research was to utilize breadfruit flour in production of nutritious snack foods for School Supplementary Feeding Programme (PMT-AS. There were three products developed in this study; brownies, pia, and croquette. The research was conducted using experimental design. The proportions of breadfruit flour and wheat flour were different for each product, which brownies was formulated using 70:30, 80:20, 90:10, and 100:0; whereas pia and croquette was formulated by 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, and 80:20. Proximate analysis showed that 100 g brownies contained 409 kcal energy and 7.5 g protein, 100 g pia had 383 kcal energy and 6.7 g protein and croquette had the highest energy and protein content is 455 kcal and 9.9 g protein. In conclusion, all products were suitable as alternative snacks for PMT-AS. The products have met 300 kcal energy and 5 g protein per serving size. Considered also the cost of production, these products have fulfilled criteria to be used in PMT-AS.Keywords: breadfruit, PMT-AS, snacksABSTRAKSukun merupakan buah yang bernilai dan memiliki kandungan gizi yang baik, tetapi penggunaannya terbatas oleh penyimpanan ketika berbentuk buah segar. Sukun yang diubah ke dalam bentuk tepung dapat meningkatkan pemanfaatannya. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah memanfaatkan tepung sukun dalam pembuatan kudapan sebagai alternatif makanan bergizi untuk PMT-AS. Terdapat tiga produk dalam penelitian ini, yaitu brownies, pia, dan kroket. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain eksperimental. Perbandingan tepung sukun dan tepung terigu berbeda untuk masing-masing produk. Formulasi brownies adalah 70:39, 80:20, 90:10, dan 100:0, sedangkan formulasi pia dan kroket adalah 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, dan 80:20. Berdasarkan uji organoleptik diketahui bahwa produk

  12. New coating material for producing virgin coconut oil (VCO microcapsules

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    Amin, Z.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the microencapsulation efficiency (MEE of different grades of broken rice (RB and breadfruit (BB-based maltodextrin as a coating material, using virgin coconut oil (VCO as a model system. The VCO was generally found to be well microencapsulated using BB, RB or commercial (COM maltodextrin at a core/wall material ratio of 1:3. In comparison to a different dextrose equivalent (DE group, both RB and BB maltodextrins with DE values of 10-14 showed higher MEE values (84.81-94.39% than maltodextrins with DE value of 15-19 (78.23-79.65%. Low DE value maltodextrins were shown higher glass transition temperatures than high DE value maltodextrins under the same moisture content. Both RB and BB maltodextrins were found to be compatible with COM maltodextrin as shown in the microstructure appearance when viewed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM.

  13. Rundown

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    Richard Price

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Our 1993 rundown of books that have not, for one reason or another, been reviewed in the NWIG follows the culinary metaphors of its precedents, "Caribbean pepper-pot" (NWIG 58:89-98 and "Callaloo" (NWIG 66:95-99. Cassidy & Le Page's Dictionary ofJamaican English (Cambridge University Press, 1967 offers, s.v. rundown: A kind of sauce made by boiling coconut down till it becomes like custard (but stops short of becoming oil. In it may be cooked salt or pickled fish, banana, or other ingredients. It is served in a bowl in the middle of the table, into which one dips one's bread-kind. See dip-and-come-back. Under "dip-and-come-back," we find thirty-six alternative terms for the dish, including: dip-and-fall-back, dip-and-shake-off, assistant, bread-fruit remedy, dip-dip, dividen-an-flabub, duck-and-shake-back, elbow-grease, frigasi, johnny run-down, kobijong, kuochi waata, malongkontong, mulgrave, pakassa, plaba, plomi, rege, round-the-road, stew-down, swimmerdown, tap-i-a-paas....

  14. Confronting death: Tuvaluan Islanders, in the South Pacific, and the rising sea level

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    Isabel Maria Madaleno

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tuvalu Group is made of nine small low-lying coral atoll and reef islands, located in the South Pacific, about 1,100 km north of Fiji. With a total area of 26 km2, it has about 11,000 residents, generally fishermen and breadfruit, taro, pulaka and coconut subsistence farmers. The people of Tuvalu are mostly of Polynesian origin, their culture and physical type being quite homogeneous. In order to develop an ethno-geographic study, during the month of February 2010, the Portuguese Tropical Research Institute has conducted a scientific mission to the atoll of Funafuti, widely known to be endangered due to the rising sea level. The objectives of the project were twofold: to evaluate the Pacific people's awareness to climate change and, consequently, to evaluate their perception of death. The survey consisted of fifty-eight semi-structured interviews. Results have shown that nearly two thirds of the remote islanders fear not the rising sea levels, as they are mostly Christians and therefore fearless of death. They emphatically trust that Divine Providence will bet on their survival.

  15. Fuel and chemical co-production from tree crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, M; Williams, G,; Folger, G; Milne, T.

    1986-01-01

    A concept for the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals from fermentable and oleaginous substrates produced on an annual basis by the reproductive organs (pods, fruits, nuts, berries, etc.) of tree crops is presented. The advantages of tree-crop systems include suitability for use on marginal land, potential productivity equivalent to row crops, minimal maintenance and energy input requirements, environmental compatibility, and the possibility of coproduct production. Disadvantages are possible high establishment costs, a long growth period until production commences, and difficulties in harvesting or storage; however, these provide opportunities for potential research impact. Honeylocust, mesquite, persimmon, osage orange, and Chinese tallow are examined as potential US tree-crop species. Other species, including breadfruit and African oil palm, are suggested as tree-crop candidates for the tropical developing world. Fermentation or extraction of tree-crop organs and the economics of tree-crop systems are also discussed. Currently, the greatest area of uncertainty lies in the actual pod or fruit yields that can be expected from large tree farms under real life condititons. However, ballpark ethanol yield estimates of 650 to 3470 litres/ha (69-371 gallons/acre) and oil yields up to 3900 kg/ha (4227 litres/ha) justify further consideration of tree-crop systems.

  16. Alcohol co-production from tree crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, M.; Folger, G.; Milne, T.

    1982-06-01

    A concept for the sustainable production of alcohol from fermentable substrates produced on an annual basis by the reproductive organs (pods, fruits, nuts, berries, etc.) of tree crops is presented. The advantages of tree-crop systems include suitability for use on marginal land, potential productivity equivalent to row crops, minimal maintenance and energy-input requirements, environmental compatibility, and the possibility of co-product production. Honeylocust, mesquite, and persimmon are examined as potential US tree-crop species. Other species not previously considered, including osage orange and breadfruit, are suggested as tree-crop candidates for North America and the tropical developing world, respectively. Fermentation of tree-crop organs and the economics of tree-crop systems are also discussed. Currently the greatest area of uncertainty lies in actual pod or fruit yields one can expect from large tree farms under real life conditions. However, ballpark ethanol yield estimates of from 880 to 3470 l hectare/sup -1/ (94 to 400 gal acre/sup -1/) justify further consideration of tree crop systems.

  17. Produção de serapilheira em sistema agroflorestal multiestratificado no Estado de Rondônia, Brasil Litter production in multistrata agroforestry system in Rondônia State, Brazil

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    Fernando Luíz de Oliveira Corrêa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produção de serapilheira em diferentes coberturas frutíferas e florestais componentes de um sistema agroflorestal multiestratificado localizado no município de Ouro Preto do Oeste, RO, Brasil. As espécies avaliadas foram: mangueira (Mangifera indica L., fruta-pão (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson Fosberg, cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum, abacateiro (Persea americana Mill., cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao L. sombreado com gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp. e as espécies florestais, a bandarra (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke e a teca (Tectona grandis L.f.. Como referência foi utilizada uma área de vegetação natural (capoeira, de 8 anos de idade. A deposição anual de serapilheira entre o período de outubro de 2002 e setembro de 2003 foi de 13,38 t ha-1 para a vegetação natural, 4,02 t ha-1 para bandarra, 3,43 t ha-1 para gliricídia, 2,86 t ha-1para abacateiro, 2,54 t ha-1 para fruta-pão, 1,40 t ha-1 para o cupuaçuzeiro, 1,16 t ha-1 para o cacaueiro, 1,12 t ha-1 para mangueira e 1,07 t ha-1 para a teca. A vegetação natural, a bandarra e o cacaueiro apresentaram uma maior deposição no período seco (verão, enquanto que a fruta-pão, cupuaçuzeiro, mangueira, teca, gliricídia e abacateiro as maiores deposições foram no período chuvoso (inverno. Por outro lado a serapilheira acumulada sobre o solo foi de 14,61 t ha-1 na mangueira, 12,8 t ha-1 na bandarra, 12,73 t ha-1 na vegetação natural, 12,04 t ha-1, no abacateiro, 9,87 t ha-1 no cacaueiro/gliricídia, 9,88 t ha-1 no cupuaçuzeiro, 9,05 t ha-1 na fruta-pão e 7,39 t ha-1 na teca.One study was made to evaluate litter production in different fruitful coverings and forest components of a multistrata agroforestry system located in Ouro Preto do Oeste district (RO, Brazil. The studied species were: mango tree (Mangifera indica L., breadfruit tree (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson Fosberg, cupuassu tree (Theobroma

  18. KARO’S LOCAL WISDOM: THE USE OF WOODY PLANTS FOR TRADITIONAL DIABETIC MEDICINES

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    Rospita Odorlina Situmorang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the plant species used traditionally by Karo people in North Sumatra, to cure diabetes, analyses the cultural significance index of those plants for the Karo, and clarifies phytochemical contents of the plants. Data were collected using survey method from selected respondents (n=54 based on their knowledge and practices in utilising medicinal plants to cure diabetic disease. Index of Cultural Significance (ICS of plants was determined using the method proposed by Turner. Results showed that twelve woody plant species have been used to cure diabetes: loning leave (Psychotria sp., kacihe leave (Prunus accuminta Hook, umbrella tree leave (Maesopsis eminii Engl, mutamba leave (Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk, cepcepan leave (Villebrunea subescens Blume, pirdot/cepcepan lembu leave (Saurauia vulcani Korth, raru bark (Cotylelobium melanoxylo, breadfruit leave (Artocarpus altilis, salam leave (Syzygium polyanthum Wight, mahogany seed (Swietenia mahagoni (L. Jacq, cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmani, and yellow bamboo rod (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. Five of those plants: loning, umbrella tree, mutamba, raru and salam have the highest cultural significance level. These five plants are highly needed in large quatities by the Karo people, so their availability in the forest should be securely conserved and protected. The plants used contained alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics and terpenoids which can help to lower blood sugar level.

  19. Carbohydrate-rich foods: glycaemic indices and the effect of constituent macronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widanagamage, Rahal D; Ekanayake, Sagarika; Welihinda, Jayantha

    2009-01-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) ranks foods according to their acute glycaemic impact and is used in planning meals for patients invoking glycaemic control through diet. Kurakkan (Eleusine coracana) flour roti, rice flour roti, atta flour roti, boiled breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis/Artocarpus communis) and boiled legumes (mungbean, cowpea and chickpea) were categorized as low-GI foods (relative to white bread; Prima Crust Top), and the corresponding GI (+/- standard error of the mean) values were 70+/-8, 69+/-7, 67+/-9, 64+/-7, 57+/-6, 49+/-8 and 29+/-5, respectively. Kurakkan flour pittu and wheat flour roti were classified as medium-GI foods with GI values of 85+/-6 and 72+/-6. Hoppers, rice flour pittu, wheat flour pittu and Olu-milk rice (seeds of Nymphaea lotus) were categorized as high-GI foods, and the corresponding GI (+/- standard error of the mean) values were 120+/-8, 103+/-7, 101+/-8 and 91+/-8, respectively. The GI values significantly (P<0.01) and negatively correlated with the insoluble dietary fibre (rho = - 0.780), soluble dietary fibre (rho = - 0.712) and protein (rho = - 0.738) contents in grams per 100 g digestible starch containing foods.

  20. Enhancing adsorption capacity of toxic malachite green dye through chemically modified breadnut peel: equilibrium, thermodynamics, kinetics and regeneration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieng, Hei Ing; Lim, Linda B L; Priyantha, Namal

    2015-01-01

    Breadnut skin, in both its unmodified (KS) and base-modified (BM-KS) forms, was investigated for its potential use as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of toxic dye, malachite green (MG). Characterization of the adsorbents was carried out using scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Batch adsorption experiments, carried out under optimized conditions, for the adsorption of MG were fitted using five isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Temkin and Sips) and six error functions to determine the best-fit model. The adsorption capacity was greatly enhanced when breadnut skin was chemically modified with NaOH, leading to an adsorption capacity of 353.0 mg g(-1), that was far superior to most reported adsorbents for the removal of MG. Thermodynamics studies indicated that the adsorption of MG was spontaneous on KS and BM-KS, and the reactions were endothermic and exothermic, respectively. Kinetics studies showed that both followed the pseudo-second order. Regeneration experiments on BM-KS indicated that its adsorption capacity was still maintained at>90% even after five cycles. It can be concluded that NaOH-modified breadfruit skin has great potential to be utilized in real-life application as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MG in wastewater treatment.

  1. Cytotoxic Effects of Native and Recombinant Frutalin, a Plant Galactose-Binding Lectin, on HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells

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    Carla Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Frutalin is the α-D-galactose-binding lectin isolated from breadfruit seeds. Frutalin was obtained from two different sources: native frutalin was purified from its natural origin, and recombinant frutalin was produced and purified from Pichia pastoris. This work aimed to study and compare the effect of native and recombinant frutalin on HeLa cervical cancer cells proliferation and apoptosis. Furthermore, the interaction between frutalin and the HeLa cells was investigated by confocal microscopy. Despite having different carbohydrate-binding affinities, native and recombinant frutalin showed an identical magnitude of cytotoxicity on HeLa cells growth (IC50~100 μg/mL and equally induced cell apoptosis. The interaction studies showed that both lectins were rapidly internalised and targeted to HeLa cell's nucleus. Altogether, these results indicate that frutalin action is not dependent on its sugar-binding properties. This study provides important information about the bioactivity of frutalin and contributes to the understanding of the plant lectins cytotoxic activity.

  2. PREFERENSI KONSUMEN TERHADAP PANCAKE DARI TEPUNG SUKUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Rosipah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Preference of food product is influenced by personal characteristics (age, sex,education, income, and nutrient knowledge, food characteristics (taste, shape, and texture andalso surroundings characteristics (job, number of family, mobility, and season. Pancake hassome attributes such as texture, colour, taste, and aroma. These attributes will influenceconsumer likes. The aims of this research are to determine the attributes of consumerpreference appraisal and to know the order of consumer preference toward pancake made ofbreadfruit flour. The method used in this research is conjoint analysis. Attributes and theirlevel is determined by asking for some respondents (questionaire to collect data of consumerpreference of this product. The results (measured by utility value of this research are: texture(rather soft 0,029; colour (golden yellow 0,112; taste (sweet 0,021; and aroma (usual 0,566.The priority of consumer’s decision making toward pancake made of breadfruit are: aroma(49,745%, texture (19,925%, colour (19,628%, and taste (10,702%.

  3. Food processing methods influence the glycaemic indices of some commonly eaten West Indian carbohydrate-rich foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahado-Singh, P S; Wheatley, A O; Ahmad, M H; Morrison, E Y St A; Asemota, H N

    2006-09-01

    Glycaemic index (GI) values for fourteen commonly eaten carbohydrate-rich foods processed by various methods were determined using ten healthy subjects. The foods studied were round leaf yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis), negro and lucea yams (Dioscorea rotundata), white and sweet yams (Dioscorea alata), sweet potato (Solanum tuberosum), Irish potato (Ipomoea batatas), coco yam (Xanthosoma spp.), dasheen (Colocasia esculenta), pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), green banana (Musa sapientum), and green and ripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca). The foods were processed by boiling, frying, baking and roasting where applicable. Pure glucose was used as the standard with a GI value of 100. The results revealed marked differences in GI among the different foods studied ranging from 35 (se 3) to 94 (se 8). The area under the glucose response curve and GI value of some of the roasted and baked foods were significantly higher than foods boiled or fried (P<0.05). The results indicate that foods processed by roasting or baking may result in higher GI. Conversely, boiling of foods may contribute to a lower GI diet.

  4. Adaptation and evaluation of the WillTry tool among children in Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflague, Tanisha F; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T; Boushey, Carol J

    2014-08-21

    Fruit and vegetable consumption may reduce risk for chronic disease and obesity. Children's fruit and vegetable intake is mediated by a preference or willingness to try them. This study's primary objective was to adapt the previously validated WillTry tool and to evaluate the adapted version among children in Guam. Adaptations to the WillTry tool included both novel fruits and vegetables unique to Guam and common ones. Children aged 3 to 11 years who attended 2 community-based summer day camps in 2013 were shown images matching 14 food questions in an initial interview and in a second interview conducted 3 to 72 hours later. Responses were "no," "maybe," or "yes" and were coded as 1, 2, or 3, respectively. A higher score indicated more willingness to try fruits and vegetables. Factor analyses determined components of willingness. Psychometric properties and reliability were analyzed. Sixty-five children completed the first interview, and 64 completed the second. Factor analyses revealed 3 components (scales):1) local novel (guava, breadfruit, eggplant, sweet sop, star apple, taro leaves), 2) local common (carrot, papaya, long beans, salad greens), and 3) imported (apple, canned peaches, canned corn). All but the imported scale had sufficient internal consistency (Cronbach's α > 0.69). Each scale had substantial reliability (ICC > 0.76). We found no significant differences by age, sex, or type of camp for any scale. Mean scores were 2.1 (local novel), 2.4 (local common), and 2.7 (imported), and all were significantly different. The adapted WillTry was culturally relevant and had psychometric properties similar to those of the original. An unexpected finding was the tool's potential for documenting the nutrition transition.

  5. Out of Borneo: biogeography, phylogeny and divergence date estimates of Artocarpus (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Evelyn W; Gardner, Elliot M; Harris, Robert; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Pereira, Joan T; Zerega, Nyree J C

    2017-03-01

    The breadfruit genus ( Artocarpus , Moraceae) includes valuable underutilized fruit tree crops with a centre of diversity in Southeast Asia. It belongs to the monophyletic tribe Artocarpeae, whose only other members include two small neotropical genera. This study aimed to reconstruct the phylogeny, estimate divergence dates and infer ancestral ranges of Artocarpeae, especially Artocarpus , to better understand spatial and temporal evolutionary relationships and dispersal patterns in a geologically complex region. To investigate the phylogeny and biogeography of Artocarpeae, this study used Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to analyze DNA sequences from six plastid and two nuclear regions from 75% of Artocarpus species, both neotropical Artocarpeae genera, and members of all other Moraceae tribes. Six fossil-based calibrations within the Moraceae family were used to infer divergence times. Ancestral areas and estimated dispersal events were also inferred. Artocarpeae, Artocarpus and four monophyletic Artocarpus subgenera were well supported. A late Cretaceous origin of the Artocarpeae tribe in the Americas is inferred, followed by Eocene radiation of Artocarpus in Asia, with the greatest diversification occurring during the Miocene. Borneo is reconstructed as the ancestral range of Artocarpus , with dozens of independent in situ diversification events inferred there, as well as dispersal events to other regions of Southeast Asia. Dispersal pathways of Artocarpus and its ancestors are proposed. Borneo was central in the diversification of the genus Artocarpus and probably served as the centre from which species dispersed and diversified in several directions. The greatest amount of diversification is inferred to have occurred during the Miocene, when sea levels fluctuated and land connections frequently existed between Borneo, mainland Asia, Sumatra and Java. Many species found in these areas have extant overlapping ranges, suggesting that sympatric

  6. Six centuries of anthropogenic forest change on a Polynesian high island: Archaeological charcoal records from the Marquesas Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebert, Jennifer M.; Allen, Melinda S.

    2016-04-01

    It is widely recognised that Polynesian settlers developed central Pacific islands into productive economic landscapes, but the character and tempo of these transformations are poorly understood. Archaeological wood charcoal assemblages are uniquely suited to inform on landscape change, especially when the principal food crops were arboreal. We use a large archaeological charcoal collection, drawn from numerous geographically and functionally varied contexts, to develop a multi-scalar vegetation history of Marquesas Islands' lowland forests. Our aims were to: 1) reveal historical patterns of plant biogeography, including introductions by Polynesian settlers; 2) detail the nature and timing of anthropogenic impacts on native Marquesan forests; and 3) track the emergence of economically productive arboreal landscapes. A collection of 6510 fragments identified to 59 taxa inform on a ∼600-year sequence of human activities. The earliest samples indicate rich forests were encountered by human colonists, comprised of a mix of dicotyledonous hardwood species and woody monocots. These included members of two now-extinct Sapotaceae genera, Planchonella and cf. Sideroxylon, along with Allophylus, a Sapindaceae apparently extirpated from Nuku Hiva. Two important coastal trees, Calophyllum inophyllum and Thespesia populnea, also appear to be indigenous. Polynesian impacts were rapid and widespread, irrevocably altering the indigenous vegetation and disrupting native ecosystems. Samples from later occupations document on-going modifications to lowland vegetation communities. This included inter-valley variability in the timing of transformations and the development of mosaic formations, comprised of native forest interspersed with areas of cultivation and habitation. By 1650 CE, low and mid-elevation vegetation was extensively remodelled, as anthropogenic forests of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit), Inocarpus fagifer (Tahitian chestnut), and other economic species became widely

  7. Growing plants on atoll soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the

  8. Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls Affected by U.S. Nuclear Testing:All Exposure Pathways, Remedial Measures, and Environmental Loss of 137Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F

    2009-04-20

    Rongelap Atoll (Robison et al., 1994; Simon et al., 1997), and Utrok Island at Utrok Atoll (Robison, et al., 1999) indicate that about 95-99% of the total estimated dose to people who may return to live at the atolls today (Utrok Island is populated) is the result of exposure to {sup 137}Cs. External gamma exposure from {sup 137}Cs in the soil accounts for about 10 to 15% of the total dose and {sup 137}Cs ingested during consumption of local food crops such as drinking coconut meat and fluid (Cocos nucifera L.), copra meat and milk, Pandanus fruit, and breadfruit accounts for about 85 to 90%. The other 1 to 2% of the estimated dose is from {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. The {sup 90}Sr exposure is primarily through the food chain while the exposure to {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am is primarily via the inhalation pathway as a result of breathing re-suspended soil particles.

  9. Final integrated trip report: site visits to Area 50, Andersen Air Force Base, Guam National Wildlife Refuge, War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam, Rota and Saipan, CNMI, 2004-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Pratt, Linda W.

    2006-01-01

    supported the Mariana Gallinule (Gallinula chloropus guami), the Mariana Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos oustaleti), Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), White-throated Ground Dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura xanthonura), Mariana Crow (Corvus kubaryi), and the Nightingale Reed-warbler (Acrocephalus luscinia), all endemic to the Mariana Islands. Other regionally endemic endangered species include the Micronesian Megapode (Megapodius laperouse), and the Mariana Swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi), now reduced to a small population on Guam. Likewise, the flora of Guam is unique, with 21percent of its native vascular plants endemic to the Mariana Islands. In limestone forests of Northern Guam, a number of tall forest tree species such as joga, Elaeocarpus joga (Elaeocarpaceae); pengua or Macaranga thompsonii (Euphorbiaceae); ifit or Intsia bijuga (Fabaceae); seeded breadfruit or Artocarpus marianensis (Moraceae); and umumu or Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae) may be in decline as a result of herbivory by mammals. All show reduced regeneration and age distributions highly skewed towards older individuals. These species provided important habitat for some of Guam's endangered forest birds that remain in captivity such as the Mariana Crow, Guam Kingfisher, and Guam Rail. The recent high frequency of intense tropical storms and herbivory caused by large populations of feral pigs and Philippine sambar deer (Cervus mariannus), as well as invasive alien vines that may suppress tree regeneration, could be permanently altering the structure of regenerating forests and composition of important canopy species on secondary limestone substrates that were cleared and compacted during airfield construction from 1944 through the 1970s. Guam National Wildlife Refuge (GNWR) was established at Ritidian Point, after it was determined to be excess property by the U.S. Navy. Most of the refuge, about 9,087 hectares, is an 'overlay refuge' on lands administered by the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy