Sample records for breadfruits

  1. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Nochera


    Full Text Available Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar, test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk (Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis, was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit.

  2. Exploration of Breadfruit, Jicama, and Rice Starches as Stabilizer in Food Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Haryani Anwar


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the ability of three native starches from Indonesia to stabilize oil in water emulsion with and without the addition of lecithin as surfactant. Breadfruit, bengkuang (jicama, and rice starches were extracted from local sources in Banda Aceh - Indonesia. Two variables studied were type of starches and the amount of oil added into emulsion (15 and 25%. Proximate analysis showed that the starch content of breadfruit, jicama and rice were 77.57, 67.41, and 80.51% respectively and the amylose content were 20.50, 16.5, and 13.6%. Results showed that the emulsification index (EI of emulsion prepared with jicama and rice starches were lower than the EI of emulsion stabilized by breadfruit starch. However, the viscosity of breadfruit emulsion was higher than the other two emulsions. Storage stability test in room temperature also demonstrated that oil in water emulsion made from breadfruit starch had the lowest separation rate over storage period compared to jicama and rice emulsions. Overall, stabilization of 25% oil in breadfruit emulsion was slightly better than addition of 15% oil where the visible boundaries or serum layer of the emulsion was in the range of 5-6 ml at the end of storage test. Breadfruit starch was further modified by reacting it with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA to produce OSA-modified breadfruit starch. The degree of substitution (DS of OSA modified breadfruit starch was 0.0231. OSA-modified breadfruit starch is highly potential to be used as food emulsifier and therefore studied further to examine its ability to stabilize oil in water emulsion.

  3. Exploration of Breadfruit, Jicama, and Rice Starches as Stabilizer in Food Emulsion


    Sri Haryani Anwar; Mutia Rahmah; Novi Safriani; Dian Hasni; Syarifah Rohaya; Christina Winarti


    The aim of this research was to investigate the ability of three native starches from Indonesia to stabilize oil in water emulsion with and without the addition of lecithin as surfactant. Breadfruit, bengkuang (jicama), and rice starches were extracted from local sources in Banda Aceh - Indonesia. Two variables studied were type of starches and the amount of oil added into emulsion (15 and 25%). Proximate analysis showed that the starch content of breadfruit, jicama and rice were 77.57, 67.41...

  4. Proximate composition and selected functional properties of African breadfruit and sweet potato flour blends. (United States)

    Akubor, P I


    Full-fat African breadfruit flour was used to replace 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70% of sweet potato flour. The chemical composition and functional properties of composite flours showed that they contain more protein, fat, and ash and less carbohydrate than sweet potato flour. With increasing level of supplementation of breadfruit, ash, protein and fat contents increased while carbohydrate decreased. The composite flours possessed higher water absorption than sweet potato flour. The water absorption capacity increased from 20% for sweet potato flour to the range of 85-120% for composite flours. The oil absorption capacities for some composite flours were higher than that for sweet potato but less than that of breadfruit. Composite flours had good foaming capacity but lacked foaming stability. The bulk density of the composite flours was found to be low which will be an advantage in the preparation of weaning food formulations. PMID:9498694

  5. In vitro conservation and sustained production of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae): modern technologies for a traditional tropical crop. (United States)

    Murch, Susan J; Ragone, Diane; Shi, Wendy Lei; Alan, Ali R; Saxena, Praveen K


    Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) is a traditionally cultivated, high-energy, high-yield crop, but widespread use of the plant for food is limited by poor quality and poor storage properties of the fruit. A unique field genebank of breadfruit species and cultivars exists at the National Tropical Botanical Garden in the Hawaiian Islands and is an important global resource for conservation and sustainable use of breadfruit. However, this plant collection could be damaged by a random natural disaster such as a hurricane. We have developed a highly efficient in vitro plant propagation system to maintain, conserve, mass propagate, and distribute elite varieties of this important tree species. Mature axillary shoot buds were collected from three different cultivars of breadfruit and proliferated using a cytokinin-supplemented medium. The multiple shoots were maintained as stock cultures and repeatedly used to develop whole plants after root differentiation on a basal or an auxin-containing medium. The plantlets were successfully grown under greenhouse conditions and were reused to initiate additional shoot cultures for sustained production of plants. Flow cytometry was used to determine the nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid content and the ploidy status of the in vitro grown population. The efficacy of the micropropagation protocols developed in this study represents a significant advancement in the conservation and sustained mass propagation of breadfruit germplasm in a controlled environment free from contamination. PMID:17710379


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonna Christopher EMEROLE


    Full Text Available This study on marketing of breadfruits (Treculia africana and returns was done in Ahiazu Mbaise local Government area of Imo State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to describe socio-economic characteristics of respondents (sellers and buyers of African breadfruit; identify value-chain activities available in processing and its storage in compliance with consumers’ order and preferences; determine factors influencing decision to supply African breadfruit; and constraints with its post-harvest management in the study area. Three-stage random sampling technique was used in selecting locations and respondents through which eighty (80 farm households who gather/harvest, process and sell breadfruits were selected and interviewed with structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and probit regression model. Result revealed that 65.80% of the respondents were females and 81.20% of them were married with mean household size of 9 members. Their literacy level was high as 97.6% of them had at least primary education. Predominant marketing activities were fruit gathering/harvesting, processing, storage and packaging, transportation, and sales. Socio-economic factors of gender, household size, income, level of education, years of farming experience and labour significantly influenced supply of breadfruits to consumers with challenges of seasonal scarcity, and tedious methods of processing deterring the enterprise in the area. We recommended provision of credit support to enable fruit gatherers purchase and use shelling machines and good storage facilities to smooth any fluctuations in supplies during off-seasons and help fight overdependence of households on roots and tubers.

  7. Fermentation by amylolytic lactic acid bacteria and consequences for starch digestibility of plantain, breadfruit, and sweet potato flours


    Haydersah, J.; Chevallier, I.; Rochette, Isabelle; Mouquet Rivier, Claire; Picq, Christian; Marianne Pépin, T.; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre


    The potential of tropical starchy plants such as plantain (Musa paradisiaca), breadfruit (Artocarpus communis), and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) for the development of new fermented foods was investigated by exploiting the capacity of some lactic acid bacteria to hydrolyze starch. The amylolytic lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) Lactobacillus plantarum A6 and Lactobacillus fermentum Ogi E1 were able to change the consistency of thick sticky gelatinized slurries of these starchy fruits and tubers ...

  8. Direct Ethanol Production from Breadfruit Starch (Artocarpus communis Forst. by Engineered Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (ESSF using Microbes Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftachul Farida


    Full Text Available Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst. is one of sources for ethanol production, which has high starch content (89%. Ethanol production from breadfruit starch was conducted by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF technology using microbes consortium. The aim of the research was to examine a method to produce ethanol by SSF technology using microbes consortium at high yield and efficiency. The main research consisted of two treatments, namely normal SSF and enginereed SSF. The results showed that normal SSF using aeration and agitation during cultivation could produce ethanol at 11.15 ± 0.18 g/L, with the yield of product (Yp/s 0.34 g ethanol/g substrate; and yield of biomass (Yx/s 0.29 g cell/g substrate, respectively. A better result was obtained using engineered SSF in which aeration was stopped after biomass condition has reached the end of the exponential phase. The ethanol produced was 12.75 ± 0.04 g/L, with the yields of product (Yp/s 0.41 g ethanol/g substrate, and the yield of cell (Yx/s 0.09 g cell/g substrate.

  9. Rheological, baking, and sensory properties of composite bread dough with breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst) and wheat flours. (United States)

    Bakare, Adegoke H; Osundahunsi, Oluwatooyin F; Olusanya, Joseph O


    The rheological (Pasting, farinograph, and alveograph) properties of wheat flour (WF) replaced with breadfruit four (05-40%) was analyzed. Baking and sensory qualities of the resulting bread were evaluated. Differences in baking properties of loaves produced under laboratory and industrial conditions were analyzed with t-test, whereas ANOVA was used for other analyses. Peak and final viscosities in the composite blends (CB) ranged from 109.20 to 114.06 RVU and 111.86 to 134.40 RVU, respectively. Dough stability decreased from 9.15 to 0.78 min, whereas farinograph water absorption increased 59.7-65.9%. Alveograph curve configuration ratio increased from 1.27 to 7.39, whereas specific volume (Spv) of the loaves decreased from 2.96 to 1.32 cm(3)/g. The Spv of WF loaves were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that of the 5% CB, whereas production conditions had no significant effects on absorbed water (t = 0.532, df = 18 P = 0.3005), weight loss during baking (t = 0.865, df = 18, P = 0.199), and Spv (t = 0.828, df = 14.17, P = 0.211). The sensory qualities of the 5% blend were not significantly different from the WF. PMID:27386107

  10. Effect of Essential Oil of Attarasa Leaves (Litsea Cubeba Lour. Pers) on Physico-Mechanical and Microstructural Properties Of Breadfruit Starch-Alginate Edible Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on preparation of edible film from breadfruit starch and alginate incorporated with essential oil of attarasa leaves (Litsea cubeba Lour Pers.) has been done. The film was evaluated of their thickness, tensile strength, elongation at break, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and microstructural properties by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Incorporation of the oil increased thickness of film from 0.033 mm to 0.036 mm, tensile strength from 32.8 to 37.0 MPa, elongation at break from 48.92 % to 50.43 % but water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) decreased from 142.9 g/ m2.hour to 120.3 g/ m2.hour. However SEM analysis showed that the surface microstructural of the film was more rough and solid compare with film without incorporation of essential oil. (author)

  11. Elaboração de farinha instantânea a partir da polpa de fruta-pão (Artocarpus altilis Preparation of instant flour from the pulp of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Santos Souza


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se elaborar uma farinha instantânea utilizando do mesocarpo de fruta-pão, variedade apyrena, e avaliar sua composição físico-química, bem como desenvolver um purê a base da farinha e determinar sua aceitação sensorial por consumidores potenciais utilizando o teste de consumidor. A fruta-pão in natura apresentou valores de umidade em base úmida, pH, teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável aproximadamente 74,58±2,84%, 6,01±0,04, 5,6±0,01Brix e 1,64±0,01%, respectivamente, e a farinha instantânea com umidade, pH, densidade, acidez álcool solúvel e atividade de água de 9,4±0,28%, 5,55±0,2, 0,61±0,01g mL-1, 2,098±0,01% e 0,538±0,14, respectivamente. A equação adaptada de Brooker, usada para ajustar o comportamento da secagem, foi eficiente para descrever o processo de secagem da polpa de fruta-pão cozida. O purê de fruta-pão apresentou boa aceitabilidade pelos consumidores para os atributos sensoriais avaliados, exceto para a cor, sendo que a maioria declarou comprar o produto.This work aimed to develop an instant flour using the mesocarp of breadfruit, variety apyrena, and assess its physicochemical composition, as well as to develop a flour based puree and determine its potential sensory acceptance by potential consumers, employing the consumer testing. The in natura breadfruit presented moisture in dry basis, pH, soluble solids and total acidity values of 74.58%, 6.01, 5.6°Brix and 1.64%, respectively, while the instant flour presented moisture, pH, density, alcohol content, soluble acidity and water activity values of 9.4%, 5.55, 0.61 g mL-1, 2.098% and 0.538, respectively. The equation adapted from Brooker, used to adjust the drying behavior, was efficient to describe the process of breadfruit drying. The puree breadfruit presented good acceptability by the consumers, considering the sensorial attributes evaluated, except for color, and most of them declared that they would buy the

  12. Hidrolisis Pati Sukun dengan Katalisator H2SO4 untuk Pembuatan Perekat


    Mirna Rahmah Lubis


    Breadfruit starch is a unique resource which benefits for raw material of adhesive making. This study investigates hydrolysis method of breadfruit starch into dextrin with Sulphate Acid (H2SO4) catalysator. Dextrin hydrolysis is carry out in order to produce high dextrin percentage by subtracting the total glucose with free glucose. This study evaluates composition change because of breadfruit starch in various time and temperature. Optimum dextrin percentage is obtained at hydrolysis tempera...

  13. 7 CFR 305.34 - Irradiation treatment of certain regulated articles from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin... (United States)


    ... Moringa pods 1 2 400 or 150 Papaya 150 Pineapple 150 Rambutan 150 Sapodilla 150 Sweetpotato 1 400 or 150 Tomato 150 1 Breadfruit, cowpea pods, dragon fruit, jackfruit, litchi, mangosteen, melon, moringa pods... (b)(7) of this section. 2 Breadfruit, dragon fruit, jackfruit, mangosteen, melon, and moringa...

  14. Pengaruh Perbandingan Jumlah Tepung Terigu Dan Tepung Sukun Dengan Jenis Penstabil Terhadap Mutu Cookies Sukun


    Sitohang, Kurnia Angelina Kristiani


    The aim of this research was to find the effect of wheat starch and breadfruit flours with kinds of stabilizer on the quality of breadfruit cookies. The research was using completely randomized design with two factors, i.e ratio of wheat starch and breadfruit flour (S): (75%:25%), (60:40%), (45%:55%), (30%:70%) and kinds of stabilizer (P) : no stabilizer, gum arab, CMC and tween 20. Parameters analyzed were water content, ash content, fat content, protein content, fiber content, organoleptic ...



    I Putu Ari Wijana Dipa; Ni Wayan Sudatri; Ngurah Intan Wiratmini


    Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst.) leaves have a high antioxidant content. This research aims to know the effect of breadfruit leaf extracts on blood sugar levels and the amount of sperm in rat. This study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) using 30 rats aged 2-3 months and weighing 150-200 grams. Male rats were divided into six groups, i.e. negative control group (K1) without treatment, groups K2, P1, P2, P3 and P4 are given then NaCl 0.9%, breadfruit leaf extracts 50 mg/kg, 100 ...

  16. Hidrolisis Pati Sukun dengan Katalisator H2SO4 untuk Pembuatan Perekat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis


    Full Text Available Breadfruit starch is a unique resource which benefits for raw material of adhesive making. This study investigates hydrolysis method of breadfruit starch into dextrin with Sulphate Acid (H2SO4 catalysator. Dextrin hydrolysis is carry out in order to produce high dextrin percentage by subtracting the total glucose with free glucose. This study evaluates composition change because of breadfruit starch in various time and temperature. Optimum dextrin percentage is obtained at hydrolysis temperature of 100ºC, hydrolysis time 10 minutes, and 0.5 N H2SO4 concentration, with dextrin percentage of 77.12%. Furthermore, dextrin obtained is added by casein, cold water, triethanolamine, and water in order to form adhesive. The reserch result showed that the shear strength of the dextrin glue is 14 kg/cm2 which is larger than that of glue of Fox brands sold in the market that is only 12.48 kg/cm2. Because there is previous study regarding starch hydrolysis from breadfruit by using chloride acid catalysator, then data in this research show the influence of the sulphate acid usage as catalysator of adhesive. Based on the comparison, it seems that for breadfruit starch hydrolyzed at 100oC for 10 minutes, dextrin produced is less than that obtained by using chloride acid catalysator. The less dextrin percentage from breadfruit starch is caused by not all hydro sulphate ions are dissociated while mixing with starch. The mass balance is necessary to be completed including analysis of the breadfruit starch composition after hydrolysis to determine whether the starch has been degraded or not. Keywords: adhesive, dextrin, hydrolysis, shear strength

  17. Development of Microsatellite Loci in Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae and Cross-Amplification in Congeneric Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colby Witherup


    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized from enriched genomic libraries of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit and tested in four Artocarpus species and one hybrid. The microsatellite markers provide new tools for further studies in Artocarpus. Methods and Results: A total of 25 microsatellite loci were evaluated across four Artocarpus species and one hybrid. Twenty-one microsatellite loci were evaluated on A. altilis (241, A. camansi (34, A. mariannensis (15, and A. altilis × mariannensis (64 samples. Nine of those loci plus four additional loci were evaluated on A. heterophyllus (jackfruit, 426 samples. All loci are polymorphic for at least one species. The average number of alleles ranges from two to nine within taxa. Conclusions: These microsatellite primers will facilitate further studies on the genetic structure and evolutionary and domestication history of Artocarpus species. They will aid in cultivar identification and establishing germplasm conservation strategies for breadfruit and jackfruit.

  18. Sebaran Sukun Persepsi Masyarakat Terhadap (Artocarpus Communis Forst) Pada Daerah Tangkapan Air Danau Toba Di Nagori Purba Saribu, Kecamatan Haranggaol Horison, Kabupaten Simalungun


    Manurung, Jordy Marthin


    Forests and land in the catchment area of Lake Toba, showed a decrease for quality and quantity of the land. This study aims to determine the public perception of breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst). Research carried out in the catchment area of Lake Toba, Simalungun. Analysing public perception using a questionnaire. Data from the questionnaire were analyzed by descriptive quantitative. Perception is influenced by factors of age, education, livelihood and long lived. Research shows t...

  19. Report of new invasive scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo and Unruh (Monophlebidae) and Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Pseudococcidae), on the islands of San Andres and Providencia, Colombia, with an updated taxonomic key to iceryine scale insects of South America


    Kondo, Takusama; Gullan, Penny; Ramos Portilla, Andrea Amalia


    The multicicatrices fluted scale, Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo and Unruh (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Monophlebidae) is reported from the islands of San Andres and Providencia, Colombia, as a recent invasive species. This scale insect is polyphagous, and attacks numerous plants of economic importance such as avocado, breadfruit, mango, papaya and tropical ornamental plants. A compiled list of 95 host plant species of C. multicicatrices is given. A diagnosis of the adult female of C. multicicat...

  20. Hypoglycemic Effect of Treculia Africana Decne Root Bark in Normal and Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats


    Oyelola, O O; Moody, J O; Odeniyi, M A; Fakeye, T O


    The solvent partitioned purified fractions of the hydro-acetone root bark extract of the African breadfruit (Treculia africana Decne) were evaluated for hypoglycemic activities in normal and diabetic albino rats. Fasting blood glucose levels were estimated by the use of a glucometer at pre-determined intervals after oral administration of the test extracts/fractions. Results revealed that the test fractions have only a slight effect on blood sugar level of normal rats. On short term and chron...

  1. Evaluation of the Phytochemical Content of Some Edible Grains Marketed in Nigeria


    S. A. Odoemelam; Osu, C. I.


    Five food grains (groundnut, millet, wheat, guinea corn and breadfruit) commonly consumed in Nigeria were evaluated for their phytochemical contents. The results revealed that the grains contained 0.60-1.24% alkaloid, 0.82-2.27% flavonoid, 0.03-0.05% saponin, 0.50-0.60% tannins, 2.40-2.80% phenols and 0.17-0.30% phytic acid. Dietary implications of these constituents are highlighted

  2. Migan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Price


    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Our friend Charlemagne (a.k.a. Émilien, who lives down the road and considers himself a breadfruit connoisseur, says that there's only one other tree in southern Martinique whose fruit compares with ours. From our back porch, during the tree's several flowerings each year, we can reach out and piek low-growing fruit by hand, or with a knife-and-pole contraption cut down a milk-flecked orb from higher up in the broad green leaves. This particular tree may even be descended from the oldest breadfruit in the Caribbean, for Martinique was already blessed with trees, transported from "L'ïle-de-France" (Mauritius, by the time Captain Bligh made his 1791-93 voyage from Polynesia, "bringing breadfruit from what was seen to be a Tree of Life in the islands of Paradise ... the very symbol of a free and unencumbered life ... to feed slaves, the living dead of the Caribbean" (Dening 1992:4, 11.

  3. Statistical design and analysis in the cleanup of environmental radionuclide contamination. DRI publication No. 45012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cleanup of Eniwetok Island before the return of former residents is discussed. Of the contaminants in the soil of the atoll, the most important for cleanup are Pu-238, 239,240, and Am-241, which are present in sufficient quantities to require cleanup, and isotopes of Sr and Cs which also are present and must be considered since these elements can be taken up by food plants such as coconut, pandanus, and breadfruit, and passed on to man. The design of the cleanup sampling program is described. In addition to soil contamination, much metal and concrete debris, not all of it contaminated, as well as buildings and equipment, remain from the testing. The clean-up agreement covered all of this material, contaminated or not

  4. Cytotoxic Effects of Native and Recombinant Frutalin, a Plant Galactose-Binding Lectin, on HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Oliveira


    Full Text Available Frutalin is the α-D-galactose-binding lectin isolated from breadfruit seeds. Frutalin was obtained from two different sources: native frutalin was purified from its natural origin, and recombinant frutalin was produced and purified from Pichia pastoris. This work aimed to study and compare the effect of native and recombinant frutalin on HeLa cervical cancer cells proliferation and apoptosis. Furthermore, the interaction between frutalin and the HeLa cells was investigated by confocal microscopy. Despite having different carbohydrate-binding affinities, native and recombinant frutalin showed an identical magnitude of cytotoxicity on HeLa cells growth (IC50~100 μg/mL and equally induced cell apoptosis. The interaction studies showed that both lectins were rapidly internalised and targeted to HeLa cell's nucleus. Altogether, these results indicate that frutalin action is not dependent on its sugar-binding properties. This study provides important information about the bioactivity of frutalin and contributes to the understanding of the plant lectins cytotoxic activity.

  5. Diet and social status on Taumako, a Polynesian outlier in the Southeastern Solomon Islands. (United States)

    Kinaston, Rebecca L; Buckley, Hallie R; Gray, Andrew


    Stable isotopes (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(34)S) are used to characterize the diet of the adult individuals (n = 99) interred in the Namu burial ground located on the Polynesian outlier of Taumako (∼300-750 BP). Polynesian outliers are islands on the fringe of Remote Oceania that were inhabited by a back migration of populations from Polynesia during prehistory. As a result of admixture with nearby island communities, little is known about the social structure and social diversity of the prehistoric inhabitants of Taumako. The distribution of prestige grave goods within the Namu cemetery has been used as evidence to support the premise that Taumakoan social structure was stratified like Polynesian societies. Here we test the hypothesis that "wealthy" individuals and males will display isotopic ratios indicative of the consumption of "high status" foods in the Pacific islands such as pork, chicken, sea turtle, and pelagic fish. The isotope results suggest the δ(34) S values were diagenetically altered, possibly an effect of volcanism. The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios indicate that the diet of all the individuals included a mixture of C3 terrestrial plant foods (likely starchy staples such as yam, taro, and breadfruit, in addition to nuts) and a variety of marine resources, including reef and pelagic fish. The stable isotope results indicate that wealthy individuals and males were eating more foods from higher trophic levels, interpreted as being high status animal foods. The socially differentiated food consumption patterns are discussed within a Pacific island context. PMID:23868172

  6. An evaluation of a nutrition intervention in Kapinga Village on Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. (United States)

    Hanson, Michelle; Englberger, Lois; Duncan, Burris; Taren, Douglas; Mateak, Henrich; Johnson, Emihner


    The people of Kapinga Village are suffering from chronic diseases as a result of their lifestyles and eating habits, similar to many Pohnpeians. Kapinga Village is an urban area on the island of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, settled by people from Kapingamarangi, a remote atoll. The villagers have limited access to traditional staple foods, including breadfruit, banana, and taro, fruits, vegetables, and other healthy foods. The Island Food Community of Pohnpei (IFCP) carried out several nutrition interventions in Kapinga Village to prevent disease, including promotion of physical activity through growing local food, a nutritious diet of local foods, cooking classes, container gardening, and charcoal oven workshops. This study evaluated the effect of those interventions on dietary intake. A 7-day Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was administered in June-July, 2010 to participants from 68 households and data were compared to 2009 baseline data. Qualitative data were collected and analyzed to identify salient themes that were associated with changes in dietary intake. The FFQ data indicated that there was an increase in consumption of local fruits and vegetables compared with the baseline. Qualitative data revealed that participants viewed the interventions positively. The data also revealed that some of the new foods and drinks consumed were those already available in the village, but for which their uses had not previously been known (such as banana flower and hibiscus tea). Such improvements are likely to be sustainable. Recommendations are for more education, in the Kapingan language if possible, and future research to determine what culturally appropriate interventions are still needed to improve nutrition in Kapinga Village. PMID:23008983

  7. Website application for calculating cesium-137 ingestion doses from consumption of locally grown foods in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallout deposition from the US nuclear weapons test program at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) resulted in widespread nuclear fallout contamination of the northern Marshall Islands. About 85-90 % of the nuclear test-related dose delivered to resident populations is derived from ingestion of cesium-137 (137Cs) contained in locally grown tree-crop food products. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a series of interactive internet applications to provide the public with an open access platform to learn more about radiological conditions in the Marshall Islands. The ingestion dose calculator application described here is one such feature whereby users can calculate hypothetical ingestion doses from 137Cs based on interactive user input matched to environmental data on the activity concentration of 137Cs contained in food plants such as coconut, breadfruit, Pandanus, and arrowroot. Users are asked to enter a date, an island and atoll location, a plant food type, and a daily intake amount (highlighted by the number of portions eaten per day in estimated gram equivalents). The application computes the user daily dose and the user equivalent annualized dose, and then compares the results with default settings based on dietary models developed for the Marshall Islands from independent dietary surveys. The default diets are based on a local plus imported food diet (or IA diet model) and an imported foods unavailable diet (or IUA diet model). Environmental data are decay corrected to the date entered by the user using an effective half-life of 137Cs of 8.5 years ( (author)

  8. Distribution of cesium-137 in tree crop products collected from residence islands impacted by the U.S. nuclear test program in the northern Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Marshall Islands Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has completed a series of radiological surveys at Bikini, Rongelap, Utroek, and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands designed to take a representative sample of food supplies with emphasis on determining 137Cs activity concentrations in common food plants. Coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) are the most common and abundant food plant, and provided a common sample type to characterize the level and variability of activity concentrations of 137Cs in plant foods collected from different islands and atolls. Other dominant food types included Pandanus (Pandanus spp.) and breadfruit (Actocarpus spp.). In general, the activity concentration of 137Cs in food plants was found to decrease significantly between the main residence islands on Bikini, Rongelap, Utrōk, and Enewetak Atolls. The mean activity concentration of 137Cs measured in drinking coconut meat and juice was 0.72 (95 % CI 0.68-0.77) and 0.34 (95 % CI 0.30-0.38) Bq g-1, respectively, on Bikini Island; 0.019 (95 % CI 0.017-0.021) and 0.027 (95 % CI 0.023-0.031) Bq g-1, respectively, on Rongelap Island; 0.010 (95 % CI 0.007-0.013) and 0.007 (95 % CI 0.004-0.009) Bq g-1, respectively, on Utroek Island; and 0.002 (95 % CI 0.0013-0.0024) and 0.002 (95 % CI 0.001-0.0025) Bq g-1, respectively, on Enewetak Island. High levels of variability are reported across all islands. These results will be used to improve the accuracy and reliability of predictive dose assessments, help characterize levels of uncertainty and variability in activity concentrations of fallout radionuclides in plant foods, and allow atoll communities to make informed decisions about resettlement and possible options for cleanup and rehabilitation of islands and atolls. (author)

  9. Population pressure on coral atolls: trends and approaching limits. (United States)

    Rapaport, M


    Trends and approaching limits of population pressure on coral atolls is discussed by examining the atoll environment in terms of the physical geography, the production systems, and resource distribution. Atoll populations are grouped as dependent and independent, and demographic trends in population growth, migraiton, urbanization, and political dependency are reviewed. Examination of the carrying capacity includes a dynamic model, the influences of the West, and philopsophical considerations. The carrying capacity is the "maximal population supportable in a given area". Traditional models are criticized because of a lack in accounting for external linkages. The proposed model is dynamic and considers perceived needs and overseas linkages. It also explains regional disparities in population distribution, and provides a continuing model for population movement from outer islands to district centers and mainland areas. Because of increased expectations and perceived needs, there is a lower carrying capacity for outlying areas, and expanded capacity in district centers. This leads to urbanization, emigration, and carrying capacity overshot in regional and mainland areas. Policy intervention is necessary at the regional and island community level. Atolls, which are islands surrounding deep lagoons, exist in archipelagoes across the oceans, and are rich in aquatic life. The balance in this small land area with a vulnerable ecosystem may be easily disturbed by scarce water supplies, barren soils, rising sea levels in the future, hurricanes, and tsunamis. Traditionally, fisheries and horticulture (pit-taro, coconuts, and breadfruit) have sustained populations, but modern influences such as blasting, reef mining, new industrial technologies, population pressure, and urbanization threaten the balance. Population pressure, which has lead to pollution, epidemics, malnutrition, crime, social disintegration, and foreign dependence, is evidenced in the areas of Tuvalu, Kiribati

  10. Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Buden


    Full Text Available The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp. remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name P. phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with P. insularis “Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842” (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran, 1853, and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies—P. pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and P. p. insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of P. pelagicus is P. tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus p. pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of <12 km2. Based on field observations in 2004, we estimated a population size of 925–1,200 bats, most of which occurred on Satawan and Lukunor Atolls, the two largest and southernmost atolls in the chain. Bats were absent on Nama Island and possibly extirpated from Losap Atoll in the northern Mortlocks. Resident Mortlockese indicated bats were more common in the past, but that the population generally has remained stable in recent years. Most P. p. pelagicus roosted alone or in groups of 5–10 bats; a roost of 27 was the largest noted. Diet is comprised of at least eight plant species, with breadfruit (Artocarpus spp. being a preferred food. Records of females

  11. Necessity of Aloha in Humanity s travels from the Earth (United States)

    Yuen, D.

    While technology and hardware provide the physical means to reach the Moon and beyond, the greatest explorers in human history took not only technologies, but a strong and guiding faith. This poster presentation seeks to present to the conference attendees the desirablility of using, as a m del for exploration, the Polynesiano voyaging culture, and most importantly, the concept of "Aloha" as a sound basis for interaction between humans of various cultures, and as a platform on which to base future exploration. The concept of "Aloha" is t h e c rnerstone of Hawaiian culture. It assures theo travelers' welcome, and it assures a safe departure. It is a haven in time of storm, and a fair wind along the journey. It is the food and drink of the soul. As we continue our explorations to new worlds, it is paramount that we continue the tradition of Aloha. The ancestors of the Hawaiians were adventurers, explorers, and settlers. Not knowing if they would be able to return to the homeland, they took with them the necessities of their lives - pigs, chickens, dogs, taro, sweet potato, breadfruit, gourds - and many other things they knew to be useful. And they took Aloha. We also must take with us food and tools, though in different forms than the early explorers. And, we also must take Aloha. Aloha is similar in concept to Namaste, a Sanskrit greeting which can be translated as "the divine in me honors the divine in you." It is far more rich in meaning than can be expressed in a Visitors' Bureau phrasebook. While Aloha is translated as, "hello," "goodby," "love," "affection," and "friendship," it also embodies responsibility for oneself and for one's actions toward others. It is a verbal shorthand which expresses an acknowledgement of the net-like interweaving of family and community relationships. In the twenty first century we can look to the example of these successful explorers. We, too, can carry with us an inexhaustible supply of Aloha. It has no mass, no height, depth

  12. Six centuries of anthropogenic forest change on a Polynesian high island: Archaeological charcoal records from the Marquesas Islands (United States)

    Huebert, Jennifer M.; Allen, Melinda S.


    It is widely recognised that Polynesian settlers developed central Pacific islands into productive economic landscapes, but the character and tempo of these transformations are poorly understood. Archaeological wood charcoal assemblages are uniquely suited to inform on landscape change, especially when the principal food crops were arboreal. We use a large archaeological charcoal collection, drawn from numerous geographically and functionally varied contexts, to develop a multi-scalar vegetation history of Marquesas Islands' lowland forests. Our aims were to: 1) reveal historical patterns of plant biogeography, including introductions by Polynesian settlers; 2) detail the nature and timing of anthropogenic impacts on native Marquesan forests; and 3) track the emergence of economically productive arboreal landscapes. A collection of 6510 fragments identified to 59 taxa inform on a ∼600-year sequence of human activities. The earliest samples indicate rich forests were encountered by human colonists, comprised of a mix of dicotyledonous hardwood species and woody monocots. These included members of two now-extinct Sapotaceae genera, Planchonella and cf. Sideroxylon, along with Allophylus, a Sapindaceae apparently extirpated from Nuku Hiva. Two important coastal trees, Calophyllum inophyllum and Thespesia populnea, also appear to be indigenous. Polynesian impacts were rapid and widespread, irrevocably altering the indigenous vegetation and disrupting native ecosystems. Samples from later occupations document on-going modifications to lowland vegetation communities. This included inter-valley variability in the timing of transformations and the development of mosaic formations, comprised of native forest interspersed with areas of cultivation and habitation. By 1650 CE, low and mid-elevation vegetation was extensively remodelled, as anthropogenic forests of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit), Inocarpus fagifer (Tahitian chestnut), and other economic species became widely

  13. Growing plants on atoll soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L


    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the

  14. Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls Affected by U.S. Nuclear Testing:All Exposure Pathways, Remedial Measures, and Environmental Loss of 137Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F


    Rongelap Atoll (Robison et al., 1994; Simon et al., 1997), and Utrok Island at Utrok Atoll (Robison, et al., 1999) indicate that about 95-99% of the total estimated dose to people who may return to live at the atolls today (Utrok Island is populated) is the result of exposure to {sup 137}Cs. External gamma exposure from {sup 137}Cs in the soil accounts for about 10 to 15% of the total dose and {sup 137}Cs ingested during consumption of local food crops such as drinking coconut meat and fluid (Cocos nucifera L.), copra meat and milk, Pandanus fruit, and breadfruit accounts for about 85 to 90%. The other 1 to 2% of the estimated dose is from {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. The {sup 90}Sr exposure is primarily through the food chain while the exposure to {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am is primarily via the inhalation pathway as a result of breathing re-suspended soil particles.

  15. Final integrated trip report: site visits to Area 50, Andersen Air Force Base, Guam National Wildlife Refuge, War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam, Rota and Saipan, CNMI, 2004-2005 (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Pratt, Linda W.


    supported the Mariana Gallinule (Gallinula chloropus guami), the Mariana Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos oustaleti), Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), White-throated Ground Dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura xanthonura), Mariana Crow (Corvus kubaryi), and the Nightingale Reed-warbler (Acrocephalus luscinia), all endemic to the Mariana Islands. Other regionally endemic endangered species include the Micronesian Megapode (Megapodius laperouse), and the Mariana Swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi), now reduced to a small population on Guam. Likewise, the flora of Guam is unique, with 21percent of its native vascular plants endemic to the Mariana Islands. In limestone forests of Northern Guam, a number of tall forest tree species such as joga, Elaeocarpus joga (Elaeocarpaceae); pengua or Macaranga thompsonii (Euphorbiaceae); ifit or Intsia bijuga (Fabaceae); seeded breadfruit or Artocarpus marianensis (Moraceae); and umumu or Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae) may be in decline as a result of herbivory by mammals. All show reduced regeneration and age distributions highly skewed towards older individuals. These species provided important habitat for some of Guam's endangered forest birds that remain in captivity such as the Mariana Crow, Guam Kingfisher, and Guam Rail. The recent high frequency of intense tropical storms and herbivory caused by large populations of feral pigs and Philippine sambar deer (Cervus mariannus), as well as invasive alien vines that may suppress tree regeneration, could be permanently altering the structure of regenerating forests and composition of important canopy species on secondary limestone substrates that were cleared and compacted during airfield construction from 1944 through the 1970s. Guam National Wildlife Refuge (GNWR) was established at Ritidian Point, after it was determined to be excess property by the U.S. Navy. Most of the refuge, about 9,087 hectares, is an 'overlay refuge' on lands administered by the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy

  16. Suivi du Gecko Phelsuma serraticauda (Squamata : Gekkonidae dans la région Atsinanana, dans l’Est de Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. M. Freeman


    , sont notés pendant cette étude. Compte tenu de l’état actuel des populations de P. serraticauda et de l’absence de mesures de conservation, un système de monitoring et un site de conservation pour cette espèce devraient être mis en place de toute urgence. Cette étude est la première réalisée sur cette espèce dans son état sauvage pour mieux comprendre ses besoins en termes d’habitat et les mesures de conservation à long terme de l’espèce. ABSTRACTThe diurnal gecko Phelsuma serraticauda has a restricted range in eastern and northeastern Madagascar. A study was under­taken in 57 sites mostly in Ivoloina and its surroundings areas in October (phase 1 and December (phase 2 2008. The main objectives were to elucidate the distribution area in the east of Madagascar and to determine the habitat use of P. serrati­cauda to help ensure its conservation and sustainable use. Most of the observations on plants were from coconut tree Cocos nucifera (84.3 % and breadfruit Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae, 4.9 %, with 8.3 % from houses. The number of P. serraticauda per biotope varied between one and five with means of 2.6 ± 0.2 for all plants and 1.7 ± 0.4 for the houses. Among the 29 coconut trees, 34 % were each occupied by one male or female, 14 % by two females, 10 % by two males, 10 % by one male and one female, 10 % by two males and one female. The mean number of male of P. serraticauda on the coconut trees was 1.06 ± 0.20 and 1.00 ± 0.15 for female. Among the four analysed houses, three were occupied by one female and one by three males and two females. The mean number of male P. serraticauda on the houses was 0.75 ± 0.75 and 1.25 ± 0.25 for female. Phelsuma serraticauda was also found infrequently on Eucalyptus sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, and other palm trees such as Dypsis sp. This species of gecko was not recorded in the humid forest of Analalava, in the edge of the Antetezana littoral forest, and in the vast plantation of Ravenala