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Sample records for breadfruits

  1. Mutualism breakdown in breadfruit domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaoke; Koch, Alexander M; Jones, A Maxwell P; Ragone, Diane; Murch, Susan; Hart, Miranda M

    2012-03-22

    During the process of plant domestication, below-ground communities are rarely considered. Some studies have attempted to understand the changes in root symbionts owing to domestication, but little is known about how it influences mycorrhizal response in domesticated crops. We hypothesized that selection for above-ground traits may also result in decreased mycorrhizal abundance in roots. Breadfruit (Artocarpus sp.) has a long domestication history, with a strong geographical movement of cultivars from west to east across the Melanesian and Polynesian islands. Our results clearly show a decrease in arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) along a domestication gradient from wild to recently derived cultivars. We showed that the vesicular and arbuscular colonization rate decreased significantly in more recently derived breadfruit cultivars. In addition, molecular analyses of breadfruit roots indicated that AM fungal species richness also responded along the domestication gradient. These results suggest that human-driven selection for plant cultivars can have unintended effects on below-ground mutualists, with potential impacts on the stress tolerance of crops and long-term food security.

  2. Diversity of the breadfruit complex (Artocarpus, Moraceae): Genetic characterization of critical germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) is a traditional staple starch crop in Oceania and has been introduced throughout the tropics. This study uses microsatellite markers to characterize the genetic diversity of breadfruit and its wild relatives housed in the USDA National Plant Germplasm Syste...

  3. Proximate composition and selected functional properties of African breadfruit and sweet potato flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akubor, P I

    1997-01-01

    Full-fat African breadfruit flour was used to replace 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70% of sweet potato flour. The chemical composition and functional properties of composite flours showed that they contain more protein, fat, and ash and less carbohydrate than sweet potato flour. With increasing level of supplementation of breadfruit, ash, protein and fat contents increased while carbohydrate decreased. The composite flours possessed higher water absorption than sweet potato flour. The water absorption capacity increased from 20% for sweet potato flour to the range of 85-120% for composite flours. The oil absorption capacities for some composite flours were higher than that for sweet potato but less than that of breadfruit. Composite flours had good foaming capacity but lacked foaming stability. The bulk density of the composite flours was found to be low which will be an advantage in the preparation of weaning food formulations. PMID:9498694

  4. New development and validation of 50 SSR markers in breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) by next-generation sequencing1

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Fabien; Malapa, Roger; Kagy, Valérie; Lebegin, Stéphane; Billot, Claire; Labouisse, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Using next-generation sequencing technology, new microsatellite loci were characterized in Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae) and two congeners to increase the number of available markers for genotyping breadfruit cultivars. Methods and Results: A total of 47,607 simple sequence repeat loci were obtained by sequencing a library of breadfruit genomic DNA with an Illumina MiSeq system. Among them, 50 single-locus markers were selected and assessed using 41 samples (39 A. altilis, one A. camansi, and one A. heterophyllus). All loci were polymorphic in A. altilis, 44 in A. camansi, and 21 in A. heterophyllus. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 19. Conclusions: The new markers will be useful for assessing the identity and genetic diversity of breadfruit cultivars on a small geographical scale, gaining a better understanding of farmer management practices, and will help to optimize breadfruit genebank management. PMID:27610273

  5. In vitro conservation and sustained production of breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae): modern technologies for a traditional tropical crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Susan J.; Ragone, Diane; Shi, Wendy Lei; Alan, Ali R.; Saxena, Praveen K.

    2008-02-01

    Breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) is a traditionally cultivated, high-energy, high-yield crop, but widespread use of the plant for food is limited by poor quality and poor storage properties of the fruit. A unique field genebank of breadfruit species and cultivars exists at the National Tropical Botanical Garden in the Hawaiian Islands and is an important global resource for conservation and sustainable use of breadfruit. However, this plant collection could be damaged by a random natural disaster such as a hurricane. We have developed a highly efficient in vitro plant propagation system to maintain, conserve, mass propagate, and distribute elite varieties of this important tree species. Mature axillary shoot buds were collected from three different cultivars of breadfruit and proliferated using a cytokinin-supplemented medium. The multiple shoots were maintained as stock cultures and repeatedly used to develop whole plants after root differentiation on a basal or an auxin-containing medium. The plantlets were successfully grown under greenhouse conditions and were reused to initiate additional shoot cultures for sustained production of plants. Flow cytometry was used to determine the nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid content and the ploidy status of the in vitro grown population. The efficacy of the micropropagation protocols developed in this study represents a significant advancement in the conservation and sustained mass propagation of breadfruit germplasm in a controlled environment free from contamination.

  6. In vitro conservation and sustained production of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae): modern technologies for a traditional tropical crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Susan J; Ragone, Diane; Shi, Wendy Lei; Alan, Ali R; Saxena, Praveen K

    2008-02-01

    Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) is a traditionally cultivated, high-energy, high-yield crop, but widespread use of the plant for food is limited by poor quality and poor storage properties of the fruit. A unique field genebank of breadfruit species and cultivars exists at the National Tropical Botanical Garden in the Hawaiian Islands and is an important global resource for conservation and sustainable use of breadfruit. However, this plant collection could be damaged by a random natural disaster such as a hurricane. We have developed a highly efficient in vitro plant propagation system to maintain, conserve, mass propagate, and distribute elite varieties of this important tree species. Mature axillary shoot buds were collected from three different cultivars of breadfruit and proliferated using a cytokinin-supplemented medium. The multiple shoots were maintained as stock cultures and repeatedly used to develop whole plants after root differentiation on a basal or an auxin-containing medium. The plantlets were successfully grown under greenhouse conditions and were reused to initiate additional shoot cultures for sustained production of plants. Flow cytometry was used to determine the nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid content and the ploidy status of the in vitro grown population. The efficacy of the micropropagation protocols developed in this study represents a significant advancement in the conservation and sustained mass propagation of breadfruit germplasm in a controlled environment free from contamination. PMID:17710379

  7. BREADFRUIT (Treculia africana MARKETING ACTIVITIES AND RETURNS IN AHIAZU MBAISE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, OF IMO STATE, NIGERIA

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    Ogbonna Christopher EMEROLE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study on marketing of breadfruits (Treculia africana and returns was done in Ahiazu Mbaise local Government area of Imo State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to describe socio-economic characteristics of respondents (sellers and buyers of African breadfruit; identify value-chain activities available in processing and its storage in compliance with consumers’ order and preferences; determine factors influencing decision to supply African breadfruit; and constraints with its post-harvest management in the study area. Three-stage random sampling technique was used in selecting locations and respondents through which eighty (80 farm households who gather/harvest, process and sell breadfruits were selected and interviewed with structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and probit regression model. Result revealed that 65.80% of the respondents were females and 81.20% of them were married with mean household size of 9 members. Their literacy level was high as 97.6% of them had at least primary education. Predominant marketing activities were fruit gathering/harvesting, processing, storage and packaging, transportation, and sales. Socio-economic factors of gender, household size, income, level of education, years of farming experience and labour significantly influenced supply of breadfruits to consumers with challenges of seasonal scarcity, and tedious methods of processing deterring the enterprise in the area. We recommended provision of credit support to enable fruit gatherers purchase and use shelling machines and good storage facilities to smooth any fluctuations in supplies during off-seasons and help fight overdependence of households on roots and tubers.

  8. Isolation and identification of mosquito (Aedes aegypti) biting deterrent fatty acids from male inflorescences of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson)Fosberg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dried male inflorescences of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) are burned in communities throughout Oceania to repel flying insects, including mosquitoes. This study was conducted to identify chemicals responsible for mosquito deterrence. Various crude extracts were evaluated, and the most a...

  9. Fermentation by amylolytic lactic acid bacteria and consequences for starch digestibility of plantain, breadfruit, and sweet potato flours

    OpenAIRE

    Haydersah, J.; Chevallier, I.; Rochette, Isabelle; Mouquet Rivier, Claire; Picq, Christian; Marianne Pépin, T.; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The potential of tropical starchy plants such as plantain (Musa paradisiaca), breadfruit (Artocarpus communis), and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) for the development of new fermented foods was investigated by exploiting the capacity of some lactic acid bacteria to hydrolyze starch. The amylolytic lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) Lactobacillus plantarum A6 and Lactobacillus fermentum Ogi E1 were able to change the consistency of thick sticky gelatinized slurries of these starchy fruits and tubers ...

  10. Isotherm Studies of Equilibrium Sorption of Cu2+ and Cd2+ from Aqueous Solutions by Modified and Unmodified Breadfruit Seed Hull

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    Christopher Uchechukwu Sonde

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of an economically cheap adsorbent material of natural origin, African breadfruit seed hull, was assessed for Cu(II and Cd(II ions’ adsorption from aqueous solutions. The effects of adsorbent dose, particle size and initial metal ion concentrations were investigated in a batch adsorption process. The experimental data were analyzed using five two-parameter isotherm equations (i.e., Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Harkins-Jura and Halsey isotherm models. Freundlich and Halsey models provided the best description for the adsorption data while the other three models gave fairly good interpretation to the experimental adsorption data. The maximum adsorption capacity corresponding to saturation of sites (qmax, obtained from the Langmuir plots, were 7.76 and 8.06 mg g-1 for Cu(II and Cd(II onto the unmodified breadfruit seed hull (UBSH and 12.67 and 13.97 mg g-1, respectively for Cu(II and Cd(II adsorption onto the modified breadfruit seed hull (MBSH. The experimental results showed that there was an enhancement in the removal of the metal ions by the mercaptoacetic acid-modified breadfruit seed hull. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i3.625 

  11. Direct Ethanol Production from Breadfruit Starch (Artocarpus communis Forst. by Engineered Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (ESSF using Microbes Consortium

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    Iftachul Farida

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst. is one of sources for ethanol production, which has high starch content (89%. Ethanol production from breadfruit starch was conducted by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF technology using microbes consortium. The aim of the research was to examine a method to produce ethanol by SSF technology using microbes consortium at high yield and efficiency. The main research consisted of two treatments, namely normal SSF and enginereed SSF. The results showed that normal SSF using aeration and agitation during cultivation could produce ethanol at 11.15 ± 0.18 g/L, with the yield of product (Yp/s 0.34 g ethanol/g substrate; and yield of biomass (Yx/s 0.29 g cell/g substrate, respectively. A better result was obtained using engineered SSF in which aeration was stopped after biomass condition has reached the end of the exponential phase. The ethanol produced was 12.75 ± 0.04 g/L, with the yields of product (Yp/s 0.41 g ethanol/g substrate, and the yield of cell (Yx/s 0.09 g cell/g substrate.

  12. Rheological, baking, and sensory properties of composite bread dough with breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst) and wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Adegoke H; Osundahunsi, Oluwatooyin F; Olusanya, Joseph O

    2016-07-01

    The rheological (Pasting, farinograph, and alveograph) properties of wheat flour (WF) replaced with breadfruit four (05-40%) was analyzed. Baking and sensory qualities of the resulting bread were evaluated. Differences in baking properties of loaves produced under laboratory and industrial conditions were analyzed with t-test, whereas ANOVA was used for other analyses. Peak and final viscosities in the composite blends (CB) ranged from 109.20 to 114.06 RVU and 111.86 to 134.40 RVU, respectively. Dough stability decreased from 9.15 to 0.78 min, whereas farinograph water absorption increased 59.7-65.9%. Alveograph curve configuration ratio increased from 1.27 to 7.39, whereas specific volume (Spv) of the loaves decreased from 2.96 to 1.32 cm(3)/g. The Spv of WF loaves were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that of the 5% CB, whereas production conditions had no significant effects on absorbed water (t = 0.532, df = 18 P = 0.3005), weight loss during baking (t = 0.865, df = 18, P = 0.199), and Spv (t = 0.828, df = 14.17, P = 0.211). The sensory qualities of the 5% blend were not significantly different from the WF. PMID:27386107

  13. 面包树北移引种栽培的应用前景%The Application Prospect of Northern Introduction and Cultivation of Breadfruit Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正邦; 龚德勇; 欧珍贵; 罗晓青; 李松峰

    2012-01-01

    面包树(Artocarpus altilis)为桑科菠萝蜜属热带珍稀濒危双子叶植物,具有集粮食、果树、绿化、用材、编织于一体的多种用途。本文从面包树的特性及分布,利用价值,引种栽培初见成效等方面论述了该物种北移引种到贵州栽培的应用前景。%Breadfruit tree(Artocarpus altilis,Moraceae) is a rare and endangered dicoty-ledon,which has many uses in grain,fruit,green and timber.This paper discusses the characteristics,distribution,utilization value,the initial effect of northern introduction and cultivation of the species and its application prospect in Guizhou.

  14. Elaboração de farinha instantânea a partir da polpa de fruta-pão (Artocarpus altilis Preparation of instant flour from the pulp of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis

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    Danilo Santos Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se elaborar uma farinha instantânea utilizando do mesocarpo de fruta-pão, variedade apyrena, e avaliar sua composição físico-química, bem como desenvolver um purê a base da farinha e determinar sua aceitação sensorial por consumidores potenciais utilizando o teste de consumidor. A fruta-pão in natura apresentou valores de umidade em base úmida, pH, teor de sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável aproximadamente 74,58±2,84%, 6,01±0,04, 5,6±0,01Brix e 1,64±0,01%, respectivamente, e a farinha instantânea com umidade, pH, densidade, acidez álcool solúvel e atividade de água de 9,4±0,28%, 5,55±0,2, 0,61±0,01g mL-1, 2,098±0,01% e 0,538±0,14, respectivamente. A equação adaptada de Brooker, usada para ajustar o comportamento da secagem, foi eficiente para descrever o processo de secagem da polpa de fruta-pão cozida. O purê de fruta-pão apresentou boa aceitabilidade pelos consumidores para os atributos sensoriais avaliados, exceto para a cor, sendo que a maioria declarou comprar o produto.This work aimed to develop an instant flour using the mesocarp of breadfruit, variety apyrena, and assess its physicochemical composition, as well as to develop a flour based puree and determine its potential sensory acceptance by potential consumers, employing the consumer testing. The in natura breadfruit presented moisture in dry basis, pH, soluble solids and total acidity values of 74.58%, 6.01, 5.6°Brix and 1.64%, respectively, while the instant flour presented moisture, pH, density, alcohol content, soluble acidity and water activity values of 9.4%, 5.55, 0.61 g mL-1, 2.098% and 0.538, respectively. The equation adapted from Brooker, used to adjust the drying behavior, was efficient to describe the process of breadfruit drying. The puree breadfruit presented good acceptability by the consumers, considering the sensorial attributes evaluated, except for color, and most of them declared that they would buy the

  15. Effects of Methanol Extract of Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis on Atherogenic Indices and Redox Status of Cellular System of Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

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    Oluwatosin Adekunle Adaramoye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of methanol extract of Artocarpus altilis (AA on atherogenic indices and redox status of cellular system of rats fed with dietary cholesterol while Questran (QUE served as standard. Biochemical indices such as total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low- and high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, reduced glutathione, glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and lipid peroxidation (LPO were assessed. Hypercholesterolemic (HC rats had significantly increased relative weight of liver and heart. Dietary cholesterol caused a significant increase (P<0.05 in the levels of serum, hepatic, and cardiac TC by 110%, 70%, and 85%, LDL-C by 79%, 82%, and 176%, and TG by 68%, 96%, and 62%, respectively. Treatment with AA significantly reduced the relative weight of the organs and lipid parameters. There were beneficial increases in serum and cardiac HDL-C levels in HC rats treated with AA. In HC rats, serum LDH, ALT, and AST activities and levels of LPO were increased, whereas hepatic and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx were reduced. All biochemical and histological alterations were ameliorated upon treatment with AA. Extract of AA had protective effects against dietary cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia.

  16. The Contrast between The Girl on the Train and The Women on the Breadfruit-The Female Images in the Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明威; 毕铎; 黄思聪

    2016-01-01

    Love is an eternal theme of literature which plays a vital role in people's life. With cultural exchanges,the acceleration of globalization,and cultural integration, Chinese and Western’s view of love have influenced each other. There is no doubt that literature is the mirror of the culture. By comparing Western and Chinese literature together, people could learn more about the differences between the two different lifestyles and cultural values. From the angle of culture, this thesis will look at how the characters’ fates are mainly influenced by their attitudes towards material life, different sexual understanding and the way they view themselves.

  17. Hidrolisis Pati Sukun dengan Katalisator H2SO4 untuk Pembuatan Perekat

    OpenAIRE

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2012-01-01

    Breadfruit starch is a unique resource which benefits for raw material of adhesive making. This study investigates hydrolysis method of breadfruit starch into dextrin with Sulphate Acid (H2SO4) catalysator. Dextrin hydrolysis is carry out in order to produce high dextrin percentage by subtracting the total glucose with free glucose. This study evaluates composition change because of breadfruit starch in various time and temperature. Optimum dextrin percentage is obtained at hydrolysis tempera...

  18. 7 CFR 305.34 - Irradiation treatment of certain regulated articles from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 400 or 150 Litchi 1 150 Longan 150 Mango 300 Mangosteen 1 2 400 or 150 Melon 1 2 400 or 150... Tomato 150 1 Breadfruit, cowpea pods, dragon fruit, jackfruit, litchi, mangosteen, melon, moringa pods... (b)(7) of this section. 2 Breadfruit, dragon fruit, jackfruit, mangosteen, melon, and moringa...

  19. EFEKTIVITAS EKSTRAK DAUN SUKUN (Artocarpus communis Forst.) DALAM MENURUNKAN KADAR GLUKOSA DARAH DAN MEMPERTAHANKAN JUMLAH SPERMA PADA TIKUS (Rattus norvegicus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    I Putu Ari Wijana Dipa; Ni Wayan Sudatri; Ngurah Intan Wiratmini

    2015-01-01

    Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst.) leaves have a high antioxidant content. This research aims to know the effect of breadfruit leaf extracts on blood sugar levels and the amount of sperm in rat. This study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) using 30 rats aged 2-3 months and weighing 150-200 grams. Male rats were divided into six groups, i.e. negative control group (K1) without treatment, groups K2, P1, P2, P3 and P4 are given then NaCl 0.9%, breadfruit leaf extracts 50 mg/kg, 100 ...

  20. Development of microsatellite loci in Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae) and cross-amplification in congeneric species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized from enriched genomic libraries of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) and tested in three other Artocarpus species and one hybrid. The microsatellite markers provide new tools for further studies in Artocarpus. Nineteen microsatellite primers were tes...

  1. Hidrolisis Pati Sukun dengan Katalisator H2SO4 untuk Pembuatan Perekat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Breadfruit starch is a unique resource which benefits for raw material of adhesive making. This study investigates hydrolysis method of breadfruit starch into dextrin with Sulphate Acid (H2SO4 catalysator. Dextrin hydrolysis is carry out in order to produce high dextrin percentage by subtracting the total glucose with free glucose. This study evaluates composition change because of breadfruit starch in various time and temperature. Optimum dextrin percentage is obtained at hydrolysis temperature of 100ºC, hydrolysis time 10 minutes, and 0.5 N H2SO4 concentration, with dextrin percentage of 77.12%. Furthermore, dextrin obtained is added by casein, cold water, triethanolamine, and water in order to form adhesive. The reserch result showed that the shear strength of the dextrin glue is 14 kg/cm2 which is larger than that of glue of Fox brands sold in the market that is only 12.48 kg/cm2. Because there is previous study regarding starch hydrolysis from breadfruit by using chloride acid catalysator, then data in this research show the influence of the sulphate acid usage as catalysator of adhesive. Based on the comparison, it seems that for breadfruit starch hydrolyzed at 100oC for 10 minutes, dextrin produced is less than that obtained by using chloride acid catalysator. The less dextrin percentage from breadfruit starch is caused by not all hydro sulphate ions are dissociated while mixing with starch. The mass balance is necessary to be completed including analysis of the breadfruit starch composition after hydrolysis to determine whether the starch has been degraded or not. Keywords: adhesive, dextrin, hydrolysis, shear strength

  2. Development of Microsatellite Loci in Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae and Cross-Amplification in Congeneric Species

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    Colby Witherup

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized from enriched genomic libraries of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit and tested in four Artocarpus species and one hybrid. The microsatellite markers provide new tools for further studies in Artocarpus. Methods and Results: A total of 25 microsatellite loci were evaluated across four Artocarpus species and one hybrid. Twenty-one microsatellite loci were evaluated on A. altilis (241, A. camansi (34, A. mariannensis (15, and A. altilis × mariannensis (64 samples. Nine of those loci plus four additional loci were evaluated on A. heterophyllus (jackfruit, 426 samples. All loci are polymorphic for at least one species. The average number of alleles ranges from two to nine within taxa. Conclusions: These microsatellite primers will facilitate further studies on the genetic structure and evolutionary and domestication history of Artocarpus species. They will aid in cultivar identification and establishing germplasm conservation strategies for breadfruit and jackfruit.

  3. Sebaran Sukun Persepsi Masyarakat Terhadap (Artocarpus Communis Forst) Pada Daerah Tangkapan Air Danau Toba Di Nagori Purba Saribu, Kecamatan Haranggaol Horison, Kabupaten Simalungun

    OpenAIRE

    Manurung, Jordy Marthin

    2015-01-01

    Forests and land in the catchment area of Lake Toba, showed a decrease for quality and quantity of the land. This study aims to determine the public perception of breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst). Research carried out in the catchment area of Lake Toba, Simalungun. Analysing public perception using a questionnaire. Data from the questionnaire were analyzed by descriptive quantitative. Perception is influenced by factors of age, education, livelihood and long lived. Research shows t...

  4. Hypoglycemic Effect of Treculia Africana Decne Root Bark in Normal and Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Oyelola, O O; Moody, J O; Odeniyi, M A; Fakeye, T O

    2007-01-01

    The solvent partitioned purified fractions of the hydro-acetone root bark extract of the African breadfruit (Treculia africana Decne) were evaluated for hypoglycemic activities in normal and diabetic albino rats. Fasting blood glucose levels were estimated by the use of a glucometer at pre-determined intervals after oral administration of the test extracts/fractions. Results revealed that the test fractions have only a slight effect on blood sugar level of normal rats. On short term and chron...

  5. Migan

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    Richard Price

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Our friend Charlemagne (a.k.a. Émilien, who lives down the road and considers himself a breadfruit connoisseur, says that there's only one other tree in southern Martinique whose fruit compares with ours. From our back porch, during the tree's several flowerings each year, we can reach out and piek low-growing fruit by hand, or with a knife-and-pole contraption cut down a milk-flecked orb from higher up in the broad green leaves. This particular tree may even be descended from the oldest breadfruit in the Caribbean, for Martinique was already blessed with trees, transported from "L'ïle-de-France" (Mauritius, by the time Captain Bligh made his 1791-93 voyage from Polynesia, "bringing breadfruit from what was seen to be a Tree of Life in the islands of Paradise ... the very symbol of a free and unencumbered life ... to feed slaves, the living dead of the Caribbean" (Dening 1992:4, 11.

  6. Prenylated Dihydrochalcones from Artocarpus altilis as Antiausterity Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi; Nguyen, Nhan Trung; Awale, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Human pancreatic cancer cell lines have remarkable tolerance to nutrition starvation, which enables them to survive under a tumor microenvironment. A novel antiausterity strategy in anticancer drug discovery led to the discovery of agents that preferentially inhibit the survival of cancer cells under low nutrient conditions. Artocarpus altilis (Family: Moraceae) is commonly referred to as breadfruit, traditionally for the treatment of many diseases. Many prenylated flavonoid and prenylated chalocones together with their cancer cell cytotoxicity were reported from this plant. This chapter briefly summarizes the constituents, biosynthesis, cytotoxicity, and antiausterity activity on PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cell line of A. altilis.

  7. Enhancing adsorption capacity of toxic malachite green dye through chemically modified breadnut peel: equilibrium, thermodynamics, kinetics and regeneration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieng, Hei Ing; Lim, Linda B L; Priyantha, Namal

    2015-01-01

    Breadnut skin, in both its unmodified (KS) and base-modified (BM-KS) forms, was investigated for its potential use as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of toxic dye, malachite green (MG). Characterization of the adsorbents was carried out using scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Batch adsorption experiments, carried out under optimized conditions, for the adsorption of MG were fitted using five isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Temkin and Sips) and six error functions to determine the best-fit model. The adsorption capacity was greatly enhanced when breadnut skin was chemically modified with NaOH, leading to an adsorption capacity of 353.0 mg g(-1), that was far superior to most reported adsorbents for the removal of MG. Thermodynamics studies indicated that the adsorption of MG was spontaneous on KS and BM-KS, and the reactions were endothermic and exothermic, respectively. Kinetics studies showed that both followed the pseudo-second order. Regeneration experiments on BM-KS indicated that its adsorption capacity was still maintained at>90% even after five cycles. It can be concluded that NaOH-modified breadfruit skin has great potential to be utilized in real-life application as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MG in wastewater treatment.

  8. Cytotoxic Effects of Native and Recombinant Frutalin, a Plant Galactose-Binding Lectin, on HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells

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    Carla Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Frutalin is the α-D-galactose-binding lectin isolated from breadfruit seeds. Frutalin was obtained from two different sources: native frutalin was purified from its natural origin, and recombinant frutalin was produced and purified from Pichia pastoris. This work aimed to study and compare the effect of native and recombinant frutalin on HeLa cervical cancer cells proliferation and apoptosis. Furthermore, the interaction between frutalin and the HeLa cells was investigated by confocal microscopy. Despite having different carbohydrate-binding affinities, native and recombinant frutalin showed an identical magnitude of cytotoxicity on HeLa cells growth (IC50~100 μg/mL and equally induced cell apoptosis. The interaction studies showed that both lectins were rapidly internalised and targeted to HeLa cell's nucleus. Altogether, these results indicate that frutalin action is not dependent on its sugar-binding properties. This study provides important information about the bioactivity of frutalin and contributes to the understanding of the plant lectins cytotoxic activity.

  9. Diet and social status on Taumako, a Polynesian outlier in the Southeastern Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinaston, Rebecca L; Buckley, Hallie R; Gray, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    Stable isotopes (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(34)S) are used to characterize the diet of the adult individuals (n = 99) interred in the Namu burial ground located on the Polynesian outlier of Taumako (∼300-750 BP). Polynesian outliers are islands on the fringe of Remote Oceania that were inhabited by a back migration of populations from Polynesia during prehistory. As a result of admixture with nearby island communities, little is known about the social structure and social diversity of the prehistoric inhabitants of Taumako. The distribution of prestige grave goods within the Namu cemetery has been used as evidence to support the premise that Taumakoan social structure was stratified like Polynesian societies. Here we test the hypothesis that "wealthy" individuals and males will display isotopic ratios indicative of the consumption of "high status" foods in the Pacific islands such as pork, chicken, sea turtle, and pelagic fish. The isotope results suggest the δ(34) S values were diagenetically altered, possibly an effect of volcanism. The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios indicate that the diet of all the individuals included a mixture of C3 terrestrial plant foods (likely starchy staples such as yam, taro, and breadfruit, in addition to nuts) and a variety of marine resources, including reef and pelagic fish. The stable isotope results indicate that wealthy individuals and males were eating more foods from higher trophic levels, interpreted as being high status animal foods. The socially differentiated food consumption patterns are discussed within a Pacific island context. PMID:23868172

  10. An evaluation of a nutrition intervention in Kapinga Village on Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Michelle; Englberger, Lois; Duncan, Burris; Taren, Douglas; Mateak, Henrich; Johnson, Emihner

    2011-03-01

    The people of Kapinga Village are suffering from chronic diseases as a result of their lifestyles and eating habits, similar to many Pohnpeians. Kapinga Village is an urban area on the island of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, settled by people from Kapingamarangi, a remote atoll. The villagers have limited access to traditional staple foods, including breadfruit, banana, and taro, fruits, vegetables, and other healthy foods. The Island Food Community of Pohnpei (IFCP) carried out several nutrition interventions in Kapinga Village to prevent disease, including promotion of physical activity through growing local food, a nutritious diet of local foods, cooking classes, container gardening, and charcoal oven workshops. This study evaluated the effect of those interventions on dietary intake. A 7-day Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was administered in June-July, 2010 to participants from 68 households and data were compared to 2009 baseline data. Qualitative data were collected and analyzed to identify salient themes that were associated with changes in dietary intake. The FFQ data indicated that there was an increase in consumption of local fruits and vegetables compared with the baseline. Qualitative data revealed that participants viewed the interventions positively. The data also revealed that some of the new foods and drinks consumed were those already available in the village, but for which their uses had not previously been known (such as banana flower and hibiscus tea). Such improvements are likely to be sustainable. Recommendations are for more education, in the Kapingan language if possible, and future research to determine what culturally appropriate interventions are still needed to improve nutrition in Kapinga Village. PMID:23008983

  11. Cytotoxic effects of new geranyl chalcone derivatives isolated from the leaves of Artocarpus communis in SW 872 human liposarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Song-Chwan; Hsu, Chin-Lin; Yu, Yu-Shen; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2008-10-01

    Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Moraceae) is cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions as a traditional starch crop and also has potential medicinal properties. The aim of this work was to study the in vitro anticancer activity of compounds isolated from the leaves of Artocarpus communis. Three new geranyl chalcone derivatives including isolespeol (1), 5'-geranyl-2',4',4-trihydroxychalcone (2), and 3,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-3'-geranyldihydrochalcone (3), together with two known compounds lespeol (4) and xanthoangelol (5), were isolated from the leaves of Artocarpus communis. The structures of 1- 5 were elucidated by spectroscopy and through comparison with data reported in the literature. The effects of geranyl chalcone derivatives (1- 5) on the viability of human cancer cells (including SW 872, HT-29, COLO 205, Hep3B, PLC5, Huh7, and HepG2 cells) were investigated. The results indicate that isolespeol (1) showed the highest inhibitory activity with an IC 50 value of 3.8 muM in SW 872 human liposarcoma cells. Treatment of SW 872 human liposarcoma cells with isolespeol (1) caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim). Western blotting revealed that isolespeol (1) stimulated increased protein expression of Fas, FasL, and p53. The expression ratios of pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members were also changed by isolespeol (1) treatment to subsequently induce the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, which was followed by cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). These results demonstrate that isolespeol (1) induces apoptosis in SW 872 cells through Fas- and mitochondria-mediated pathways.

  12. Current radiological status of Utirik Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L

    1998-08-01

    A preliminary radiological survey was conducted at Utirik Atoll in 1978 as part of the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS). A dose assessment based on these limited data indicated a relatively low dose of about 0.12 mSv to people living on Utirik in 1978 (Robison et al., 1982). A much more detailed radiological survey was conducted in April of both 1993 and 1994. Aerial photos of the islands of Utirik Atoll were taken as part of the 1978 NMIRS. The sampling grids for the 1993 and 1994 surveys are shown overlaid on these aerial photos in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. External gamma measurements and a collection of either drinking coconuts or copra coconuts were made at each location. Pandanus, breadfruit, lime, and banana were collected where available. Ground water was collected in 1993/94 from four wells on Utirik Island and two wells on Aon Island. Surface soil and soil profiles were collected at some of the grid points on each of the islands at the atoll in 1993/94. A comparison of the number of samples collected in 1978 and 1993/94 are shown in Table 1. A detailed listing of the samples collected in the 1993/94 radiological survey at Utirik Atoll is given in Table 2. The number of vegetation samples collected in 1993/94 is nearly a factor of 7 greater than in 1978. Soil samples collected in 1993/94 exceeded the number collected in 1978 by more than a factor of 4. Consequently, extensive data are now available for the islands at Utirik Atoll and form the basis for the current dose assessment for the atoll.

  13. Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Buden

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp. remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name P. phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with P. insularis “Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842” (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran, 1853, and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies—P. pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and P. p. insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of P. pelagicus is P. tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus p. pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of <12 km2. Based on field observations in 2004, we estimated a population size of 925–1,200 bats, most of which occurred on Satawan and Lukunor Atolls, the two largest and southernmost atolls in the chain. Bats were absent on Nama Island and possibly extirpated from Losap Atoll in the northern Mortlocks. Resident Mortlockese indicated bats were more common in the past, but that the population generally has remained stable in recent years. Most P. p. pelagicus roosted alone or in groups of 5–10 bats; a roost of 27 was the largest noted. Diet is comprised of at least eight plant species, with breadfruit (Artocarpus spp. being a preferred food. Records of females

  14. Necessity of Aloha in Humanity s travels from the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, D.

    While technology and hardware provide the physical means to reach the Moon and beyond, the greatest explorers in human history took not only technologies, but a strong and guiding faith. This poster presentation seeks to present to the conference attendees the desirablility of using, as a m del for exploration, the Polynesiano voyaging culture, and most importantly, the concept of "Aloha" as a sound basis for interaction between humans of various cultures, and as a platform on which to base future exploration. The concept of "Aloha" is t h e c rnerstone of Hawaiian culture. It assures theo travelers' welcome, and it assures a safe departure. It is a haven in time of storm, and a fair wind along the journey. It is the food and drink of the soul. As we continue our explorations to new worlds, it is paramount that we continue the tradition of Aloha. The ancestors of the Hawaiians were adventurers, explorers, and settlers. Not knowing if they would be able to return to the homeland, they took with them the necessities of their lives - pigs, chickens, dogs, taro, sweet potato, breadfruit, gourds - and many other things they knew to be useful. And they took Aloha. We also must take with us food and tools, though in different forms than the early explorers. And, we also must take Aloha. Aloha is similar in concept to Namaste, a Sanskrit greeting which can be translated as "the divine in me honors the divine in you." It is far more rich in meaning than can be expressed in a Visitors' Bureau phrasebook. While Aloha is translated as, "hello," "goodby," "love," "affection," and "friendship," it also embodies responsibility for oneself and for one's actions toward others. It is a verbal shorthand which expresses an acknowledgement of the net-like interweaving of family and community relationships. In the twenty first century we can look to the example of these successful explorers. We, too, can carry with us an inexhaustible supply of Aloha. It has no mass, no height, depth

  15. Six centuries of anthropogenic forest change on a Polynesian high island: Archaeological charcoal records from the Marquesas Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebert, Jennifer M.; Allen, Melinda S.

    2016-04-01

    It is widely recognised that Polynesian settlers developed central Pacific islands into productive economic landscapes, but the character and tempo of these transformations are poorly understood. Archaeological wood charcoal assemblages are uniquely suited to inform on landscape change, especially when the principal food crops were arboreal. We use a large archaeological charcoal collection, drawn from numerous geographically and functionally varied contexts, to develop a multi-scalar vegetation history of Marquesas Islands' lowland forests. Our aims were to: 1) reveal historical patterns of plant biogeography, including introductions by Polynesian settlers; 2) detail the nature and timing of anthropogenic impacts on native Marquesan forests; and 3) track the emergence of economically productive arboreal landscapes. A collection of 6510 fragments identified to 59 taxa inform on a ∼600-year sequence of human activities. The earliest samples indicate rich forests were encountered by human colonists, comprised of a mix of dicotyledonous hardwood species and woody monocots. These included members of two now-extinct Sapotaceae genera, Planchonella and cf. Sideroxylon, along with Allophylus, a Sapindaceae apparently extirpated from Nuku Hiva. Two important coastal trees, Calophyllum inophyllum and Thespesia populnea, also appear to be indigenous. Polynesian impacts were rapid and widespread, irrevocably altering the indigenous vegetation and disrupting native ecosystems. Samples from later occupations document on-going modifications to lowland vegetation communities. This included inter-valley variability in the timing of transformations and the development of mosaic formations, comprised of native forest interspersed with areas of cultivation and habitation. By 1650 CE, low and mid-elevation vegetation was extensively remodelled, as anthropogenic forests of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit), Inocarpus fagifer (Tahitian chestnut), and other economic species became widely

  16. Growing plants on atoll soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the

  17. Final integrated trip report: site visits to Area 50, Andersen Air Force Base, Guam National Wildlife Refuge, War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam, Rota and Saipan, CNMI, 2004-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Pratt, Linda W.

    2006-01-01

    supported the Mariana Gallinule (Gallinula chloropus guami), the Mariana Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos oustaleti), Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), White-throated Ground Dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura xanthonura), Mariana Crow (Corvus kubaryi), and the Nightingale Reed-warbler (Acrocephalus luscinia), all endemic to the Mariana Islands. Other regionally endemic endangered species include the Micronesian Megapode (Megapodius laperouse), and the Mariana Swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi), now reduced to a small population on Guam. Likewise, the flora of Guam is unique, with 21percent of its native vascular plants endemic to the Mariana Islands. In limestone forests of Northern Guam, a number of tall forest tree species such as joga, Elaeocarpus joga (Elaeocarpaceae); pengua or Macaranga thompsonii (Euphorbiaceae); ifit or Intsia bijuga (Fabaceae); seeded breadfruit or Artocarpus marianensis (Moraceae); and umumu or Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae) may be in decline as a result of herbivory by mammals. All show reduced regeneration and age distributions highly skewed towards older individuals. These species provided important habitat for some of Guam's endangered forest birds that remain in captivity such as the Mariana Crow, Guam Kingfisher, and Guam Rail. The recent high frequency of intense tropical storms and herbivory caused by large populations of feral pigs and Philippine sambar deer (Cervus mariannus), as well as invasive alien vines that may suppress tree regeneration, could be permanently altering the structure of regenerating forests and composition of important canopy species on secondary limestone substrates that were cleared and compacted during airfield construction from 1944 through the 1970s. Guam National Wildlife Refuge (GNWR) was established at Ritidian Point, after it was determined to be excess property by the U.S. Navy. Most of the refuge, about 9,087 hectares, is an 'overlay refuge' on lands administered by the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy

  18. Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls Affected by U.S. Nuclear Testing:All Exposure Pathways, Remedial Measures, and Environmental Loss of 137Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F

    2009-04-20

    Rongelap Atoll (Robison et al., 1994; Simon et al., 1997), and Utrok Island at Utrok Atoll (Robison, et al., 1999) indicate that about 95-99% of the total estimated dose to people who may return to live at the atolls today (Utrok Island is populated) is the result of exposure to {sup 137}Cs. External gamma exposure from {sup 137}Cs in the soil accounts for about 10 to 15% of the total dose and {sup 137}Cs ingested during consumption of local food crops such as drinking coconut meat and fluid (Cocos nucifera L.), copra meat and milk, Pandanus fruit, and breadfruit accounts for about 85 to 90%. The other 1 to 2% of the estimated dose is from {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. The {sup 90}Sr exposure is primarily through the food chain while the exposure to {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am is primarily via the inhalation pathway as a result of breathing re-suspended soil particles.

  19. Suivi du Gecko Phelsuma serraticauda (Squamata : Gekkonidae dans la région Atsinanana, dans l’Est de Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. M. Freeman

    2012-06-01

    , sont notés pendant cette étude. Compte tenu de l’état actuel des populations de P. serraticauda et de l’absence de mesures de conservation, un système de monitoring et un site de conservation pour cette espèce devraient être mis en place de toute urgence. Cette étude est la première réalisée sur cette espèce dans son état sauvage pour mieux comprendre ses besoins en termes d’habitat et les mesures de conservation à long terme de l’espèce. ABSTRACTThe diurnal gecko Phelsuma serraticauda has a restricted range in eastern and northeastern Madagascar. A study was under­taken in 57 sites mostly in Ivoloina and its surroundings areas in October (phase 1 and December (phase 2 2008. The main objectives were to elucidate the distribution area in the east of Madagascar and to determine the habitat use of P. serrati­cauda to help ensure its conservation and sustainable use. Most of the observations on plants were from coconut tree Cocos nucifera (84.3 % and breadfruit Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae, 4.9 %, with 8.3 % from houses. The number of P. serraticauda per biotope varied between one and five with means of 2.6 ± 0.2 for all plants and 1.7 ± 0.4 for the houses. Among the 29 coconut trees, 34 % were each occupied by one male or female, 14 % by two females, 10 % by two males, 10 % by one male and one female, 10 % by two males and one female. The mean number of male of P. serraticauda on the coconut trees was 1.06 ± 0.20 and 1.00 ± 0.15 for female. Among the four analysed houses, three were occupied by one female and one by three males and two females. The mean number of male P. serraticauda on the houses was 0.75 ± 0.75 and 1.25 ± 0.25 for female. Phelsuma serraticauda was also found infrequently on Eucalyptus sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, and other palm trees such as Dypsis sp. This species of gecko was not recorded in the humid forest of Analalava, in the edge of the Antetezana littoral forest, and in the vast plantation of Ravenala

  20. Final integrated trip report: site visits to Area 50, Andersen Air Force Base, Guam National Wildlife Refuge, War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam, Rota and Saipan, CNMI, 2004-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Pratt, Linda W.

    2006-01-01

    supported the Mariana Gallinule (Gallinula chloropus guami), the Mariana Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos oustaleti), Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), White-throated Ground Dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura xanthonura), Mariana Crow (Corvus kubaryi), and the Nightingale Reed-warbler (Acrocephalus luscinia), all endemic to the Mariana Islands. Other regionally endemic endangered species include the Micronesian Megapode (Megapodius laperouse), and the Mariana Swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi), now reduced to a small population on Guam. Likewise, the flora of Guam is unique, with 21percent of its native vascular plants endemic to the Mariana Islands. In limestone forests of Northern Guam, a number of tall forest tree species such as joga, Elaeocarpus joga (Elaeocarpaceae); pengua or Macaranga thompsonii (Euphorbiaceae); ifit or Intsia bijuga (Fabaceae); seeded breadfruit or Artocarpus marianensis (Moraceae); and umumu or Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae) may be in decline as a result of herbivory by mammals. All show reduced regeneration and age distributions highly skewed towards older individuals. These species provided important habitat for some of Guam's endangered forest birds that remain in captivity such as the Mariana Crow, Guam Kingfisher, and Guam Rail. The recent high frequency of intense tropical storms and herbivory caused by large populations of feral pigs and Philippine sambar deer (Cervus mariannus), as well as invasive alien vines that may suppress tree regeneration, could be permanently altering the structure of regenerating forests and composition of important canopy species on secondary limestone substrates that were cleared and compacted during airfield construction from 1944 through the 1970s. Guam National Wildlife Refuge (GNWR) was established at Ritidian Point, after it was determined to be excess property by the U.S. Navy. Most of the refuge, about 9,087 hectares, is an 'overlay refuge' on lands administered by the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy