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Sample records for bread wheat cultivars

  1. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  2. Intergenic spacer length variants in Old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ana Carvalho; Henrique Guedes-Pinto; José Lima-Brito

    2011-08-01

    The intergenic spacer of the ribosomal DNA is highly variable, but is location specific in the nucleolar organizer region of the chromosomes. This study provides an event of high level of polymorphism / size variation and occurrence of 14 unique phenotypes in 48 landraces of Portuguese bread wheat cultivars for IGS-amplified products obtained by PCR-RFLP technique performed with TaqI. The attendant IGS polymorphism has been used to deduce affinities between landraces. Some of the high molecular weight IGS allelic variants were also probed for their chromosomal localization by sequential silver nitrate staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization. However, only the intergenic spacer allelic variant of 3.1 kb could be successfully hybridized, and was observed to be physically located on the chromosome pair 1B in the NOR loci of the cultivar ‘Magueija’.

  3. Optimization of durum wheat bread from a selenium-rich cultivar fortified with bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previtali, Maria Assunta; Mastromatteo, Marcella; Conte, Amalia; De Vita, Pasquale; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    In this work the effect of bran addition (5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 %, 25 %, 30 %) on sensory, nutritional and mechanical properties of bread made from a durum wheat semolina enriched with selenium (cultivar PR22D89) was addressed; traditional and whole-meal bread from the same cultivar PR22D89, without any further bran addition, were also investigated for comparative purpose. In order to improve the durum wheat functional bread, different structuring agents (agar agar, gellan gum, guar seed flour, hydroxy-propyl-cellulose, modified food starch-CAPSUL® and tapioca starch) were firstly screened and then optimized. Sensory, textural and nutritional properties of bread were studied in each step. Results showed that bread from PR22D89 cultivar with addition of bran up to 30 % was completely accepted from the textural, nutritional and sensory points of view with proper utilization of guar seed flour or modified food-starch (2 %).

  4. Proteome characterization of developing grains in bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.

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    Guo Guangfang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analyses of protein synthesis, accumulation and regulation during grain development in wheat are more complex because of its larger genome size compared to model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. In this study, grains from two wheat cultivars Jimai 20 and Zhoumai 16 with different gluten quality properties were harvested at five development stages, and were used to displayed variable expression patterns of grain proteins. Results Proteome characterization during grain development in Chinese bread wheat cultivars Jimai 20 and Zhoumai 16 with different quality properties was investigated by 2-DE and tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Identification of 117 differentially accumulated protein spots representing 82 unique proteins and five main expression patterns enabled a chronological description of wheat grain formation. Significant proteome expression differences between the two cultivars were found; these included 14 protein spots that accumulated in both cultivars but with different patterns and 27 cultivar-different spots. Among the cultivar-different protein spots, 14 accumulated in higher abundance in Jimai 20 than in Zhoumai 16, and included NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, triticin precursor, LMW-s glutenin subunit and replication factor C-like protein. These proteins are likely to be associated with superior gluten quality. In addition, some proteins such as class II chitinase and peroxidase 1 with isoforms in developing grains were shown to be phosphorylated by Pro-Q Diamond staining and phosphorprotein site prediction. Phosphorylation could have important roles in wheat grain development. qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that transcriptional and translational expression patterns of many genes were significantly different. Conclusions Wheat grain proteins displayed variable expression patterns at different developmental stages and a considerable number of protein spots showed differential accumulation between two

  5. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Fuminori

    2015-08-05

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early “osmotic” phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  6. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fuminori; Tilbrook, Joanne; Trittermann, Christine; Berger, Bettina; Roy, Stuart J; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tester, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early "osmotic" phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  7. Selection and hydroponic growth of bread wheat cultivars for bioregenerative life support systems

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    Page, V.; Feller, U.

    2013-08-01

    As part of the ESA-funded MELiSSA program, the suitability, the growth and the development of four bread wheat cultivars were investigated in hydroponic culture with the aim to incorporate such a cultivation system in an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Wheat plants can fulfill three major functions in space: (a) fixation of CO2 and production of O2, (b) production of grains for human nutrition and (c) production of cleaned water after condensation of the water vapor released from the plants by transpiration. Four spring wheat cultivars (Aletsch, Fiorina, Greina and CH Rubli) were grown hydroponically and compared with respect to growth and grain maturation properties. The height of the plants, the culture duration from germination to harvest, the quantity of water used, the number of fertile and non-fertile tillers as well as the quantity and quality of the grains harvested were considered. Mature grains could be harvested after around 160 days depending on the varieties. It became evident that the nutrient supply is crucial in this context and strongly affects leaf senescence and grain maturation. After a first experiment, the culture conditions were improved for the second experiment (stepwise decrease of EC after flowering, pH adjusted twice a week, less plants per m2) leading to a more favorable harvest (higher grain yield and harvest index). Considerably less green tillers without mature grains were present at harvest time in experiment 2 than in experiment 1. The harvest index for dry matter (including roots) ranged from 0.13 to 0.35 in experiment 1 and from 0.23 to 0.41 in experiment 2 with modified culture conditions. The thousand-grain weight for the four varieties ranged from 30.4 to 36.7 g in experiment 1 and from 33.2 to 39.1 g in experiment 2, while market samples were in the range of 39.4-46.9 g. Calcium levels in grains of the hydroponically grown wheat were similar to those from field-grown wheat, while potassium, magnesium

  8. Genetic variation of carotenoids in Chinese bread wheat cultivars and the effect of the 1BL.1RS translocation

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    Wenshuang LI,Shengnan ZHAI,Hui JIN,Weie WEN,Jindong LIU,Xianchun XIA,Zhonghu HE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid content of wheat is an important criterion for prediction of the commercial and nutritional value of products made from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivars. The objective of this study was to determine the major components of carotenoids in Chinese wheat using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC including lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene and β-carotene. Grain carotenoid content was investigated in 217 cultivars from three major Chinese wheat regions and from seven other countries grown in two environments. Genotype contributed to the majority of variation in carotenoid components. Lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations varied from 18.3 to 100.1, 4.9 to 12.0 and 0.9 to 48.7 μg per 100 g in wheat flour with an average of 40.2, 7.2 and 18.2 μg per 100 g, respectively. Lutein (61.3% was the main carotenoid component, followed by β-carotene (27.7% and zeaxanthin (11.0%. No α-carotene was detected. Total carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene were all higher in cultivars with the 1BL.1RS translocation compared to those without the translocation. This is the first report on assay of lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations for a large number of wheat cultivars. These data will be useful for genetic improvement of wheat carotenoid content and for understanding of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in wheat.

  9. Genetics of gliadins coded by the group 1 chromosomes in the high-quality bread wheat cultivar Neepawa.

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    Dachkevitch, T; Redaelli, R; Biancardi, A M; Metakovsky, E V; Pogna, N E

    1993-04-01

    The inheritance and biochemical properties of gliadins controlled by the group 1 chromosomes of the high-quality bread wheat cultivar Neepawa were studied in the progeny of the cross Neepawa x Costantino by six different electrophoretic procedures. Chromosome 1B of Neepawa contains two gliadin loci, one (Gli-B1) coding for at least six ω- or γ-gliadins, the other (Gli-B3) controlling the synthesis of gliadin N6 only. The map distance between these loci was calculated as 22.1 cM. Amongst the chromosome 1A gliadins, three proteins are encoded at the Gli-A1 locus whereas polypeptides N14-N15-N16 are controlled by a remote locus which recombines with Gli-A1. Six other gliadins are controlled by a gene cluster at Gli-D1 on chromosome 1D. Canadian wheat cultivars sharing the Gli-B1 allele of Neepawa were found to differ in the presence or absence of gliadin N6. The electrophoretic mobilities of proteins N6 and N14-N15-N16 were unaffected by the addition of a reducing agent during two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamid-gel electrophoresis, suggesting the absence of intra-chain disulphide bonds in their structure.

  10. [Nutritional evaluation of sweet potato cultivars Ipomea batata (L.) Lam used in bread as partial substitute of wheat flour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, H; Kalinowski, J; Huaman, Z; Scott, G

    1993-12-01

    Four hundred and forty entries of sweet potato tubers from the International Potato Center were evaluated for chemical characteristics related to nutritional value. Dry matter range in the group was 15 to 45g/100g. The native entries DLP 2393, DLP 1120, DLP 2312, DLP 1908 and the foreign RCB 361F were selected for use in bread manufacture. Their average dry matter and crude protein was 38.5 and 9.2% respectively. Sweet potato bread was made replacing 30% of wheat flour with grinded sweet potato tubers. This bread had 11.0% crude protein in dry matter basis which were the same for bread made of wheat flour. There were no differences in organoleptic characteristics or protein quality (Apparent biological value: 37 vs 42%; apparent digestibility: 81 vs 80%; net protein utilization: 33 vs 39%) between sweet potato or full wheat flour breads respectively.

  11. CD 122 - Bread wheat, suitable for cultivation across southern Brazil

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    Francisco de Assis Franco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar CD 122 was tested in the wheat-producing regions VCU 1, 2 and 3, with an average grain yield of 3,527 kg ha-1 when fungicide-treated, exceeding the average of the control cultivars by 5%. CD 122 is resistant to leaf rust and was classified as bread wheat.

  12. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature...... on dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were fermented by seven commercial baker’s yeasts (baker’s yeast I to VII) at different yeast concentrations (2...... and VII. The longest fermentation times were generally found for doughs fermented with all baker’s yeasts at 5°C and the lowest yeast concentration (2.88•1014 CFU/kg flour). In Paper II, III and V wheat breads were produced for volatile analysis. The dough samples were fermented to equal height and baked...

  13. Allelic variations in Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci of historical and modern Iranian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Izadi-Darbandi; Bahman Yazdi-Samadi; Ali-Akbar Su-Boushehri; Mohsen Mohammadi

    2010-08-01

    Proline and glutamine-rich wheat seed endosperm proteins are collectively referred to as prolamins. They are comprised of HMW-GSs, LMW-GSs and gliadins. HMW-GSs are major determinants of gluten elasticity and LMW-GSs considerably affect dough extensibility and maximum dough resistance. The inheritance of glutenin subunits follows Mendelian genetics with multiple alleles in each locus. Identification of the banding patterns of glutenin subunits could be used as an estimate for screening high quality wheat germplasm. Here, by means of a two-step 1D-SDS-PAGE procedure, we identified the allelic variations in high and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits in 65 hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars representing a historical trend in the cultivars introduced or released in Iran from the years 1940 to 1990. Distinct alleles 17 and 19 were detected for Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, respectively. The allelic frequencies at the Glu-1 loci demonstrated unimodal distributions. At Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1, we found that the most frequent alleles were the null, 7 + 8, 2 + 12 alleles, respectively, in Iranian wheat cultivars. In contrast, Glu-3 loci showed bimodal or trimodal distributions. At Glu-A3, the most frequent alleles were c and e. At Glu-B3 the most frequent alleles were a, b and c. At Glu-D3 locus, the alleles b and a, were the most and the second most frequent alleles in Iranian wheat cultivars. This led to a significantly higher Nei coefficient of genetic variations in Glu-3 loci (0.756) as compared to Glu-1 loci (0.547). At Glu-3 loci, we observed relatively high quality alleles in Glu-A3 and Glu-D3 loci and low quality alleles at Glu-B3 locus.

  14. Cultivar-specific high temperature stress responses in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) associated with physicochemical traits and defense pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Divya; Shekhar, Shubhendu; Agrawal, Lalit; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2017-04-15

    The increasing global temperature by 1°C is estimated to reduce the harvest index in a crop by 6%, and this would certainly have negative impact on overall plant metabolism. Wheat is one of the most important crops with global annual production of over 600million tonnes. We investigated an array of physicochemical and molecular indexes to unravel differential response of nine commercial wheat cultivars to high temperature stress (HTS). The reduced rate in relative water content, higher membrane stability, slow chlorophyll degradation and increased accumulation of proline and secondary metabolites ingrained higher thermotolerance in cv. Unnat Halna, among others. The altered expression of several stress-responsive genes, particularly the genes associated with photosynthesis, heat shock proteins and antioxidants impinge on the complexity of HTS-induced responses over different genetic backgrounds and connectivity of adaptive mechanisms. This may facilitate the targeted manipulation of metabolic routes in crops for agricultural and industrial exploitation.

  15. Genetic control and combining ability of flag leaf area and relative water content traits of bread wheat cultivars under drought stress condition

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    Golparvar Ahmad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare mode of inheritance, combining ability, heterosis and gene action in genetic control of traits flag leaf area, relative water content and grain filling rate of bread wheat under drought stress, a study was conducted on 8 cultivars using of Griffing’s method2 in fixed model. Mean square of general combining ability was significant also for all traits and mean square of specific combining ability was significant also for all traits except relative water content of leaf which show importance of both additive and dominant effects of genes in heredity of these traits under stress. GCA to SCA mean square ratio was significant for none of traits. Results of this study showed that non additive effects of genes were more important than additive effect for all traits. According to results we can understand that genetic improvement of mentioned traits will have low genetic efficiency by selection from the best crosses of early generations. Then it is better to delay selection until advanced generations and increase in heritability of these traits.

  16. The spectrum of low molecular weight alpha-amylase/protease inhibitor genes expressed in the US bread wheat cultivar Butte 86

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    Vensel William H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat grains accumulate a variety of low molecular weight proteins that are inhibitors of alpha-amylases and proteases and play an important protective role in the grain. These proteins have more balanced amino acid compositions than the major wheat gluten proteins and contribute important reserves for both seedling growth and human nutrition. The alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors also are of interest because they cause IgE-mediated occupational and food allergies and thereby impact human health. Results The complement of genes encoding alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors expressed in the US bread wheat Butte 86 was characterized by analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Coding sequences for 19 distinct proteins were identified. These included two monomeric (WMAI, four dimeric (WDAI, and six tetrameric (WTAI inhibitors of exogenous alpha-amylases, two inhibitors of endogenous alpha-amylases (WASI, four putative trypsin inhibitors (CMx and WTI, and one putative chymotrypsin inhibitor (WCI. A number of the encoded proteins were identical or very similar to proteins in the NCBI database. Sequences not reported previously included variants of WTAI-CM3, three CMx inhibitors and WTI. Within the WDAI group, two different genes encoded the same mature protein. Based on numbers of ESTs, transcripts for WTAI-CM3 Bu-1, WMAI Bu-1 and WTAI-CM16 Bu-1 were most abundant in Butte 86 developing grain. Coding sequences for 16 of the inhibitors were unequivocally associated with specific proteins identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS in a previous proteomic analysis of milled white flour from Butte 86. Proteins corresponding to WDAI Bu-1/Bu-2, WMAI Bu-1 and the WTAI subunits CM2 Bu-1, CM3 Bu-1 and CM16 Bu-1 were accumulated to the highest levels in flour. Conclusions Information on the spectrum of alpha-amylase/protease inhibitor genes and proteins expressed in a single wheat cultivar is central to understanding the importance of

  17. Sensory profiles of bread made from paired samples of organic and conventionally grown wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, L E; Spaner, D; Wismer, W V

    2007-05-01

    The Canadian hard red spring wheat cultivar "Park" was grown in 2005 in Edmonton, AB, Canada on both conventionally and organically managed land, situated less than 1 km apart. Grains from the paired wheat samples were compared for cereal-grain-quality attributes. For sensory analysis, organically and conventionally produced wheat grains were milled into flour and baked into 60% whole wheat bread. Color, texture, taste, and aroma attributes of bread were compared using the sensory technique of descriptive analysis. Organic grain contained more wholemeal protein than conventional grain (P bread. Mixograph analysis revealed that conventional flour produced stronger bread dough than organic flour (P bread loaf volume. Fourteen sensory attributes were generated by the descriptive analysis panel. No differences were observed for flavor, aroma, or color attributes (P > 0.05), but the panel perceived the organic bread to be more "dense" in texture (P bread.

  18. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham...

  19. Evolution of bread-making quality of Spanish bread-wheat genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M.; Aparicio, N.; Ruiz-Paris, E.; Oliete, B.; Caballero, P. A.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, 36 Spanish wheat genotypes (five modern commercial cultivars, four cultivars introduced after the green revolution and 27 land races from northwestern Spain) were evaluated. Grain (yield, specific weight, protein content and falling number) and flour (yield, protein content, Zeleny index, wet gluten and gluten index) properties were analyzed. Dough behaviour during mixing (DoughLAB) and handling (alveograph) was also considered. An evolution in grain and flour properties was observed over time. In modern cultivars, grain yield was improved owing to higher grain production. In land races, higher grain yields were related to larger grain size. Unlike in land races, an inverse correlation between grain yield and protein content was found in modern cultivars. In addition, because of their high protein quality, modern cultivars surpassed land races in bread-making properties. Land races showed considerable variability in protein quality and scored lower curve configuration ratio values than other cultivars with similar strength. Cultivars introduced after the green revolution reached the highest levels of bread-making quality, a feature attributable to their high protein quality. (Author) 24 refs.

  20. Impact of Waxy, Partial Waxy, and Wildtype Wheat Starch Fraction Properties on Hearth Bread Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)cultivars were selected to represent GBSS mutations: three each of wildtype, axnull, and bxnull, and two each of 2xnull and waxy. Starch and A- and B-granules were purified from wheat flour. Hearth bread loaves were produced from the flours using a smal...

  1. TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF SPELT WHEAT BREAD

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    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what are inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%.Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was measured in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn were the most firm and stiff. Relative elasticity confirmed that the lowest firmness and stiffness was found in Rubiota bread. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety.

  2. Landrace groups of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Bread wheat was introduced in the Old World some 8000 years ago. Owing to local specific natural and human selection a landrace spread over a large area fragmented into locally adapted landraces. These related landraces can be grouped again in a landrace group indicating their evolution from a commo

  3. The pangenome of hexaploid bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Juan D; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Bayer, Philipp E; Hurgobin, Bhavna; Lee, HueyTyng; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Visendi, Paul; Lai, Kaitao; Doležel, Jaroslav; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2017-02-23

    There is an increasing understanding that gene presence absence variation plays an important role in the heritability of agronomic traits, however there have been relatively few studies on gene presence absence variation in crop species. Hexaploid wheat is one of the most important food crops in the world and intensive breeding has reduced the genetic diversity of elite cultivars. Major efforts have produced draft genome assemblies for the cultivar Chinese Spring, but it is unknown how well this represents the genome diversity found in current modern elite cultivars. In this study we build an improved reference for Chinese Spring and explore gene diversity across 18 wheat cultivars. We predict a pangenome size of 140,500 +/- 102 genes, a core genome of 81,070 +/- 1,631 genes, and an average of 128,656 genes in each cultivar. Functional annotation of the variable gene set suggests that it is enriched for genes that may be associated with important agronomic traits. In addition to gene presence variation, more than 36 million intervarietal SNPs were identified across the pangenome. This study of the wheat pangenome provides insight into elite wheat genome diversity as a basis for genomics based improvement of this important crop. A wheat pangenome Gbrowse is available at http://appliedbioinformatics.com.au/cgi-bin/gb2/gbrowse/WheatPan/, and data is available for download from http://wheatgenome.info/wheat_genome_databases.php. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Abboud; Brennan, Charles S.

    2012-01-01

    The relationships between breadmaking quality, kernel properties (physical and chemical), and dough rheology were investigated using flours from six genotypes of Syrian wheat lines, comprising both commercially grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines. Genotypes were grown in 2008/2009 season in irrigated plots in the Eastern part of Syria. Grain samples were evaluated for vitreousness, test weight, 1000-kernel weight and then milled and tested for protein content, ash, and water content. Dough rheology of the samples was studied by the determination of the mixing time, stability, weakness, resistance and the extensibility of the dough. Loaf baking quality was evaluated by the measurement of the specific weight, resilience and firmness in addition to the sensory analysis. A comparative study between the six Syrian wheat genotypes and two English flour samples was conducted. Significant differences were observed among Syrian genotypes in vitreousness (69.3%–95.0%), 1000-kernel weight (35.2–46.9 g) and the test weight (82.2–88.0 kg/hL). All samples exhibited high falling numbers (346 to 417 s for the Syrian samples and 285 and 305 s for the English flours). A significant positive correlation was exhibited between the protein content of the flour and its absorption of water (r = 0.84 **), as well as with the vitreousness of the kernel (r = 0.54 *). Protein content was also correlated with dough stability (r = 0.86 **), extensibility (r = 0.8 **), and negatively correlated with dough weakness (r = −0.69 **). Bread firmness and dough weakness were positively correlated (r = 0.66 **). Sensory analysis indicated Doumah-2 was the best appreciated whilst Doumah 40765 and 46055 were the least appreciated which may suggest their suitability for biscuit preparation rather than bread making.

  5. Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abboud Al-Saleh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between breadmaking quality, kernel properties (physical and chemical, and dough rheology were investigated using flours from six genotypes of Syrian wheat lines, comprising both commercially grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines. Genotypes were grown in 2008/2009 season in irrigated plots in the Eastern part of Syria. Grain samples were evaluated for vitreousness, test weight, 1000-kernel weight and then milled and tested for protein content, ash, and water content. Dough rheology of the samples was studied by the determination of the mixing time, stability, weakness, resistance and the extensibility of the dough. Loaf baking quality was evaluated by the measurement of the specific weight, resilience and firmness in addition to the sensory analysis. A comparative study between the six Syrian wheat genotypes and two English flour samples was conducted. Significant differences were observed among Syrian genotypes in vitreousness (69.3%–95.0%, 1000-kernel weight (35.2–46.9 g and the test weight (82.2–88.0 kg/hL. All samples exhibited high falling numbers (346 to 417 s for the Syrian samples and 285 and 305 s for the English flours. A significant positive correlation was exhibited between the protein content of the flour and its absorption of water (r = 0.84 **, as well as with the vitreousness of the kernel (r = 0.54 *. Protein content was also correlated with dough stability (r = 0.86 **, extensibility (r = 0.8 **, and negatively correlated with dough weakness (r = −0.69 **. Bread firmness and dough weakness were positively correlated (r = 0.66 **. Sensory analysis indicated Doumah-2 was the best appreciated whilst Doumah 40765 and 46055 were the least appreciated which may suggest their suitability for biscuit preparation rather than bread making.

  6. Physicochemical and dough-handling characteristics of Indian wheat and triticale cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, H R; Sekhon, K S; Wani, A Abbas

    2010-10-01

    Four bread wheat (PBW-138, PBW-299, PBW-343 and PBW-373), two durum wheat (PDW-215 and PDW-233) and two triticale cultivars (TL-419 and TL-1210) were investigated for physicochemical, milling and dough-handling properties for predicting end-use quality. Physical properties of durum wheat (PDW-215) and bread wheat (PBW-138, PBW-299 and PBW-343) cultivars were better than other wheat, durum and triticale cultivars. The compositional analysis revealed nonsignificant differences between the different cultivars; however, starch observed significant variation for different varieties. Particle size distribution indicated that triticale flours showed lower particle size than wheat and durum wheat. Dough-handling studies revealed triticale flours to be the weakest, while bread wheat flours were observed to be intermediate between durum and triticale. Among all the varieties, the bread wheat (PBW-138) variety was observed to be best, followed by PDW-215 durum wheat variety. Strong correlations were observed between physicochemical and dough-handling parameters, which can be used as quality parameter for suitable end-use.

  7. Fundamental and empirical rheological behaviour of wheat flour doughs and comparison with bread making performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A. M.; vanVliet, T; Vereijken, JM

    1996-01-01

    The rheological characteristics of wheat flour doughs from the cultivars Obelisk and Katepwa and of biscuit flour doughs, and also of biscuit flour doughs containing glutens isolated from cv. Obelisk and cv. Katepwa flour, were compared and discussed in relation to bread making performance. Four dif

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: bread wheat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bread wheat Triticum aestivum Triticum_aestivum_L.png Triticum_aestivum_NL.png Triticum_aes...tivum_S.png Triticum_aestivum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Triticum+aesti...vum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Triticum+aestivum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Triticum+aestivum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Triticum+aestivum&t=NS ...

  9. IMAGE ANALYSIS OF BREAD CRUMB STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO GLUTEN STRENGTH OF WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Magdić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine bread slice medium part properties in relation to quality parameters with a focus on gluten strength. Since sensory evaluation of bread is time consuming, expensive and subjective in nature, computerized image analysis was applied as objective method of bread crumb quality evaluation. Gluten Index method was applied as fast and reliable tool for defining gluten strength of wheat. Significant (P90 Ana, Demetra, Klara, Srpanjka and Divana have shown trend to give unequal and bigger crumb grains while cultivars Golubica, Barbara, Žitarka, Kata and Sana with optimal gluten strength (GI= 60-90 have shown finer and uniform crumb grain.

  10. End-use quality of CIMMYT-derived soft kernel durum wheat germplasm. II. Dough strenth and pan bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) is considered unsuitable for the majority of commercial bread production because its weak gluten strength combined with flour particle size and flour starch damage after milling are not commensurate with hexaploid wheat flours. Recently a new durum cultivar...

  11. Analysis on Quality Stability of Steamed Bread and Noodle by Wheat Cultivar Zhongmai 175%中麦175馒头和面条品质稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 陈新民; 绍凤成; 王德森; 何中虎

    2012-01-01

    为给优质小麦育种和生产提供参考依据,以优质小麦新品种中麦175于2010-2011年度在河北和北京14个地点的样品为材料,分析了磨粉品质、面粉和面片颜色、面团流变学和淀粉糊化特性、馒头和面条加工品质。结果表明,中麦175为馒头和面条兼用型优质品种,特点是软质、中偏弱的面筋强度、面粉颜色白,多数品质性状较稳定,籽粒硬度、PPO活性、面片a*值、稳定时间、拉伸面积、延展性和最大抗延阻力的变异系数较大,馒头加工品质地点间变异大于面条。磨粉品质和面团流变学参数对馒头加工品质有显著影响,籽粒硬度和出粉率对馒头表面颜色有显著负向影响,相关系数分别为-0.82(P〈0.01)和-0.58(P〈0.05);面粉L*值高,馒头加工品质好,二者相关系数为0.72(P〈0.01);吸水率与馒头总分呈显著负相关(r=-0.84,P〈0.01),稳定时间、拉伸面积、延展性和最大抗延阻力与馒头总分呈显著正相关,相关系数分别为0.85(P〈0.01)、0.77(P〈0.01)、0.62(P〈0.05)和0.70(P〈0.01)。降低PPO活性和吸水率,提高蛋白质含量、出粉率和黄色素含量可以改善面粉和面片颜色的亮白度,增加部分黄度,形成消费者可接受的奶白色。淀粉糊化特性对馒头和面条加工品质无显著影响。上述信息对改良小麦品质的稳定性有重要意义。%A total of 14 samples of newly released wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 collected from 2010-2011 cropping season at 14 locations were used to evaluate the milling quality,color of flour and noodle sheet,dough rheology,starch pasting property,and processing quality of steamed bread and noodle.The results indicated that Zhongmai 175 showed excellent steamed bread quality and good noodle quality,which was characterized with soft wheat,medium-weak gluten strength,and white color of flour.Except kernel hardness,PPO activity,a* value of noodle sheet

  12. Aroma of wheat porridge and bread-crumb is influenced by the wheat variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard; Hansen, Åse Solvej; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2015-01-01

    Sensory evaluations were conducted on wheat-flour porridge and baked-bread samples, made from wheat varieties with known odour and flavour variations. The purpose was to determine if these odour and flavour variations were expressed in baked-bread. In all, 24 wheat varieties were used for porridg......-extraction bread. This knowledge is important to the baking industry and to plant breeders as wheat aroma could possibly become a future quality parameter in breeding....

  13. BREAD-MAKING QUALITY OF SLOVAK AND SERBIAN WHEAT VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic prerequisite for the production of bakery products of a good quality is the knowledge of the quality parameters of raw materials introduced in the production process and the ability to use their potential. The bread making properties of 17 pure European wheat cultivars were analysed. Baking experiments were carried out according to the methodology of the research workplace; 1000 g of flour was processed with the addition of salt, sugar and yeast. Fermentation for 35 minutes at 30 ° C was followed by the baking with steaming (at 240 ° C and then 220 ° C. During an experimental baking test the selected parameters: loaf volume (cm3, specific loaf volume (cm3.100g-1 loaf, volume efficiency (cm3.100g-1 flour, cambering (loaf height/width ratio, bread yield (%, bread yield baking loss (% in bread were evaluated. Loaf volume has been considered as the most important criterion for the bread-making quality. In the analysed samples (11 varieties of Slovak origin and 6 varieties of Serbian origin, the value of this parameter ranged from 3575 cm3 to 5575 cm3 with higher values occurred in Slovak varieties (average 4 640.91 cm3 compared to the Serbian varieties (average 4 363.33 cm3. Based on the complex evaluation of wheat varieties of the Slovak and Serbian origin assessing the selected quality parameters of the baking experiment it can be concluded that in terms of baking quality the three Slovak varieties IS Ezopus, Bonavita and Jarissa were the best. Therefore, they are recommended for cultivation and their subsequent use in the baking industry, in particular for the production of bread According to a baking quality the evaluated varieties can be sorted from best to worst in the following order: IS Ezopus (SK > Bonavita (SK > Jarissa (SK > IS Questor > Etida (SRB > Venistar (SK > Renesansa (SRB > IS Conditor (SK > IS Corvinus (SK > Zvezdana (SRB > Simonida (SRB > Viglanka (SK > IS Agape (SK > NS 40S (SRB > Panonnija (SRB > IS Escoria (SK

  14. High Transferability of Homoeolog-Specific Markers between Bread Wheat and Newly Synthesized Hexaploid Wheat Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Deying; Luo, Jiangtao; Li, Zenglin; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Lianquan; Ning, Shunzong; Yuan, Zhongwei; Zheng, Youliang; Hao, Ming; Liu, Dengcai

    2016-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) has a complex allohexaploid genome, which makes it difficult to differentiate between the homoeologous sequences and assign them to the chromosome A, B, or D subgenomes. The chromosome-based draft genome sequence of the ‘Chinese Spring’ common wheat cultivar enables the large-scale development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers specific for homoeologs. Based on high-confidence ‘Chinese Spring’ genes with known functions, we developed 183 putative homoeolog-specific markers for chromosomes 4B and 7B. These markers were used in PCR assays for the 4B and 7B nullisomes and their euploid synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) line that was newly generated from a hybridization between Triticum turgidum (AABB) and the wild diploid species Aegilops tauschii (DD). Up to 64% of the markers for chromosomes 4B or 7B in the SHW background were confirmed to be homoeolog-specific. Thus, these markers were highly transferable between the ‘Chinese Spring’ bread wheat and SHW lines. Homoeolog-specific markers designed using genes with known functions may be useful for genetic investigations involving homoeologous chromosome tracking and homoeolog expression and interaction analyses. PMID:27611704

  15. Effect of spelt wheat flour and kernel on bread composition and nutritional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrabanja, V; Kovac, B; Golob, T; Liljeberg Elmståhl, H G; Björck, I M; Kreft, I

    2001-01-01

    Spelt wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta cv. Ostro) were used to obtain white spelt flour (64.5% yield), wholemeal spelt flour (100% yield), and scalded spelt wheat kernels. From these materials, white spelt wheat bread (WSB), wholemeal spelt wheat bread (WMSB), and spelt wheat bread with scalded spelt wheat kernels (SSKB) were made and were compared to the reference white wheat bread (WWB). The spelt wheat flours and breads contained more proteins in comparison to wheat flour and bread. Among the samples the highest rate of starch hydrolysis was noticed in WSB. During the first 30 min of incubation this particular bread was shown to have significantly more (P bread. On the other hand, the most refined spelt wheat flour resulted in a bread product (WSB) that was statistically withdrawn (P < 0.05) as one with the highest HI (112.6).

  16. ATTEMPT TO APPLY STABILIZED WHEAT GERM FOR BREAD SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Gambuś

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increased interest in rational nutrition causes, that from many years is observed a growing consumption of bread, and novel food supplemented with health promoting components. For the bread production in Poland mainly wheat and rye cake flours are used, depleted of a many valuable nutrients such as protein, dietary fibre, minerals and vitamins. Because of their unique chemical composition wheat germs are a particularly valuable resource, both for direct consumption and to enhance the nutritional value of food products. The aim of the study was to prepare wheat bread with a 10% addition of commercial stabilized wheat germs. Based on the obtained results, it was found that wheat germs, due to their unique chemical composition, were a particularly valuable resource to supplement the nutritional value of bread. However, germs had detrimental effect on mechanical properties of dough, and on bread quality. Texture of bread crumb and its chemical composition were analysed. It was shown, that germs subjected to fermentation process could be used in wheat bread production as dietary fibre and mineral compound supplement.

  17. Ancestral QTL alleles from wild emmer wheat improve drought resistance and productivity in modern wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne eMerchuk-Ovnat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum and bread (T. aestivum wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4 were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm and water-limited (290–320 mm conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS, and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS. In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass - specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background, under both treatments (2BS QTL, and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL. The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance.

  18. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A.; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm) and water-limited (290–320 mm) conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS), and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS). In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass—specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background), under both treatments (2BS QTL), and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL). The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance. PMID:27148287

  19. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690-710 mm) and water-limited (290-320 mm) conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS), and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS). In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass-specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background), under both treatments (2BS QTL), and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL). The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance.

  20. Kronstad F2004, nueva variedad de trigo harinero para el sur de Sonora Kronstad F2004, new bread wheat cultivar for southern Sonora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alfonso Camacho-Casas

    Full Text Available A new wheat variety, Kronstad F2004, was developed by the National Wheat program of INIFAP from improved germplasm provided by CIMMYT, specifically from the cross VEE/KOEL//SIREN/ARIV92. Compared with Rayon F89, Kronstad F2004 display a slightly higher yield under limited irrigation (5.65 vs 5.55 t ha-1, exceptional industrial quality and tolerance to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriksson. The plant height of Kronstad F2004 is 92 cm, with 79 day to spike formation and 120 day to physiological maturity; it is recommended for irrigated conditions in the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora and Sinaloa, Mexico. Kronstad F2004 was registered at the National Service of Seed Inspection and Certification with the number 1681-TRI-054-081204/C.

  1. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  2. Organoleptic and glycemic properties of chickpea-wheat composite breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Tasleem A; Al-Hassawi, Fatima; Al-Khulaifi, Fatima; Al-Rayyes, Ghanima; Waslien, Carol; Huffman, Fatma G

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of obesity and type-2-diabetes requires dietary manipulation. It was hypothesized that wheat-legume-composite breads will reduce the spike of blood glucose and increase satiety. Four pan bread samples were prepared: White bread (WB) as standard, Whole-wheat bread (WWB), WWB supplemented with chickpea flour at 25 % (25%ChB) and 35 % (35%ChB) levels. These breads were tested in healthy female subjects for acceptability and for effect on appetite, blood glucose, and physical discomfort in digestion. The breads were rated >5.6 on a 9-point hedonic scale with WB significantly higher than all other breads. No difference in area under the curve (AUC) for appetite was found, but blood glucose AUC was reduced as follows: 35%ChB 25%ChB = WWB or 35%ChB. We conclude that addition of chickpea flour at 35 % to whole wheat produces a bread that is acceptable to eat, causing no physical discomfort and lowers the glycemic response.

  3. Changes in allelic frequency over time in European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties revealed using DArT and SSR markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orabi, Jihad; Jahoor, Ahmed; Backes, Gunter Martin

    2014-01-01

    A collection of 189 bread wheat landraces and cultivars, primarily of European origin, released between 1886 and 2009, was analyzed using two DNA marker systems. A set of 76 SSR markers and ~7,000 DArT markers distributed across the wheat genome were employed in these analyses. All of the SSR mar...

  4. Wheat in the Mediterranean revisited - tetraploid wheat landraces assessed with elite bread wheat Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Hugo R; Hagenblad, Jenny; Leino, Matti W.; Leigh, Fiona J; Lister, Diane L.; Peña-Chocarro, Leonor; Jones, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) panels recently developed for the assessment of genetic diversity in wheat are primarily based on elite varieties, mostly those of bread wheat. The usefulness of such SNP panels for studying wheat evolution and domestication has not yet been fully explored and ascertainment bias issues can potentially affect their applicability when studying landraces and tetraploid ancestors of bread wheat. We here evaluate whether population structure...

  5. Genetic transformation of mature embryos of bread (T. aestivum) and pasta (T. durum) wheat genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaieb, Reda E A; El-Arabi, Nagwa I; Momtaz, Osama A; Youssef, Sawsan S; Soliman, Mohamed H

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to develop an efficient protocol for regeneration of transgenic wheat plants using Agrobacterium- mediated transformation of mature embryos of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tetraploid pasta wheat (Triticum durum). The data indicated that embryogenic calli were formed within 7 days in the presence of 2 mgl-1 2,4-D. Adventitious shoots emerged from the embryonic calli in the presence of 2 mgl-1 BA. Shoot regeneration frequency varied between wheat cultivars according to their genetic background differences. Regeneration frequency was higher in the cultivar Gemmiza 10 (95 %) compared with the other cultivars tested. Mature embryos derived callus of the cultivars Gemmiza 10 and Gemmiza 9 were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring a binary vector pBI-121 containing the neomycin phosphotransferase-II gene (npt-II). The resulted putative transgenic plantlets were able to grow on kanamycin containing medium. A successful integration of the transgene was confirmed by analyzing the T0 plantlets using Southern hybridization and PCR amplification. The gus gene expression can be detected only in the transgenic plants. The reported protocol is reproducible and can be used to regenerate transgenic wheat plants expressing the genes present in A. tumifaciens binary vectors.

  6. Effects of waxy wheat flour and water on frozen dough and bread properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinhee; Kerr, William L; Johnson, Jerry W

    2009-06-01

    The quality of bread made from frozen dough is diminished by changes that occur during freezing. New cultivars of waxy wheat flour (WWF), containing less than 2% amylose, offer unique properties for the production of baked products. In this study, dough properties and bread quality were investigated at various levels of WWF (0% to 45% flour weight) and water (55% to 65%). Dough stickiness increased with higher levels of WWF and water. During frozen storage, dough with greater WWF and lower water had less change in stickiness. Maximum resistance to extension (MRE) decreased with higher WWF and water. Dough with greater WWF and less water had less change in extensibility after frozen storage. Dough with greater WWF and water was more extensible. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies showed that frozen dough with higher WWF content had lower transverse relaxation (T(2)) time of 9 to 11ms. After frozen storage, dough with higher WWF still showed lower T(2). Dough with 15% WWF had higher yeast activity. Bread made from 15% and 30% WWF had higher volume in bread made from unfrozen and frozen dough. Bread firmness decreased with higher amounts of WWF and water. This research demonstrated that specific combinations of WWF and water produced a better quality of frozen dough and bread.

  7. Use of Avocado (Persea americana M. Paste in Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bread is the staple food for most people around the world, it being consumed since ancient times. Because of it’s major importance in the diet, over the last years, the trend of enrich the nutritional quality was developed, by replacing the chemical fortification of foods with an intake of bioactive compounds from fruits, vegetables and cereals. The avocado is useful in human nutrition as a source of various nutrients and especially as source of energy and monounsaturated fatty acids. This paper belongs to a more complex study, which aiming the evaluation of enriched bread for breakfast prepared with an addition of avocado paste (12% as a source of biologically active components in nutrition. Bread produced from 100% wheat flour served as the control. The seasoned bread for breakfast and the control samples were subjected to physico-chemical and organoleptic analyses. Addition of avocado paste (AP in bread has improved physicochemical and sensory attributes.

  8. The content of buckwheat flour in wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psodorov Đorđe B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven samples of bread were prepared in a special way. Samples were made of a mixture of wheat and buckwheat flour in defined proportions. Carbohydrates from crumbs of bread were derivatized with BSTFA and analyzed by GC-MS. Multivariate analysis was applied. The purpose of this study was not the identification and quantification of carbohydrate composition. The results demonstrated a clear relation between the carbohydrate composition of the bread samples and the type of flour used for their production.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066 i br. III 46005

  9. AMMI analysis of nitrogen harvest index in bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorjanović Biljana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen harvest index - NHI is a measure of efficiency of nitrogen translocation from vegetative organs to grain. The goal of this paper is to investigate variability and stability of nitrogen harvest index of twelve bread wheat genotypes, on three nitrogen levels. ANOVA showed that nitrogen harvest index was mostly under influence of the year x genotype interaction, year of investigation and genotype, and in the smallest amount of the nitrogen rate. Increasing doses of nitrogen did not lead to increased nitrogen harvest index. AMMI analysis showed that most genotypes differed in both the main effect and in GxE interaction. The highest stability i.e. the smallest interaction effect, was found in varieties Axis, Ilona, Sonata and Renan on N0 rate, and in varieties Malyska, Petrana, Axis and Evropa 90 on N100 rate. Cultivar Pobeda with the high average values for nitrogen harvest index, also had small interaction effect, i.e. it proved to be a stable variety.

  10. 面包面条兼用型强筋小麦品种郑麦366品质评价%Quality Evaluation of Strong- Gluten Wheat Cultivar Zhengmai 366 that Both Bread and Noodle Can Be Used

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美芳; 李巍; 雷振生; 吴政卿; 杨会民; 林作楫; 杨攀; 何宁; 徐福新; 何盛莲

    2012-01-01

    通过分析郑麦366品质特性,为粮食生产、食品加工利用、品种选育等提供参考.研究结果表明,郑麦366的HMW - GS和LMW - GS组成为1、7+8、5+10和Glu - A3a、Glu - B3d,不含1B/1R,表现蛋白质含量高,面筋强度大,面包烘焙品质优异;同时郑麦366为Wx - BI基因缺失类型,具有较好的淀粉糊化特性;控制郑麦366多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性的2个主效基因PPO - 2Ab、PPO - 2Da均为隐性,表现很低的PPO 活性,面条品质优良.郑麦366的品质在多个地区、多个年份表现稳定,为品质稳定的优质强筋小麦新品种.郑麦366集优质、高产、抗病、矮秆、农艺性状好于一体,在河南大面积种植的产量都在7500 kg/hm2以上,百亩超高产攻关田的产量在9750 kg/hm2以上,在周边省份进行大面积示范推广,表现突出.%This paper aims to analyse the quality of Zhengmai 366, and to provide the theoretical evidence for food production,food processing and utilization,breeding,and so on. The results show that the components of HMW - GS and LMW -GS in Zhengmai 366 are 1,7 +8,5 + 10 and Glu -A3a,Glu, -B3d,respectively. There is null 1B/1R. It appears high protein content, strong gluten strength, excellent bread baking properties. Zhengmai 366 is the null Wx - Bl type and associated with good starch paste property. The two primary poly phenol oxidase ( PPO) genes are PPO -2Ab,PP0 -2Da associated with low PPO activity,therefore,the quality of noodles is good. Zhengmai 366 havs stable quality in many places in several years, so it is a new high - quality Strong - gluten wheat cultivar with stable quality. Superior quality-,high yield, disease resistance, dwarf, good agronomic behavior appear simultaneously on Zhengmai 366. Its average yield is over 7 500 kg/hm2 in large area,and over 9 750 kg/hm2 in a hundred - acre super high yield field in Henan. It is also planted in large area in neighbouring provinces with excellent expression.

  11. Effects of bread making and wheat germ addition on the natural deoxynivalenol content in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Isabel; Blesa, Jesús; Herrera, Marta; Ariño, Agustín

    2014-01-21

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking.

  12. Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Giménez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD. During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking.

  13. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in bread wheat: I. yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Monotti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union the production of high quality wheat is mainly located in the Mediterranean regions where the climatic conditions positively affect protein concentration in the grain. High quality wheat calls for proper management of nitrogen fertilization, thus there is a need to verify whether the limitations imposed by local governments on maximum rate of nitrogen fertilization admitted may affect bread making quality. Trials were conducted in fourteen environments (E to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizations on eight cultivars (C, belonging to four quality grades (Q. Nitrogen (N was applied to crops according to three rates/modalities: N1 corresponding to the maximum rate admitted calculated according to a balance sheet method and distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N2 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1, also distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N3 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1 but distributed at the stage of flag leaf appearance. The effects of environment, nitrogen and cultivar were significant for grain yield, test weight, 1000 kernel weight, heading time, plant height and for quality traits (protein content and alveograph indices. The existence of variability among cultivars and quality grades in the response to rate and timing of nitrogen fertilization was demonstrated by the significance of NxC and NxQ interactions. Dry matter and nitrogen contents of plant at anthesis and at harvest were significantly affected by the main sources of variation. High quality cultivars yielded more grain of better quality with higher N rates (N2 and N3 as compared to the maximum rate of nitrogen admitted by the local government (N1. These results demonstrated that the adopted balance sheet method for the calculation of N requirements of wheat crop adversely affects the full potential expression of the cultivars belonging to superior bread making quality grades.

  14. Quality requirements of soft red winter wheat for making northern-style Chinese steamed bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flours of 19 soft red winter (SRW) wheat varieties having protein contents of 6.6 to 9.9% were used to determine the suitability of SRW wheat for making steamed bread and the influences of flour characteristics on the quality attributes of steamed bread. Fourteen varieties produced steamed bread of ...

  15. Evaluation of plant resistance inducers on different winter soft wheat cultivars against Septoria leaf blotch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ors, M; Siah, A; Randoux, B; Selim, S; Boizet, F; Couleaud, G; Maumene, C; Halama, P; Reignault, Ph

    2012-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph: Zymoseptoria tritici) is one of the most devastating foliar diseases on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Because of the emergence of fungal strains highly resistant to mainly used fungicides and the deleterious impacts of these fungicides on the environment, development of alternative control strategies to protect wheat crops against STB is needed. The induction of plant resistance by elicitors is likely to be a helpful alternative. Our study aims at characterizing the efficiency of potential resistance inducers towards STB in three bread wheat cultivars differing in their resistance levels to the pathogen: Alixan (susceptible), Premio (moderately resistant) and Altigo (resistant). These cultivars were inoculated under controlled and semi-controlled conditions with the pathogenic M. graminicolo strain T01193 in order to assess the protective effect of three potential resistance inducers against the disease. Moreover, the direct antifungal effect bf these products was evaluated in vitro at different concentrations in order to verify their potential biocide activity. Furthermore, cytological analyses were performed in order to determine the effects of these products on the fungal infection process and to compare these effects among the three wheat cultivars. Finally, reactive oxygen species metabolism was investigated in the three cultivars during their interaction with T01193 by measuring peroxidase activity.

  16. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w was evaluated in combination with high-methylated pectin (HM-pectin added at levels of 1 to 3% (w/w according to a full factorial design. Addition of pectin to cassava flour made it possible to bake bread with acceptable bread quality even at concentration as high as 40%. In addition to cassava concentration, the type of cassava flour had the biggest effect on bread quality. With high level of cassava, bread with roasted cassava had a higher volume compared with sun-dried and fermented. The pectin level had a significant effect on improving the volume in high level roasted cassava bread. Crumb firmness similar to wheat bread could be obtained with sun-dried and roasted cassava flours. Roasted cassava bread was the only bread with crust colour similar to wheat bread.

  17. Palatable and bio-functional wheat/rice products developed from pre-germinated brown rice of super-hard cultivar EM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Satoh, Hikaru; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2010-01-01

    It became possible to produce high-quality and bio-functional wheat/rice bread and wheat/rice noodles by blending, pre-germinated and cooked brown rice of a super-hard cultivar with wheat flour. Super-hard rice (SHR) is not suitable for table rice because of its low palatability. Nevertheless, it was found to be suitable as a blending material for bread-making or noodle-making due to its hard texture and high content of resistant starch. We developed a novel rapid germination method to improve the quality and to save the time needed for germination. By blending pre-germinated and cooked SHR (30% w/w on a dry basis) as a rice gel with wheat flour (70% w/w on a dry basis), the bread became very soft and any hardening after bread-making was markedly retarded. Similarly, blending pre-germinated and cooked SHR as cooked a rice gel with wheat flour gave high-quality noodles with a similar texture to that of durum semolina noodles. The resistant starch of the SHR-blended bread and noodles was also markedly increased. White waxy rice (9%) soaked and cooked with the pre-germinated brown rice of SHR (21%) produced a rice gel that was very useful as a material for bread-making and noodle-making by blending with wheat flour (70%) to prepare soft, tasty and bio-functional wheat/rice bread and wheat/rice noodles.

  18. CULTIVAR IMPACT ON THE CHEMICAL CONTENT AND GRAIN TECHNOLOGICAL QUALITIES OF SOME DURUM WHEAT CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanko Kolev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative experiment was carried out with five Bulgarian and five foreign durum wheat cultivars. The aim of the experiment was to determine the chemical content and grain technological quality of some Bulgarian and foreign durum wheat cultivars grown under the agriecological conditions of Southern Bulgaria. The Vazhod cultivar proved to give the highest durum wheat grain yield, followed by Beloslava cultivar. Out of the foreign durum wheat cultivars the Durumko was notable for its higher productivity. The crude protein content in the grain was highest in Zagorka, Yavor and Yukon. The highest yield of gluten was reported in Beloslava, Vazhod and Zagorka.

  19. Analytical methods for volatile compounds in wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Joana; Gómez, Manuel; Bernal, José; Bernal, José Luis

    2016-01-08

    Bread aroma is one of the main requirements for its acceptance by consumers, since it is one of the first attributes perceived. Sensory analysis, crucial to be correlated with human perception, presents limitations and needs to be complemented with instrumental analysis. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry is usually selected as the technique to determine bread volatile compounds, although proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry begins also to be used to monitor aroma processes. Solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction and headspace analysis are the main options for the sample treatment. The present review focuses on the different sample treatments and instrumental alternatives reported in the literature to analyse volatile compounds in wheat bread, providing advantages and limitations. Usual parameters employed in these analytical methods are also described.

  20. Contamination profiles and characterisation of Bacillus species in wheat bread and raw materials for bread production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkvist, H; Hansen, A

    1995-08-01

    The Bacillus counts in white and wholemeal wheat loaves produced without preservatives or sour dough were consistently 10(6) cfu/g after two days of storage at ambient summer temperatures (25-30 degree C). Identified species were B. subtilis (70%), B. licheniformis (24%), B. pumilus (2%) and B. cereus (2%). The dominance of B. subtilis in bread could be explained by the higher resistance to heat of this species as determined by inoculation studies. Among 14 species isolated from retail bread and wheat grains, B. subtilis was the only species associated with ropiness. Samples of raw materials, particularly bran, seeds and oat products, contained low levels (10(0) - 10(2) cfu/g) of Bacillus spores, surviving a heat treatment (100 degree C, 10 min) corresponding to a baking process. Even low spore levels in raw materials with the frequently isolated species, B. licheniformis (49%) and B. subtilis (10%), resulted in 10(7) Bacillus per g bread crumb in two days as determined by test bakings. The results indicate a need for controlling growth of Bacillus in bread.

  1. Organic Bread Wheat Production and Market in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, C.; Abecassis, J.; Carcea, M.;

    2012-01-01

    This chapter is a first attempt to analyse bottlenecks and challenges of European organic bread wheat sector involving technical, political and market issues. From 2000, the organic grain market has largely increased in Western Europe. To balance higher consumer demand there is a need to increase...... organic production by a new transition and technical improvement. Bread wheat is grown in a variety of crop rotations and farming systems where four basic organic crop production systems have been defined. Weeds and nitrogen deficiency are considered to be the most serious threat inducing lowest grain......-environmental programs. Support has been granted to organic farming since the beginning of the 1990s. Direct payments from European regulation combined with premium prices paid by consumers had compensated the lowest crop production. In the European Union, the current cycle of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is due...

  2. Wheat bread enriched with organic calcium salts and inulin. A bread quality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, María V; Zuleta, Angela; Ronayne, Patricia; Puppo, María C

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study quality parameters of enriched wheat bread with calcium citrate (Ca3CI2) or lactate (CaLA2) and inulin (In), also to optimize bread formulation. Fermentation time (tf), specific volume (Vs), browning index of crust (BI) and crumb properties (moisture, alveolus, texture) were studied. Generally, tf and Vs decreased with prebiotic increment. Ca3CI2 did not change Vs at equal inulin quantity, whereas with CaLA2 smaller breads were obtained (at 6.5 % In). Moisture of crumbs decreased with an increase in Ca3CI2 (at ≤ 6.5 %); while for CaLA2 was more influenced by the prebiotic. Up to 6.5 % In, the addition of both salts decreased crumb firmness and increased cohesiveness. Using a desirability function, the optimum calcium-prebiotic bread obtained with Ca3CI2 contained 2.40 g/kg Ca and 7.49 % In and with CaLA2 presented 1.33 g/kg Ca and 4.68 % In. Breads of high-quality with higher calcium and prebiotic quantity were able to obtain with Ca3CI2.

  3. Screening South African potato, tomato and wheat cultivars for five carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte S. Mashaba

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa malnutrition is of great concern. Vitamin A deficiency is one of the leading causes of infections as a result of micronutrient malnutrition. Although supplementation and food fortification programmes exist, these either are not available or are unaffordable to communities in remote rural areas. The selection of crops that are naturally rich in provitamin A (β-carotene and other carotenoids that can be recommended to small-scale farmers for breeding and for food production, could be an effective way to address vitamin A deficiencies and associated diseases. The aim of this study was to profile two cultivars each of potato, tomato, bread wheat and durum wheat, which are highly consumed crops in South Africa, for their carotenoid content using high-performance liquid chromatography. To this effect, reliable extraction and quantification of five carotenoids – lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene – were performed for these crops. Lutein and zeaxanthin were found to be the major carotenoids in potato, whilst lycopene was the major carotenoid in tomato. In durum wheat, only lutein and zeaxanthin were identified whilst bread wheat contained lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene. The methodology used proved to be robust and suitable to screen a large number of potato, tomato and wheat cultivars for their carotenoid content.

  4. Physical localization of NORs and ITS length variants in old Portuguese durum wheat cultivars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ana Carvalho; Henrique Guedes-Pinto; José Lima-Brito

    2011-04-01

    The variation at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA has been correlated with the number of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) in some plant species. Besides, the number of NORs might influence the rate of homogenization of the rDNA repeats. In recent studies, ITS length variants were detected in bread wheat cultivars but no reports about their presence in durum wheat were found. In the present study, we localized and identified the NORs of 51 old Portuguese durum wheat cultivars by using sequential silver staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization performed with the pTa71 rDNA probe. We also detected ITS length variants by PCR-RFLP. No variation at the number of Ag-NORs per metaphase was found among the 51 durum wheat cultivars, but the PCR-RFLP technique carried out with the restriction enzyme HpaII, allowed the detection of ITS length variants among them. The molecular data was used in order to establish the genetic relationships among cultivars and botanical varieties of durum wheat. The knowledge of this feature could be useful for future design of breeding strategies, involving this collection that constitutes an excellent repository of germplasm in Portugal.

  5. Evaluation of the Agronomical and Biochemical Characteristics of New Lines of Bread Wheat in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan DOGAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen new lines of bread wheat obtained from the CIMMYT/ICARDA and a standard cultivar were evaluated during three successive years (2003, 2004 and 2005. The experiments were conducted at the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture of the Uluda? University in Bursa. The lines and the standard cultivar showed significant differences in plant height, number of seeds/spike, seed weight/spike, seed yield and a 1000-kernel weight. The lines numbered 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 14 and 15 produced significantly higher seed yields than the standard cultivar. Therefore, they formed the highest group (a of seed yield. Similarly, these lines had a higher number of seeds/spike value than the standard cultivar. However, lines 6 and 11 produced higher seed yields than lines 4, 7, 9, 14 and 15. In particular, the gluten composition and the zeleny sedimentation test values of whole flours revealed that lines 6 and 11 could be suitable for high-quality pasta production with good sensory characteristics. To summarize, there were significant differences between the lines with respect to agronomic and biochemical characteristics. In particular, lines 6 and 11 had better performance than both the other lines and the standard cultivar because of their seed yield and quality.

  6. Characterization of Brazilian wheat cultivars for specific technological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional and technological properties of wheat depend on its chemical composition, which together with structural and microscopic characteristics, define flour quality. The aim of the present study was to characterize four Brazilian wheat cultivars (BRS Louro, BRS Timbauva, BRS Guamirim and BRS Pardela and their respective flours in order to indicate specific technological applications. Kernels were analyzed for test weight, thousand kernel weight, hardness, moisture, and water activity. Flours were analyzed for water activity, color, centesimal composition, total dietary fiber, amylose content and identification of high molecular weight glutenins. The rheological properties of the flours were estimated by farinography, extensography, falling number, rapid visco amylography, and glutomatic and glutork equipment. Baking tests and scanning electron microscopy were also performed. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and principal component analysis. BRS Timbauva and BRS Guamirim presented results that did not allow for specific technological application. On the other hand, BRS Louro presented suitable characteristics for the elaboration of products with low dough strength such as cakes, pies and biscuits, while BRS Pardela seemed suitable for bread and pasta products.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE WHIPPED BREAD WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT, RYE AND WHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of whipped bakery products enriched with dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins retinol, tocopherol, group, polyunsaturated fatty acids through the use of rye and wheat bran and flour of wholegrain wheat. The main raw material for enrichment whipped bakery products used wheat bran and rye. Choice of rye and wheat bran as supplementation prepared whipped bread is explained not only from the point of view of the rationality of the use of this secondary raw materials, but also its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Wheat bran contain the necessary man of b vitamins, including B1, B2, B6, PP and others. Found provitamin a (carotene and vitamin E (tocopherol. Bran is rich in mineral substances. Among them potassium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper, selenium and other trace elements. Thanks to this composition bran are essential dietary product. They are rich in insoluble fiber and can be useful to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. Rye bran contain dietary fiber, tocopherol E, thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Pantothenic acid B5, B4 (choline, nicotinic acid B3, etc. In the bran rich set of microelements and macroelements such as iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iodine, selenium, chromium, etc. the Introduction in the diet, bran rye contribute to the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes and anemia. They restore blood pressure, reduce blood sugar levels and improve the cardiovascular system. Flour from wholegrain wheat is the main supplier of bread protein and starch, while preserving the maximum of the original nutritional value of the grain, enriched whipped bread macro - and micronutrients. The analysis of the chemical composition of flour from wholegrain wheat, rye and wheat bran leads to the conclusion that the choice of these types of materials suitable for making the recipe whipped bakery products, because their use can increase the content in bread is not only the

  8. Genome-Wide Association of Stem Water Soluble Carbohydrates in Bread Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Liu, Jindong; Zhang, Yan; Geng, Hongwei; Rasheed, Awais; Xiao, Yonggui; Cao, Shuanghe; Fu, Luping; Yan, Jun; Wen, Weie; Zhang, Yong; Jing, Ruilian; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in stems play an important role in buffering grain yield in wheat against biotic and abiotic stresses; however, knowledge of genes controlling WSC is very limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a high-density 90K SNP array to better understand the genetic basis underlying WSC, and to explore marker-based breeding approaches. WSC was evaluated in an association panel comprising 166 Chinese bread wheat cultivars planted in four environments. Fifty two marker-trait associations (MTAs) distributed across 23 loci were identified for phenotypic best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs), and 11 MTAs were identified in two or more environments. Liner regression showed a clear dependence of WSC BLUE scores on numbers of favorable (increasing WSC content) and unfavorable alleles (decreasing WSC), indicating that genotypes with higher numbers of favorable or lower numbers of unfavorable alleles had higher WSC content. In silico analysis of flanking sequences of trait-associated SNPs revealed eight candidate genes related to WSC content grouped into two categories based on the type of encoding proteins, namely, defense response proteins and proteins triggered by environmental stresses. The identified SNPs and candidate genes related to WSC provide opportunities for breeding higher WSC wheat cultivars. PMID:27802269

  9. Durum and soft wheat flours in sourdough and straight-dough bread-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Sgarbi, Elisa; Cirlini, Martina; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, the bread-making performance of durum wheat flour under straight-dough and sourdough procedures were compared to those offered by soft wheat flour by means of selected physical properties (colour, texture, water dynamics, crumb grain characteristic, bulk volume) immediately after baking and during a 5-day shelf-life. The use of sourdough process better preserved both crumb grain characteristic and moisture content of the breads during shelf-life, independently of the wheat flour used. The flour seemed to significantly affect the water dynamics in sourdough breads, being the dehydration process of crust and under-crust faster in durum wheat breads. On the other hand, increasing trend of crumb firmness during the shelf-life was slower in durum wheat breads than in those obtained with soft wheat flour. Initial colour parameters of crust and crumb appeared to less change during shelf-life if durum wheat flour was used. Thus, the final quality of breads after baking and along the shelf-life was significantly affected by both the type of flours and the bread-making process. The results reported herein showed that technological performances of durum wheat flour, especially when combined with sourdough processes, could be successfully exploited for the production of innovative products in the bread-making industry.

  10. Binding of zinc and iron to wheat bread, wheat bran, and their components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Beigi, F; Faraji, B; Reinhold, J G

    1977-10-01

    Wholemeal wheat bread decreases the availability and intestinal absorption of divalent metals. To define this action further, binding of zinc in vitro to a wheat wholemeal bread (Tanok), dephytinized Tanok, and cellulose was determined at pH 5.0 to 7.5. Zinc binding by each was highly pH-dependent and reached a maximum at pH 6.5 to 7.5. Removal of phytate from Tanok did not reduce its binding capability. Wheat bran at pH 6.5 and 6.8 bound 72% of iron (0.5 microgram/ml of solution) and 82.5% of zinc (1.43 microgram/ml solution), respectively. Lignin and two of the hemicellulose fractions of wheat bran and high binding capabilities for zinc (85.6, 87.1, and 82.1%, respectively) whereas a third had a lower zinc-binding capability (38.7%). Binding of zinc to various celluloses and dextrans is also demonstrated. Formation of complexes of these metals with wheat fiber can explain, at least in part, the decreased availability of dietary iron and zinc in wholemeal wheat bread.

  11. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli;

    2015-01-01

    with a similar composition were created using different processing conditions. The postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response to bread with a compact structure (flat bread, FB) was compared to bread with a porous structure (control bread, CB) in a randomized, crossover study with ten healthy male...... or insulin-independent glucose disposal. These results demonstrate that the structure of wheat bread can influence the postprandial metabolic response, with a more compact structure being more beneficial for health. Bread-making technology should be further explored to create healthier products....

  12. Anthocyanins in purple and blue wheat grains and in resulting bread: quantity, composition, and thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Pavel; Albreht, Alen; Skrt, Mihaela; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Ošťádalová, Martina; Šmejkal, Karel; Vovk, Irena; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition of blue (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Skorpion) and purple wheat (Triticum aethiopicum JAKUBZ cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta), cultivated in the Czech Republic, and of the prepared whole blue and purple wheat bread was determined. In blue and purple wheat, 19 and 26 anthocyanins, respectively, were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total content of anthocyanins determined in blue and purple wheat was 9.26 and 13.23 mgkg(-1), respectively. The breads were baked at 240 and 180 °C. Some significant differences in anthocyanins content were observed between breads prepared at different baking temperatures. The content of cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside was determinated in starting material, whole meal flours and baked breads. These kinds of wheat are suitable for baking bread, since intake of anthocyanins may play an important role in the prevention of human diseases.

  13. Evaluation of Wheat and Barley Cultivars Tolerance to Metribuzine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi Darbandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of barely and wheat cultivars tolerance to metribuzin, a factorial experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design, with three replications in Greenhouse of Agricultural Research at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments included wheat cultivars (Backcross roshan, Cross Arvand, Bahar, Sepahan, Gascosion, Sayonez, Bam garmsiry, Garmsiri, Ghods, Pishtaz, Chamran and Shoori 6, barely cultivars (Macouyi, Karoon and Bahman and metribuzin application rates ( 0, 175, 350, 700, 1050, 1400 and 2100 gr. ai.ha-1. Metribuzine was applied at 3-4 leaf stage and 3 weeks after herbicide spraying, plants survival and their biomass were determined. Results showed that metribuzin application had a significant effect (p≤0.01 on barley and wheat dry weight. Based on results, mertibuzin application did not affect on barley cultivars up to 30 g.a.i.ha-1 but in wheat varieties lead to significant reduction in their biomass and survival. Increasing of metribuzin rates reduced wheat and barley cultivars biomass (p≤0.01. Barely varieties were less sensitive than wheat cultivars to metribuzine. The highest and the lowest ED50 in wheat cultivars were observed in cross arvand (940 and shoori (25 varieties, respectively. In barley cultivars the highest and lowest ED50 were observed in Macouyi (614 and Karoon (396, respectively.

  14. Effect of Waxy Wheat Flour Blends on the Quality of Fresh and Stale Bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Peng; MA Chuan-xi; WU Rong-lin; KONG Zhi-you; ZHANG Bo-qiao

    2009-01-01

    Starch is the major component in the wheat kernel,which is mainly composed of amylose and amylopectin.The wheat without amylose in its endosperm was called"waxy wheat".Waxy wheat can be used to adjust the amylose content and improve the wheat-based food quality by adding to non-waxy wheat flour.In order to investigate the effect of waxy wheat flour on the quality of fresh and stale bread,waxy wheat flour was added into the flour of Canadian Spring Wheat 2 at 0.0,5.0,10.0,15.0,20.0,25.0,30.0,and 35.0% to make breads.The physicochemical properties were adjusted to suitability by adding Yangmai 158 flour,and breads were evaluated for sensory quality,crumb firmness,loaf volume and weight loss over a period of 0,2,4,and 6 days.The result showed that the best total score of fresh bread was 82.9 by adding waxy flour at 7.0%,though no significant difference was found among blends with 0.0-15.0% of waxy flour.Breads with the addition of 22.0% waxy flour had lower firmness,and decreasing loss of weight.Waxy wheat flour blend at 15.0% was optimal in retarding staling without significant decreasing fresh bread quality in comparison to the control.

  15. Calidad panadera de nuevos genotipos de trigo pan Bread-making quality of new genotypes of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Dubois

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la calidad panadera de los dos mejores genotipos de trigo pan obtenidos por selección recurrente por rendimiento (C1-00-83 y C3-00-42 y seis cultivares comerciales, cultivados en la región semiárida central argentina. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente aleatorizado con cuatro repeticiones. Se determinó peso hectolítrico, peso de mil semillas, contenido proteico, rendimiento en harina, gluten húmedo, parámetros alveográficos y panificación experimental. Las variables de calidad del genotipo C3-00-42 corresponden a un trigo de gran fuerza, muy tenaz, alta absorción de agua y buen volumen de pan, por consiguiente puede usarse como corrector de harinas débiles o para elaboraciones que requieran trigos fuertes. El genotipo C1-00-83 presentó los mejores valores de proteína, gluten y volumen del pan de todos los analizados, conjuntamente con un alto rendimiento en harina y gluten muy fuerte y bastante equilibrado. Los dos nuevos genotipos presentan excelentes características panaderas y ofrecen calidades industriales diferenciales.The bread- making quality of the two best genotypes of bread wheat obtained by recurrent selection by yield (C1-00-83 and C3-00-42 vs. six commercial cultivars from the Argentine central semiarid region were evaluated. A completely randomized block design with 4 repetitions was utilized. The parameters measured were: test weight, thousand kernel weight, grain proteins, yield flour, gluten test, alveograph parameters and baking test. The quality parameters of the C3-00-42 genotype corresponded to very tenacious strong gluten, with high water absorption and which produces good loaf volume. Therefore, it can be used to compensate weaker flours or to manufacture products that require strong wheat. The C1-00-83 genotype presented high yield in flour, very strong and almost balanced gluten and the best values in protein content, gluten and loaf volume of all those Trianalyzed. The two new

  16. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of wheat bread prepared with quinoa, buckwheat and pumpkin seed blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Mirjana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to blend quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed kernels at 40% level with wheat flour and to examine the effect of this blend on nutritional and sensory quality and also energy values of the pan bread. Hydrothermal preparation of these supplements is included. Chemical composition of the investigated materials, wheat bread and supplemented bread, was determined using relevant AOAC methods. Chemical composition of supplemented bread with an increase in protein, oil and crude fiber was superior in comparison with control wheat bread. Sensory properties of supplemented bread such as specific volume, appearance, crust and crumb texture, aroma-odor and color were evaluated and found excellent. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31006, TR 31034 and EU FP7 project 316004, project acronym: AREA

  17. Production of wheat bread without preservatives using sourdough starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkova, Rositsa; Ilieva, Svetla; Denkova, Zapryana; Georgieva, Ljubka; Yordanova, Mariya; Nikolova, Dilyana; Evstatieva, Yana

    2014-09-03

    In order for the beneficial effects of sourdough application in breadmaking to take place a proper selection of lactic acid bacteria species and strains, an appropriate technology and effective control of the purity and activity of the selected cultures. Four symbiotic starters for sourdough for the production of bread were developed and probated in a production laboratory using the selected strains Lactobacillus brevis LBRZ7, L. buchneri LBRZ6, L. plantarum X2, L. paracasei RN5, L. sanfranciscensis R and L. fermentum LBRH10 and the probiotic strain Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii NBIMCC 327. The starter sourdoughs that include Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii NBIMCC 327 had greater antimicrobial activity against saprophytic microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, B. mesentericus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp., but none of them inhibited the growth of bakery yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was established that in order to prevent bacterial spoilage 10% of the selected starter sourdoughs had to be added in the breadmaking process, while for prevention of mold spoilage the necessary amount of starter sourdough had to be between 15% and 20%.The application of the developed starters for the production of wheat bread guarantees longer shelf life and no adverse alterations in the features of the final bread.

  18. Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agundez-Arvizu, Z. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Fernandez-Ramirez, M.V. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Arce-Corrales, M.E. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Cruz-Zaragoza, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares-UNAM, A.P. 70-543, Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico); Melendrez, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico); Chernov, V. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico); Barboza-Flores, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico)]. E-mail: mbarboza@cajeme.cifus.uson.mx

    2006-04-15

    Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage, insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.0 kGy using a {sup 6}C Gammabeam 651 PT irradiator facility. No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. Slight radiation effects were observed in the alveogram values and farinograph properties; the falling number decreased 11%, the absorption as well as the mixing tolerance were practically unchanged by irradiation. An increase of 15% in the stability value and a 29% in the dough development time were observed. Also the deformation energy decreased 7% with no change at all in the tenacity/extensibility factor. Total aerobic, yeast and mold counts were reduced 96%, 25% and 75%; respectively by the irradiation process. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties.

  19. The Effect of Grazing Applied in the Different Phenological Stages on Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat and Triticale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Balkan M. L. Özdüven İ. Nizam E. E. Teykin M. Tuna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted during two growing seasons, 2003-04 and 2004-05, at experimental farm of Field Crops Department of Agricultural Faculty of Namik Kemal University of Turkey. In the study, the effects of grazing regimes (a. control, b. 1 time grazing. c. 2 times grazing and d. 3 times grazing on grain yield and related characteristics of 2 bread wheat and 2 triticale cultivars were investigated. The experimental design was split plot on randomized blocks, with cultivars as the main plot and grazing regimes as subplot. Grazing was simulated by lawn cutter. According to the results of the study, grazing regimes significantly reduced grain yield and related characteristics. The average reduction in grain yield was 8.43% in only one time grazed, 16.47 % in 2 times grazed and 52.57% in 3 times grazed plots. The reduction in grain yield varied according to year, species, cultivars and grazing date. The results of the study indicate that approximately 12 weeks after sowing, bread wheat and triticale can be grazed one time in the years when there is a shortage of forage

  20. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) Pulp
as a Functional Food Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różyło, Renata; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Dziki, Dariusz; Jakubczyk, Anna; Karaś, Monika; Różyło, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20% (converted to dry matter) caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory characteristics of the bread showed that a partial replacement of wheat flour with up to 10% of pumpkin pulp gave satisfactory results. The taste, aroma and overall acceptability of control bread and bread containing 5 or 10% of pulp had the highest degree of liking. The addition of higher levels of pumpkin pulp caused an unpleasant aroma and taste. Pumpkin pulp is a good material to complement the bread with potentially bioaccessible phenolics (including flavonoids) and, especially, with peptides. The highest antioxidant activity was observed, in most cases, of the samples with added 10 and 15% of pumpkin pulp. The addition of the pulp significantly enriched the bread with potentially bioaccessible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. The highest activity was determined in the bread with 15 and 20% pumpkin pulp. ACE inhibitors from the tested bread were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Pumpkin pulp seems to be a valuable source of active compounds to complement the wheat bread. Adding the pulp directly to the wheat flour gives satisfactory baking results and reduces the cost of production. Additionally, pumpkin pulp is sometimes treated as waste material after the acquisition of seeds, thus using it as bread supplement also has environmental and economic benefits. Key words: pumpkin, bread, texture, antioxidants, bioaccessibility in vitro, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition.

  1. Quality of Bread from Composite Flour of Sorghum and Hard White Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Abdelghafor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the baking properties of whole, decorticated sorghum- (Sorghum bicolor - wheat (Triticum aestivum Desf. composite flours as well as to determine the physical characteristics and organoleptic quality of pan and balady breads made from those flours. Whole and decorticated sorghum flours were used to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% by weight of bread wheat flour. Sensory evaluation results showed that up to 20% wheat replacement with whole or decorticated sorghum flour produced acceptable pan and balady breads. Decreases, however, were noted in all sensory properties except odor.

  2. Initial Study on Applications of French Wheat in Chinese Steamed Bread and Noodles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xiangqing; Cao Jian; Chen Fusheng; Zhao Renyong; Gu Xin; Wang Shu

    2000-01-01

    the physical-chemical properties of four kinds of French commercial wheat and its flour and its dough rheological properties were analyzed in more detail .The suitability of French wheat flour in Chinese traditional food products such as ste2med bread and noodle was preliminarily studied in order to get and spread more infomation on how to utilize French wheat in Chinese food.

  3. Initial Study on Applications of French wheat in Chinese Steamed Bread and Noodles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouXiangqing; CaoJian; 等

    2000-01-01

    The physical-chemical properties of four kinds of French commercial wheat and its flour and its dough rheological properties were analyzed in more detail.The suitability of French wheat flour in Chinese traditional food products such as stesmed bread and noodle was preliminarily studied in order to get and spread more information on how to utilize French wheat in Chinese food.

  4. Whole wheat bread: Effect of bran fractions on dough and end-product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of whole-wheat based products is encouraged due to its important nutritional elements that beneficial to human health. However, processing of whole-wheat based products, such as whole-wheat bread, results in poor end-product quality. Bran was postulated as the major problem. In this stud...

  5. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Bread and Durum Wheat Using Freshly Isolated Immature Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huixia; Doherty, Angela; Jones, Huw D.

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat is becoming a viable alternative to the more established biolistic protocols. It offers advantages in terms of simple, low-copy-number integrations and can be applied with similar efficiencies to specific durum wheat and spring and winter bread wheat types varieties.

  6. Effect of a Thermoascus aurantiacus thermostable enzyme cocktail on wheat bread qualitiy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D S; Telis-Romero, J; Da-Silva, R; Franco, C M L

    2014-01-15

    Thermophilic fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus (CBMAI 756) on solid-state fermentation using corncob as a nutrient source produces an enzyme pool with the potential to be used in bread making. In this paper, the use of this enzyme cocktail as a wheat bread improver was reported. Both products released by flour arabinoxylan degradation and bread quality were investigated. The main product released through enzyme activity after prolonged incubation was xylose indicating the presence of xylanase; however, a small amount of xylobiose and arabinose also confirmed the presence of xylosidase and α-l-arabinofuranosidase, respectively. Enzyme mixture "in vitro" mainly attacked water-unextractable arabinoxylan contributing to beneficial effect in bread making. The use of an optimal enzyme concentration (35U xylanase/100g of flour) increased specific volume (22%), reduced crumb firmness (25%), and reduced amylopectin retrogradation (17%) during bread storage. In conclusion, the enzyme cocktail produced by T. aurantiacus CBMAI 756 can improve wheat bread quality.

  7. Influence of dextran-producing Weissella cibaria on baking properties and sensory profile of gluten-free and wheat breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Czerny, Michael; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-02-17

    Breads based on gluten-free buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff flours were produced with addition of 20% sourdough fermented with exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing Weissella cibaria MG1. Wheat bread was baked as a reference. Dough rheology, bread quality parameters and sensory properties of the sourdough-containing breads were compared to sourdough non-containing control breads of the respective flour. The specific volume remained unaffected by sourdough application. In buckwheat, sorghum, teff and wheat sourdough breads acidification increased crumb porosity compared to control breads. Crumb hardness was significantly reduced in buckwheat (-122%), teff (-29%), quinoa (-21%) and wheat sourdough breads (-122%). The staling rate was significantly reduced in buckwheat, teff and wheat sourdough breads. Water activity of the sourdough containing bread crumb was not influenced by the presence of EPS. Due to the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and influence of acidification, the dough strength, AF, as measured by oscillation tests decreased significantly in sourdough-containing buckwheat, sorghum and wheat dough, but increased in sourdough-containing quinoa and teff dough. Microbial shelf-life was significantly prolonged neither for gluten-free sourdough nor for wheat sourdough breads. Scanning electron microscopy of control and sourdough bread crumbs did not show differences concerning structural starch features. In addition, the aroma of most bread was not improved by sourdough addition.

  8. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. Pulp as a Functional Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Różyło

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20 % (converted to dry matter caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory characteristics of the bread showed that a partial replacement of wheat fl our with up to 10 % of pumpkin pulp gave satisfactory results. The taste, aroma and overall acceptability of control bread and bread containing 5 or 10 % of pulp had the highest degree of liking. The addition of higher levels of pumpkin pulp caused an unpleasant aroma and taste. Pumpkin pulp is a good material to complement the bread with potentially bioaccessible phenolics (including flavonoids and, especially, with peptides. The highest antioxidant activity was observed, in most cases, of the samples with added 10 and 15 % of pumpkin pulp. The addition of the pulp significantly enriched the bread with potentially bioaccessible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors. The highest activity was determined in the bread with 15 and 20 % pumpkin pulp. ACE inhibitors from the tested bread were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Pumpkin pulp seems to be a valuable source of active compounds to complement the wheat bread. Adding the pulp directly to the wheat flour gives satisfactory baking results and reduces the cost of production. Additionally, pumpkin pulp is sometimes treated as waste material after the acquisition of seeds, thus using it as bread supplement also has environmental and economic benefi ts.

  9. Formation of Grain Quality in Bread Wheat Varieties under Mil-Garabakh Region of Azerbaijan: Az Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASANOVA G. M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grain quality in bread wheat varieties was studied under Mil-Garabakh region of Azerbaijan. It was revealed that in these conditions the gluten content was relatively high, while the quality of gluten determined by DCO and sedimentation index was low. Apparently, this is due to the fact that in Tartar AIA ЗОС during grain ripening period temperature was high. Usually under these conditions, high bread baking quality of wheat grain was not formed. However, bread obtained from varieties Girmizi bugda, Azeri, Gobustan, Murov with high gluten content and low DCO had good quality.

  10. Soluble free phenolic compound contents and antioxidant capacity of bread and durum wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žilić Slađana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine phenolic compounds and the total antioxidant capacity in the grain of ten bread (T. aestivum L. and ten durum (T. durum Desf. wheat genotypes. Soluble free forms of total phenolics, flavonoids, PVPP (polyvinylpolypyrrolidone bound phenolics, proanthocyanidins and phenolic acids were investigated. In addition, the correlation coefficients between total antioxidant capacities and the concentration of different soluble free phenolic compounds, as well as between soluble free total phenolics and phenolic acids, flavonoids and PVPP bound phenolics were determined. Significant differences in the content of aceton/water extractable total phenolics, PVPP bound phenolics and phenolic acids between and within two wheat species were found. On the average, durum wheat samples had about 1.19-fold higher total phenolic compounds and about 1.5-fold higher PVPP bound phenolics than bread wheat samples. Three phenolic acids, ferulic, caffeic and chlorogenic, were detected in wholemeal bread wheat. Caffeic acid was not found in durum wheat samples whilst ferulic acid was the most abundant. Proanthocyanidins in bread and durum wheat genotypes were not detected. The antioxidant capacity measured as the DPPH radical scavenging activity was similar in wholemeal of bread and durum wheat, however, significant differences were observed among genotypes within species. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31069

  11. Bread in the Economy of Qualities: The Creative Reconstitution of the Canada-UK Commodity Chain for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article traces the creative reconstitution of the Canada-UK wheat-bread commodity chain since the 1990s. In the mid-1990s, the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) and a British bakery, Warburtons, pioneered an innovative identity-preserved sourcing relationship that ties contracted prairie wheat growers to consumers of premium bread in the United…

  12. Effect of Processing on phenolic acid composition of dough and bread fractions made from refined and whole-wheat flour of three wheat varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we investigated the effect of bread-making on the assay of phenolic acids of whole and refined wheat from three wheat varieties, comparing refined (RF) and whole wheat (WW) flour, dough, and bread fractions. The efficacy of two common base hydrolysis methods for phenolic acid analysis...

  13. [Bread from the bioactivated wheat grain with the raised nutrition value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, E I; Alekhina, N N; Bakaeva, I A

    2016-01-01

    Bread from the bioactivated grain of wheat differs in high content of dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins compared to traditional types of bread, but, despite this, it has low protein and lysine content. The aim of the study was the development of bread with the raised nutritional value from the bioactivated wheat grain by use of flour from cake of wheat germ (6.5%). It has been established that the flour from wheat germ has protein biological value (77.4%) and the amino acid score according to lysine (100.3%) above 12 and 40.5%, respectively, compared with those from bioactivated wheat. During calculation of nutritive, biological and energy value of products from the bioactivated wheat grain it is revealed that the biological value of bread from wheat germ flour slightly exceeded the biological value of the bread without its addition and amounted to 70.80%, due to a high protein content and a balanced amino acid composition. The protein content in the test sample of bakery products was 19.0% higher than the control, phosphorus - 13.0%, zinc - 50.0%.

  14. Bread wheat varieties as influenced by different nitrogen levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUSSAIN Iqtidar; KHAN Muhammad Ayyaz; KHAN Ejaz Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different nitrogen levels on four bread wheat varieties (Triticurm aestivum L.) viz. Inqilab-91, Daman-98, Dera-98 and Punjab-96 at Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan (NWFP), Pakistan during 2000~2001. The experiment was laid out in split plot design having four replications using a net plot size of 2 m×5 m. Nitrogen doses used were 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg/ha. The results showed that different nitrogen levels had significant effects on plant height, total number of plants/m2, number of grains/spike, number of spike/m2, spike weight, biological yield, grain yield and grain protein content. Maximum plant height, total number of plants/m2, number of spikes/m2, spike weight, biological yield and grain protein content were observed at 200 kg N/ha. Among wheat varieties Daman-98 had maximum plant height, spike weight,grains/spike, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and grain yield. Inqilab-91 had heavier grains and the most grain protein content,while Dera-98 had the maximum plant population and spikes/m2. Grain yield and biological yield were statistically similar at doses of 150 kg N/ha and 200 kg N/ha. However, dose of 200 kg N/ha, compared to dose of 150 Kg N/ha, significantly increased the protein content.

  15. QTL analysis for some quantitative traits in bread wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted in bread wheat for 14 important traits utilizing data from four different mapping populations involving different approaches of QTL analysis. Analysis for grain protein content (GPC) suggested that the major part of genetic variation for this trait is due to environmental interactions. In contrast, pre-harvest sprouting tolerance (PHST) was controlled mainly by main effect QTL (M-QTL) with very little genetic variation due to environmental interactions; a major QTL for PHST was detected on chromosome arm 3AL. For grain weight, one QTL each was detected on chromosome arms 1AS, 2BS and 7AS. QTL for 4 growth related traits taken together detected by different methods ranged from 37 to 40; nine QTL that were detected by single-locus as well as two-locus analyses were all M-QTL. Similarly, single-locus and two-locus QTL analyses for seven yield and yield contributing traits in two populations respectively allowed detection of 25 and 50 QTL by composite interval mapping (CIM), 16 and 25 QTL by multiple-trait composite interval mapping (MCIM) and 38 and 37 QTL by two-locus analyses. These studies should prove useful in QTL cloning and wheat improvement through marker aided selection.

  16. Effect of the Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Flour Addition on Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea flour is a good source of proteins, fibers, minerals and other bioactive compounds and it could be an ideal ingredient for improve the nutritional value of bread and bakery products. The aim of this study was to supplement wheat flour (WF with various levels of chickpea flour (CF in order to obtain bread with good nutritional and quality characteristics. Four experimental variants obtained by substituting wheat flour with different proportions (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of chickpea flour were used. The results showed a valuable increment in bread protein and fiber content. The volume of the breads decreased as the level of chickpea flour (CF increased due the dilution of gluten content in the blend and due to the interactions among fiber components, water and gluten. Nevertheless, substitution at 10%, 20% and 30%, gives parameter values at least as good as the control sample (WFB and produces acceptable bread, in terms of weight, volume and sensorial properties.

  17. Thermo-mechanical and micro-structural properties of xylanase containing whole wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ghoshal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Xylanase is a hemicellulase that can hydrolyses the complex polysaccharides. Hemicelluloses are main components of cell walls of cereal grains. Moreover, hemicelluloses are considered as potential sources of mono- and oligosaccharides. In this study, influence of xylanase on the physicochemical properties and sensory qualities of the whole wheat bread during storage was investigated. Studies of whole wheat bread on microstructure, texture, thermotics, Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD were conducted at ambient temperature of 25 and 4 °C respectively. During storage at different temperatures, bread containing xylanase exhibited less firmness but larger volume with whiter crumb color and longer shelf life as compared to control bread. Results of firmness, enthalpy, Fourier Transformation Infra Red (FTIR and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD studies suggested a lower staling rate of bread containing xylanase as compared to control one. Bread containing xylanase showed a smoother surface and more uniform pore size than the control. Significant differences in microstructure of control and bread containing xylanase were observed which might be attributed due to the change in water starch gluten interaction. These differences were also found to be interrelated to the textural properties of bread. Better sensory features were achieved in bread containing xylanase.

  18. Effect of Hydrocolloids and Emulsifiers on Baking Quality of Composite Cassava-Maize-Wheat Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is widely available worldwide but bread quality is impaired when cassava is used in the bread formulation. To overcome this problem, different improvers were tested in the preparation of composite cassava-maize-wheat (CMW breads. Emulsifiers, diacetyl tartic acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM, sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL, and lecithin (LC; and hydrocolloids, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC and high-methylated pectin (HM pectin were added during dough preparation of the composite flours (cassava-maize-wheat, 40 : 10 : 50. Each emulsifier was tested in combination with the hydrocolloids at levels of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% while hydrocolloids were used at a level of 3%. Bread quality attributes such as specific loaf volume, crust colour, crumb moisture, and firmness were measured. The specific volume of the fresh breads significantly improved with the addition of hydrocolloids (7.5 and 13% and in combination with emulsifiers (from 7.9 to 27% compared with bread produced without improvers. A significant improvement of brownness index and firmness of the composite flours breads was achieved with the addition of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers. The results show that emulsifiers and hydrocolloids can significantly improve the baking quality of CMW breads and thereby enhance the potential for using locally produced flours in bread baking.

  19. CULTIVAR RELEASE - CD 120 – wheat cultivar, standard quality soft, for the Southern Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Schuster

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar CD 120, developed by the Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agrícola (COODETEC is suitable for cultivation in the VCU wheat-producing regions 1 and 2 of the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. It is tolerant to the major wheat diseases and pre-harvest germination and has soft wheat quality and a 6.5 % higher grain yield (3.678 kg ha-1 than the control.

  20. Drought Responses of Leaf Tissues from Wheat Cultivars of Differing Drought Tolerance at the Metabolite Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jairus B.Bowne; Tim A.Erwin; Juan Juttner; Thorsten Schnurbusch; Peter Langridge; Antony Bacic; Ute Roessner

    2012-01-01

    Drought has serious effects on the physiology of cereal crops.At the cellular and specifically the metabolite level,many individual compounds are increased to provide osmoprotective functions,prevent the dissociation of enzymes,and to decrease the number of reactive oxygen species present in the cell.We have used a targeted GC-MS approach to identify compounds that differ in three different cultivars of bread wheat characterized by different levels of tolerance to drought under drought stress (Kukri,intolerant; Excalibur and RAC875,tolerant).Levels of amino acids,most notably proline,tryptophan,and the branched chain amino acids leucine,isoleucine,and valine were increased under drought stress in all cultivars.In the two tolerant cultivars,a small decrease in a large number of organic acids was also evident.Excalibur,a cultivar genotypically related to Kukri,showed a pattern of response that was more similar to Kukri under well-watered conditions.Under drought stress,Excalibur and RAC875 had a similar response; however,Excalibur did not have the same magnitude of response as RAC875.Here,the results are discussed in the context of previous work in physiological and proteomic analyses of these cultivars under drought stress.

  1. Evidence of intralocus recombination at the Glu-3 loci in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low-molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) are a class of wheat seed storage proteins that play a critical role in the determination of wheat flour bread-making quality. These proteins are encoded by multigene families located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci (Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3), on t...

  2. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  3. Genetic diversity and structure found in samples of Eritrean bread wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desta, Zeratsion Abera; Orabi, Jihad; Jahoor, Ahmed;

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity and structure plays a key role in the selection of parents for crosses in plant breeding programmes. The aim of the present study was to analyse the genetic diversity and structure of Eritrean bread wheat accessions. We analysed 284 wheat accessions from Eritrea using 30 simple ...

  4. Microbiological, Nutritional, and Sensory Quality of Bread Produced from Wheat and Potato Flour Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeme Joshua Josiah Ijah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrated uncooked potato (Irish and sweet flour was blended by weight with commercial wheat flour at 0 to 10% levels of substitution to make bread. Comparative study of the microbial and nutritional qualities of the bread was undertaken. The total aerobic bacterial counts ranged from 3.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.09 × 106 cfu/g while the fungal counts ranged from 8.0 × 101 cfu/g to 1.20 × 103 cfu/g of the sample. Coliforms were not detected in the bread. Bacteria isolated were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus while fungi isolates were species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Mucor. The mean sensory scores (color, aroma, taste, texture, and general acceptability were evaluated. The color of the bread baked from WF/IPF2 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5% blend was preferred to WF (wheat flour, 100% while WF/SPF1 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 100% and WF/IPF1 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 90 : 10% aroma were preferred to WF. However, the bread baked from WF, WF/IPF2 (wheat flour/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%, and WF/SPF2 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 95 : 5% was more acceptable than other blends. The use of hydrated potato flour in bread making is advantageous due to increased nutritional value, higher bread yield, and reduced rate of staling.

  5. CD 123 - Wheat bread for white flour in cool regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Sergio Marchioro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cultivar CD 123 is recommendable for the wheat-growing regions 1, 2 and 3 of the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná. It is a white flour wheat destined for production in cooler regions. The mean potential yield is 3514 kg ha-1, exceeding that of the control cultivars by 5%.

  6. Consumption of wholemeal rye bread increases serum concentrations and urinary excretion of enterolactone compared with consumption of white wheat bread in healthy Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, K S; Mazur, W M; Liukkonen, K H; Uehara, M; Poutanen, K S; Adlercreutz, H C; Mykkänen, H M

    2000-12-01

    Rye is an important source of plant lignans in Finland. In the present crossover trial we wanted to study the effect of rye bread as part of the usual diet on serum and urine enterolactone (ENL) concentrations in healthy volunteers. Eighteen men aged 43 (sem 2.0) years and twenty-one women aged 43 (sem 1.6) years consumed wholemeal rye bread and white wheat bread in random order for 4 weeks. The bread periods were separated by a 4 week wash-out period. The breads provided at least 20% of the daily energy intake. The mean intakes of rye bread were 219 (sem 14.6) and 162 (sem 5.3) g/d and those of wheat bread were 200 (sem 9.6) and 153 (sem 5.8) g/d for men and women respectively. Blood samples were collected from all subjects and three 24 h urine samples were collected from ten men and twelve women at the end of both bread periods for the determination of serum concentration and urinary excretion of ENL. The mean serum ENL concentrations in both men and women at the beginning of baseline period and at the end of the rye-bread period remained constant and were significantly higher than those at the end of the wheat-bread period. Correspondingly, daily urinary ENL excretion increased significantly during the rye-bread period compared with the wheat-bread period and was 5- and 10-fold higher in men and women respectively in comparison with the amount of plant lignan precursors measured in the rye bread. These data indicate the presence of other precursors for ENL in rye which are not detected by the current method of measuring plant lignans in food. The possible role of fibre in enhancement of the formation of mammalian lignans from their plant precursors in the gut also remains to be determined.

  7. Molecular basis of adaptation to high soil boron in wheat landraces and elite cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotta, Margaret; Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Hayes, Julie; Hay, Alison; Baumann, Ute; Paull, Jeff; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2014-10-02

    Environmental constraints severely restrict crop yields in most production environments, and expanding the use of variation will underpin future progress in breeding. In semi-arid environments boron toxicity constrains productivity, and genetic improvement is the only effective strategy for addressing the problem. Wheat breeders have sought and used available genetic diversity from landraces to maintain yield in these environments; however, the identity of the genes at the major tolerance loci was unknown. Here we describe the identification of near-identical, root-specific boron transporter genes underlying the two major-effect quantitative trait loci for boron tolerance in wheat, Bo1 and Bo4 (ref. 2). We show that tolerance to a high concentration of boron is associated with multiple genomic changes including tetraploid introgression, dispersed gene duplication, and variation in gene structure and transcript level. An allelic series was identified from a panel of bread and durum wheat cultivars and landraces originating from diverse agronomic zones. Our results demonstrate that, during selection, breeders have matched functionally different boron tolerance alleles to specific environments. The characterization of boron tolerance in wheat illustrates the power of the new wheat genomic resources to define key adaptive processes that have underpinned crop improvement.

  8. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi, J; Mykkänen, H; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundRye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism...... and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs).  MethodsTwenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre.......05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.ConclusionsBeneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than...

  9. Low glycemic response to traditionally processed wheat and rye products: bulgur and pumpernickel bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D J; Wolever, T M; Jenkins, A L; Giordano, C; Giudici, S; Thompson, L U; Kalmusky, J; Josse, R G; Wong, G S

    1986-04-01

    To look at the effect of processing wheat and rye on blood glucose responses with special reference to bulgur and pumpernickel bread, groups of 9-12 Noninsulin-dependent (NIDDM) and 5-6 Insulin-dependent diabetic volunteers (IDDM) were fed test meals containing 50 g carbohydrate portions of four wheat and three rye products. Glycemic indices for IDDM and NIDDM combined, calculated as the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve, where white bread = 100, demonstrated values of 96 +/- 5 for wholemeal wheat bread, 89 +/- 6 for wholemeal rye bread, 78 +/- 3 for pumpernickel bread, 65 +/- 4 for bulgur, 63 +/- 6 for whole wheat kernels and 48 +/- 5 for whole rye kernels. Results for IDDM and NIDDM were similar (r = 0.96, p less than 0.01). It is concluded that traditional processing of cereals, such as parboiling (bulgur) or the use of wholegrains in bread (pumpernickel) may result in the low GI value associated with the unmilled cereal. Cereal foods processed in these ways may form a useful part of the diet where a reduction in postprandial glycemia is required.

  10. Utilization of Decorticated Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L. With Wheat (Triticum aestivum Flours in Bread Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hassan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate the use of decorticated pigeon pea flour in the development of protein rich - bread, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea flour on the sensory evaluation and quality of bread produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea Flour (DPPF was incorporated with wheat flour (WF 72% Ext. to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of the wheat flour for bread making. Proximate composition, falling number, gluten quality and quantity, tannins and phytic acid were determined for the flour blends (Composite flour. Bread proximate composition, sensory evaluation and specific volume were determined as well. Decortication of pigeon pea led to decrease in moisture, ash, tannins and phytic acid and increase in the protein and carbohydrates contents. The falling number (alpha amylase activity significantly increased over the control with the increasing level of DPPF. There were also significant reduction (p#0.05 on gluten quantity (wet and dry gluten and quality (gluten index. No significant differences were found in bread specific volume up to 10% addition of DPPF. The protein, ash, fat contents and calorific values for the bread were significantly increased (p#0.05 with incorporation of DPPF. Increasing levels of the replacement of DPPF resulted in a decrease in the organoleptic quality of the bread. The bread containing up to 15% DPPF was found to be the best in overall acceptability.

  11. Use of sourdough lactobacilli and oat fibre to decrease the glycaemic index of white wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Maria; Rizzello, Carlo G; Alfonsi, Giuditta; Arnault, Philip; Cappelle, Stefan; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2007-12-01

    This work was aimed at decreasing the glycaemic index (GI) of white wheat bread. Breads made with wheat flour (WF) or wholemeal flour (WMF) and fermented with baker's yeast had similar values of resistant starch (RS; 1.4-1.7 %, starch basis). Sourdough Lactobacillus plantarum P1 and Lactobacillus brevis P2 favoured the highest formation of RS (approximately 5 %) when fermented with WF and WMF. The mixture (1:1) of WF and WMF (WF/WMF) was selected. The effect of dietary fibres, chemical or sourdough acidification on the hydrolysis index (HI) of WF/WMF bread was determined. Among fibres, only the addition of oat fibre (5 %) decreased the HI to 90.84 %. Lactic acid determined the lowest HI, and the effect was related to the decrease of pH. For the same decrease of pH, breads fermented with L. plantarum P1 and L. brevis P2 (sourdough WF/WMF) showed values of HI lower than chemical acidification. The glucose response and GI of WF bread or sourdough WF/WMF bread enriched with oat fibre was determined by using fifteen healthy volunteers. Anhydrous glucose was used as reference. The area under the glucose response curve and the value of GI (72 %) of WF bread were significantly (P sourdough WF/WMF bread enriched with oat fibre (GI = 53.7 %). The decrease of GI of the sourdough WF/WMF bread may be due to both fibre content and decreased pH. Compared to WMF bread, sourdough WF/WMF bread, enriched with oat fibre, had higher specific volume, better cell crumb structure and more appreciated acidulous smell, taste and aroma.

  12. Growth Responses of Wheat Cultivars to Rock Phosphate in Hydroponics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.ASHRAF; RAHMATULLAH; M.A.MAQSOOD; S.KANWAL; M.A.TAHIR; L.ALI

    2009-01-01

    Screening cultivars to grow under conditions of low phosphorus (P) availability and utilize P efficiently from compounds of low solubility in soils may be beneficial to overcome poor plant growth in P-deficient soils.The growth behavior and P utilization efficiency of seven wheat cultivars grown in hydroponics were studied,using rock phosphate as P source.The wheat cultivars grown for 30 days were significantly different in biomass accumulation,P uptake and P utilization efficiency.The dry matter production of all the cultivars was significantly correlated with P uptake,which in turn correlated to the drop in the root medium pH.The ranking of wheat cultivars on the basis of dry matter yield,P uptake and P utilization efficiency was Zamindar 80 > Yccora > C 271 > WL 711 > Barani 83 > PARI 73 > Rohtas.The cultivar Zamindar 80 appeared to possess the best growth potential in P-deficient soils.

  13. Staling of wheat bread stored in modified atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Hansen, A.

    2001-01-01

    demonstrated that storage of bread in MAP could be used to extend the microbial shelf-life without affecting the staling rate. The development of bread firmness during storage in 100% CO2 for 49 days was,found to be correlated to amylopectin retrogradation and to changes in the freezable water fraction...... containing 100% CO2 and in a mixture gas of 50% CO2 and 50% N-2, respectively. The control bread was packed in atmospheric air. No significant effects of MAP were found during storage of bread for 7 days at 20 degreesC compared to control bread. when changes in bread firmness and starch retrogradation...... measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used as parameters for the staling rates. Ira addition, no significant differences were obtained in firmness between bread stored in 100% CO,, and in the mixture gas of CO2 and N-2 after 7 and 14 days, respectively. The present study thus...

  14. A lipase based approach for studying the role of wheat lipids in bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerits, Lien R; Pareyt, Bram; Delcour, Jan A

    2014-08-01

    While endogenous wheat lipids exert a major effect on bread quality, little is known on the way they impact on bread loaf volume (LV). Here we altered wheat flour lipid composition during bread making using lipases in situ. Lipopan F, Lecitase Ultra, and surfactants increased LV to similar extents. The increases in bread LV as a result of these enzymes were related to decreased levels of galactolipids and phospholipids and concomitant increased 'lyso'-lipid as well as free fatty acid (FFA) levels. The FFA formed were transferred to the free lipid fraction, while the 'lyso'-lipids remained in the bound lipid fraction. For optimal gas cell stabilisation, an equilibrium between the lipid classes present and hence, the type of mesophase formed, is essential. Sufficient levels of lipids forming lamellar mesophases and lipids forming hexagonal I mesophases, which respectively form condensed monolayers or emulsify (deleterious) non-polar lipids in dough liquor, are needed.

  15. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lappi, J.; Salojärvi, J.; Kolehmainen, M.; Mykkänen, H.; Poutanen, K.; Vos, de W.M.; Salonen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the micr

  16. Effect of ovary induction on bread wheat anther culture: ovary genotype and developmental stage, and candidate gene association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Castillo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovary pre-conditioned medium and ovary co-culture increased the efficiency of green doubled haploid plant production in bread wheat anther culture. The positive effect of this medium led to a 6- and 11-fold increase in the numbers of embryos and green plants, respectively, having a greater effect on a medium-low responding cultivar. Ovary genotype and developmental stage significantly affected microspore embryogenesis. By he use of Caramba ovaries it was possible to reach a 2-fold increase in the number of embryos and green plants, and to decrease the rate of albinism. Mature ovaries from flowers containing microspores at a late binucleate stage raised the number of embryos and green plants by 25% and 46% as compared to immature ovaries (excised from flowers with microspores at a mid-late uninucleate stage. The highest numbers of embryos and green plants were produced when using mature Caramba ovaries. Ovaries from Galeón, Tigre and Kilopondio cultivars successfully induced microspore embryogenesis at the same rate as Caramba ovaries. Moreover, Tigre ovaries raised the percentage of spontaneous chromosome doubling up to 71%. Attempts were made to identify molecular mechanisms associated to the inductive effect of the ovaries on microspore embryogenesis. The genes TAA1b, FLA26 and WALI6 associated to wheat microspore embryogenesis, the CGL1 gene involved in glycan biosynthesis or degradation, and the FER gene involved in the ovary signalling process were expressed and/or induced at different rates during ovary culture. The expression pattern of FLA26 and FER could be related to the differences between genotypes and developmental stages in the inductive effect of the ovary. Our results open opportunities for new approaches to increase bread wheat doubled haploid production by anther culture, and to identify the functional components of the ovary inductive effect on microspore embryogenesis.

  17. Chemical, Lutein and Zeaxanthin Composition of Wheat-yellow Maize Bread for the Prevention of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngozi Innocentia Olaitan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effect of substitution of wheat flour with yellow maize flour on the Lutein, Zeaxanthin and proximate composition as well as sensory properties of their bread samples. Standard procedures were used in the production of yellow maize flour. The blend ratios of wheat-yellow maize composite flour used in the production of the bread samples were 100:0 (control, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50%, respectively. Results revealed that there were significant (p≤0.05 increases in the lutein 92.4 µg (100:0% to 132.4 µg (50:50% and zeaxanthin 225.0 &mug (100:0% to 580.3 &mug (50:50% content of the bread samples. The proximate composition of the bread samples however, revealed that the carbohydrate, protein and ash content of the bread samples decreased with increase in yellow maize flour. The increase in yellow maize flour however, significantly (p≤0.05 increased the fiber, fat and moisture content of the bread samples. Bread sample B (90:10 was generally the most accepted with an organoleptic score of 8.11, however, sample F (50:50 was the most preferred on the basis of color (7.78, flavor (7.78 and texture (7.58. It would be concluded that substitution of wheat flour with yellow maize flour could be employed to improve on the carotenoids composition of bread, increase their intake and confer protection on consumers against atherosclerosis. The low carbohydrate content of the bread samples could be employed to control spike in blood glucose levels, weight gain and in the management of diabetes. The high fibre content could be harnessed in the prevention and management of obesity and hyperlipideamia.

  18. Antioxidant capacity versus chemical safety of wheat bread enriched with pomegranate peel powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Brimer, Leon;

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate peel powder (PP), a by-product of the pomegranate juice industry rich in polyphenols, was explored for use in bread production, due to its potential health effects. Wheat bread was prepared using different levels for replacement of flour with PP (0 to 10 g per 100 g flour) resulting...... in antioxidant levels expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values (TEAC) ranging from 1.8 to 6.8 µmol TEAC per g bread for fresh bread. TEAC remained constant during 5 days of storage in polyethylene bags at room temperature. The oxidative stability was evaluated by detection of radicals by direct...... electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, and peroxide value, and the highest capacity of scavenging of radicals (Fremy's salt) and the lowest content of peroxide values were found in bread with the highest percentage of PP. Safety evaluation was performed by the Artemia salina assay. An increased death...

  19. Effects of Wheat Gluten Hydrolysate and Its Ultrafiltration Fractions on Dough Properties and Bread Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouming Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two fractions (50-K and permeate from a proteolytic hydrolysate (degree of hydrolysis, DH=3.8 % of wheat gluten were separated using ultrafiltration (UF membrane with molecular mass cut-off of 50 kDa. The effects of the wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH and its UF fractions on the mixing behaviour and viscoelastic properties of wheat dough were presented. The WGH and its UF fractions modified the mixing properties of dough. The addition of these fractions improved the viscoelastic characteristics of wheat dough. A significant (p<0.05 effect of 50-K fraction on these characteristics of wheat dough was observed. After adding these fractions, the bread was considered acceptable by the sensory panel. Also, 50-K fraction resulted in significant (p<0.05 increase in the crumb firmness, while the bread made with wheat flour with WGH and permeate (P fraction showed softer crumbs compared to that of wheat flour. Moreover, these fractions had anti-staling properties for bread during storage. Hence, the wheat gluten hydrolysate and its UF fractions are the products with promising potential in the baking products.

  20. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lilei; Beta, Trust

    2015-08-26

    Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g) significantly (p 0.05) decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9%) compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109%) but decreased bound (2% to 3%) phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) significantly (p bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g). p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p bread.

  1. Comprehensive Identification and Bread-Making Quality Evaluation of Common Wheat Somatic Variation Line AS208 on Glutenin Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiyun; Wang, Ke; Xiao, Lele; Wang, Shunli; Du, Lipu; Cao, Xinyou; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Yueming; Ye, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are important seed storage proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) that determine wheat dough elasticity and processing quality. Clarification of the defined effectiveness of HMW-GSs is very important to breeding efforts aimed at improving wheat quality. To date, there have no report on the expression silencing and quality effects of 1Bx20 and 1By20 at the Glu-B1 locus in wheat. A wheat somatic variation line, AS208, in which both 1Bx20 and 1By20 at Glu-B1 locus were silenced, was developed recently in our laboratory. Evaluation of agronomic traits and seed storage proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) indicated that AS208 was highly similar to its parental cultivar Lunxuan987 (LX987), with the exception that the composition and expression of HMW-GSs was altered. The 1Bx20 and 1By20 in AS208 were further identified to be missing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. Based on the PCR results for HMW-GS genes and their promoters in AS208 compared with LX987, 1Bx20 and 1By20 were speculated to be deleted in AS208 during in vitro culture. Quality analysis of this line with Mixograph, Farinograph, and Extensograph instruments, as well as analysis of bread-making quality traits, demonstrated that the lack of the genes encoding 1Bx20 and 1By20 caused various negative effects on dough processing and bread-making quality traits, including falling number, dough stability time, mixing tolerance index, crude protein values, wet gluten content, bread size, and internal cell structure. AS208 can potentially be used in the functional dissection of other HMW-GSs as a plant material with desirable genetic background, and in biscuit making industry as a high-quality weak gluten wheat source.

  2. An addition of sourdough and whey proteins affects the nutritional quality of wholemeal wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Kopeć

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bread can be a good source of nutrients as well as non-nutrient compounds. This study was designed to assess the effect of adding of sourdough and whey proteins to wholemeal (WM bread produced by bake-off technology on chemical composition and bioavailability of proteins, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron content in Wistar rats. Material and methods. Wholemeal breads were baked with using conventional or bake off technology. In breads chemical composition, selected minerals content, amino acid composition were measured. Five week-old Wistar rats (n = 30, male, were randomly divided into fi ve groups and fed with modifi ed AIN-93G diets containing experimental breads. In animal study the nutritional value of breads’ proteins and concentration of selected minerals in serum, liver and femoral bone, were measured. Results. The body weight gain, biological value (BV and net protein utilization (NPU were signifi cantly higher in rats fed with partially baked frozen wholemeal (PBF WM bread with sourdough and whey proteins. The level of magnesium was signifi cantly lower in serum of animals fed with the diet containing PBF WM bread with sourdough and whey proteins in comparison to rodents fed with conventional WM bread with sourdough. The content of iron was signifi cantly higher in liver of rats fed with PBF WM with sourdough bread in comparison to the groups fed with conventional WM and conventional WM with sourdough breads. Conclusions. Sourdough addition can be recommended in a production of whole wheat partially baked frozen bread but its use is further more benefi cial if it is fermented with whey proteins.

  3. Postprandial differences in the plasma metabolome of healthy Finnish subjects after intake of a sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread versus white wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykkänen Hannu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanism behind the lowered postprandial insulin demand observed after rye bread intake compared to wheat bread is unknown. The aim of this study was to use the metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolites related to amino acid metabolism involved in this mechanism. Methods A sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread (RB and a standard white wheat bread (WB as a reference were served in random order to 16 healthy subjects. Test bread portions contained 50 g available carbohydrate. In vitro hydrolysis of starch and protein were performed for both test breads. Blood samples for measuring glucose and insulin concentrations were drawn over 4 h and gastric emptying rate (GER was measured. Changes in the plasma metabolome were investigated by applying a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform (GC×GC-TOF-MS. Results Plasma insulin response to RB was lower than to WB at 30 min (P = 0.004, 45 min (P = 0.002 and 60 min (P in vitro protein digestibility. There were no differences in GER between breads. From 255 metabolites identified by the metabolomics platform, 26 showed significant postprandial relative changes after 30 minutes of bread intake (p and q values Conclusions A single meal of a low fibre sourdough rye bread producing low postprandial insulin response brings in several changes in plasma amino acids and their metabolites and some of these might have properties beneficial for health.

  4. Effect of the addition of wheat bran stream on dough rheology and bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Banu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The milling by-products have high nutritional value and can be incorporated into white flour. This study was aimed at comparatively examining the rheological behaviour of the doughs made from wheat white flour with different levels (3-30% of bran streams incorporated and from wholewheat. The results indicated significant correlations between the ash content of the wheat bran streams incorporated into flour and Alveograph, Rheofermentograph and Mixolab parameters. The white flour sample with 25% wheat bran streams had the ash content similar to wholewheat, but the dough rheology was improved. The quality of the white flour bread with 25% wheat bran streams was improved compared to the wholemeal bread.

  5. Phosphorus Uptake from Rhizosphere Soilby Two Wheat Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAJIAN; T.S.GAHOONIA; 等

    1998-01-01

    Inorganic soil phosphorus extractable with sodium bicarbonate(NaHCO3-Pi),soil pH and root hairs length and density in the rhizosphere of two winter wheat cultivars (Tritium aestivum L.cv.Shichum,Sleipner)grown on a high pH Chinese silt loam(52.7 mg NaHCO3-Pikg-1) and a Danish sandy loam(43.4mg NaHCO3-Pi kg-1)wer studied to assess how these wheat cultivars differed in phosphorus uptake.The rhizosphere soil pH of two wheat cultivars grown on the two soils were fairly unchanged with increasing distrance from the roo surface.However the root hairs of Shichun were 2.1 times longer than those of Sleipner,Root surface area(RSA) of Shichun increased by 192% due to root hairs whereas root hairs of Sleipner increased RSA by 68% only.Hence the root system of Shichun was in contact with more soil than that of Sleipner,even though Sleipner had a longer root,Grown at the lower pH and level of NaHCO3-Pi in the Danish soil Shichun absorbed more inorganic phosphorus than Sleipner whereas at the higher pH and level of NaHCO3-Pi in the Chinese soil there was no phosphorus uptake difference between the two wheat culivars.

  6. Pyrolytic acrylamide formation from purified wheat gluten and gluten-supplemented wheat bread rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Achim; Weisz, Georg M; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed different acrylamide formation mechanisms, e. g. from carnosine (N-beta-alanyl-L-histidine) and aminopropionamide as additional precursors. The occurrence of acrylamide in food matrices devoid of common precursors such as meat supports an additional formation pathway. Gluten was recovered from wheat flour by water extraction. Starch, reducing sugars and amino acids were removed using alpha-amylase and NaCl solution and were completely absent in the purified gluten fraction. The gluten was dry heated at temperatures ranging from 160 to 240 degrees C for 8 to 12 min and analyzed for acrylamide and cinnamic amide using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Acrylamide could be detected up to 3997 microg/kg gluten dry weight. Cinnamic amide was detected and unambiguously identified in the gluten samples, thus confirming the proposed formation of acrylamide from proteins. After gluten addition to bread roll dough, protein pyrolysis to form acrylamide in the complex food matrix was assessed. Contents of asparagine and reducing sugars were diminished due to the addition of the gluten. In contrast to the expectation with respect to the well-established common formation mechanism of acrylamide, it increased from 53.4 to 63.9 microg/kg (+20%), which was in good correlation with the higher proportion of gluten. As demonstrated by the t-test, the increase in acrylamide was significant when comparing 0 and 15% gluten addition. Additionally, cinnamic amide could be found in crusts of bread rolls. Thus, evidence for pyrolytic formation of acrylamide from wheat gluten was provided.

  7. Glycaemic indices of three Sri Lankan wheat bread varieties and a bread-lentil meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2009-01-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) concept ranks individual foods and mixed meals according to the blood glucose response. Low-GI foods with a slow and prolonged glycaemic response are beneficial for diabetic people, and several advantages have been suggested also for non-diabetic individuals. The recent investigations imply an increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Sri Lanka. Thus, the present study was designed primarily to determine the glycaemic indices of some bread varieties in Sri Lanka as bread has become a staple diet among most of the urban people. A second objective was to observe the effects of macronutrients and physicochemical properties of starch on GI. Glycaemic responses were estimated according to FAO/WHO guidelines and both glucose and white bread were used as standards. Non-diabetic individuals aged 22-30 years (n=10) participated in the study. The test meals included white sliced bread, wholemeal bread, ordinary white bread and a mixed meal of wholemeal bread with lentil curry. The GI values (+/-standard error of the mean) of the meals were 77+/-6, 77+/-6, 80+/-4, 61+/-6, respectively (with glucose as the standard). The GI values of the bread varieties or the meal did not differ significantly (P >0.05). However, the meal can be categorized as a medium-GI food while the other bread varieties belong to the high-GI food group. A significant negative correlation was obtained with protein (P=0.042) and fat (P=0.039) contents of the food items and GI. Although the GI values of the foods are not significantly different, the inclusion of lentils caused the GI to decrease from a high-GI category to a medium-GI category. According to the present study, a ratio of 1.36 can be used to interconvert the GI values obtained with the two standards.

  8. Iron Biofortification of Modern Wheat Cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirvanehdeh, Behrooz Darbani; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    -bombardment using Bar and ferritin cassettes. This, allows the possible out segregation of the antibiotic resistance gene and paves the way to meet biosafety and breeding criteria. We have created transgenic plants by a cisgenic approach. The genomic sequence including the coding part and the 3’ untranslated part...... to be translocated into the endosperm and stored. We have cloned the Vit1-1 and Vit1-2 genes from wheat and have made constructs for aleurone specific regulation. We have also found aleurone specific barley Ltp2 promoter in a same expression pattern in wheat. At present, transgenic plants are in the process...

  9. Shelf life assessment of industrial durum wheat bread as a function of packaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardello, Fabio; Giannone, Virgilio; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Muratore, Giuseppe; Summo, Carmine; Giarnetti, Mariagrazia; Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    This study compared the effect of different packaging systems on industrial durum wheat bread shelf-life, with regard to thermoformed packaging (TF) and flow-packaging (FP). Two TFs having different thickness and one FP were compared by assessing physico-chemical and sensorial properties and volatile compounds of sliced bread during 90days of storage. Texture, aw and bread moisture varied according to a first-order kinetic model, with FP samples ageing faster than TFs. Sensorial features such as consistency, stale odor, and sour odor, increased their intensity during storage. Furans decreased, whereas hexanal increased. The Principal Component Analysis of the whole dataset pointed out that the TF system at reduced thickness could be adopted up to 60days, without compromising the standard commercial life of industrial bread and allowing to save packaging material. The FP system would allow further saving, but it should be preferred when the expected product turnover is within 30days.

  10. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilei Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g significantly (p < 0.05 increased during mixing, fermenting, and baking (65% to 68%. Bound phenolics slightly (p > 0.05 decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9% compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p < 0.05 during 65 min fermenting and baking (16% to 27%. Their antioxidant activities followed a similar trend as observed for total phenolic content. The bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109% but decreased bound (2% to 3% phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC significantly (p < 0.05 decreased by 21% after mixing; however, it gradually increased to 90% of the original levels after fermenting. Baking significantly (p < 0.05 decreased TAC by 55%, resulting in the lowest value for bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g. p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p < 0.05 increased the phenolic content and antioxidant activities; however, it compromised the anthocyanin content of purple wheat bread.

  11. Vernalization and Photoperiod Genes in Iranian Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Hamid Reza Ramazani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. can avoid the deleterious effects of low temperatures by using environmental adaptation strategies such as vernalization requirement and photoperiod reaction. Awareness of the genetic factors influencing growth and flowering patterns is necessary for introducing new varieties to specific environments. We performed morphological and genetic studies of 104 lines and cultivars of Iranian wheat genotypes, including four durum genotypes, obtained from national wheat breeding programmes. We used sequence-tagged site (STS-PCR with specific primers to identify alleles affecting the sensitivity to vernalization and photoperiod response at the Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1, Ppd-A1, Ppd-B1, and Ppd-D1 loci. Some morphological traits such as percentage germination, growth habit, final leaf number (FLN, ear length, and days to ear emergence were also measured. Results showed that FLN and days to ear emergence are the best morphological traits to study wheat flowering time. Allelic variation showed that Vrn-D1 is more frequent than other genes in Iranian wheat genotypes, and so most Iranian genotypes are vernalization-insensitive. In addition, most genotypes were photoperiod-insensitive because of the semi-dominant mutation allele, Ppd-D1a. Based on allelic variation and morphological traits, we identified five classes of Iranian genotypes. The allelic variation study and morphology evaluation of this germplasm showed that the majority of Iranian cultivars and breeding lines are spring varieties and insensitive to day length.

  12. Improvement of the quality of wheat bread by addition of glycoside hydrolase family 10 xylanases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Han; Guo, Bing; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Fan, Sou-Jin; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2011-04-01

    Although many xylanases are widely used in the baking industry, only one glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH 10) xylanase has previously been reported to be effective in baking. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of two GH 10 xylanases, psychrophilic XynA from Glaciecola mesophila and mesophilic EX1 from Trichoderma pseudokoningii, in bread making. The optimal dosages needed to improve wheat flour dough and bread quality were 270-U/kg flour for EX1 and 0.9-U/kg flour for XynA. At their optimal dosage, both XynA and EX1 had significant dough-softening ability, resulting in a 50% reduction in Brabender units. XynA was more effective than EX1 in reducing the time to reach maximum consistency. XynA and EX1 showed similar effects in improving the bread volume (~30% increase). EX1 was more effective in reducing the initial crumb firmness. Although both enzymes exhibited similar anti-staling effects on the bread, based on a decrease in the bread firmness, XynA had a greater effect on reducing the firming rate, and EX1 showed an enhanced reduction in the initial firmness. These results show that these two GH 10 xylanases have unique advantages in improving dough and bread quality and indicate their potential in bread making.

  13. Products deriving from microbial fermentation are linked to insulinaemic response in pigs fed breads prepared from whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Serena, Anja;

    2011-01-01

    The effects of wheat and rye breads made from whole-wheat grain (WWG), wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on net portal absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients (glucose, SCFA and lactate) and apparent insulin secretion were studied in a model experiment with catheterised...

  14. 小麦中国春 NAM 转录因子 Gpc-1和 Gpc-2灌浆期时空表达模式分析%Spatiotemporal Expression Pattern Analysis of NAM Transcription Factors Gpc-1 and Gpc-2 in Bread Wheat Cultivar Chinese Spring During Grain Filling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丹; 董剑; 要燕杰; 赵万春; 高翔

    2015-01-01

    Objective]The objective of this experiment is to study the roles of no apical meristem (NAM) transcription factors Gpc-1 and Gpc-2 in early senescence and nutrient remobilization to the grain of bread wheat. [Method] Their spatiotemporal expression patterns were investigated during the grain-filling stage in wheat cultivar Chinese Spring. Their temporal expression dynamics were studied in penultimate leaf, flag leaf, peduncle, glume, rachis and the kernel using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). And the relative expression level was quantified using Pfaffl method with normalization against multiple verified reference genes. Applying mRNA in situ hybridization, the spatial expression pattern was explored in post-anthesis flag leaf, peduncle and the kernel only with digoxin-labeled oligonucleotide probes which were specifically targeting 5′ or 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of Gpc-1 and Gpc-2. [Result] Contrary to a previous report, the functional TaNAM-B1 rather than its dysfunctional paralog was found in Chinese Spring, and its nucleotide sequence was identical with the wild-type TtNAM-B1 in T. turgidum var.dicoccoides. All the results showed that Gpc-1 and Gpc-2 were all widely expressed in studied tissues with the exception of the root in which only the transcript of Gpc-1 was detected. The outcomes of mRNA in situ hybridization indicated that all five genes shared cell-type specificities. To be specific, no transcripts were distributed in leaf epidermal cells, pericarp and the seed coat;however, they mainly aggregated in leaf mesophyll cells, aleurone layer, embryo, and the tissues responsible for the mineral element transport (vascular bundle, pigment strand, nucellar projection and the transfer cell) in grain, in which the highest expression level was observed in embryo. In addition, lower expression level was detected in the peduncle and leaf vascular bundle as well. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the temporal expression

  15. Physicochemical and pasting properties of unleavened wheat flat bread (Chapatti as affected by addition of pulse flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Ahmed Wani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unleavened flat bread (chapatti was prepared from wheat–pulse composite flours wherein wheat flour was replaced from 5–20% by kidney bean and black gram flours. Water absorption for dough making increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05 in composite flours. Sensory evaluation of flat breads produced from wheat–pulse composite flours showed significant decrease in color, taste, aroma, breakability, and overall acceptability score at 15% or higher level of replacement. Pasting properties of composite flours and breads produced thereof displayed significant decrease in peak, trough, final, and setback viscosity while increase in pasting temperature was observed. This suggested that starch has gelatinized considerably and flat breads have been baked sufficiently. Significant lower setback viscosity of composite flour than control wheat flour indicates that composite flat breads can maintain freshness for longer time than control bread.

  16. Mechanical properties of cottage cheese-fortified wheat dough and loaf bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guemes-Vera, Norma; Gonzalez-Victoriano, Lizbeth; Soto-Simental, Sergio; Hernandez-Chavez, Juan Francisco; Reyes-Santamaria, Ma Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Milk whey and its derivatives are commonly used to fortify food products. A study was done on the effect of seven cottage cheese (sour/sweet whey mixture) inclusion concentrations (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 and 20 %) on the mechanical properties of white wheat bread dough using a texture analyser. Cottage cheese protein content was 10.05 %. Loaf bread made using the 7.5, 12.5 and 17.5 % cottage cheese concentrations showed crumb quality similar to the control in the 12.5 and 17.5 % treatments, but more open and less homogeneous in 7.5 % treatment. Cottage cheese concentration affected bread volume, with the higher concentrations lowering volume by up to 50 %, in response to increased water retention. Sensory analysis showed bread containing 7.5 % cottage cheese was not different from the control, with an 83.33 % acceptance rate. The 7.5 % concentration was optimum for white wheat loaf bread production since its mechanical and sensory properties were most similar to the control.

  17. Studies regarding the influence of brown flaxseed flour addition in wheat flour of a very good quality for bread making on bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Gabriela CODINA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to incorporate brown flaxseed into bread in order to improve it quality. For this purpose, different levels of whole ground brown flaxseed (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were used to substitute wheat flour 650 type of a very good quality for bread making. The bread samples obtained were analyzed from the physical, colour, crumb cell, textural and sensory characteristics point of view. Samples containing 10% of brown flaxseed were with the highest values for loaf volume, porosity and elasticity. The control sample had lowerest redness and greenness value. The maximum hardness was found for bread with 20% brown flaxseed addition. With the increase level of brown flaxseed addition large cells can be noticed in crumb structure of bread. Samples containing 20% of flaxseed were rated poorest in tase, texture, overall acceptability, appearance. Our results indicated that brown flaxseed addition could be added to a typical bread formulation up to levels of 10% with a good overall acceptability offering promising healthy and nutritious alternative to consumers. Between bread flour characteristics at different brown flaxseed flour substitution levels principal component analysis shown significant correlations (p < 0.05 between bread physical characteristics (loaf volume, porosity, elasticity and bread  overall acceptability.

  18. Cadmium Contents of Soils, Durum, and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkılıç, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet; Faz Cano, Angel; Carmona Garces, Doria

    2010-05-01

    Turkey is growing significant amount of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum - (Desf.)Husn) which is widely used for making pasta, spaghetti, noodles etc. Objective of this study were to: 1) determine Cd concentrations of the soils, durum and bread wheats grown in the Harran plain, southeast Turkey and 2) evaluate this element in terms of food safety. Soil samples from the selected 16 profiles, grains, roots, and leaves of durum and bread wheats were taken for analyses. Total Cd contents of the soils were below the threshold values. The soils in the northern part of the plain have more than 0.2 ppm of Cd. Carbonate and clay contents are > 15% and 40% respectively and have substantial amounts of Fe-oxy-hydroxides. Three phosphorus fertilizer samples, frequently used in the area, had > 2 ppm of Cd. As expected, the amounts of Cd in bread wheat were lower than durum wheat. However, the Cd contents in durum wheat grains in the area studied were 100 ?g kg-1) and similar to the drum grains from Italy. Some samples in Italy even had 71 ?g kg-1. These were attributed to the presence of high amounts of carbonates, Fe-oxy-hydroxides, and clay in the soils we studied. In the surface soil, Zn contents were between 21.5 and 72.8 mg kg-1.This could be another reason for lower contents of Cd in our durum wheat. Our study confirms that durum wheat grown in the Harran plain southeast Turkey has a better quality, therefore advantageous; in terms of food safety from the standpoint of Cd contents.

  19. Phytate negatively influences wheat dough and bread characteristics by interfering with cross-linking of glutenin molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of added phytate on dough properties and bread baking quality was studied to determine the role of phytate in the impaired functional properties of whole grain wheat flour for baking bread. Phytate addition to refined flour at a 1% level substantially increased mixograph mixing time, g...

  20. Dry-fractionation of wheat bran increases the bioaccessibility of phenolic acids in breads made from processed bran fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemery, Y.M.; Anson, N.M.; Havenaar, R.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Noort, M.W.J.; Rouau, X.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential of using ultra-fine grinding and electrostatic separation of wheat bran as methods to improve the bioaccessibility of para-coumaric acid (pCA), sinapic acid (SA) and ferulic acid (FA) from bran-rich breads. Bran fractions were produced and used to bake white bread,

  1. Quantitative aspects of the metabolism of lignans in pigs fed fibre-enriched rye and wheat bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærke, Helle N; Mortensen, Marianne A; Hedemann, Mette S;

    2009-01-01

    A diet rich in lignans has been suggested to be protective against a range of chronic diseases. The distribution and metabolic fate of lignans is, however, very poorly understood. We fed high-fibre wheat breads low in lignans (n 8) or high-fibre rye breads (n 9) rich in plant lignans to pigs for 58...

  2. High molecular weight glutenin subunits of wheat: qualitative and quantitative variation in relation to bread-making quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolster, P.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the poor bread-making quality of the wheat grown in The Netherlands, only a small part of production is used for baking of bread. Therefore quality improvement is a major aim of plant breeding. Unfortunately, breeding for breadmaking quality is hampered by its complexity. The suitability

  3. An explorative study of in vivo digestive starch characteristics and postprandial glucose kinetics of wholemeal wheat bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, Marion G.; Wachters-Hagedoorn, Renate E.; Heimweg, Janneke A. J.; Small, Alexandra; Preston, Tom; Elzinga, Henk; Stellaard, Frans; Vonk, Roel J.

    2008-01-01

    Based on in vitro measurements, it is assumed that starch in wholemeal bread is rapidly digestible, which is considered to be less desirable for health. To evaluate the in vitro prediction, we characterized starch digestion of wholemeal wheat bread (WB) and postprandial glucose kinetics in healthy v

  4. Use of fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria for making wheat bread with an intermediate content of gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Curiel, José Antonio; Nionelli, Luana; Vincentini, Olimpia; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Silano, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco; Coda, Rossana

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed at combining the highest degradation of gluten during wheat flour fermentation with good structural and sensory features of the related bread. As estimated by R5-ELISA, the degree of degradation of immune reactive gluten was ca. 28%. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and RP-FPLC analyses showed marked variations of the protein fractions compared to the untreated flour. The comparison was also extended to in vitro effect of the peptic/tryptic-digests towards K562 and T84 cells. The flour with the intermediate content of gluten (ICG) was used for bread making, and compared to whole gluten (WG) bread. The chemical, structural and sensory features of the ICG bread approached those of the bread made with WG flour. The protein digestibility of the ICG bread was higher than that from WG flour. Also the nutritional quality, as estimated by different indexes, was the highest for ICG bread.

  5. Effect of Waxy Wheat Flour Blends on the Quality of Chinese Steamed Bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Peng; CHENG Shun-he; MA Chuan-xi

    2007-01-01

    Steamed bread is very popular in the East and Southeast Asian regions, and its quality is affected by some physicochemical properties. Chinese steamed bread was made by adding waxy flour into normal wheat flour in the present study. The results showed that specific volume was not affected by the proportions of waxy flour, whereas, adding waxy flour decreased the appearance, color, texture, elasticity, stickiness, and the total score of Chinese steamed bread. However, there were no significant differences in all values when the proportions of waxy flour were below 10%. All evaluations but specific volume of Chinese steamed bread were positively influenced by the peak viscosity, resistance, and maximum resistance. When the waxy flour proportions were below 25%, the firmness of Chinese steamed bread stored at -18℃ for 3 days gradually decreased with the increase of waxy flour. It was revealed that the qualities of Chinese steamed bread cannot, be improved by waxy flour but it can be widely used in frozen storing food in the future.

  6. Mechanical properties of cottage cheese-fortified wheat dough and loaf bread

    OpenAIRE

    Guemes-Vera, Norma; Gonzalez-Victoriano, Lizbeth; Soto-Simental, Sergio; Hernandez-Chavez, Juan Francisco; Reyes-Santamaria, Ma. Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Milk whey and its derivatives are commonly used to fortify food products. A study was done on the effect of seven cottage cheese (sour/sweet whey mixture) inclusion concentrations (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 and 20 %) on the mechanical properties of white wheat bread dough using a texture analyser. Cottage cheese protein content was 10.05 %. Loaf bread made using the 7.5, 12.5 and 17.5 % cottage cheese concentrations showed crumb quality similar to the control in the 12.5 and 17.5 % treatment...

  7. The Dıfferences of Spike Development on Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Em Thell. in the Tekirdağ Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İ. Atılgan Helvacıoğlu , S. Şehirali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in experiment fields of Field Crop Department of Tekirdağ Ağricultural Faculty at Trakya University in growing seasons of 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 based on random block of experiment desing with four replications. Two bread wheat cultivars (Pehlivan and Sana were used as the material in this research. The main stem length, tiller numbers, apex developments and the number of circles on apex were measured as physical properties. In the physical properties the difference of bread wheat varieties on main stem development, tiller numbers, apex developments and the number of circles on apex were significant. Achived data evince that earlyriser and mid-riser wheat varieties which complete apex growing more faster, are more convenient for Trakya Region. However, it is determined that wheat varieties which completes apex growing more later, are not convenient for this region. In apex growing the exess number of circles on apex shows that spikelet numbers will be more.

  8. Patterns of homoeologous gene expression shown by RNA sequencing in hexaploid bread wheat.

    KAUST Repository

    Leach, Lindsey J

    2014-04-11

    BACKGROUND: Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has a large, complex and hexaploid genome consisting of A, B and D homoeologous chromosome sets. Therefore each wheat gene potentially exists as a trio of A, B and D homoeoloci, each of which may contribute differentially to wheat phenotypes. We describe a novel approach combining wheat cytogenetic resources (chromosome substitution \\'nullisomic-tetrasomic\\' lines) with next generation deep sequencing of gene transcripts (RNA-Seq), to directly and accurately identify homoeologue-specific single nucleotide variants and quantify the relative contribution of individual homoeoloci to gene expression. RESULTS: We discover, based on a sample comprising ~5-10% of the total wheat gene content, that at least 45% of wheat genes are expressed from all three distinct homoeoloci. Most of these genes show strikingly biased expression patterns in which expression is dominated by a single homoeolocus. The remaining ~55% of wheat genes are expressed from either one or two homoeoloci only, through a combination of extensive transcriptional silencing and homoeolocus loss. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that wheat is tending towards functional diploidy, through a variety of mechanisms causing single homoeoloci to become the predominant source of gene transcripts. This discovery has profound consequences for wheat breeding and our understanding of wheat evolution.

  9. Biofortification of Wheat Cultivars to Combat Zinc Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattha, Muhammad U.; Hassan, Muhammad U.; Khan, Imran; Chattha, Muhammad B.; Mahmood, Athar; Chattha, Muhammad U.; Nawaz, Muhammad; Subhani, Muhammad N.; Kharal, Mina; Khan, Sadia

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake is a global nutritional problem, particularly in developing countries. Therefore, zinc biofortification of wheat and other cereal crops is being urgently addressed and highly prioritized as a research topic. A field study was planned to evaluate the influence of zinc application on grain yield, grain zinc content, and grain phytic acid concentrations of wheat cultivars, and the relationships between these parameters. Three wheat cultivars, C1 = Faisalabad-2008, C2 = Punjab-2011, and C3 = Millet-2011 were tested with five different methods of zinc application: T1 = control, T2 = seed priming, T3 = soil application, T4 = foliar application, and T5 = soil + foliar application. It was found that grain yield and grain zinc were positively correlated, whereas, grain phytic acid and grain zinc were significantly negatively correlated. Results also revealed that T5, T3, and T4 considerably increased grain yield; however, T2 only slightly enhanced grain yield. Grain zinc concentration increased from 33.1 and 33.7 mg kg−1 in T1 to 62.3 and 63.1 mg kg−1 in T5 in 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, respectively. In particular, T5 markedly decreased grain phytic acid content; however, maximum concentration was recorded in T1. Moreover, all the tested cultivars exhibited considerable variation in grain yield, grain zinc, and grain phytic acid content. In conclusion, T5 was found to be most suitable for both optimum grain yield and grain biofortification of wheat. PMID:28352273

  10. Simultaneous editing of three homoeoalleles in hexaploid bread wheat confers heritable resistance to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanpeng; Cheng, Xi; Shan, Qiwei; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Jinxing; Gao, Caixia; Qiu, Jin-Long

    2014-09-01

    Sequence-specific nucleases have been applied to engineer targeted modifications in polyploid genomes, but simultaneous modification of multiple homoeoalleles has not been reported. Here we use transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 (refs. 4,5) technologies in hexaploid bread wheat to introduce targeted mutations in the three homoeoalleles that encode MILDEW-RESISTANCE LOCUS (MLO) proteins. Genetic redundancy has prevented evaluation of whether mutation of all three MLO alleles in bread wheat might confer resistance to powdery mildew, a trait not found in natural populations. We show that TALEN-induced mutation of all three TaMLO homoeologs in the same plant confers heritable broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew. We further use CRISPR-Cas9 technology to generate transgenic wheat plants that carry mutations in the TaMLO-A1 allele. We also demonstrate the feasibility of engineering targeted DNA insertion in bread wheat through nonhomologous end joining of the double-strand breaks caused by TALENs. Our findings provide a methodological framework to improve polyploid crops.

  11. Investigation on Paste Property of Chinese Bread Wheat Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun; ZHANG Yong; HE Zhong-hu

    2002-01-01

    Starch viscosity is closely associated with noodle quality. RVA(rapid viscosity analyzer)was used to investigate the paste property of leading Chinese wheat varieties and 38 Australian wheat lines. Results showed that significant variability for RVA parameters was observed among Chinese wheat varieties, particularly among spring wheat varieties. In general, Australia wheat lines performed better paste characters than that of Chinese winter wheats. Genotype (G), environment (E) and genotype by environment (G × E) interaction affected all paste traits. Correlation analysis indicated that peak viscosity correlated highly and significantly with viscosity, breakdown, setback, final viscosity, peak time, and falling number(r = 0.56-0.93, P < 0.01 ). However breakdown was not significantly associated with most paste properties. Paste characters increased from low to high latitude both in the north and south part of Yellow and Huai Valley.

  12. Emergy assessment method for wheat cultivar efficiency and environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Jankowiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The method based on emergy was applied to quantify the fluxes of the energy, matter and monetary investment use (water, seeds, work, fertilizer and plant protecting agents, fuel, goods and services, productivity, environmental services and sustainability in typical wheat cultivar conducted in Wielkopolska. In order to convert all the flows mentioned into common base (seJ a conversion factors (solar transformities were used. In this way it was possible to consider also such flows that are free and generally neglected in the traditional balances. Generally only 52% emergy inflow is delivered by financial investment, while the remaining part, delivered in the form of the environmental services, is free. The Emergy Yield Ratio EYR = 1.14 indicate a low level of output per emergy investment unit. The values of Environmental Loading Ratio ELR = 11 and Emergy Sustainability Index ESI = 0.1 indicate an environmental stress and low level of cultivar sustainability, respectively. The final cultivar product (wheat has the emergy density 4.35 E12 seJ/kg and transformity 26.3 E4 seJ/J.

  13. Wheat milling by-products and their impact on bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdane, Sami; Leys, Sofie; Jacobs, Pieter J; Dornez, Emmie; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2015-11-15

    This study investigates the relationship between the properties of dietary fiber (DF) rich wheat milling by-products and their impact on bread making. From coarse bran over coarse and fine weatings to low grade flour, the content of starch and lipids increased, while that of DF and ash decreased. Enzyme activity levels differed strongly and were not related to other by-product properties. Average particle size of the by-products was positively correlated with DF and ash contents and their hydration properties. When meals from flour and by-products were composed on the same overall starch level to compensate for differences in endosperm contamination in the by-products, bread specific volume was more strongly depressed with fine weatings and low grade flour than with coarse bran and weatings. This suggests that the properties of the former were intrinsically more detrimental to bread making than those of the latter.

  14. Cassava Flour Substitution Modulates Glycemic Responses and Glycemic Index of Wheat Breads in Apparent Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Ebelechukwu N; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Ozumba, Augusta U; Adewale, Chris O; Kayode, Funmi O; Asieba, Godfrey O; Adesegha, Olubukola I; Elemo, Gloria N

    2017-07-04

    Different carbohydrate foods produce different glycemic responses even with little or no difference in macronutrient composition. Cassava constitutes one of the major staples in Nigeria. Four blends of cassava-wheat bread samples with 0, 10, 15, and 20% cassava flour inclusion were fed individually to groups of healthy human volunteers. Subjects were studied on separate occasions in the morning after a 10-12-hr overnight fast. Blood glucose responses were measured at intervals of 30 min over a period of 2 hr. Glucose was used as a reference food. There were normal glucose responses to the bread samples studied. Increase in cassava incorporation led to less significant glycemic responses. The glycemic index values ranged from 91-94. Results from this study indicate that the inclusion of cassava flour in bread production might not pose a threat to blood glucose response of individuals.

  15. Recombinant Wheat Endoplasmic Reticulum Oxidoreductin 1 Improved Wheat Dough Properties and Bread Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang; Wang, JingJing; Hou, Yi; Huang, Yan-Bo; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Li, Cunzhi; Li, Lin; Hu, Song-Qing

    2017-03-15

    Recombinant wheat endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1 (wEro1) with considerable ability was expressed in Escherichia coli. The functional roles of wEro1 in flour processing quality were investigated by farinographic, rheological, texture profile analysis, electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. wEro1 exhibited an obvious oxidation activity of sulfhydryl groups in small molecule and protein. Addition of wEro1 could strengthen the processing quality of dough, indicated by the improved mixing characteristics, viscoelastic properties, and bread qualities. These improvement effects of wEro1 could be attributed to the formation of macromolecular gluten polymers and massive gluten networks by disulfide cross-linking. Additionally, the increased β-turn structure further demonstrated the enhancement of dough strength. Moreover, the amount of peroxide in dough was improved significantly from 2.36 to 2.82 μmol/g of flour with 0.15% wEro1 treatment. Therefore, the results suggested that wEro1 is a promising novel flour improver.

  16. Gluten characteristics imparting bread quality in wheats differing for high molecular weight glutenin subunits at Glu D1 locus

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, Devinder; Gupta, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    High yielding genotypes differing for high molecular weight glutenin subunits at Glu D1 locus in national wheat programme of India were examined for bread loaf volume, gluten and protein contents, gluten strength, gluten index and protein-gluten ratio. Number of superior bread quality genotypes in four agro-climatically diverse zones of Indian plains was comparable in both categories of wheat i.e., 5 + 10 and 2 + 12. There wasn’t any difference in average bread loaf volume and grain protein c...

  17. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum: complementary interaction between vernalization-insensitive and photoperiod-insensitive mutations imparts very early flowering habit to spring wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sushil Kumar; Vishakha Sharma; Swati Chaudhary; Anshika Tyagi; Poonam Mishra; Anupama Priyadarshini; Anupam Singh

    2011-04-01

    Time to flowering in the winter growth habit bread wheat is dependent on vernalization (exposure to cold conditions) and exposure to long days (photoperiod). Dominant Vrn-1 (Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1) alleles are associated with vernalization-independent spring growth habit. The semidominant Ppd-D1a mutation confers photoperiod-insensitivity or rapid flowering in wheat under short day and long day conditions. The objective of this study was to reveal the nature of interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a mutations (active alleles of the respective genes vrn-1 and Ppd-D1b). Twelve Indian spring wheat cultivars and the spring wheat landrace Chinese Spring were characterized for their flowering times by seeding them every month for five years under natural field conditions in New Delhi. Near isogenic Vrn-1 Ppd-D1 and Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a lines constructed in two genetic backgrounds were also phenotyped for flowering time by seeding in two different seasons. The wheat lines of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a, Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Ppd-D1a and Vrn-A1a Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a) genotypes flowered several weeks earlier than that of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b, Vrn-A1b Ppd-D1b and Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1b) genotypes. The flowering time phenotypes of the isogenic vernalization-insensitive lines confirmed that Ppd-D1a hastened flowering by several weeks. It was concluded that complementary interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a active alleles imparted super/very-early flowering habit to spring wheats. The early and late flowering wheat varieties showed differences in flowering time between short day and long day conditions. The flowering time in Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a genotypes was hastened by higher temperatures under long day conditions. The ambient air temperature and photoperiod parameters for flowering in spring wheat were estimated at 25°C and 12 h, respectively.

  18. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J; Deacon, Carolyn F; Rehfeld, Jens F; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G

    2015-10-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products with a similar composition were created using different processing conditions. The postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response to bread with a compact structure (flat bread, FB) was compared to bread with a porous structure (control bread, CB) in a randomized, crossover study with ten healthy male volunteers. Pasta (PA), with a very compact structure, was used as the control. The rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE), endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate (GCR) was calculated using stable isotopes. Furthermore, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, several intestinal hormones and bile acids were analyzed. The structure of FB was considerably more compact compared to CB, as confirmed by microscopy, XRT analysis (porosity) and density measurements. Consumption of FB resulted in lower peak glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (ns) responses and a slower initial RaE compared to CB. These variables were similar to the PA response, except for RaE which remained slower over a longer period after PA consumption. Interestingly, the GCR after FB was higher than expected based on the insulin response, indicating increased insulin sensitivity or insulin-independent glucose disposal. These results demonstrate that the structure of wheat bread can influence the postprandial metabolic response, with a more compact structure being more beneficial for health. Bread-making technology should be further explored to create healthier products.

  19. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chaoran, E-mail: Chaoran.Li3@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Mörtelmaier, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.Moertelmaier@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Winter, Josef, E-mail: Josef.Winter@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gallert, Claudia, E-mail: Claudia.Gallert@HS-Emden-Leer.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); University of Applied Science, Hochschule Emden-Leer, Faculty of Technology, Division Microbiology – Biotechnology, Constantiaplatz 4, D-26723 Emden (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Volatile fatty acid spectra of acidified WBS, RBS or FBS differ, but methanogenesis is similar. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Biogas improvement by co-digestion of wheat and rye bread. • Increased population density at high organic loading rates. • Less Pelotomaculum but increased numbers of Syntrophobacter and Smithella found in rye bread reactor. • Replacement of Methanosarcinales by acetate-oxidizers in rye bread co-digestion. • Increasing proportion of Methanomicrobiales in biowaste + rye bread reactor. - Abstract: Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO{sub 2} and hydrogen.

  20. Properties and nutritional value of wheat bread enriched by hemp products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Švec

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemp (Cannabis sativa is annual plant that is native to China and remained as important material for food, industrial  and medical purposes. As source of cannabinoids belongs to controversial, but due to its excellent nutritional profile, non-gluten protein, fat and fibre it has potential in bakery products. Addition of 5% - 20% of hemp press cake fine flour and fine wholemeal significantly increased dietary fibre content, but their influence on volume of laboratory baked bread was different. Reflecting actual dosage, both types of hemp press cake flour diminished bun sizes about 6% - 33%; volumes of bread containing hulled wholemeal were comparable to standard (mean 310 mL/100 g vs. 333 ml/100 g, respectively. Only dehulled wholemeal hemp form increased the bread specific volume (6% - 30%, especially as 10% fortification (434 mL/100 g. Six Canadian hemp products were added as 10% and 20% on wheat flour base, comprising fine hemp flour and coarse hemp powder, dehulled whole seeds, hulled hemp seeds with sea salt as well as 50% and 43% hemp protein concentrates (KP1-KP6, respectively. The higher level of KP1, KP2, KP5 and KP6, the lower bread specific volumes were determined (decrease about 9% - 48%. Soft increase in buns size caused by 10% and 20% KP3 (323 and 319 ml/100 g vs. 296 mL/100 g was insignificant. The effect of KP4 was reversely verifiable, magnifying the parameter about 25% and 17%, respectively. In terms of protein content in bread, a level 11.75% in wheat bread has risen to approx. 14.5% and 18.0% when 10% and 20% of KP3 and KP5, respectively, was included into bread recipe. All six Canadian hemp products increased dietary fibre content in bread, mainly owing to KP4 and both protein concentrates (up to 4 and 3 times, respectively. Incorporation of hemp flour up to the level of 10% positively affected bread sensorial properties.

  1. Bread making properties of wheat flour supplemented with thermally processed hypoallergenic lupine flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillamon, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Pedrosa, M. M.; Varela, A.; Cabellos, B.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in using lupine for human nutrition due to its nutritional properties and health benefits. Moreover, lupine is used as an ingredient in bread making because of its functional and technological properties. However, a higher number of allergic reactions to this legume have recently been reported as a consequence of a more widespread consumption of lupine-based foods. In a previous study, several thermal treatments were applied to lupine seeds and flours resulting in reduced allergenicity. In order to study how this thermal processing (autoclaving and boiling) affects the bread making properties, raw and thermally processed lupine flours were used to replace 10% of wheat flour. The effect of supplementing wheat flour with lupine flour on physical dough properties, bread structure and sensory characteristics were analysed. The results indicated that thermally-treated lupine flours, had similar bread making and sensorial properties as untreated lupine flour. These thermal treatments could increase the potential use of lupine flour as a food ingredient while reducing the risk to provoke allergic reactions. (Author) 36 refs.

  2. Fate of ochratoxin A in the processing of whole wheat grains during milling and bread production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudamore, K A; Banks, J; MacDonald, S J

    2003-12-01

    Batches of whole wheat contaminated with ochratoxin A were produced by inoculation with Penicillium verrucosum under controlled conditions in the laboratory. The fate of ochratoxin was followed through initial cleaning, abrasive scouring of the outer grain coat, milling into wholemeal wheat or into 10 milled fractions. Bread was baked from both wholemeal flour and straight-run white flour. Concentrations of ochratoxin A in the cleanings, scourings, and the bran and offal fractions were increased, but reduced in the white flour. Scouring removed up to 44% of the ochratoxin A present, but only a small further loss occurred in the bread-making process. An overall reduction of about 75% could be achieved in white bread using a combination of cleaning scouring and removal of the bran and offal fractions. Maximum overall reduction in producing wholemeal bread was about 40%. The reduction in ochratoxin A that can be achieved must be considered in relation to economic constraints concerning the disposal of wasted grain. Appropriate strategies for the use or disposal of potentially highly contaminated cleanings, scourings, bran or offal must be established.

  3. A kaizen approach to food safety quality management in the value chain from wheat to bread

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a Management Science approach to quality management in food production. Aspects of food quality, product conformance and reliability/food safety are examined, starting with wheat and ending with its value chain transformation into bread. Protein qualities that influence glycemic index levels in bread are used to compare the value chains of France and the US. With Kaizen models the book shows how changes in these characteristics are the result of management decisions made by the wheat growers in response to government policy and industry strategy. Lastly, it provides step-by-step instructions on how to apply kaizen methodology and Deming's work on quality improvement to make the HACCPs (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) in food safety systems more robust.

  4. Effect of amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) on the technological and sensory quality of bread wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Cristina S; Ribotta, Pablo D; Añón, María Cristina; León, Alberto E

    2014-03-01

    The technological and sensory quality of pasta made from bread wheat flour substituted with wholemeal amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) at four levels, 15, 30, 40 and 50% w/w was investigated. The quality of the resulted pasta was compared to that of control pasta made from bread wheat flour. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition and pasting properties. Cooking behavior, color, raw and cooked pasta texture, scanning electron microscopy and sensory evaluation were determined on samples. The pasta obtained from amaranth flour showed some detriment of the technological and sensory quality. So, a maximum substitution level of 30% w/w was defined. This is an equilibrium point between an acceptable pasta quality and the improved nutritional and functional properties from the incorporation of amaranth flour.

  5. Use of Avocado (Persea americana M.) Paste in Wheat Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Man; Adriana Păucean; Ioana Daniela Călian Ianoş; Sevastiţa Muste

    2015-01-01

    Bread is the staple food for most people around the world, it being consumed since ancient times. Because of it’s major importance in the diet, over the last years, the trend of enrich the nutritional quality was developed, by replacing the chemical fortification of foods with an intake of bioactive compounds from fruits, vegetables and cereals. The avocado is useful in human nutrition as a source of various nutrients and especially as source of energy and monounsaturated fatty acids. This pa...

  6. Wheat Prices, Bread Consumption and Health in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Leat, Philip M.K.; Toma, Luiza; Lamprinopoulou-Kranis, Chrysa; Kupiec-Teahan, Beata; Cacciolatti, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The relative recent rise in food prices has increased concern about the choice of a healthy food basket, especially in the context of the formulation of a National Food Policy for Scotland. This concern has revived interest in food price and expenditure demand systems as they provide information about consumers’ food decisions. The paper focuses on the consumption of brown and white bread, as they are the most typical forms of cereals use in the UK. Moreover, nutritionists recommend the consu...

  7. WHEAT CULTIVARS: RESPONSE TO IRRIGATION AND SOWING DATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klar A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in an Alfisol-Oxisol transition sandy-clay texture, using six wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum, L.: two tall and tolerant to soil aluminium toxicity (BH-1146, and IAC-18, and four semi-dwarf cultivars - Anahuac, IAC-162, IAC-24, and IAC-60 - of which only the first two are sensitive to soil aluminium toxicity. Two minimum soil water potentials (ys levels were used: 1. watered, when Ys reached about -0.05 MPa; 2. dry, when the water potential reached around -1.5 MPa. Two sowing dates, 05/22/92 and 06/11/92, were used. The results showed that Anahuac and IAC-60 are the most indicated cultivars for the studied region; when irrigated all cultivars presented similar yield level under no irrigation conditions; the irrigation was not sufficient to avoid yield differences between the two growing seasons; differences in rainfall were important for the crop in the dry treatment for both seasons.

  8. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) By-Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kampuse Solvita; Ozola Liene; Straumite Evita; Galoburda Ruta

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease a...

  9. Wheat cultivar discrimination by capillary electrophoresis of gliadins in isoelectric buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, L; Forlani, F; Perini, F; Guerrieri, N; Cerletti, P; Righetti, P G

    1998-02-01

    A modified method is reported for screening of wheat cultivars: capillary zone electrophoresis of gliadins in isoelectric buffers. Previously published procedures recommended a 100 mM phosphate buffer, supplemented with 0.05% hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and 20% acetonitrile, in uncoated capillaries. Due to the very high conductivity of such a buffer (4.7 mmhos at 25 degrees C) high speed separations (10-12 min analysis time at 800 V/cm) could only be elicited in 20 microm internal diameter (ID) capillaries, at the expense of sensitivity. In the present report, we optimized the background electrolyte as follows: 40 mM aspartic acid (pH=pI=2.77) in the presence of 7 M urea and 0.5% short-chain hydroxyethylcellulose (Mn 27000 Da; apparent pH 3.9 in 7 M urea). As an alternative recipe, the same isoelectric buffer can be supplemented with a mixed organic solvent composed of 4 M urea and 20% acetonitrile (apparent pH 3.66). Due to the much lower conductivity (0.7 mmhos), separations can be carried out at 1000 V/cm in only 10 min, but in larger bore capillaries (50 microm ID), ensuring a five-times higher sensitivity. The gliadin patterns thus obtained are species-specific and allow easy identification of all cultivars tested of both durum and bread wheat. No adsorption of proteins to the silica wall seems to occur and high reproducibility in peak areas and transit times is obtained.

  10. Evaluation on Chinese Bread Wheat Landraces for Low pH and Aluminum Tolerance Using Hydroponic Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Shou-fen; YAN Ze-hong; LIU Deng-cai; ZHANG Lian-quan; WEI Yu-ming; ZHENG You-liang

    2009-01-01

    Aluminum (A1) toxicity often takes place in acidic soils with a pH of 5.5 or lower. Breeding and cultivation of A1 tolerance wheat can partially protect wheat escaping from AI toxicity. The scarcity of the tolerant sources impedes the wheat breeding.In order to find new AI tolerance sources, we screened 173 bread wheat landraces from Tibet of China using hydroponic screening. It was indicated that: (1) There were diversities on the root regenerate length (RRL). The RRL of a large of landraces were longer than 7.00 cm in pH 7 (58.38%) and pH 4.5 (66.47%), but shorter than 5.00 cm in pH 4.5 +50 μM Al3+(80.93%). The low pH showed either promotion or restraining effects depend on landraces, but AI toxicity under low pH only showed restraining effects on the root elongation. (2) There were also diversities on root tolerance index of low pH (RTI 1) or root aluminum tolerance index (RTI2) among cultivars. The RTI1 varied from a narrow range but with relatively high value (0.8722-1.2953) in comparison with that of RTI2 (0.3829-1.0058), and the RTI1 of approximately 60% landraces was higher than 1.0000, the RTI2 of only 19.07% landraces was higher than 0.7000, suggesting that A1 toxicity acted as an important factor for the reduction of the root elongation under acidic soils. (3) The RTI 1 of many wheats was higher than 1.0000, and As2256 and As2295 were the most tolerant for low pH, with RTI1 1.2953 and 1.2925, respectively. (4) Based on RTI2, seven wheats showed similar or higher tolerance to AI toxicity than Chinese Spring (CS), a known tolerance wheat. Much better tolerance existed in landraces of As1543 and As1242, which can be used as the new parents for AI tolerant breeding.

  11. Evidence of intralocus recombination between the low-molecular weight glutenin subunit in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low-molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) are one of the major components of wheat seed storage proteins and play a critical role in the determination of wheat flour bread-making quality. The genes encoding for this class of proteins are mainly located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci (Glu-A...

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSED PRODUCTS OF WHEAT GERM ON GRAIN BREAD QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and introduction of new types of bakery products with increased nutritional value is one of the basic and urgent problems in the bakery industry. The solution of it is the use of whole grains, as well as secondary products of their processing. The use of by-products of wheat germ (oil, oilcake, oilcake flour, which are rich in proteins and enhances the nutritional value of products is considered to be a promising area in the bakery industry. At the same time the program objectives products, developed in the framework of the "Strategy of development of the food processing industry of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020"products, are expanding the production of cereal-based foods , and involving of secondary resources in the economy. These technologies are re-source efficient. They allow efficient use of by-products raw materials of the milling industry. The process for the preparation of grain bread on the basis of a thick sourdough from bioactivated wheat grain is known. However, despite all the advantages of grain breads with high amounts of dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins, they exhibit low levels of protein and lysine deficiency. At present larger preference is given to the raw materials of natural origin (millet, buckwheat and oatmeal flours, fruit puree, whole grains, oil, flour and wheat germ flakes, and etc. for foods enrichment in modern food science. Products of processing of wheat germ: oil, flakes, oilcake and oil-cake flour are widely used in bakery technology. To improve the nutritional value flour from wheat germ oilcake was used in the work. In the course of the research its positive effect on the quality of semi-finished and finished products was found. They differed from the control sample in a high content of antioxidants and better digestibility of proteins bread crumb.

  13. Heavy Metal Contents of Soils, Durum and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkılıç Yanardaǧ, Asuman

    2013-04-01

    Soils are vital for regulating the biological effects and mobility of metals in nature. Iron and zinc are some of the essential nutrients for plants and animals, while other metals are potentially toxic such as lead and cadmium. Toxic heavy metals (HMs) can be taken up easily by organisms. HMs inputs to soil via the application of metal-contained fertilizers often exceed outputs in crops and drainage waters, thus toxic HMs content in many agricultural soils tends to be gradually increasing. Thus adverse human health effects due to soil-plant and plant-human transfer of HMs have been enhanced. HMs may cause harmful effects on human health due to the ingestion of food grain grown in soils. The objectives of this study were (1) to understand the chemistry of metals in soils for managing their agricultural and ecological impacts, (2) to identify metal uptakes of different genotypes of wheat. Concentrations of HMs (Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Mo, Pb) in wheat were investigated in different agricultural areas in Southeast, Turkey. The results showed that concentrations of HMs were in following order: Mn>Ni>Zn>Cu>Pb>Mo>Cd in surface and next to surface soil and Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb> Ni>Mo>Cd in wheat, respectively. HMs concentrations of several soil samples exceeded the permissible limits of Europe standard except for Ni and Mn. In addition, concentration of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb were higher in bread wheat than in durum wheat; however, concentration of Mn, Ni and Mo were higher in durum wheat than in bread wheat. Unusual amount of heavy metals found in some fertilizers used in the Southeast region of Turkey, it becomes an important subject to determine the amount of metals added to the soil every year. Heavy metals uptake by plants still remains to be an interest for researchers. As the heavy metals contents of plants were below the threshold levels, we conclude that the quality of wheat is high and it should receive attention in national and international markets. Keywords: Heavy Metals

  14. Investigation on Pasting Characteristics of Spring-sown Chinese Bread Wheats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; HE Zhong-hu

    2002-01-01

    Forty-seven spring wheat Triticumaestivum cultivars and advanced lines from spring-sown spring wheat regions, at twelve locations in 1998 and 1999, were used to investigate pasting properties of Chinese spring wheats. Starch pasting properties were closely associated with noodle quality. Significant differences were observed for all pasting characteristics. Samples collected from Harbin, Shenyang, Beijing, Bameng, Yongning, and Urumqi had better pasting quality than those from other locations. Genotype, environment, and genotype by environment interaction had large effects on all pasting characteristics. Significant correlations among pasting characteristics were observed and peak viscosity was considered the most important pasting characteristics.

  15. Distinct Characteristics of Rye and Wheat Breads Impact on Their in Vitro Gastric Disintegration and in Vivo Glucose and Insulin Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Emilia; Katina, Kati; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2016-01-01

    Disintegration of rye and wheat breads during in vitro gastric digestion and its relation to the postprandial glucose and insulin responses of the breads was studied. Breads with distinct composition and texture characteristics were prepared with refined or wholegrain wheat and rye flour by using either straight dough or sourdough process. After chewing and gastric digestion in vitro, 100% wholemeal and refined rye breads prepared by sourdough method were disintegrated to a much lower extent than the wheat breads, having more bread digesta particles with size over 2 or 3 mm. Microstructure of the digesta particles of rye sourdough bread revealed more aggregated and less degraded starch granules when compared to refined wheat bread. The postprandial insulin responses, but not those of glucose, to the 100% rye breads made with sourdough method were lower than the responses to the refined wheat bread. Addition of gluten or bran in rye sourdough bread increased insulin response. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) analysis confirmed that the insulin response had a negative correlation with the number of larger particles after in vitro digestion as well as amount of soluble fiber and sourdough process. Since the high relative proportion of large sized particles after chewing and in vitro gastric digestion was associated with low postprandial insulin responses, the analysis of structural disintegration in vitro is proposed as a complementary tool in predicting postprandial physiology. PMID:28231119

  16. Distinct Characteristics of Rye and Wheat Breads Impact on Their in Vitro Gastric Disintegration and in Vivo Glucose and Insulin Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Nordlund

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Disintegration of rye and wheat breads during in vitro gastric digestion and its relation to the postprandial glucose and insulin responses of the breads was studied. Breads with distinct composition and texture characteristics were prepared with refined or wholegrain wheat and rye flour by using either straight dough or sourdough process. After chewing and gastric digestion in vitro, 100% wholemeal and refined rye breads prepared by sourdough method were disintegrated to a much lower extent than the wheat breads, having more bread digesta particles with size over 2 or 3 mm. Microstructure of the digesta particles of rye sourdough bread revealed more aggregated and less degraded starch granules when compared to refined wheat bread. The postprandial insulin responses, but not those of glucose, to the 100% rye breads made with sourdough method were lower than the responses to the refined wheat bread. Addition of gluten or bran in rye sourdough bread increased insulin response. PCA (Principal Component Analysis analysis confirmed that the insulin response had a negative correlation with the number of larger particles after in vitro digestion as well as amount of soluble fiber and sourdough process. Since the high relative proportion of large sized particles after chewing and in vitro gastric digestion was associated with low postprandial insulin responses, the analysis of structural disintegration in vitro is proposed as a complementary tool in predicting postprandial physiology.

  17. Utilization of a maltotetraose-producing amylase as a whole wheat bread improver: dough rheology and baking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Woosung; Lee, Sung Ho; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Lee, Suyong

    2014-08-01

    A maltotetraose-producing enzyme (G4-amylase) was utilized to improve the baking performance of whole-grain wheat flour. Whole-grain bread dough prepared with G4-amylase showed reduced water absorption and increased development time, while the dough stability was not affected. Also, the G4-amylase-treated samples exhibited lower Mixolab torque values than the control upon heating and cooling. Rheological measurements showed the decreased ratio of Rmax /E and increased tan δ, clearly demonstrating that the viscous characteristics of whole-grain bread dough became dominant with increasing levels of G4-amylase. The use of G4-amylase produced whole-grain wheat breads with a variety of maltooligosaccharides, primarily maltotetraose that positively contributed to the bread volume (1.2-fold higher than the control). Moreover, G4-amylase delayed the crumb firming of whole-grain wheat bread during a 7-d storage period, showing that it can function as an antiretrogradation agent to enhance the quality attributes of whole-grain wheat bread.

  18. Reduced-gliadin wheat bread: an alternative to the gluten-free diet for consumers suffering gluten-related pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Altamirano-Fortoul, Rossana; Real, Ana; Comino, Isabel; Sousa, Carolina; Rosell, Cristina M; Barro, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Wheat flour cannot be tolerated by those who suffer allergies to gluten. Human pathologies associated with grain proteins have increased worldwide in recent years, and the only effective treatment available is a lifelong gluten-free diet, which is complicated to follow and detrimental to gut health. This manuscript describes the development of wheat bread potentially suitable for celiac patients and other gluten-intolerant individuals. We have made bread using wheat flour with very low content of the specific gluten proteins (near gliadin-free) that are the causal agents for pathologies such as celiac disease. Loaves were compared with normal wheat breads and rice bread. Organoleptic, nutritional, and immunotoxic properties were studied. The reduced-gliadin breads showed baking and sensory properties, and overall acceptance, similar to those of normal flour, but with up to 97% lower gliadin content. Moreover, the low-gliadin flour has improved nutritional properties since its lysine content is significantly higher than that of normal flour. Conservative estimates indicate that celiac patients could safely consume 67 grams of bread per day that is made with low-gliadin flour. However, additional studies, such as feeding trials with gluten-intolerant patients, are still needed in order to determine whether or not the product can be consumed by the general celiac population, as well as the actual tolerated amount that can be safely ingested. The results presented here offer a major opportunity to improve the quality of life for millions of sufferers of gluten intolerance throughout the world.

  19. Germplasm evaluation of heat tolerance in bread wheat in Tel Hadya, Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka C Okechukwu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Breeding for heat tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is a serious global concern due to the increasing threats of high temperature. Thus, 189 wheat genotypes coded from 1 to 189 were evaluated for heat tolerance in normal and late seasons in the International Centre for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA, Tel Hadya, Syria, from 2010 to 2012. The experiments were laid out in alpha lattice designs with two replicates. Data collected on the grain yield, days to heading and maturity, grain filling duration and plant height were subjected to restricted maximum likelihood (REML analysis for generation of the best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs. Very highly significant effects (p < 0.001 of genotype, season, and genotype by season interaction on grain yield and other traits were obtained. The grain yield and other traits performance of the wheat genotypes were significantly (p < 0.05 higher in the normal season than in the late season. Genotype 148 was among the 30 top grain yielding genotypes in all the environments, while genotypes 172 and 124 were among the top yielding genotypes in all the environments except in late season 2. The relative heat tolerance of the genotypes ranged from -33.69% to -77.95% in late season 1 vs. normal season 1 and -65.28% to -95.83% in late season 2 vs. normal season 2. The high variability obtained in the germplasm underlies sufficient genetic variability for improving heat tolerance in bread wheat.

  20. AMMI AND GGE BIPLOT ANALYSIS OF BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES IN THE NORTHERN PART OF ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fetien Abay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The genotype environment interaction manipulates the selection criteria in a multipurpose crop like wheat. Ten bread wheat genotypes were evaluated at five wheat growing locations of Tigray region in the year 2011. Yield data was analyzed using the additive main effect and multiplication interaction model (AMMI and GGE biplot. The AMMI analysis of variance for grain yield detected significant effects for genotype, location and genotype by location interaction. Location effect was responsible for the greatest part of the variation, followed by genotype and genotype by location interaction effects. Based on AMMI stability value, G4, G10, G8 and G9 were the most stable genotypes, while G1, G2, and G3 were the most responsive genotypes. The GGE biplot also showed G1, G2, G3, and G4 have long vectors and located far away from the biplot origin and hence are considered to have larger contribution to GEI (specifically adapted genotypes. G10 however is widely adapted genotype. The ‘which won where’ feature of the GGE biplot identified G4 as the winning genotype at Samre, Hagereselam, and Atsbi, while G1 winning at Quiha and Wukro. The GGE biplot also identified two bread wheat mega-environments. This indicates that analysis of multi-location trail data using GGE and AMMI model is important for determining visual comparisons, adaptability/stability focusing on overall performance to identify superior genotypes. 

  1. AMMI AND GGE BIPLOT ANALYSIS OF BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES IN THE NORTHERN PART OF ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hintsa G. Hagos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The genotype environment interaction manipulates the selection criteria in a multipurpose crop like wheat. Ten bread wheat genotypes were evaluated at five wheat growing locations of Tigray region in the year 2011. Yield data was analyzed using the additive main effect and multiplication interaction model (AMMI and GGE biplot. The AMMI analysis of variance for grain yield detected significant effects for genotype, location and genotype by location interaction. Location effect was responsible for the greatest part of the variation, followed by genotype and genotype by location interaction effects. Based on AMMI stability value, G4, G10, G8 and G9 were the most stable genotypes, while G1, G2, and G3 were the most responsive genotypes. The GGE biplot also showed G1, G2, G3, and G4 have long vectors and located far away from the biplot origin and hence are considered to have larger contribution to GEI (specifically adapted genotypes. G10 however is widely adapted genotype. The ‘which won where’ feature of the GGE biplot identified G4 as the winning genotype at Samre, Hagereselam, and Atsbi, while G1 winning at Quiha and Wukro. The GGE biplot also identified two bread wheat mega-environments. This indicates that analysis of multi-location trail data using GGE and AMMI model is important for determining visual comparisons, adaptability/stability focusing on overall performance to identify superior genotypes.

  2. Effects of chickpea flour on wheat pasting properties and bread making quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, I; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R; Senge, B

    2014-09-01

    Pulses (pea, chickpea, lentil, bean) are an important source of food proteins. They contain high amounts of lysine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and arginine and provide well balanced essential amino acid profiles when consumed with cereals. The influence of partial substitution of wheat flour with chickpea flour at the levels of 10, 20 and 30 % was carried out to study their pasting properties and bread making quality. Pasting properties were determined using Micro Visco-Amylo-Graph Analyser and Farinograph. The pasting temperature increased with increase chickpea flour concentration and the temperature of pasting ranged between 62 to 66.5 °C. No peak of viscosity curve was found for pure chickpea flour and have higher pasting temperature than pure wheat flour. Chickpea flour addition increased the water absorption and dough development time (p chickpea exhibited higher stability and resistance to mechanical mixing values than the control, while it decreased as the substitute level increases from 20 % to 30 %. The dough surface of the wheat dough and the blend with 10 % was classified as "normal", however the blend with 20 % and 30 % produced "sticky" dough surface. The presence of chickpea flour in dough affected bread quality in terms of volume, internal structure and texture. The color of crust and crumb got progressively darker as the level of chickpea flour substitution increased. While the substitution of wheat flour with 10 % chickpea flour gave loaves as similar as control.

  3. Effect of Buckwheat Processing Products on Dough and Bread Quality Made from Whole-Wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vira Drobot

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a brief overview of the current nutritional status of the Ukrainian population and describes useful buckwheat properties. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of buckwheat processing products (flour and flakes on the technological process and quality of bread made from whole-wheat flour. This paper describes and analyzes research data on the rheological properties of dough samples which were determined by farinograph and amylograph. Investigation of structural and mechanical properties of dough showed an increase in water-absorbing capacity in all samples when adding buckwheat products. Moreover, dough made with buckwheat flakes has a lower value of mixing tolerance index (by 47 % than dough made from buckwheat flour, and a higher valorimetric value (by 20 %. Determination of dough properties by amylogram has shown that a sample containing buckwheat flakes has a higher maximum viscosity than a sample containing buckwheat flour. Determination of the gas-production and gas-retention capacity of dough is also presented, along with an analysis of the quality of finished products based on the results of laboratory baking tests. The samples of bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes have better shape stability (by 21 %, specific volume (by 12 % and porosity (by 11 % than bread made from buckwheat flour. The organoleptic evaluation of finished product quality has shown that bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes has a more fluffy-texture, elastic crumb and uniform porosity than bread made from buckwheat flour. Buckwheat flakes proved to have a better effect on parameters of the technological process and quality of bread when compared with buckwheat flour.

  4. Postprandial plasma betaine and other methyl donor-related responses after consumption of minimally processed wheat bran or wheat aleurone, or wheat aleurone incorporated into bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaveney, Edel M; Price, Ruth K; Hamill, Lesley L; Wallace, Julie M W; McNulty, Helene; Ward, Mary; Strain, J J; Ueland, Per M; Molloy, Anne M; Piironen, Vieno; von Reding, Walter; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L; Welch, Robert W

    2015-02-14

    The bran and particularly the aleurone fraction of wheat are high in betaine and other physiological methyl donors, which may exert beneficial physiological effects. We conducted two randomised, controlled, cross-over postprandial studies to assess and compare plasma betaine and other methyl donor-related responses following the consumption of minimally processed bran and aleurone fractions (study A) and aleurone bread (study B). For both studies, standard pharmacokinetic parameters were derived for betaine, choline, folate, dimethylglycine (DMG), total homocysteine and methionine from plasma samples taken at 0, 0·5, 1, 2 and 3 h. In study A (n 14), plasma betaine concentrations were significantly and substantially elevated from 0·5 to 3 h following the consumption of both bran and aleurone compared with the control; however, aleurone gave significantly higher responses than bran. Small, but significant, increases were also observed in DMG measures; however, no significant responses were observed in other analytes. In study B (n 13), plasma betaine concentrations were significantly and substantially higher following consumption of the aleurone bread compared with the control bread; small, but significant, increases were also observed in DMG and folate measures in response to consumption of the aleurone bread; however, no significant responses were observed in other analytes. Peak plasma betaine concentrations, which were 1·7-1·8 times the baseline levels, were attained earlier following the consumption of minimally processed aleurone compared with the aleurone bread (time taken to reach peak concentration 1·2 v. 2·1 h). These results showed that the consumption of minimally processed wheat bran, and particularly the aleurone fraction, yielded substantial postprandial increases in plasma betaine concentrations. Furthermore, these effects appear to be maintained when aleurone was incorporated into bread.

  5. Control of mixing step in the bread production with weak wheat flour and sourdough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Parenti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several old Italian grain varieties have been reinstated, and the market seems to reward the breads made with these flours. Among such varieties, cultivar Verna appears to be interesting because the regular consumption of bread obtained by this variety and sourdough provides beneficial effects on human health such as the improving of the lipid, inflammatory, and hemorheological profiles. However, flours derived from Verna shows low technological performances. For example, the W value of these flours, obtained with alveoghraphic tests and considered as the commercial standard for the flour “strength” evaluation, is largely inferior than the W values of the commercial flour blends currently used in the bread making process. Moreover, the W values broadly change among the batches of Verna flours, whereas, usually, commercial blends are provided to bakeries with standard technological properties. Hence, these properties of Verna flour could lead to developed or overworked doughs and therefore to breads of worse quality. In addition, the previous mentioned large variability of flours from Verna can affect also the sourdough microbiota. For these reasons the composition and activity of the sourdough microorganisms should be controlled while the mixing process should be able to adapt to the different flour properties. Some works, in literature, report that monitoring the electrical consumption could provide useful information about the dough rheology, and this could be used to monitor the mixing step. In the present work the effect of different mixing times are evaluated on breads made with Verna flour type 2 leavened with sourdough. Tests were carried out at industrial scale in two different days. During the tests the electric consumption was monitored to highlight some features suitable for the mixing phase control. The breads were evaluated in terms of loaf volume measurement, crumb image analysis and losses of moisture content during

  6. Differentiation of Bread Made with Whole Grain and Refined Wheat (T. aestivum) Flour Using LC/MS-based chromatographic Fingerprinting and Chemometric Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fuzzy chromatography mass spectrometric (FCMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric analysis was established to diffrentiate between whole wheat (WW) flours and refined wheat (RW) flour, and the breads made from them. The chemical compositions of the bread samples were profiled using h...

  7. [Supplementation of wheat flour with chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour. I. Preparation of flours and their properties for bread making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuerola, F E; Estévez, A M; Castillo, E

    1987-06-01

    The feasibility of adding chick-pea flour substituting part of wheat flour in yeast-leavened bread-making in order to increase the protein value, was studied. A 70% extraction chick-pea flour of commercial granulometry (150 mu) was prepared. Wheat flours of 74% and 78% extraction were then blended with 5%, 10% and 15% of chick-pea flour. Every flour and blend were subsequently analyzed to determine protein, ash, fiber, fat and maltose content, as well as sedimentation, farinogram and bread-making. Addition of chick-pea flour increased protein, fiber, ash and fat content in the blends, not causing a severe effect on quality, even at the 15% level of substitution. Blends showed an increase in maltose content, W value and bread specific volume. Furthermore, breads prepared were of good quality even without the use of maturing agents.

  8. Study of improving the quality of bread and wheat-aegilops hybrids with the biotechnological ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganbarzada, Aygun; Hasanova, Sudaba

    2016-08-01

    The great need of the people to bread demands to increase high qualitative grain plants. At present time for solving these problem different methods of biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology are widely used in the process of selection. To investigate biochemical peculiarities of wheat-aegilops hybrids and to define the correlative relation between these characteristics. To investigate the technological peculiarities of wheat- aegilops hybrids and to define the relation between their main biochemical and technological characteristics. The conclusion of this investigation showed the followings- the wheat-aegilops hybrids according to their morphological and biochemical characteristics have approached to wheats. The electrophoretic spectres of the wheat- aegilops hybrids which have stable for their morphological characteristics are homogeny and heterogenic. Hereditarily some group protein components have passed to their tribes from their parents. But spontaneous hybridisation results in taking part the components of other unknown wheats in these electrophoretic spectres. There is a relation between the electrophoretic spectres and the indications of the grain quality.

  9. Effects of Low Temperature on Freezing Injury of Various Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Sowing Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Freezing injury is one of the major disasters for the production of winter wheat in the North China Plain, which leads to a significant decrease of wheat yield. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of subfreezing temperature on freezing injury of various winter wheat cultivars at different sowing time. Three wheat cultivars, including Zhengmai 9023, Wanmai 48 and Wanmai 50, were sowed on 25 September and 5 October, respectively. Plant anatomy was applied to investi- gate the impact of subfreezing temperature on cells of three wheat cultivars, results showed that severe plasmolysis occurred in wheat sowed earlier suddenly encoun- tered subfreezing temperature without cold acclimation, compared with wheat sowed at proper sowing time. The degree of plasmolysis of different cultivars and tissues of wheat had significant differences and showed positive correlation with subfreezing temperature. Wanmai 50 had the highest cold resistance compared with Zhengmai 9023 and Wanmai 48, and there was no significant difference between Zhengmai 9023 and Wanmai 48. This study concluded that wheat cold resistance may be im- proved by adopting proper cultivars and sowing dates.

  10. Rapid separation of seed gliadins by reversed-phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) and its application in wheat cultivar and germplasm identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Caixia; Lu, Xaiobing; Yu, Zitong; Li, Xiaohui; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    To separate gliadin from wheat flour, a novel and stability-indicating reversed-phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method is established and optimized. A comparative analysis of routine capillary electrophoresis (CE), reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and RP-UPLC was performed and the results showed that the resolution and efficiency of RP-UPLC were significantly higher than those of CE and RP-HPLC. Characteristic RP-UPLC patterns of different bread wheat variety and related species were readily identified. These results demonstrated that our RP-UPLC procedure resulted in significant improvements in sensitivity, speed, and resolution, and thus is highly useful in wheat cultivar and germplasm identification.

  11. Effect of brown rice flour fortification on the quality of wheat-based dough and flat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshgozaran-Abras, S; Azizi, M H; Bagheripoor-Fallah, N; Khodamoradi, A

    2014-10-01

    The objective of present study was to investigate the impact of Brown Rice flour (BR) incorporation, at three different levels of 5, 10 and 15 % to the Wheat Flour (WF) preparations on rheological properties of wheat-based dough and quality of wheat-based flat bread. The BR flour incorporation mainly affected the chemical properties of flours, the rheological characteristics of dough and, quality and shelf life of bread. The protein-related properties of flours principally experienced reduction; however, the ash content had an increase, along with BR flour incorporation. The rheological properties of dough were affected considerably by BR flour substitution, wherein the sample containing 5 % BR flour was closest to BR flour-free dough (control). Regarding the yielded bread, BR flour addition affirmatively affected sensorial properties and firmness quality evaluation, wherein the bread made from dough with composite flour fortified with 5 % BR flour was scored the best. The findings from instrumental firmness quality assessment were confirmed as the bread containing 5 % BR flour remained softer and demanded lowest force to be compressed over the storage period. Overall, results showed that adding BR flour up to 5 % can be used in baking of flat bread since it meets the required criteria.

  12. Effect of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat bread after storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo, Maria; Svanberg, Ulf; Ahrné, Lilia

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat (ratio 40:10:50) reference bread during storage. Added hydrocolloids were carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and high methoxyl pectin (HM pectin) at a 3% level (w/w) and/or the emulsifiers diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM), lecithin (LC), and monoglycerides (MG) at a 0.3% level (w/w). After 4 days of storage, composite breads with MG had comparatively lower crumb moisture while crumb density was similar in all breads. The reference bread crumb firmness was 33.4 N, which was reduced with an addition of DATEM (23.0 N), MG (29.8 N), CMC (24.6 N) or HM pectin (22.4 N). However, the CMC/DATEM, CMC/LC, and HM pectin/DATEM combinations further reduced crumb firmness to retrograded amylopectin was lower in composite bread with hydrocolloids and emulsifiers, 6.7-11.0 J/g compared to 20.0 J/g for the reference bread. These results show that emulsifiers in combination with hydrocolloids can improve the quality and extend the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat breads.

  13. Hard Winter Wheat and Flour Properties in Relation to Breadmaking Quality of Straight-dough Bread: Flour Particle Size and Bread Crumb Grain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S H Park; O K Chung; P A Seib

    2006-01-01

    Samples of 12 hard winter wheats and their flours that produced breads varying in crumb grain scores were studied for 38 quality parameters including: wheat physical and chemical characteristics; flour ash and protein contents, starch damage,swelling power, pasting characteristics, and flour particle size distribution; dough properties determined by a mixograph; and breadmaking properties for pup loaves (100g flour). Only two parameters, the protein content of wheat and the granulation of flour, showed significant correlations with bread crumb grain scores. Protein content of wheat ranging 12.9%~ 14.5% determined by an NIR method showed a weak inverse relationship (r =-0.61, p < 0.05) with bread crumb grain score. Flour particle size distribution measured by both Alpine Air Jet Sieve and NIR methods revealed that the weight wt % of particles less than 38μ m in size and representing 9.6%~ 19.3% of the flour weights was correlated positively (r =0.78, p < 0.01) with crumb grain score, whereas wt % of flour particles larger than 125μm had an inverse relationship (r =-0.60, p<0.05) with crumb grain score.

  14. Selenium content of wheat for bread making in Scotland and the relationship between glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) levels in whole blood and bread consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, M N; MacPherson, A

    1992-07-01

    The selenium content of the 1989 harvest of wheat used for bread making in Scotland ranged from 0.028 microgram/g dry weight for home-grown wheat to 0.518 microgram/g for Canadian wheat. The tonnage values indicate that 13.8% of the wheat used in bread making came from Canada. This reflects in a calculated dietary intake of 31 micrograms/d which is well below the recommended levels of 70 and 55 micrograms for adult males and females respectively (National Research Council, 1989). The average glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) level in 478 samples of human whole blood was 6.08 (SE 0.065) units/ml. This increased to 6.65 (SE 0.321) in sixty-two subjects consuming brown or wholemeal bread but was unaffected by oily fish consumption. Analysis of a small number of samples of whole milk, eggs and meat indicated slightly higher concentrations than previously published values but this trend was insufficient to compensate for the lower cereal provision of Se.

  15. Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Calasso, Maria; Campanella, Daniela; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-06-16

    This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, according to traditional protocols that are routinely used for making typical Italian breads. Based on kinetic of acidification and culture-dependent data, the wheat-legume sourdough was further characterized and selected for bread making. As determined by RAPD-PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene analyses, lactic acid bacteria in wheat-legume sourdough included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus coryneformis, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Two breads containing 15% (w/w) of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours were produced using selected wheat-legume sourdough (WLSB) and traditional wheat sourdough (WSB). Compared to wheat yeasted bread (WYB), the level of total free amino acids (FAA) was higher in WSB and WLSB. Phytase and antioxidant activities were the highest in WLSB. Compared to bread WYB, the addition of legume flours decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) (WYB versus WSB). However, the dough fermentation with WSLB favored an increase of IVPD. According to the levels of carbohydrates, dietary fibers and resistant starch, WSB and WLSB showed lower values of hydrolysis index (HI) compared to WYB. As showed by texture and image analyses and sensory evaluation of breads, a good acceptability was found for WSB and, especially, WLSB breads.

  16. EVALUATION OF QUALITY INDICATORS RELATED TO QUALITY BREAD WHEAT PROMISING LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Munyanyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bread waste is one of the important socio-economic's issues country now, the urgent need is feeling to improve the wheat quality. Therefore, using the methods of farming and breeding is necessary to improve the quality of this strategic product. As a result, tests of quality's traits in wheat promising lines in Isfahan climate took place. In this study, the choice 17 advanced lines of compare the performances,s experiments, an experiment was conducted for two consecutive cropping (2011-2012 at cultural experiment and research centre in Isfahan located in Kabutar Abad region. Randomized complete block designs with 3 replications were compared with Spring variety (for control. Traits including: 1000 grain weight, hectolitre weight, protein content, Zeleny sedimentation rate, bread volume, grain moisture content, grain hardness, water absorption, falling number, percentage of dry gluten, gluten index, sedimentation rates were SDS.The results of the combined analysis of variance qualitative characteristics,s for two consecutive cropping showed that treatments with compare together and control variety had significant influence in 1% probability.Correlation coefficients of two years showed that the compound test significant positive correlation within grain hardness index and protein content, wet gluten and dry deposition rates of SDS. Also, significant positive correlation with the percentage of protein content of dry gluten. In view of the high correlation with protein content of dry gluten (quantity. However, grain hardness and relatively high correlation with SDS sedimentation as an important measure of protein quality. Therefore, the test results of dry gluten grains can be tough to choose in order to improve the quality of wheat bread may be used.

  17. Evaluation of Yield and Quality Traits of Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seydi Aydoğan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine grain yield and some quality traits of 18 bread wheat varieties in dry conditions and location in the center of Konya in 2009-2010 growing seasons. Grain yield and some quality characteristics (protein content, zeleny sedimentation, gluten index, alveograph energy value, alveograph P/L, mixograph development time, mixograph peak height, and mixograph softening value and mixograph total area were examined. According to the results including means ranged between; grain yield 331.85-749.05 kg/da, Protein content 12.62-15.23%, gluten index value of 41.81-98.19%, zeleny sedimentation value 27.00-51.50 ml, alveograph energy 59.70-235.43 10-4 Joules alveograph P/L 0.38 to 1.29, micsograph development time 1.44-4.95 min., mixograph peak height, 42.46-60.67%, mixograph right peak slope 10.13-45.52%, mixograph total area 239.12-322.28% Tq*dak, was found. The experiment has been found significant correlations between traits.

  18. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Rotkiewicz, Daniela; Piętak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough. PMID:27904407

  19. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tańska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough.

  20. Introgression of a leaf rust resistance gene from Aegilops caudata to bread wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amandeep Kaur Riar; Satinder Kaur; H. S. Dhaliwal; Kuldeep Singh; Parveen Chhuneja

    2012-08-01

    Rusts are the most important biotic constraints limiting wheat productivity worldwide. Deployment of cultivars with broad spectrum rust resistance is the only environmentally viable option to combat these diseases. Identification and introgression of novel sources of resistance is a continuous process to combat the ever evolving pathogens. The germplasm of nonprogenitor Aegilops species with substantial amount of variability has been exploited to a limited extent. In the present investigation introgression, inheritance and molecular mapping of a leaf rust resistance gene of Ae. caudata (CC) acc. pau3556 in cultivated wheat were undertaken. An F2 population derived from the cross of Triticum aestivum cv.WL711 – Ae. caudata introgression line T291-2 with wheat cultivar PBW343 segregated for a single dominant leaf rust resistance gene at the seedling and adult plant stages. Progeny testing in F3 confirmed the introgression of a single gene for leaf rust resistance. Bulked segregant analysis using polymorphic D-genome-specific SSR markers and the cosegregation of the 5DS anchored markers (Xcfd18, Xcfd78, Xfd81 and Xcfd189) with the rust resistance in the F2 population mapped the leaf rust resistance gene (LrAC) on the short arm of wheat chromosome 5D. Genetic complementation and the linked molecular markers revealed that LrAC is a novel homoeoallele of an orthologue Lr57 already introgressed from the 5M chromosome of Ae. geniculata on 5DS of wheat.

  1. Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Andersen, Sven Bode; DeMartini, J.;

    2012-01-01

    -plate technique. This technique enabled us to estimate cultivar-related and environmental correlations between sugar yield, chemical composition, agronomic qualities, and distribution of botanical plant parts of wheat straw cultivars. Straws from 20 cultivars were collected in duplicates on two sites in Denmark......Optimizing cellulosic ethanol yield depends strongly on understanding the biological variation of feedstocks. Our objective was to study variation in capacity for producing fermentable sugars from straw of winter wheat cultivars with a high-throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis well...... suggest that selection of cultivars for improved biofuel feedstock of wheat straw is possible, because heritability of sugar release is 57% and there are few adverse correlations to other agronomic traits....

  2. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappi, Jenni; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa; de Vos, Willem M; Salonen, Anne

    2013-05-01

    Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the microbiota composition in Finnish individuals aged 60 ± 6 y with metabolic syndrome. Fecal samples from 51 participants (25 males, 26 females) before and after the intervention were processed for the microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reactions targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The intake of whole grains calculated from food records was higher in the group consuming rye breads (75 g) than in that consuming refined wheat breads (4 g; P fasting plasma alkylrecorsinol concentrations, a biomarker of whole grain intake. The intestinal microbiota composition did not significantly differ between the groups after the intervention. However, we detected a 37% decrease of Bacteroidetes (P microbiota composition in participants with metabolic syndrome and suggest that the dietary influence on the microbiota involves other dietary components such as fat.

  3. Effect of Salt Stress on Grain Reserve Composition in Ten Durum Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Kahrizi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Saline soils are defined as those that contain sufficient soluble salts in the root zone to impair plant growth. Wheat is one of the three major cereals dominating world agriculture to date. Durum wheat is the hardest wheat and the concept of durum wheat quality is complex and confusing. Quality factors such as protein content, gluten strength and color have different priorities in various durum wheat markets. Changes in the grain quality of ten durum wheat cultivars under salt stress studied at the greenhouse condition. A factorial experiment was carried out based on completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments were salinity including 0, 60 and 120 mM and ten durum wheat cultivars (Boomer, PGS, 71135, 61130,605, C1351, KND, KDM, Haurani and G1252. Biochemical grain reserves such total protein and carbohydrate content, gluten, phosphorous and beta carotene were measured. Results showed that interaction of salt and cultivars was significant for all studied traits except of beta-carotene. At this experiment, gluten content changed very little with salinity levels. Cultivar 71135 at all salinity levels had the highest gluten content. With increasing of salt severity, the content of protein and carbohydrate decreased and content of phosphorous increased compared with control. In 60 mM salinity, cultivars 61130 and 71135, in 120 mM, 71135 and KDM and in control, 61130 and PGS respectively, had the highest and lowest content of protein. Cultivars 71135 and 61130 had the highest and PGS had the lowest phosphorous content in control. At 60 mM, cultivars 71135 and PGS respectively, had the highest and lowest phosphorous content. At 120mM, 71135 and Haurani respectively, had the highest and lowest phosphorous content. In three salt levels, cultivar 71135 was determined as the most tolerant cultivar according to content of grain reserve composition results.

  4. The environmental impact of fertilizer embodied in a wheat-to-bread supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goucher, Liam; Bruce, Richard; Cameron, Duncan D; Lenny Koh, S C; Horton, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Food production and consumption cause approximately one-third of total greenhouse gas emissions(1-3), and therefore delivering food security challenges not only the capacity of our agricultural system, but also its environmental sustainability(4-7). Knowing where and at what level environmental impacts occur within particular food supply chains is necessary if farmers, agri-food industries and consumers are to share responsibility to mitigate these impacts(7,8). Here we present an analysis of a complete supply chain for a staple of the global diet, a loaf of bread. We obtained primary data for all the processes involved in the farming, production and transport systems that lead to the manufacture of a particular brand of 800 g loaf. The data were analysed using an advanced life cycle assessment (LCA) tool(9), yielding metrics of environmental impact, including greenhouse gas emissions. We show that more than half of the environmental impact of producing the loaf of bread arises directly from wheat cultivation, with the use of ammonium nitrate fertilizer alone accounting for around 40%. These findings reveal the dependency of bread production on the unsustainable use of fertilizer and illustrate the detail needed if the actors in the supply chain are to assume shared responsibility for achieving sustainable food production.

  5. The relationship between grain hardness, dough mixing parameters and bread-making quality in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Adamski, Tadeusz; Surma, Maria; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Karolina, Krystkowiak; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Banaszak, Zofia; Lugowska, Bogusława; Majcher, Małgorzata; Obuchowski, Wiktor

    2012-01-01

    The influence of grain hardness, determined by using molecular markers and physical methods (near-infrared (NIR) technique and particle size index-PSI) on dough characteristics, which in turn were determined with the use of a farinograph and reomixer, as well as bread-making properties were studied. The material covered 24 winter wheat genotypes differing in grain hardness. The field experiment was conducted at standard and increased levels of nitrogen fertilization. Results of molecular analyses were in agreement with those obtained by the use of physical methods for soft-grained lines. Some lines classified as hard (by physical methods) appeared to have the wild-type Pina and Pinb alleles, similar to soft lines. Differences in dough and bread-making properties between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of molecular data appeared to be of less significance than the differences between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of physical analyses of grain texture. Values of relative grain hardness at the increased nitrogen fertilization level were significantly higher. At both fertilization levels the NIR parameter determining grain hardness was significantly positively correlated with the wet gluten and sedimentation values, with most of the rheological parameters and bread yield. Values of this parameter correlated with quality characteristics in a higher degree than values of particle size index.

  6. The Relationship Between Grain Hardness, Dough Mixing Parameters and Bread-Making Quality in Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Surma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of grain hardness, determined by using molecular markers and physical methods (near-infrared (NIR technique and particle size index—PSI on dough characteristics, which in turn were determined with the use of a farinograph and reomixer, as well as bread-making properties were studied. The material covered 24 winter wheat genotypes differing in grain hardness. The field experiment was conducted at standard and increased levels of nitrogen fertilization. Results of molecular analyses were in agreement with those obtained by the use of physical methods for soft-grained lines. Some lines classified as hard (by physical methods appeared to have the wild-type Pina and Pinb alleles, similar to soft lines. Differences in dough and bread-making properties between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of molecular data appeared to be of less significance than the differences between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of physical analyses of grain texture. Values of relative grain hardness at the increased nitrogen fertilization level were significantly higher. At both fertilization levels the NIR parameter determining grain hardness was significantly positively correlated with the wet gluten and sedimentation values, with most of the rheological parameters and bread yield. Values of this parameter correlated with quality characteristics in a higher degree than values of particle size index.

  7. Tissue Nitrogen and Fructan Translocation in Bread Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU You-liang; L.O'Brien; ZHONG Gai-rong

    2002-01-01

    Translocation of previously accumulated nitrogen and carbohydrates from vegetative tissue of the wheat plant is a major assimilate source for grain filling. This study was conducted to examine genotype differences in nitrogen and fructan translocation and their relationships to grain yield and protein content. Effects indicated that significant genotype differences existed for nitrogen accumulation at anthesis and fructan at milk stage and their translocation. Two high protein genotypes, Cunningham and PST90-19, accumulated more nitrogen before anthesis and had greater nitrogen translocation, but lower post-anthesis nitrogen uptake,than two low protein genotypes, SUN109A and TM56. Among plant parts, leaves were the major storage for tissue nitrogen and provided the overwhelming proportion of the total nitrogen translocation, whereas for fructan accumulation and translocation it was the stems. The two high protein genotypes had a higher percentage of their grain nitrogen derived from nitrogen translocation, while for the two low protein ones, it was from postanthesis nitrogen uptake and assimilation. Increasing nitrogen application increased nitrogen accumulation and translocation, but decreased fructan accumulation and translocation. High grain protein content was associated with high nitrogen translocation from leaves, stems and the total plant, while high grain yield was related to high fructan translocation from stems and the total plant. Fructan translocation was negatively correlated to grain protein content. Nitrogen and fructan translocation were not correlated with each other.

  8. Effect of lactic acid fermentation of lupine wholemeal on acrylamide content and quality characteristics of wheat-lupine bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, Elena; Jakobsone, Ida; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2013-11-01

    The effect of supplementing wheat flour at a level of 15% with lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) wholemeal fermented by different lactic acid bacteria on acrylamide content in bread crumb as well as on bread texture and sensory characteristics was analysed. The use of fermented lupine resulted in a lower specific volume and crumb porosity of bread on an average by 14.1% and 10.5%, respectively, while untreated lupine lowered the latter parameters at a higher level (30.8% and 20.7%, respectively). The addition of lupine resulted in a higher by 43.3% acrylamide content compared to wheat bread (19.4 µg/kg dry weight (d.w.)). Results showed that acrylamide was significantly reduced using proteolytic Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus pentosaceus 10 strains for lupine fermentation. Although the bread supplemented with lupine spontaneous sourdough had the lowest level of acrylamide (15.6 µg/kg d.w.), it had the malodorous flavour and was unacceptable to the consumers. The lactofermentation could increase the potential use of lupine as a food ingredient while reducing acrylamide formation and enriching bread with high quality proteins.

  9. The Na+ transporter, TaHKT1;5-D, limits shoot Na+ accumulation in bread wheat

    KAUST Repository

    Byrt, Caitlin Siobhan

    2014-10-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a major salt tolerance locus, Kna1, responsible for the maintenance of a high cytosolic K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves of salt stressed plants. The Kna1 locus encompasses a large DNA fragment, the distal 14% of chromosome 4DL. Limited recombination has been observed at this locus making it difficult to map genetically and identify the causal gene. Here, we decipher the function of TaHKT1;5-D, a candidate gene underlying the Kna1 locus. Transport studies using the heterologous expression systems Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is a Na+-selective transporter. Transient expression in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and in situ polymerase chain reaction indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is localised on the plasma membrane in the wheat root stele. RNA interference-induced silencing decreased the expression of TaHKT1;5-D in transgenic bread wheat lines which led to an increase in the Na+ concentration in the leaves. This indicates that TaHKT1;5-D retrieves Na+ from the xylem vessels in the root and has an important role in restricting the transport of Na+ from the root to the leaves in bread wheat. Thus, TaHKT1;5-D confers the essential salinity tolerance mechanism in bread wheat associated with the Kna1 locus via shoot Na+ exclusion and is critical in maintaining a high K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves. These findings show there is potential to increase the salinity tolerance of bread wheat by manipulation of HKT1;5 genes.

  10. Phytase activity of lactic acid bacteria and their impact on the solubility of minerals from wholemeal wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizeikiene, Dalia; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Bartkiene, Elena; Damasius, Jonas; Paskevicius, Algimantas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determinate phytase activity of bacteriocins producing lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from spontaneous rye sourdough. The results show that the highest extracellular phytase activity produces Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-8 and KTU05-9 strains with a volumetric phytase activity of 32 and 54 U/ml, respectively, under conditions similar to leavening of bread dough (pH 5.5 and 30 °C). In vitro studies in simulated gastrointestinal tract media pH provide that bioproducts prepared with P. pentosaceus strains used in wholemeal wheat bread preparation increase solubility of iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and phosphorus average 30%. Therefore, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9 and KTU05-8 strains could be recommended to use as a starter for sourdough preparation for increasing of mineral bioavailability from wholemeal wheat bread.

  11. RP-HPLC and chemometrics for wheat flour protein characterisation in an industrial bread-making process monitoring context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Vigni, Mario; Baschieri, Carlo; Marchetti, Andrea; Cocchi, Marina

    2013-08-15

    In the baking industry, a difficult task is to keep the quality perceived by the consumer as constant as possible, given the inner variability of flour, e.g. due to different wheat mixtures, harvesting time, etc. Here, we evaluated the influence of flour batches properties on bread quality, considering an industrial bread making process. In particular, flour composition in terms of protein fractions (gliadins, glutenins) has been determined by means of RP-HPLC, to assess the inter- and intra-batch variability of flour mixtures deliveries at a baking plant. Multivariate data analysis allowed evaluation of correlation between flour protein composition and technological properties. A great variability within different deliveries of a same flour batch emerged, as well as a considerable seasonal variability. Correlation models among protein sub-fractions, technological properties and bread quality are difficult to establish; however, the role of the protein profile on flour behaviour in bread making could be highlighted.

  12. Chromosome Specific Substitution Lines of Aegilops geniculata Alter Parameters of Bread Making Quality of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Gupta, Raj Kumar; Kumar, Aman; Kaur, Navneet; Kumar, Rohit; Chunduri, Venkatesh; Sharma, Nand Kishor; Chawla, Meenakshi; Sharma, Saloni; Mundey, Jaspreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Wheat cultivars with wide introgression have strongly impacted global wheat production. Aegilops geniculata (MgUg) is an important wild relative with several useful traits that can be exploited for wheat improvement. Screening of Ae. geniculata addition lines indicated a negative effect of 1Ug and the positive effect of 1Mg chromosome on wheat dough strength. Negative effect of 1Ug is probably associated with variation in number and position of the tripeptide repeat motif in the high molecular weight glutenin (HMW-G) gene. To utilize the positive potential of 1Mg chromosome, three disomic substitution lines (DSLs) 1Mg(1A), 1Mg(1B) and 1Mg(1D) were created. These lines were characterized for morphological, cytogenetic properties and biochemical signatures using FISH, 1D-, 2D-PAGE and RP-HPLC. Contribution of wheat 1A, 1B and 1D chromosomes towards dough mixing and baking parameters, chapatti quality, Fe/Zn content and glume color were identified. Observed order of variation in the dough mixing and baking parameters {1Mg(1D) ≤wheat ≤1Mg(1B) ≤1Mg(1A)} indicated that chromosome specific introgression is desirable for best utilization of wild species’ potential. PMID:27755540

  13. Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain…

  14. The effect of particle size of wheat bran fractions on bread quality - Evidence for fibre-protein interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.J.; Haaster, D. van; Hemery, Y.; Schols, H.A.; Hamer, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the adverse effects of wheat bran fractions on bread-making quality was studied. Two fractions of bran, representing different tissue layers and having different compositions, were used. The particle size of the bran fractions was varied by various milling techniques. All fractions wer

  15. Thermo-mechanic and sensory properties of wheat and rye breads produced with varying concentration of the additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different concentrations of the complex additive containing emulsifiers, oxido-reductive substances and enzymes, on the rheological conditions of dough, and on the sensory properties of three groups of bread were investigated. The best initial quality and the lowest degree of protein network weakening had the dough obtained from mixed wheat and rye flours. The best expected baking properties were shown by the white wheat flour due to the least damage of its starch. The use of the additive has an effect on the absorption of water and on the majority of C-values of all sorts of flour. The amount of additive had a significant effect on the sensory properties of wheat bread crumb texture. Also, storage duration significantly affected (p <0.01 the sensory properties of integral wheat bread aroma-taste and the weighted mean score. The interaction of these two factors had no significant effect on any of sensory properties of the investigated groups of bread.

  16. Effect of bioprocessing of wheat bran in wholemeal wheat breads on the colonic SCFA production in vitro and postprandial plasma concentrations in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Nuria Mateo; Havenaar, Robert; Vaes, Wouter; Coulier, Leon; Venema, Koen; Selinheimo, Emilia; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2011-09-15

    The health benefits of whole grain consumption can be partly attributed to the inclusion of the bran or outer-layers of the grain rich in dietary fibre. Fibre is fermented in the colon, leading to the production of beneficial metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). The effect of five different types of bread on the SCFA production was studied in an in vitro model of human colon. Additionally, the postprandial effects of two selected breads on the SCFA plasma concentrations were investigated in men. A higher in vitro production of butyrate was induced by wholemeal wheat bread with bioprocessed bran than by native bran. The increase in butyrate seemed to be in exchange for propionate, whilst the total SCFA production remained similar. However, differences between the two breads in the postprandial butyrate concentrations could not be detected in peripheral blood of men, probably due to an effective utilisation by colonocytes.

  17. Reduced-gliadin wheat bread: an alternative to the gluten-free diet for consumers suffering gluten-related pathologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gil-Humanes

    Full Text Available Wheat flour cannot be tolerated by those who suffer allergies to gluten. Human pathologies associated with grain proteins have increased worldwide in recent years, and the only effective treatment available is a lifelong gluten-free diet, which is complicated to follow and detrimental to gut health. This manuscript describes the development of wheat bread potentially suitable for celiac patients and other gluten-intolerant individuals. We have made bread using wheat flour with very low content of the specific gluten proteins (near gliadin-free that are the causal agents for pathologies such as celiac disease. Loaves were compared with normal wheat breads and rice bread. Organoleptic, nutritional, and immunotoxic properties were studied. The reduced-gliadin breads showed baking and sensory properties, and overall acceptance, similar to those of normal flour, but with up to 97% lower gliadin content. Moreover, the low-gliadin flour has improved nutritional properties since its lysine content is significantly higher than that of normal flour. Conservative estimates indicate that celiac patients could safely consume 67 grams of bread per day that is made with low-gliadin flour. However, additional studies, such as feeding trials with gluten-intolerant patients, are still needed in order to determine whether or not the product can be consumed by the general celiac population, as well as the actual tolerated amount that can be safely ingested. The results presented here offer a major opportunity to improve the quality of life for millions of sufferers of gluten intolerance throughout the world.

  18. Molecular Screening and Resistance Evaluation of American Wheat Cultivars to Chinese Stripe Rust Races

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yu-lu; ZHANG Chun-yu; SUN Quan; LIN Feng; CUI Na; XU Shi-chang; GAO Yang; XU Xiao-dan

    2010-01-01

    Stripe rust,caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp.tritici,is one of the major diseases of wheat in China.In order to asses the resistance levels and existing Yr genes among 59 wheat cultivars (lines) from the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States,to provide resistance resources for genetic improvement of wheat stripe rust resistance in China,59 wheat cultivars (lines) from PNW of the United States were infected by 3 mixed races of predominant Chinese stripe rust races CRY31,CRY32,and CRY33 to evaluate their resistance at seedling and adult plant stages,and screened with molecular markers tightly linked to currently effective all-stage resistance genes Yr10,Yr15 and adult plant resistance genes Yr18,Yr39.Of 59 American cultivars (lines),five cultivars (lines),Expresso,02W50076,ACS52610,WA008012,and WA00801833,had all-stage resistance,showing resistance to mixed races of CRY31,CRY32,and CRY33 at both seedling and adult plant stages.33 cultivars (lines) had adult plant resistance,only showing resistance to stripe rust at adult stage.Based on the molecular screening,none of the 59 PNW cultivars (lines) had the polymorphic bands of linked markers to Yr10.There were 12,33 and 29 cultivars (lines) which had polymorphic bands of linked markers to Yr15,Yr18 and Yr39,accounting for 20,55 and 49% of the 59 PNW cultivars (lines),respectively.All these results suggested that Yr15,Yr18 and Yr39 were widespread among PNW cultivars (cultivars) and could be utilized in Chinese wheat stripe rust resistance breeding.

  19. Simulation of Wheat Cultivar Response to Irrigation Treatments using of CERES-Wheat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh M. Fakhr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Crop models are used as tools for enhancing agricultural research through the identification of gaps in knowledge as well as by providing support for decision making in agricultural planning. Approach: In order to evaluation of CERES-Wheat model on five cultivars of winter wheat under Karaj weather condition in Full Irrigation (FI and Terminal Irrigation at Flowering (TIF an experiment conducted in form of split plot in based on randomize complete block design with four replicate in research field Islamic Azad university of Karaj branch in 2009. Results: Two irrigation levels located in main plot and cultivars as sub plot. In this study simulation of some traits such Grain Yield (GY, Leaf Dry Weight (LDW, Plant Height (PH, Biomass (B, Leaf Number per plant (LN and Leaf Area Index (LAI evaluated by use of CERES-Wheat model. According to simulation results, model was successful in simulation of traits whole under two irrigation treatments. Rate of R2 was low in regression curve of measured versus simulated for traits of LAI and LDW. Model simulated GY with high vigor for both irrigation conditions. Conclusion/Recommendations: Variation dimension of R2 in FI and SI obtained 80.89-80.91 and 80.88-81.01, respectively. The variation dimension of Wilmot coefficient (d FI and TIF is 0.73-0.75 and 0.61-0.72, respectively. Simulation precise in TIF is lower than FI. We can after evaluation and calibration model by means of experimental replication and reduce of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE as a result used for research objective management programming in Karaj zones. We proposed for increasing predicting precise by model must be determinate genetic coefficient correctly and soil data and weather data supplied in experimental filed.

  20. Can an increase in celiac disease be attributed to an increase in the gluten content of wheat as a consequence of wheat breading? A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to assess the possibility that wheat breeding has been responsible for an increase in the gluten content of U.S. wheat cultivars and thereby responsible for an increase in the incidence of celiac disease, the available data from the 20th century has been analyzed. Although much of the infor...

  1. A high-density, SNP-based consensus map of tetraploid wheat as a bridge to integrate durum and bread wheat genomics and breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consensus linkage maps are important tools in crop genomics. We have assembled a high-density tetraploid wheat consensus map by integrating 13 datasets from independent biparental populations involving durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), cultivated emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum...

  2. The effect of different levels of wheat bran on iron absorption in rats from bread containing similar amounts of phytate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather-Tait, S J

    1982-03-01

    1. Iron absorption was studied in weanling rats using balance techniques from semi-synthetic diets containing dried white bread (60.5 g dietary fibre/kg. White & Southgate, unpublished results), brown bread (130.2 g dietary fibre/kg) or wholemeal bread (221.2 g dietary fibre/kg) at a level of 300 g/kg and compared with a control group given a diet containing added FeSO4 at a similar Fe level to that for the bread groups. The dried bread contained 6.2-6.4 g phytate/kg. 2. Absorption of Fe was significantly higher (P less than 0.001) in the control group (0.45) than in the White (0.28), brown (0.31) or wholemeal (0.24) groups. 3. A second experiment was carried out on 6-week-old rats in which the dried bread was extrinsically labelled with 59Fe and absorption from a single meal measured by both faecal excretion and incorporation of 59Fe into the blood. Control animals were given 59FeSO4 for comparison. 4. The excretion of 59Fe (% of administered dose) was significantly lower (P less than 0.001) in the control group (31) than in the white (48), brown (45) or wholemeal (47) groups. After 10 d the control group had significantly more 59Fe in the blood than the bread groups, but there were no differences between the bread groups. 5. It appears that wheat bran fibre itself has no effect on the retention of Fe from the diet in the rat, when supplied in amounts similar to those found in commercially-available bread.

  3. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-02-17

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05).

  4. Restoration of thiamine status with white or whole wheat bread in a thiamine-depleted rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batifoulier, F; Verny, M A; Besson, C; Chanliaud, E; Rémésy, C; Demigné, C

    2007-01-01

    Long-term thiamine deficiency has been largely documented, whilst little is known about effects of short-term depletion/repletion periods on thiamine vitamers status. Rats were submitted to short-term depletion (8 days) followed by different durations of repletion (3 or 14 days) with thiamine from bread (whole wheat bread or white bread, whole B and white B respectively) or corresponding controls. Short-term depletion drastically decreased plasma thiamine (-97%) and its urinary excretion (-77%). TDP (thiamine diphosphate) was strongly affected in liver (-67%) but less affected in cerebellum (-38%) or kidneys (-45%). Short-term repletion (3 days) with whole B diet or its control restored TDP at initial values in cerebellum and kidneys. A longer repletion (14 days) was required to restore liver TDP. Comparison of the diet groups indicates that thiamine status in tissues of rat fed whole B or white B diet was comparable to that of rats fed purified thiamine. Plasma thiamine concentration could not be restored at initial values in the bread groups or respective controls. In conclusion, thiamine in whole wheat bread appears effective in preventing marginal deficiencies and plasma thiamine is a less reliable indicator of thiamine status than tissue TDP levels.

  5. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio A. Chávez-Santoscoy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29 was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05.

  6. Genotype x Environment interaction for antioxidants and phytic acid contents in bread and durum wheat as influenced by climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Brankovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants prevent oxidative stress and exert positive health effects. However, phytic acid among them decreases micronutrients absorption, representing also antinutrient to human and non-ruminant animals. Fifteen bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and 15 durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. genotypes were evaluated across six environments to determine contents of phytic acid (PA, inorganic P (Pi, total yellow pigment, total soluble phenolic compounds, free protein sulfhydryl groups (PSH, and also phytic acid P/Pi (Pp/Pi. The objective of this study was to quantify, for each trait the effects of environment, genotype, and their interaction; and the influence of climatic factors on the Genotype x Environment interaction (GEI by the use of the factorial regression. GEI (P < 0.001 prevailed as source of variation over genotype (P < 0.001 in determining PA content in bread and durum wheat (44.3% and 34.7% of sum of squares-SS, respectively, PSH content in bread and durum wheat (27% and 28.4% of SS, respectively and total soluble phenolic compounds content in durum wheat (35.5% of SS. The major contribution to the GEI represented climatic variables during stages of stem elongation for PA and phenolic compounds, and also flowering, fertilization, grain formation and grain filling for PSH. Total yellow pigment and Pi contents in bread and durum wheat were predominantly determined by genotype (P < 0.001. Models of climatic variables proved to be efficient in the explanation of more than 92% of the SS of GEI for PA and antioxidants contents.

  7. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WHEAT CULTIVARS IN GRAIN PARAMETERS RELATED TO ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mikulíková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain samples from sixteen winter cultivars originated from four localities were evaluated and compared in traits related to ethanol production as grain yield, grain hardness, content of protein, starch and amylose, and α-amylase activity. Results obtained indicate significant differences between cultivars in amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness compared to grain yield, protein content, and starch content where differences were not significant. The amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness were affected by cultivar. Both testing methods for starch fermentation - separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF revealed difference between cultivars in ethanol yield.

  8. Phenotyping of wheat cultivars for heat tolerance using chlorophyll a fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Svend Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2012-01-01

    on a physiological trait, the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm). A chlorophyll fluorescence protocol was standardised and used for repeated screening with increased selection pressure with a view to identifying a set of cultivars extreme for the trait. An initial mass screening of 1274 wheat cultivars...... with an increased genetic component (15.43.6%), which was further increased to 27.96.8% in the third screening with 41 contrasting cultivars. This contrasting set of cultivars was then used to compare the ability of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters to detect genetic difference in heat tolerance...

  9. Comparison of homo- and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria for implementation of fermented wheat bran in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prückler, Michael; Lorenz, Cindy; Endo, Akihito; Kraler, Manuel; Dürrschmid, Klaus; Hendriks, Karel; Soares da Silva, Francisco; Auterith, Eric; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Michlmayr, Herbert

    2015-08-01

    Despite its potential health benefits, the integration of wheat bran into the food sector is difficult due to several adverse technological and sensory properties such as bitterness and grittiness. Sourdough fermentation is a promising strategy to improve the sensory quality of bran without inducing severe changes to the bran matrix. Therefore, identification of species/strains with potential for industrial sourdough fermentations is important. We compared the effects of different representatives of species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on wheat bran. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Fructobacillus fructosus produced highly individual fermentation patterns as judged from carbohydrate consumption and organic acid production. Interestingly, fructose was released during all bran fermentations and possibly influenced the fermentation profiles of obligately heterofermentative species to varying degrees. Except for the reduction of ferulic acid by L. plantarum and L. pentosus, analyses of phenolic compounds and alkylresorcinols suggested that only minor changes thereof were induced by the LAB metabolism. Sensory analysis of breads baked with fermented bran did not reveal significant differences regarding perceived bitterness and aftertaste. We conclude that in addition to more traditionally used sourdough species such as L. sanfranciscensis and L. brevis, also facultatively heterofermentative species such as L. plantarum and L. pentosus possess potential for industrial wheat bran fermentations and should be considered in further investigations.

  10. Efficient DNA-free genome editing of bread wheat using CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhen; Chen, Kunling; Li, Tingdong; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Yanpeng; Zhao, Qian; Liu, Jinxing; Zhang, Huawei; Liu, Cuimin; Ran, Yidong; Gao, Caixia

    2017-01-01

    Substantial efforts are being made to optimize the CRISPR/Cas9 system for precision crop breeding. The avoidance of transgene integration and reduction of off-target mutations are the most important targets for optimization. Here, we describe an efficient genome editing method for bread wheat using CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). Starting from RNP preparation, the whole protocol takes only seven to nine weeks, with four to five independent mutants produced from 100 immature wheat embryos. Deep sequencing reveals that the chance of off-target mutations in wheat cells is much lower in RNP mediated genome editing than in editing with CRISPR/Cas9 DNA. Consistent with this finding, no off-target mutations are detected in the mutant plants. Because no foreign DNA is used in CRISPR/Cas9 RNP mediated genome editing, the mutants obtained are completely transgene free. This method may be widely applicable for producing genome edited crop plants and has a good prospect of being commercialized. PMID:28098143

  11. Genetic analyses using GGE model and a mixed linear model approach, and stability analyses using AMMI bi-plot for late-maturity alpha-amylase activity in bread wheat genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Golam; Glover, Karl D; Krishnan, Padmanaban G; Wu, Jixiang; Berzonsky, William A; Fofana, Bourlaye

    2017-03-17

    Low falling number and discounting grain when it is downgraded in class are the consequences of excessive late-maturity α-amylase activity (LMAA) in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Grain expressing high LMAA produces poorer quality bread products. To effectively breed for low LMAA, it is necessary to understand what genes control it and how they are expressed, particularly when genotypes are grown in different environments. In this study, an International Collection (IC) of 18 spring wheat genotypes and another set of 15 spring wheat cultivars adapted to South Dakota (SD), USA were assessed to characterize the genetic component of LMAA over 5 and 13 environments, respectively. The data were analysed using a GGE model with a mixed linear model approach and stability analysis was presented using an AMMI bi-plot on R software. All estimated variance components and their proportions to the total phenotypic variance were highly significant for both sets of genotypes, which were validated by the AMMI model analysis. Broad-sense heritability for LMAA was higher in SD adapted cultivars (53%) compared to that in IC (49%). Significant genetic effects and stability analyses showed some genotypes, e.g. 'Lancer', 'Chester' and 'LoSprout' from IC, and 'Alsen', 'Traverse' and 'Forefront' from SD cultivars could be used as parents to develop new cultivars expressing low levels of LMAA. Stability analysis using an AMMI bi-plot revealed that 'Chester', 'Lancer' and 'Advance' were the most stable across environments, while in contrast, 'Kinsman', 'Lerma52' and 'Traverse' exhibited the lowest stability for LMAA across environments.

  12. BREAD CRUMBS TEXTURE OF SPELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk – Szabó

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Texture analysis is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of bread crumb is important not only for quality assurance in the bakeries, but also for assessing the effects of changes in dough ingredients and processing condition and also for describing the changes in bread crumb during storage. Crumb cellular structure is an important quality criterion used in commercial baking and research laboratories to judge bread quality alongside taste, crumb colour and crumb physical texture. In the framework of our research during the years 2010 – 2011 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Altgold, Rubiota and Ostro grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Altgold and Ostro were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.65++, -0.66++. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  13. Improvement of Fatty Acid Profile and Studio of Rheological and Technological Characteristics in Breads Supplemented with Flaxseed, Soybean, and Wheat Bran Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana B. Osuna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional breads constitute an interesting alternative as vehicle of new essential fatty acids sources. The aim of this study was to improve the fatty acids (FA profile of bakery products, producing breads with low saturated fatty acid (SFA content and with high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content, through partial substitution of wheat flour by other ingredients (soy flour, flax flour, and wheat bran and to analyze the effect of this change on the technological, rheological, and sensorial characteristics of breads. Flaxseed flour (FF, soybeans flour (SF, or wheat bran (WB was used to replace 50, 100, and 150 g kg−1 of wheat flour (WF in breads. FF or SF produced a decrease in monounsaturated and SFA and an increase of PUFA in these breads. Furthermore, breads replaced with FF presented considerable increase in the content of n3 FA, while, SF or WB contributed to rise of linoleic and oleic FA, respectively. The substitution percentage increase of FF, SF, or WB to formulation produced changes in the colour, rheological, textural, and technological characteristics of breads. This replacement resulted in improved lipid profile, being breads with 50 g kg−1 SF, the better acceptance, baking features, and enhanced fatty acid profile.

  14. Improvement of Fatty Acid Profile and Studio of Rheological and Technological Characteristics in Breads Supplemented with Flaxseed, Soybean, and Wheat Bran Flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, Mariana B.; Judis, María A.; Romero, Ana M.; Avallone, Carmen M.; Bertola, Nora C.

    2014-01-01

    Functional breads constitute an interesting alternative as vehicle of new essential fatty acids sources. The aim of this study was to improve the fatty acids (FA) profile of bakery products, producing breads with low saturated fatty acid (SFA) content and with high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content, through partial substitution of wheat flour by other ingredients (soy flour, flax flour, and wheat bran) and to analyze the effect of this change on the technological, rheological, and sensorial characteristics of breads. Flaxseed flour (FF), soybeans flour (SF), or wheat bran (WB) was used to replace 50, 100, and 150 g kg−1 of wheat flour (WF) in breads. FF or SF produced a decrease in monounsaturated and SFA and an increase of PUFA in these breads. Furthermore, breads replaced with FF presented considerable increase in the content of n3 FA, while, SF or WB contributed to rise of linoleic and oleic FA, respectively. The substitution percentage increase of FF, SF, or WB to formulation produced changes in the colour, rheological, textural, and technological characteristics of breads. This replacement resulted in improved lipid profile, being breads with 50 g kg−1 SF, the better acceptance, baking features, and enhanced fatty acid profile. PMID:25478592

  15. Postulation of seedling leaf rust resistance genes in 84 Chinese winter wheat cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Xiao-li; LIU Tai-guo; LIU Bo; GAO Li; CHEN Wan-quan

    2015-01-01

    Wheat leaf rust (caused byPuccinia triticina) is one of the most important fungal diseases in China. There are tens of winter wheat cultivars which are approved to be released by the government at a national level and more than 100 wheat cultivars at the provincial level. But there is no information about leaf rust (Lr) genes in these cultivars, which makes it dififcult for farmers and breeders to select which cultivars they should plant in their ifelds and use in their breeding programs. The objec-tive of this paper was to identify the leaf rust resistant genes at seedling stage present in the 84 commercial wheat cultivars from China that have been released in the past few years. A set of 20 near isogenic lines with Thatcher background and 6 lines with knownLr genes were used to test the virulence of 12 races ofP. triticina (Pt). By comparing the infection types (ITs) produced on the 84 cultivars by the 12Pt races with the ITs on the differential sets, theLrgenes were postulated. In addition, 8 molecular markers ofLr genes such asLr9,Lr10,Lr19,Lr20,Lr21,Lr24,Lr26 andLr29, which are closely linked to or co-segregated with theLr gene, were used for further validation of the genes in the 84 Chinese winter wheat cultivars. TwelveLr genes, includingLr1, Lr3,(Lr3bg), (Lr3ka), Lr11, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16, Lr26, Lr27, Lr30 andLr31 were postulated to be present either singly or in combinations in these Chinese wheat cultivars.Lr3 andLr26 were detected most often in the tested cultivars, with frequencies of 51.2 and 38.1%, respectively. No wheatLr genes were detected in 16 cultivars, and 4 cultivars may carry unknownLr genes other than those used in this study.Lr9,Lr20,Lr21,Lr24,Lr25andLr29 were not present in any of the 84 tested accessions.

  16. Identificação de cultivares de trigo pelo teste de fenol Cultivars identification of wheat by phenol test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Lemos de Menezes

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O teste de fenol é recomendado para a identificação de cultivares de trigo em laboratório e se baseia na reação de compostos presentes no pericarpo das sementes. Devido à reação constante para cada cultivar, o teste serve para caracterização rápida e fácil de materiais com reações diferentes. No presente trabalho, com o objetivo de facilitar a identificação varietal em trigo, determinou-se a reação ao fenol de 42 cultivares, que estiveram ou estão em recomendação no Brasil.The phenol test is recommended for wheat cultivar identification and is based on the reaction of compounds present in the seeds pericarp. Due to the constant reaction for each cultivar, the test may be used for a rapid and easy characterization of different reactions materiais. In this essay, the phenol reaction was determined in 42 brazilian wheat varieties aiming to facilitate its identification.

  17. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: milling performance and end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which preclude conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft white...

  18. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which precludes conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft whit...

  19. Breadmaking performance and textural changes during storage of composite breads made from spelt wheat and different forms of amaranth grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipčev, Bojana; Bodroža-Solarov, Marija; Pestorić, Mladenka; Šimurina, Olivera

    2016-12-02

    The objectives of the present study were to assess the baking properties of composite spelt wheat-amaranth blends and to study the staling of composite breads during a six-day storage. Different forms of amaranth grains were added to spelt bread formulation: native amaranth flour and flour from popped amaranth, including their scalded and non-scalded variants. Native amaranth flour (both scalded and non-scalded) gave loaves with the highest volume and contributed to significantly softer crumb but not in comparison to the control bread. Crumb resilience did not show significant differences among the breads but there were differences in the crumb stress relaxation parameters which indicated certain influence on the crumb viscoelastic properties. During storage, all samples developed firmer and less elastic crumbs. Drying loss and staling degree significantly increased with increased storage time. The staling rate was the highest in the bread with non-scalded amaranth flours (native and flour from popped amaranth). The changes in the crumb textural and elastic properties caused by staling turned significant after six days of storage. In general, inclusion of different forms of amaranth flour did not alter the staling of breads and they exerted similar behaviour during storage.

  20. Comparative Morpho-Biochemical Responses of Wheat Cultivars Sensitive and Tolerant to Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Water stress is likely the most important factor that adversely affects plant growth and development. In this study two wheat cultivars Gemmieza-7 (sensitive and Sahel-1 (tolerant were subjected to water stress and compared in terms of growth parameters (growth vigor of root and shoot, water relations (relative water content and saturation water deficit and protein as well as nucleic acids (DNA and RNA content in flag leaves of both cultivars. In general, water stress caused noticeable reduction in almost all growth criteria of root, shoot and flag leaf which was consistent with the progressive alteration in water relations, protein and nucleic acids content of both cultivars during grain filling. Furthermore, degree of leaf succulence and degree of leaf sclerophylly were severely affected by water stress in both wheat cultivars. In relation to wheat cultivar, the sensitive was more affected by water stress than the tolerant one. Generally, the application of salicylic acid, trehalose or their interaction induced marked increase in growth vigor of root and shoot, water relations and protein as well as nucleic acids in flag leaves of both wheat cultivars in compare with control and water stressed plants. In conclusion, Sahel-1 has suitable mechanisms to enable it to respond more effectively to water stress than Gemmieza-7.

  1. Genetic Analysis for Some of Morphological Traits in Bread Wheat under Drought Stress Condition Using Generations Mean Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamileh Abedi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Perception of genes action controlling of quantitative traits is very important in genetic breeding methods the plant populations. to study and estimate the parameters of genetic and appointment the best genetically model for justification the genetic changing some of traits the bread wheat under drought stress condition, parents (P1 & P2 and F3, F4, F5 generations together the four control cultivars (Kharchia, Gaspard, Moghan and Mahuti were evaluated by generation mean analysis using a agoment design including six blocks. Generation mean analysis was performed for all traits with Mather and Jinks model using joint scaling test. Three parameter model [m d h] provided the best fit for all traits expect harvest index, main spike grain weight, number of grain per plant, Total spike weight of plant with significant at 5% and 1% levels . Though additive and dominance effect both had interfered in controlling often the traits but with attention to difference effects and variety component was determined that dominance is more impressive than additive effect for traits of number of tiller, main spike weight, grain yield and grain number of main spike. Therefore will benefit using of these traits in the collection and to improve these traits hybridization would be much efficient than the selection strategies. In this study additive Ч additive epistasis effect only observed for traits of Total spike weight of plant, number of grain per plant, main spike grain weight and harvest index and other traits hadn’t any epistasis effect that it was demonstration lack of existence the genes reciprocal effect in the inheritance studied traits. Therefore we can suggest that the selection strategies perform in terminal generations and additive Ч additive epistasis effect would be confirmed in selection under self-pollination condition.

  2. An alternative method based on enzymatic fat hydrolysis to quantify volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Joana; Nozal, María Jesús; Gómez, Manuel; Bernal, José Luis

    2016-09-01

    An alternative method to quantify 40 volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb is proposed. It consists of a Soxhlet extraction with a mixture of dichloromethane and diethyl ether containing lipases and a subsequent concentration with Vigreux column. It is the first time that lipases are added to transform the fat into free fatty acids and glycerol, which elute at the end of the chromatogram after the analytes, avoiding problems in the chromatography due to fat residues, such as dirtiness in the injector, column clogging or overlapping peaks. The extract is most easily analysed by GC/MS, using a standard addition method to correct matrix effect. The method was fully validated, with extraction efficiencies between 70% and 100% and precision RSD lower than 15%. The method was applied to a commercial crumb, with acetoin, phenylethyl alcohol and acetic acid as highly abundant compounds, which are considered main volatiles in crumb.

  3. Genetic architecture of seed longevity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MIAN ABDUR REHMAN ARIF; MANUELA NAGEL; ULRIKE LOHWASSER; ANDREAS BÖRNER

    2017-03-01

    The deterioration in the quality of ex situ conserved seed over time reflects a combination of both physical andchemical changes. Intraspecific variation for longevity is, at least in part, under genetic control. Here, the grain of 183bread wheat accessions maintained under low-temperature storage at the IPK-Gatersleben genebank over somedecades have been tested for their viability, along with that of fresh grain subjected to two standard artificial ageingprocedures. A phenotype–genotype association analysis, conducted to reveal the genetic basis of the observedvariation between accessions, implicated many regions of the genome, underling the genetic complexity of the trait.Some, but not all, of these regions were associated with variation for both natural and experimental ageing, implyingsome non-congruency obtains between these two forms of testing for longevity. The genes underlying longevityappear to be independent of known genes determining dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting.

  4. The role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited in salt tolerance studies involving the bread wheat cv. chinese spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this study was to confirm the role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited during salinity tolerance experiments involving the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring. The nutrient film/rockwool hydroponics technique was utilised. This study concluded that seed size does not play a significant role in the non-genetic variation generated during a study of salinity tolerance of the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring.

  5. Morphological, yield, cytological and molecular characterization of a bread wheat × tritordeum F1 hybrid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Lima-Brito; A. Carvalho; A. Martin; J. S. Heslop-Harrison; H. Guedes-Pinto

    2006-08-01

    The morphological, yield, cytological and molecular characteristics of bread wheat × tritordeum F1 hybrids ($2n = 6x = 42$; AABBDHch) and their parents were analysed. Morphologically, these hybrids resembled the wheat parent. They were slightly bigger than both parents, had more spikelets per spike, and tillered more profusely. The hybrids are self-fertile but a reduction of average values of yield parameters was observed. For the cytological approach we used a double-target fluorescence in situ hybridization performed with total genomic DNA from Hordeum chilense L. and the ribosomal sequence pTa71. This technique allowed us to confirm the hybrid nature and to analyse chromosome pairing in this material. Our results showed that the expected complete homologous pairing (14 bivalents plus 14 univalents) was only observed in 9.59% of the pollen mother cells (PMCs) analysed. Some PMCs presented autosyndetic pairing of Hch and A, B or D chromosomes. The average number of univalents was higher in the wheat genome (6.8) than in the Hch genome (5.4). The maximum number of univalents per PMC was 20. We only observed wheat multivalents (one per PMC) but the frequency of trivalents (0.08) was higher than that of quadrivalents (0.058). We amplified 50 RAPD bands polymorphic between the F1 hybrid and one of its parents, and 31 ISSR polymorphic bands. Both sets of markers proved to be reliable for DNA fingerprinting. The complementary use of morphological and yield analysis, molecular cytogenetic techniques and molecular markers allowed a more accurate evaluation and characterization of the hybrids analysed here.

  6. Responses of Some American, European and Japanese Wheat Cultivars to Soil-Borne Wheat Viruses in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-ping; CHEN Jian-ping; CHENG Ye; CHEN Jiong; JIANG Hong-ming; LIU Qing; YANG Kai-shu; XU Hong; Michael J Adams

    2002-01-01

    Wheat seeds of 109 cultivars from USA, Europe and Japan were sown in experiments at seven sites in different provinces of China for one or two seasons. Five of the sites were infested with the bymovirus wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) and two jointly with WYMV and the furovirus Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV). Disease symptoms were assessed visually and leaf samples were tested for virus(es) by ELISA. At least 29 cultivars were resistant to WYMV at the sites where only this virus was present but all the cultivars were severely infected at Rongcheng (Shandong Province) where CWMV was mixed with WYMV. There was evidence that the presence of CWMV assisted infection by WYMV and also resulted in more severe symptoms.At the mixed site in Yantai, Shandong Province, symptoms were mild and many cultivars had symptomless infection. Of the two strains of WYMV identified in Japan, the Chinese sites seem to be most similar to the type isolated, WYMV-T. Eleven cultivars seemed to be susceptible to WYMV only at Loutian (Hubei Province),suggesting that the virus at this site would be worth studying further.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Compound Characterization and Their Biosynthesis Genes between Two Diverse Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Varieties Differing for Chapatti (Unleavened Flat Bread) Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monica; Sandhir, Rajat; Singh, Anuradha; Kumar, Pankaj; Mishra, Ankita; Jachak, Sanjay; Singh, Sukhvinder P.; Singh, Jagdeep; Roy, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) affect the bread quality and can also affect the other types of end-use food products such as chapatti (unleavened flat bread), now globally recognized wheat-based food product. The detailed analysis of PCs and their biosynthesis genes in diverse bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties differing for chapatti quality have not been studied. In this study, the identification and quantification of PCs using UPLC-QTOF-MS and/or MS/MS and functional genomics techniques such as microarrays and qRT-PCR of their biosynthesis genes have been studied in a good chapatti variety, “C 306” and a poor chapatti variety, “Sonalika.” About 80% (69/87) of plant phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in these varieties. Nine PCs (hinokinin, coutaric acid, fertaric acid, p-coumaroylqunic acid, kaempferide, isorhamnetin, epigallocatechin gallate, methyl isoorientin-2′-O-rhamnoside, and cyanidin-3-rutinoside) were identified only in the good chapatti variety and four PCs (tricin, apigenindin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and myricetin-3-glucoside) in the poor chapatti variety. Therefore, about 20% of the identified PCs are unique to each other and may be “variety or genotype” specific PCs. Fourteen PCs used for quantification showed high variation between the varieties. The microarray data of 44 phenolic compound biosynthesis genes and 17 of them on qRT-PCR showed variation in expression level during seed development and majority of them showed low expression in the good chapatti variety. The expression pattern in the good chapatti variety was largely in agreement with that of phenolic compounds. The level of variation of 12 genes was high between the good and poor chapatti quality varieties and has potential in development of markers. The information generated in this study can be extended onto a larger germplasm set for development of molecular markers using QTL and/or association mapping approaches for their application in wheat breeding

  8. Effect of processing on phenolic composition of dough and bread fractions made from refined and whole wheat flour of three wheat varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand; Fuerst, E Patrick; Kiszonas, Alecia M; Yu, Liangli; Morris, Craig F

    2014-10-29

    This study investigated the effect of breadmaking on the assay of phenolic acids from flour, dough, and bread fractions of three whole and refined wheat varieties. Comparison of the efficacy of two commonly used methods for hydrolysis and extraction of phenoilc acids showed that yields of total phenolic acids (TPA) were 5-17% higher among all varieties and flour types when samples were directly hydrolyzed in the presence of ascorbate and EDTA as compared to the method separating free, soluble conjugates and bound, insoluble phenolic acids. Ferulic acid (FA) was the predominant phenolic acid, accounting for means of 59 and 81% of TPA among all refined and whole wheat fractions, respectively. All phenolic acids measured were more abundant in whole wheat than in refined samples. Results indicated that the total quantified phenolic acids did not change significantly when breads were prepared from refined and whole wheat flour. Thus, the potential phytochemical health benefits of total phenolic acids appear to be preserved during bread baking.

  9. Cluster analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC of gluten protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been substantial breeding efforts in North Dakota to produce wheat cultivars that are well adapted to weather conditions and disease resistance. In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed with regard to how they cluster in terms of...

  10. Native and enzymatically modified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) endogenous lipids in bread making: a focus on gas cell stabilization mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerits, Lien R; Pareyt, Bram; Masure, Hanne G; Delcour, Jan A

    2015-04-01

    Lipopan F and Lecitase Ultra lipases were used in straight dough bread making to study how wheat lipids affect bread loaf volume (LV) and crumb structure setting. Lipase effects on LV were dose and dough piece weight dependent. The bread quality improving mechanisms exerted by endogenous lipids were studied in terms of gluten network strengthening, which indirectly stabilizes gas cells, and in terms of direct interfacial gas cell stabilization. Unlike diacetyl tartaric esters of mono- and diacylglycerols (DATEM, used as control), lipase use did not impact dough extensibility. The effect on dough extensibility was therefore related to its lipid composition at the start of mixing. Both lipases and DATEM strongly increase the levels of polar lipids in dough liquor and their availability for and potential accumulation at gas cell interfaces. Lipases form lysolipids that emulsify other lipids. We speculate that DATEM competes with (endogenous) polar lipids for interacting with gluten proteins.

  11. Differential protection of ethylenediurea (EDU) against ambient ozone for five cultivars of tropical wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shalini; Agrawal, S B; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2009-01-01

    The antiozonant EDU (ethylenediurea) was used to assess the impact of ambient O(3) under field conditions on five cultivars of tropical wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). EDU solution (0 ppm and 400 ppm) was applied as soil drench (100 ml plant(-1)) 10 days after germination (DAG) at an interval of 12 days. EDU-treated plants showed significant increments in stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, variable fluorescence, total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, proline and protein contents and protective enzymes (POX, SOD and APX) activities in HUW468, HUW510 and HUW234 cultivars, while, a reverse trend was observed for lipid peroxidation. EDU application restored grain yield significantly by maintaining higher levels of antioxidants, metabolites and enzymes in cultivars HUW468 and HUW510. Sonalika and PBW343 showed least response of measured parameters under EDU treatment suggesting their greater resistance to O(3). EDU, thus proved its usefulness in screening suitable wheat cultivars for areas experiencing elevated concentrations of O(3).

  12. Sourdough bread made from wheat and nontoxic flours and started with selected lactobacilli is tolerated in celiac sprue patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria; Auricchio, Salvatore; Greco, Luigi; Clarke, Charmaine; De Vincenzi, Massimo; Giovannini, Claudio; D'Archivio, Massimo; Landolfo, Francesca; Parrilli, Giampaolo; Minervini, Fabio; Arendt, Elke; Gobbetti, Marco

    2004-02-01

    This work was aimed at producing a sourdough bread that is tolerated by celiac sprue (CS) patients. Selected sourdough lactobacilli had specialized peptidases capable of hydrolyzing Pro-rich peptides, including the 33-mer peptide, the most potent inducer of gut-derived human T-cell lines in CS patients. This epitope, the most important in CS, was hydrolyzed completely after treatment with cells and their cytoplasmic extracts (CE). A sourdough made from a mixture of wheat (30%) and nontoxic oat, millet, and buckwheat flours was started with lactobacilli. After 24 h of fermentation, wheat gliadins and low-molecular-mass, alcohol-soluble polypeptides were hydrolyzed almost totally. Proteins were extracted from sourdough and used to produce a peptic-tryptic digest for in vitro agglutination tests on K 562(S) subclone cells of human origin. The minimal agglutinating activity was ca. 250 times higher than that of doughs chemically acidified or started with baker's yeast. Two types of bread, containing ca. 2 g of gluten, were produced with baker's yeast or lactobacilli and CE and used for an in vivo double-blind acute challenge of CS patients. Thirteen of the 17 patients showed a marked alteration of intestinal permeability after ingestion of baker's yeast bread. When fed the sourdough bread, the same 13 patients had values for excreted rhamnose and lactulose that did not differ significantly from the baseline values. The other 4 of the 17 CS patients did not respond to gluten after ingesting the baker's yeast or sourdough bread. These results showed that a bread biotechnology that uses selected lactobacilli, nontoxic flours, and a long fermentation time is a novel tool for decreasing the level of gluten intolerance in humans.

  13. Characterization of A- and B-type starch granules in Chinese wheat cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; GUO Qi; FENG Nan; WANG Jin-rong; WANG Shu-jun; HE Zhong-hu

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the major component of wheat lfour and serves as a multifunctional ingredient in food industry. The objective of the present study was to investigate starch granule size distribution of Chinese wheat cultivars, and to compare structure and functionality of starches in four leading cultivars Zhongmai 175, CA12092, Lunxuan 987, and Zhongyou 206. A wide variation in volume percentages of A- and B-type starch granules among genotypes was observed. Volume percentages of A- and B-type granules had ranges of 68.4–88.9% and 9.7–27.9% in the ifrst cropping seasons, 74.1–90.1% and 7.2–25.3% in the second. Wheat cultivars with higher volume percentages of A- and B-type granules could serve as parents in breeding program for selecting high and low amylose wheat cultivars, respectively. In comparison with the B-type starch granules, the A-type granules starch showed difference in three aspects: (1) higher amount of ordered short-range structure and a lower relative crystalinity, (2) higher gelatinization onset (To) temperatures and enthalpies (ΔH), and lower gelatinization conclusion temperatures (Tc), (3) greater peak, though, and ifnal viscosity, and lower breakdown viscosity and pasting temperature. It provides important information for breeders to develop potentialy useful cultivars with particular functional properties of their starches suited to speciifc applications.

  14. Molecular mapping of gibberellin-responsive dwarfing genes in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, M H; Rebetzke, G J; Azanza, F; Richards, R A; Spielmeyer, W

    2005-08-01

    Opportunities exist for replacing reduced height (Rht) genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b with alternative dwarfing genes for bread wheat improvement. In this study, the chromosomal locations of several height-reducing genes were determined by screening populations of recombinant inbred lines or doubled haploid lines varying for plant height with microsatellite markers. Linked markers were found for Rht5 (on chromosome 3BS), Rht12 (5AL) and Rht13 (7BS), which accounted for most of the phenotypic variance in height in the respective populations. Large height differences between genotypes (up to 43 cm) indicated linkage to major height-reducing genes. Rht4 was associated with molecular markers on chromosome 2BL, accounting for up to 30% of the variance in height. Confirming previous studies, Rht8 was linked to markers on chromosome 2DS, whereas a population varying for Rht9 revealed a region with a small but significant height effect on chromosome 5AL. The height-reducing effect of these dwarfing genes was repeatable across a range of environments. The molecular markers developed in this study will be useful for marker-assisted selection of alternative height-reducing genes, and to better understand the effects of different Rht genes on wheat growth and agronomic performance.

  15. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control.

  16. Comparison of the effects of different heat treatment processes on rheological properties of cake and bread wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucsella, Blanka; Takács, Ágnes; Vizer, Viktoria; Schwendener, Urs; Tömösközi, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    Dry and hydrothermal heat treatments are efficient for modifying the technological-functional and shelf-life properties of wheat milling products. Dry heat treatment process is commonly used to enhance the volume of cakes. Hydrothermal heat treatment makes wheat flours suitable as thickener agents. In this study, cake and bread wheat flours that differed in baking properties were exposed to dry (100 °C, 12 min) and hydrothermal (95 °C, 5 min, 5-20 l/h water) heat treatments. Rheological differences caused by the treatments were investigated in a diluted slurry and in a dough matrix. Dry heat treatment resulted in enhanced dough stability. This effect was significantly higher in the cake flour than the bread flour. Altered viscosity properties of the bread flour in the slurry matrix were also observed. The characteristics of hydrothermally treated samples showed matrix dependency: their viscosity increases in the slurry and decreases in the dough matrix. These results can support us to produce flour products with specific techno-functional properties.

  17. Weed suppression and weed tolerance of wheat cultivars - relevant traits for Integrated Pest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschwele, Arnd

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An assortment of 10 winter wheat cultivars was tested for specific effects on weed suppression. Furthermore cultivar specific effects of weed infestation and weed control measures on the crop yield were investigated. Two trial series conducted from 2005 to 2010 demonstrated a wide cultivar specific range of shading capacity and weed suppression. Light penetration and the dry matter of the model weed Sinapis alba were highly correlated (r = 0.87 in trial series A (2005-2007. Consequently, the weed dry matter in the less competitive cultivar Dekan was 5 times higher compared to the weak competitor Cubus. Mechanical weed control by harrowing reduced ears density of all cultivars tested in trial series A. These reductions were significantly higher in the cultivars Bussard and Pegassos compared to the other cultivars. Since the weed infestation was low and negative crop effects by harrowing could be compensated by a higher number of kernels/ear, the yield effects were the same for all cultivars. Contrary to the hypothesis, a cultivar specific yield response by harrowing could not be assessed. Higher competition effects by sowing the model weed Sinapis alba could be realised in trial series B (2008-20120. Consequently, the control measures (a harrowing (b 50% herbicide (c 100% herbicide resulted in significantly higher crop yields ranging from 1.23 t*ha-1 (harrowing to 2.08 t*ha-1 (100% herbicide. The yield reduction caused by the model weed was not the same for all cultivars and was lower for the cultivars Cubus and Limes (6% and 7% compared to Boomer (15%. Thus, weed tolerance could be identified as a cultivar specific trait. There were significant interactions between cultivar and weed control measures: The yield increase (relative to model weed was 5% for Bussard, which was much lower compared to the treatment effects on the cultivar Impression (11%. The hypothesis that yield effects by mechanical and chemical weed control may be affected by the

  18. Cellulosic ethanol: interactions between cultivar and enzyme loading in wheat straw processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felby Claus

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher yields than coarse particles. The amount of coarse particles from the cultivar with lowest sugar yield was negatively correlated with sugar conversion. Conclusions We conclude that genetic differences in sugar yield and response to enzyme loading exist for wheat straw at pilot scale, depending on differences in removal of hemicellulose, accumulation of ash and particle-size distribution introduced by the pretreatment.

  19. Impact of the D genome and quantitative trait loci on quantitative traits in a spring durum by spring bread wheat cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desirable agronomic traits are similar for common hexaploid (6X) bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, genome, AABBDD) and tetraploid (4X) durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum, 2n = 4x = 28, genome, AABB). However, they are genetically isolated from each other due to an unequal number of ge...

  20. Dough quality of bread wheat lacking ¿-gliadins with celiac disease epitopes and addition of celiac-safe avenins to improve dough quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, van den H.C.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Meer, van der I.M.; Hamer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease is a T-cell mediated immune response in the small intestine of genetically susceptible individuals caused by ingested gluten proteins from wheat, rye, and barley. In the allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), gluten proteins are encoded by multigene loci present on the homoeol

  1. Concentrated Arabinoxylan but Not Concentrated Beta-Glucan in Wheat Bread Has Similar Effects on Postprandial Insulin as Whole-Grain Rye in Porto-arterial Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard;

    2013-01-01

    The acute glycemic effects of concentrated dietary fibers (DF) versus whole-grain rye were studied in portoarterial catheterized pigs. Two white wheat breads with wheat arabinoxylan (AX) or oat beta-glucan (BG), two rye breads with intact rye kernels (RK) or milled rye (GR), and a low DF white...... min postprandial for AX and GR (74.4 and 129 pmol/min for AX and GR, respectively, compared to 738 pmol/min for WF, P effective in improving insulin economy, suggesting that arabinoxylan from wheat and rye induces similar outcomes in the metabolic...

  2. Sequencing chromosome 5D of Aegilops tauschii and comparison with its allopolyploid descendant bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Bala A; Lucas, Stuart J; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, Hikmet

    2015-08-01

    Flow cytometric sorting of individual chromosomes and chromosome-based sequencing reduces the complexity of large, repetitive Triticeae genomes. We flow-sorted chromosome 5D of Aegilops tauschii, the D genome donor of bread wheat and sequenced it by Roche 454 GS FLX platform to approximately 2.2x coverage. Repetitive sequences represent 81.09% of the survey sequences of this chromosome, and Class I retroelements are the prominent type, with a particular abundance of LTR/Gypsy superfamily. Nonrepetitive sequences were assembled to cover 17.76% of the total chromosome regions. Up to 6188 nonrepetitive gene loci were predicted to be encoded by the 5D chromosome. The numbers and chromosomal distribution patterns of tRNA genes suggest abundance in tRNA(L) (ys) and tRNA(M) (et) species, while the nonrepetitive assembly reveals tRNA(A) (la) species as the most abundant type. A comparative analysis of the genomic sequences of bread wheat and Aegilops chromosome 5D indicates conservation of gene content. Orthologous unique genes, matching Aegilops 5D sequences, numbered 3730 in barley, 5063 in Brachypodium, 4872 in sorghum and 4209 in rice. In this study, we provide a chromosome-specific view into the structure and organization of the 5D chromosome of Ae. tauschii, the D genome ancestor of bread wheat. This study contributes to our understanding of the chromosome-level evolution of the wheat genome and presents a valuable resource in wheat genomics due to the recent hybridization of Ae. tauschii genome with its tetraploid ancestor.

  3. Crystallinity changes in wheat starch during the bread-making process: Starch crystallinity in the bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, N.H. van; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, T. van

    2007-01-01

    The crystallinity of starch in crispy bread crust was quantified using several different techniques. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) demonstrated the presence of granular starch in the crust and remnants of granules when moving towards the crumb. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) sho

  4. Exploitation of Albanian wheat cultivars: characterization of the flours and lactic acid bacteria microbiota, and selection of starters for sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nionelli, Luana; Curri, Nertila; Curiel, José Antonio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Cavoski, Ivana; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Six Albanian soft and durum wheat cultivars were characterized based on chemical and technological features, showing different attitudes for bread making. Gliadin and glutenin fractions were selectively extracted from flours, and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis. Linja 7 and LVS flours showed the best characteristics, and abundance of high molecular weight (HMW)-glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared through back slopping procedure, and the lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the predominant species. Thirty-eight representative isolates were singly used for sourdough fermentation of soft and durum wheat Albanian flours and their selection was carried out based on growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation, and proteolytic activity. Two different pools of lactic acid bacteria were designed to ferment soft or durum wheat flours. Sourdough fermentation with mixed and selected starters positively affected the quotient of fermentation, concentration of free amino acids, profile of phenolic acids, and antioxidant and phytase activities. This study provided the basis to exploit the potential of wheat Albanian flours based on an integrated approach, which considered the characterization of the flours and the processing conditions.

  5. Response of two wheat cultivars to supplemental nitrogen under different salinity stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of supplemental nitrogen (N), as either farmyard manure (FYM) or urea, on response of two wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars (a salt sensitive ‘Sakha 69’ and a salt tolerant ‘Sakha 93’) were investigated in a green house experiment under various salinity levels (control, 6, 9, or 12 dS m-1)...

  6. ALLELIC VARIABILITY OF CROATIAN WHEAT CULTIVARS AT THE MICROSATELLITE LOCUS XGWM261

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Dvojković

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant height of wheat is an important quantitative trait, controlled by several genes with strong effect. However, in worldwide wheat breeding, only several of those genes have been used. Rht8 (Reduced Height Gene is especially important in agro-climatic conditions of South-East Europe. Because of its close linkage with dwarfing gene Rht8, microsatellite marker gwm261 has been accepted as the diagnostic molecular marker for gene Rht8. In this study, allelic variability at the locus Xgwm261 for 122 Croatian and foreign wheat cultivars by means of microsatellite marker gwm261 was determined. A 192 base pairs allele at the locus Xgwm261 was found for 84 Croatian cultivars. The genetic heritage of Croatian cultivars at the locus Xgwm261 is the consequence of new parental components usage, carriers of short plant and early maturity attributes and the consequent selection of progeny with these traits during breeding process. The results of this research will be helpful in characterization of domestic wheat cultivars, as well as in more accurate selection of parents for hybridization purposes.

  7. An addition of sourdough and whey proteins affects the nutritional quality of wholemeal wheat bread

    OpenAIRE

    Aneta Kopeć; Barbara Borczak; Mirosław Pysz; Elżbieta Sikora; Marek Sikora; Duska Curic; Dubravka Novotni

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bread can be a good source of nutrients as well as non-nutrient compounds. This study was designed to assess the effect of adding of sourdough and whey proteins to wholemeal (WM) bread produced by bake-off technology on chemical composition and bioavailability of proteins, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron content in Wistar rats. Material and methods. Wholemeal breads were baked with using conventional or bake off technology. In breads chemical composition, selected miner...

  8. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Aghili

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower, ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF, and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  9. The Effect of Oat Fibre Powder Particle Size on the Physical Properties of Wheat Bread Rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Wyrwisz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the growing interest of modern society in functional food products, this study attempts to develop a bakery product with high dietary fibre content added in the form of an oat fibre powder. Oat fibre powder with particle sizes of 75 μm (OFP1 and 150 μm (OFP2 was used, substituting 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 % of the flour. The physical properties of the dough and the fi nal bakery products were then measured. Results indicated that dough with added fibre had higher elasticity than the control group. The storage modulus values of dough with OFP1 most closely approximated those of the control group. The addition of OFP1 did not affect significantly the colour compared to the other samples. Increasing the proportion of oat fibre powder resulted in increased firmness, which was most prominent in wheat bread rolls with oat fibre powder of smaller particle sizes. The addition of oat fibre powder with smaller particles resulted in a product with the rheological and colour parameters that more closely resembled control sample.

  10. Comparative analysis of phenolic compound characterization and their biosynthesis genes between two diverse bread wheat (Triticum aestivum varieties differing for chapatti (unleavened flat bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Sharma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPhenolic compounds (PCs affect the bread quality and can also affect the other types of end-use food products such as chapatti (unleavened flat bread, now globally recognised wheat-based food product. The detailed analysis of PCs and their biosynthesis genes in diverse bread wheat (Triticum aestivum varieties differing for chapatti quality have not been studied. In this study, the identification and quantification of PCs using UPLC-QTOF-MS and/or MS/MS and functional genomics techniques such as microarrays and qRT-PCR of their biosynthesis genes have been studied in a good chapatti variety, ‘C 306’ and a poor chapatti variety, ‘Sonalika’. About 80% (69/87 of plant phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in these varieties. Nine PCs (hinokinin, coutaric acid, fertaric acid, p-coumaroylqunic acid, kaempferide, isorhamnetin, epigallocatechin gallate, methyl isoorientin-2’-O-rhamnoside, and cyanidin-3-rutinoside were identified only in the good chapatti variety and four PCs (tricin, apigenindin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and myricetin-3-glucoside in the poor chapatti variety. Therefore, about 20% of the identified PCs are unique to each other and may be ‘variety or genotype’ specific PCs. Fourteen PCs used for quantification showed high variation between the varieties. The microarray data of forty-four phenolic compound biosynthesis genes and seventeen of them on qRT-PCR showed variation in expression level during seed development and majority of them showed low expression in the good chapatti variety. The expression pattern in the good chapatti variety was largely in agreement with that of phenolic compounds. The level of variation of twelve genes was high between the good and poor chapatti quality varieties and has potential in development of markers. The information generated in this study can be extended onto a larger germplasm set for development of molecular markers using QTL and/or association mapping approaches

  11. Classification of spelt cultivars based on differences in storage protein compositions from wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Annette; Konitzer, Katharina; Wieser, Herbert; Koehler, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Wholemeal flours from 62 spelt and 13 wheat cultivars were studied. The quantitative protein compositions of the Osborne fractions determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, showed that the chromatograms of the reduced gliadin fractions were most suitable for the distinction of spelt from wheat and for the classification of spelt. The patterns of the reduced spelt gliadins showed one to three markers that were not present in wheat. Based on these markers, spelt cultivars were classified into three groups ranging from 'typical spelt' to 'similar to common wheat'. Marker 1 was identified as ω1,2-gliadin and markers 2, 3a and 3b were identified as γ-gliadins by means of N-terminal sequence analysis and determination of the relative molecular mass by mass spectrometry. As glutenin-bound ω-gliadins were present in wheat and absent in spelt, this protein type may be used to detect and quantitate small amounts of wheat in spelt products.

  12. Effect of gelatinized flour fraction on thermal and rheological properties of wheat-based dough and bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Navas, H; Guadarrama-Lezama, A Y; Vernon-Carter, E J; García-Díaz, S; Reyes, I; Alvarez-Ramírez, J

    2016-11-01

    This work considered gelatinized wheat flour fraction with properties similar to hydrocolloid to enhance the strength of dough network by improving water retention and rheological characteristics. The gelatinized (90 °C) fraction of the wheat flour was incorporated in the dough formulation at different levels (5, 10, and 20% w/w). The effects of the gelatinized flour (GF) fraction on the dough rheology and thermal properties were studied. The incorporation of GF induced a moderate increase of dough viscoelasticity and reduced the freezing and melting enthalpies. On the other hand, the changes in bread textural properties brought by incorporation of GF were insignificant, indicating that the gelatinized fraction acted as a binder that enhanced water trapping in the structure. SEM images showed a more heterogeneous crumb microstructure (e.g., gas cells, porous, etc.) bread prepared using GF. Drying kinetics obtained from TGA indicated that the water diffusivity decreased with the incorporation of GF, which suggested that the bread had a compact microstructure.

  13. The effect of consumption of selenium enriched rye/wheat sourdough bread on the body's selenium status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryszewska, Malgorzata A; Ambroziak, Wojciech; Langford, Nicola J; Baxter, Malcolm J; Colyer, Alison; Lewis, D John

    2007-09-01

    The potential of selenium-enriched rye/wheat sourdough bread as a route for supplementing dietary selenium intakes is reported. In addition to their normal diets, 24 female volunteers (24 to 25 years old) were fed either selenium-enriched bread or non-enriched bread each day (68.02 and 0.84 microg selenium day(-1) respectively) for 4 weeks. The chemical form of the selenium in the bread had been characterised using HPLC-ICP-MS, which showed that 42% of the extractable selenium was present as selenomethionine. Plasma selenium levels and plasma platelet glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) activity were measured in the volunteers' blood over a 6-week period. A statistically significant difference (p = 0.001) was observed in the mean percentage change data, calculated from the plasma selenium level measurements for the enriched and control group, over the duration of the study. A comparable difference was not observed for the platelet GPx1 activity (p = 0.756), over the same period. Two weeks after cessation of the feeding stage, i.e., at t = 6 weeks, the mean percentage change value for the selenium plasma levels in the enriched group was still significantly elevated, suggesting that the absorbed selenium had been incorporated into the body's selenium reserves, and was then being slowly released back into the volunteers' blood.

  14. Physiological and proteome studies of responses to heat stress during grain filling in contrasting wheat cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Dinler, Burcu Seckin; Vignjevic, Marija;

    2015-01-01

    Experiments to explore physiological and biochemical differences of the effects of heat stress in ten wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars have been performed. Based on the response of photosynthesis rates, cell membrane lipid peroxide concentrations and grain yield to heat, six cultivars were...... compared to sensitive cultivars under heat stress. The tolerant cv. '810' and the sensitive cv. '1039' were selected for further proteome analysis of leaves. Proteins related to photosynthesis, glycolysis, stress defence, heat shock and ATP production were differently expressed in leaves of the tolerant...... and sensitive cultivar under heat stress in relation to the corresponding control. The abundance of proteins related to signal transduction, heat shock, photosynthesis, and antioxidants increased, while the abundance of proteins related to nitrogen metabolism decreased in the tolerant cv. '810' under heat...

  15. Characterization of brazilian wheat cultivars in terms of nitrogen use efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Lemes da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N management in wheat crop is one of the most studied agricultural practices in Brazil; however, there are few reports on its use efficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize 18 Brazilian wheat cultivars, which are representative and have been recently released to cultivation, for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE. The experiments were carried out in Pato Branco, Paraná, and Coxilha, Rio Grande do Sul, during the 2011 crop season. It was used a randomized block design with three replications, in factorial scheme (2 environments × 18 cultivars. Genetic variability was observed for nitrogen utilization efficiency by grains (NUtEg=47.6 to 81.1 kg kg-1 and nitrogen harvest index (NHI=71.3 to 84.6% with significant effects relating to the environment of cultivation and performance of these traits. The evaluation of the protein concentration of grain by near infrared spectrometry (GPC N produced equivalent results to the direct analytical method of Kjeldahl (GPC K, in Pato Branco (r=0.56 and Coxilha (RS (r=0.80. However the CPG N overestimated the protein values by 16.85%. The GPC and protein yield were positively correlated with NUtEg and NHI. The best performance for the traits associated with NUE was observed for the following cultivars: Mirante, Quartzo, Fundacep Cristalino, Fundacep Raízes and CD 150. This is the first report of differences between Brazilian wheat cultivars for nitrogen use efficiency.

  16. [Effects of ecological factors on the dough extensograph parameters of different winter wheat cultivars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-lin; Wang, Chen-yang; Guo, Tian-cai; Wang, Yong-hua; Zhu, Yun-ji

    2009-12-01

    In 2000-2001 and 2001-2002, six representative winter wheat cultivars Yumai 34, Gaomai 8901, Yumai 49, Yumai 70, Luoyang 8716, and Yumai 50 were consecutively grown at five locations (Xinyang, Zhumadian, Xuchang, Wuzhi, and Tangyin) with latitudes varying from 32 degrees N to 36 degrees N in Henan Province, aimed to understand the relationships of winter wheat dough extensograph parameters with genetic and ecological factors. The dough extensograph parameters were more affected by genetic factors than by ecological factors. Cultivars Yumai 34 and Gaomai 8901 had significantly higher maximum resistance and extension area than the other four test cultivars, and significant differences in the dough extensograph parameters were observed between the cultivars grown in the south region (Xinyang and Zhumadian) and in the north region (Wuzhi and Tangyin) of the Province. The change patterns of dough extensograph parameters with latitude differed in 2000-2001 and in 2001-2002, and the effects of climatic factors on the dough extensograph parameters varied with year. In 2001-2002, the precipitation at the stage from grain-filling to maturing affected the dough extensograph parameters significantly. Our results suggested that in order to improve the dough extensograph parameters of winter wheat, local meteorological conditions should be taken into full consideration in the soil water management at late-maturing stage.

  17. CULTIVAR RELEASE-CD 115: Soft Wheat Cultivar for colder regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Sergio Marchioro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar CD 115 was developed by the Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agrícola (COODETEC and isrecommended for cultivation in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná. The cultivar is tolerant todiseases and pre-harvest sprouting. The mean grain yield in four years of evaluation was 3,420 kg ha-1, exceeding thecontrols by 7%.

  18. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten G; Riboldi, Giancarlo; Petronio, Michela; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2010-02-01

    Wholegrain foods have received much attention in recent years, and have been proposed to play a role in energy regulation through lowering of postprandial glycemia and appetite. This randomized crossover single meal study in 16 young adults was conducted to test the effect of iso-caloric meals based on wholemeal wheat breads and pasta in comparison to similar refined wheat products on postprandial glycemia, appetite and ad libitum energy intake (EI). Test meals (50 g carbohydrates; 2MJ) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and EI measured. The 180 min glucose responses were similar for wholemeal and refined products, but pasta meals gave significantly lower glucose responses. Only RWP had a lower glycemic index compared to RWB. WWB, but not WWP, resulted in increased satiety and reduced hunger compared to RWB. Ad libitum EI did not differ. In conclusion, the results show that wholemeal breads increased satiety measures compared to their refined counterparts; however no significant effect on subsequent EI was observed.

  19. Variations of the sensory profile of durum wheat Altamura PDO (protected designation of origin) bread during staling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Bilancia, Maria Teresa; Caponio, Francesco

    2007-04-01

    The typical sensory characteristics of Altamura PDO (protected designation of origin) bread are due to both the use of durum wheat remilled semolina and the prolonged sponge-dough method based on sourdough. In this paper the sensory properties of Altamura bread were evaluated during a period of 6 days from baking. A total number of 24 descriptors was considered. The obtained results indicated that during the whole storage period many of the desirable characters such as crust consistence, crumb elasticity, crumb cohesiveness, overall aroma, and sour aroma decreased, while the undesirable stale aroma and crumb consistence increased their intensity. In any case, after 4 days from the production crumb color, crumb grain, crumb elasticity, and crumb humidity did not vary significantly.

  20. Composition and functional analysis of low-molecular-weight glutenin alleles with Aroona near-isogenic lines of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaofei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS strongly influence the bread-making quality of bread wheat. These proteins are encoded by a multi-gene family located at the Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 loci on the short arms of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, and show high allelic variation. To characterize the genetic and protein compositions of LMW-GS alleles, we investigated 16 Aroona near-isogenic lines (NILs using SDS-PAGE, 2D-PAGE and the LMW-GS gene marker system. Moreover, the composition of glutenin macro-polymers, dough properties and pan bread quality parameters were determined for functional analysis of LMW-GS alleles in the NILs. Results Using the LMW-GS gene marker system, 14–20 LMW-GS genes were identified in individual NILs. At the Glu-A3 locus, two m-type and 2–4 i-type genes were identified and their allelic variants showed high polymorphisms in length and nucleotide sequences. The Glu-A3d allele possessed three active genes, the highest number among Glu-A3 alleles. At the Glu-B3 locus, 2–3 m-type and 1–3 s-type genes were identified from individual NILs. Based on the different compositions of s-type genes, Glu-B3 alleles were divided into two groups, one containing Glu-B3a, B3b, B3f and B3g, and the other comprising Glu-B3c, B3d, B3h and B3i. Eight conserved genes were identified among Glu-D3 alleles, except for Glu-D3f. The protein products of the unique active genes in each NIL were detected using protein electrophoresis. Among Glu-3 alleles, the Glu-A3e genotype without i-type LMW-GS performed worst in almost all quality properties. Glu-B3b, B3g and B3i showed better quality parameters than the other Glu-B3 alleles, whereas the Glu-B3c allele containing s-type genes with low expression levels had an inferior effect on bread-making quality. Due to the conserved genes at Glu-D3 locus, Glu-D3 alleles showed no significant differences in effects on all quality parameters. Conclusions This work

  1. Comparison of autoclave, microwave, IR and UV-C stabilization of whole wheat flour branny fractions upon the nutritional properties of whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Mustafa Kürşat; Elgün, Adem

    2014-01-01

    In this study, whole wheat bread (WWB) prepared by whole wheat flour (WWF) which its branny fraction (35 ± 1% w/w whole flour) previously was stabilized with different processes. Branny fractions obtained by milling of two different Bezostaja-1 wheat samples (medium and high strong) at 65 ± 1% wheat flour extraction ratio. These fractions were stabilized using autoclave (AU), microwave (MW), infrared (IR) and ultraviolet-C (UV-C) methods. Then, WWF obtained by remixing of stabilized branny fraction (35 ± 1% w/w) and wheat flour (65 ± 1% w/w) of same wheat samples. Following this process, WWB was made from WWF. WWB were analyzed to determine their nutritional properties as crude protein, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), phytic acid content, total and HCl-extractable mineral concentrations, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity and total dietary fiber (TDF). While IVPD, TPC and antioxidant activity of WWB increased together with all stabilization methods, a significant (P < 0.05) loss was observed on phytic acid content of the WWB. Especially, UV-C and IR treatments had positive effects on TPC and antioxidant activity. AU and MW stabilization methods increased total mineral and HCl-extractable minerals of WWB. As a result of this study, all stabilization processes had an improving effect on nutritional characteristic of WWB.

  2. Variation in Salt Tolerance of Wheat Cultivars: Role of Glycinebetaine and Ethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.I.R.KHAN; N.IQBAL; A.MASOOD; N.A.KHAN

    2012-01-01

    Four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars 711,PBW343,3765 and WH542 were screened for studying variations in glycinebetaine (GB) content and plant dry mass under 100 mmol L-1 NaCl stress.A tolerance index was calculated using plant dry mass data to select salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive types and find association between tolerance index and GB content.Tolerance index has been used as a good criterion to select the tolerant types under high salinity stress.Further,physiological differences in salt-tolerant cultivar 711 and salt-sensitive cultivar WH542 were examined.The salt-tolerant cultivar exhibited greater GB content,which was found correlative with ethylene.The cultivar also showed higher nitrogen (N) content and nitrate reductase activity,reduced glutathione and higher redox state resulting in maximal protection of plant dry mass than the salt-sensitive type.Thus,the content of GB may be considered as important physiological criteria for selecting salt-tolerant wheat types.

  3. Making bread with sourdough improves iron bioavailability from reconstituted fortified wheat flour in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaoui, Asmaa; Faid, Mohamed; Belahsen, Rekia

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a diet prepared with traditional sourdough (TS) on iron status. Levels of blood hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrite (Ht), serum ferritin and serum iron as well as excreted iron were determined in three groups of mice fed with: TS bread (TS group), baking yeast bread (BY group) or bread with no starters (control group), respectively. The results show that the levels of Hb, Ht, ferritin and iron were significantly higher in the TS compared to the BY and control groups. Also a significant decrease in the excreted iron levels was observed in the mice fed with TS compared to the others dietary groups. In conclusion, the study results indicate an improvement of iron status indicators in mice when they were fed sourdough bread as compared to baking yeast bread and bread with no starters.

  4. Maracaí (IAC 17 e Xavantes (IAC 18: cultivares de trigo para o estado de São Paulo Maracaí (IAC 17 and Xavantes (IAC 18: wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. For the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felício

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados em experimentos localizados nas principais regiões tritícolas do Estado de São Paulo, a produtividade e as reações aos agentes da ferrugem-do-colmo(³ e ferrugem-da-folha, bem como as qualidades de panificação de dois novos cultivares de trigo, Maracaí (IAC 17 e Xavantes (IAC 18, provenientes de cruzamentos artificiais realizados no Instituto Agronômico e obtidos por seleção através do método de genealogia, comparados com os cultivares BH-1146 e IAC 5. Considerando a média de produção de grãos nos anos estudados, o 'Xavantes' foi superior estatisticamente 10 e 14% pelo teste de Duncan a 5% em relação, respectivamente, aos cultivares BH 1146 e IAC 5, utilizados como controles. O 'Maracaí' não apresentou diferença estatística significativa com relação as testemunhas: Relativamente à ferrugem-do-colmo (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, os cultivares apresentaram, nos anos estudados, graus de infecção inferiores aos registrados sobre a testemunha BH 1146. O 'Maracaí' apresentou resistência a um maior número de raças do patógeno ocorrentes em nossas condições. O comportamento desses cultivares com relação à ferrugem-da-folha (P. recondita assemelhou-se às testemunhas com infecções de campo consideradas médias. Nos ensaios de panificação, os dois cultivares evidenciarem valores próximos, apresentando o Xavantes leve superioridade em algumas características, porém ambos demonstraram fraca capacidade panificadora quando comparados ao cultivar padrão Tobari 66.The new cultivars Maracaí (IAC 17 and Xavantes (IAC 18 were selected in the wheat breeding program conducted at Instituto Agronômico. They were studied in the main wheat area of the State of São Paulo, compared with the commercial cultivars BH-1146 and IAC 5, in relation to yield, reactions to stem and leaf rusts and to bread quality. The results showed that the cultivar Xavantes yielded 10% and 14% more than BH-1146 and IAC 5

  5. [Development and study of spring bread wheat variety Pamyati Maystrenko with introgression of genetic material from synthetic hexaploid Triticum timopheevii zhuk. x Aegilops tauschii Coss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laikova, L I; Belan, I A; Badaeva, E D; Posseeva, L P; Shepelev, S S; Shumny, V K; Pershina, L A

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic hexaploids are bridges for transferring new genes that determine resistance to stress factors from wild-type species to bread wheat. In the present work, the method of developing the spring bread wheat variety Pamyati Maystrenko and the results of its study are described. This variety was obtained using one of the immune lines produced earlier via the hybridization of the spring bread wheat variety Saratovskaya 29 with the synthetic hexaploid T. timopheevii Zhuk. x Ae. tauschii Coss. The C-staining of chromosomes in the Pamyati Maystrenko variety revealed substitutions of 2B and 6B chromosomes by the homeologous chromosomes of the G genome of T. timopheevii and the substitution of chromosome 1D by an orthologous chromosome ofAe. tauschii. It was found that this variety is characterized by resistance to leaf and stem rust, powdery mildew, and loose smut as well as by high grain and bread-making qualities. The role of the alien genetic material introgressed into the bread-wheat genome in the expression of adaptive and economically valuable traits in the Pamyati Maystrenko variety is discussed.

  6. Prebiotic content of bread prepared with flour from immature wheat grain and selected dextran-producing lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Olimpia; Ventorino, Valeria; Cavella, Silvana; Fagnano, Massimo; Brugno, Rachele

    2013-06-01

    In the last few years the need to produce food with added value has fueled the search for new ingredients and health-promoting compounds. In particular, to improve the quality of bakery products with distinct nutritional properties, the identification of new raw materials, appropriate technologies, and specific microbial strains is necessary. In this study, different doughs were prepared, with 10% and 20% flour from immature wheat grain blended with type "0 America" wheat flour. Immature flour was obtained from durum wheat grains harvested 1 to 2 weeks after anthesis. Doughs were obtained by both the straight-dough and sourdough processes. Two selected exopolysaccharide-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Leuconostoc lactis A95 and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2, were used as starters. Immature flour contained 2.21 g/100 g (dry weight) of fructo-oligosaccharides. Twenty percent immature flour in dough resulted in a shorter leavening time (4.23 ± 0.03 h) than with the control and dough with 10% immature flour. The total titratable acidity of sourdough with 20% immature flour was higher (12.75 ± 0.15 ml 0.1 N NaOH) than in the control and sourdough with 10% immature wheat flour (9.20 ml 0.1 N NaOH). Molecular analysis showed that all samples contained three LAB species identified as L. lactis, L. curvatus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. A larger amount of exopolysaccharide was found in sourdough obtained with 20% immature flour (5.33 ± 0.032 g/kg), positively influencing the exopolysaccharide content of the bread prepared by the sourdough process (1.70 ± 0.03 g/kg). The addition of 20% immature flour also led to a greater presence of fructo-oligosaccharides in the bread (900 mg/100 g dry weight), which improved its nutritional characteristics. While bread volume decreased as the concentration of immature wheat flour increased, its mechanical characteristics (stress at a strain of 30%) were the same in all samples obtained with different percentages of

  7. Difference in postprandial GLP-1 response despite similar glucose kinetics after consumption of wheat breads with different particle size in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Underlying mechanisms of the beneficial health effects of low glycemic index starchy foods are not fully elucidated yet. We varied the wheat particle size to obtain fiber-rich breads with a high and low glycemic response and investigated the differences in postprandial glucose kinetics...... in a difference in glucose response and kinetics, but in a pronounced difference in GLP-1 response. Thus, changing the processing conditions of wheat for baking bread can influence the metabolic response beyond glycemia and may therefore influence health....

  8. Comparison of Starch Granule Size Distribution Between Hard and Soft Wheat Cultivars in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Granule size distribution of wheat starch is an important characteristic that can affect its chemical composition and functionality. Two types of wheat cultivars, the hard and soft wheat cultivars, grown at Tai'an Experimental Station of Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong, China, were examined in this study. The granule size distribution and amylose contents in wheat grains were studied and compared, and relationships between the properties were identified. A clear bimodal distribution of granule size was shown in all wheat cultivars. Volume distribution of starch granules shows the typical bimodal with peak values in the ranges of 5.6-6.1 μm and 20.7-24.9 μm, respectively. Also, granule surface area distribution was bimodal with peak values in the ranges of 2.4-3.2 μm and 20.7-24.9 μm, respectively. Number distribution of granules was a typical population with a peak value in the range of 0.54-1.05 μm. Contributions from the granules < 2.8 μm and<9.9 μm to the total volume were in the ranges of 94.2-95.1% and 99.7-99.9% of total number, respectively. Proportions of granules <2.8 μm, 2.8-9.9 μm, 9.9-22.8 μm, and 22.8-42.8 μm were in the ranges of 12.9-14.3%, 28.4-31.1%, 33.5-35.6%, and 19.7-22.7% for hard wheat, and 10.3-13.9%, 26.6-28.1%, 32.7-34.6%, and 24.2-27% for soft wheat. Hard wheat had greater B-type granules (< 9.9 μm), and had fewer granules of 22.8-42.8 μm than soft wheat. Amylose content was positively related to volume percentage of granules 22.8-42.8 μm, and negatively related to volume percentage of granules 2.8-22.8 μm.

  9. Characterization of the Bread Made with Durum Wheat Semolina Rendered Gluten Free by Sourdough Biotechnology in Comparison with Commercial Gluten-Free Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Durum wheat semolina was fermented with sourdough lactic acid bacteria and fungal proteases aiming at a complete gluten hydrolysis. The gluten-free (GF) semolina, added with naturally GF ingredients and structuring agents, was used to produce bread (rendered GF bread; rGFB) at industrial level. An integrated approach including the characterization of the main chemical, nutritional, structural, and sensory features was used to compare rGFB to a gluten-containing bread and to 5 commercial naturally GF breads. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for free amino acids (FAAs), organic acids, and ethanol analysis. A methanolic extract was used for determining total phenols and antioxidant activity. The bread characterization also included the analysis of dietary fibers, mycotoxins, vitamins, and heavy metals. Beyond chemical analysis, nutritional profile was evaluated considering the in vitro protein digestibility and the predicted glycemic index, while the instrumental texture profile analysis was performed to investigate the structure and the physical/mechanical properties of the baked goods. Beyond the huge potential of market expansion, the main advantages of durum wheat semolina rendered GF can be resumed in the high availability of FAAs, the high protein digestibility, the low starch hydrolysis index, and the better technological properties of bread compared to the commercial GF products currently present on the market. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber profiles are comparable to those of gluten-containing wheat bread. Also the sensory profile, determined by a panel test, can be considered the most similar to those of conventional baked goods, showing all the sourdough bread classic attributes.

  10. Effect of conventional milling on the nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of wheat types common in Ethiopia and a recovery attempt with bran supplementation in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshe, Genet Gebremedhin; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Zewdu; Gemede, Habtamu Fekadu

    2016-07-01

    The effect of wheat flour refined milling on nutritional and antioxidant quality of hard and soft grown in Ethiopia was evaluated. Bread was prepared with the supplementation of the white wheat flour with different levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 25%) of wheat bran. Whole (100% extraction) and white wheat (68% extraction) flours were analyzed for proximates, minerals, and antioxidants. Results indicated that at a low extraction rate (68%), the protein, fat, fiber, ash, iron, zinc, phosphorous, and antioxidant contents of the samples significantly (P values (protein, 12.0 g/100 g; fat, 2.6 g/100 g; fiber, 2.5 g/100 g; ash, 3.3 g/100 g; iron, 4.8 mg/100 g and zinc, 2.33 mg/100 g) were found in 25% bran supplemented bread. The sensory evaluation of bread showed that all the supplementation levels had a mean score above 4 for all preferences on a 7- point hedonic scale. The results indicated that refined milling at 68% extraction significantly reduces the nutritional and antioxidant activity of the wheat flours. Bread of good nutritional and sensory qualities can be produced from 10% and 20% bran supplementations.

  11. Effects of uniquely processed cowpea and plantain flours on wheat bread properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of incorporating uniquely processed whole-seed cowpeas or plantain flours at 10 or 20 g/100 g in all-purpose flour on paste viscosity and bread-baking properties in model bread was determined. Flours from plantains processed as follows: unblanched plantains dried at 60 degrees C (PLC), so...

  12. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, E; Manisterski, J; Ben-Yehuda, P; Distelfeld, A; Deek, J; Wan, A; Chen, X; Steffenson, B J

    2014-06-01

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relative of wheat, exhibits a high frequency of leaf and stripe rust resistance. We used the resistant AES accession TH548 and induced homoeologous recombination by the ph1b allele to obtain resistant wheat recombinant lines carrying AES chromosome segments in the genetic background of the spring wheat cultivar Galil. The gametocidal effect from AES was overcome by using an "anti-gametocidal" wheat mutant. These recombinant lines were found resistant to highly virulent races of the leaf and stripe rust pathogens in Israel and the United States. Molecular DArT analysis of the different recombinant lines revealed different lengths of AES segments on wheat chromosome 6B, which indicates the location of both resistance genes.

  13. Effect of Water Stress and Spraying of Potassium Iodide on Agronomic Traits and Grain Yield of Bread Wheat (Tiriticum aistivum L. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ezzat Ahmadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effect of water stress and chemical desiccation (potassium iodide on grain yield and agronomic traits of 8 wheat genotypes, a field experiment was conducted using a split split plot design based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in Torogh Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station (Mashhad, Iran in 2006-2007 and 2007-2008. Main plots were assigned to two levels of water stress treatments; D1: optimum irrigation, and D2: cessation of watering from anthesis to maturity stages. Sub plots were assigned to eight bread wheat genotypes: 9103, 9116, 9203, 9205, 9207, 9212, C-81-10 and Cross Shahi (drought sensitive; and photosynthetic conditions with two levels: P1: using of current photosynthesis and P2: inhibition of current photosynthesis were in sub-sub plots. The results showed that the effects of water stress and photosynthetic conditions on number of total florets per spike (NTF/S, seed set percentage (SSP, spike harvest index (SHI, duration of grain filling (DGF and grain yield (GY were significant. There was a significant difference between genotypes for spike dry weight at anthesis (SDWA, number of spikletes per spike (NSP/S, NTF/S, SSP, SHI, spike partitioning coefficient (SPC, plant height (PLH, spike length (SL, DGF and GY. 9103 genotype produced the most GY (7870 kg/ha under D1P1 treatment. The least GY ( 1114 kg/ha related to Cross Shahi cultivar under D2P2 treatment. Considering that C-81-10, 9103 and 9116 genotypes showed the highest grain yield, potential for reserves and remobilizations of assimilates under different irrigation conditions thus, these genotypes could be introduced as promising in breeding programs for arid and semi-arid regions. Keywords: Triticum aestivum L., Cessation of watering, Chemical Desiccation, Spike, Grain yield

  14. Traits in Spring Wheat Cultivars Associated with Yield Loss Caused by a Heat Stress Episode after Anthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vignjevic, Marija; Wang, Xiao; Olesen, Jørgen E;

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress resulting from climate change and more frequent weather extremes is expected to negatively affect wheat yield. We evaluated the response of different spring wheat cultivars to a post-anthesis high temperature episode and studied the relationship between different traits associated wit...

  15. Tiller emission and dry mass accumulation of wheat cultivars under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Milton Luiz de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tillers are important structures for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. because they contribute to increase the number of spikes per area, enhancing grain yield. Stresses during plants early growth have a sizable effect on tiller production. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of stresses induced by unevenness in sowing depth, defoliation and differences in soil pH on tiller emission and dry mass accumulation of wheat cultivars. The experiments were carried out in Lages, Southern Brazil, during the winter growing seasons of 2000 and 2001. They were performed in square boxes, under natural conditions of radiation and irrigation. In the first experiment, five types of sowing depths were tested to simulate different systems of unevenness in plant emergence of cultivar Embrapa 16. In the second experiment, two wheat cultivars (BRS 177 and BRS 179 were submitted to four types of main stem defoliation. The third experiment assessed the effects of three levels of soil acidity correction on the tillering pattern of Fundacep 29. Unevenness in sowing depth, alternating pairs of seeds at 3 cm and 5 cm deep, reduced tiller emission and dry mass accumulation. The removal of the first and second main stem leaves reduced significantly BRS 179 tiller dry mass and number and did not affect the tillering pattern of BRS 177. The lack of liming restricted tiller emission and reduced plant dry mass accumulation.

  16. Effect of HMW-GS 5+10 on Quality Parameters in Four Leading Wheat Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-bin; SUN Lian-fa; XIN Wen-li; SONG Qin-jie; ZHANG Chun-li; ZHAO Hai-bin; XIAO Zhi-min; QI Shi-yu

    2003-01-01

    HMW-GS 5+ 10 was introduced to four major wheat cultivars Kehan9, Kefeng3, Longmai20and Kenda4 through 5 or 6 consecutive backcrosses. No significant difference in protein content and dry glutencontent was observed between cultivars containing 5+ 10 and 2+ 12 or 3+12 (P>0. 1). In cuitivars contai-ning HMW-GS 5 +10, the ratio of wet gluten content to dry gluten content was 2.9 -5.0 % (P<0.01) lowerthan the ratio from the cultivars containing 2+ 12 or 3+12, the ratio of Zeleny sedimentation volume to drygluten content was 4.5 - 13.4% (P<0. 05) higher. The degree of softening in cuitivars having 5+10 was 15- 25 FU (P<0.01) lower, while the maximum resistance was 82 - 193 EU (P<0.05) higher. Backcrosseswith biochemical marker assisted selection in the improvement of quality in wheat cultivars was discussed.

  17. Wheat cultivar tolerance to boron deficiency and toxicity in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlani Ângela Maria Cangiani

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Field symptoms of open spikelets in wheat were observed in specific cultivars and supposedly related to low B soils and differential B requirement among cultivars. This study aimed to evaluate the response of four wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars, IAC 24, IAC 60, IAC 287 and IAC 289, to increasing B concentrations in nutrient solution. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design, with four replicates and five B concentrations (0.0, 0.05, 0.2, 0.8 and 2.0 mg L-1, during 1997/1998, in a greenhouse. Plants were grown to maturity and evaluated for plant height, spike number and length, open spikelet number, grains per spike, plant parts dry matter, B, P, K, Ca and Mg leaf concentrations and total nutrient contents. The visual symptoms of B deficiency consisted of open spikelets, distorted spikes without grains. 'IAC 60' and 'IAC 287' had higher B efficiency, with the highest grain yields in lower B concentrations. The 'IAC 287' and 'IAC 24' were more tolerant to the highest B concentrations. 'IAC 24' required more B for grain production as compared to the other cultivars. The critical leaf B concentration for deficiency was 25 mg kg-1 of dry matter tissue for all cultivars, and for toxicity were: 44 to 45 mg kg-1 for 'IAC 60' and 'IAC 289'; 228 and 318 mg kg-1 for 'IAC 24' and 'IAC 287', respectively. Except for the highest B level in the nutrient solution, the leaf P, K, Ca and Mg concentrations and whole plant contents were in an adequate range in the plants and did not vary among cultivars.

  18. Organic acid metabolism and root excretion of malate in wheat cultivars under aluminium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Leide Rovênia Miranda; Ikeda, Motoki; do Amaral, Lourdes Isabel Velho; Ishizuka, Junji

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aluminium (Al) on the metabolism of organic acids synthesised via nonphotosynthetic carbon fixation in the roots and on malate exudation were investigated in Al-tolerant Shirosanjyaku (SH) and Al-sensitive Chikushikomugi (CK) wheat cultivars labelled with bicarbonate-(14)C. Aluminum triggered the excretion of (14)C into the solution, especially in the SH that excreted 2.5 times more (14)C than the CK. The loss of radioactivity (about 10%) into the solution represented a small drain in the (14)C reserve found in the roots. In the organic acid fraction within the roots, malate contained the greatest amount of (14)C, and this amount decreased rapidly with time in both cultivars. The disappearance of radioactivity in the malate resulted from metabolism and translocation rather than to root efflux. Aluminium decreased the malate concentrations in roots of both cultivars. The Al-sensitive cultivar had higher concentrations of malate regardless of the presence of Al. It was therefore assumed that the decrease of malate concentration in roots under Al stress did not result from the decline in malate synthesis but due to an increase in malate decomposition. This response was interpreted as the result of the Al-induced stress and not as the cause of a differential Al-tolerance between the wheat cultivars. An important component of the differential Al tolerance between SH and CK is the greater ability of the Al-tolerant cultivar to excrete malate from the roots, which is independent of its internal concentration in the roots.

  19. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50-150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain.

  20. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50–150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  1. Improvement of a headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the analysis of wheat bread volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, Antonio; Carcea, Marina; Castagna, Claudia; Magrì, Andrea

    2015-08-07

    An improved method based on headspace solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) was proposed for the semi-quantitative determination of wheat bread volatile compounds isolated from both whole slice and crust samples. A DVB/CAR/PDMS fibre was used to extract volatiles from the headspace of a bread powdered sample dispersed in a sodium chloride (20%) aqueous solution and kept for 60min at 50°C under controlled stirring. Thirty-nine out of all the extracted volatiles were fully identified, whereas for 95 other volatiles a tentative identification was proposed, to give a complete as possible profile of wheat bread volatile compounds. The use of an array of ten structurally and physicochemically similar internal standards allowed to markedly improve method precision with respect to previous HS-SPME/GC-MS methods for bread volatiles. Good linearity of the method was verified for a selection of volatiles from several chemical groups by calibration with matrix-matched extraction solutions. This simple, rapid, precise and sensitive method could represent a valuable tool to obtain semi-quantitative information when investigating the influence of technological factors on volatiles formation in wheat bread and other bakery products.

  2. Plant Extract Control of the Fungi Associated with Different Egyptian Wheat Cultivars Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Baka Zakaria Awad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Grain samples of 14 Egyptian wheat cultivars were tested for seed-borne fungi. The deep freezing method was used. Five seed-borne fungi viz., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme and Penicillium chrysogenum were isolated from the wheat cultivars viz., Bani Suef 4, Bani Suef 5, Gemmiza 7, Gemmiza 9, Gemmiza 10, Giza 168, Misr 1, Misr 2, Sakha 93, Sakha 94, Shandaweel 1, Sids 1, Sids 2 and Sids 3. A. flavus, A. niger and F. moniliforme were the most prevalent fungal species. Their incidence ranged from 21.0-53.5%, 16.0-37.5%, and 12.0-31.0%, respectively. The antifungal potential of water extracts from aerial parts of five wild medicinal plants (Asclepias sinaica, Farsetia aegyptia, Hypericum sinaicum, Phagnalon sinaicum, and Salvia aegyptiaca were collected from the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The antifungal potential of water extracts from the aerial parts of these five plants were tested in the laboratory against the dominant fungi isolated from the wheat cultivars. All the aqueous plant extracts significantly (p ≤ 0.05 reduced the incidence of the tested seed-borne fungi. But the extract of Asclepias sinaica exhibited the most antifungal activity on tested fungi at all concentrations used when compared with other plant extracts. Maximum infested grain germination was observed in Giza 168 and minimum in Bani Suef 5. Treating grains with plant extract of A. sinaica (10% enhanced the percentage of grain germination of all cultivars in both laboratory and pot experiments. Maximum root and shoot length of seedlings was recorded in Bani Suef 4 during fungal infestation or treatment by plant extract. For one hour before sowing or storage, the aqueous extract of A. sinaica can be used to treat wheat grains, to reduce the fungal incidence. Aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of selected medicinal plants, particularly A. sinaica, are promising for protecting Egyptian wheat grain cultivars against major seed-borne fungi

  3. Total phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of flour, noodles, and steamed bread made from different colored wheat grains by three milling methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaoguang; Li; Dongyun; Ma; Dexiang; Sun; Chenyang; Wang; Jian; Zhang; Yingxin; Xie; Tiancai; Guo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of wheat variety, food processing, and milling method on antioxidant properties. Black wheat variety Heibaoshi 1 had the highest total phenolic content(659.8 μg gallic acid equivalents g-1), total flavonoid content(319.3 μg rutin equivalents g-1), and antioxidant activity, whereas light purple wheat variety Shandongzimai 1 had the lowest total flavonoid content(236.2 μg rutin equivalents g-1) and antioxidant activity. Whole wheat flour and partially debranned grain flour had significantly higher total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity than refined flour(P < 0.05). Compared with flour, total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity decreased in noodles and steamed bread, whereas noodles had slightly higher total phenolic and flavonoid content than steamed bread. Antioxidant activities(by ferric reducing ability of plasma assay) of steamed bread made from whole wheat flour, partially debranned grain flour, and refined flour were 23.5%, 21.1%, and 31.6% lower, respectively, than the corresponding values of flour. These results suggested that black whole wheat flour and partially debranned grain flour are beneficial to human health.

  4. Total phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of flour, noodles, and steamed bread made from different colored wheat grains by three milling methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaoguang Li; Dongyun Ma; Dexiang Sun; Chenyang Wang; Jian Zhang; Yingxin Xie; Tiancai Guo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of wheat variety, food processing, and milling method on antioxidant properties. Black wheat variety Heibaoshi 1 had the highest total phenolic content (659.8μg gallic acid equivalents g−1), total flavonoid content (319.3μg rutin equivalents g−1), and antioxidant activity, whereas light purple wheat variety Shandongzimai 1 had the lowest total flavonoid content (236.2μg rutin equivalents g−1) and antioxidant activity. Whole wheat flour and partially debranned grain flour had significantly higher total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity than refined flour (P<0.05). Compared with flour, total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity decreased in noodles and steamed bread, whereas noodles had slightly higher total phenolic and flavonoid content than steamed bread. Antioxidant activities (by ferric reducing ability of plasma assay) of steamed bread made from whole wheat flour, partially debranned grain flour, and refined flour were 23.5%, 21.1%, and 31.6% lower, respectively, than the corresponding values of flour. These results suggested that black whole wheat flour and partially debranned grain flour are beneficial to human health.

  5. Novel Structural and Functional Motifs in cellulose synthase (CesA Genes of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simerjeet Kaur

    Full Text Available Cellulose is the primary determinant of mechanical strength in plant tissues. Late-season lodging is inversely related to the amount of cellulose in a unit length of the stem. Wheat is the most widely grown of all the crops globally, yet information on its CesA gene family is limited. We have identified 22 CesA genes from bread wheat, which include homoeologs from each of the three genomes, and named them as TaCesAXA, TaCesAXB or TaCesAXD, where X denotes the gene number and the last suffix stands for the respective genome. Sequence analyses of the CESA proteins from wheat and their orthologs from barley, maize, rice, and several dicot species (Arabidopsis, beet, cotton, poplar, potato, rose gum and soybean revealed motifs unique to monocots (Poales or dicots. Novel structural motifs CQIC and SVICEXWFA were identified, which distinguished the CESAs involved in the formation of primary and secondary cell wall (PCW and SCW in all the species. We also identified several new motifs specific to monocots or dicots. The conserved motifs identified in this study possibly play functional roles specific to PCW or SCW formation. The new insights from this study advance our knowledge about the structure, function and evolution of the CesA family in plants in general and wheat in particular. This information will be useful in improving culm strength to reduce lodging or alter wall composition to improve biofuel production.

  6. Novel Structural and Functional Motifs in cellulose synthase (CesA) Genes of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simerjeet; Dhugga, Kanwarpal S; Gill, Kulvinder; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the primary determinant of mechanical strength in plant tissues. Late-season lodging is inversely related to the amount of cellulose in a unit length of the stem. Wheat is the most widely grown of all the crops globally, yet information on its CesA gene family is limited. We have identified 22 CesA genes from bread wheat, which include homoeologs from each of the three genomes, and named them as TaCesAXA, TaCesAXB or TaCesAXD, where X denotes the gene number and the last suffix stands for the respective genome. Sequence analyses of the CESA proteins from wheat and their orthologs from barley, maize, rice, and several dicot species (Arabidopsis, beet, cotton, poplar, potato, rose gum and soybean) revealed motifs unique to monocots (Poales) or dicots. Novel structural motifs CQIC and SVICEXWFA were identified, which distinguished the CESAs involved in the formation of primary and secondary cell wall (PCW and SCW) in all the species. We also identified several new motifs specific to monocots or dicots. The conserved motifs identified in this study possibly play functional roles specific to PCW or SCW formation. The new insights from this study advance our knowledge about the structure, function and evolution of the CesA family in plants in general and wheat in particular. This information will be useful in improving culm strength to reduce lodging or alter wall composition to improve biofuel production.

  7. Staling of white wheat bread crumb and effect of maltogenic α-amylases. Part 1: Spatial distribution and kinetic modeling of hardness and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo, José Manuel; Del Olmo Alvarez, Arantxa; Engelsen, Merete Møller; Lundkvist, Henrik; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-10-01

    Bread staling is one of the most costly food deterioration processes. This study presents an in-depth, multivariate, statistical assessment of the differences in the staling process of white wheat bread as a function of storage time, usage of maltogenic α-amylases and spatial position in the loaf by texture measurements and non-linear fitting (Avrami). This study demonstrates the effects of anti-staling enzymes upon bread staling, where significant changes in the spatial staling kinetics occur. While the spatial development of staling is reduced in the outer crumb by anti-staling enzymes, the staling is retarded in the middle. The Avrami model suggests that this happens by two different competing mechanisms: one which increases the initial staling rate, and one which slows the convergence towards the limiting hardness. The two enzyme treated breads differed widely in early and ultimate resilience, despite the fact that they were adjusted to provide the same ultimate hardness.

  8. Identification of a high-molecular-weight subunit of glutenin whose presence correlates with bread-making quality in wheats of related pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, P I; Corfield, K G; Blackman, J A

    1979-05-01

    The subunit composition of glutenin was analysed by SDS-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis using two varieties of contrasting pedigrees. 'Maris Widgeon', a variety of good bread-making quality, was shown to contain 2 glutenin subunits not present in 'Maris Ranger', a much higher yielding variety that is unsuitable for making bread. A third subunit was only found in 'Maris Ranger' glutenin. To determine if any of these subunits are directly related to bread-making quality, 60 randomly-derived F2 progeny from a 'Maris Widgeon' x 'Maris Ranger' cross were analysed for bread-making quality and for glutenin subunit composition. A strong correlation was demonstrated between the presence of one of the two subunits inherited from 'Maris Widgeon', and quality. This subunit (termed subunit 1 glutenin) had an approx. mol. wt. of 145,000. It was also found in 'Maris Freeman', a bread-making variety selected from the same cross previously made in 1962. In further crosses involving 'Maris Widgeon' or its descendants, more bread-making varieties have been produced in the last decade at the Plant Breeding Institute, Cambridge and all but one have inherited glutenin subunit 1. The subunit has been traced back through 'Holdfast' to 'White Fife', a Canadian hard spring wheat of excellent breadmaking quality. Some 67 varieties were screened for the presence of glutenin subunit 1 and it was found in 31% of them. Several unrelated varieties of good bread-making quality did not contain subunit 1 glutenin.

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF HORMONE COMPOSITION OF NUTRIENT MEDIUM FOR IN VITRO EFFICIENT REGENERATION OF BREAD WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Nikitina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Optimal values of phytohormones in the differential nutrient medium providing the efficient realization of morphogenetic potencies of four spring bread wheat varieties (Skala, Spectr, Zarnitsa and Zhnitsa from immature embryo cultures have been determined. For callus induction explants 1.5 – 1.7 mmin size were used, which were subsequently passed to the medium by Linsmaier&Skoog possessing 0.8 % of agar, 3 % of sucrose and 2.0 mg l-1 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. Cell cultures were incubated in darkness at the temperature 26±1 °С. 30 – 35 days after in accordance with the scheme of complete factorial experiment of 32 type calli were passed to differential medium supplemented with 2,4-D at levels 0.5; 2.5; 4.0 mg l-1 and with kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine at levels 0.5; 2.25 and 4.0 mg l-1. Number of replications for each of 9 variants was four. As a result, 20 mathematic models (4 varieties × 5 stages of regeneration designed as polynomial quadric equation were obtained. On the ground of the analysis of models it was established that optimal values for factors are not equal both for cultures of genotypes analyzed and for different regeneration stages. For callus tissues of Skala and Spectr an optimal value of kinetin for all regeneration stages was 0.5 mg l-1 except for the frequency of morphogenesis. Optimal values of 2,4-D for the same varieties were within 2.3 – 3.2 mg l-1. For cell cultures of Zarnitsa and Zhnitsa recommended concentration intervals made up 1.3 – 2.2 mg l-1 on kinetin except for the frequency of rhizogenesis, and 1.9 – 2.7 on 2,4-D. The level of exogenous phytohormones necessary for stem differentiation was lower than the one for root formation. The dependence of morphogenesis results on the hormonal status of the explant has been discussed.

  10. Development and discrimination of 12 double ditelosomics in tetraploid wheat cultivar DR147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Wang, Changyou; Fu, Shulan; Guo, Xiang; Yang, Baoju; Chen, Chunhuan; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Yajuan; Liu, Xinlun; Han, Fangpu; Ji, Wanquan

    2014-02-01

    As an important group in Triticum, tetraploid wheat plays a significant role in the research of wheat evolution. Several complete aneuploid sets of common wheat have provided valuable tools for genetic and breeding studies, while similar aneuploids of tetraploid wheat are still not well developed. Here, 12 double ditelosomics developed in Triticum turgidum L. var. durum cultivar DR147 (excluding dDT2B and dDT3A) were reported. Hybrids between DR147 and the original double-ditelosomic dDT2B of Langdon lost vigor and died prematurely after the three-leaf stage; therefore, the dDT2B line was not obtained. The cytogenetic behaviors and phenotypic characteristics of each line were detailedly described. To distinguish the entire chromosome complement of tetraploid wheat, the DR147 karyotype was established by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using the Aegilops tauschii clone pAsl and the barley clone pHvG38 as probes. FISH using a cereal-specific centromere repeat (6C6) probe suggested that all the lines possessed four telosomes, except for 4AS of double-ditelosomic dDT4A, which carried a small segment of the long arm. On the basis of the idiogram of DR147, these lines were successfully discriminated by FISH using the probes pAsl and pHvG38 and were then accurately designated.

  11. Response of irrigated wheat cultivars to different nitrogen rates and sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto Teixeira Filho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available High wheat yields require good N fertilization management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different N applications at sowing using Entec (N source with nitrification inhibitor and urea (traditional N source at covering, on four wheat cultivars. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design in a factorial scheme, with four replications, at the Experimental Station of the Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira - UNESP, on a dystrophic, epi-eutrophic alic Red Latosol with loamy texture, formerly under savannah vegetation. Four N rates (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg ha-1 were tested, applied at sowing in the case of Entec and top-dressed 40 days after plant emergence in the case of urea, and the four wheat cultivars E 21, E 22, E 42, and IAC 370. The yield of the wheat cultivars E 21 and E 42 was highest. Plant height and lodging index of cultivar E 22 were greatest, with consequently lowest grain yield. There was no significant difference between Entec (applied at sowing and urea (top-dressed in terms of grain yield and yield components. Nevertheless, urea resulted in a higher N leaf content, and Entec in a larger number of undeveloped spikelets. High nitrogen rates influenced the hectoliter mass negatively, affecting wheat grain quality. Grain yield increased under N rates of up to 82 kg ha-1 N, through Entec applied at sowing or top-dressed urea.Altas produtividades de trigo requerem um bom manejo da adubação nitrogenada. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes doses de nitrogênio na semeadura usando o Entec (fonte de N com inibidor de nitrificação, ou em cobertura, utilizando a ureia, em quatro cultivares de trigo. O experimento foi desenvolvido em área experimental pertencente à Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira - UNESP, em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico epieutrófico álico textura argilosa, o qual foi nativamente ocupado por vegetação de Cerrado. O delineamento estat

  12. Identification of vernalization responsive genes in the winter wheat cultivar Jing841 by transcriptome sequencing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YALAN FENG; YONGYING ZHAO; KETAO WANG; YONG CHUN LI; XIANG WANG; JUN YIN

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to identify vernalization responsive genes in the winter wheat cultivar Jing841 by comparing the transcriptome data with that of a spring wheat cultivar Liaochun10. For each cultivar, seedlings before and after the vernalizationtreatment were sequenced by Solexa/Illumina sequencing. Genes differentially expressed after and before vernalization were identified as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using false discovery rate (FDR) ≤ 0.001 and |log2 (fold change)| >1 as cutoffs. The Jing841-specific DEGs were screened and subjected to functional annotation using gene ontology (GO) database.Vernalization responsive genes among the specific genes were selected for validation by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and the expression change over the time was investigated for the top 11 genes with the most significant expression differences. A total of 138,062 unigenes were obtained. Overall, 636 DEGs were identified as vernalization responsive genes including some known genes such as VRN-1 and COR14a, and some unknown contigs. The qRT-PCR validated changes in the expression of 18 DEGs that were detected by RNA-seq. Among them, 11 genes displayed four different types of expression patterns over time during the 30-day-long vernalization treatment. Genes or contigs such as VRN-A1, COR14a, IRIP, unigene1806 and Cl18953. Contig2 probably have critical roles in vernalization.

  13. QTL Characterization of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in CIMMYT Bread Wheat Line Soru#1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyao He

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB resistant line Soru#1 was hybridized with the German cultivar Naxos to generate 131 recombinant inbred lines for QTL mapping. The population was phenotyped for FHB and associated traits in spray inoculated experiments in El Batán (Mexico, spawn inoculated experiments in Ås (Norway and point inoculated experiments in Nanjing (China, with two field trials at each location. Genotyping was performed with the Illumina iSelect 90K SNP wheat chip, along with a few SSR and STS markers. A major QTL for FHB after spray and spawn inoculation was detected on 2DLc, explaining 15-22% of the phenotypic variation in different experiments. This QTL remained significant after correction for days to heading (DH and plant height (PH, while another QTL for FHB detected at the Vrn-A1 locus on 5AL almost disappeared after correction for DH and PH. Minor QTL were detected on chromosomes 2AS, 2DL, 4AL, 4DS and 5DL. In point inoculated experiments, QTL on 2DS, 3AS, 4AL and 5AL were identified in single environments. The mechanism of resistance of Soru#1 to FHB was mainly of Type I for resistance to initial infection, conditioned by the major QTL on 2DLc and minor ones that often coincided with QTL for DH, PH and anther extrusion (AE. This indicates that phenological and morphological traits and flowering biology play important roles in resistance/escape of FHB. SNPs tightly linked to resistance QTL, particularly 2DLc, could be utilized in breeding programs to facilitate the transfer and selection of those QTL.

  14. Structural differences between rye and wheat breads but not total fiber content may explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juntunen, Katri S; Laaksonen, David E; Autio, Karin;

    2003-01-01

    -fiber rye bread; each bread provided 50 g available carbohydrate and was served with breakfast. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and serum C-peptide were measured in fasting and 8 postprandial blood samples. In vitro starch hydrolysis...... breads were found. Glucose and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses to the rye breads were not significantly different from those to the control, except at 150 and 180 min. In vitro starch hydrolysis was slower in all rye breads than in the control, and the structure of continuous matrix and starch granules...

  15. Characterization of heat tolerance in wheat cultivars and effects on production components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adérico Júnior Badaró Pimentel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: There is a need for heat tolerant wheat cultivars adapted to the expansion of cultivation areas in warmer regions due to the high demand of this cereal for human consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of high temperatures on grain yield and yield components of wheat and characterize heat tolerant wheat genotypes at different development stages. The genotypes were evaluated in the field with and without heat stress. High temperatures reduced the number of spikelets per spike (21%, number of grains per spike (39%, number of grains per spikelet (23%, 1000-grain weight (27% and grain yield (79%. Cultivars MGS 1 Aliança, Embrapa 42, IAC 24-Tucuruí and IAC 364-Tucuruí III are the most tolerant to heat stress between the stages double ridge and terminal spikelet; MGS 1 Aliança, BRS 264, IAC 24-Tucuruí, IAC 364-Tucuruí III and VI 98053, between meiosis and anthesis; and BRS 254, IAC-24-Tucuruí, IAC-364-Tucuruí III and VI 98053, between anthesis and physiological maturity. High temperatures reduce grain yield and yield components. The number of grains per spike is the most reduced component under heat stress. The genotypes differed in tolerance to heat stress in different developmental stages.

  16. PEMANFAATAN UBI JALAR UNGU (Ipomoea batatas L. Poir SEBAGAI PENGGANTI SEBAGIAN TEPUNG TERIGU DAN SUMBER ANTIOKSIDAN PADA ROTI TAWAR [Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Poir as a Partial Subtitute of Wheat flour and Source of Antioxidant on Plain Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoko*

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Poir is potential for functional food, especially as antioxidant source due to its purple color and other nutrient content. The objective of this research was to produce plain bread containing antioxidant by partial substitution of wheat flour with purple sweet potato flour. The result showed that the best plain bread was produced by a maximum substitution of 20% purple sweet potato flour to wheat flour. The hedonic characteristics of the resulting bread including aroma, taste, and texture were not significantly different from bread without substitution. Nevertheless, the crust was harder and darker. Addition of 1.0% GMS emulsifier and reduction of purple potato flour to 15% increased the score of softness, hedonic texture, acceptance level, as well as the volume of the bread. The substituted bread had antioxidant activity of 55833.78 ppm DPPH as shown by the IC50 value and contained 4.30% of dietary fiber.

  17. From image processing to classification: IV. Classification of electrophoretic patterns by neural networks and statistical methods enable quality assessment of wheat varieties for bread making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.; Kesmir, Can; Søndergaard, Ib

    1996-01-01

    The end-use quality of products made from doughs consisting of wheat flour and water is often dependent upon the storage (gluten) proteins of the grain endosperm. Today the electrophoretic patterns of the high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits are used for quality selections in wheat......], and discriminant analysis [2,3]. Three groups of seven wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L.), associated with poor, medium or good properties in relation to bread-making quality, were used. The best classification results were obtained by the neural network model, based on data from the gliadin fraction...

  18. Effect of bread dough mixing method on rye bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Dragutin A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sourdough (indirect bread dough mixing method on the quality of rye/wheat bread (TYPE 500 wheat flour and whole grain rye flour - 60:40 and determine its advantages over the straight dough method. Three bread dough mixing methods were used: I - indirect bread dough mixing using flour scalding; II - indirect bread dough mixing without flour scalding; III - straight dough mixing. The study involved the monitoring of the following: microbial characterristics of the flour and dough (yeasts and lactic acid bacteria and of the bread (presence of Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts and moulds; chemical properties of the dough and the bread (pH and degree of acidity; organoleptic attributes of bread (volume, porosity according to Dallman, crumb elasticity, pore structure fineness, bread crumb score, external appearance, crumb appearance, flavour of both the crust and the crumb. The results showed the highest counts of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the indirect bread dough mixing method using rye flour scalding. The rye/wheat bread made with sourdough had a mild sourish flavour, an intense aroma, a prolonged shelf life, and reduced crumbliness. The study suggests that the technological process of sourdough-type rye/wheat bread making is an important requirement in improving bread quality and assortment that can be used in any bakery facility.[ Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31057 i br. III 46009

  19. 小麦胚芽粉对馒头品质的影响%Influences of wheat germ on quality of steamed bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩俊俊; 刘长虹; 何学勇; 李志建; 杨晓露

    2012-01-01

    The influence of wheat germ on the quality of steamed bread was studied. The changes of specific volume, whiteness, hardness points and sensory evaluation of steamed bread were mensurated. The results show that, with the increasing of the content of the wheat germ powder, the whiteness and specific volume of the steamed bread show a downward trend, while the hardness shows an upward trend. The sensory evaluation of steamed bread shows a first in- creases, then decreases trend, and the steamed bread obtain a highest sensory score when the ad- dition is 6%.%研究了小麦胚芽粉加入量对馒头品质的影响。测定不同小麦胚芽粉加入量下制得的馒头的比容、白度、硬度以及感官评分等并观察其变化,结果显示,随着小麦胚芽粉含量的增加,馒头的白度和比容均呈下降趋势,而硬度呈现先平缓后上升的趋势,馒头的感官评分则是先增大后减小,在加入量为6%时所制得的馒头的感官评分最高。

  20. Effect of different proportions of brea gum in the functional characteristics of wheat flour starch: impact on the physical quality of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Patricia LÓPEZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the changes induced by BG in the behaviour of wheat starch, and observe the influence of these variations on the quality of a basic white bread. The effect of four BG addition levels in the wheat flour functional characteristics (WAI, WSI, and pasting properties and bread quality (physical parameters, crumb grain structure, moisture and hardness was investigated. The highest levels of BG (1% and 2% decreased the peak viscosity, and increased the stability and setback of the flour. This was due to a lower gelatinization of the starch granules, caused by a competition for water between the hydrocolloid and starch. These changes influenced the bread quality. The loaves added with 1% and 2% of BG presented smaller alveoli: this resulted in more compact, hard and less airy crumbs. Nevertheless, the moisture of the samples at 1% and 2% of added gum was higher than the control bread. However, the incorporation of BG at 0.5% did not affect the pasting parameters and bread quality, but increased moisture of crumb, so this concentration would be most recommended for baking, since higher humidity could favour the shelf- life of the product.

  1. Detection and quantitation of 2,5-diketopiperazines in wheat sourdough and bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Liam A M; Dal Bello, Fabio; Arendt, Elke K; Koehler, Peter

    2009-10-28

    Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to quantify the levels of the 2,5-diketopiperazines cis-cyclo(L-Leu-L-Pro) and cis-cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro) in acidified dough and bread. Dough acidification led to a significant increase in the level of cis-cyclo(L-Leu-L-Pro) and cis-cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro) over 48 h compared to a nonacidified dough. However, no differences were found between chemically (mix of lactic and acetic acid in the presence of antibiotics) and biologically acidified doughs. On examination of the levels of cis-cyclo(L-Leu-L-Pro) and cis-cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro) in bread crumb and crust, it was found that temperature is the main causative agent of 2,5-diketopiperazine formation during the baking process. Bread crumb and crust contained almost 100 and 2000 times respectively the levels found in dough prior to baking. cis-Cyclo(L-Leu-L-Pro) and cis-cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro) were also found to be at sensorally active levels in bread crust, however both 2,5-diketopiperazines were found to be below the minimum inhibitory concentration for antifungal activity in bread.

  2. Screening of Bangladeshi winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars for sensitivity to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitanis, Costas J; Bari, Shafiqul M; Burkey, Kent O; Stamatelopoulos, Dimitris; Agathokleous, Evgenios

    2014-12-01

    The sensitivity to ozone of ten Bangladeshi wheat cultivars was tested by exposing plants to eight ozone exposure regimes (50, 60, 80, 100, 120, 135, 150, and 200 ppb for 14, 11, 8, 6, 5, 4, 3, and 1 days, respectively, for 8 h/day) in controlled environment chambers. Visible leaf injury, dry weight, chlorophyll, carotenoid content, leaf greenness (SPAD value), quantum yield of photosynthesis, and stomatal resistance were measured to evaluate response. Shoot biomass, total chlorophyll, leaf greenness, and carotenoid content were reduced in ozone-exposed plants. Based on the results of principal component analysis (PCA)-biplot analysis, the order of sensitivity to ozone was: Akbar > Sufi ≥ Bijoy ≥ Shatabdi > Bari-26 ≥ Gourab > Bari-25 ≥ Prodip ≥ Sourav > Kanchan. The most important parameters to discriminate cultivars with respect to ozone sensitivity were visible injury and chlorophyll b/a ratio, whereas quantum yield of photosynthesis was less important. Differences in stomatal resistance were not a significant factor in ozone response. Regression of cultivars' PCA scores against year of release revealed no trend, suggesting that ozone tolerance was not incorporated during cultivar breeding.

  3. Effects of external potassium (k supply on drought tolerances of two contrasting winter wheat cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguang Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drought is a common stress limiting crops growth and productivities worldwide. Water deficit may increase cellular membrane permeability, resulting in K outflow. Internal K starvation may disorder plant metabolism and limit plant growth. However, it is seldom reported about the effects of external K on drought tolerance of contrasting wheat cultivars. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hydroponics experiment was carried out in a non-controlled greenhouse. Seedlings of drought-tolerant SN16 and intolerant JM22 were simultaneously treated by five levels of K2CO3 (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mM and two levels of PEG6000 (0, 20% for 7 days. External K2CO3 significantly increased shoot K(+ content, water potential, chlorophyll content as well as gas exchange, but decreased electrolyte leakage (EL and MDA content in both cultivars under PEG6000 stress. Antioxidant enzymes activities were up-regulated by PEG6000 while external K2CO3 reduced those changes. Molecular basis was explained by measuring the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes. Shoot and root biomass were also increased by K2CO3 supply under drought stress. Although adequate K2CO3 application enhanced plant growth for both cultivars under drought stress, SN16 was better than JM22 due to its high drought tolerance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Adequate external K may effectively protect winter wheat from drought injuries. We conclude that drought-tolerant wheat combined with adequate external K supply may be a promising strategy for better growth in arid and semi-arid regions.

  4. Effects of Molybdenum on the Intermediates of Chlorophyll Biosynthesis in Winter Wheat Cultivars Under Low Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Min; HU Cheng-xiao; WANG Yun-hua

    2006-01-01

    The objective was to probe the site where the biosynthesis of chlorophyll was blocked under Mo deficiency at low temperature, which led to the decrease of chlorophyll in winter wheat cultivars. The intermediates of chlorophyll biosynthesis were analyzed in winter wheat cultivars in soil culture, miniblock culture, and solution culture to study the effects of Mo on chlorophyll biosynthesis without Mo addition (CK, soil available Mo 0.112 mg kg-1) and Mo addition (+ Mo,0.13 mg kg-1 Mo was added). Laevulinic acid (LA), the competitive analog of δ-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) was also introduced in the experiment. The ratio of Chl a/Chl b was constant between CK and + Mo treatment, whereas it increased at low temperature, which indicated that Mo deficiency did not inhibit the transformation of Chl a to Chl b at low temperature. Under Mo deficiency, the contents of protochlorophyll (Pchl), Mg-protoporphyrin Ⅸ (Mg-Proto Ⅸ),protoporphyrin Ⅸ (proto Ⅸ), and uroporphyrinogen Ⅲ (Uro Ⅲ) decreased [Uro Ⅲ decreased significantly (P < 0.01)],whereas ALA and glutamate increased significantly (P < 0.01) compared with that of Mo addition, which suggested that the transformation from ALA to Ufo Ⅲ might be inhibited. The content of ALA reversed after addition of LA, it was significantly higher (P<0.01) in Mo addition than in CK. The results indicated that the transformation from ALA to Uro Ⅲ was blocked under Mo deficiency, which resulted in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of chlorophyll and led to the decrease of chlorophyll in winter wheat cultivars.

  5. Analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC of gluten proteins using Ward's clustering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been substantial breeding efforts in North Dakota to produce wheat cultivars that are well adapted to weather conditions and are disease resistant. In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed with regard to how they cluster in terms...

  6. Impact of wheat bran derived arabinoxylanoligosaccharides and associated ferulic acid on dough and bread properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelders, Jeroen; Dornez, Emmie; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-07-23

    The impact of arabinoxylanoligosaccharides (AXOS) with varying bound or free ferulic acid (FA) content on dough and bread properties was studied in view of their prebiotic and antioxidant properties. AXOS with an FA content of 0.1-1.7% caused an increase in dough firmness with increasing AXOS concentration. AXOS with a high FA content (7.2%), on the contrary, resulted in an increase in dough extensibility and a decrease in resistance to extension, similar to that for free FA, when added in levels up to 2%. Higher levels resulted in unmanageable dough. A limited impact on dough gluten network formation was observed. These results suggest that for highly feruloylated AXOS, the FA-mediated dough softening supersedes the firming effect displayed by the carbohydrate moiety of AXOS. The impact of the different AXOS on bread volume, however, was minimal. Furthermore, AXOS in bread were not engaged in covalent cross-linking and significantly increased its antioxidant capacity.

  7. Distribution of photoperiod-insensitive allele Ppd-A1a and its effect on heading time in Japanese wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Masako; Chono, Makiko; Nishimura, Tsutomu; Sato, Mikako; Yoshimura, Yasuhiro; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Fujita, Masaya; Oda, Shunsuke; Kubo, Katashi; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Kojima, Hisayo; Nishida, Hidetaka; Kato, Kenji

    2013-09-01

    The Ppd-A1 genotype of 240 Japanese wheat cultivars and 40 foreign cultivars was determined using a PCR-based method. Among Japanese cultivars, only 12 cultivars, all of which were Hokkaido winter wheat, carried the Ppd-A1a allele, while this allele was not found in Hokkaido spring wheat cultivars or Tohoku-Kyushu cultivars. Cultivars with a photoperiod-insensitive allele headed 6.9-9.8 days earlier in Kanto and 2.5 days earlier in Hokkaido than photoperiod-sensitive cultivars. The lower effect of photoperiod-insensitive alleles observed in Hokkaido could be due to the longer day-length at the spike formation stage compared with that in Kanto. Pedigree analysis showed that 'Purple Straw' and 'Tohoku 118' were donors of Ppd-A1a and Ppd-D1a in Hokkaido wheat cultivars, respectively. Wheat cultivars recently developed in Hokkaido carry photoperiod-insensitive alleles at a high frequency. For efficient utilization of Ppd-1 alleles in the Hokkaido wheat-breeding program, the effect of Ppd-1 on growth pattern and grain yield should be investigated. Ppd-A1a may be useful as a unique gene source for fine tuning the heading time in the Tohoku-Kyushu region since the effect of Ppd-A1a on photoperiod insensitivity appears to differ from the effect of Ppd-B1a and Ppd-D1a.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF DISPERSION OF FLOUR’S PARTICLES FROM WHOLE-GRAIN WHEAT AND DISPERSED GRAIN MASS ON STRUCTURE FORMATION OF DOUGH AND BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Cheshinskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. On structure of "whipped" bread and dough is influenced by many factors, one of which is a dispersion of particles of flour. In this regard, was determined to investigate the structure formation processes of bread depending on the dispersity of the particles of flour. For this I have chosen two parties coarse whole meal flour from wheat grains with different grain size, select different modes humidity test and the experiment in the mixing-whipping-forming installation. The results of the experiment were obtained graphs showing the dependence of the current strength of the drive and volume weight on the duration of the process of churning the dough. At the stage deposits with increasing wetness of the dough decreases its viscosity and decreases the value of the current intensity. At the stage of churning Pro-comes a saturation test the air, thus decreasing its viscosity and current drive. Properties of dough and bread from different batches were compared. The dough obtained from flour II party, i.e., low dispersion, has a small viscosity, and the bread is slightly moist to the touch. . Thus, the results of the experiment showed that the physic-chemical and colloidal processes in structure formation of dough and bread is higher, the higher dispersity particles of flour, and, consequently, improves the quality of "whipped" bread.

  9. Comparison of Stability and Adaptability in New Cereal; Primary Tritipyrum, with Iranian Bread Wheat and Triticale Using Different Stability Parameters in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Farokhzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the genotype-environment interaction for grain yield in eight primary and combined primary tritipyrum lines in comparison with four Iranian bread wheat varieties and five promising triticale lines, an experiment in randomized completely block design with three replication in three locations of Iran (Kerman, Sirjan, Neyriz including 7 separate environment during 2001-2002, 2005-2006 and 2010-2011 were conducted. The results of combined analysis of variance for grain yield showed significant differences between environments and genotype × environment interactions. The results of stability analysis for high yielding lines/cultivars indicated first, in Eberhart and Russell grouping method Based on slope of regression line, grain yield average and also deviation of regression line parameters, combined primary tritipyrum line (Ka/b(Cr/b-5 and triticale 4115, 4108 and M45 lines showed good compatibility in all environments. Second, the results of genotypes category in cluster analysis based on criteria ecovalance and stability variance was exactly the same. Third,, based on ecovalance, stability variance parameters and mean yield, the combined primary tritipyrum line (Ka/b(Cr/b-5 and promising triticales 4108 and M45 Lines indicated low genotype × environment interaction and high growth performance in comparison with all varieties and lines. This tritipyrum line can be introduced as a potential pasture Line in arid and semi arid area of Iran particulary with brackish water and saline soils. The two triticale lines can be registerd as high grain lines in poor lands of Iran for cereal production for the first time.

  10. Manufacture of gluten-free specialty breads and confectionery products

    Science.gov (United States)

    People suffering from celiac disease, wheat allergies or wheat intolerances require breads not containing any wheat or related cereals like rye and barley. The manufacture of these so-called gluten-free breads is not well understood and much less literature is available than on wheat breads. On the ...

  11. Evaluation of genetic bases and diversity of Egyptian wheat cultivars released during the last 50 years using coefficient of parentage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhoja R. Basnet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Discerning the genetic diversity of any crop species provides insight into the strength of an applied breeding program and directs future breeding strategies aimed at long-term genetic gain and minimized genetic vulnerability. The number and abundance of ancestral parents present in the pedigree of crop cultivars can provide an average estimation of the depth of the genetic base of the overall crop improvement program. The objectives of this study were to estimate (1 the genetic similarity among 33 Egyptian wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars and different eras of release (1947-2004 and productivity groups based on COP values, and (2 the relative genetic contribution and abundance of ancestral parents from different geographical origins to the total gene pool of Egyptian wheat cultivars. Broad genetic diversity was observed among 33 Egyptian cultivars with average COP value of 0.11 and large numbers of ancestral parents (155 landraces traced to 31 countries. The genetic base ranged from very low in pre 1960’s cultivars such as ‘Giza 139’ (with only 3 landraces in the background to very high in modern cultivars such as ‘Gemmeiza-7’ (with 73 landraces in the background. ‘Hindi-62’, ‘Red Fife’, ‘Hard Red Calcutta’ and ‘Akagomughi’ were the major ancestors with 6, 5, 4, and 4% of total genetic contribution to the Egyptian wheat gene pool, respectively. Egypt, United States of America, Kenya and Ukraine were the major source countries with 16, 11, 9 and 7% of total genetic contribution to this gene pool, respectively. Though Marquis-Thatcher germplasm from North America has the greatest influence on overall Egyptian cultivars, Mexican-based sources of dwarfing and high yield, derived from ancestors such as ‘Akagomughi’ and ‘Daruma’ and exploited by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT, were very prominent in Egyptian cultivars post 1970’s.

  12. Proteomic and genetic analysis of wheat endosperm albumins and globulins using deletion lines of cultivar Chinese Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Marielle; Bousbata, Sabrina; Svensson, Birte;

    2012-01-01

    Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were...... the composition and genetics of a complex tissue, such as the wheat endosperm.......Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were...... in endosperm proteins due to chromosomal deletions. This differential analysis of spots allowed structural or regulatory genes, encoding 211 proteins, to be located on segments of the 21 wheat chromosomes. In addition, variance analysis of quantitative variations in spot volume showed that the expression...

  13. Combined impact of climate change, cultivar shift, and sowing date on spring wheat phenology in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dengpan; Tao, Fulu; Shen, Yanjun; Qi, Yongqing

    2016-08-01

    Distinct climate changes since the end of the 1980s have led to clear responses in crop phenology in many parts of the world. This study investigated the trends in the dates of spring wheat phenology in relation to mean temperature for different growth stages. It also analyzed the impacts of climate change, cultivar shift, and sowing date adjustments on phenological events/phases of spring wheat in northern China (NC). The results showed that significant changes have occurred in spring wheat phenology in NC due to climate warming in the past 30 years. Specifically, the dates of anthesis and maturity of spring wheat advanced on average by 1.8 and 1.7 day (10 yr)-1. Moreover, while the vegetative growth period (VGP) shortened at most stations, the reproductive growth period (RGP) prolonged slightly at half of the investigated stations. As a result, the whole growth period (WGP) of spring wheat shortened at most stations. The findings from the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM)-Wheat model simulated results for six representative stations further suggested that temperature rise generally shortened the spring wheat growth period in NC. Although the warming trend shortened the lengths of VGP, RGP, and WGP, the shift of new cultivars with high accumulated temperature requirements, to some extent, mitigated and adapted to the ongoing climate change. Furthermore, shifts in sowing date exerted significant impacts on the phenology of spring wheat. Generally, an advanced sowing date was able to lower the rise in mean temperature during the different growth stages (i.e., VGP, RGP, and WGP) of spring wheat. As a result, the lengths of the growth stages should be prolonged. Both measures (cultivar shift and sowing date adjustments) could be vital adaptation strategies of spring wheat to a warming climate, with potentially beneficial effects in terms of productivity.

  14. Analysis of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars inoculated with Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Chami C; Simsek, Senay; Brûlé-Babel, Anita; Fernando, W G Dilantha

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of wheat grains with Fusarium mycotoxins and their modified forms is an important issue in wheat industry. The objective of this study was to analyse the deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides (D3G) content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars grown in two locations, inoculated with a mixture of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON)-producing Fusarium graminearum strains and a mixture of 15-acetlyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON)-producing F. graminearum strains. According to the analysis of variance, significant differences were observed among the cultivars for Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease index, Fusarium-damaged kernel percentage (%FDK), DON content and D3G content. When the effect of chemotype was considered, significant differences were observed for FHB disease index, FDK percentage and DON content. The D3G content and D3G/DON ratio were not significantly different between the chemotypes, except for D3G content at the Winnipeg location. The Pearson correlation coefficient between DON and D3G was 0.84 and 0.77 at Winnipeg and Carman respectively. The highest D3G/DON ratio was observed in cultivars Carberry (44%) in Carman and CDC Kernen (63.8%) in Winnipeg. The susceptible cultivars showed lower D3G/DON ratio compared with the cultivars rated as moderately resistant and intermediate. The current study indicated that Canadian spring cultivars produce D3G upon Fusarium infection.

  15. mlo-based powdery mildew resistance in hexaploid bread wheat generated by a non-transgenic TILLING approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Garcia, Johanna; Spencer, David; Thieron, Hannah; Reinstädler, Anja; Hammond-Kosack, Kim; Phillips, Andrew L; Panstruga, Ralph

    2017-03-01

    Wheat is one of the most widely grown cereal crops in the world and is an important food grain source for humans. However, wheat yields can be reduced by many abiotic and biotic stress factors, including powdery mildew disease caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt). Generating resistant varieties is thus a major effort in plant breeding. Here, we took advantage of the non-transgenic Targeting Induced Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) technology to select partial loss-of-function alleles of TaMlo, the orthologue of the barley Mlo (Mildew resistance locus o) gene. Natural and induced loss-of-function alleles (mlo) of barley Mlo are known to confer durable broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance, typically at the expense of pleiotropic phenotypes such as premature leaf senescence. We identified 16 missense mutations in the three wheat TaMlo homoeologues, TaMlo-A1, TaMlo-B1 and TaMlo-D1 that each lead to single amino acid exchanges. Using transient gene expression assays in barley single cells, we functionally analysed the different missense mutants and identified the most promising candidates affecting powdery mildew susceptibility. By stacking of selected mutant alleles we generated four independent lines with non-conservative mutations in each of the three TaMlo homoeologues. Homozygous triple mutant lines and surprisingly also some of the homozygous double mutant lines showed enhanced, yet incomplete, Bgt resistance without the occurrence of discernible pleiotropic phenotypes. These lines thus represent an important step towards the production of commercial non-transgenic, powdery mildew-resistant bread wheat varieties.

  16. The transportation and accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, and phosphorus in 12 wheat cultivars and their relationships with each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Gao Ling; Zhu, Shun; Bai, Sheng Nan; Xia, Yan; Lou, Lai Qing; Cai, Qing Sheng

    2015-12-15

    Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the difference in arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and phosphorus (P) uptake, accumulation, and translocation among 12 wheat cultivars and their relationships with each other in soil "naturally" contaminated with both As and Cd. As, Cd, and P concentrations in wheat grain, straw, and root differed significantly (pwheat cultivars. The grain As concentration was not correlated with straw and root As, or the total As content in plants, but was significantly (pRoot) and TFs(Grain/Straw). The grain Cd concentration was positively correlated with the total Cd content and TFs(Grain/Straw). The grain P concentration was positively correlated with straw and root P. Both As and Cd concentrations in wheat grains were correlated with P in wheat straw and grain. Compared with As, Cd was more easily transported to the wheat grain, and the rachis played a key role in ensuring this difference. A significant positive correlation was observed between root As and Cd, but no significant relationship was detected between grain As and Cd concentrations. The lack of a relationship between grain As and Cd suggests the possibility of selecting cultivars in which little As and Cd accumulation occurs in the wheat grain.

  17. Glycine betaine and salicylic acid induced modification in productivity of two different cultivars of wheat grown under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of foliar application of glycine betaine (10mM, grain presoaking in salicylic acid (0.05 M and their interaction on drought tolerance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars (sensitive, Sakha 94 and resistant, Sakha 93. Water stress decreased wheat yield components (spike length, number of spikelets / main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number / spike, grain yield / spike, grain yield / plant, straw yield / plant, crop yield / plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices and the biochemical aspects of grains(grain biomass, carbohydrates, total protein, total phosphorus, ions content and amino acids in both wheat cultivars. The applied chemicals appeared to alleviate the negative effects of water stress on wheat productivity (particularly the sensitive one and the biochemical aspects of yielded grains. The effect was more pronounced with GB+SA treatment. This improvement would result from the repairing effect of the provided chemicals on growth and metabolism of wheat plants grown under water deficit condition. In response to the applied water stress and the used chemicals, the grain yield of the sensitive and resistant wheat cultivars was strongly correlated with all the estimated yield components (shoot length, spike length, plant height, main spike weight, number of spikelets per main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number per spike, grain weight per plant, straw weight per plant, crop yield per plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices.

  18. Postulation of Leaf Rust Resistance Genes in Seven Chinese Spring Wheat Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Li-hong; ZHANG Na; HU Ya-ya; WEI Xue-jun; YANG Wen-xiang; LIU Da-qun

    2013-01-01

    To detect the leaf rust resistance genes in the 7 Chinese spring wheat clultivars Shenmian 99025, Shenmia 99042, Shenmian 85, Shenmian 91, Shenmian 96, Shenmian 1167 and Shenmian 962, Thatcher, Thatcher backgrounded near-isogenic lines and 15 pathotypes of P. triticina were used for gene postulate at the seedling stage, and 9 of the 15 pathotypes were used in the field tests. Molecular markers closely linked to, or co-segregated with resistance genes Lr1, Lr9, Lr10, Lr19, Lr20, Lr21, Lr24, Lr26, Lr28, Lr29, Lr32, Lr34, Lr35, Lr37, Lr38, and Lr47 were screened to assist detection of the resistance genes. As results, 4 known resistance genes, including Lr1, Lr9, Lr26, and Lr34, and other unknown resistance genes were postulated singly or in combination in the tested cultivars. Shenmian 85, Shenmian 91, Shenmian 96, Shenmian 962, Shenmian 1167, and Shenmian 99042 are potentially useful for wheat production and breeding programs. The result suggested that combining gene postulation, molecular markers and pedigrees is effective and more accuracy method to know the resistance genes in cultivars.

  19. Rapid and targeted introgression of genes into popular wheat cultivars using marker-assisted background selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpinder S Randhawa

    Full Text Available A marker-assisted background selection (MABS-based gene introgression approach in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was optimized, where 97% or more of a recurrent parent genome (RPG can be recovered in just two backcross (BC generations. A four-step MABS method was developed based on 'Plabsim' computer simulations and wheat genome structure information. During empirical optimization of this method, double recombinants around the target gene were selected in a step-wise fashion during the two BC cycles followed by selection for recurrent parent genotype on non-carrier chromosomes. The average spacing between carrier chromosome markers was <4 cM. For non-carrier chromosome markers that flanked each of the 48 wheat gene-rich regions, this distance was approximately 12 cM. Employed to introgress seedling stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici resistance gene Yr15 into the spring wheat cultivar 'Zak', marker analysis of 2,187 backcross-derived progeny resulted in the recovery of a BC(2F(2ratio3 plant with 97% of the recurrent parent genome. In contrast, only 82% of the recurrent parent genome was recovered in phenotypically selected BC(4F(7 plants developed without MABS. Field evaluation results from 17 locations indicated that the MABS-derived line was either equal or superior to the recurrent parent for the tested agronomic characteristics. Based on these results, MABS is recommended as a strategy for rapidly introgressing a targeted gene into a wheat genotype in just two backcross generations while recovering 97% or more of the recurrent parent genotype.

  20. Phosphorus Uptake and Utilisation Efficiencies of Different Wheat Cultivars Based on a Sand-Culture Screening System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A sand-based culture system using rock phosphate (P) was developed to simulate the situation in alkalinesoils, with respect to the dominant P form, and five wheat cultivars (Excalibur, Brookton, Krichauff, Westoniaand Sunco) were tested in this screening system to compare their P uptake and utilisation efficiencies. Resultsshowed that these cultivars differed significantly in their ability to acquire P from the sparingly available form(rock phosphate in this case). The accumulation of P by Brookton was three times that by Krichauff. Pconcentrations in plant tissues did not differ significantly, indicating that all cultivars were similar in Putilisation efficiency. A further experiment showed that the greater ability of a cultivar to take up P fromsparingly available form was related to the ability of a cultivar to acidify the rhizosphere. Seed P content wasa confounding factor in this system, and the use of relatively uniform seed with similar P content, preferablylow, was conducive to a successful outcome of the screening process.

  1. Fungicide seed treatment and host resistance for the management of wheat crown rot caused by Fusarium culmorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree R Pariyar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed treatment of wheat with the fungicide thiabendazole on the development of crown rot caused by Fusarium culmorum was evaluated on six wheat genotypes with different genetic sources of resistance under controlled conditions in a growth chamber. Seed of three susceptible (S cultivars, Seri 82 (Spring bread wheat, Kiziltan 91 (Winter durum Wheat, and Demir 2000 (Winter bread wheat and three moderately resistant (MR wheat lines, 2-49 (Spring bread wheat, Altay 2000 (Winter bread wheat, and Burbot-6 (Winter bread wheat were treated with thiabendazole at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 g ai per 100 kg seeds. Thiabendazole seed treatment caused a significant (P< 0.05 reduction in severity of crown rot on 4 out of the 6 wheat genotypes. The highest crown score reduction was recorded on S genotypes Seri 82 and Demir 2000. Thiabendazole at 100 g ai per 100 kg seed gave the highest CS reduction on both the S and MR wheat genotypes. Seed coating with thiabendazole did not show any effect on plant height, plant weight, root length and root weight. No phytotoxicity symptoms were observed at any concentration of the fungicide.

  2. Effect of pentosans addition on pasting properties of flours of eight hard white spring wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Saqib; Ali, Tahira Mohsin; Ul Afzal, Qurat; Ahmed, Mubarik; Siddiqui, Asim Jamal; Hasnain, Abid

    2014-06-01

    The effects of water extractable pentosans (WEP) and water unextractable pentosans (WUP) on pasting properties in flours of eight different hard white spring wheat (HWSW) cultivars was studied. WEP and WUP isolated from a hard wheat flour were added to each of the cultivars at 1% and 2% level. The results indicated that WEP exhibited a pronounced effect on pasting properties as compared to WUP and variety. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate sources of variation. The variety significantly (P < 0.001) influenced all the pasting parameters. WUP caused significant (P < 0.001) variation in paste viscosities (except breakdown). WEP influenced more pronouncedly the hot paste, cold paste, breakdown and setback viscosities with F values-221.802, 214.286, 98.073 and 120.159, respectively. Variety-by-WEP interaction exhibited significant (P < 0.01) influence on pasting time, peak, hot paste and cold paste viscosities. Whereas, variety-by-WUP interaction only significantly (P < 0.001) influenced the pasting- time and -temperature. Duncan's test was used to analyze the significant difference (P < 0.05) within the variety. The results revealed that WUP did not induce significant (P < 0.05) influence on all the pasting parameters, whereas, WEP influenced significantly (P < 0.05) the paste viscosities of some of the varieties. It was also found that the addition of WEP remarkably reduced the setback, hot paste, cold paste viscosities and increased the breakdown viscosity in all cultivar flours. The effect of WEP was greater at higher level of supplementation on paste viscosities.

  3. Iranian wheat flours from rural and industrial mills: Exploitation of the chemical and technology features, and selection of autochthonous sourdough starters for making breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontonio, Erica; Nionelli, Luana; Curiel, José Antonio; Sadeghi, Alireza; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at describing the main chemical and technology features of eight Iranian wheat flours collected from industrial and artisanal mills. Their suitability for bread making was investigated using autochthonous sourdough starters. Chemical analyses showed high concentration of fibers and ash, and technology aptitude for making breads. As shown through 2-DE analyses, gliadin and glutenin subunits were abundant and varied among the flours. According to the back slopping procedure, type I sourdoughs were prepared from Iranian flours, and lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella cibaria, Weissella confusa, and Leuconostoc citreum were the most abundant. Based on the kinetics of growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation and concentration of total free amino acids, lactic acid bacteria were selected and used as sourdough mixed starters for bread making. Compared to spontaneous fermentation, sourdoughs fermented with selected and mixed starters favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities. Although the high concentration of fibers, selected and mixed starters improved the textural features of the breads. This study might had contribute to the exploitation of the potential of Iranian wheat flours and to extend the use of sourdough, showing positive technology, nutritional and, probably, economic repercussions.

  4. Marker-assisted selection of highmolecular weight glutenin alleles related to bread-making quality in Iranian common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Izadi-Darbandi; Bahman Yazdi-Samadi

    2012-08-01

    Bread-making quality in hexaploid wheats is a complex trait. It has been shown that the amount and composition of protein can influence dough rheological properties. The high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenins are encoded by a complex locus, Glu-1, on the long arm of group-1 homoeologus chromosome of the A, B and D genomes. In this work we used PCR-based DNA markers as a substitution tool to distinguish wheat bread-making quality. We detected PCR-based DNA markers for coding sequence of Glu-A1x, Glu-B1x and Glu-D1x to be 2300 bp, 2400 bp and 2500 bp respectively. DNA markers related to coding sequence of Glu-A1y, Glu-B1y and Glu-D1y were; 1800 bp, 2100 bp and 1950 bp, however, the repetitive region of their coding sequence were shown to be about 1300 bp, 1500 bp and 1600 bp. The results demonstrate that the size variation was due to different lengths of the central repetitive domain. Good or poor bread-making quality in wheat is associated with two allelic pairs of Glu-D1, designated 1Dx5-1Dy10 and IDx2-1Dy12. The 1Bx7 allele has moderate-to-good quality score. The specific DNA markers, of 450 bp, 576 bp, 612 bp and 2400 bp respectively were characterized for 1Dx5, 1Dy10, 1Dy12 and 1Bx7 alleles. These markers are very important in screening of wheat for bread-making quality.

  5. Nutritional quality of fermented defatted soya and flaxseed flours and their effect on texture and sensory characteristics of wheat sourdough bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, Elena; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva

    2012-09-01

    The use of soya and flaxseed flours fermented with Pediococcus acidilactici for wheat sourdough bread production was investigated. The protein digestibility, biogenic amine contents of soya and flaxseed sourdoughs, texture and sensory features of bread were studied. The fermentation with P. acidilactici significantly improved soya and flaxseed protein extraction and increased protein digestibility on an average by 13.5%. The concentrations of histamine (3.8 ± 2.3 and 4.0 ± 0.2 mg/kg), tyramine (4.6 ± 0.7 and 19.3 ± 1.8 mg/kg) and putrescine (66.4 ± 1.3 and 11.3 ± 3.0 mg/kg) do not present a health risk for consumers due to their relatively low levels in fermented plant products. The flaxseed sourdoughs influenced a 17.5% higher specific volume and a 4.6% lower crumb hardness of bread than those of soya sourdoughs, and did not disimprove sensory properties of bread. However, the fermented soya additives decreased acceptability of bread because of intensive taste and odour.

  6. Ozone pollution effects on gas exchange, growth and biomass yield of salinity-treated winter wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanhai; Cheng, Da; Simmons, Matthew

    2014-11-15

    A sand-culture experiment was conducted in four Open-Top-Chambers to assess the effects of O3 on salinity-treated winter wheat. Two winter wheat cultivars, salt-tolerant Dekang961 and salt-sensitive Lumai15, were grown under saline (100 mM NaCl) and/or O3 (80±5 nmol mol(-1)) conditions for 35 days. Significant (Pgrowth and biomass yield in the no-salinity treatment. Significant (Psalinity treatment. Soluble sugar and proline contents significantly increased in both cultivars in combined salinity and O3 exposure. O3-induced down-regulation in the gradients of A-C(i) and A-PPFD response curves were much larger in Dekang961 than in Lumai15 under saline conditions. Significant (Psalinity×cultivars and salinity×O3 stresses. The results clearly demonstrated that O3 injuries were closely correlated with plant stomatal conductance (g(s)); the salt-tolerant wheat cultivar might be damaged more severely than the salt-sensitive cultivar by O3 due to its higher g(s) in saline conditions.

  7. Analysis of Quality-Related Parameters in Mature Kernels of Polygalacturonase Inhibiting Protein (PGIP) Transgenic Bread Wheat Infected with Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masci, Stefania; Laino, Paolo; Janni, Michela; Botticella, Ermelinda; Di Carli, Mariasole; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Danieli, Pier Paolo; Lilley, Kathryn S; Lafiandra, Domenico; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-04-22

    Fusarium head blight, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, has a detrimental effect on both productivity and qualitative properties of wheat. To evaluate its impact on wheat flour, we compared its effect on quality-related parameters between a transgenic bread wheat line expressing a bean polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) and its control line. We have compared metabolic proteins, the amounts of gluten proteins and their relative ratios, starch content, yield, extent of pathogen contamination, and deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation. These comparisons showed that Fusarium significantly decreases the amount of starch in infected control plants, but not in infected PGIP plants. The flour of PGIP plants contained also a lower amount of pathogen biomass and DON accumulation. Conversely, both gluten and metabolic proteins were not significantly influenced either by the transgene or by fungal infection. These results indicate that the transgenic PGIP expression reduces the level of infection, without changing significantly the wheat seed proteome and other quality-related parameters.

  8. Evaluation of Diversity and Traits Correlation in Spring Wheat Cultivars under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza NAGHAVI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of diversity and classify agro-morphological characters under normal irrigation and drought stress in spring wheat cultivars, 20 cultivars were evaluated in the research farm of University of Tabriz, Iran. According to the results, significant correlation was found between grain yield and number of spikes per plant, number of tiller per plant, number of fertile tillers, spike length, root length, root number, root volume, root diameter and root dry weight under both conditions. Moreover, 1,000 grain weight and plant dry weight had significant positive correlation with grain yield under drought stress. Factor analysis detected four and two factors which explained 96.77% and 90.59% of the total variation in normal irrigation and drought stress conditions, respectively. In drought stress condition the first factor justified 69.52% of total variation and was identified as yield factor. The second factor explained 21.07% of total variation and represented the biomass and plant height factor. Cluster analysis was based on the four and two factors obtained. According to the amount of factors for clusters obtained under drought stress, ‘Kavir’, ‘Niknejhad’, ‘Moghan 3’, ‘Darya’ and ‘Marvdasht’ were identified as the most drought tolerant cultivars. Other cluster was comprised of ‘Bahar’, ‘Pishtaz’, ‘Bam’, ‘Sepahan’, ‘Sistan’, ‘Pars’ and ‘Sivand’ and was named as the most sensitive under drought stress. Tolerant cultivars identified within the study can be used for direct culture or as genitors in breeding programs.

  9. Genetic variability in anthocyanin composition and nutritional properties of blue, purple, and red bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum) wheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficco, Donatella B M; De Simone, Vanessa; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Pecorella, Ivano; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Finocchiaro, Franca; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

    2014-08-27

    Renewed interest in breeding for high anthocyanins in wheat (Triticum ssp.) is due to their antioxidant potential. A collection of different pigmented wheats was used to investigate the stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. The data show higher anthocyanins in blue-aleurone bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), followed by purple- and red-pericarp durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum), using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as standard. HPLC of the anthocyanin components shows five to eight major anthocyanins for blue wheat extracts, compared to three anthocyanins for purple and red wheats. Delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside are predominant in blue wheat, with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in purple wheat. Of the total anthocyanins, 40-70% remain to be structurally identified. The findings confirm the high heritability for anthocyanins, with small genotype × year effects, which will be useful for breeding purposes, to improve the antioxidant potential of cereal-based foods.

  10. Histology and Ultrastructure of Incompatible Combination Between Puccinia striiformis and Wheat Cultivars with Low Reaction Type Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Zhen-sheng; WANG Yao; HUANG Li-li; WEI Guo-rong; ZHAO Jie

    2003-01-01

    The incompatible combinations between races of Puccinia striiformis and wheat cuitivars withlow reaction type resistance were examined by means of fluorescent microscopy, differential interference con-trast microscopy and electron microscopy. The incompatible combinations consisted of wheat cultivar Niuzhuteplus CY28, Hybrid46 plus CY29 and Tianxuan882 plus CY29, while the compatible combination was wheatcultivar Huixianhong plus CY28. The observation revealed a striking difference in the fungal development andthe host responses between susceptible and resistant wheat cuitivars following infection by the pathogen. Themain histological manifestation of the pathogen development in the resistant wheat cultivars include inhibitionof hyphal growth, delay of hyphal branching and colony formation, decrease of formation of haustorial mothercells and haustoria, and occurrence of host cell necrosis. The observation by electron microscopy demonstratedthat a series of abnormal changes occurred in intercellular hyphae, haustorial mother cells and haustoria dur-ing pathogen development in the resistant wheat cultivars. The cytoplasm became more electron-dense and vac-uoles in the cytoplasm increased in number and size. The cell walls of hyphae, haustorial mother cells werethickened irregularly. The organeiles were disorderly distributed in the cytoplasm and the haustorial mothercells and haustoria lost their physiological function. In the final stage of the pathogen development, the inter-cellular hyphae, haustorial mother cells and haustoria became necrotic and collapsed. The structural defensereactions such as formation of cell wall apposition, collar and encasement of haustorium were essentially morepronounced in the infected wheat leaves of the resistant cultivars than in the susceptible one. In addition, therelationship between the host resistance expression and the histological and cytological features occurred in theincompatible combination was discussed in this paper.

  11. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  12. WHEAT PATHOGEN RESISTANCE AND CHITINASE PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gregorová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The powdery mildew and leaf rust caused by Blumeria graminis and Puccinia recondita (respectively are common diseases of wheat throughout the world. These fungal diseases greatly affect crop productivity. Incorporation of effective and durable disease resistance is an important breeding objective for wheat improvement. We have evaluated resistance of four bread wheat (Triticum aestivum and four spelt wheat (Triticum spelta cultivars. Chitinases occurrence as well as their activity was determined in leaf tissues. There was no correlation between resistance rating and activity of chitinase. The pattern of chitinases reveals four isoforms with different size in eight wheat cultivars. A detailed understanding of the molecular events that take place during a plant–pathogen interaction is an essential goal for disease control in the future.

  13. Tolerância de genótipos de trigo comum, trigo duro e triticale à toxicidade de alumínio em soluções nutritivas Tolerance of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale genotypes to aluminum toxicity in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o comportamento diferencial de 12 genótipos de trigo comum (Triticum aestivum L., um genótipo de trigo duro (Triticum durum L., e um de triticale (Triticosecale sp em soluções nutritivas de tratamento contendo duas concentrações salinas (1/5 e 1/10 da completa e seis concentrações de alumínio ( 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 mg L-1, à temperatura de 25 ± 1ºC e pH 4,0. Foram utilizadas dez plântulas por parcela e quatro repetições. A tolerância foi medida pela capacidade de as raízes primárias continuarem a crescer em solução sem alumínio, após permanecer 48 horas em solução nutritiva completa, contendo uma concentração conhecida de alumínio combinada com cada uma das concentrações salinas. Os genótipos de trigo comum IAC-289, IAC-350 e IAC-370 e a cultivar controle Anahuac, e os genótipos de trigo duro IAC-1003 e de triticale IAC-5 foram os mais sensíveis a níveis crescentes de Al3+nas soluções nutritivas de tratamento e, portanto, somente seriam indicados para cultivo em solos corrigidos. Os genótipos de trigo comum IAC-24 e IAC-378 e a cultivar controle BH-1146 destacaram-se pela tolerância à toxicidade de Al3+, com potencial para uso em solos ácidos e como fontes genéticas de tolerância nos futuros cruzamentos. Os sintomas de toxicidade de alumínio foram maiores com a elevação da concentração de alumínio e da diminuição das concentrações de sais da solução nutritiva para todos os genótipos estudados.Twelve bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., one durum wheat (Triticum durum L. and one triticale (Triticosecale sp genotypes were studied in nutrient solutions with a high salt concentration in experiment 1 and a weak salt concentration in experiment 2, for aluminum tolerance at six levels: 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg L-1, under temperature 25 ± 1ºC and pH 4,0. Four replications were used per experiment. Aluminum tolerance was evaluated by measuring root growth in an aluminum-free complete

  14. Down-regulating γ-gliadins in bread wheat leads to non-specific increases in other gluten proteins and has no major effect on dough gluten strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pistón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gliadins are a major component of gluten proteins but their role in the mixing of dough is not well understood because their contribution to wheat flour functional properties are not as clear as for the glutenin fraction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transgenic lines of bread wheat with γ-gliadins suppressed by RNAi are reported. The effects on the gluten protein composition and on technological properties of flour were analyzed by RP-HPLC, by sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation (SDSS test and by Mixograph analysis. The silencing of γ-gliadins by RNAi in wheat lines results in an increase in content of all other gluten proteins. Despite the gluten proteins compensation, in silico analysis of amino acid content showed no difference in the γ-gliadins silenced lines. The SDSS test and Mixograph parameters were slightly affected by the suppression of γ-gliadins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Therefore, it is concluded that γ-gliadins do not have an essential functional contribution to the bread-making quality of wheat dough, and their role can be replaced by other gluten proteins.

  15. Responese of Two Cultivars of Winter Wheat Differing In Sensitivity to Aluminum Toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENZHEN-GUO; LIANCHUN-LAN; 等

    1994-01-01

    A experiment was carried to evaluate the effects of Al on growth,accumulations of free proline and amino acid in 2 wheat cultivars(Triticum aestivum L.),Yangmai No.5 and Jian 864,differing in Al Sensitivity.Plants grew initially in a nutrient solution without Al for 13 days before the addition of Al and finally in a nutrient solution containing 0.5mmol Al(L-1)for 19 days,the results showed that there were marked deceases in dry weight,relative growth rate(RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR)of Al-treated seedlings compared with control plants.The Al effects were more evident in Yangmai No.5 than Jian 864.Leaf area ratio(LAR) was little affected by Al.RGR was highly correlated with NAR rather than LAR.Aluminum increased the concentrations of free proline and total free amino acid in shoots of both the cultivars.The increases were greater in Yangmai No.5 than in Jian 864.The percentage of free proline in total amino acid in shoots was not affected by Al treatment.It was possible that accumulation of proline was merely a symptom of Al injury.The concentrations of total nitrogen in Al-treated plants did not significantly differ from those of control plants.Nitrate reductase activity(NRA),in leaves was severely decreased by Al,and a greater decrease was noted in Yangmai No.5 than in Jian 864,but NRA in roots of both the cultivars was not affected.The decreases in NRA might be and indirect(accumulation of amino acid) rather than a direct result of Al toxicity.

  16. EVALUATING THE DROUGHT STRESS TOLERANCE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sammar Raza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB, Faisalabad, Pakistan to evaluate the drought stress tolerance efficiency of wheat cultivars. Eight wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes namely (Pasban-90, Inqalab-91, Auqab-2000, AS-2002, Sahar-2006, Shafaq-2006, Lasani-2008, and FSD-2008 were used for screening in laboratory. Three techniques were used for the screening. These techniques are (I seed germination at -0.6 MPa external water potential (PEG-6000, (2 seedling growth after 14 days at -0.6 MPa (PEG-6000, and (3 plant water relations of seven-week-old pot-grown plants. Significantly highest germination stress tolerance index, root length stress tolerance index and the water content was recorded in Lasani-2008 and lowest was recorded in Auqab-2000. Dry matter percentage was recorded significantly highest in pasban-90 while the lowest dry matter percentage was observed in auqab-2000. FSD-2008 gained maximum plant height and was recorded minimum in Inqilab-91. Relative saturation deficit was significantly highest in Auqab-2000 while the significantly lowest relative saturation deficit was recorded in case of Lasani-2008. It was concluded from the results that Lasani-2008 performed better under drought and Auqab-2000 was recorded most drought sensitive variety.

  17. Heat stress and recovery of photosystem II efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars acclimated to different growth temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Sabibul; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2014-01-01

    but not at early tillering stage. However, the cultivars differed significantly in F′q/F′m at all growth stages. At anthesis and early grain development, the cultivar C518 had the lowest reduction in Fv/Fm and F′q/F′m after heat stress and recovered fully after 72 h in both growth conditions illustrating higher....../Fm) and the quantum yield of PSII (F′q/F′m) were measured before, during and after the heat stress. The heat stress significantly inhibited the Fv/Fm and F′q/F′m in all wheat cultivars at all growth stages. There were significant differences in Fv/Fm among the cultivars at anthesis and at early grain development...... heat tolerance characteristics as compared to the other three cultivars. The largest decrease in Fv/Fm and F′q/F′m after heat stress occurred in the cultivar PWS7, which did not recover completely after 72 h. All cultivars grown at 25 °C had a slightly increased heat tolerance and better recovery...

  18. Impact of bran components on the quality of whole wheat bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole grains contain components, such as dietary fiber, starch, fat, antioxidant nutrients, minerals, vitamin, lignans, and phenolic compounds, which are beneficial to human health. Most of the beneficial components are found in the germ and bran as part of a wheat kernel, which are reduced in the ...

  19. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W. J.; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J.; Deacon, Carolyn F.; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J.; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G.

    2015-01-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products with

  20. Resposta de cultivares de trigo à infestação do pulgão Rhopalosiphum padi Wheat cultivars response to Rhopalosiphum padi infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Peruzzo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta de oito cultivares comerciais de trigo (BRS 194, BRS 208, BRS Camboatá, BRS Guabiju, BRS Guamirim, BRS Louro, BRS Timbaúva e BRS Umbu à infestação do pulgão Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae. O experimento foi realizado na Embrapa Trigo, em telado, em blocos ao acaso, com oito tratamentos e seis repetições, dispostos em parcelas subdivididas. As parcelas principais receberam os tratamentos com e sem infestação de pulgões, e as subparcelas foram compostas pelas cultivares. A infestação com os pulgões (20 adultos ápteros por planta foi realizada aos 12 dias após a emergência das plantas, quando se encontravam no início do afilhamento, e foi mantida durante 15 dias. As cultivares avaliadas responderam diferentemente à infestação do pulgão R. padi. A cultivar BRS Timbaúva é a mais resistente, e as cultivares BRS Umbu e BRS Guabiju são as mais suscetíveis ao pulgão, quanto ao crescimento e a capacidade produtiva de plantas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the response of eight commercial wheat cultivars (BRS 194, BRS 208, BRS Camboatá, BRS Guabiju, BRS Guamirim, BRS Louro, BRS Timbaúva e BRS Umbu to the infestation of Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Trigo, in greenhouse conditions. It was used the randomized block design, in a split-plot array, with eight treatments and six replicates. The plots received treatments with or without infestation with aphids, and the split-plots were composed by the cultivars. The infestation with aphids (20 wingless adults per plant was done 12 days after plant emergency, in the beginning of tillering, and was kept for 15 days. The cultivars responded differently to the infestation with aphids. BRS Timbaúva cultivar is more resistant, and BRS Umbu and BRS Guabiju cultivars are more susceptible to R. padi, concerning plant growth and plant yield.

  1. Allelic variation at the vernalization and photoperiod sensitivity loci in Chinese winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangfen eZhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 205 wheat cultivars from the Yellow and Huai valley of China were used to identify allelic variations of vernalization and photoperiod response genes, as well as the copy number variations (CNVs of Ppd-B1 and Vrn-A1 genes. A novel Vrn-D1 allele with 174-bp insertion in the promoter region of the recessive allele vrn-D1 was discovered in three Chinese wheat cultivars and designated as Vrn-D1c. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that cultivars with the Vrn-D1c allele exhibited significantly higher expression of the Vrn-D1 gene than that in cultivars with the recessive allele vrn-D1, indicating that the 174-bp insertion of Vrn-D1c contributed to the increase in Vrn-D1 gene expression and caused early heading and flowering. The five new cis-elements (Box II-like, 3-AF1 binding site, TC-rich repeats, Box-W1 and CAT-box in the 174-bp insertion possibly promoted the basal activity level of Vrn-D1 gene. Two new polymorphism combinations of photoperiod genes were identified and designated as Ppd-D1_Hapl-IX and Ppd-D1_Hapl-X. Association of the CNV of Ppd-B1 gene with the heading and flowering days showed that the cultivars with Ppd-B1_Hapl-VI demonstrated the earliest heading and flowering times, and those with Ppd-B1_Hapl-IV presented the latest heading and flowering times in three cropping seasons. Distribution of the vernalization and photoperiod response genes indicated that all recessive alleles at the four vernalization response loci, Ppd-B1_Hapl-I at Ppd-B1 locus, and Ppd-D1_Hapl-I at the Ppd-D1 locus were predominant in Chinese winter wheat cultivars. This study can provide useful information for wheat breeding programs to screen wheat cultivars with relatively superior adaptability and maturity.

  2. Multi-trait evolution of farmer varieties of bread wheat after cultivation in contrasting organic farming systems in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, J C; Serpolay, E; Giuliano, S; Schermann, N; Galic, N; Chable, V; Goldringer, I

    2012-03-01

    Because of the lack of varieties for organic agriculture, associations of organic farmers in several European countries have begun cultivating landraces and historic varieties, effectively practicing in situ conservation of agricultural biodiversity. To promote agrobiodiversity conservation, a special list for "conservation varieties" was implemented in 2008 by the EU because for any exchange and marketing of seeds in the EU, a variety must be registered in an official catalog. Our study aimed at improving knowledge on the phenotypic diversity and evolution of such varieties when cultivated on organic farms in Europe, in order to better define their specific characteristics and the implications for the registration process. We assessed multi-trait phenotypic evolution in eight European landraces and historic varieties of bread wheat and in two pureline variety checks, each grown by eight organic farmers over 2 years and then evaluated in a common garden experiment at an organic research farm. Measurements on each farmer's version of each variety included several standard evaluation criteria for assessing distinctness, uniformity and stability for variety registration. Significant phenotypic differentiation was found among farmers' versions of each variety. Some varieties showed considerable variation among versions while others showed fewer phenotypic changes, even in comparison to the two checks. Although farmers' variety would not satisfy uniformity or stability criteria as defined in the catalog evaluation requirements, each variety remained distinct when assessed using multivariate analysis. The amount of differentiation may be related to the initial genetic diversity within landraces and historic varieties.

  3. Establishing the relative importance of damaged starch and fructan as sources of fermentable sugars in wheat flour and whole meal bread dough fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Nore; Laurent, Jitka; Lefevere, Bianca; Verspreet, Joran; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2017-03-01

    It is generally believed that maltose drives yeast-mediated bread dough fermentation. The relative importance of fructose and glucose, released from wheat fructan and sucrose by invertase, compared to maltose is, however, not documented. This is surprising given the preference of yeast for glucose and fructose over maltose. This study revealed that, after 2h fermentation of wheat flour dough, about 44% of the sugars consumed were generated by invertase-mediated degradation of fructan, raffinose and sucrose. The other 56% were generated by amylases. In whole meal dough, 70% of the sugars consumed were released by invertase activity. Invertase-mediated sugar release seems to be crucial during the first hour of fermentation, while amylase-mediated sugar release was predominant in the later stages of fermentation, which explains why higher amylolytic activity prolonged the productive fermentation time only. These results illustrate the importance of wheat fructan and sucrose content and their degradation for dough fermentations.

  4. Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate degradation by Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC 27919 improves mineral availability of high fibre rye-wheat sour bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mantrana, Izaskun; Monedero, Vicente; Haros, Monika

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this investigation was to develop baking products using Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC27919, a phytase producer, as a starter in sourdough for the production of whole rye-wheat mixed bread. This Bifidobacterium strain contributed to myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) hydrolysis, resulting in breads with higher mineral availability as was predicted by the phytate/mineral molar ratios, which remained below the inhibitory threshold values for Ca and Zn intestinal absorption. The products with sourdough showed similar technological quality as their homologous without sourdough, with levels of acetic and d/l lactic acids in dough and bread baking significantly higher with the use of sourdough. The overall acceptability scores showed that breads with 25% of whole rye flour were highly accepted regardless of the inclusion of sourdough. This work emphasises that the in situ production of phytase during fermentation by GRAS/QPS microorganisms constitutes a strategy which is particularly appropriate for reducing the phytate contents in products for human consumption.

  5. The effect of whole grain wheat sourdough bread consumption on serum lipids in healthy normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic adults depends on presence of the APOE E3/E3 genotype: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakovic Marica

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies associate consumption of whole grain foods, including breads, with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD risk; however, few studies have compared wheat whole grains with wheat refined grains. Methods This study investigated effects of 6-week consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough bread in comparison to white bread on fasting serum lipids in normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic (NGI; n = 14 and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic (HGI; n = 14 adults. The influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, 3 within the APOE gene (E2, E3, E4 and 2 within the hepatic lipase gene promoter (LIPC -514C>T, LIPC -250G>A were considered. Results At baseline, HGI participants had significantly higher body weight, waist circumference, body fat, and fasted glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, glucagon, triacylglycerols (TAG and TAG:HDL-cholesterol, compared to NGI participants; however, none of these in addition to none of the other serum lipids, differed between bread treatments, within either participant group. For participants with the APOE E3/E3 genotype, LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.02 increased in the NGI group (n = 7, and TAG (P = 0.03 and TAG:HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.04 increased in the HGI group (n = 10, following consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough compared to white bread. Conclusions In summary, 6-week consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough bread did not significantly modulate serum lipids in NGI or HGI adults; however, it significantly increased LDL-cholesterol, TAG and TAG:HDL-cholesterol in participants with the APOE E3/E3 genotype. These data add to limited literature comparing wheat whole grains to wheat refined grains on CVD risk and highlight the need to consider genetic variation in relation to lipoprotein lipid content and CVD risk.

  6. Physicochemical, rheological, thermal, and bread making properties of flour obtained from irradiated wheat;Propriedades fisico-quimicas, reologicas, entalpicas e de panificacao da farinha obtida de trigo irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Carolina Sobral

    2006-07-01

    Most of the methods that are nowadays used for food preservation derive from old times. Besides these methods, new non-thermal methods have been developed in order to improve food quality during its processing. Irradiation technology has a great contribution potential to improve preservation, storage and distribution of foods. Several studies from international literature have reported the efficiency of irradiation process on microbiological control of grains and their products. Due to the low technological quality of national wheat, Brazil depends on its import. Wheat is the main ingredient of bread which is one of the most important products of Brazilian people's diet. The objective of this work was to study the effect of ionizing radiation on wheat on physicochemical, rheological, and thermal properties of flour produced from this wheat, and consequently, its performance on bread making. All experiments were conducted on laboratory scale. Wheat was submitted to irradiation on different doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 kGy) and flour produced underwent physicochemical, rheological, thermal and microbiological analyses. Flour bread making performance was measured through quality of bread. None of the physicochemical, rheological or thermal parameters was influenced by irradiation, with the exception of Falling Number, which decreased significantly with the increase of irradiation dose, indicating the effect of irradiation on wheat starch, and consequently on dough's gelatinization. Bread quality parameters did also not show significant differences, and sensory analysis showed that bread produced from irradiated and non irradiated wheat did not present perceivable flavor. (author)

  7. A three-tier phenotyping approach for hunting QTLs related to heat tolerance in bread wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    , wheat is sensitive to heat stress, particularly at the reproductive phase. Heat tolerance is a complex trait. In the present study, a combined approach of physiological phenotyping and quantitative genetics was used to dissect the complex nature of heat tolerance into photosynthesis related traits......In the global climate change scenario, heatstress together with other abiotic stresses will remain an importantdeterminant of future food security. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the third most important crop, feeding about one third of the world population. Being a crop of temperate climate......- with a top-to-bottom (forward) approach: Tier 1: Phenotyping: As a starting point,the quantification of heat tolerance was done by the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter, Fv/Fm, as a measure of maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry after heat stress treatment (40°C for 72h). This way...

  8. Comparison of similarity coefficients used for cluster analysis based on SSR markers in sister line wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denčić Srbislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compared fourteen different similarity coefficients and their influence in sister line wheat cultivars clustering. Seventeen sister cultivars developed from two crosses were used and fingerprinted with 19 wheat microsatellite markers. Comparisons among the similarity coefficients were made using the Sperman correlation analysis, dendogram evaluation (visual inspection and consensus fork index - CIc, projection efficiency in a two-dimensional space, and groups formed by the Tocher optimization procedure. The Sperman correlation coefficients among the fourteen similarity coefficients were all high showing a strong association between them. The correlation coefficient between Dice and Kulczinski and Ochiai I as well as between Hamann and Simple matching and between Kulczinski and Ochiai I was equal to 1. Although visual estimation of the dendograms shows almost identical clustering structures, CIc indexes indicate that all coefficients are not identical. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066

  9. 糯小麦面包的研制及货架期预测%Development and Shelf-life Evaluation of Waxy Wheat Flour Bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 张焕新

    2015-01-01

    糯小麦粉具有独特的理化特性,将其添加到面包中可以制作出货架期较长的面包。以面包的感官品质为评价指标,考察糯小麦粉、酵母、白砂糖、奶油添加量对糯小麦面包品质的影响,通过单因素和正交试验设计优化糯小麦面包的最佳配方,结果表明:糯小麦粉对面包感官品质影响最大,其次是酵母、奶油和白砂糖。糯小麦面包的最佳配比为:糯小麦粉12.0%、酵母1.6%、白砂糖7.0%、奶油4.0%。由此配比制得的糯小麦面包表面金黄、色泽均匀、形态饱满、口感纯正、松软可口,各项指标均符合国家标准。通过ASLT法预测糯小麦面包的货架期得出:储藏温度20℃和湿度60%的条件下,糯小麦面包的货架期大约为13 d,比市售白面包的货架期(<7 d)有显著提高。%Waxy wheat flour have some specific physicochemical properties compared with those of normal wheat starch, it was used to extend the shelf-life of bread in this paper. With the organoleptic score as the index, single-factor and orthogonal experiments were carried out to design the optimum formula of resistant starch bread as follows:waxy wheat flour, 12.0%;yeast, 1.6%;sugar, 7.0%;cream, 4.0%, the proportion of waxy wheat flour and yeast have significant influence to the sensory quality of bread. The organoleptic , physicochemical, and health indices of the bread produced using the optimum formula were measured. The results showed that the resistant starch biscuits had the advantages of uniform color (golden yellow), intact appearance, pure flavor, soft and delicate taste, no sticking to teeth, and no grainy taste. All the physicochemical and health indices met national standards. The shelf-life of bread was measured by the method of accelerated shelf-life testing, and it was approximately13 d, and the results indicated the waxy wheat flour prolong the shelf-life of bread significantly compared with the white bread

  10. On the relationship between large-deformation properties of wheat flour dough and baking quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliwinski, E.L.; Kolster, P.; Vliet, van T.

    2004-01-01

    Baking performance for bread and puff pastry was tested for Six European and two Canadian wheat cultivars and related to the rheological and fracture properties in uniaxial extension of optimally mixed flour-water doughs and doughs to which a mix of bakery additives was added. Extensive baking tests

  11. Investigation of Tolerance, Yield and Yield Components of Wheat Cultivars to Salinity of Irrigation Water at Sensitive Stages of Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Saadatian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research in order to study of tolerance ability of wheat cultivates yield and yield components to salinity of irrigation water at sensitive stages of growth, was carried out as a factorial based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at greenhouse of Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2009. Treatments were included wheat cultivars of Alvand, Tous, Sayson and Navid and salinity of irrigation water induced by sodium chloride at five levels of 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 dS m-1. The results showed that percentage and rate of emergence, plant height, 1000-grain weight, number of seed per spike, number of spike per pot, biological and grain yield reduced by increasing salinity level. At all stress levels Navid cv. had highest emergence percentage. In non-stress and 4 dS m-1, Alvand cv. and at higher levels of stress, Tous cv. had high height in reproductive phase. At control and 4 dS m-1, Sayson cv. and at 8, 12 and 16 dS m-1, Tous cv. in majority of yield and yield components traits had significant superior than other cultivars. Tolerance index of Sayson cv. at 4 and 8 dS m-1 was more than other cultivars but at 12 and 16 dS m-1, maximum value of this index was belonged to Tous cv. At all salinity levels, Alvand cv. had least tolerance index to stress. Number of spike per pot had maximum direct effect on grain yield of wheat cultivars in stress condition. Also indirect effect of biological yield via number of spike per pot than other its indirect effects, had maximum share in wheat seed yield.

  12. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and organic fertilizers on yield and nutrients uptake of two wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kermanizadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in order to evaluate the direct effects of organic and biofertilizers on yield of two native wheat cultivars (Bolani and cross-Bolani in Sistan area. The experiment was performed as a factorial, based on a completely randomized design with three replications, in Research Greenhouse of University of Zabol. In this study, fertilizer factor at 8 levels [Vermicompost (F1, vermicompost + compost (F2, vermicompost + mycorrhiza (F3, vermicompost + mycorrhiza + compost (F4, compost (F5, compost + mycorrhiza (F6, mycorrhiza (F7 and control (no fertilizer application, F8] and two wheat cultivars [Bolani (C1 and cross-Bolani (C2] were considered. Results showed that the highest grain yield (1.13 g/pot was obtained from combination of mycorrhiza and cross-Bolani treatments (F7C2. Combined treatments of compost + mycorrhiza and cross-Bolani (F6C2 and vermicompost + compost and cross-Bolani (F2C2 were more suitable for nitrogen uptake. The highest percentage of protein (10.27% was resulted from F6C2 and F2C2 treatment. Overall, combined treatments of F6C2 and F2C2 seem appropriate for Bolani and cross-Bolani wheat cultivars.

  13. Evolution of New Disease Specificity at a Simple Resistance Locus in a Crop–Weed Complex: Reconstitution of the Lr21 Gene in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Li; Brooks, Steven; Li, Wanlong; Fellers, John; Nelson, James C.; Gill, Bikram

    2009-01-01

    The wheat leaf-rust resistance gene Lr21 was first identified in an Iranian accession of goatgrass, Aegilops tauschii Coss., the D-genome donor of hexaploid bread wheat, and was introgressed into modern wheat cultivars by breeding. To elucidate the origin of the gene, we analyzed sequences of Lr21 and lr21 alleles from 24 wheat cultivars and 25 accessions of Ae. tauschii collected along the Caspian Sea in Iran and Azerbaijan. Three basic nonfunctional lr21 haplotypes, H1, H2, and H3, were ide...

  14. Yield response of winter wheat cultivars to environments modeled by different variance-covariance structures in linear mixed models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studnicki, M.; Mądry, W.; Noras, K.; Wójcik-Gront, E.; Gacek, E.

    2016-11-01

    The main objectives of multi-environmental trials (METs) are to assess cultivar adaptation patterns under different environmental conditions and to investigate genotype by environment (G×E) interactions. Linear mixed models (LMMs) with more complex variance-covariance structures have become recognized and widely used for analyzing METs data. Best practice in METs analysis is to carry out a comparison of competing models with different variance-covariance structures. Improperly chosen variance-covariance structures may lead to biased estimation of means resulting in incorrect conclusions. In this work we focused on adaptive response of cultivars on the environments modeled by the LMMs with different variance-covariance structures. We identified possible limitations of inference when using an inadequate variance-covariance structure. In the presented study we used the dataset on grain yield for 63 winter wheat cultivars, evaluated across 18 locations, during three growing seasons (2008/2009-2010/2011) from the Polish Post-registration Variety Testing System. For the evaluation of variance-covariance structures and the description of cultivars adaptation to environments, we calculated adjusted means for the combination of cultivar and location in models with different variance-covariance structures. We concluded that in order to fully describe cultivars adaptive patterns modelers should use the unrestricted variance-covariance structure. The restricted compound symmetry structure may interfere with proper interpretation of cultivars adaptive patterns. We found, that the factor-analytic structure is also a good tool to describe cultivars reaction on environments, and it can be successfully used in METs data after determining the optimal component number for each dataset. (Author)

  15. Growth stage-based modulation in physiological and biochemical attributes of two genetically diverse wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars grown in salinized hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Hydroponic experiment was conducted to appraise variation in the salt tolerance potential of two wheat cultivars (salt tolerant, S-24, and moderately salt sensitive, MH-97) at different growth stages. These two wheat cultivars are not genetically related as evident from randomized polymorphic DNA analysis (random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)) which revealed 28% genetic diversity. Salinity stress caused a marked reduction in grain yield of both wheat cultivars. However, cv. S-24 was superior to cv. MH-97 in maintaining grain yield under saline stress. Furthermore, salinity caused a significant variation in different physiological attributes measured at different growth stages. Salt stress caused considerable reduction in different water relation attributes of wheat plants. A significant reduction in leaf water, osmotic, and turgor potentials was recorded in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Maximal reduction in leaf water potential was recorded at the reproductive stage in both wheat cultivars. In contrast, maximal turgor potential was observed at the boot stage. Salt-induced adverse effects of salinity on different water relation attributes were more prominent in cv. MH-97 as compared to those in cv. S-24. Salt stress caused a substantial decrease in glycine betaine and alpha tocopherols. These biochemical attributes exhibited significant salt-induced variation at different growth stages in both wheat cultivars. For example, maximal accumulation of glycine betaine was evident at the early growth stages (vegetative and boot). However, cv. S-24 showed higher accumulation of this organic osmolyte, and this could be the reason for maintenance of higher turgor than that of cv. MH-97 under stress conditions. Salt stress significantly increased the endogenous levels of toxic ions (Na(+) and Cl(-)) and decreased essential cations (K(+) and Ca(2+)) in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Furthermore, K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratios

  16. Phytochemical Composition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Extracts from the Whole-Meal Flour of Italian Durum Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Laddomada

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the quali-quantitative composition of hydrophilic (phenolic acids and lipophilic (isoprenoids extracts from whole-meal flour of five elite Italian durum wheat cultivars was determined. Significant differences in the content of bioactive compounds were observed among the wheat extracts, in particular concerning the content of bound phenolic acids, lutein and β-tocotrienols. The cultivars Duilio and Svevo showed the highest amount of phenolic acids and isoprenoids, respectively. Extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity on HT-29 human colon cells by measuring the levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8 and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1. Durum wheat extracts significantly inhibited the secretion of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 mediator at 66 µg/mL of phenolic acids and at 0.2 µg/mL of isoprenoids. Conversely, the secretion of the anti-inflammatory mediator TGF-β1 was not modified by neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic extracts. These results provide further insight into the potential of durum wheat on human health suggesting the significance of varieties with elevated contents of bioactive components.

  17. Phytochemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from the whole-meal flour of Italian durum wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddomada, Barbara; Durante, Miriana; Minervini, Fiorenza; Garbetta, Antonella; Cardinali, Angela; D'Antuono, Isabella; Caretto, Sofia; Blanco, Antonio; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-02-04

    In this study, the quali-quantitative composition of hydrophilic (phenolic acids) and lipophilic (isoprenoids) extracts from whole-meal flour of five elite Italian durum wheat cultivars was determined. Significant differences in the content of bioactive compounds were observed among the wheat extracts, in particular concerning the content of bound phenolic acids, lutein and β-tocotrienols. The cultivars Duilio and Svevo showed the highest amount of phenolic acids and isoprenoids, respectively. Extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity on HT-29 human colon cells by measuring the levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Durum wheat extracts significantly inhibited the secretion of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 mediator at 66 µg/mL of phenolic acids and at 0.2 µg/mL of isoprenoids. Conversely, the secretion of the anti-inflammatory mediator TGF-β1 was not modified by neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic extracts. These results provide further insight into the potential of durum wheat on human health suggesting the significance of varieties with elevated contents of bioactive components.

  18. Exopolysaccharides from co-cultures of Weissella confusa 11GU-1 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii JS15 act synergistically on wheat dough and bread texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinzl-Malang, Saskia Katharina; Rast, Peter; Grattepanche, Franck; Sych, Janice; Lacroix, Christophe

    2015-12-02

    The storage of bread is limited by both physical (staling) and microbial (mainly fungal) spoilage. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and organic acids from propionibacteria (PAB) have been used to enhance texture and extend shelf-life of bakery products. In this study the functionality of EPS of Weissella confusa A3/2-1 (dextran), W. confusa F3/2-2 (dextran and levan), W. confusa 11GU-1 (dextran and ropy capsular polysaccharide) was evaluated in wheat bread. Two strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii (Pf), shown to produce a heteropolysaccharide (Pf JS15) or a β-glucan (Pf DF30), were tested in single and mixed cultures with W. confusa (Wc). The EPS fermentates were prepared by batch fermentation of cereal- or malt-based medium using sucrose (Wc) or lactic acid (Pf) as carbon source. Incorporation of EPS from single culture fermentates and 1:1 Weissella-Propionibacterium fermentate mixtures revealed strong positive effects of dextran and ropy capsular polysaccharide produced by Wc 11GU-1 on bread staling retardation, with synergistic effects of EPS mixture from Wc 11GU-1 and Pf JS15. A co-fermentation of Wc 11GU-1 and Pf JS15 was developed to produce EPS together with antifungal organic acid mixture (acetate and propionate) in a single step process. The addition of 15% (w/w flour base) co-culture, yielding EPS, acetate and propionate concentrations of 1.5, 0.5 and 1g/kg dough, respectively, resulted in improved bread texture, increased loaf volume and decreased crumb firming during storage for 3days compared with control breads and breads supplemented with equivalent levels of chemical organic acids. Our data showed that EPS could compensate for the negative effects of chemical acetate and propionate in a concentration range exerting antifungal effects. The natural bioingredient produced by Wc 11GU-1 and Pf JS15 has potential for applications as antifungal, texture-building and anti-staling agent in breads, consistent with

  19. Line × Tester Mating Design Analysis for Grain Yield and Yield Related Traits in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zine El Abidine Fellahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes were crossed in a line × tester mating design. The 20 F1's and their parents were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Field Crop Institute-Agricultural Experimental Station of Setif (Algeria during the 2011/2012 cropping season. The results indicated that sufficient genetic variability was observed for all characters studied. A899 × Rmada, A899 × Wifak, and A1135 × Wifak hybrids had greater grain yield mean than the parents. A901 line and the tester Wifak were good combiners for the number of grains per spike. MD is a good combiner for 1000-kernel weight and number of fertile tillers. HD1220 is a good general combiner to reduce plant height; Rmada is a good general combiner to shorten the duration of the vegetative growth period. A901 × Wifak is a best specific combiner to reduce plant height, to increase 1000-kernel weight and number of grains per spike. AA × MD is a best specific combiner to reduce duration of the vegetative period, plant height and to increase the number of kernels per spike. A899 × Wifak showed the highest heterosis for grain yield, accompanied with positive heterosis for the number of fertile tillers and spike length, and negative heterosis for 1000-kernel weight and the number of days to heading. σgca2/σsca2,  (σD2/σA21/2 low ratios and low to intermediate estimates of h2ns supported the involvement of both additive and nonadditive gene effects. The preponderance of non-additive type of gene actions clearly indicated that selection of superior plants should be postponed to later generation.

  20. Effect of fiber fractions of prickly pear cactus (nopal) on quality and sensory properties of wheat bread rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Arauza, Juan Carlos; Bárcenas, Diego Guadalupe; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique; Martínez, Jaime David Pérez; Hernández, Jaime Reyes; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, José

    2015-05-01

    In this study the addition of total fiber (TF), insoluble fiber (IF), and soluble fiber (SF) from nopal to wheat flour used to make bread rolls was assessed. The rheological properties of dough as well as quality, texture, sensorial and physical characteristics of the crumb rolls produced were evaluated. The storage (23.50 MPa) and loss modulus (11.95 MPa) for SF-dough were the lowest indicating that a less visco-elastic behavior was obtained. Polarized light microscopy showed that a more homogeneous size and a better distribution of starch granules were developed into SF-dough. Crumb hardness (3.25-4.78 N) and chewiness (0.31-0.81 N) of SF-rolls were lower than the control experiment (3.99-5.81 N and 0.35-1.01 N respectively). Springiness for all treatments was constant (1.0) compared with the control (1.02-0.87) for 2 days of storage. The lowest cohesiveness values (0.24-014) were computed by IF treatment for a similar storage time. The specific crumb volume increased by 12.46, 9.03 and 1.10 % by the addition of SF, TF and IF respectively. The lowest rate of staling was shown by SF-rolls (0.199) and it was followed by TF (0.296), IF (0.381) and control (0.458) treatments. As a result, the highest scores on quality (9.3 out of 10) and sensorial attributes (from 8.9 up to 9.7) were assigned to SF-rolls.

  1. Overexpression of avenin-like b proteins in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. improves dough mixing properties by their incorporation into glutenin polymers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyun Ma

    Full Text Available Avenin-like b proteins are a small family of wheat storage proteins, each containing 18 or 19 cysteine residues. The role of these proteins, with high numbers of cysteine residues, in determining the functional properties of wheat flour is unclear. In the present study, two transgenic lines of the bread wheat overexpressing avenin-like b gene were generated to investigate the effects of Avenin-like b proteins on dough mixing properties. Sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation (SDSS test and Mixograph analysis of these lines demonstrated that overexpression of Avenin-like b proteins in both transgenic wheat lines significantly increased SDSS volume and improved dough elasticity, mixing tolerance and resistance to extension. These changes were associated with the increased proportion of polymeric proteins due to the incorporation of overexpressed Avenin-like b proteins into the glutenin polymers. The results of this study were critical to confirm the hypothesis that Avenin-like b proteins could be integrated into glutenin polymers by inter-chain disulphide bonds, which could help understand the mechanism behind strengthening wheat dough strength.

  2. Comparing Relationships among Yield and Its Related Traits in Mycorrhizal and Nonmycorrhizal Inoculated Wheat Cultivars under Different Water Regimes Using Multivariate Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Saed-Moucheshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistical techniques were used to compare the relationship between yield and its related traits under noninoculated and inoculated cultivars with mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices; each one consisted of three wheat cultivars and four water regimes. Results showed that, under inoculation conditions, spike weight per plant and total chlorophyll content of the flag leaf were the most important variables contributing to wheat grain yield variation, while, under noninoculated condition, in addition to two mentioned traits, grain weight per spike and leaf area were also important variables accounting for wheat grain yield variation. Therefore, spike weight per plant and chlorophyll content of flag leaf can be used as selection criteria in breeding programs for both inoculated and noninoculated wheat cultivars under different water regimes, and also grain weight per spike and leaf area can be considered for noninoculated condition. Furthermore, inoculation of wheat cultivars showed higher value in the most measured traits, and the results indicated that inoculation treatment could change the relationship among morphological traits of wheat cultivars under drought stress. Also, it seems that the results of stepwise regression as a selecting method together with principal component and factor analysis are stronger methods to be applied in breeding programs for screening important traits.

  3. Molecular Identification of Hardness-related Genes of Bread Wheat New Lines in Huanghuai Wheat Region and Their Influence on Yield Characters%黄淮麦区小麦新品系籽粒硬度相关基因分子鉴定及其对产量性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福彦; 陈锋; 董中东; 尚晓丽; 崔党群; 殷贵鸿

    2011-01-01

    total of 109 wheat cultivars or advanced lines widely grown in Huang-huai wheat region were used to identify the phenotype of grain texture and genotype of puroindoline and puroindoline b-2 genes by the technologies of Single Kernel Characterization System (SKCS), PCR amplification with specific primers, restriction enzyme and DNA sequencing. [Result] The results showed that hard wheat with percentage of 61.5% was predominant whilepercentages of the mixed and soft wheats were only 15.6% and 22.9%, respectively, in wheat new lines surveyed. Based on SKCS results, grain hardness index of wheat surveyed ranged widely from 3.2 to 82.6. Three puroindoline alleles of Pinb-Dib, Pinb-Dlp and Pina-Dlb were detected in hard wheat surveyed. Of them, Pinb-Dib is the most prevalent with percentage of 86.5 %, while Pinb-Dlp and Pina-Dlb were only 7.5% and 6.0%, respectively. Furthermore, based on identification of puroindoline b-2 gene with gene-specific primers, all surveyed bread wheat genomes D and A contained Pinb-D2vl and Pinb-A2v4 variants, respectively. However, Pinb-B2v3 variant was only identified in the group B of 86 wheat cultivars or lines surveyed, and Pinb-B2v2 variant was found in the group B of remaining 23 cultivars or lines. The results of analysis of yield characters between Pinb-B2v2 and Pinb-B2v3 variants indicated that the averages of grain number, single grain weight, flag leaf length and flag leaf area of genotypes with Pinb-B2v3 variant were significantly higher than those of genotypes with Pinb-B2v2 variant. [ Conclusion ] Hard wheat was predominant in the wheat germplasms surveyed and Pinb-Dib was the most popular in hard wheat lines. In addition, the wheat with Pinb-B2v3 possessed relatively superior yield character to wheat with Pinb-B2v2.

  4. Implications of non-covalent interactions in zein-starch dough and bread quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major limitation in the production of wheat-free breads is the lack of protein functionality in non-wheat cereals. Breads made from non-wheat flours such as rice, maize, and sorghum must be made from thick batters and are of lower quality than wheat bread. The development of visco-elastic dough f...

  5. Characterization of Stripe Rust Resistance Genes in the Wheat Cultivar Chuanmai45

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    Ennian Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to characterize the high level of resistance to stripe that has been observed in the released wheat cultivar, Chuanmai45. A combination of classic genetic analysis, molecular and cytogenetic methods were used to characterize resistance in an F2 population derived from Chuanmai45 and the susceptible Chuanmai42. Inheritance of resistance was shown to be conferred by two genes in Chuanmai45. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was used along with segregation studies to show that one gene was located on a 1RS.1BL translocation. Molecular markers were employed to show that the other locus was located on chromosome 4B. The defeated gene, Yr24/26, on chromosome 1BL was present in the susceptible parent and lines that recombined this gene with the 1RS.1BL translocation were identified. The germplasm, loci, and associated markers identified in this study will be useful for application in breeding programs utilizing marker-assisted selection.

  6. Identification of ISSR and RAPD markers linked to yield traits in bread wheat under normal and drought conditions

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    A.G.A. Khaled

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability and identification of some molecular markers were studied in twenty promising lines of wheat using agronomic traits, ISSR (inter simple sequences repeats and RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Significant variation was evidenced in all agronomic traits. The lines proved to be superior to the check cultivar Sahel1 in yield and its component traits. Lines L2, L7 and L8 were the best in most yield component traits in both seasons. Moreover, Lines L2, L4, L5, L7 and L8 showed drought tolerance by which they displayed high performance in agronomic traits as well as a low drought susceptibility index. The percentage of polymorphism was 39.3% and 53.2% for ISSRs and RAPDs, respectively. UBC-881 belonged to penta-nucleotide repeat sequences (GGGTG that produced the highest level of polymorphism, while UBC-846 belonged to di-nucleotide repeat sequences (CA that produced the lowest level of polymorphism. Genetic similarities among wheat lines based on ISSR and RAPD markers ranged from 0.81 to 1.00 and from 0.86 to 0.98, respectively. There was a low average of PIC (polymorphism information content values which were 0.10 (ISSR and 0.15 (RAPD. The RAPD technique exhibited a higher marker index (MI = 0.69 compared to ISSR (MI = 0.43. There was insignificant correlation between ISSR and RAPD data (0.168, p > 0.05. There were two markers (UBC-881450bp and OPF-10540bp, on each of which two traits regressed significantly. The associated markers each explained a maximum regression of 18.92–34.95% of the total available variation for individual associated traits.

  7. Characterization and Expression Analysis of Phytoene Synthase from Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerika; Alok, Anshu; Kumar, Jitesh; Thakur, Neha; Pandey, Ashutosh; Pandey, Ajay Kumar; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Tiwari, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Phytoene synthase (PSY) regulates the first committed step of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in plants. The present work reports identification and characterization of the three PSY genes (TaPSY1, TaPSY2 and TaPSY3) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The TaPSY1, TaPSY2, and TaPSY3 genes consisted of three homoeologs on the long arm of group 7 chromosome (7L), short arm of group 5 chromosome (5S), and long arm of group 5 chromosome (5L), respectively in each subgenomes (A, B, and D) with a similarity range from 89% to 97%. The protein sequence analysis demonstrated that TaPSY1 and TaPSY3 retain most of conserved motifs for enzyme activity. Phylogenetic analysis of all TaPSY revealed an evolutionary relationship among PSY proteins of various monocot species. TaPSY derived from A and D subgenomes shared proximity to the PSY of Triticum urartu and Aegilops tauschii, respectively. The differential expression of TaPSY1, TaPSY2, and TaPSY3 in the various tissues, seed development stages, and stress treatments suggested their role in plant development, and stress condition. TaPSY3 showed higher expression in all tissues, followed by TaPSY1. The presence of multiple stress responsive cis-regulatory elements in promoter region of TaPSY3 correlated with the higher expression during drought and heat stresses has suggested their role in these conditions. The expression pattern of TaPSY3 was correlated with the accumulation of β-carotene in the seed developmental stages. Bacterial complementation assay has validated the functional activity of each TaPSY protein. Hence, TaPSY can be explored in developing genetically improved wheat crop. PMID:27695116

  8. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Light Interception and Light Extinction Coefficient in Different Wheat Cultivars

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    F Samadiyan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Wheat (Triticum aestivum is a cereal grain, originated from the levant region of the near east and Ethiopian highlands, currently cultivated worldwide. Light extinction coefficient K is a coefficient that represents the amount of light reduced by the plant. Light or radiation extinction coefficient is a concept that expresses the light penetration decrease into the canopy in the way the upper leaves of the canopy with less angles have lower amount of K in comparison with the horizontal leaves. Green et al., (2003 stated that nitrogen fertilizer increased light absorption by plant leaves; and affects the yield. The distribution patterns of nitrogen allocation in leaves are more exposed therefore photosynthesis rate per unit leaf area and canopy were optimized. Differences in canopy structure by the light extinction coefficient (k of the Act Lambert - Beer is described, along LAI differing due to different species and genotypes which are important factors in absorption and light use efficiency. This experiment was performed to evaluate the maximum light absorption and light extinction coefficient in different levels of nitrogen usage and wheat cultivars. Materials and Methods An experiment was conducted during 2011-2012 on a research farm of Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Branch, located in Khatoon Abad Village (northern latitude of 320 and 40´ and eastern longitude of 510 and 48´ with altitude of 1555 m above sea level. A split plot layout within randomized complete block design was used with three replications. Main plots were consisted in four levels of N fertilizer (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 from an urea source in main plots and different cultivars of wheat included Pishtaz, Sepahan and SW-486 in sub plots. Planting was performed on 14 November 2011 and at a density of 400 plants per square meter. In order to strengthen the land and required elements for plant regarding soil test and treatments based on the test plan, the

  9. Plant growth and cation composition of two cultivars of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) differing in P uptake efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y G; Smith, S E; Smith, F A

    2001-06-01

    Phosphorus (P)-zinc (Zn) interactions were investigated in two wheat cultivars (Brookton versus Krichauff) differing in P uptake efficiency. The experiment was done in a growth chamber. Rock phosphate (RP) or CaHPO4 (CaP) were used as P sources, and ammonium nitrate (AN) or nitrate only (NO) were used as nitrogen sources. Two Zn levels were used, 0.22 mg x kg(-1) (LZ) and 2.2 mg ZnSO4.7H2O x kg(-1) (HZ), respectively. P availability significantly affected plant biomass production, but Zn supply had little effect. Plants fed ammonium nitrate had significantly lower concentrations of cations than those fed nitrate only. Cultivar Brookton (with higher P uptake efficiency) consistently had lower concentrations of cations than cv. Krichauff (with low P uptake efficiency) under limited P supply. The differences in concentrations of cations increased with the decrease in P availability, but were not affected by Zn supply. The ratio of potassium in roots to shoots of cultivar Brookton was always higher than in cultivar Krichauff. Based on these findings, it is postulated that the lower concentrations of cations in cultivar Brookton are related to root exudation of organic anions, and a conceptual model is established to describe the regulation of root exudation of organic anions and concentrations of cations.

  10. Molecular characterization of the citrate transporter gene TaMATE1 and expression analysis of upstream genes involved in organic acid transport under Al stress in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Oliveira, Ana Luísa; Martins-Lopes, Paula; Tolrá, Roser; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Tarquis, Marta; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; Benito, César

    2014-11-01

    In bread wheat, besides malate, the importance of citrate efflux for Al tolerance has also been reported. For better understanding the Al tolerance mechanism in bread wheat, here, we performed both a molecular characterization of the citrate transporter gene TaMATE1 and an investigation on the upstream variations in citrate and malate transporter genes. TaMATE1 belong to multidrug transporter protein family, which are located on the long arm of homoeologous group 4 chromosomes (TaMATE1-4A, TaMATE1-4B TaMATE1-4D). TaMATE1 homoeologues transcript expression study exhibited the preponderance of homoeologue TaMATE1-4B followed by TaMATE1-4D whereas homoeologue TaMATE1-4A seemed to be silenced. TaMATE1, particularly homoeologue TaMATE1-4B and TaALMT1 transcripts were much more expressed in the root apices than in shoots of Al tolerant genotype Barbela 7/72/92 under both control and Al stress conditions. In addition, in both tissues of Barbela 7/72/92, higher basal levels of these gene transcripts were observed than in Anahuac (Al sensitive). Noticeably, the presence of a transposon in the upstream of TaMATE1-4B in Barbela 7/72/92 seems to be responsible for its higher transcript expression where it may confer citrate efflux. Thus, promoter variations (transposon in TaMATE1-4B upstream and type VI promoter in TaALMT1) associated with higher basal transcript expression of TaMATE1-4B and TaALMT1 clearly show how different mechanisms for Al tolerance operate simultaneously in a single genotype. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that Barbela 7/72/92 has favorable alleles for these organic acids transporter genes which could be utilized through genomic assisted selection to develop improved cultivars for acidic soils.

  11. Antifungal activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Lactobacillus plantarum during sourdough fermentation: identification of novel compounds and long-term effect during storage of wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Cassone, Angela; Rizzello, Carlo G; Nionelli, Luana; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the antifungal activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and sourdough lactic acid bacteria to extend the shelf life of wheat flour bread. The antifungal activity was assayed by agar diffusion, growth rate inhibition, and conidial germination assays, using Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Sourdough fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum 1A7 (S1A7) and dough fermented by W. anomalus LCF1695 (D1695) were selected and characterized. The water/salt-soluble extract of S1A7 was partially purified, and several novel antifungal peptides, encrypted into sequences of Oryza sativa proteins, were identified. The water/salt-soluble extract of D1695 contained ethanol and, especially, ethyl acetate as inhibitory compounds. As shown by growth inhibition assays, both water/salt-soluble extracts had a large inhibitory spectrum, with some differences, toward the most common fungi isolated from bakeries. Bread making at a pilot plant was carried out with S1A7, D1695, or a sourdough started with a combination of both strains (S1A7-1695). Slices of the bread manufactured with S1A7-1695 did not show contamination by fungi until 28 days of storage in polyethylene bags at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate. The effect of sourdough fermentation with W. anomalus LCF1695 was also assessed based on rheology and sensory properties.

  12. Can bread processing conditions alter glycaemic response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evelyn; Soong, Yean Yean; Zhou, Weibiao; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2015-04-15

    Bread is a staple food that is traditionally made from wheat flour. This study aimed to compare the starch digestibility of western baked bread and oriental steamed bread. Four types of bread were prepared: western baked bread (WBB) and oriental steamed bread (OSB), modified baked bread (MBB) made with the OSB recipe and WBB processing, and modified steamed bread (MSB) made with the WBB recipe and OSB processing. MBB showed the highest starch digestibility in vitro, followed by WBB, OSB and MSB. A similar trend was observed for glycaemic response in vivo. MBB, WBB, OSB and MSB had a glycaemic index of 75±4, 71±5, 68±5 and 65±4, respectively. Processing differences had a more pronounced effect on starch digestibility in bread, and steamed bread was healthier in terms of glycaemic response. The manipulation of processing conditions could be an innovative route to alter the glycaemic response of carbohydrate-rich foods.

  13. ESTIMATION OF HETEROSIS IN DIFFERENT CROSSES OF BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.

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    MAMTA SINGH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we report some of the heterotic wheat crosses produced by crossing fifteen parents in a line x tester mating scheme. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences at 1% level of significance among the genotypes. Manifestation of heterosis was done over mid parent, better parent and the two standard checks i.e. UP 2684 and PBW 343. The generated data registered JUPIBJY/URES X UP 2572 as the best heterotic hybrid for harvest index against the checks UP 2684 and PBW 343 with the values of 27.39% and 50.54% respectively. Likewise HP 1749 X UP 2572 showed maximum heterosis (18.66% over the check PBW 343. The data provides information on heterotic advantage of important yield and associated components. The highest heterotic genotypes can be exploited in future breeding programs to attain self-sufficiency in food grains. However, comprehensive field evaluation over locations and years is advocated for the crosses having significant heterosis before their commercial exploitation.

  14. Kinetics of carotenoids degradation during the storage of einkorn (Triticum monococcum L. ssp. monococcum) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum) flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Alyssa; Brandolini, Andrea

    2008-12-10

    To evaluate the effect of storage temperature, the degradation kinetics of carotenoids in wholemeal and white flour of einkorn cv. Monlis and bread wheat cv. Serio, stored at -20, 5, 20, 30, and 38 degrees C, was assessed by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. In Monlis, the carotenoids content (8.1 and 9.8 mg/kg for wholemeal and white flour, respectively) was 8-fold higher than in Serio (1.0 and 1.1 mg/kg). Only lutein and zeaxanthin were detected in bread wheat, while significant quantities of (alpha and beta)-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin were observed in einkorn. Carotenoids degradation was influenced by temperature and time, following first-order kinetics. The degradation rate was similar in wholemeal and white flour; however, loss of lutein and total carotenoids was faster in Serio than in Monlis. The activation energy E(a) ranged from 35.2 to 52.5 kJ/mol. Temperatures not exceeding 20 degrees C better preserve carotenoids content and are recommended for long-term storage.

  15. Exogenous Cytokinins Increase Grain Yield of Winter Wheat Cultivars by Improving Stay-Green Characteristics under Heat Stress.

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    Dongqing Yang

    Full Text Available Stay-green, a key trait of wheat, can not only increase the yield of wheat but also its resistance to heat stress during active photosynthesis. Cytokinins are the most potent general coordinator between the stay-green trait and senescence. The objectives of the present study were to identify and assess the effects of cytokinins on the photosynthetic organ and heat resistance in wheat. Two winter wheat cultivars, Wennong 6 (a stay-green cultivar and Jimai 20 (a control cultivar, were subjected to heat stress treatment from 1 to 5 days after anthesis (DAA. The two cultivars were sprayed daily with 10 mg L-1 of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA between 1 and 3 DAA under ambient and elevated temperature conditions. We found that the heat stress significantly decreased the number of kernels per spike and the grain yield (P < 0.05. Heat stress also decreased the zeatin riboside (ZR content, but increased the gibberellin (GA3, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, and abscisic acid (ABA contents at 3 to 15 DAA. Application of 6-BA significantly (P < 0.05 increased the grain-filling rate, endosperm cell division rate, endosperm cell number, and 1,000-grain weight under heated condition. 6-BA application increased ZR and IAA contents at 3 to 28 DAA, but decreased GA3 and ABA contents. The contents of ZR, ABA, and IAA in kernels were positively and significantly correlated with the grain-filling rate (P < 0.05, whereas GA3 was counter-productive at 3 to 15 DAA. These results suggest that the decrease in grain yield under heat stress was due to a lower ZR content and a higher GA3 content compared to that at elevated temperature during the early development of the kernels, which resulted in less kernel number and lower grain-filling rate. The results also provide essential information for further utilization of the cytokinin substances in the cultivation of heat-resistant wheat.

  16. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON GRAIN MOISTURE, GERMINATION AND VIGOUR OF THREE WHEAT CULTIVARS DURING ONE YEAR STORAGE

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    Ivica Strelec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in grain moisture, germination and vigour of three wheat cultivars packed in paper bags and stored for one year under four different conditions of environmental temperature and relative humidity (RH were investigated. During the first ninety days of storage significant reduction in grain moisture content of 4, 2.5 and 0.9 %, respectively, under 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C and RH of 45 % occurred. Subsequently grain moisture remained constant until the end of storage. Seeds of examined cultivars lost their germination ability and vigour only under elevated storage temperatures. Germination and vigour loss after one year of storage differed between cultivars being higher for seeds kept under 40°C, RH = 45% (35-85 % and 55-94 %, respectively, than under 25°C, RH = 45 % (10-20 % and 15-22 %, respectively. Obtained data indicate significant influence of storage conditions on moisture content, germination and vigour changes during storage of wheat seeds, as well as varietal dependence of seed viability.

  17. The introgression of RNAi silencing of γ-gliadins into commercial lines of bread wheat changes the mixing and technological properties of the dough.

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    Javier Gil-Humanes

    Full Text Available In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of γ-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of γ-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain', and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the γ-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the α- and ω-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain' indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'. In conclusion, the down-regulation of γ-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of γ-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance.

  18. The introgression of RNAi silencing of γ-gliadins into commercial lines of bread wheat changes the mixing and technological properties of the dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Giménez, María J; Martín, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of γ-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of γ-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'), and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite) compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the γ-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the α- and ω-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain' indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'. In conclusion, the down-regulation of γ-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of γ-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance.

  19. Cultivars

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    Oleg Blum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland. All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators “Emistym C” and “Agrostymulin” was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide “Strobi” and natural growth regulator “Emistym C” demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.

  20. EFFICACY AND MODES OF ACTION OF RESISTANCE INDUCERS ON TWO WHEAT SPECIES AGAINST MYCOSPHAERELLA GRAMINICOLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somai-Jemmali, L; Randoux, B; Siah, A; Ors, M; Halama, P; Reignault, Ph; Hamada, W

    2014-01-01

    Plant resistance inducers could be an alternative to conventional fungicides to control in a more durable and environmentally friendly manner fungal pathogens. Here, we tested the protection efficacy and the modes of action of four resistance inducers (R1, R2, R3 and R4) against the causal agent of Septoria tritici blotch, Mycosphaerella graminicola, the most frequently occurring pathogen on wheat crops worldwide. The four inducers were tested on two wheat cultivars, Premio (a French bread wheat cultivar) and Karim (a Tunisian durum wheat cultivar), each inoculated with a bread-wheat or a durum-wheat adapted isolate; respectively. All inducers exhibited in the greenhouse a significant protection level on both cultivars regarding disease symptoms (necrosis and chlorosis) and sporulation (pycnidium density). The most efficient inducer was R3 which showed 84% symptom reduction, while the less efficient one was R2 with only a 39% reduction. None of the studied inducers showed direct biocide effect against the fungus, except R4 which displayed a significant in planta inhibition of spore germination. Further investigations revealed that all inducers elicited the plant defence enzymes peroxidase and lipoxygenase, but the activity levels varied depending on the considered inducer. In addition, the effect of resistance inducers on the infection process and the fungal cell-wall degrading enzymes xylanases and glucanases was also investigated. Our study allowed us to find out four efficient resistance inducers on wheat against M. graminicola and to establish data about the modes of action of these inducers.

  1. An integrative proteome analysis of different seedling organs in tolerant and sensitive wheat cultivars under drought stress and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pengchao; Zhu, Jiantang; Gu, Aiqin; Lv, Dongwen; Ge, Pei; Chen, Guanxing; Li, Xiaohui; Yan, Yueming

    2015-05-01

    Roots, leaves, and intermediate sections between roots and leaves (ISRL) of wheat seedlings show different physiological functions at the protein level. We performed the first integrative proteomic analysis of different tissues of the drought-tolerant wheat cultivar Hanxuan 10 (HX-10) and drought-sensitive cultivar Chinese Spring (CS) during a simulated drought and recovery. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the roots (122), ISRLs (146), and leaves (163) showed significant changes in expression in response to drought stress and recovery. Numerous DEPs associated with cell defense and detoxifications were significantly regulated in roots and ISRLs, while in leaves, DEPs related to photosynthesis showed significant changes in expression. A significantly larger number of DEPs related to stress defense were upregulated in HX-10 than in CS. Expression of six HSPs potentially related to drought tolerance was significantly upregulated under drought conditions, and these proteins were involved in a complex protein-protein interaction network. Further phosphorylation analysis showed that the phosphorylation levels of HSP60, HSP90, and HOP were upregulated in HX-10 under drought stress. We present an overview of metabolic pathways in wheat seedlings based on abscisic acid signaling and important protein expression patterns.

  2. Drought tolerance in modern and wild wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Kurtoglu, Kuaybe Yucebilgili

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by "omics" studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance.

  3. Discrimination Capacity of RAPD, ISSR and SSR Markers and of their Effectiveness in Establishing Genetic Relationship and Diversity among Egyptian and Saudi Wheat Cultivars

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    Salah E.D. El-Assal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Yield crop cultivars and landraces are valuable sources of genetic variations that the knowledge and implication of these variations are critical in the plant breeding programs. our major objective of this study is investigating the discriminating capacity of RAPD, ISSR and SSR markers and of their effectiveness in establishing genetic relationship and diversity among Egyptian and Saudi wheat cultivars. Approach: Eleven wheat cultivars and landraces collected from Egypt and Saudi Arabia, five Egyptian wheat (Sakha 93, Sods 1, Sods 4, Gmiza 9 and Sohag 3 and six Saudi wheat landrace cultivars (Hmees, Al-Kaseem, Hegazi, Abo-Sakr, Dubai 1 and Nagran were characterized using RAPD, ISSR and SSR molecular markers as efficient tools. Ten and nine oligonucleotide primers of RAPD and ISSR respectively and four primer pairs of SSR were used in wheat samples analysis. Only clear and repeatable band profile of 6 RAPD, 8 ISSR and 2 SSR primers were obtained. In RAPD analyses, 74 out of 141 bands (52% were polymorphic. Results: The number of alleles ranged from 8-21 per primer, with an average of 14.1 per primer. In ISSR analyses, a total of 78 alleles were detected, along with 36 alleles (46% were polymorphic. The number of alleles per primer ranged from 5-10 with an average of 8.6 alleles per ISSR primer. SSR reactions recorded 6 alleles, of which 5 alleles (83% were polymorphic. Cluster analysis was conducted using Unweighted Pair Group Method that depends on Arithmetic Average (UPGMA. The dendrogram cluster diagram classified the evaluated genotypes in three major clusters corresponding to the cultivation regions. The first group contains Sakha 93, Sods 1 and Sods 4 with more than 80% Genetic Similarity (GS. The GS between Sakha 93 and Sods 1, Sakha 93 and Sods 4 or Sods 1 and Sods 4 were 83.6%, 83.9 and 85.4 respectively. The second group contains Gmiza 9 and Sohag 3 with GS 83.1%. The third group contains most of the Saudi landrace

  4. Effect of mechanically damaged starch from wheat flour on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sen; Li, Li; Wang, Xiao-Xi; Zheng, Xue-Ling; Bian, Ke; Bao, Qing-Dan

    2016-07-01

    The influence of damaged starch (DS) on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread were investigated. Characterization of the farinographical properties showed that DS levels affected water absorption, development, weakness, falling number and gluten index. Flour viscosity profiles indicated that pasting temperatures increased, but peak viscosity, low viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback increased and then decreased with increasing amounts of DS. Compared to leavened dough, unleavened dough had significantly higher peak times, of T21 and T22, and was also affected by DS concentration. Steamed bread had a higher specific volume, relatively lower hardness, exhibited more whiteness, and a higher degree of gumminess and chewiness with higher DS levels. We compared two methods of making steamed bread and assessed the quality of the product. We found that an appropriate DS content improved the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread. This study provides the basis for future development and improvements to methods for making frozen dough products.

  5. Analysis of gluten proteins composition during grain filling in two durum wheat cultivars submitted to two water regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Michela Giuliani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum is one of the major crops in the Mediterranean basin, where water stress often occurs during grain filling which represents a critical stage for the synthesis and accumulation of storage proteins (gliadins and glutenins. The aim of the study is to evaluate, by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE SDS-PAGE, the storage proteins composition of two durum wheat cultivars (Ciccio and Svevo cultivated in a growth chamber under two different water regimes (control and water deficit. At milk stage and physiological maturity, gluten proteins have been extracted and separated by 2DE SDS-PAGE. The analysis of the gels was performed by the software ImageMaster 2D Platinum (Amersham. The results showed differences in protein expression within the different gel regions between water regimes and cultivars; under water deficit the rate of protein accumulation was faster for all the protein regions, either at milk and physiological stage. Protein accumulation within high molecular weight (H region resulted faster in Ciccio than in Svevo mainly in the control treatment. In the low molecular weight region between 48 and 35 kDa (L 48-35, the cultivar Ciccio showed a higher protein expression than Svevo. Furthermore under water deficit a marked increase in H region volume and a decrease in the L 48-35 region was observed only for Svevo; instead in Ciccio no change was observed showing this cultivar a greater stability on changing water regime. Further studies by the use of mass spectrometry are necessary to identify specific peptides relative to drought stress during grain filling as well as to investigate the relationships with technological quality.

  6. EFFICIENCY OF CULTIVATION OF DIFFERENT WINTER WHEAT CULTIVARS IN THE CONDITIONS OF INSUFFICIENT HUMIDIFYING IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bershatskaya S. I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence on the predecessor, on the time of sowing and various mineral nutrition levels, on the productivity of seven cultivars of winter soft wheat of Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute selection was investigated. On the basis of the obtained experimental data and production audit it was found that all studied cultivars under the total complex of cultivation technological methods are able to form the yield of 6-7 t / ha with the payment of one kg of active ingredient of fertilizer by the grain within 6.50-9.86, and 8.56- 10.71 kg. Soil was ordinary chernozem with a low humus content powerful humus content, depending on the power of backgrounds in the arable (0-30sm soil layer is 3,95-4,00%, of mineral nitrogen is 5,9-8,3 mg / kg of soil, mobile phosphorus is 22,4 - 26,6 mg / kg of soil, of exchangeable potassium is 330-360 mg / kg of soil. Predecessors are winter wheat, sunflower, white mustard cultivated on seeds. The main tillage is resource-saving with the mulching of 0-10 cm layer. Studied sowing terms are the 20th of September, the 1st and 10th of October. The backgrounds of mineral nutrition: 1-without fertilizer N0P0К0; 2-minimum dose of complete mineral fertilizer N60P30К30; 3-average dose N90P60К60; 4-high dose N120- 160P90К60. Seeding rate is 5 million germinating seeds per hectare. The objects of the research were seven winter soft wheat cultivars of Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute selection. We studied winter wheat cultivars with different combination of biological characteristics and predecessors. This combination is contributed to the yield growing from 4,26-5,82 t / ha up to 6,97-7,2 4,26-5,82 t / ha with the payment of one kilogram of active fertilizer substance with the output of grain within 8,52-12,0kg

  7. Starch molecular fractionation of bread wheat varieties Fraccionamiento molecular del almidón de variedades trigo pan

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    V. Corcuera

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The starch composition of bread making wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum subsp. vulgare of the Argentine commercial varieties Buck Charrua, Buck Ombú, Buck Guaraní, Buck Catriel and Buck Poncho was analyzed by two different methods. One of these depends on the differential solubility of amylose and amylopectin in a water:butanol mixture whilst the other process is based on the use of the lectin Concanavalin A. These methods were complemented by spectrophotometric determinations to enable the identification of the á-D- glucanes and also improved the comparative quantitation of the amylose and amylopectin fractions. As a result of this, no significant variations for starch content (ANOVA, F4- 8= 0.7; p ≥ 0.05 were found among these varieties, although strong differences were found for amylose (ANOVA, F4- 8= 44.4; p ≥ 0.01 and amylopectin content (ANOVA, F4- 8= 77.1; p ≥ 0.01. These results and the fact that no differences were found for amylose (ANOVA, F2- 8= 0.3 and amylopectin among years within the same variety (ANOVA, F2- 8:0.8 at p ≥0.01 led to the conclusion that the diverse properties and end-uses of the starch mainly depend on the genotype, and that starch quality is null or scarcely influenced by the environment. This knowledge must be taken into account for wheat breeding purposes.Se analizó la composición del almidón de granos de trigo pan (Triticum aestivum subsp. v u l g a r e de las variedades comerciales argentinas Buck Charrúa, Buck Ombú, Buck Guaraní, Buck Catriel y Buck Poncho mediante dos métodos diferentes. Uno de ellos depende de la solubilidad diferencial de la amilosa y amilopectina en una mezcla de agua:butanol, mientras que el otro proceso está basado en el uso de la lectina Concanavalina A. Estos métodos fueron complementados mediante determinaciones espectrofotométricas que facilitaron la identificación de los á-D-glucanos y también permitieron mejorar la cuantificación comparativa de las fracciones

  8. Assessing the impact of ambient ozone on growth and yield of a rice (Oryza sativa L.) and a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar grown in the Yangtze Delta, China, using three rates of application of ethylenediurea (EDU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoke; Zheng, Qiwei; Yao, Fangfang; Chen, Zhan; Feng, Zhaozhong; Manning, W J

    2007-07-01

    Foliar applications of ethylenediurea (abbreviated as EDU) were made at 0, 150, 300 or 450 ppm to field-grown rice and wheat in the Yangtze Delta in China. Rice and wheat responded differently to ambient ozone and EDU applications. For wheat, some growth characteristics, such as yield, seed number per plant, seed set rate and harvest index, increased significantly at 300 ppm EDU treatment, while for rice no parameters measured were statistically different regarding EDU application. The reason may be that the wheat cultivar used may be more sensitive to ozone than the rice cultivar. EDU was effective in demonstrating ozone effects on the wheat cultivar, but not on the rice cultivar. Cultivar sensitivity might be an important consideration when assessing the effects of ambient ozone on plants.

  9. QTL for spot blotch resistance in bread wheat line Saar co-locate to the biotrophic disease resistance loci Lr34 and Lr46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillemo, Morten; Joshi, Arun K; Prasad, Ravindra; Chand, Ramesh; Singh, Ravi P

    2013-03-01

    Spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is a major disease of wheat in warm and humid wheat growing regions of the world including south Asian countries such as India, Nepal and Bangladesh. The CIMMYT bread wheat line Saar which carries the leaf tip necrosis (LTN)-associated rust resistance genes Lr34 and Lr46 has exhibited a low level of spot blotch disease in field trials conducted in Asia and South America. One hundred and fourteen recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Avocet (Susceptible) × Saar, were evaluated along with parents in two dates of sowing in India for 3 years (2007-2008 to 2009-2010) to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with spot blotch resistance, and to determine the potential association of Lr34 and Lr46 with resistance to this disease. Lr34 was found to constitute the main locus for spot blotch resistance, and explained as much as 55 % of the phenotypic variation in the mean disease data across the six environments. Based on the large effect, the spot blotch resistance at this locus has been given the gene designation Sb1. Two further, minor QTL were detected in the sub-population of RILs not containing Lr34. The first of these was located about 40 cM distal to Lr34 on 7DS, and the other corresponded to Lr46 on 1BL. A major implication for wheat breeding is that Lr34 and Lr46, which are widely used in wheat breeding to improve resistance to rust diseases and powdery mildew, also have a beneficial effect on spot blotch.

  10. Overexpression of TaNAC69 Leads to Enhanced Transcript Levels of Stress Up-Regulated Genes and Dehydration Tolerance in Bread Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang-Ping Xue; Heather M. Way; Terese Richardson; Janneke Drenth; Priya A. Joyce; C.Lynne Mclntyre

    2011-01-01

    NAC proteins are plant-specific transcription factors and enriched with members involved in plant response to drought stress. In this study, we analyzed the expression profiles of TaNAC69 in bread wheat using Affymetrix Wheat Genome Array datasets and quantitative RT-PCR. TaNAC69 expression was positively associated with wheat responses to both abiotic and biotic stresses and was closely correlated with a number of stress up-regulated genes. The functional analyses of TaNAC69 in transgenic wheat showed that TaNAC69 driven by a barley drought-inducible HvDhn4s promoter led to marked drought-inducible overexpression of TaNAC69 in the leaves and roots of transgenic lines. The HvDhn4s:Ta-NAC69 transgenic lines produced more shoot biomass under combined mild salt stress and water-limitation conditions,had longer root and more root biomass under polyethylene glycol-induced dehydration. Analysis of transgenic lines with constitutive overexpression of TaNAC69 showed the enhanced expression levels of several stress up-regulated genes.DNA-binding assays revealed that TaNAC69 and its rice homolog (ONAC131)were capable of binding to the promoter elements of three rice genes (chitinase, ZIM, and glyoxalase I)and an Arabidopsis glyoxalase I family gene, which are homologs of TaNAC69 up-regulated stress genes. These data suggest that TaNAC69 is involved in regulating stress up-regulated genes and wheat adaptation to drought stress.

  11. The effect of different types of Finnish bread on postprandial glucose response in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, L; Korpela, R; Mantere, S

    1985-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the fibre content of the bread and the effect of the state of graining on the postprandial blood glucose response in insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetics. The breads were white wheat bread, mixed wholemeal wheat/rye bread, wholemeal rye bread and grained wholemeal rye bread. Finnish wholemeal rye bread induced a slower postprandial blood glucose response than the mixed wholemeal (wheat/rye) bread (P less than or equal to 0.05) and the white wheat bread (P less than or equal to 0.01). Grained wholemeal rye bread resulted in a similar blood glucose response to that from wholemeal rye bread.

  12. Presowing Seed Treatment with Cytokinins and Its Effect on Growth,Photosynthetic Rate, Ionic Levels and Yield of Two Wheat Cultivars Differing in Salt Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad IQBAL; Muhammad ASHRAF

    2005-01-01

    The effects of presowing seed treatment with different concentrations of cytokinins (kinetin and benzylaminopurine; 100, 150, and 200 mg/L) on growth, photosynthetic capacity, and ion homeostasis were investigated in two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, namely MH-97 (salt sensitive) and Inqlab91 (salt tolerant). Primed and non-primed seeds were sown in a field in which NaCl salinity of 15 dS/m was developed. Of the different concentrations of priming agents tested, the effect of a moderate concentration of kinetin (150 mg/L) was very pronounced, particularly in improving growth and grain yield, in both cultivars. In addition, priming with kinetin alleviated the adverse effect of salt stress on gaseous exchange characteristics (net CO2 assimilation rate and water use efficiency) in both cultivars. Seed priming with a moderate concentration of kinetin also altered the pattern of accumulation of Na+ and Cl- in the shoots,irrespective of the wheat cultivar, under conditions of salt stress. However, all other priming agents at the different concentrations tested did not show any consistent effect on ion levels, except hydropriming,which increased K+ levels in the shoots of both cultivars under salt stress. In conclusion, a moderate concentration of kinetin showed a consistent effect in altering the growth and grain yield of both wheat cultivars, which was related to the beneficial effects of kinetin priming on water use efficiency and photosynthetic rate under conditions of salt stress.

  13. The shutdown of celiac disease-related gliadin epitopes in bread wheat by RNAi provides flours with increased stability and better tolerance to over-mixing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gil-Humanes

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a food-sensitive enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten proteins and related proteins from barley, rye, and some varieties of oat. There are no interventional therapies and the only solution is a lifelong gluten-free diet. The down-regulation of gliadins by RNAi provides wheat lines with all the gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated (low-gliadin. The technological properties of doughs prepared from the low-gliadin lines indicated a general weakening effect, although some of the lines displayed similar properties to that of the wild-type lines. In contrast, the stability was increased significantly in some of the transgenic lines, indicating better tolerance to over-mixing. Results reported here are the first analyses of the mixing and bread-making quality of the wheat lines with all gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated. Flour from these lines may be an important breakthrough in the development of new products for the celiac community. These lines might be used directly or blended with other non-toxic cereals, as raw material for developing food products that can be safely tolerated by CD patients and others with gluten intolerance or gluten sensitivity, incrementing the range of available food products and enhancing their diet.

  14. The shutdown of celiac disease-related gliadin epitopes in bread wheat by RNAi provides flours with increased stability and better tolerance to over-mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Barro, Francisco; Rosell, Cristina M

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease is a food-sensitive enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten proteins and related proteins from barley, rye, and some varieties of oat. There are no interventional therapies and the only solution is a lifelong gluten-free diet. The down-regulation of gliadins by RNAi provides wheat lines with all the gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated (low-gliadin). The technological properties of doughs prepared from the low-gliadin lines indicated a general weakening effect, although some of the lines displayed similar properties to that of the wild-type lines. In contrast, the stability was increased significantly in some of the transgenic lines, indicating better tolerance to over-mixing. Results reported here are the first analyses of the mixing and bread-making quality of the wheat lines with all gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated. Flour from these lines may be an important breakthrough in the development of new products for the celiac community. These lines might be used directly or blended with other non-toxic cereals, as raw material for developing food products that can be safely tolerated by CD patients and others with gluten intolerance or gluten sensitivity, incrementing the range of available food products and enhancing their diet.

  15. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF WARANKASHI ENRICHED BREAD

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    O. E. Dudu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the microbiological and nutritional quality, organoleptic, rheological and textural effect as well as the effect on the shelf life of wheat bread enriched with West African cottage cheese (warankashi at different substitution levels (1 %, 3 % and 5 %. The protein and fat content of wheat bread significantly increased but carbohydrate levels decreased significantly as enrichment with Warankashi increased. The amino acid profile of the wheat bread increased with increasing enrichment. The incorporation of Warankashi into wheat flour affected the rheological and textural properties of wheat flour; the rate of water absorption of the wheat flour decreased as Warankashi incorporation levels increased. Also, the dough stability time of the enriched flours was lesser than that of the wheat flour. The 3 % enrichment level had the highest dough consistency (520 BU. The extensibility of 1 % and 3 % wara bread dough were the same while that of wheat flour bread and 5 % Warankashi were the same. The 3 % wara bread dough had the highest resistance to extension. Shelf life of the bread remained unaffected by Warankashi incorporation but the rate of bacteria and fungi (yeast and mould growth decreased significantly (P < 0.05 as enrichment levels increased. There was no significant difference between the organoleptic properties of wheat bread to that of the enriched breads but the 3 % Warankshi enriched bread had the highest consumer acceptability.

  16. High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunit Composition of Chinese Wheat Germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ling-li; LI Xiu-quan; YANG Xin-ming; LI Hong-jie; WANG Hui; LI Li-hui

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the high molecular glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) composition and the presence of 1B/1R translocation in newly developed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm, which have one or more traits that are useful in wheat improvement. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)and acid polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE) were used to detect HMW-GS composition and the presence of 1B/1R wheat-rye (Secale cereale L.) chromosome translocation in the wheat germplasm. Bread-making quality scores of these lines were determined. A high level of variations in HMW-GS encoded by Glu-1 locus was observed. Sixteen major HMW-GS, with 30 combinations, were detected. The percentage of cultivars with more than two desirable subunits was 38.7%. Thirteen cultivars had bread-making quality scores of 10 in combination with one or two desirable agronomical traits, such as high-yield potential, dwarfing stem, resistance to diseases, and/or tolerance to abiotic stress. Sixty-eight (36.6%) cultivars possessed 1B/1R translocation. The newly developed germplasm with HMW-GS for good quality can be promising resources for improving bread-making quality of wheat.

  17. Anatomical Structure Comparison Between Leaves of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars with Different Cold/Freezing Tolerance Under Low Temperature Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jing; CANG Jing; ZHOU Zishan; LIU Lijie

    2011-01-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars Dongnongdongmai 1 with strong cold/freezing tolerance and Jimai 22 with weak cold/freezing tolerance were used for investigating the difference of microstructure and ultrastructure between leaves of two cultivars under low temperature stress (5℃ and -15 ℃) using optical and electron microscope. The results showed that there was no obvious difference between leaves of Dongnongdongmai 1 and Jimai 22 in microstructure. However, the difference between those leaves was distinct in ultrastructure. The grana lamella and stroma lamella were stacked regularly and arranged parallelly along the long axis of chloroplasts in cv. Dongnongdongmai 1, while the arrangement directions of thylakoids in Jimai 22's leaves were so irregular as to form various angles with the long axis of chloroplasts. At -15℃, the mitochondrias were swelled to be round and the structure of cristaes became blurry in both cultivars' leaves, while some cristaes of Jimai 22 disappeared. These results would provide theoretical evidence for selecting cold/freezing tolerant winter wheat germplasm resources

  18. Novel Bread Wheat Lines Enriched in Carotenoids Carrying Hordeum chilense Chromosome Arms in the ph1b Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, María-Dolores; Calderón, María-Carmen; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Alós, Enriqueta; Prieto, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The use of crop wild relative species to improve major crops performance is well established. Hordeum chilense has a high potential as a genetic donor to increase the carotenoid content of wheat. Crosses between the 7Hch H. chilense substitution lines in wheat and the wheat pairing homoeologous1b (ph1b) mutant allowed the development of wheat-H. chilense translocation lines for both 7Hchα and 7Hchβ chromosome arms in the wheat background. These translocation lines were characterized by in situ hybridization and using molecular markers. In addition, reverse phase chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out to evaluate the carotenoid content and both 7Hchα∙7AL and 7AS∙7Hchβ disomic translocation lines. The carotenoid content in 7Hchα∙7AL and 7AS∙7Hchβ disomic translocation lines was higher than the wheat-7Hch addition line and double amount of carotenoids than the wheat itself. A proteomic analysis confirmed that the presence of chromosome 7Hch introgressions in wheat scarcely altered the proteomic profile of the wheat flour. The Psy1 (Phytoene Synthase1) gene, which is the first committed step in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, was also cytogenetically mapped on the 7Hchα chromosome arm. These new wheat-H. chilense translocation lines can be used as a powerful tool in wheat breeding programs to enrich the diet in bioactive compounds. PMID:26241856

  19. Novel Bread Wheat Lines Enriched in Carotenoids Carrying Hordeum chilense Chromosome Arms in the ph1b Background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Dolores Rey

    Full Text Available The use of crop wild relative species to improve major crops performance is well established. Hordeum chilense has a high potential as a genetic donor to increase the carotenoid content of wheat. Crosses between the 7Hch H. chilense substitution lines in wheat and the wheat pairing homoeologous1b (ph1b mutant allowed the development of wheat-H. chilense translocation lines for both 7Hchα and 7Hchβ chromosome arms in the wheat background. These translocation lines were characterized by in situ hybridization and using molecular markers. In addition, reverse phase chromatography (HPLC analysis was carried out to evaluate the carotenoid content and both 7Hchα∙7AL and 7AS∙7Hchβ disomic translocation lines. The carotenoid content in 7Hchα∙7AL and 7AS∙7Hchβ disomic translocation lines was higher than the wheat-7Hch addition line and double amount of carotenoids than the wheat itself. A proteomic analysis confirmed that the presence of chromosome 7Hch introgressions in wheat scarcely altered the proteomic profile of the wheat flour. The Psy1 (Phytoene Synthase1 gene, which is the first committed step in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, was also cytogenetically mapped on the 7Hchα chromosome arm. These new wheat-H. chilense translocation lines can be used as a powerful tool in wheat breeding programs to enrich the diet in bioactive compounds.

  20. Serish inulin and wheat biopolymers interactions in model systems as a basis for understanding the impact of inulin on bread properties: a FTIR investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourfarzad, Amir; Habibi Najafi, Mohammad B; Haddad Khodaparast, Mohammad H; Khayyat, Mohammad Hassanzadeh

    2015-12-01

    In this study the interactions between Serish root inulin and the main biopolymer types of wheat flour namely gluten, starch and phospholipid, were investigated in different model systems using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to unravel the underlying physical mechanism by which inulin impacts dough and bread properties. Interactions of inulin with starch and phospholipid were not considerable compared to gluten, but it was also clear that the modes of these interactions varied with the type and the amount of additives used in model formulation. This study revealed that when inulin is added to gluten, water redistribution promotes partial dehydration of gluten and collapse of β-spirals into intermolecular β-sheet structures; this trans-conformations might be due to physical reasons are believed to further impact the poor quality of bread containing added inulin. Upon performing Gaussian-Lorenzian curve fitting, it was observed that by adding of inulin to model systems, the relative contribution of characteristic peaks of β-turn and intramolecular β-sheet was progressively decreased whereas intermolecular β-sheet and α-helix contents were increased.

  1. Impact of Wheat Bran Hydration Properties As Affected by Toasting and Degree of Milling on Optimal Dough Development in Bread Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Pieter J; Bogaerts, Silke; Hemdane, Sami; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-05-11

    The impact of the hydration capacity and hydration rate of wheat bran on optimal bread dough development and loaf volume was investigated using coarse bran, both native as well as after toasting, milling, presoaking, and combinations of the latter. It was found that toasting reduces bran's hydration rate, which, during mixing, results in a temporary excess of water in which dough development takes place inefficiently and hence requires additional time. This mechanism was further substantiated by the observation that delayed dough development can be counteracted by the presoaking of bran. Milling of bran increases its hydration rate and results in faster optimal dough development. Presoaking of nonmilled bran, however, did not result in faster dough development. Smaller bran particles do lead to faster dough development, probably due to increased proper contacts between flour particles. Optimal loaf volumes did not change upon milling and toasting.

  2. Contrasting response of biomass and grain yield to severe drought in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Paul

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a case study of natural variations and correlations of some photosynthetic parameters, green biomass and grain yield in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars, which are classified as being drought sensitive and tolerant, respectively. We monitored biomass accumulation from secondary leaves in the vegetative phase and grain yield from flag leaves in the grain filling period. Interestingly, we observed higher biomass production, but lower grain yield stability in the sensitive Cappelle cultivar, as compared to the tolerant Plainsman cv. Higher biomass production in the sensitive variety was correlated with enhanced water-use efficiency. Increased cyclic electron flow around PSI was also observed in the Cappelle cv. under drought stress as shown by light intensity dependence of the ratio of maximal quantum yields of Photosystem I and Photosystem II, as well by the plot of the Photosystem I electron transport rate as a function of Photosystem II electron transport rate. Higher CO2 uptake rate in flag leaves of the drought-stressed Plainsman cv. during grain filling period correlates well with its higher grain yield and prolonged transpiration rate through spikes. The increase in drought factor (DFI and performance (PI indices calculated from variable chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of secondary leaves also showed correlation with higher biomass in the Cappelle cultivar during the biomass accumulation period. However, during the grain filling period, DFI and PI parameters of the flag leaves were higher in the tolerant Plainsman V cultivar and showed correlation with grain yield stability. Our results suggest that overall biomass and grain yield may respond differentially to drought stress in different wheat cultivars and therefore phenotyping for green biomass cannot be used as a general approach to predict grain yield. We also conclude that photosynthetic efficiency of flag and secondary leaves

  3. Biotechnological production of vitamin B2-enriched bread and pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Menga, Valeria; Digesu, Anna Maria; De Vita, Pasquale; van Sinderen, Douwe; Cattivelli, Luigi; Fares, Clara; Spano, Giuseppe

    2011-07-27

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were obtained from durum wheat flour samples and screened for roseoflavin-resistant variants to isolate natural riboflavin-overproducing strains. Two riboflavin-overproducing strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated as described above were used for the preparation of bread (by means of sourdough fermentation) and pasta (using a prefermentation step) to enhance their vitamin B2 content. Pasta was produced from a monovarietal semolina obtained from the durum wheat cultivar PR22D89 and, for experimental purposes, from a commercial remilled semolina. Several samples were collected during the pasta-making process (dough, extruded, dried, and cooked pasta) and tested for their riboflavin content by a high-performance liquid chromatography method. The applied approaches resulted in a considerable increase of vitamin B2 content (about 2- and 3-fold increases in pasta and bread, respectively), thus representing a convenient and efficient food-grade biotechnological application for the production of vitamin B2-enriched bread and pasta. This methodology may be extended to a wide range of cereal-based foods, feed, and beverages. Additionally, this work exemplifies the production of a functional food by a novel biotechnological exploitation of LAB in pasta-making.

  4. Cloning and Expression of Low Molecular Weight Glutenin Genes from the Chinese Elite Wheat Cultivar "Xiaoyan 54"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The low molecular weight (LMW) glutenin subunits account for 40% of wheat gluten protein content by mass and these proteins are considered to significantly affect dough quality characteristics. Five new full-length LMW glutenin genes (designated LMW-5, LMW-7, LMW-42, LMW-58, and LMW-34) were isolated from the Chinese elite wheat cultivar "Xiaoyan 54" by PCR amplification of genomic DNA using a pair of degenerate primers designed from the conserved sequences of the N- and C-terminal regions of published LMW glutenln genes.Deduced amino acid sequence analysis showed that LMW-5 belongs to the LMW-itype genes and that the other four belong to LMW-m type genes. Sequence comparisons revealed that point mutations occasionally occurred in signal peptide and N-terminus domains and often existed in domain Ⅲ and domain V. Small insertions and deletions are represented in the repetitive domain. There is a stop codon after amino acid position 110 in the repetitive domain of LMW-34, indicating that it is a pseudogene. The other four genes have complete open reading frames and the putative mature regions of these genes were subcloned into pET-30a expression vector and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Protein sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that all proteins expressed in E. coli by the four genes could be related to B-group LMW glutenin subunits of wheat.

  5. Cluster analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC analysis of gluten forming proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed to determine how they cluster in terms of parentage and protein data, analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) of gliadins, and size-exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) of unreduced proteins. Dwarfing genes in...

  6. Wheat Production and Wheat Rust Management in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Allen G; Chi Dawn T; Zhang Shu-zhen; Li Zuo-fu

    2012-01-01

    Wheat is Canada's the largest crop with most of the production in the western Canadian Prairie Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. There were approximately 10 million (M) hectares (hm2) seeded to wheat in Canada, including 7 M hm2 of hexaploid spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 2 M hm2 of durum wheat (T. turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.), and 1 M hm2 of winter wheat (T. aestivum). Within hexaploid wheat there has been diversification into a number of market classes based on different end-use quality criteria. The predominant spring bread wheat class has been the Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) class. Historically, the disease of major concern in wheat was stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. The first significant stem rust resistant cultivar in Canada was Thatcher, grown extensively from 1939 until the early 1970s. Thatcher, however, was very susceptible to leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina. Over years, improved resistance to both stem and leaf rust was achieved with the release of cultivars with additional genes for resistance, primarily Sr2, Sr6, Sr7a, Sr9b, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16, and Lr34. The genetic resistance has adequately controlled stem rust but leaf rust continues to cause significant loss, partially due to changes in the P. triticina population which reduced the effectiveness of resistance genes such as Lr13 and Lr16. Stripe rust on wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, was historically a problem under irrigation in southern Alberta, but since 2000, it has been found annually in the central Canadian prairies and southern Ontario. The genetic basis of resistance to stripe rust in most Canadian wheat cultivars has not been determined, although Yr18 provides partial resistance in many cultivars. In the future, other rust diseases, such as wheat stripe rust, or highly virulent new pathotypes of current rust pathogens, such as P. graminis f. sp. tritici race Ug-99, may pose

  7. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivar Selection Affects Double-Crop and Relay-Intercrop Soybean (Glycine max L. Response on Claypan Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field research (2003–2005 evaluated the effect of wheat row spacing (19 and 38 cm and cultivar on double-cropped (DC soybean response, 38-cm wheat on relay-intercrop (RI response, and wheat cultivar selection on gross margins of these cropping systems. Narrow-row wheat increased grain yield 460 kg ha−1, light interception (LI 7%, and leaf area index (LAI 0.5 compared to wide rows, but did not affect DC soybean yield. High yielding wheat (P25R37 with greater LI and LAI produced lower (330 kg ha−1 soybean yields in an RI system than a low yielding cultivar (Ernie. Gross margins were $267 ha−1 greater when P25R37 was RI with H431 Intellicoat (ITC soybean compared to Ernie. Gross margins were similar for monocrop H431 non-coated (NC or ITC soybean, P25R37 in 19- or 38-cm rows with DC H431 NC soybean, and P25R37 in 38-cm rows with RI H431 ITC soybean in the absence of an early fall frost.

  8. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of two argentine wheat cultivars Características anatômicas e fisiológicas de dois cultivares argentinos de trigo

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    Raúl Roberto Filgueira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Two Argentine field grown wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L., Buck Cencerro (BC with traditional germoplasm, and Buck Pucará (BP with Mexican germoplasm, have been investigated in order to compare anatomical and physiological characteristics of the flag leaf measured in heading (stage E59, anthesis (stage E69 and kernel water ripe (stage 71. In both cultivars, photosynthetic rate was not different for the same phenological stage, except for E71. Averages in stage E59 were higher than stages E69 and E71 for both cultivars (22.70, 18.40 and 10.40 µmol m-2 s-1 for BP and 23.82, 18.41 and 8.28 µmol m-2 s-1 for BC, respectively. Transpiration rates were higher in BP (5.0, 5.6 and 4.89 mmol m-2 s-1 than BC (3.3, 4.4 and 2.57 mmol m-2 s-1 for stages E59, E69 and E71, respectively. Consequently, instantaneous water use efficiencies were higher in BC than in BP. No difference between cultivars and phenological stages was observed in specific surface area (mesophyll area per unit mass determined by physical adsorption of nitrogen at low temperature (78° K; the mean was 8.9 m² g-1. It was similar as values found in previous works, in others T. aestivum L. and greater than the values found for Ligustrum lucidum Aiton, by the same technique. Differences could be attributed to the roughness of the cell wall and the dimensions of the cell itself. No positive correlation between specific surface and photosynthetic rate was observed neither for cultivars nor for phenological stages.Dois cultivares argentinos de trigo (Triticum aestivium L, Buck Cencerro (BC, com germoplasma tradicional e Buck Pucará (BP, com germoplasma mexicano, foram pesquisados para comparar as características anatômicas e fisiológicas da folha bandeira medida no espigamento (estádio E59, na antese (estádio E69 e na fase de grão aquoso completo (estádio E71. Nos dois cultivares, a taxa fotossintética foi semelhante no mesmo estágio fenológico, exceto no E71. As médias no

  9. Dynamics of small RNA profiles of virus and host origin in wheat cultivars synergistically infected by Wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus: virus infection caused a drastic shift in the endogenous small RNA profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Riethoven, Jean-Jack M; Graybosch, Robert A; French, Roy; Mitra, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    Co-infection of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, a Tritimovirus) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV, a Poacevirus) of the family Potyviridae causes synergistic interaction. In this study, the effects of the synergistic interaction between WSMV and TriMV on endogenous and virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) were examined in susceptible ('Arapahoe') and temperature-sensitive resistant ('Mace') wheat cultivars at 18°C and 27°C. Single and double infections in wheat caused a shift in the profile of endogenous small RNAs from 24 nt being the most predominant in healthy plants to 21 nt in infected wheat. Massive amounts of 21 and 22 nt vsiRNAs accumulated in singly and doubly infected Arapahoe at both temperatures and in Mace at 27°C but not 18°C. The plus- and minus-sense vsiRNAs were distributed throughout the genomic RNAs in Arapahoe at both temperature regimens and in Mace at 27°C, although some regions served as hot-spots, spawning an excessive number of vsiRNAs. The vsiRNA peaks were conserved among cultivars, suggesting that the Dicer-like enzymes in susceptible and resistant cultivars similarly accessed the genomic RNAs of WSMV or TriMV. Accumulation of large amounts of vsiRNAs in doubly infected plants suggests that the silencing suppressor proteins encoded by TriMV and WSMV do not prevent the formation of vsiRNAs; thus, the synergistic effect observed is independent from RNA-silencing mediated vsiRNA biogenesis. The high-resolution map of endogenous and vsiRNAs from WSMV- and/or TriMV-infected wheat cultivars may form a foundation for understanding the virus-host interactions, the effect of synergistic interactions on host defense, and virus resistance mechanisms in wheat.

  10. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relati...

  11. The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.

    2013-01-01

    origin. The plants were grown in ambient (400 µl l-1) and elevated (800 µl l-1) CO2 with a day/night temperature of 15/10°С. At the growth stages of tillering, booting and anthesis, the plants were subjected to heat stress of 40°С for three continuous days. Photosynthetic parameters, maximum quantum...... efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and contents of pigments and carbohydrates in leaves were analysed before and during the stress treatments as well as after one day of recovery. Heat stress reduced PN and Fv/Fm in both wheat cultivars, but plants grown in elevated CO2 maintained...

  12. Genetic transformation of Indian bread (T. aestivum and pasta (T. durum wheat by particle bombardment of mature embryo-derived calli

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    Khurana Paramjit

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particle bombardment has been successfully employed for obtaining transgenics in cereals in general and wheat in particular. Most of these procedures employ immature embryos which are not available throughout the year. The present investigation utilizes mature seeds as the starting material and the calli raised from the hexaploid Triticum aestivum and tetraploid Triticum durum display a high regeneration response and were therefore used as the target tissue for genetic transformation by the biolistic approach. Results Mature embryo-derived calli of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, cv. CPAN1676 and durum wheat (T. durum, cv. PDW215 were double bombarded with 1.1 gold microprojectiles coated with pDM302 and pAct1-F at a target distance of 6 cm. Southern analysis using the bar gene as a probe revealed the integration of transgenes in the T0 transformants. The bar gene was active in both T0 and T1 generations as evidenced by phosphinothricin leaf paint assay. Approximately 30% and 33% primary transformants of T. aestivum and T. durum, respectively, were fertile. The transmission of bar gene to T1 progeny was demonstrated by PCR analysis of germinated seedlings with primers specific to the bar gene. Conclusions The transformation frequency obtained was 8.56% with T. aestivum and 10% with T. durum. The optimized protocol was subsequently used for the introduction of the barley gene encoding a late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1 in T. aestivum and T. durum. The presence of the HVA1 transgene was confirmed by Southern analysis in the T0 generation in case of Triticum aestivum, and T0 and T1 generation in Triticum durum.

  13. Removing celiac disease-related gluten proteins from bread wheat while retaining technological properties: a study with Chinese Spring deletion lines

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    Bosch Dirk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gluten proteins can induce celiac disease (CD in genetically susceptible individuals. In CD patients gluten-derived peptides are presented to the immune system, which leads to a CD4+ T-cell mediated immune response and inflammation of the small intestine. However, not all gluten proteins contain T-cell stimulatory epitopes. Gluten proteins are encoded by multigene loci present on chromosomes 1 and 6 of the three different genomes of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum (AABBDD. Results The effects of deleting individual gluten loci on both the level of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in the gluten proteome and the technological properties of the flour were analyzed using a set of deletion lines of Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring. The reduction of T-cell stimulatory epitopes was analyzed using monoclonal antibodies that recognize T-cell epitopes present in gluten proteins. The deletion lines were technologically tested with respect to dough mixing properties and dough rheology. The results show that removing the α-gliadin locus from the short arm of chromosome 6 of the D-genome (6DS resulted in a significant decrease in the presence of T-cell stimulatory epitopes but also in a significant loss of technological properties. However, removing the ω-gliadin, γ-gliadin, and LMW-GS loci from the short arm of chromosome 1 of the D-genome (1DS removed T-cell stimulatory epitopes from the proteome while maintaining technological properties. Conclusion The consequences of these data are discussed with regard to reducing the load of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in wheat, and to contributing to the design of CD-safe wheat varieties.

  14. Changes in the texture and viscoelastic properties of bread containing rice porridge during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Ling; Sugiyama, Junichi; Shibata, Mario; Kokawa, Mito; Fujita, Kaori; Tsuta, Mizuki; Nabetani, Hiroshi; Araki, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rice porridge on the texture and viscoelastic properties of bread during storage. Three types of bread, wheat flour bread, 15% rice flour bread, and 15% rice porridge bread, were prepared. After baking and storing the bread for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h at room temperature, we measured the texture and viscoelastic properties of the bread crumbs by texture profile analysis (TPA) and creep test. The 15% rice porridge bread showed a significantly higher specific volume and maintained softer crumbs than the other two types (pporridge improves the specific volume, texture, and viscoelastic properties of bread crumbs during storage.

  15. Phytochemical profile and nutraceutical value of old and modern common wheat cultivars.

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    Emanuela Leoncini

    Full Text Available Among health-promoting phytochemicals in whole grains, phenolic compounds have gained attention as they have strong antioxidant properties and can protect against many degenerative diseases. Aim of this study was to profile grain phenolic extracts of one modern and five old common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties and to evaluate their potential antiproliferative or cytoprotective effect in different cell culture systems.Wheat extracts were characterized in terms of antioxidant activity and phenolic composition (HPLC/ESI-TOF-MS profile, polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Results showed that antioxidant activity (FRAP and DPPH is mostly influenced by flavonoid (both bound and free content and by the ratio flavonoids/polyphenols. Using a leukemic cell line, HL60, and primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, the potential antiproliferative or cytoprotective effects of different wheat genotypes were evaluated in terms of intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and cell viability. All tested wheat phenolic extracts exerted dose-dependent cytoprotective and antiproliferative effects on cardiomyocytes and HL60 cells, respectively. Due to the peculiar phenolic pattern of each wheat variety, a significant genotype effect was highlighted. On the whole, the most relevant scavenging effect was found for the old variety Verna. No significant differences in terms of anti-proliferative activities among wheat genotypes was observed.Results reported in this study evidenced a correspondence between the in vitro antioxidant activity and potential healthy properties of different extracts. This suggests that an increased intake of wheat grain derived products could represent an effective strategy to achieve both chemoprevention and protection against oxidative stress related diseases.

  16. Fractal Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbenshade, Donald H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Develops the idea of fractals through a laboratory activity that calculates the fractal dimension of ordinary white bread. Extends use of the fractal dimension to compare other complex structures as other breads and sponges. (MDH)

  17. Effects of wheat cultivar, metabolizable energy level, and xylanase supplementation to laying hens diet on performance, egg quality traits, and selected blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mirzaee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was conducted to evaluate the effects of two dietary apparent metabolizable energy (AME levels (2,720 and 2,580 kcal kg-1 diet and enzyme (0 and 0.3 g kg-1 diet, Grindazym® GP 15,000 with mostly xylanase activity supplementation on the performance of laying hens fed diets based on two wheat cultivars (Marvdasht and Sardari. Experimental diets were formulated to have a constant energy to protein ratio and were fed to 65-wk-old Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens for 7 wk. The lower level of AME reduced egg production and egg mass (p<0.05 and increased feed conversion ratio (p<0.05. Enzyme addition increased feed intake of the birds fed a diet with Sardari cultivar (p<0.05 but had no effect on feed intake of the birds fed a diet with Marvdasht cultivar (p>0.05. Nevertheless, birds receiving diets based on Marvdasht cultivar had higher feed intake and egg mass than that of those receiving diets based on Sardari cultivar (p<0.05. The birds fed diets based on Marvdasht cultivar produced less undesired eggs and had better yolk color as compared with the birds fed diets based on Sardari cultivar (p<0.05. The serum concentration of glucose increased by enzyme supplementation when birds receiving lower AME level (p<0.05. These results indicate that enzyme supplementation may have a positive effect on the feed intake of laying hens when fed on wheat-based diets; however, this effect is cultivar dependent and does not necessarily mean that enzyme supplementation always benefit production.

  18. Cultivar,Nitrogen and Irrigation Influence on Grain Quality and Its Forecasting Methods by In situ Reflected Spectrum of Winter Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wen-jiang; WANG Ji-hua; LIU Liang-yun; WANG Zhi-jie; TAN Chang-wei; SONG Xiao-yu; WANG Jing-di

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to examine the influence factors of cultivar, nitrogen application and irrigation on grain protein content, gluten content and grain hardness in three winter wheat cultivars under four levels of'nitrogen and irrigation treatments.Firstly, the influence of cultivars and environment factors on grain quality were studied, the effective factors were cultivars, irrigation, fertilization, etc. Secondly,total nitrogen content around winter wheat anthesis stage was proved to be significantly correlative with grain protein content, and spectral vegetation index significantly correlated to total nitrogen content around anthesis stage were the potential indicators for grain protein content. Accumulation of total nitrogen content and its transfer to grain is the physical link to produce the final grain protein, and total nitrogen content at anthesis stage was proved to be an indicator of final grain protein content. The selected normalized photochemical reflectance index (NPRI) was proved to be able to predict grain protein content on the close correlation between the ratio of total carotenoid to chlorophyll a and total nitrogen content. The method contributes towards developing optimal procedures for predicting wheat grain quality through analysis of their canopy reflected spectrum at anthesis stage. Regression equations were established to forecast grain protein and dry gluten content by total nitrogen content at anthesis stage, so it is feasible for forecasting grain quality by establishing correlation equations between biochemical constitutes and canopy reflected spectrum.

  19. Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Wheat (Triticum spp.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars: Distribution of Major Cell Wall Polysaccharides According to Their Main Structural Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veličković, Dušan; Saulnier, Luc; Lhomme, Margot; Damond, Aurélie; Guillon, Fabienne; Rogniaux, Hélène

    2016-08-17

    Arabinoxylans (AX) and (1→3),(1→4)-β-glucans (BG) are the main components of cereal cell walls and influence many aspects of their end uses. Important variations in the composition and structure of these polysaccharides have been reported among cereals and cultivars of a given species. In this work, the spatial distribution of AX and BG in the endosperm of mature grains was established for nine wheat varieties and eight barley varieties using enzymatically assisted mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Important structural features of the AX and BG polymers that were previously shown to influence their physicochemical properties were assessed. Differences in the distribution of AX and BG structures were observed, both within the endosperm of a given cultivar and between wheat and barley cultivars. This study provides a unique picture of the structural heterogeneity of AX and BG polysaccharides at the scale of the whole endosperm in a series of wheat and barley cultivars. Thus, it can participate meaningfully in a strategy aiming at understanding the structure-function relationships of these two polymers.

  20. Elucidation of defense-related signaling responses to spot blotch infection in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Ranabir; Sharaff, Murali; Pradhan, Maitree; Sethi, Avinash; Bandyopadhyay, Tirthankar; Mishra, Vinod K; Chand, Ramesh; Chowdhury, Apurba K; Joshi, Arun K; Pandey, Shree P

    2016-04-01

    Spot blotch disease, caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, is an important threat to wheat, causing an annual loss of ~17%. Under epidemic conditions, these losses may be 100%, yet the molecular responses of wheat to spot blotch remain almost uncharacterized. Moreover, defense-related phytohormone signaling genes have been poorly characterized in wheat. Here, we have identified 18 central components of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET), and enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) signaling pathways as well as the genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway in wheat. In time-course experiments, we characterized the reprogramming of expression of these pathways in two contrasting genotypes: Yangmai #6 (resistant to spot blotch) and Sonalika (susceptible to spot blotch). We further evaluated the performance of a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) by crossing Yangmai#6 and Sonalika (parents) and subsequent selfing to F10 under field conditions in trials at multiple locations. We characterized the reprogramming of defense-related signaling in these RILs as a consequence of spot blotch attack. During resistance to spot blotch attack, wheat strongly elicits SA signaling (SA biogenesis as well as the NPR1-dependent signaling pathway), along with WRKY33 transcription factor, followed by an enhanced expression of phenylpropanoid pathway genes. These may lead to accumulation of phenolics-based defense metabolites that may render resistance against spot blotch. JA signaling may synergistically contribute to the resistance. Failure to elicit SA (and possibly JA) signaling may lead to susceptibility against spot blotch infection in wheat.

  1. Cultivares de trigo sob manejos de solo e água, na região de cerrado Wheat cultivars under soil and water management strategies, in the cerrado region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Romero Ramos da Silva

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do trigo, sob irrigação por aspersão ou sequeiro, vem sendo introduzida nos últimos anos no cerrado brasileiro. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do manejo do solo e água nas características fenológicas e produtivas de cultivares de trigo, na região de cerrado. O estudo foi conduzido na área experimental da UNESP, localizada em Selvíria, MS. Adotou-se um delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, num esquema fatorial, com quatro repetições, sendo as mesmas constituídas por dois manejos de solo (arado de aivecas e plantio direto, dois manejos de água (-0,05MPa e -0,07MPa e três cultivares de trigo ("BRS 210", "BR 18", "IAC 24". O plantio direto proporcionou maior rendimento de grãos de trigo em relação ao preparo do solo com arado de aivecas para as cultivares "BRS 210" e "BRS 18". O manejo de água com tensão -0,05MPa foi o que proporcionou maior rendimento de grãos.The culture of wheat, under sprinkler irrigation or dry land, has been introduced in recent years in the cerrado region of Brazil. This research was developed with the objective of evaluating the effects of tillage methods and water management strategies on phenological and productive characteristics of wheat cultivars, in the cerrado region. The research reported here was developed at the UNESP experiment station, in Selvíria state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. A randomized block design with a factorial arrangement of treatments (2x2x3, with four repetitions, constituted by two tillage methods (moldboard plow and no-tillage, two water management strategies (-0.05MPa and -0.07MPa and three wheat cultivars ('BRS 210', 'BR 18', 'IAC 24'. The no-tillage allowed higher grain yield in relation to soil tillage with moldboard plow, to the wheat cultivars 'BRS 210' e 'BRS 18'. The water management strategy -0.05MPa was the best wheat yield.

  2. Effects of Waterlogging in Different Growth Stages on the Photosynthesis, Growth, Yield, and Protein Content of Three Wheat Cultivars in Jianghan Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoqiang ZHENG; Pu LYU; Xiaoyan WANG

    2016-01-01

    To maintain high wheat grain yield in areas where frequent and periodic waterlogging occurs, the effects of waterlog-ging on the photosynthesis, growth, yield, and protein content of three wheat cultivars, namely Xiangmai55 (X55), Jingmai102 (J102), and Zhengmai9023 (Z9023), in four different growth stages were investigated. Experiments were conducted in special y designed experimental tanks in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River during the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 wheat growing seasons in China. Results showed that X55 was the most susceptible to waterlogging, fol owed by J102 and Z9023. Chlorophyl content reduction and leaf senescence, which resulted in decreased green-to-total leaf number ratio, were induced to the greatest extents by waterlogging in booting and flowering stages, fol owed by milky stage. Meanwhile, chlorophyl content in flag leaf, plant height were significantly decreased by waterlogging in jointing stage but effectively recovered after waterlogging withdrawal, and recovery ability varied among the cultivars. Plant biomass and grain yield were most significantly decreased by waterlogging in booting and flowering stages, fol owed by milky and jointing stages. Grain protein content was also considerably affected by waterlogging depending on growth stage and cultivars. The decreased grain yield caused by waterlogging was mostly due to the sharp decline in 1 000-grain mass. Waterlogging led to reduced protein yield in al growth stages in three wheat cul-tivars. Above al , in this experiment, waterlogging decreased grain yield significantly, and waterlogging at booting stage and flow-ering stage was most serious. Comparing the three cultivars, X55 was most sensitive to waterlogging.

  3. Effect Debranning on Purple Waxy Wheat Flour Characteristics and Bread Baking Quality%脱皮对紫糯小麦粉特性和面包焙烤品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石琴琴; 张宪省; 罗斐斐; 侯汉学

    2012-01-01

    研究了不同脱皮时间下制得紫糯小麦粉的理化特性和面团的流变特性,以及对面包焙烤品质和贮藏过程中老化程度的影响.紫糯小麦的脱皮时间分别设定为0、1、3、5、7 min,相当于约0%、1%、3%、5%、9%的皮层被去除.结果表明,随着紫糯小麦脱皮时间的延长,小麦粉的出粉率提高,蛋白质和灰分含量及面团的粉质和拉伸特性也发生改变.脱皮5 min后制得的紫糯小麦粉以15%比例添加到普通面包粉中,面包含水量显著增加,体积和质量呈增大趋势,并且面包结构变好,面包评分显著上升.此外,添加紫糯小麦粉的面包较长时间放置后仍然松软,能有效延迟贮藏期间面包的老化,在一定程度上延长了其货架期.%In this paper, we study the effect different debranning time on the physico - chemiscal characteristics of purple waxy wheat and rheological properties of dough, as well as bread baking quality and the degree of ageing during storage. The debranning time of purple waxy wheat was set to 0,1,3,5,7 minutes, respectively. Equivalently, a-bout 0%,1%,3%,5%,9% of the outer layers were removed. Results showed that with the extension of debranning time,the yield of flour was improved. The protein and ash content and farinograph and extensograph properties of dough also changed. Made purple waxy wheat flour after debranning 5 minutes was added as 15% to regular bread flour so that the moisture content increased significantly; volume and weight of bread tended to increase; bread structure and score raised. In addition,bread added the purple waxy wheat after a long time was still soft,that could effectively retard the staling of bread during storage and extend its shelf life in a certain extent.

  4. Comportamento de cultivares de trigo em condições de sequeiro no estado de São Paulo Behaviour of wheat cultivars in different regions of the state of São Paulo without irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available Em ensaios de competição regional de cultivares de trigo em condição de sequeiro, efetuados no ano de 1971, no Estado de São Paulo, destacaram-se os seguintes, na ordem decrescente de produtividade: S-12, IRN-526-63, Pitic-62, BH-1146, IAC-5 e 1AC-7. As diferenças de produções desses cultivares não foram significativas (Tukey a 5%. O cultivar IRN-526-63, de origem mexicana, apresentou também resistência à ferrugem do colmo e ausência de acamamento, aliados a boa adaptação às diferentes regiões tritícolas paulistas em condição de sequeiro.Competition trials of nine cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were carried out without irrigation in nine different areas of the State of São Paulo, in 1971. The new CIMMYT cultivar IRN-526-63, created in Mexico, proved to be the best one. This cultivar presented high yield, straight and low type of plants, early maturation, resistance to lay, to stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis tritici, and a wide adaptation range in the State.

  5. Influence of temperature, precipitation, and cultivar characteristics on changes in the spectrum of pathogenic fungi in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hýsek, Josef; Vavera, Radek; Růžek, Pavel

    2016-12-01

    In view of the threat posed by climate change, we studied the influence of temperature, precipitation, cultivar characteristics, and technical management measures on the occurrence of phytopathogenic fungi in wheat during 2009-2013. This work involved experiments at two sites differing in average temperatures and precipitation. Temperature and precipitation appear to influence differences in the spectrum of phytopathogenic fungi at the individual sites. In 2009 (the warmest year), Alternaria triticina was dominant. In 2010 (having the smallest deviations from the average for individual years), Septoria tritici dominated. In 2011, Puccinia triticina was most prominent, while in 2012, the genus Drechslera (Pyrenophora) and in 2013, S. tritici and Drechslera tritici-repentis (DTR) dominated. Temperature and precipitation levels in the individual spring months (warmer March to May) played a large role, especially for the leaf rust P. triticina in 2011. A change of only 1 °C with different precipitation during a year played a significant role in changing wheat's fungal spectrum. Cluster analysis showed the differences between single pathogenic fungi on wheat in a single year due to temperature and precipitation. Alternaria abundance was strongly influenced by year (p < 0.001) while locality was significant only in certain years (2012, 2013; p = 0.004 and 0.015, respectively). The same factors were revealed to be significant in the case of Puccinia, but locality played a role (p < 0.001) in different years (2011, 2013). The abundance of S. tritici and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Drechslera tritici-repentis) was influenced only by year (p < 0.001).

  6. The effects of nitrogen nutrition and glutenin composition on the gluten quality in wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLA HRISTOV

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nitrogen nutrition treatments on the gluten content and some quality parameters of eight winter wheat cultivars has been studied. Six different nitrogen rates were applied (0, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 kg N ha-1 to wheat cultivars chosen according to the structure of their high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS at the Glu-D1 locus. Four genotypes with HMW-GS 2 + 12 and another four with HMW-GS 5 + 10 were used in the study. The analysis of gluten quality involved the wet gluten content and rheological properties determined by the sensory and instrumental methods (“Instron 4301”. It was determined that in all the cultivars the wet gluten content increased significantly (P < 0.05 in parallel with N rate increase. The cultivars reacted differently regarding their wet gluten rheological properties. Libellula, a cultivar with poor bread making quality (HMW-GS 2 + 12, did not react to different N rates. Sremica, a cultivar with excellent bread making quality (HMW-GS 5 + 10, reduced its gluten quality as the N rate increased. The values obtained by the instrumental method “Instron 4301” at 90% wet gluten compression varied widely (from 0.002 to 0.041 kN. The increase of N fertilizer rate was significantly positively correlated (r2 = 0.811 with the wet gluten content and strength in the cultivars with HMW-GS 5+10.

  7. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of 1D-encoded B and D glutenin subunits in common wheats with similar omega gliadins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masci, S; Porceddu, E; Lafiandra, D

    1991-08-01

    Gli-D1-encoded omega gliadins of bread wheats show little variation; their electrophoretic patterns can be classified into two main groups which broadly resemble the patterns found in the cultivars Chinese Spring and in Cheyenne. B and D subunits of low molecular weight glutenin encoded by the chromosome 1D loci Glu-D3 and Gli-D1, respectively, also showed little variation. D subunits were found only in bread wheats with "Chinese Spring-type" omega gliadins and they all exhibited the same electrophoretic pattern. This material also showed very similar B subunits. "Cheyenne-type" bread wheats displayed the same electrophoretic distribution of chromosome 1D-encoded B subunits, although they were slightly different from that found in Cheyenne itself.

  8. Applicability of Aegilops tauschii drought tolerance traits to breeding of hexaploid wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Quahir; Inoue, Tomoe; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

    2011-12-01

    Few genes are available to develop drought-tolerant bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. One way to enhance bread wheat's genetic diversity would be to take advantage of the diversity of wild species by creating synthetic hexaploid wheat (SW) with the genomic constitution of bread wheat. In this study, we compared the expression of traits encoded at different ploidy levels and evaluated the applicability of Aegilops tauschii drought-related traits using 33 Ae. tauschii accessions along with their corresponding SW lines under well-watered and drought conditions. We found wide variation in Ae. tauschii, and even wider variation in the SW lines. Some SW lines were more drought-tolerant than the standard cultivar Cham 6. Aegilops tauschii from some regions gave better performing SW lines. The traits of Ae. tauschii were not significantly correlated with their corresponding SW lines, indicating that the traits expressed in wild diploid relatives of wheat may not predict the traits that will be expressed in SW lines derived from them. We suggest that, regardless of the adaptability and performance of the Ae. tauschii under drought, production of SW could probably result in genotypes with enhanced trait expression due to gene interactions, and that the traits of the synthetic should be evaluated in hexaploid level.

  9. Origem e avaliação de trigo 'Tapajós' (IAC 72, 'Anhumas' (IAC 227 e 'Yaco' (IAC 287 para o estado de São Paulo Evaluation of the agronomic and technologic characteristics of the wheat cultivars: IAC 72 Tapajós, IAC 227 Anhumas and IAC 287 Yaco in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felício

    1994-01-01

    ível ao A1(3+. Nos testes de panificação, os volumes específicos comparativos dos cultivares IAC 287 e IAC 227 foram 5,64 e 3,76% superiores ao do padrão (grão comercial respectivamente, e o IAC 72 foi inferior a este. Na avaliação final comparativa, somente o IAC 287 igualou-se ao padrão (100%.The wheat cultivars IAC 72 Tapajós, IAC 227 Anhumas and IAC 287 Yaco were evaluated in relation to grain yield, response to infection by leaf and stem rusts (under field and greenhouse conditions and leaf spots, in experiments carried out in limed and acid soils, in upland and under sprinkler irrigation. All these evaluations were performed in different regions of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1987 to 1991. The cultivars were also studied for tolerance to iron, aluminum and manganese toxicities, using nutrient solutions, in the laboratory. Assays for physical, rheological and bread quality were made with the flours of each cultivars. In upland conditions, the results showed that IAC 227 produced 20% and IAC 72, 5% more than BH 1146, used as control. Under the same condition, cultivars IAC 287 showed a grain yield of 10% greater than the control Anahuac. However, under sprinkler irrigation, IAC 287 showed an increase in grain yield of 7 and 6% as compared to the control cultivars Anahuac and IAC 24, respectively. Under greenhouse conditions, the cultivars IAC 72 was susceptible to races G20 and G21 of the causal agent of stem rust. The cultivars IAC 227 showed susceptibility to races G11, G15 and G17 of stem rust. BH 1146 was sensitive while IAC 287 and Anahuac were resistant to all tested races. Concerning to the reactions to races of Puccinia recondita, the cultivars IAC 72, IAC 227, BH 1146 and Anahuac were susceptible and IAC. 287 behaved as resistant under greenhouse conditions. These results were confirmed under field conditions. All studied cultivars were susceptible to the causal agent of leaf spots. IAC 72 presented as moderately sensitive to A1(3+ and Mn2

  10. Genetics of adult plant stripe rust resistance in CSP44, a selection from Australian wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renu Khanna; U. K. Bansal; R. G. Saini

    2005-12-01

    Wheat line CSP44, a selection from an Australian bread wheat cultivar Condor, has shown resistance to stripe rust in India since the last twenty years. Seedlings and adult plants of CSP44 showed susceptible infection types against stripe rust race 46S119 but displayed average terminal disease severity of 2.67 on adult plants against this race as compared to 70.33 of susceptible Indian cultivar, WL711. This suggests the presence of nonhypersensitive adult plant stripe rust resistance in the line CSP44. The evaluation of F1, F2 and F3 generations and F6 SSD families from the cross of CSP44 with susceptible wheat cultivar WL711 for stripe rust severity indicated that the resistance in CSP44 is based on two genes showing additive effect. One of these two genes is Yr18 and the second gene is not yet described.

  11. Polymerization of wheat gluten and the changes of glutenin macropolymer (GMP) during the production of Chinese steamed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang-Yu; Guo, Xiao-Na; Zhu, Ke-Xue

    2016-06-15

    Polymerization of gluten and the changes of glutenin macropolymer (GMP) during the production of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) were investigated, providing a theoretical basis to improve and regulate the quality of CSB. Protein extractability and free sulfhydryl (SH) contents increased to some degree during the dough preparation stage, but significantly (PGMP wet weight during dough processing were significant (PGMP wet weight and the contents of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS). Gluten polymerization led to a decrease in G' and G″ of GMP while gluten depolymerization induced a slight recovery in G' and G″ of GMP.

  12. Relationship between physicochemical characteristics of flour and sugar-snap cookie quality in Korean wheat cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship of physicochemical properties of flour, including particle size of flour, damaged starch, SDS-sedimentation volume, gluten content and four solvent retention capacity (SRC) values with cookie baking quality, including cookie diameter and thickness was evaluated using 30 Korean wheat...

  13. Quantification of peptides causing celiac disease in historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiac disease (CD) is prevalent in 0.5 to 1.26% of adolescents and adults. The disease develops in genetically susceptible individuals as a result of ingestion of gluten forming proteins found in cereals such as, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.) and barley (Hordeum sativum L.)...

  14. SEED BORNE MYCOFLORA OF SOME COMMERCIAL WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. CULTIVARS IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzammil Hussain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed borne mycoflora associated with ten commercial varieties of wheat viz. Blue silver, Faisalabad 85, Manthar-3, Pak 81, Parwaz 94, Pirsabaq 2005, Punjnad-1, Sariab-92, Sh-2002 and Wafaq-2001 was investigated through standard blotter paper and agar plate method by using Mann-Whitney U test. At least eleven fungal genera were recovered from seeds. The most frequently isolated fungi were Bipolaris sorokiniana (11.125%, Aspergillus flavus (9.825%, Alternaria alternata (7.15% and Aspergillus niger (6.225%. It is apparent from the present investigation that all commercial wheat verities tested were contaminated by fungi. The rolled paper method was used to find out the effect of seed borne fungi on seed germination. Seeds of Pak 81, Wafaq-2001 and Blue silver were germinated in high proportion with variable number of normal and abnormal seedlings than the seeds of other varieties tested. The fungi associated with seeds of wheat cause dire diseases in wheat reducing the germination capacity.

  15. Comportamento de cultivares de trigo em dois solos do estado de São Paulo A Comparative study of wheat cultivars on two types of soil in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram instalados dois ensaios de cultivares de trigo, sendo um na Estação Experimental de Tietê, e o outro, na Fazenda Santa Isabel, município de Itaberá. Os cultivares IRN-526-63, Pitic-62 e IRN-152-63, de origem mexicana, não se adaptaram às condições adversas do sul do Estado (Itaberá, entre as quais destacaram-se: baixa saturação em bases, baixíssimo teor de fósforo e principalmente a influência do Al3+ trocável ocasionando "crestamento" nas plantas. Os cultivares IAC-10, IAC-7, BH-1146, IAC-9, S-33, IAC-11 e IAC-8 apresentaram tolerância a essa condição adversa. No ensaio de Tietê, onde o solo mostrou altos teores de K+ e PO4³ , bom teor de Ca2+ 4- Mg2+ , não apresentando alumínio livre, os cultivares IRN-526-63 e Pitic-62 desenvolveram-se normalmente, apresentando produções superiores às dos demais cultivares estudados.This paper presents the results of two cultivar trials on wheat (Triticum aestivum L., carried out at the Tietê Experiment Station and at Santa Isabel Farm, Itaberá. The cultivars IRN-526-63, IRN-152-63 e Pitic-62, Mexican germoplasms, were very susceptible to "crestamento" at Itaberá soil, giving small yields. The Brazilian germoplasms showed tolerance to Al3+ , with average yields. At Tietê trial, IRN-526 and Pitic-62 cultivars showed good performance, having the most yield in this condition.

  16. Effects of alpha-amylases from different sources on the firming of concentrated wheat starch gels: relationship to bread staling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Hernan R; Schwarz, Paul B; D'Appolonia, Bert L

    2004-09-22

    The firming and carbohydrate fractions of concentrated starch gels supplemented with four alpha-amylases from different sources were evaluated. Correlations were found between the firmness data and results for the carbohydrate fractions extracted from the gels. The thermostable (TBA) and intermediate temperature stability (ISBA) bacterial alpha-amylases were most effective in decreasing the rate of firming. The cereal alpha-amylase at the high level (CAH) was also effective. The CAH produced the largest quantity of dextrins at storage time zero and the thermostable bacterial alpha-amylase at the high level (TBAH) after storage for 5 days. None of the maltooligosaccharides appeared to be responsible for the decreased rate of firming of the gels. The results indicated that the TBA and ISBA most effectively inhibited firming because they degraded the external branches and the intercluster regions of amylopectin during storage. Consideration of previously reported differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray crystallography results leads to the conclusion that the antifirming action of the TBA and ISBA is due to their ability to degrade the amylopectin and amorphous regions of the gels during storage, which inhibits the formation of double helices and decreases the strength of the starch gel matrix. Gels supplemented with the TBA and ISBA were most crystalline but firmed to a lesser extent. These results are similar to those previously reported by other researchers for bread and strongly suggest that starch retrogradation plays a primary role in bread staling.

  17. Distribution of photoperiod-insensitive alleles Ppd-B1a and Ppd-D1a and their effect on heading time in Japanese wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Masako; Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Fujita, Masaya; Oda, Shunsuke; Kubo, Katashi; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Kojima, Hisayo; Nishida, Hidetaka; Kato, Kenji

    2011-12-01

    The genotypes of photoperiod response genes Ppd-B1 and Ppd-D1 in Japanese wheat cultivars were determined by a PCR-based method, and heading times were compared among genotypes. Most of the Japanese wheat cultivars, except those from the Hokkaido region, carried the photoperiod-insensitive allele Ppd-D1a, and heading was accelerated 10.3 days compared with the Ppd-D1b genotype. Early cultivars with Ppd-D1a may have been selected to avoid damage from preharvest rain. In the Hokkaido region, Ppd-D1a frequency was lower and heading date was late regardless of Ppd-D1 genotype, suggesting another genetic mechanism for late heading in Hokkaido cultivars. In this study, only 11 cultivars proved to carry Ppd-B1a, and all of them carried another photoperiod-insensitive allele, Ppd-D1a. The Ppd-B1a/Ppd-D1a genotype headed 6.7 days earlier than the Ppd-B1b/Ppd-D1a genotype, indicating a significant effect of Ppd-B1a in the genetic background with Ppd-D1a. Early-maturity breeding in Japan is believed to be accelerated by the introduction of the Ppd-B1a allele into medium-heading cultivars carrying Ppd-D1a. Pedigree analysis showed that Ppd-B1a in three extra-early commercial cultivars was inherited from 'Shiroboro 21' by early-heading Chugoku lines bred at the Chugoku Agriculture Experimental Station.

  18. CRUMB TEXTURE OF SPELT BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk-Szabó

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Crumb texture is an important quality indicator, as consumer prefer different bread taste. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators for bread texture quality of five Triticum spelta L. varieties – Altgold, Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Ostro, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard method and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn and Altgold were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.81++, -0.78++. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  19. Maize and resistant starch enriched breads reduce postprandial glycemic responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brites, Carla M; Trigo, Maria J; Carrapiço, Belmira; Alviña, Marcela; Bessa, Rui J

    2011-04-01

    White wheat bread is a poor source of dietary fiber, typically containing less than 2%. A demand exists for the development of breads with starch that is slowly digestible or partially resistant to the digestive process. The utilization of maize flour and resistant starch is expected to reduce the release and absorption of glucose and, hence, lower the glycemic index of bread. This study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that a diet of maize bread, as produced and consumed in Portugal, would have beneficial metabolic effects on rats compared to white wheat bread. We also hypothesized that the effect of resistant starch on glycemic response could be altered by the use of different formulations and breadmaking processes for wheat and maize breads. Resistant starch (RS) was incorporated into formulations of breads at 20% of the inclusion rate of wheat and maize flours. Assays were conducted with male Wistar rats (n = 36), divided into four groups and fed either wheat bread, RS-wheat bread, maize bread, and RS-maize bread to evaluate feed intake, body weight gain, fecal pH, and postprandial blood glucose response (glycemic response). Blood triglycerides, total cholesterol concentrations, and liver weights were also determined. The maize bread group presented higher body weight gain and cholesterol level, lower fecal pH, and postprandial blood glucose response than the wheat bread group. The RS-wheat bread group showed significant reductions in feed intake, fecal pH, postprandial blood glucose response, and total cholesterol. The RS-maize group displayed significant reductions of body weight gain, fecal pH, and total cholesterol levels; however, for the glycemic response, only a reduction in fasting level was observed. These results suggest that maize bread has a lower glycemic index than wheat bread, and the magnitude of the effect of RS on glycemic response depends of type of bread.

  20. Assessing the impact of ambient ozone on growth and productivity of two cultivars of wheat in India using three rates of application of ethylenediurea (EDU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Supriya; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Manning, William J

    2005-11-01

    Three rates of ethylenediurea were used to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth and productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars "Malviya 533" (M 533) and "Malviya 234" (M 234) at a suburban site near Varanasi, India, beginning in December. Wheat plants were treated with EDU at 0, 150, 300 and 450 ppm as soil drenches at 10-day intervals. EDU treatment affected plant growth, with effects varying with cultivar, age, and EDU concentration. Seed yield was improved for M 533 at 150 ppm EDU, while yield improved for M 234 at 300 and 450 ppm EDU. M 533 appears to be more resistant to ozone than M 234. Overall results confirmed that EDU is very useful in assessing the effect of ambient ozone in India.

  1. Additive-dominance genetic model analyses for late-maturity alpha-amylase activity in a bread wheat factorial crossing population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Golam; Glover, Karl D; Krishnan, Padmanaban G; Wu, Jixiang; Berzonsky, William A; Ibrahim, Amir M H

    2015-12-01

    Elevated level of late maturity α-amylase activity (LMAA) can result in low falling number scores, reduced grain quality, and downgrade of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) class. A mating population was developed by crossing parents with different levels of LMAA. The F2 and F3 hybrids and their parents were evaluated for LMAA, and data were analyzed using the R software package 'qgtools' integrated with an additive-dominance genetic model and a mixed linear model approach. Simulated results showed high testing powers for additive and additive × environment variances, and comparatively low powers for dominance and dominance × environment variances. All variance components and their proportions to the phenotypic variance for the parents and hybrids were significant except for the dominance × environment variance. The estimated narrow-sense heritability and broad-sense heritability for LMAA were 14 and 54%, respectively. High significant negative additive effects for parents suggest that spring wheat cultivars 'Lancer' and 'Chester' can serve as good general combiners, and that 'Kinsman' and 'Seri-82' had negative specific combining ability in some hybrids despite of their own significant positive additive effects, suggesting they can be used as parents to reduce LMAA levels. Seri-82 showed very good general combining ability effect when used as a male parent, indicating the importance of reciprocal effects. High significant negative dominance effects and high-parent heterosis for hybrids demonstrated that the specific hybrid combinations; Chester × Kinsman, 'Lerma52' × Lancer, Lerma52 × 'LoSprout' and 'Janz' × Seri-82 could be generated to produce cultivars with significantly reduced LMAA level.

  2. Alleles of Ppd-D1 gene in the collection of Aegilops tauschii accessions and bread wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babenko D. O.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Light period significantly influences on the growth and development of plants. One of the major genes of photoperiod sensitivity is Ppd-D1, located on the chromosome 2D. The aim of the work was to determine the alleles and molecular structure of Ppd-D1 gene in samples from the collection of Ae. tauschii accessions, which have different flowering periods, and in 29 Ukrainian wheat varieties. Methods. We used methods of allele-specific PCR with primers to the Ppd-D1 gene, sequencing and Blast-analysis. Results. The collection of Ae. tauschii accessions and several varieties of winter and spring wheat was studied. The molecular structure of the allelic variants (414, 429 and 453 b. p. of Ppd-D1b gene was determined in the collection of Aegilops. tauschii accessions. Conclusions. The Ppd-D1a allele was present in all studied varieties of winter wheat. 60 % of spring wheat is characterized by Ppd-D1b allele (size of amplification products 414 b. p.. Blast-analysis of the sequence data banks on the basis of the reference sequence of sample k-1322 from the collection of Ae. tauschii accessions has shown a high homology (80 to 100 % between the nucleotide sequences of PRR genes, that characterize the A and D genomes of representatives of the genera Triticum and Aegilops.

  3. Effects of post-anthesis fertilizer on the protein composition of the gluten polymer in a US bread wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both genetic and environmental factors influence the types and amounts of wheat proteins that link together to form polymers essential for flour quality. To understand how plant growth conditions might influence gluten polymer formation, protein fractions containing small and large polymers were se...

  4. Uptake and distribution of stable strontium in 26 cultivars of three crop species: oats, wheat, and barley for their potential use in phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lin; Qin, Xiaoliang; Li, Feng-Min; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Brandl, Helmut; Xu, Jinzhang; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the accumulation and distribution of strontium (Sr) in 26 cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), husk oat (Avena sativa L) and naked oat (Avena nuda), and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for their potential use in phytoremediation.Sr levels had no effect on the accumulation of shoot biomass at tillering or at maturity. Mean shoot Sr concentration of naked oat and barley at tillering was significantly (Pphytoremediation to clean up contaminated soil.

  5. Incidencia de las diferencias entre cultivares de trigo en la cantidad de fósforo exportada en los granos Incidence of the differences in the amount of P exported between wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lázaro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El fósforo (P es uno de los macronutrientes menos disponible en el suelo. Se predijo para los próximos años un incremento en el uso de fertilizantes fosforados debido al crecimiento de la demanda de alimentos. Una de las prácticas que puede contribuir a un uso más sustentable de los fertilizantes fosforados es la selección de cultivares con baja concentración de P en los granos. Para saber si existen diferencias en la concentración de P en los cultivares de trigo utilizados actualmente en la Argentina, se compararon 66 cultivares durante las campañas 2008/09 y 2009/10, en Balcarce. Hubo diferencias entre cultivares en la concentración de P, el rendimiento y la exportación de P (los rangos fueron 0,22 - 0,38%; 5170 - 9740 kg/ha y 13 - 29 kg P/ha, para concentración de P en grano, rendimiento y P exportado respectivamente. Para el productor las implicancias económicas de utilizar cultivares con menor concentración de P no resultan relevantes, ya que sólo representan diferencias en el costo menores al 2% del rendimiento. Sin embargo, a largo plazo y en el país, estas diferencias cobran una dimensión considerable.Phosphorus (P is one of the least available macronutrients in soil and a rise in the use of phosphate fertilizers was predicted due to the growing food demand. A practice that can contribute to a more efficient use of P fertilizers and reduce soil P extraction is the selection of cultivars with low concentration of P in grains. In order to find out if there are differences in P concentration in wheat cultivars that are currently used in Argentina, 66 cultivars, grouped in two sowing dates, during 2008/09 and 2009/10, were compared in Balcarce, under potential conditions. There were differences between cultivars in P concentration, P exportation and yield (ranges were: 0.22 - 0.38%; 5170 - 9740 kg/ha and 13 - 29 kg P/ha for P concentration in grains, yield and P export, respectively. However, when considering the economic

  6. SSH Analysis of Endosperm Transcripts and Characterization of Heat Stress Regulated Expressed Sequence Tags in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Suneha; Kumar, Ranjeet R; Dubey, Kavita; Singh, Jyoti P; Tiwari, Sachidanand; Kumar, Ashok; Smita, Shuchi; Mishra, Dwijesh C; Kumar, Sanjeev; Grover, Monendra; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Kala, Yugal K; Singh, Gyanendra P; Pathak, Himanshu; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Rai, Anil; Praveen, Shelly; Rai, Raj D

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the major problems in agriculturally important cereal crops, especially wheat. Here, we have constructed a subtracted cDNA library from the endosperm of HS-treated (42°C for 2 h) wheat cv. HD2985 by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). We identified ~550 recombinant clones ranging from 200 to 500 bp with an average size of 300 bp. Sanger's sequencing was performed with 205 positive clones to generate the differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Most of the ESTs were observed to be localized on the long arm of chromosome 2A and associated with heat stress tolerance and metabolic pathways. Identified ESTs were BLAST search using Ensemble, TriFLD, and TIGR databases and the predicted CDS were translated and aligned with the protein sequences available in pfam and InterProScan 5 databases to predict the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). We observed eight different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in the DEPs corresponds to the cloned ESTs-147 sites with phosphorylation, 21 sites with sumoylation, 237 with palmitoylation, 96 sites with S-nitrosylation, 3066 calpain cleavage sites, and 103 tyrosine nitration sites, predicted to sense the heat stress and regulate the expression of stress genes. Twelve DEPs were observed to have transmembrane helixes (TMH) in their structure, predicted to play the role of sensors of HS. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of randomly selected ESTs showed very high relative expression of HSP17 under HS; up-regulation was observed more in wheat cv. HD2985 (thermotolerant), as compared to HD2329 (thermosusceptible) during grain-filling. The abundance of transcripts was further validated through northern blot analysis. The ESTs and their corresponding DEPs can be used as molecular marker for screening or targeted precision breeding program. PTMs identified in the DEPs can be used to elucidate the thermotolerance mechanism of wheat-a novel step toward the development of "climate-smart" wheat.

  7. SSH analysis of endosperm transcripts and characterization of heat stress regulated expressed sequence tags in bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneha Goswami

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is one of the major problems in agriculturally important cereal crops, especially wheat. Here, we have constructed a subtracted cDNA library from the endosperm of HS-treated (42°C for 2 h wheat cv. HD2985 by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH. We identified ~550 recombinant clones ranging from 200 to 500 bp with an average size of 300 bp. Sanger’s sequencing was performed with 205 positive clones to generate the differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Most of the ESTs were observed to be localized on the long arm of chromosome 2A and associated with heat stress tolerance and metabolic pathways. Identified ESTs were BLAST search using Ensemble, TriFLD and TIGR databases and the predicted CDS were translated and aligned with the protein sequences available in pfam and InterProScan 5 databases to predict the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs. We observed eight different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs in the DEPs corresponds to the cloned ESTs—147 sites with phosphorylation, 21 sites with sumoylation, 237 with palmitoylation, 96 sites with S-nitrosylation, 3066 calpain cleavage sites, and 103 tyrosine nitration sites, predicted to sense the heat stress and regulate the expression of stress genes. Twelve DEPs were observed to have transmembrane helixes (TMH in their structure, predicted to play the role of sensors of HS. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of randomly selected ESTs showed very high relative expression of HSP17 under HS; up-regulation was observed more in wheat cv. HD2985 (thermotolerant, as compared to HD2329 (thermosusceptible during grain-filling. The abundance of transcripts was further validated through northern blot analysis. The ESTs and their corresponding DEPs can be used as molecular marker for screening or targeted precision breeding program. PTMs identified in the DEPs can be used to elucidate the thermotolerance mechanism of wheat – a novel step towards the development of

  8. Most significant genome regions involved in the control of earliness traits in bread wheat, as revealed by QTL meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanocq, E; Laperche, A; Jaminon, O; Lainé, A-L; Le Gouis, J

    2007-02-01

    Earliness is one of the most important adaptation traits in plant breeding. Our purpose was to identify the genome regions of bread wheat involved in the control of earliness and its three components: photoperiod sensitivity (PS), vernalization requirement (VR) and intrinsic earliness (IE). A QTL meta-analysis was carried out to examine the replicability of QTL across 13 independent studies and to propose meta-QTL (MQTL). Initial QTL were projected on a recent consensus map (2004). Quality criteria were proposed to assess the reliability of this projection. These criteria were based on the distances between markers in the QTL regions. Chromosomes of groups 2 and 5 had a greater incidence on earliness control as they carry the known, major genes Ppd and Vrn. Other chromosome regions played an intermediate role in earliness control: 4A [heading date (HD) Meta-QTL], 4B (HD MQTL), 2B (VR MQTL) and 5B (IE MQTL). Markers at this four MQTL should prove helpful in marker-assisted selection, to better control earliness.

  9. Bioprocess for efficient production of recombinant Pichia anomala phytase and its applicability in dephytinizing chick feed and whole wheat flat Indian breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Swati; Satyanarayana, T

    2015-10-01

    The phytase of the yeast Pichia anomala (PPHY) is a suitable biocatalyst as a food and feed additive because of its adequate thermostability, acid stability, protease insensitivity and broad substrate spectrum. The cell-bound nature and low phytase titres are the main bottlenecks for its utility in food and feed industries. In this investigation, we have overcome the problems by constitutive secretory expression of PPHY under glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoter. A ~44-fold increase in rPPHY titre has been achieved after optimization of cultural variables by one-variable-at-a-time approach and two factorial statistical design. The use of GAP promoter makes the cultivation of the recombinant P. pastoris straight forward and eliminates the requirement of methanol for induction and hazards associated with its storage. Among metal-phytate complexes, Ca(2+) phytate is hydrolyzed more efficiently by rPPHY than Co(2+), Mn(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(3+) and Zn(2+) phytates. The enzyme is effective in dephytinizing whole wheat unleavened flat Indian breads (naan and tandoori) and different broiler feeds, thus mitigating anti-nutritional effects of phytates.

  10. Effect of gliadins and HMW and LMW subunits of glutenin on dough properties in the F6 recombinant inbred lines from a bread wheat cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Taladriz, M T; Perretant, M R; Rousset, M

    1994-04-01

    The storage proteins of 64 F2-derived F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the bread wheat cross 'Prinqual'/'Marengo' were analyzed. Parents differed at four loci: Gli-B1 (coding for gliadins), Glu-B1 (coding for HMW glutenin subunits), Glu-A3/Gli-A1 (coding for LMW glutenin subunits/gliadins) and Glu-D3 (coding for LMW glutenin subunits). The effect of allelic variation at these loci on tenacity, extensibility and dough strength as measured by the Chopin alveograph was determined. Allelic differences at the Glu-B1 locus had a significant effect on only tenacity. None of the allelic differences at either the Glu-A3/Gli-A1 or Glu-D3 loci had a significant effect on quality criteria. Allelic variation at the Gli-B1 locus significantly affected all of the dough properties. Epistatic effects between some of the loci considered contributed significantly to the variation in dough quality. Additive and epistatic effects each accounted for 15% of the variation in tenacity. Epistasis accounted for 15% of the variation in extensibility, whereas additive effects accounted for 4%. Epistasis accounted for 14% of the variation in dough strength, and additivity for 9%. The relative importance of epistatic effects suggest that they should be included in predictive models when breeding for breadmaking quality.

  11. High molecular weight glutenin subunits in some durum wheat cultivars investigated by means of mass spectrometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccilli, Vera; Lo Bianco, Marisol; Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Saletti, Rosaria; Gallo, Giulia; Foti, Salvatore

    2011-11-23

    The primary structures of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) of 5 Triticum durum Desf. cultivars (Simeto, Svevo, Duilio, Bronte, and Sant'Agata), largely cultivated in the south of Italy, and of 13 populations of the old spring Sicilian durum wheat landrace Timilia (Triticum durum Desf.) (accession nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, SG1, SG2, and SG3) were investigated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography/nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/nESI-MS/MS). M(r) of the intact proteins determined by MALDI mass spectrometry showed that all the 13 populations of Timilia contained the same two HMW-GS with 75.2 kDa and 86.4 kDa, whereas the other durum wheat cultivars showed the presence of the expected HMW-GS 1By8 and 1Bx7 at 75.1 kDa and 83.1 kDa, respectively. By MALDI mass spectrometry of the tryptic digestion peptides of the isolated HMW-GS of Timilia, the 1Bx and 1By subunits were identified as the NCBInr Acc. No AAQ93629, and AAQ93633, respectively. Sequence verification for HMW-GS 1Bx and 1By both in Simeto and Timilia was obtained by MALDI mass mapping and HPLC/nESI-MSMS of the tryptic peptides. The Bx subunit of Timila presents a sequence similarity of 96% with respect to Simeto, with differences in the insertion of 3 peptides of 5, 9, and 15 amino acids, for a total insertion of 29 amino acids and 25 amino acid substitutions. These differences in the amino acidic sequence account for the determined Δm of 3294 Da between the M(r) of the 1Bx subunits in Timilia and Simeto. Sequence alignment between the two By subunits show