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Sample records for bread wheat cultivars

  1. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  2. Resistance of Some Iraqi Bread Wheat Cultivars to Puccinia triticina

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    E.M. Al-Maaroof

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown rust (leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is one of the most serious diseases of wheat worldwide. In Iraq the occurrence and distribution of brown rust is more regular and uniform than that of other wheat rusts. with yield losses as high as 44% on susceptible wheat cultivars in commercial fields. Recently several promising wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivars with different levels of rust resistance have been released in Iraq. The present work was conducted to postulate the resistance genes in twenty-two Iraqi bread wheat cultivars by testing them with thirteen Mexican races of P. triticina. ‘Thatcher’ near-isogenic lines were used as testers for known resistance genes. Ten day old seedling sets were artificially inoculated with each race, and the infection type was recorded ten days later. Field reactions of the cultivars with the predominantly Iraqi races were determined under field conditions for three years. Results revealed that the Iraqi wheat cultivars possessed brown rust resistance genes Lr1, 3, 10, 13, 16, 17, 23 and 26, either alone or in various combinations. The presence of unknown resistance genes was also postulated in some cultivars. Lr23, derived from Triticum turgidum var. durum, was present in 23% of tested cultivars, whereas Lr13 was present in 18%. The presence of Lr26 in ‘Al-Nour’ and ‘Hashemia’ indicated that they carried the 1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation. ‘Al-Melad’ displayed resistant reactions to all races used in the study. ‘Tamuz 3’ and ‘Al- Nour’ displayed high adult-plant resistance to P. triticina in the field.

  3. Differential agronomic responses of bread wheat cultivars to drought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... sub- institute Sararood and Mahidasht agricultural research center to study the effects of drought stress on yield and yield components of wheat cultivars under field conditions. The experimental design was split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plots consisted of ...

  4. Differential agronomic responses of bread wheat cultivars to drought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 2008 on dry land agriculture research sub- institute Sararood and Mahidasht agricultural research center to study the effects of drought stress on yield and yield components of wheat cultivars under field conditions. The experimental design was split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications.

  5. Genetics of leaf and stripe rust resistance in a bread wheat cultivar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 87; Issue 2. Genetics of leaf and stripe rust resistance in a bread wheat cultivar Tonichi. Satinder Kaur U. K. Bansal Renu Khanna R. G. Saini. Research Note Volume 87 Issue 2 August 2008 pp 191-194 ...

  6. Proteome characterization of developing grains in bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guangfang; Lv, Dongwen; Yan, Xing; Subburaj, Saminathan; Ge, Pei; Li, Xiaohui; Hu, Yingkao; Yan, Yueming

    2012-08-19

    The analyses of protein synthesis, accumulation and regulation during grain development in wheat are more complex because of its larger genome size compared to model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. In this study, grains from two wheat cultivars Jimai 20 and Zhoumai 16 with different gluten quality properties were harvested at five development stages, and were used to displayed variable expression patterns of grain proteins. Proteome characterization during grain development in Chinese bread wheat cultivars Jimai 20 and Zhoumai 16 with different quality properties was investigated by 2-DE and tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Identification of 117 differentially accumulated protein spots representing 82 unique proteins and five main expression patterns enabled a chronological description of wheat grain formation. Significant proteome expression differences between the two cultivars were found; these included 14 protein spots that accumulated in both cultivars but with different patterns and 27 cultivar-different spots. Among the cultivar-different protein spots, 14 accumulated in higher abundance in Jimai 20 than in Zhoumai 16, and included NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, triticin precursor, LMW-s glutenin subunit and replication factor C-like protein. These proteins are likely to be associated with superior gluten quality. In addition, some proteins such as class II chitinase and peroxidase 1 with isoforms in developing grains were shown to be phosphorylated by Pro-Q Diamond staining and phosphorprotein site prediction. Phosphorylation could have important roles in wheat grain development. qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that transcriptional and translational expression patterns of many genes were significantly different. Wheat grain proteins displayed variable expression patterns at different developmental stages and a considerable number of protein spots showed differential accumulation between two cultivars. Differences in seed storage proteins were considered

  7. Proteome characterization of developing grains in bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Guangfang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analyses of protein synthesis, accumulation and regulation during grain development in wheat are more complex because of its larger genome size compared to model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. In this study, grains from two wheat cultivars Jimai 20 and Zhoumai 16 with different gluten quality properties were harvested at five development stages, and were used to displayed variable expression patterns of grain proteins. Results Proteome characterization during grain development in Chinese bread wheat cultivars Jimai 20 and Zhoumai 16 with different quality properties was investigated by 2-DE and tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Identification of 117 differentially accumulated protein spots representing 82 unique proteins and five main expression patterns enabled a chronological description of wheat grain formation. Significant proteome expression differences between the two cultivars were found; these included 14 protein spots that accumulated in both cultivars but with different patterns and 27 cultivar-different spots. Among the cultivar-different protein spots, 14 accumulated in higher abundance in Jimai 20 than in Zhoumai 16, and included NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, triticin precursor, LMW-s glutenin subunit and replication factor C-like protein. These proteins are likely to be associated with superior gluten quality. In addition, some proteins such as class II chitinase and peroxidase 1 with isoforms in developing grains were shown to be phosphorylated by Pro-Q Diamond staining and phosphorprotein site prediction. Phosphorylation could have important roles in wheat grain development. qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that transcriptional and translational expression patterns of many genes were significantly different. Conclusions Wheat grain proteins displayed variable expression patterns at different developmental stages and a considerable number of protein spots showed differential accumulation between two

  8. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress.

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    Fuminori Takahashi

    Full Text Available Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early "osmotic" phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  9. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Fuminori

    2015-08-05

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early “osmotic” phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  10. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trittermann, Christine; Berger, Bettina; Roy, Stuart J.; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tester, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early “osmotic” phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions. PMID:26244554

  11. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fuminori; Tilbrook, Joanne; Trittermann, Christine; Berger, Bettina; Roy, Stuart J; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tester, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early "osmotic" phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  12. Genetic diversity among old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vided by the Instituto Nacional de Investigaç˜ao Agrária e das Pescas ... was digested with 10 units of each restriction enzyme (AluI,. HpaII, RsaI and ... All enzymes, except for RsaI, revealed variation in the ITS region (figure 1). Each enzyme pro- duced three ITS PCR-RFLP patterns among the 48 cultivars. (table 1), with ...

  13. Quality of grain and flour of foreign bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. under the conditions of south Dobrudzha region

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    P. Chamurliyski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute One of the main directions of the breeding programs in common winter wheat, besides increasing productivity, is developing of cultivars with excellent baking properties. An important prerequisite for this is the involvement of new gene plasma of variable origin, which is adequate to the growing conditions and the desired breeding direction. The aim of investigation is study of some main properties related to the grain quality and the baking properties of bread wheat accessions of foreign origin under the conditions of the South Dobrudzha region. Twenty-five foreign bread wheat cultivars of various origins were investigated for a three year period. Cultivars Aglika, Enola, Pryaspa and Yantur were used as standards. Some indices related to the quality of grain and flour were analyzed at the Bread Making Laboratory of (DAI. The expression of the following parameters was followed: test weigh, % of protein, sedimentation, wet gluten yield, softening degree, pharinographic value, bread volume, and the quality index (QI was calculated. The cultivars, which demonstrated high grain quality, were the Romanian Faur, Moldovan Dobropolka, American Wahoo and the Ukrainian Zmina. Averaged for the three years, highest variation was found for the index pharinographic value. On the whole, the materials with origin from Romania, Ukraine and USA were characterized with high values of the quality indices. Cultivars Faur and Zmina can be successfully included in the breeding program of DAI for development of strong wheat varieties

  14. Selection and hydroponic growth of bread wheat cultivars for bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, V.; Feller, U.

    2013-08-01

    As part of the ESA-funded MELiSSA program, the suitability, the growth and the development of four bread wheat cultivars were investigated in hydroponic culture with the aim to incorporate such a cultivation system in an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Wheat plants can fulfill three major functions in space: (a) fixation of CO2 and production of O2, (b) production of grains for human nutrition and (c) production of cleaned water after condensation of the water vapor released from the plants by transpiration. Four spring wheat cultivars (Aletsch, Fiorina, Greina and CH Rubli) were grown hydroponically and compared with respect to growth and grain maturation properties. The height of the plants, the culture duration from germination to harvest, the quantity of water used, the number of fertile and non-fertile tillers as well as the quantity and quality of the grains harvested were considered. Mature grains could be harvested after around 160 days depending on the varieties. It became evident that the nutrient supply is crucial in this context and strongly affects leaf senescence and grain maturation. After a first experiment, the culture conditions were improved for the second experiment (stepwise decrease of EC after flowering, pH adjusted twice a week, less plants per m2) leading to a more favorable harvest (higher grain yield and harvest index). Considerably less green tillers without mature grains were present at harvest time in experiment 2 than in experiment 1. The harvest index for dry matter (including roots) ranged from 0.13 to 0.35 in experiment 1 and from 0.23 to 0.41 in experiment 2 with modified culture conditions. The thousand-grain weight for the four varieties ranged from 30.4 to 36.7 g in experiment 1 and from 33.2 to 39.1 g in experiment 2, while market samples were in the range of 39.4-46.9 g. Calcium levels in grains of the hydroponically grown wheat were similar to those from field-grown wheat, while potassium, magnesium

  15. Plant regeneration from mature embryo of commercial Indian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Sanjay Singh; Sainger, Manish; Chaudhary, Darshna; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2012-04-01

    A simple, efficient, reproducible and comparatively genotype-independent in vitro plant regeneration protocol was developed for ten commercial Indian bread wheat cultivars using mature embryos as the explants. Three different auxins and five different combinations of growth regulators in a modified Murashige and Skoog's basal medium were assessed for their effect on callus induction and plant regeneration, respectively, in a high yielding and widely grown cultivar, PBW-343. The optimized conditions were further evaluated with nine other commercial cultivars. A simple novel approach of physical isolation of regenerable calli from non regenerable structures during the early callus phase was used to improve plant regeneration. Callus induced on 2.0 mg(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) showed a regeneration frequency of 86 % with 7.5 shoots per explants on hormone-free medium. A considerable improvement in the regeneration frequency (up to 97 %) and the average of shoots (19 shoots per explants) was obtained with a combination of thidiazuron (TDZ) and 2,4-D.

  16. Genetic variation of carotenoids in Chinese bread wheat cultivars and the effect of the 1BL.1RS translocation

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    Wenshuang LI,Shengnan ZHAI,Hui JIN,Weie WEN,Jindong LIU,Xianchun XIA,Zhonghu HE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid content of wheat is an important criterion for prediction of the commercial and nutritional value of products made from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivars. The objective of this study was to determine the major components of carotenoids in Chinese wheat using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC including lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene and β-carotene. Grain carotenoid content was investigated in 217 cultivars from three major Chinese wheat regions and from seven other countries grown in two environments. Genotype contributed to the majority of variation in carotenoid components. Lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations varied from 18.3 to 100.1, 4.9 to 12.0 and 0.9 to 48.7 μg per 100 g in wheat flour with an average of 40.2, 7.2 and 18.2 μg per 100 g, respectively. Lutein (61.3% was the main carotenoid component, followed by β-carotene (27.7% and zeaxanthin (11.0%. No α-carotene was detected. Total carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene were all higher in cultivars with the 1BL.1RS translocation compared to those without the translocation. This is the first report on assay of lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations for a large number of wheat cultivars. These data will be useful for genetic improvement of wheat carotenoid content and for understanding of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in wheat.

  17. Genetics of leaf and stripe rust resistance in a bread wheat cultivar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina (=P. recondita Rober- age ex Desmaz f. sp. tritici Eriks and E. Henn.) and stripe rust caused by P. striiformis Westend f. sp. tritici are the major foliar diseases of wheat, resulting in yield loss all over the world (Eversmeyer and Browder 1974; Kolmer 1996). The wheat cultivars become ...

  18. Grain Yield Stability of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Irrigation in Cold and Temperate Climatic Conditions of Iran

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    M. Bakhshayeshi Geshlagh,

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study yield stability of bread wheat cultivars including Alvand, Alamout, Zarrin, Navid, Azar 2, Sabalan, Omid and Bezostiya under irrigation an experiment was conducted in RCBD for three cropping seasons (2007-2010 at six locations. Simple and combined analysis of variances for three years, each location and also combined analysis of variances for 3 years and 6 locations were implemented. Lin and Binns parameter, environmental coefficient of variations and rank method were used for determination of stable cultivars. Results of combined ANOVA (three years x six locations showed that interaction effect of year x location x genotype was significant. The highest grain yield belonged to the Alvand cultivar  with 3.74 tha -1. Results of stability analysis with Lin and Binns method also showed that Zarrin cultivar had the lowest within location variance for grain yield and lowest environmental coefficient of variations was belonged to cultivars Zarrin and Sabalan. The results of rank method showed that cultivars Alvand and Sabalan had the lowest rankingand cultivars Sabalan and Bezostiya had the lowest SDR among the experimental cultivars. It can be concluded that Zarrin and Sabalan cultivars had the highest yield stability and thus it can be recommended for locations in which it was studied.

  19. The Effect of Cutting On The Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    ÇELEN, A. Esen; SOYA, Hikmet

    1998-01-01

    In the research conducted in the fields of Field Crops Department of Faculty of Agriculture of Ege University, Bornova, İzmir, Turkey in 1993-94 and 1994-95, the effects of cutting treatments [a. uncut control, b. cutting at Zadoks stage 25 (main stem and 5 tillers), c. cutting at Zadoks stage 30 (at the end of tillering, pseudostem erection), and d. cutting at Zadoks stage 31 (first node detectable) ] on the seed yield and some yield components of two bread wheat cultivars (Cumhuriyet-75 and...

  20. The Effect of Topdressing of Coated Urea Fertilizer at the Spikelet Formation Stage for Increasing Grain Protein Content of the Bread Wheat Cultivar “Setokirara” Motoharu Murata, Aki Uchiyama, Akihiko Ikejiri and Natsuko Harada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Motoharu Murata; Aki Uchiyama; Akihiko Ikejiri; Natsuko Harada

    2017-01-01

    ...) in the bread wheat cultivar “Setokirara”. We examined whether it is possible to replace nitrogen topdressing, such as ammonium sulfate at the flowering stage, with the application of a coated urea fertilizer at the spikelet formation stage...

  1. New winter hardy winter bread wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L. Voloshkova

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    Л. М. Голик

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Creation of Initial raw for breeding of winter wheat by change of the development type under low temperatures influence was described. Seeds of spring wheat were vernalized in aluminum weighting bottle. By using low temperatures at sawing of M2-6 at the begin ind of optimal terms of sawing of winter wheat, new winter-hardy variety of Voloshkova was bred.

  2. Milling overrides cultivar, leavening agent and baking mode on chemical and rheological traits and sensory perception of durum wheat breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Saia, Sergio; Beleggia, Romina; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Giovanniello, Valentina; De Vita, Pasquale

    2017-10-19

    Smell and aroma are important determinants of consumer acceptance, so gaining deeper insight into bread smell and aroma perception is a research goal. Sixteen combinations of four variables were investigated, to evaluate the contributions of bread chemical and rheological properties and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) towards sensory acceptability of breads: genotypes (landrace vs. modern); types of flour (wholemeal vs. semolina); leavening agents (brewing yeast vs. sourdough starter); and baking modes (gas-fired vs. wood-fired). Milling had the greatest impact over the other treatments for the rheological and chemical properties, including for VOCs, with great impact on the sensory traits of the flours and breads. The processing phases had great impact on smell and aroma, as defined through formation of alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, and other compounds (e.g., ethylbenzene, 2-pentylfuran, methoxyphenyl oxime). Leavening agent had great impact on sensory perception, although breads from the sourdough starter were perceived as with lower taste and colour than the brewing yeast. Baking mode had no relevant role on sensory perception. These data strongly undermine the belief of a 'better product' that is frequently attributed to old genotypes versus modern cultivars, and indicate that the milling and the bread-making processes determine the quality of the end product.

  3. CD 122 - Bread wheat, suitable for cultivation across southern Brazil

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    Francisco de Assis Franco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar CD 122 was tested in the wheat-producing regions VCU 1, 2 and 3, with an average grain yield of 3,527 kg ha-1 when fungicide-treated, exceeding the average of the control cultivars by 5%. CD 122 is resistant to leaf rust and was classified as bread wheat.

  4. Expression level of the DREB2-type gene, identified with Amplifluor SNP markers, correlates with performance and tolerance to dehydration in bread wheat cultivars from Northern Kazakhstan

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    Yuri Shavrukov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A panel of 89 local commercial cultivars of bread wheat was tested in field trials in the dry conditions of Northern Kazakhstan. Two distinct groups of cultivars (six cultivars in each group, which had the highest and the lowest grain yield under drought were selected for further experiments. A dehydration test conducted on detached leaves indicated a strong association between rates of water loss in plants from the first group with highest grain yield production in the dry environment relative to the second group. Modern high-throughput Amplifluor SNP technology was applied to study allelic variations in a series of drought-responsive genes using 19 SNP markers. Genotyping of an SNP in the TaDREB5 (DREB2-type gene using the Amplifluor SNP marker KATU48 revealed clear allele distribution across the entire panel of wheat accessions, and distinguished between the two groups of cultivars with high and low yield under drought. Significant differences in expression levels of TaDREB5 were revealed by qRT-PCR. Most wheat plants from the first group of cultivars with high grain yield showed strong up-regulation of TaDREB5 transcript in dehydrated leaves. In contrast, expression of TaDREB5 in plants from the second group of cultivars with low grain yield was significantly down-regulated. It was found that SNPs did not alter the amino acid sequence of TaDREB5 protein. Thus, a possible explanation is that alternative splicing and up-stream regulation of TaDREB5 may be affected by SNP, but these hypotheses require additional analysis (and will be the focus of future studies.

  5. Cultivar-specific high temperature stress responses in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) associated with physicochemical traits and defense pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Divya; Shekhar, Shubhendu; Agrawal, Lalit; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2017-04-15

    The increasing global temperature by 1°C is estimated to reduce the harvest index in a crop by 6%, and this would certainly have negative impact on overall plant metabolism. Wheat is one of the most important crops with global annual production of over 600million tonnes. We investigated an array of physicochemical and molecular indexes to unravel differential response of nine commercial wheat cultivars to high temperature stress (HTS). The reduced rate in relative water content, higher membrane stability, slow chlorophyll degradation and increased accumulation of proline and secondary metabolites ingrained higher thermotolerance in cv. Unnat Halna, among others. The altered expression of several stress-responsive genes, particularly the genes associated with photosynthesis, heat shock proteins and antioxidants impinge on the complexity of HTS-induced responses over different genetic backgrounds and connectivity of adaptive mechanisms. This may facilitate the targeted manipulation of metabolic routes in crops for agricultural and industrial exploitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. BRS 277: Wheat cultivar

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    Eduardo Caierão

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The wheat cultivar ‘BRS 277’ was developed by Embrapa (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária,resulting from a cross between OR1 and Coker 97-33. The plant height of ‘BRS 277’ is short, frost resistance in the vegetativestage is good and resistance to leaf rust moderate.

  7. Intergenic spacer length variants in Old Portuguese bread wheat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study provides an event of high level of polymorphism / size variation and occurrence of 14 unique phenotypes in 48 landraces of Portuguese bread wheat cultivars for IGS-amplified products obtained by PCR-RFLP technique performed with TaqI. The attendant IGS polymorphism has been used to deduce affinities ...

  8. Genetic control and combining ability of flag leaf area and relative water content traits of bread wheat cultivars under drought stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golparvar Ahmad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare mode of inheritance, combining ability, heterosis and gene action in genetic control of traits flag leaf area, relative water content and grain filling rate of bread wheat under drought stress, a study was conducted on 8 cultivars using of Griffing’s method2 in fixed model. Mean square of general combining ability was significant also for all traits and mean square of specific combining ability was significant also for all traits except relative water content of leaf which show importance of both additive and dominant effects of genes in heredity of these traits under stress. GCA to SCA mean square ratio was significant for none of traits. Results of this study showed that non additive effects of genes were more important than additive effect for all traits. According to results we can understand that genetic improvement of mentioned traits will have low genetic efficiency by selection from the best crosses of early generations. Then it is better to delay selection until advanced generations and increase in heritability of these traits.

  9. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    and VII. The longest fermentation times were generally found for doughs fermented with all baker’s yeasts at 5°C and the lowest yeast concentration (2.88•1014 CFU/kg flour). In Paper II, III and V wheat breads were produced for volatile analysis. The dough samples were fermented to equal height and baked...... containing the highest concentration of the majority of the compounds formed from yeast activity (e.g. 2,3-butanedione and phenylacetaldehyde), compared to doughs fermented at lower yeast concentrations (20 and 40 g/kg flour). A fermentation temIII perature at 5°C resulted in breads with the highest...... fermented at 5°C. In Paper III the effect of the type of commercial baker’s yeast (baker’s yeast I to VII, 2.88•1014 yeast CFU/kg flour) on bread aroma was investigated. Breads fermented by commercial baker’s yeast I to IV had the significantly highest concentration of 2,3-butanedione and 1-propanol...

  10. BRS 404 – wheat cultivar for rainfed conditions

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    Márcio Só e Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BRS 404 is a new wheat cultivar developed by Embrapa, indicated for rainfed conditions. It has a particularly good performance under heat and drought conditions. The grain yield is stable and BRS 404 is classified as bread wheat.

  11. Consumer liking of refined and whole wheat breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, A; Vickers, Z

    2007-09-01

    Preference for refined bread is often cited as a reason for the relatively low consumption of whole wheat bread; only a few studies, however, have examined consumer preferences between refined and whole wheat breads, and the results of these studies are inconclusive. Our objective was to determine if refined wheat bread is preferred to whole wheat bread. We hypothesized that people would prefer refined wheat bread. We conducted a taste test with 89 people. They rated their liking of 9 different breads chosen to represent several comparisons between equivalent refined and whole wheat breads. The participants also rated the intensity of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and completed a questionnaire about their bread preferences and purchasing habits. We classified the participants by their bread preference and their PROP taster status, and then examined the liking patterns of these subgroups. People preferred refined bread to whole wheat bread when both were made using equivalent ingredients and procedures. They liked the commercial samples of refined and whole wheat breads equally well. When people were classified by their bread preference, those who preferred refined bread liked the refined bread better in all comparisons. PROP nontasters liked all refined and whole wheat breads equally. Sensory preferences are a barrier to whole wheat bread consumption, but ingredient or processing modifications can improve liking of whole wheat bread to the level of refined bread.

  12. Expression of Leaf Proteins in Two Cultivars of Bread Wheat under Cadmium and Mercury Stress Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

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    S. Y. Raeesi Sadati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is an important source of human food. Cadmium and mercury bind to sulfhydryl groups of structural proteins and enzymes and cause inhibition in activity and decrease in protein production or interfere with the regulation of the enzymes. To study the effect of protein expression under different levels of cadmium and mercury, the experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications in Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran. Experimental factors consisted of two Gonbad and Tajan bread what cultivars, heavy metals in seven levels (four concentrations of mercuric chloride in 5, 10, 15 and 20 µM and cadmium chloride at two concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5 mM and sampling time after 8 and 16 hours of treatment. The Bradford method was used for quantitative analysis of proteins and 12% SDS-PAGE and two dimensional electrophorese techniques were hired for analysis of their expression. The results showed that under cadmium and mercury stresses, the total protein content increased compared to the control. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins under cadmium stress showed differential expression of the protein spots on the plant leaves, than the control. In general, changes in the expression of proteins under the effect of cadmium stress were divided into two main categories: Spots 9, 10, 13, 14 and 16 belonged to proteins with reduced expression and the spots 1, 2, 8, 19 and 20 belonged to proteins with increased expression, in comparison to non-stressed control. These spots of up regulated proteins were directly related to the defense system against the heavy metal stress.

  13. Dynamics of genetic variation at gliadin-coding loci in bread wheat cultivars developed in small grains research center (Kragujevac during last 35 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novosljska-Dragovič Aleksandra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple alleles of gliadin-coding loci are well-known genetic markers of common wheat genotypes. Based on analysis of gliadin patterns in common wheat cultivars developed at the Small Grains Research Center in Kragujevac dynamics of genetic variability at gliadin-coding loci has been surveyed for the period of 35 years. It was shown that long-term breeding of the wheat cultivars involved gradual replacement of ancient alleles for those widely spread in some regions in the world, which belong to well-known cultivars-donor of some important traits. Developing cultivars whose pedigree involved much new foreign genetic material has increased genetic diversity as well as has changed frequency of alleles of gliadin-coding loci. So we can conclude that the genetic profile of modern Serbian cultivars has changed considerably. Genetic formula of gliadin was made for each the cultivar studied. The most frequent alleles of gliadin-coding loci among modern cultivars should be of great interest of breeders because these alleles are probably linked with genes that confer advantage to their carriers at present.

  14. BRS 331 – Early cycle double-haploid wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Scheeren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The wheat cultivar ‘BRS 331’ was developed by Embrapa. It results from an interspecific cross between wheat and maize by double-hapolid method. ‘BRS 331’ shows solid stem in the base of the plant, short leaves and super-early cycle to maturity. It is classified as bread wheat in all of the regions that is recommended in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and Santa Catarina, Brazil.

  15. Sensory profiles of bread made from paired samples of organic and conventionally grown wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, L E; Spaner, D; Wismer, W V

    2007-05-01

    The Canadian hard red spring wheat cultivar "Park" was grown in 2005 in Edmonton, AB, Canada on both conventionally and organically managed land, situated less than 1 km apart. Grains from the paired wheat samples were compared for cereal-grain-quality attributes. For sensory analysis, organically and conventionally produced wheat grains were milled into flour and baked into 60% whole wheat bread. Color, texture, taste, and aroma attributes of bread were compared using the sensory technique of descriptive analysis. Organic grain contained more wholemeal protein than conventional grain (P grain quality for yeast-leavened bread. Mixograph analysis revealed that conventional flour produced stronger bread dough than organic flour (P 0.05), but the panel perceived the organic bread to be more "dense" in texture (P < or = 0.05) with smaller air cells in the appearance of the crumb (P < or = 0.05) than conventional bread.

  16. Unlocking the diversity of genebanks: whole-genome marker analysis of Swiss bread wheat and spelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas; Schierscher-Viret, Beate; Fossati, Dario; Brabant, Cécile; Schori, Arnold; Keller, Beat; Krattinger, Simon G

    2017-11-04

    High-throughput genotyping of Swiss bread wheat and spelt accessions revealed differences in their gene pools and identified bread wheat landraces that were not used in breeding. Genebanks play a pivotal role in preserving the genetic diversity present among old landraces and wild progenitors of modern crops and they represent sources of agriculturally important genes that were lost during domestication and in modern breeding. However, undesirable genes that negatively affect crop performance are often co-introduced when landraces and wild crop progenitors are crossed with elite cultivars, which often limit the use of genebank material in modern breeding programs. A detailed genetic characterization is an important prerequisite to solve this problem and to make genebank material more accessible to breeding. Here, we genotyped 502 bread wheat and 293 spelt accessions held in the Swiss National Genebank using a 15K wheat SNP array. The material included both spring and winter wheats and consisted of old landraces and modern cultivars. Genome- and sub-genome-wide analyses revealed that spelt and bread wheat form two distinct gene pools. In addition, we identified bread wheat landraces that were genetically distinct from modern cultivars. Such accessions were possibly missed in the early Swiss wheat breeding program and are promising targets for the identification of novel genes. The genetic information obtained in this study is appropriate to perform genome-wide association studies, which will facilitate the identification and transfer of agriculturally important genes from the genebank into modern cultivars through marker-assisted selection.

  17. Computational Analysis Of Group 2 Late Embryogenesis Protein (Lea In Different Cultivar Of Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasouli Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Late Embryogenesis abundant protein has a crucial role as the cold-acclimation process in the wheat. These proteins encoded by TaWdhn13 gene. This gene is transcriptionally activated and produces the accumulated proteins and metabolites and protection cell structure from freezing damage. The objectives of this study were to isolate the genomic DNA (g-DNA sequence of TaWdhn13, to analyze structure, conserved domains of the gene, and to found a basis for association analysis of the functional sites associated with computational analysis. We here report on the functional assignment to TaWdhn13 gene by computational analysis. The Three-Dimensional (3D model of LEA protein drawing by using the phyre 2 server. For identify the conserved domain and motif of these gene sequence we used the Conserved Domain Database and DNA Motif Searching Database, however, the conserved domains and motif has been recognized. The results showed TaWdhn13 conserved domain incudes: Dehydrin superfamily. Also, motifs structure for this gene includes: 2FE2S_FER_1 Motif, INTEGRIN_BETA Motif, VWFC_1 Motif, EGF_1 Motif and DEFENSIN Motif. Our results reveal that group 2 LEA proteins are most likely to function within the cell nucleus. The analysis of protein property showed that the protein had no trans-membrane domains. The isoelectric point of the protein was 3.41, which was charged with 5.34 negative electrons when pH value of the buffer was 7.0.

  18. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham buns...

  19. Evolution of bread-making quality of Spanish bread-wheat genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M.; Aparicio, N.; Ruiz-Paris, E.; Oliete, B.; Caballero, P. A.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, 36 Spanish wheat genotypes (five modern commercial cultivars, four cultivars introduced after the green revolution and 27 land races from northwestern Spain) were evaluated. Grain (yield, specific weight, protein content and falling number) and flour (yield, protein content, Zeleny index, wet gluten and gluten index) properties were analyzed. Dough behaviour during mixing (DoughLAB) and handling (alveograph) was also considered. An evolution in grain and flour properties was observed over time. In modern cultivars, grain yield was improved owing to higher grain production. In land races, higher grain yields were related to larger grain size. Unlike in land races, an inverse correlation between grain yield and protein content was found in modern cultivars. In addition, because of their high protein quality, modern cultivars surpassed land races in bread-making properties. Land races showed considerable variability in protein quality and scored lower curve configuration ratio values than other cultivars with similar strength. Cultivars introduced after the green revolution reached the highest levels of bread-making quality, a feature attributable to their high protein quality. (Author) 24 refs.

  20. TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF SPELT WHEAT BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what are inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%.Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was measured in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn were the most firm and stiff. Relative elasticity confirmed that the lowest firmness and stiffness was found in Rubiota bread. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety.

  1. Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abboud Al-Saleh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between breadmaking quality, kernel properties (physical and chemical, and dough rheology were investigated using flours from six genotypes of Syrian wheat lines, comprising both commercially grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines. Genotypes were grown in 2008/2009 season in irrigated plots in the Eastern part of Syria. Grain samples were evaluated for vitreousness, test weight, 1000-kernel weight and then milled and tested for protein content, ash, and water content. Dough rheology of the samples was studied by the determination of the mixing time, stability, weakness, resistance and the extensibility of the dough. Loaf baking quality was evaluated by the measurement of the specific weight, resilience and firmness in addition to the sensory analysis. A comparative study between the six Syrian wheat genotypes and two English flour samples was conducted. Significant differences were observed among Syrian genotypes in vitreousness (69.3%–95.0%, 1000-kernel weight (35.2–46.9 g and the test weight (82.2–88.0 kg/hL. All samples exhibited high falling numbers (346 to 417 s for the Syrian samples and 285 and 305 s for the English flours. A significant positive correlation was exhibited between the protein content of the flour and its absorption of water (r = 0.84 **, as well as with the vitreousness of the kernel (r = 0.54 *. Protein content was also correlated with dough stability (r = 0.86 **, extensibility (r = 0.8 **, and negatively correlated with dough weakness (r = −0.69 **. Bread firmness and dough weakness were positively correlated (r = 0.66 **. Sensory analysis indicated Doumah-2 was the best appreciated whilst Doumah 40765 and 46055 were the least appreciated which may suggest their suitability for biscuit preparation rather than bread making.

  2. Impact of Added Colored Wheat Bran on Bread Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Machálková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of colored wheat bran addition on bread quality was tested on wheat varieties with purple pericarp (Konini, Rosso and Karkulka and on a variety containing blue aleurone (Skorpion. The effect of 10 %, 15 % and 20 % bran addition on sensory evaluation, bread color and texture was compared to the characteristics of bread prepared from wheat variety Mulan. The addition of 10 % bran significantly increased the sensory evaluation scores of bread. Crumb characteristics were improved mainly by the addition of 10 % bran. Moreover, top-quality bread contained bran separated from wheat variety Konini.

  3. Unlocking the diversity of genebanks: whole-genome marker analysis of Swiss bread wheat and spelt

    KAUST Repository

    Müller, Thomas

    2017-11-04

    Genebanks play a pivotal role in preserving the genetic diversity present among old landraces and wild progenitors of modern crops and they represent sources of agriculturally important genes that were lost during domestication and in modern breeding. However, undesirable genes that negatively affect crop performance are often co-introduced when landraces and wild crop progenitors are crossed with elite cultivars, which often limit the use of genebank material in modern breeding programs. A detailed genetic characterization is an important prerequisite to solve this problem and to make genebank material more accessible to breeding. Here, we genotyped 502 bread wheat and 293 spelt accessions held in the Swiss National Genebank using a 15K wheat SNP array. The material included both spring and winter wheats and consisted of old landraces and modern cultivars. Genome- and sub-genome-wide analyses revealed that spelt and bread wheat form two distinct gene pools. In addition, we identified bread wheat landraces that were genetically distinct from modern cultivars. Such accessions were possibly missed in the early Swiss wheat breeding program and are promising targets for the identification of novel genes. The genetic information obtained in this study is appropriate to perform genome-wide association studies, which will facilitate the identification and transfer of agriculturally important genes from the genebank into modern cultivars through marker-assisted selection.

  4. Fundamental and empirical rheological behaviour of wheat flour doughs and comparison with bread making performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A. M.; vanVliet, T; Vereijken, JM

    The rheological characteristics of wheat flour doughs from the cultivars Obelisk and Katepwa and of biscuit flour doughs, and also of biscuit flour doughs containing glutens isolated from cv. Obelisk and cv. Katepwa flour, were compared and discussed in relation to bread making performance. Four

  5. Organic Bread Wheat Production and Market in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, C.; Abecassis, J.; Carcea, M.

    2012-01-01

    organic production by a new transition and technical improvement. Bread wheat is grown in a variety of crop rotations and farming systems where four basic organic crop production systems have been defined. Weeds and nitrogen deficiency are considered to be the most serious threat inducing lowest grain...... yield under organic production. The choice of cultivar, green manure, fertilization and intercropping legumes – grain or forage – are efficient ways to obtain high grain quality and quantity. The economic viability of wheat production in Europe is also affected by subsidies from European Union agri......-environmental programs. Support has been granted to organic farming since the beginning of the 1990s. Direct payments from European regulation combined with premium prices paid by consumers had compensated the lowest crop production. In the European Union, the current cycle of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is due...

  6. Fundamentos para la clasificación del trigo argentino por calidad: efectos del cultivar, la localidad, el año y sus interacciones Bases for the segregation of Argentine bread wheat by quality: effects of cultivar, location, year and their interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Abbate

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Regularmente se analiza la producción triguera argentina para conocer su calidad industrial, pero no se comparan formalmente los efectos del cultivar, localidad, año y sus interacciones. El objetivo de este estudio fue cuantificar la magnitud de los efectos de esos factores. Durante tres campañas se realizaron experimentos, en cuatro localidades con ocho cultivares. Se evaluaron peso medio del grano, peso hectolítrico, rendimiento de harina, gluten húmedo, gluten seco, gluten index, concentración de proteína, variables alveográficas, absorción de agua y volumen de pan. Se calculó un índice para definir grupos de calidad. Para comparar el efecto de cada factor, se calculó su coeficiente de variación. Para la mayoría de las variables, los factores presentaron diferencias significativas (P=0,05, los efectos de localidad y año fueron tanto o más importantes que el de cultivar, y la interacción localidad × año fue la de mayor magnitud. La clasificación en grupos de calidad fue afectada por la localidad y el efecto de la localidad cambió entre años. Los resultados justifican incluir la localidad para definir protocolos de producción y para clasificar cultivares y la producción triguera argentina.Regularly, quality analyses of Argentine wheat production are performed in order to know its industrial quality. These analyses are insufficient to compare effects of cultivar, location, year and their interactions. The aim of this work is to quantify the effects of these factors. Eight cultivars were grown in four Argentine locations during three cropping seasons. Ten quality traits were evaluated: mean weight of grain, hectolitric weight, flour yield, wet gluten, dry gluten, gluten index, protein concentration, alveographic variables, water absorption, bread volume. A wheat quality index was calculated and quality groups were established. Coefficient of variation was calculated in order to compare the effect of each factor. For most

  7. IMAGE ANALYSIS OF BREAD CRUMB STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO GLUTEN STRENGTH OF WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Magdić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine bread slice medium part properties in relation to quality parameters with a focus on gluten strength. Since sensory evaluation of bread is time consuming, expensive and subjective in nature, computerized image analysis was applied as objective method of bread crumb quality evaluation. Gluten Index method was applied as fast and reliable tool for defining gluten strength of wheat. Significant (P90 Ana, Demetra, Klara, Srpanjka and Divana have shown trend to give unequal and bigger crumb grains while cultivars Golubica, Barbara, Žitarka, Kata and Sana with optimal gluten strength (GI= 60-90 have shown finer and uniform crumb grain.

  8. End-use quality of CIMMYT-derived soft kernel durum wheat germplasm. II. Dough strength and pan bread quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) is considered unsuitable for the majority of commercial bread production because its weak gluten strength combined with flour particle size and flour starch damage after milling are not commensurate with hexaploid wheat flours. Recently a new durum cultivar...

  9. Drought tolerance of some bread wheat genotypes in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low moisture stress is one of the most important abiotic constraints limiting bread wheat production and area expansion in Ethiopia. To alleviate this problem, evaluation of varieties in drought prone areas has been undertaken from 1996 to1998. In this study, eighteen bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties were tested at ...

  10. Evaluation of Drought Tolerance of Bread Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Zafar Naderi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluateresponse of bread wheat recombinant inbred lines to water deficit, a split plot experiment arranged in randomized complete block design (CRBD was conducted using eight recombinant inbred lines and their parental cultivars (Roshan and Super Head with three replications under three irrigation levels (80, 120 and 160 mm evaporation from class A pan at the Agriculture Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch during 2009. The results of analysis of variance data collected revealed significant difference among lines and irrigation levels for grain yield. While line × irrigation level interaction was non significant for grain yield. Based on SSI and TOL, drought tolerance indices lines number 1, 7, 41 and Roshan cultivar under 120 mm evaporation, and lines number 7 and 19 under 160 mm evaporation were the tolerant lines. Under both stress conditions according to STI, MP and GMP indices, lines number 37, 38 and Roshan cultivar were recognized as the tolerant lines to water deficiet. Cluster analyses based on grain yield and drought tolerance indices recognized the lines number 1, 30, 32, 37, 38, 41 and Roshan cultivar under 120 mm and lines number 30, 37 and 38 and Roshan under 160 mm evaporation as the most drought tolerants and higher producers.

  11. BREAD-MAKING QUALITY OF SLOVAK AND SERBIAN WHEAT VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic prerequisite for the production of bakery products of a good quality is the knowledge of the quality parameters of raw materials introduced in the production process and the ability to use their potential. The bread making properties of 17 pure European wheat cultivars were analysed. Baking experiments were carried out according to the methodology of the research workplace; 1000 g of flour was processed with the addition of salt, sugar and yeast. Fermentation for 35 minutes at 30 ° C was followed by the baking with steaming (at 240 ° C and then 220 ° C. During an experimental baking test the selected parameters: loaf volume (cm3, specific loaf volume (cm3.100g-1 loaf, volume efficiency (cm3.100g-1 flour, cambering (loaf height/width ratio, bread yield (%, bread yield baking loss (% in bread were evaluated. Loaf volume has been considered as the most important criterion for the bread-making quality. In the analysed samples (11 varieties of Slovak origin and 6 varieties of Serbian origin, the value of this parameter ranged from 3575 cm3 to 5575 cm3 with higher values occurred in Slovak varieties (average 4 640.91 cm3 compared to the Serbian varieties (average 4 363.33 cm3. Based on the complex evaluation of wheat varieties of the Slovak and Serbian origin assessing the selected quality parameters of the baking experiment it can be concluded that in terms of baking quality the three Slovak varieties IS Ezopus, Bonavita and Jarissa were the best. Therefore, they are recommended for cultivation and their subsequent use in the baking industry, in particular for the production of bread According to a baking quality the evaluated varieties can be sorted from best to worst in the following order: IS Ezopus (SK > Bonavita (SK > Jarissa (SK > IS Questor > Etida (SRB > Venistar (SK > Renesansa (SRB > IS Conditor (SK > IS Corvinus (SK > Zvezdana (SRB > Simonida (SRB > Viglanka (SK > IS Agape (SK > NS 40S (SRB > Panonnija (SRB > IS Escoria (SK

  12. Assessment of genetic diversity among sixty bread wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of genetic diversity among wheat cultivars is important to ensure that a continuous pool of cultivars with varying desirable traits is maintained. In view of this, a molecular study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity of sixty wheat cultivars using sixty microsatellite markers. Amplified alleles from each ...

  13. Assessment of genetic diversity among sixty bread wheat (Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mwale

    Assessment of genetic diversity among wheat cultivars is important to ensure that a continuous pool of cultivars with varying desirable traits is maintained. In view of this, a molecular study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity of sixty wheat cultivars using sixty microsatellite markers. Amplified alleles from each ...

  14. Staling of wheat bread stored in modified atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Hansen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Modified atmosphere packing (MAP) of bread is known to extend the microbial shelf-life. However, the effect of MAP on staling of bread is more questionable, and conflicting results are reported in the literature. To investigate the effect of BT AP, wheat bread was packed in modified atmosphere...... containing 100% CO2 and in a mixture gas of 50% CO2 and 50% N-2, respectively. The control bread was packed in atmospheric air. No significant effects of MAP were found during storage of bread for 7 days at 20 degreesC compared to control bread. when changes in bread firmness and starch retrogradation...... measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used as parameters for the staling rates. Ira addition, no significant differences were obtained in firmness between bread stored in 100% CO,, and in the mixture gas of CO2 and N-2 after 7 and 14 days, respectively. The present study thus...

  15. Buckwheat-enriched wheat bread: National market placement possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakač Marijana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality parameters and the possibility of successful placement of buckwheat-enriched wheat bread on the national market are presented in this paper. Analysis of the market position of buckwheat-enriched wheat bread includes demands, offer and competition. Elements that affect the overall retail price of buckwheat-enriched wheat bread are given in details, along with SWOT analysis and marketing plan including target market, market supply and product marketing mix. According to all performed analyses it could be concluded that this product should be positioned on the national market, especially for people with special needs and requirements.

  16. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of Romanian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... In this study, fourteen bread wheat varieties, twelve of which were introduced into Turkey from. Romania, were evaluated for grain ... Romanian wheat varieties, to study the associations between yield and yield components, and to determine the most ...... Huerta-Espino J (1994). Rust diseases of wheat. In:.

  17. Quality of wholemeal wheat bread enriched with green coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Gawlik-Dziki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific studies have revealed that bioactive components of coffee play a preventive role against various degenerative diseases. Green coffee, in particular, is characterized by its unique composition and properties. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of green coffee (Coffea arabica beans (GCB addition on the quality and antioxidant properties (AA of the wholemeal bread. For bread preparation, flour form GCB, and wholemeal wheat flour, type 2000 were used. Wholemeal wheat flour was replaced with GCB flour at 1 to 5% levels. Loaf volume, texture, color and sensory properties of bread were determined. Furthermore, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were evaluated. The results showed that bread supplementation with GCB had little influence on the bread volume. The highest volume of bread was obtained with 3 and 4% of GCB flour. The texture properties of bread crumb (hardness, elasticity, cohesiveness and chewiness were slightly changed as a result of the GCB addition. The lightness of bread crumb decreased with the GCB addition (average from 46.3 to 42.6. Besides, the addition of GCB significantly enriched wheat bread with hydrophilic phenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Moreover, the GCB addition enhanced antiradical activity of bread.

  18. ATTEMPT TO APPLY STABILIZED WHEAT GERM FOR BREAD SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Gambuś

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increased interest in rational nutrition causes, that from many years is observed a growing consumption of bread, and novel food supplemented with health promoting components. For the bread production in Poland mainly wheat and rye cake flours are used, depleted of a many valuable nutrients such as protein, dietary fibre, minerals and vitamins. Because of their unique chemical composition wheat germs are a particularly valuable resource, both for direct consumption and to enhance the nutritional value of food products. The aim of the study was to prepare wheat bread with a 10% addition of commercial stabilized wheat germs. Based on the obtained results, it was found that wheat germs, due to their unique chemical composition, were a particularly valuable resource to supplement the nutritional value of bread. However, germs had detrimental effect on mechanical properties of dough, and on bread quality. Texture of bread crumb and its chemical composition were analysed. It was shown, that germs subjected to fermentation process could be used in wheat bread production as dietary fibre and mineral compound supplement.

  19. The content of buckwheat flour in wheat bread

    OpenAIRE

    Psodorov Đorđe B.; Vujić Đura N.; Ačanski Marijana M.; Pastor Kristian A.; Razmovski Radojka N.; Kravić Snežana Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Seven samples of bread were prepared in a special way. Samples were made of a mixture of wheat and buckwheat flour in defined proportions. Carbohydrates from crumbs of bread were derivatized with BSTFA and analyzed by GC-MS. Multivariate analysis was applied. The purpose of this study was not the identification and quantification of carbohydrate composition. The results demonstrated a clear relation between the carbohydrate composition of the bread samples ...

  20. Ancestral QTL alleles from wild emmer wheat improve drought resistance and productivity in modern wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne eMerchuk-Ovnat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum and bread (T. aestivum wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4 were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm and water-limited (290–320 mm conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS, and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS. In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass - specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background, under both treatments (2BS QTL, and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL. The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance.

  1. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A.; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm) and water-limited (290–320 mm) conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS), and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS). In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass—specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background), under both treatments (2BS QTL), and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL). The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance. PMID:27148287

  2. BREAD QUALITY SUBSTITUTED BY POTATO STARCH INSTEAD OF WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nemar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bread constitutes the most regularly consumed food in the World, the international market for wheat undergoes strong pressure and prices are unceasingly increasing. The aim of this study is to substitute wheat flour by potato starch in bread preparation. Mixtures flours were characterized for composition, damaged starch, and Alveograph properties. According to the results of alveograph parameters, they decrease with the rate of incorporation of potato starch. This decrease can be corrected by adding vital gluten. The results of physicochemical analysis showed a decrease in protein levels, an increase in moisture content (about 2% and carbohydrates levels due to the composition of potato starch. However, sensory analysis (p ≤ 0.05 showed that the addition 80% of potato starch leads to bread with better characteristics: taste, colour and odour, based on that, it is highly advisable as an ingredient in the standard preparation of wheat bread.

  3. Food label guide for whole wheat bread (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole grains, like the kind found in whole wheat bread, contain fiber and antioxidants such as Vitamin E and selenium, iron, magnesium, zinc and B vitamins. Fiber is a very beneficial nutrient that ...

  4. Bread Making Potential of Composite Flour of Wheat-Acha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bread-making potentials of composite flours containing 90% wheat and 10% acha enriched with 0-15% cowpea flour were investigated. Proximate composition and functional properties of the blends were studied using AOAC standard methods. Bread loaves were prepared from the blends using the straight dough method ...

  5. Wheat-based traditional flat breads of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimala, K R; Sudha, M L

    2015-01-01

    Wheat forms the basic ingredient for various bakery and traditional products. Wheat-based flat breads are one of the traditional products prepared in different parts of the world. Different regions of the world have inherited different preparation methods since time immemorial, which has led to the existence of traditional flat breads'. Being traditional, only a few have been extensively studied scientifically. India, being the second largest producer of wheat, has a great saga of traditional flat breads with different tastes and texture. This review is a compiled information related to the research studies carried out on some of the wheat-based traditional flat breads of India namely chapati, puri, tandoori roti, parantha (whole-wheat flour based) and parotta, naan, bhatura, kulcha (refined wheat flour based) which indicates the magnitude of attention they have drawn among the food scientists. The review delves upon the developments and improvements brought about in the storage stability and realization of large-scale production of few of these flat breads which has helped considerably to cater to the growing demand in the domestic as well as international markets. The review also indicates the possibility and the tremendous scope available for technological developments for traditional flat breads.

  6. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  7. Aroma of wheat porridge and bread-crumb is influenced by the wheat variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard; Hansen, Åse Solvej; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2015-01-01

    evaluation, from these eight were selected for bread evaluation. Porridge and bread results were compared. Variations were found in both evaluations. Five odour- and nine flavour descriptors were found to be common to both wheat porridge and bread. The results for two descriptors: "cocoa" and "oat porridge......" were correlated between the wheat porridge and bread samples. Analysis of whole-meal and low-extraction samples revealed that the descriptors "malt", "oat-porridge", "øllebrød", "cocoa" and "grain" mostly characterized wheat bran, while descriptors for "maize", "bean-shoots", "chamomile", "umami...

  8. Quality Characteristics of bread made from Wheat and Fluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bread fortified with fluted pumpkin seed flour was made; the seeds of fluted pumpkin were extracted and processed into raw dried flour. Appropriate quantities of wheat and fluted pumpkin flour (on dry weight basis) were measured and mixed to give the following blends, 90:10, 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, wheat/fluted pumpkin ...

  9. Starch and protein analysis of wheat bread enriched with phenolics-rich sprouted wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2017-08-01

    Wheat flour in the bread formula was replaced with sprouted wheat flour (SF) characterized by enhanced nutraceutical properties, at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% levels. The addition of SF slightly increased the total protein content; however, it decreased their digestibility. Some qualitative and quantitative changes in the electrophoretic pattern of proteins were also observed; especially, in the bands corresponding with 27kDa and 15-17kDa proteins. These results were also confirmed by SE-HPLC technique, where a significant increase in the content of proteins and peptides (molecular masses breads with 20% of SF. Bread enriched with sprouted wheat flour had more resistant starch, but less total starch, compared to control bread. The highest in vitro starch digestibility was determined for the control bread. The studied bread with lowered nutritional value but increased nutritional quality can be used for special groups of consumers (obese, diabetic). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  11. Molecular characterization of lipoxygenase genes on chromosome 4BS in Chinese bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuyan; Chen, Feng; Wu, Peipei; Zhang, Ning; Cui, Dangqun

    2015-08-01

    This study cloned two novel TaLox genes on chromosome of 4BS and developed a co-dominant marker, Lox-B23, in bread wheat that showed highly significant association with lipoxygenase activity. Lipoxygenase (Lox), a critical enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, significantly influences the color and processing quality of wheat-based products. Two novel Lox genes, designated TaLox-B2 and TaLox-B3, were cloned on chromosome 4BS of Chinese bread wheat. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that both TaLox-B2 and TaLox-B3 genes encoded an 861-aa protein and possessed a lipoxygenase superfamily domain at the 170-838 interval. Two different TaLox-B2 alleles, designated TaLox-B2a and TaLox-B2b, were subsequently discovered. A co-dominant marker, Lox-B23, was developed based on sequences of TaLox-B2a, TaLox-B2b, and TaLox-B3 genes to precisely distinguish these three alleles in Chinese bread cultivars. Among five allelic combinations of Lox genes at Lox-B1, Lox-B2, and Lox-B3 loci, wheat cultivars with TaLox-B1a/TaLox-B2a/TaLox-B3a combination exhibited the highest Lox activity, whereas those with TaLox-B1a/TaLox-B2b/TaLox-B3b combination significantly showed the lowest Lox activity. A RIL population was used to evaluate the influence of TaLox-B3a gene on Lox activity. Results showed that TaLox-B3a gene could significantly increase the Lox activity in bread wheat. Physical mapping indicated that both TaLox-B2 and TaLox-B3 genes were located on chromosome 4BS in bread wheat. This study provides useful information to further understand the molecular and genetic bases of Lox activity in bread wheat.

  12. Pilot Study: Comparison of Sourdough Wheat Bread and Yeast-Fermented Wheat Bread in Individuals with Wheat Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, Reijo; Koskenpato, Jari; Hongisto, Sanna-Maria; Loponen, Jussi; Poussa, Tuija; Huang, Xin; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula; Salmenkari, Hanne; Korpela, Riitta

    2017-01-01

    Many patients suspect wheat as being a major trigger of their irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate whether sourdough wheat bread baked without baking improvers and using a long dough fermentation time (>12 h), would result in lower quantities of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) and Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs), and would be better tolerated than yeast-fermented wheat bread for subjects with IBS who have a poor subjective tolerance to wheat. The study was conducted as a randomised double-blind controlled 7-day study (n = 26). Tetrameric ATI structures were unravelled in both breads vs. baking flour, but the overall reduction in ATIs to their monomeric form was higher in the sourdough bread group. Sourdough bread was also lower in FODMAPs. However, no significant differences in gastrointestinal symptoms and markers of low-grade inflammation were found between the study breads. There were significantly more feelings of tiredness, joint symptoms, and decreased alertness when the participants ate the sourdough bread (p ≤ 0.03), but these results should be interpreted with caution. Our novel finding was that sourdough baking reduces the quantities of both ATIs and FODMAPs found in wheat. Nonetheless, the sourdough bread was not tolerated better than the yeast-fermented bread. PMID:29113045

  13. Pilot Study: Comparison of Sourdough Wheat Bread and Yeast-Fermented Wheat Bread in Individuals with Wheat Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijo Laatikainen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many patients suspect wheat as being a major trigger of their irritable bowel syndrome (IBS symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate whether sourdough wheat bread baked without baking improvers and using a long dough fermentation time (>12 h, would result in lower quantities of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs and Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs, and would be better tolerated than yeast-fermented wheat bread for subjects with IBS who have a poor subjective tolerance to wheat. The study was conducted as a randomised double-blind controlled 7-day study (n = 26. Tetrameric ATI structures were unravelled in both breads vs. baking flour, but the overall reduction in ATIs to their monomeric form was higher in the sourdough bread group. Sourdough bread was also lower in FODMAPs. However, no significant differences in gastrointestinal symptoms and markers of low-grade inflammation were found between the study breads. There were significantly more feelings of tiredness, joint symptoms, and decreased alertness when the participants ate the sourdough bread (p ≤ 0.03, but these results should be interpreted with caution. Our novel finding was that sourdough baking reduces the quantities of both ATIs and FODMAPs found in wheat. Nonetheless, the sourdough bread was not tolerated better than the yeast-fermented bread.

  14. Use of Avocado (Persea americana M. Paste in Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bread is the staple food for most people around the world, it being consumed since ancient times. Because of it’s major importance in the diet, over the last years, the trend of enrich the nutritional quality was developed, by replacing the chemical fortification of foods with an intake of bioactive compounds from fruits, vegetables and cereals. The avocado is useful in human nutrition as a source of various nutrients and especially as source of energy and monounsaturated fatty acids. This paper belongs to a more complex study, which aiming the evaluation of enriched bread for breakfast prepared with an addition of avocado paste (12% as a source of biologically active components in nutrition. Bread produced from 100% wheat flour served as the control. The seasoned bread for breakfast and the control samples were subjected to physico-chemical and organoleptic analyses. Addition of avocado paste (AP in bread has improved physicochemical and sensory attributes.

  15. The content of buckwheat flour in wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psodorov Đorđe B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven samples of bread were prepared in a special way. Samples were made of a mixture of wheat and buckwheat flour in defined proportions. Carbohydrates from crumbs of bread were derivatized with BSTFA and analyzed by GC-MS. Multivariate analysis was applied. The purpose of this study was not the identification and quantification of carbohydrate composition. The results demonstrated a clear relation between the carbohydrate composition of the bread samples and the type of flour used for their production.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066 i br. III 46005

  16. Acrylamide-asparagine relationship in baked/toasted wheat and rye breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granby, Kit; Nielsen, Nikoline Juul; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Christensen, Tue; Kann, Mette; Skibsted, Leif H

    2008-08-01

    Acrylamide in baked and toasted wheat and rye bread was studied in relation to levels of asparagine in flour, dough, bread and toasts. Asparagine was consumed during bread preparation resulting in reduced acrylamide content in the products. In wheat bread, 12% of the asparagine initially present in the flour (0.14 g kg(-1)) remained after yeast fermentation and baking; for rye bread, 82% of asparagine remained after sourdough fermentation and baking. Asparagine present in untoasted wheat bread had totally reacted after hard toasting. Toasted wheat and rye bread slices contained 11-161 and 27-205 microg kg(-1) acrylamide, respectively, compared to untoasted wheat and rye bread with toasted bread.

  17. Effect of microparticulated wheat bran on the physical properties of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum-Keun; Cho, Ah-Ra; Chun, Yong-Gi; Park, Dong-June

    2013-02-01

    Wheat bran and flour mixtures were used in a bread formulation to improve its quality characteristics. Wheat bran was microparticulated using a jet mill, and this microparticulated wheat bran (MWB) was substituted for a portion of wheat flour. As the MWB content increased, water-holding capacity, hardness and springiness increased while the swelling property decreased slightly. The hardness of bread containing MWB was lower than that made with commercial whole wheat flour (WWF). Bread containing 7% MWB had a higher specific volume (8.3%) than that of WWF bread. Enthalpy of dough decreased with increasing MWB content, and peak viscosity and breakdown decreased with increasing setback. Inner crust structures of bread containing MWB showed a slight reduction in gelatinization and gluten development in comparison with wheat bread. These results indicate that MWB could be used as a diet-enriching bread ingredient while maintaining bread quality.

  18. Discrimination of volatiles of refined and whole wheat bread containing red and white wheat bran using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapirstein, Harry D; Siddhu, Silvi; Aliani, Michel

    2012-11-01

    The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of electronic (E) nose technology to discriminate refined and whole wheat bread made with white or red wheat bran according to their headspace volatiles. Whole wheat flour was formulated with a common refined flour from hard red spring wheat, blended at the 15% replacement level with bran milled from representative samples of one hard red and 2 hard white wheats. A commercial formula was used for breadmaking. Results varied according to the nature of the sample, that is, crust, crumb, or whole slices. Bread crust and crumb were completely discriminated. Crumb of whole wheat bread made with red bran was distinct from other bread types. When misclassified, whole wheat bread crumb with white bran was almost invariably identified as refined flour bread crumb. Using crust as the basis for comparisons, the largest difference in volatiles was between refined flour bread and whole wheat bread as a group. When refined flour bread crust was misclassified, samples tended to be confused with whole white wheat crust. Samples prepared from whole bread slices were poorly discriminated in general. E-nose results indicated that whole wheat bread formulated with white bran was more similar in volatile makeup to refined flour bread compared to whole wheat bread made with red bran. The E-nose appears to be very capable to accommodate differentiation of bread volatiles whose composition varies due to differences in flour or bran type. Consumer preference of bread made using refined flour in contrast to whole wheat flour is partly due to the different aroma of whole wheat bread. This study used an electronic nose to analyze bread volatiles, and showed that whole wheat bread incorporating white bran was different from counterpart bread made using red bran, and was closer in volatile makeup to "white" bread made without bran. Commercial millers and bakers can take advantage of these results to formulate whole wheat flour

  19. Effects of organic and conventional production systems and cultivars on the technological properties of winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceseviciene, Jurgita; Slepetiene, Alvyra; Leistrumaite, Alge; Ruzgas, Vytautas; Slepetys, Jonas

    2012-11-01

    The current study aimed to estimate the effects of organic and conventional production systems and four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bread cultivars on the technological properties of grain, flour, dough and bread, to increase current knowledge regarding the interactions of the technological properties of winter wheat and assess the cultivars for their suitability for organic production systems. All the technological properties winter wheat which were investigated were significantly affected by the agricultural production system and cultivars, and some of them, mostly grain quality parameters, by the harvest year. Grain from organic winter wheat had significantly lower protein and gluten contents, lower sedimentation and flour water absorption values, shorter dough stability time and lower loaf volume, but higher values of starch content and stronger gluten, compared with grain from the conventional wheat. For both production systems significant positive correlations of protein content with gluten content, sedimentation value, dough stability time, loaf volume, farinograph water absorption, and negative with starch content, gluten index were determined. Statistically significant differences between agricultural production systems were found. The cultivars Ada and Alma had better technological properties that make them more suitable for the organic production system, compared to Širvinta 1 and Zentos. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Isabel; Blesa, Jesús; Herrera, Marta; Ariño, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking. PMID:24451845

  1. Nudging children towards whole wheat bread: a field experiment on the influence of fun bread roll shape on breakfast consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Vrijhof, Milou; Polet, Ilse A; Vingerhoeds, Monique H; de Wijk, René A

    2014-09-02

    Many children do not eat enough whole grains, which may have negative health consequences. Intervention research is increasingly focusing on nudging as a way to influence food choices by affecting unconscious behavioural processes. The aim of this field study was to examine whether the shape of bread rolls is able to shift children's bread choices from white to whole wheat during breakfast to increase whole grain intake. In a between-subjects experiment conducted at twelve primary schools in the Netherlands, with school as the unit of condition assignment, children were exposed to an assortment of white and whole wheat bread rolls, both varying in shape (regular versus fun). Children were free to choose the type and number of bread rolls and toppings to eat during breakfast. Consumption of bread rolls was measured at class level via the number of bread rolls before and after breakfast. In addition, children (N = 1113) responded to a survey including questions about the breakfast. Results of the field experiment showed that about 76% of bread consumption consisted of white bread rolls. Consumption of white bread rolls did not differ according to shape (all P-values > 0.18). However, presenting fun-shaped whole wheat bread rolls almost doubled consumption of whole wheat bread (P = 0.001), particularly when the simultaneously presented white bread rolls had a regular shape (interaction P = 0.02). Survey results suggest that slight increases in perceived pleasure and taste are associated with these effects. Overall, presenting whole wheat bread in fun shapes may be helpful in increasing consumption of whole wheat bread in children. Future research could examine how improving the visual appeal of healthy foods may lead to sustained behaviour changes.

  2. Detection of soft wheat in semolina and durum wheat bread by analysis of DNA microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualone, Antonella; Montemurro, Cinzia; Grinn-Gofron, Agnieszka; Sonnante, Gabriella; Blanco, Antonio

    2007-05-02

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the analysis of DNA microsatellites for the detection of soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in semolina and durum wheat bread (prepared from Triticum turgidum L. var. durum). The results enabled selection of an efficient D-genome-specific repetitive DNA sequence to detect common wheat in semolina and breads by qualitative PCR with a threshold of 3 and 5%, respectively, lowered to 2.5% by real-time PCR. This is of major importance for checking during production of some typical products recently awarded the European Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) mark such as Altamura bread, which should not contain soft wheat flour. The feasibility of quantification of common wheat adulteration in semolina using real-time PCR was also demonstrated.

  3. Stability analysis in bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatment consisted of twelve bread wheat genotypes, namely, Bolo (G8), Dand'a (G5), Gambo (G4), Gassay (G6), Hidase (G1), Huluka (G3), Kubsa (G12), Menze (G10), Ogolcho (G2), Shorima (G11), Tay (G7), and Tsehay (G9). The experiments were laid out as a randomized complete block design with three ...

  4. Effects of selected composite wheat flours on bread baking quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of selected composite wheat flours on bread baking quality. M Bhattacharjee, JO Othira, JK Wanjama, JO Maina. Abstract. No Abstract. Discovery and Innovation Vol. 18(2) 2006: 98-103. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  5. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... 2005). With appropriate process optimization, breads with acceptable quality can be made with the addition of non- traditional ingredients (Siddiq et al, 2009). Wheat is a good source of calories and other nutrients but its protein is of lower nutritional quality than milk, soy, pea and lupin proteins as its protein ...

  6. Quality assessment of flour and bread from sweet potato wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the quality of the flour and bread produced from sweet potato wheat composite flour blends. Matured and freshly harvested sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) was obtained from a local market in Akure, Nigeria. The tubers were thoroughly washed, peeled, washed again, drained, chipped, oven dried, ...

  7. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of Romanian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, fourteen bread wheat varieties, twelve of which were introduced into Turkey from Romania, were evaluated for grain yield and seven agronomic properties in Biga, Çanakkale in northwest part of Turkey in 2005 - 2006 and 2006 - 2007 growing seasons. The objectives of the research, carried out in a completely ...

  8. Response of bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) to application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highly soluble N fertilizers like urea may be lost from the soil plant system through leaching, volatilization, and denitrification thereby reduce yields and NUE of arable crops. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of slow nitrogen (N) releasing fertilizer (UREAStabil) on NUE and yields of bread wheat and ...

  9. Response of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bread wheat variety used for the experiment was Pica flor (kakaba), which is disease resistant, early maturing, and relatively high yielding, at Suluh kebele in Hawzien district. . Hidase variety, which is less susceptible to rust and has high grain yielding potential and disease resistant, was used at Atsela and Ayba in ...

  10. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sprouted soybean flour on wheat bread was studied. Sprouting significantly increased the vitamin C content of soybean flour from 2.0 mg kg-1 to 3.25 mg kg-1. The sprouted soybean flour resulted in increased loaf volume, a firmer, spongy and more elastic loaf. However, increasing the sprouted soybean flour ...

  11. Response of bread wheat to increasing mustard meal nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mustard seed meal was evaluated on the field as source of nitrogen for bread wheat on Pellic Vertisol and Eutric Nitosol in a split plot design with three replications. Highly significant yield increases were obtained due to mustard meal nitrogen rates during all the experimental periods on the Vertisol. The increase in the ...

  12. Combining Ability Analysis for Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of promising genotypes from a diverse genetic base and subsequent utilization for hybridization is one of the strategies for improving productivity of bread wheat. The data from eight parents and their F1 progenies of half-diallel crosses were analyzed for combining ability for yield and yield related traits in triplicate ...

  13. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in bread wheat: I. yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Monotti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union the production of high quality wheat is mainly located in the Mediterranean regions where the climatic conditions positively affect protein concentration in the grain. High quality wheat calls for proper management of nitrogen fertilization, thus there is a need to verify whether the limitations imposed by local governments on maximum rate of nitrogen fertilization admitted may affect bread making quality. Trials were conducted in fourteen environments (E to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizations on eight cultivars (C, belonging to four quality grades (Q. Nitrogen (N was applied to crops according to three rates/modalities: N1 corresponding to the maximum rate admitted calculated according to a balance sheet method and distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N2 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1, also distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N3 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1 but distributed at the stage of flag leaf appearance. The effects of environment, nitrogen and cultivar were significant for grain yield, test weight, 1000 kernel weight, heading time, plant height and for quality traits (protein content and alveograph indices. The existence of variability among cultivars and quality grades in the response to rate and timing of nitrogen fertilization was demonstrated by the significance of NxC and NxQ interactions. Dry matter and nitrogen contents of plant at anthesis and at harvest were significantly affected by the main sources of variation. High quality cultivars yielded more grain of better quality with higher N rates (N2 and N3 as compared to the maximum rate of nitrogen admitted by the local government (N1. These results demonstrated that the adopted balance sheet method for the calculation of N requirements of wheat crop adversely affects the full potential expression of the cultivars belonging to superior bread making quality grades.

  14. Dynamic metabolome profiling reveals significant metabolic changes during grain development of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Shoumin; Dong, Kun; Deng, Xiong; Zhou, Jiaxing; Xu, Xuexin; Han, Caixia; Zhang, Wenying; Xu, Yanhao; Wang, Zhimin; Yan, Yueming

    2016-08-01

    Metabolites in wheat grains greatly influence nutritional values. Wheat provides proteins, minerals, B-group vitamins and dietary fiber to humans. These metabolites are important to human health. However, the metabolome of the grain during the development of bread wheat has not been studied so far. In this work the first dynamic metabolome of the developing grain of the elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 was analyzed, using non-targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for metabolite profiling. In total, 74 metabolites were identified over the grain developmental stages. Metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed that the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, amines and lipids was interrelated. An integrated metabolic map revealed a distinct regulatory profile. The results provide information that can be used by metabolic engineers and molecular breeders to improve wheat grain quality. The present metabolome approach identified dynamic changes in metabolite levels, and correlations among such levels, in developing seeds. The comprehensive metabolic map may be useful when breeding programs seek to improve grain quality. The work highlights the utility of GC/MS-based metabolomics, in conjunction with univariate and multivariate data analysis, when it is sought to understand metabolic changes in developing seeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Resistance Potential of Bread Wheat Genotypes Against Yellow Rust Disease Under Egyptian Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer F. Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yellow rust (stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat in Egypt and worldwide. In order to identify wheat genotypes resistant to yellow rust and develop molecular markers associated with the resistance, fifty F₈ recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a cross between resistant and susceptible bread wheat landraces were obtained. Artificial infection of Puccinia striiformis was performed under greenhouse conditions during two growing seasons and relative resistance index (RRI was calculated. Two Egyptian bread wheat cultivars i.e. Giza-168 (resistant and Sakha-69 (susceptible were also evaluated. RRI values of two-year trial showed that 10 RILs responded with RRI value >6 2 <6. However, only 7 RILs showed RRI value <2. Five RILs expressed hypersensitive type of resistance (R against the pathogen and showed the lowest Average Coefficient of Infection (ACI. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA with eight simple sequence repeat (SSR, eight sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP and sixteen random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers revealed that three SSR, three SRAP and six RAPD markers were found to be associated with the resistance to yellow rust. However, further molecular analyses would be performed to confirm markers associated with the resistance and suitable for marker-assisted selection. Resistant RILs identified in the study could be efficiently used to improve the resistance to yellow rust in wheat.

  16. Study of the Character and Palatability on Whole Wheat Flour Bread

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 彩葉; 小池, 恵; Sayaha, Suzuki; Megumi, Koike

    2015-01-01

    Whole wheat flour is rich in dietary fiber and has disease preventive property. However, the flavor of whole wheat flour containing bread has prevented its wide use. We studied that make tasty whole wheat flour bread to take a dietary fiber daily. The blending proportions of whole wheat flour to bread making flour were 0, 20, 40, 60,80 and 100%. We examined their characteristics in weight, height, volume, physical properties and palatability in the sensory evaluation. Weight of the whole whea...

  17. The effect of a default-based nudge on the choice of whole wheat bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van Ellen; Seijdell, Karen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Wijk, de René A.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Consumer choices are often influenced by the default option presented. This study examines the effect of whole wheat bread as a default option in a sandwich choice situation. Whole wheat bread consists of 100% whole grain and is healthier than other bread types that are commonly consumed, such as

  18. Identification of bitter compounds in whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Deshou; Peterson, Devin G

    2013-11-15

    Bitterness in whole wheat bread can negatively influence product acceptability and consumption. The overall goal of this project was to identify the main bitter compounds in a commercial whole wheat bread product. Sensory-guided fractionation of the crust (most bitter portion of the bread sample) utilising liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, ultra-filtration and 2-D offline RPLC revealed multiple bitter compounds existed. The compounds with the highest bitterness intensities were selected and structurally elucidated based on accurate mass-TOF, MS/MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Eight bitter compounds were identified: Acortatarins A, Acortatarins C, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural(HMF), 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4(H)-pyran-4-one (DDMP), N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl)-l-tryptophan (ARP), Tryptophol (TRO), 2-(2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl-1H-pyrrole-1-yl)butanoic acid (PBA) and Tryptophan (TRP). Based on the structures of these compounds, two main mechanisms of bitterness generation in wheat bread were supported, fermentation and Maillard pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Making the Bread: Insights from Newly Synthesized Allohexaploid Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-li; Geng, Shuai-Feng; Zhang, Lian-quan; Liu, Deng-cai; Mao, Long

    2015-06-01

    Bread wheat (or common wheat, Triticum aestivum) is an allohexaploid (AABBDD, 2n = 6x = 42) that arose by hybridization between a cultivated tetraploid wheat T. turgidum (AABB, 2n = 4x = 28) and the wild goatgrass Aegilops tauschii (DD, 2n = 2x = 14). Polyploidization provided niches for rigorous genome modification at cytogenetic, genetic, and epigenetic levels, rendering a broader spread than its progenitors. This review summarizes the latest advances in understanding gene regulation mechanisms in newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat and possible correlation with polyploid growth vigor and adaptation. Cytogenetic studies reveal persistent association of whole-chromosome aneuploidy with nascent allopolyploids, in contrast to the genetic stability in common wheat. Transcriptome analysis of the euploid wheat shows that small RNAs are driving forces for homoeo-allele expression regulation via genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The ensuing non-additively expressed genes and those with expression level dominance to the respective progenitor may play distinct functions in growth vigor and adaptation in nascent allohexaploid wheat. Further genetic diploidization of allohexaploid wheat is not random. Regional asymmetrical gene distribution, rather than subgenome dominance, is observed in both synthetic and natural allohexaploid wheats. The combinatorial effects of diverged genomes, subsequent selection of specific gene categories, and subgenome-specific traits are essential for the successful establishment of common wheat. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term experiments as a platform for monitoring bread wheat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Ingrid K.

    2008-01-01

    Both winter wheat and spring wheat have the potential for producing grain of bread wheat quality under North European conditions. The two crops may due to their different growth length respond differently to previous use of green manure and to the soil organic matter content. To compare winter wheat and spring wheat for their ability to produce quality grain for bread production, both crops are included in a long-term experiment (LTE) at Askov Experimental Station. The LTE provides a unique p...

  1. The Effect of Different Zinc Application Methods on Yield and Grain Zinc Concentration of Bread Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatun Barut

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the impacts of zinc (Zn treatments on growth, development, quality and yield of commonly sown bread wheat cultivars under field conditions of Çukurova Region. Three different bread wheat cultivars (Adana-99, Ceyhan-99 and Pandas were experimented in randomized complete blocks-split plots experimental design with 3 replications. Field experiments were performed by two different Zn application methods; via soil and via soil+foliage. In the both trials, 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 kg ha-1 pure Zn doses were applied to the soil. 0.4% ZnSO4.7H2O solution was used for foliar Zn applications. Current findings revealed that Zn treatments had significant effects on grain yield, grain Zn concentration, grain phosphorus (P concentration and thousand grain weight of bread wheat cultivars, but significant effects were not observed on grain protein concentrations. Soil+foliar Zn treatments were more effective in improving grain Zn concentrations. It was concluded that 10- 20 kg ha-1 Zn treatment was quite effective on grain Zn concentrations.

  2. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w was evaluated in combination with high-methylated pectin (HM-pectin added at levels of 1 to 3% (w/w according to a full factorial design. Addition of pectin to cassava flour made it possible to bake bread with acceptable bread quality even at concentration as high as 40%. In addition to cassava concentration, the type of cassava flour had the biggest effect on bread quality. With high level of cassava, bread with roasted cassava had a higher volume compared with sun-dried and fermented. The pectin level had a significant effect on improving the volume in high level roasted cassava bread. Crumb firmness similar to wheat bread could be obtained with sun-dried and roasted cassava flours. Roasted cassava bread was the only bread with crust colour similar to wheat bread.

  3. Development and Characterization of Wheat Bread with Lupin Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Paula; Gonzaga, Marta; Batista, Luís; Beirão-Costa, Luísa; Guiné, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with good textural and sensorial characteristics. The product, a new type of bread, was prepared with wheat (90%) and lupin (10%) flours, without the addition of any conservatives. Several experiences were also done to find the most appropriate proportion of lupin flour. The optimized product was characterized considering the rheological, physical-che...

  4. Yr10 gene polymorphism in bread wheat varieties | Temel | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yr10 gene polymorphism in bread wheat varieties. A Temel, F Sentürk-Akfirat, F Ertugrul, A Yumurtaci, Y Aydýn, T Talas-Ogras, N Gözükirmizi, N Bolat, Ö Yorgancilar, S Belen, M Yildirim, M Çakmak, E Özdemir, L Çetin, Z Mert, H Sipahi, S Albustan, K Akan, F Düsünceli, AA Uncuoglu3 ...

  5. Effects of fat replacement on properties of whole wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bread characteristics are dependent upon the chemical composition and fiber content of the wheat flour used. A healthy diet can help prevent chronic diseases, where whole grains and fewer calories from fat are components of a healthy diet. The aims of this study were to determine the centesimal composition of wheat flour samples (whole, refined, and flour blends along with their farinographic parameters (water absorption, development time and stability and also to verify the specific volume, crumb texture profile and digital imaging of bread loaves made with 60% whole wheat flour and 3% fat or fat replacer. Increasing the whole wheat flour percentage in the blends also increased levels of protein, ash and insoluble fiber. All the farinographic parameters were also increased. Enzymatically modified starch was found to be an effective fat replacer in whole wheat loaves. The loaves made using fat replacer had the same specific volume and higher cell density as those made with fat, but exhibited different texture profile parameters such as higher hardness value and lower springiness value.

  6. Palatable and bio-functional wheat/rice products developed from pre-germinated brown rice of super-hard cultivar EM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Satoh, Hikaru; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2010-01-01

    It became possible to produce high-quality and bio-functional wheat/rice bread and wheat/rice noodles by blending, pre-germinated and cooked brown rice of a super-hard cultivar with wheat flour. Super-hard rice (SHR) is not suitable for table rice because of its low palatability. Nevertheless, it was found to be suitable as a blending material for bread-making or noodle-making due to its hard texture and high content of resistant starch. We developed a novel rapid germination method to improve the quality and to save the time needed for germination. By blending pre-germinated and cooked SHR (30% w/w on a dry basis) as a rice gel with wheat flour (70% w/w on a dry basis), the bread became very soft and any hardening after bread-making was markedly retarded. Similarly, blending pre-germinated and cooked SHR as cooked a rice gel with wheat flour gave high-quality noodles with a similar texture to that of durum semolina noodles. The resistant starch of the SHR-blended bread and noodles was also markedly increased. White waxy rice (9%) soaked and cooked with the pre-germinated brown rice of SHR (21%) produced a rice gel that was very useful as a material for bread-making and noodle-making by blending with wheat flour (70%) to prepare soft, tasty and bio-functional wheat/rice bread and wheat/rice noodles.

  7. Path Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components and Some Agronomic Traits in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new bread wheat cultivars needs efficient tools to monitor trait association in a breeding program. This investigation was aimed to characterize grain yield components and some agronomic traits related to bread wheat grain yield. The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between different traits and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to grain yield. Correlation and path analysis were carried out in 56 bread wheat genotypes grown under field conditions of Maragheh, Iran. Observations were recorded on 18 wheat traits and correlation coefficient analysis revealed grain yield was positively correlated with stem diameter, spike length, floret number, spikelet number, grain diameter, grain length and 1000 seed weight traits. According to the variance inflation factor (VIF and tolerance as multicollinearity statistics, there are inconsistent relationships among the variables and all traits could be considered as first-order variables (Model I with grain yield as the response variable due to low multicollinearity of all measured traits. In the path coefficient analysis, grain yield represented the dependent variable and the spikelet number and 1000 seed weight traits were the independent ones. Our results indicated that the number of spikelets per spikes and leaf width and 1000 seed weight traits followed by the grain length, grain diameter and grain number per spike were the traits related to higher grain yield. The above mentioned traits along with their indirect causal factors should be considered simultaneously as an effective selection criteria evolving high yielding genotype because of their direct positive contribution to grain yield.

  8. The pangenome of hexaploid bread wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Montenegro, J. D.; Golicz, A. A.; Bayer, P.E.; Hurgobin, B.; Lee, H. T.; Chan, C. K. K.; Visendi, P.; Lai, K.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Batley, J.; Edwards, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2017), s. 1007-1013 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : database * diversity * genome * pangenome * single nucleotide polymorphisms * Triticum aestivum * wheat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.901, year: 2016

  9. Changes in allelic frequency over time in European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties revealed using DArT and SSR markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orabi, Jihad; Jahoor, Ahmed; Backes, Gunter Martin

    2014-01-01

    the genetic diversity and allelic frequencies among the accessions based on spring- versus winter-wheat type as well as between landraces and cultivars. We also analyzed the changes in genetic diversity and allelic frequencies in these samples over time. We observed separation based on both vernalization type......A collection of 189 bread wheat landraces and cultivars, primarily of European origin, released between 1886 and 2009, was analyzed using two DNA marker systems. A set of 76 SSR markers and ~7,000 DArT markers distributed across the wheat genome were employed in these analyses. All of the SSR...... and release date. Interestingly, we detected a decrease in genetic diversity in wheat accessions released over the period from 1960 to 1980. However, our results also showed that modern plant breeding have succeeded in maintaining genetic diversity in modern wheat cultivars. Studying allelic frequencies using...

  10. Allelic variation of HMW glutenin subunits of Ethiopian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High molecular weight glutenins are often effective in identifying wheat (Triticum aestivum) genotypes with good baking quality. The high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition of Ethiopian cultivars and advanced lines was investigated to determine their influence on quality. Three alleles at Glu-A1, five at Glu-B1 ...

  11. Heterotic performance of quality characteristics of bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heterosis has made a significant contribution to the improvement of many crops regarding yield, quality and resistance to pests. The low wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) productivity in Lesotho has necessitated exploitation of heterosis in commercial cultivars. Heterotic performance of 38 F1 and F2 progenies from 5 x 5 diallel ...

  12. Characterization of Brazilian wheat cultivars for specific technological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional and technological properties of wheat depend on its chemical composition, which together with structural and microscopic characteristics, define flour quality. The aim of the present study was to characterize four Brazilian wheat cultivars (BRS Louro, BRS Timbauva, BRS Guamirim and BRS Pardela and their respective flours in order to indicate specific technological applications. Kernels were analyzed for test weight, thousand kernel weight, hardness, moisture, and water activity. Flours were analyzed for water activity, color, centesimal composition, total dietary fiber, amylose content and identification of high molecular weight glutenins. The rheological properties of the flours were estimated by farinography, extensography, falling number, rapid visco amylography, and glutomatic and glutork equipment. Baking tests and scanning electron microscopy were also performed. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and principal component analysis. BRS Timbauva and BRS Guamirim presented results that did not allow for specific technological application. On the other hand, BRS Louro presented suitable characteristics for the elaboration of products with low dough strength such as cakes, pies and biscuits, while BRS Pardela seemed suitable for bread and pasta products.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE WHIPPED BREAD WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT, RYE AND WHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of whipped bakery products enriched with dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins retinol, tocopherol, group, polyunsaturated fatty acids through the use of rye and wheat bran and flour of wholegrain wheat. The main raw material for enrichment whipped bakery products used wheat bran and rye. Choice of rye and wheat bran as supplementation prepared whipped bread is explained not only from the point of view of the rationality of the use of this secondary raw materials, but also its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Wheat bran contain the necessary man of b vitamins, including B1, B2, B6, PP and others. Found provitamin a (carotene and vitamin E (tocopherol. Bran is rich in mineral substances. Among them potassium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper, selenium and other trace elements. Thanks to this composition bran are essential dietary product. They are rich in insoluble fiber and can be useful to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. Rye bran contain dietary fiber, tocopherol E, thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Pantothenic acid B5, B4 (choline, nicotinic acid B3, etc. In the bran rich set of microelements and macroelements such as iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iodine, selenium, chromium, etc. the Introduction in the diet, bran rye contribute to the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes and anemia. They restore blood pressure, reduce blood sugar levels and improve the cardiovascular system. Flour from wholegrain wheat is the main supplier of bread protein and starch, while preserving the maximum of the original nutritional value of the grain, enriched whipped bread macro - and micronutrients. The analysis of the chemical composition of flour from wholegrain wheat, rye and wheat bran leads to the conclusion that the choice of these types of materials suitable for making the recipe whipped bakery products, because their use can increase the content in bread is not only the

  14. Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... Wheat cultivars capable of accumulating minerals under salt stress are of considerable interest for their potential to improve crop productivity and crop quality. This study addressed the role of antioxidative enzymes in the responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar Cang 6001 to high-salt stress compared to ...

  15. Identification of bitter compounds in whole wheat bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Qing; Peterson, Devin G

    2016-07-15

    Consumer acceptability of whole wheat foods is challenged by negative bitter flavour attributes. In this study, bitter compounds in whole wheat bread crumb were investigated. Utilising sensory-guided multi-dimensional fractionation techniques, the compounds with the highest bitterness intensity in the crumb were purified and identified by LC-MS-ToF and NMR techniques. The main bitter compounds were reported to be L-tryptophan, Wessely-Moser isomers apigenin-6-C-galactoside-8-C-arabinoside & apigenin-6-C-arabinoside-8-C-galactoside, and 9,12,13-trihydroxy-trans-10-octadecenoic acid (pinellic acid). Sensory recombination experiments of the bitter compounds formulated at the concentrations determined in expectorated saliva after bread mastication indicated pinellic acid had the greatest contribution to the bitterness perception of the crumb. Quantitative analysis of pinellic acid in the raw flour was reported to be inherently low compared to bread; the concentration increased more than 30-fold after flour hydration and baking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Supplementary data: Genetic diversity among old Portuguese bread ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data: Genetic diversity among old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars and botanical varieties evaluated by ITS rDNA PCR-RFLP markers. A. Carvalho, H. Guedes-Pinto and J. Lima-Brito. J. Genet. 88, 363–367. Table 1. Passport data of the old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars (2n = 6x = 42;. AABBDD).

  17. The effect of baking temperature and buckwheat flour addition on the selected properties of wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Selimović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wholegrain buckwheat flour was used to substitute 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wheat flour to make buckwheat enriched wheat bread. Proximate composition, sensory evaluation, total phenols content and antioxidant activity of buckwheat enriched wheat breads were analysed and compared with wheat bread. Wholegrain buckwheat flour contained higher total phenols than wheat flour. The incorporation of buckwheat flour from 15 % to 40 % in bread samples increased the total phenols content from 0.25 (mg GA/g d.m. sample to 0.65 (mg GA/g d.m. sample, and antioxidant activity from 208.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract to 354.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract. Total phenols content decreased during the baking process, while the antioxidant activity increased. Bread samples with 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wholegrain buckwheat flour showed lower lightness (L and whiteness index (WI values of crust and crumb colour compared to the wheat bread. Addition of buckwheat flour increased redness (a and yellowness (b colour values for crumb. Sensory results indicating that three breads with buckwheat flour were moderately acceptable. No differences were found in overall sensory attributes between buckwheat flour enriched bread samples with 15 % and wheat bread (control sample.

  18. Wheat bread biofortification with rootlets, a malting by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Deborah M; Kingston, Wilma; Jacob, Fritz; Titze, Jean; Arendt, Elke K; Zannini, Emanuele

    2013-08-15

    Barley rootlets, a malting by-product, are currently discarded or used as fodder. In this study, milled rootlets and Lactobacillus plantarum FST 1.7-fermented rootlets were incorporated into wheat bread. The objective was to formulate a high-nutrition alternative to wholemeal breads with improved technological attributes. Chemical analyses showed that rootlets contribute nutrients and bioactive compounds, including proteins, amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, dietary fibre, polyphenols and minerals. Rootlets are particularly rich in essential amino acids, especially lysine, the typically limiting essential amino acid of cereals. Additionally, rootlets offer potential dietary fibre health benefits such as protection against cardiovascular disease, cancers and digestive disorders. Breads prepared with a (fermented) rootlet inclusion level of up to 10% compared favourably with wholemeal breads from nutritive, technological and textural perspectives. Furthermore, they were well accepted by sensory panellists. Using rootlets as a food ingredient would have the added benefit of increasing this malting by-product's market value. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effectiveness of time of sowing and cultivar choice for managing climate change: wheat crop phenology and water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qunying; O'Leary, Garry; Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek

    2018-02-08

    Climate change (CC) presents a challenge for the sustainable development of wheat production systems in Australia. This study aimed to (1) quantify the impact of future CC on wheat grain yield for the period centred on 2030 from the perspectives of wheat phenology, water use and water use efficiency (WUE) and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of changing sowing times and cultivars in response to the expected impacts of future CC on wheat grain yield. The daily outputs of CSIRO Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model for baseline and future periods were used by a stochastic weather generator to derive changes in mean climate and in climate variability and to construct local climate scenarios, which were then coupled with a wheat crop model to achieve the two research aims. We considered three locations in New South Wales, Australia, six times of sowing (TOS) and three bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in this study. Simulation results show that in 2030 (1) for impact analysis, wheat phenological events are expected to occur earlier and crop water use is expected to decrease across all cases (the combination of three locations, six TOS and three cultivars), wheat grain yield would increase or decrease depending on locations and TOS; and WUE would increase in most of the cases; (2) for adaptation considerations, the combination of TOS and cultivars with the highest yield varied across locations. Wheat growers at different locations will require different strategies in managing the negative impacts or taking the opportunities of future CC.

  20. Genome-Wide Association of Stem Water Soluble Carbohydrates in Bread Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    Full Text Available Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC in stems play an important role in buffering grain yield in wheat against biotic and abiotic stresses; however, knowledge of genes controlling WSC is very limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS using a high-density 90K SNP array to better understand the genetic basis underlying WSC, and to explore marker-based breeding approaches. WSC was evaluated in an association panel comprising 166 Chinese bread wheat cultivars planted in four environments. Fifty two marker-trait associations (MTAs distributed across 23 loci were identified for phenotypic best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs, and 11 MTAs were identified in two or more environments. Liner regression showed a clear dependence of WSC BLUE scores on numbers of favorable (increasing WSC content and unfavorable alleles (decreasing WSC, indicating that genotypes with higher numbers of favorable or lower numbers of unfavorable alleles had higher WSC content. In silico analysis of flanking sequences of trait-associated SNPs revealed eight candidate genes related to WSC content grouped into two categories based on the type of encoding proteins, namely, defense response proteins and proteins triggered by environmental stresses. The identified SNPs and candidate genes related to WSC provide opportunities for breeding higher WSC wheat cultivars.

  1. Genome-Wide Association of Stem Water Soluble Carbohydrates in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Liu, Jindong; Zhang, Yan; Geng, Hongwei; Rasheed, Awais; Xiao, Yonggui; Cao, Shuanghe; Fu, Luping; Yan, Jun; Wen, Weie; Zhang, Yong; Jing, Ruilian; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in stems play an important role in buffering grain yield in wheat against biotic and abiotic stresses; however, knowledge of genes controlling WSC is very limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a high-density 90K SNP array to better understand the genetic basis underlying WSC, and to explore marker-based breeding approaches. WSC was evaluated in an association panel comprising 166 Chinese bread wheat cultivars planted in four environments. Fifty two marker-trait associations (MTAs) distributed across 23 loci were identified for phenotypic best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs), and 11 MTAs were identified in two or more environments. Liner regression showed a clear dependence of WSC BLUE scores on numbers of favorable (increasing WSC content) and unfavorable alleles (decreasing WSC), indicating that genotypes with higher numbers of favorable or lower numbers of unfavorable alleles had higher WSC content. In silico analysis of flanking sequences of trait-associated SNPs revealed eight candidate genes related to WSC content grouped into two categories based on the type of encoding proteins, namely, defense response proteins and proteins triggered by environmental stresses. The identified SNPs and candidate genes related to WSC provide opportunities for breeding higher WSC wheat cultivars.

  2. Effect of Vitamin C Addition on some Quality Aspects of Wheat Bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The effect of vitamin C addition on some quality aspects of wheat bread was evaluated. Subjects/Materials and Methods: Wheat bread was produced using the straight dough method with addition of varying quantities of vitamin C (between 0.05 to 0.40g) as an improver, with the sample without vitamin C serving ...

  3. Fibre fortification of wheat bread: impact on mineral composition and bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Zita E; Pinto, Edgar; Almeida, Agostinho A; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2017-05-24

    In this work, wheat bread was fortified with fibre enriched extracts recovered from agroindustry by-products, namely, elderberry skin, pulp and seeds (EE); orange peel (OE); pomegranate peel and interior membranes (PE); and spent yeast (YE). The impact of this fortification on the total and bioaccessible mineral composition of wheat breads, estimated mineral daily intake, and the relationship between bioaccessibility and dietary fibre was evaluated. Fortification with OE, EE, and PE improved the content of essential minerals in bread when compared to control bread. The exception was bread fortified with YE, which presented a mineral content similar to control bread, but its mineral bioaccessibility was significantly higher than in all the other bread formulations. The opposite was observed for PE bread, which presented a significant reduction of bioaccessible minerals. We concluded that the origin of the fibre rich extract must be carefully selected, to avoid potential negative impact on mineral bioaccessibility.

  4. Evaluation of Wheat and Barley Cultivars Tolerance to Metribuzine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi Darbandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of barely and wheat cultivars tolerance to metribuzin, a factorial experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design, with three replications in Greenhouse of Agricultural Research at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments included wheat cultivars (Backcross roshan, Cross Arvand, Bahar, Sepahan, Gascosion, Sayonez, Bam garmsiry, Garmsiri, Ghods, Pishtaz, Chamran and Shoori 6, barely cultivars (Macouyi, Karoon and Bahman and metribuzin application rates ( 0, 175, 350, 700, 1050, 1400 and 2100 gr. ai.ha-1. Metribuzine was applied at 3-4 leaf stage and 3 weeks after herbicide spraying, plants survival and their biomass were determined. Results showed that metribuzin application had a significant effect (p≤0.01 on barley and wheat dry weight. Based on results, mertibuzin application did not affect on barley cultivars up to 30 g.a.i.ha-1 but in wheat varieties lead to significant reduction in their biomass and survival. Increasing of metribuzin rates reduced wheat and barley cultivars biomass (p≤0.01. Barely varieties were less sensitive than wheat cultivars to metribuzine. The highest and the lowest ED50 in wheat cultivars were observed in cross arvand (940 and shoori (25 varieties, respectively. In barley cultivars the highest and lowest ED50 were observed in Macouyi (614 and Karoon (396, respectively.

  5. Anthocyanins in purple and blue wheat grains and in resulting bread: quantity, composition, and thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Pavel; Albreht, Alen; Skrt, Mihaela; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Ošťádalová, Martina; Šmejkal, Karel; Vovk, Irena; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition of blue (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Skorpion) and purple wheat (Triticum aethiopicum JAKUBZ cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta), cultivated in the Czech Republic, and of the prepared whole blue and purple wheat bread was determined. In blue and purple wheat, 19 and 26 anthocyanins, respectively, were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total content of anthocyanins determined in blue and purple wheat was 9.26 and 13.23 mgkg(-1), respectively. The breads were baked at 240 and 180 °C. Some significant differences in anthocyanins content were observed between breads prepared at different baking temperatures. The content of cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside was determinated in starting material, whole meal flours and baked breads. These kinds of wheat are suitable for baking bread, since intake of anthocyanins may play an important role in the prevention of human diseases.

  6. Mineral nutrition as a factor of stability of technological quality in winter wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Veselinka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Afield trial was carried out with eight cultivars (Libellula, Drina, Sremica NSR-2, Jugoslavija, Somborka, Lasta and Pobeda of winter wheat (Trticum aestivum L representing several different periods in our country's wheat selection and having different potentials for technological grain quality. Six different rates of nitrogen fertilizer were tested: 0, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 kgNha-1. Increasing N fertilizer rates resulted in a linear increase of the direct and indirect indicators of quality. The best results were obtained with the cultivar Sremica and the poorest with Lasta, while Jugoslavija and Pobeda were shown to be of approximately the same quality. The contribution of N fertilizer variance to total variance was the largest for protein content (43.7%. N nutrition had a greater influence on protein content in cultivars from the earlier periods of selection. Its effect on sedimentation value, on the other hand, was greater in the recently released cultivars. The contribution of the genetic factor to total variance was the highest for crumb value number (CVN (58.7% and bread volume yield (44.2% and the lowest for protein content (20.8%. The absence of significant differences in the CVN means at any of the N nutrition levels studied resulted from the variability of the indirect indicators closely linked with the direct indicators of baking quality, showing the importance of N nutrition for maintaining the stability of technological quality in winter wheat cultivars.

  7. 100-year history of the development of bread winter wheat breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. А. Литвиненко

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Review of the main achievements of the Wheat Breeding and Seed ProductionDepartment in the Plant Breeding and Genetic Institute – National Centre of Seed and Cultivar Investigation in the developing theoretical principles of breeding and creation of winter wheat varieties of different types during 100-year (1916–2016 period of breeding programs realization. Results. The main theoretical, methodical developments and breeding achievements of Wheat Breeding and Seed Production Department during 100-year (1916–2016 history have been considered. In the course of the Department activity, the research and metho­dology grounds of bread winter wheat breeding and seed production have been laid, 9 stages of breeding programs development have been accomplished. As a result, more than 130 varieties of different types have been created, 87 of them have been released in some periods or registered in the State registers of plants varieties of Ukraine and other countries and grown in the total sowing area about 220 million hectares.

  8. Making bread with sourdough improves mineral bioavailability from reconstituted whole wheat flour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Hubert W; Duclos, Virgile; Coudray, Charles; Krespine, Virginie; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Messager, Arnaud; Demigné, Christian; Rémésy, Christian

    2003-06-01

    We compared the effects of different kinds of bread fermentation on mineral bioavailability. Wistar rats were fed one of the following experimental diets for 21 d: control, reconstituted whole wheat flour (white flour plus bran), yeast bread, and sourdough bread. The apparent mineral absorption and intestinal fermentation were measured in each animal. Phytate contents in yeast and sourdough bread were lower than in reconstituted whole wheat flour (-52% and -71%, respectively). Total cecal pool of short-chain fatty acids, in particular the butyrate pool, was significantly increased by the ingestion of unrefined products. Calcium homeostasis was not modified by these nutritional conditions, whereas magnesium absorption was significantly greater in rats fed the control and sourdough diets than in those consuming whole wheat flour and yeast bread. Magnesium kidney excretion was slightly stimulated by sourdough bread. Compared with the control diet, iron balance was significantly reduced by reconstituted whole wheat flour diet. Yeast bread making counteracted the deleterious effects of whole wheat on iron absorption, whereas sourdough bread making enhanced iron absorption. Further, liver and plasma iron and transferrin saturation levels were lower in rats adapted to the flour diet than in other groups. Zinc absorption was strongly depressed in the presence of unprocessed reconstituted whole wheat flour in the diet, but yeast fermentation afforded a zinc assimilation comparable to the control diet, whereas the sourdough bread led to maximal zinc absorption. Copper absorption increased significantly when rats were fed the sourdough bread, whereas unprocessed whole flour depressed copper absorption (-41% versus control diet). Mineral bioavailability from reconstituted whole wheat flour can be improved by bread making. Although yeast fermentation minimizes the unfavorable effects of phytic acid, sourdough bread is a better source of available minerals, especially magnesium

  9. Structural and functional partitioning of bread wheat chromosome 3B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choulet, Frédéric; Alberti, Adriana; Theil, Sébastien; Glover, Natasha; Barbe, Valérie; Daron, Josquin; Pingault, Lise; Sourdille, Pierre; Couloux, Arnaud; Paux, Etienne; Leroy, Philippe; Mangenot, Sophie; Guilhot, Nicolas; Le Gouis, Jacques; Balfourier, Francois; Alaux, Michael; Jamilloux, Véronique; Poulain, Julie; Durand, Céline; Bellec, Arnaud; Gaspin, Christine; Safar, Jan; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Rogers, Jane; Vandepoele, Klaas; Aury, Jean-Marc; Mayer, Klaus; Berges, Hélène; Quesneville, Hadi; Wincker, Patrick; Feuillet, Catherine

    2014-07-18

    We produced a reference sequence of the 1-gigabase chromosome 3B of hexaploid bread wheat. By sequencing 8452 bacterial artificial chromosomes in pools, we assembled a sequence of 774 megabases carrying 5326 protein-coding genes, 1938 pseudogenes, and 85% of transposable elements. The distribution of structural and functional features along the chromosome revealed partitioning correlated with meiotic recombination. Comparative analyses indicated high wheat-specific inter- and intrachromosomal gene duplication activities that are potential sources of variability for adaption. In addition to providing a better understanding of the organization, function, and evolution of a large and polyploid genome, the availability of a high-quality sequence anchored to genetic maps will accelerate the identification of genes underlying important agronomic traits. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Calidad panadera de nuevos genotipos de trigo pan Bread-making quality of new genotypes of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Dubois

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la calidad panadera de los dos mejores genotipos de trigo pan obtenidos por selección recurrente por rendimiento (C1-00-83 y C3-00-42 y seis cultivares comerciales, cultivados en la región semiárida central argentina. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente aleatorizado con cuatro repeticiones. Se determinó peso hectolítrico, peso de mil semillas, contenido proteico, rendimiento en harina, gluten húmedo, parámetros alveográficos y panificación experimental. Las variables de calidad del genotipo C3-00-42 corresponden a un trigo de gran fuerza, muy tenaz, alta absorción de agua y buen volumen de pan, por consiguiente puede usarse como corrector de harinas débiles o para elaboraciones que requieran trigos fuertes. El genotipo C1-00-83 presentó los mejores valores de proteína, gluten y volumen del pan de todos los analizados, conjuntamente con un alto rendimiento en harina y gluten muy fuerte y bastante equilibrado. Los dos nuevos genotipos presentan excelentes características panaderas y ofrecen calidades industriales diferenciales.The bread- making quality of the two best genotypes of bread wheat obtained by recurrent selection by yield (C1-00-83 and C3-00-42 vs. six commercial cultivars from the Argentine central semiarid region were evaluated. A completely randomized block design with 4 repetitions was utilized. The parameters measured were: test weight, thousand kernel weight, grain proteins, yield flour, gluten test, alveograph parameters and baking test. The quality parameters of the C3-00-42 genotype corresponded to very tenacious strong gluten, with high water absorption and which produces good loaf volume. Therefore, it can be used to compensate weaker flours or to manufacture products that require strong wheat. The C1-00-83 genotype presented high yield in flour, very strong and almost balanced gluten and the best values in protein content, gluten and loaf volume of all those Trianalyzed. The two new

  11. Constipation is relieved more by rye bread than wheat bread or laxatives without increased adverse gastrointestinal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holma, Reetta; Hongisto, Sanna-Maria; Saxelin, Maija; Korpela, Riitta

    2010-03-01

    Rye bread and lactobacilli modify the colonic environment and have the potential to relieve constipation and could be a safe and convenient alternative to laxatives. The effects of rye bread and cultured buttermilk with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on bowel function and colon metabolism were investigated and compared with laxatives in 51 constipated adults. They were randomized to receive whole-grain rye bread (minimum 240 g/d), LGG (2 x 10(10) colony-forming units/d), whole-grain rye bread (minimum 240 g/d) + LGG (2 x 10(10) colony-forming units/d), white wheat bread (maximum 192 g/d), or laxatives (as usual for a participant) for 3 wk. Participants recorded their dietary habits, bowel function, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Fecal weight, pH, SCFA and bacterial enzyme activities, total intestinal transit time (TITT), and breath hydrogen were determined. Rye bread, compared with white wheat bread, shortened TITT by 23% (P = 0.040), increased weekly defecations by 1.4 (P = 0.014), softened feces [odds ratio (OR) 3.98; P = 0.037], eased defecation (OR 5.08; P = 0.018), increased fecal acetic acid and butyric acid contents by 24% (P = 0.044) and 63% (P bread reduced TITT by 41% (P = 0.006), fecal beta-glucuronidase activity by 38% (P = 0.033), and fecal pH by 0.31 units (P = 0.006). LGG did not relieve constipation or significantly affect colonic metabolism. Gastrointestinal adverse effects did not significantly differ among the study groups. In conclusion, rye bread relieves mild constipation and improves colonic metabolism compared with white wheat bread and commonly used laxatives without increasing gastrointestinal adverse effects.

  12. Genetic diversity and structure found in samples of Eritrean bread wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desta, Zeratsion Abera; Orabi, Jihad; Jahoor, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity and structure plays a key role in the selection of parents for crosses in plant breeding programmes. The aim of the present study was to analyse the genetic diversity and structure of Eritrean bread wheat accessions. We analysed 284 wheat accessions from Eritrea using 30 simple...... major groups. This is the first report of the genetic diversity and structure of Eritrean bread wheat....

  13. Production of wheat bread without preservatives using sourdough starters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkova, Rositsa; Ilieva, Svetla; Denkova, Zapryana; Georgieva, Ljubka; Yordanova, Mariya; Nikolova, Dilyana; Evstatieva, Yana

    2014-01-01

    In order for the beneficial effects of sourdough application in breadmaking to take place a proper selection of lactic acid bacteria species and strains, an appropriate technology and effective control of the purity and activity of the selected cultures. Four symbiotic starters for sourdough for the production of bread were developed and probated in a production laboratory using the selected strains Lactobacillus brevis LBRZ7, L. buchneri LBRZ6, L. plantarum X2, L. paracasei RN5, L. sanfranciscensis R and L. fermentum LBRH10 and the probiotic strain Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii NBIMCC 327. The starter sourdoughs that include Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii NBIMCC 327 had greater antimicrobial activity against saprophytic microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, B. mesentericus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp., but none of them inhibited the growth of bakery yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was established that in order to prevent bacterial spoilage 10% of the selected starter sourdoughs had to be added in the breadmaking process, while for prevention of mold spoilage the necessary amount of starter sourdough had to be between 15% and 20%.The application of the developed starters for the production of wheat bread guarantees longer shelf life and no adverse alterations in the features of the final bread. PMID:26019574

  14. Comparative Evaluation of the Nutritional and Sensory Quality of Major Commercial Whole-wheat Breads in Nigerian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Ndife; James Obiegbunna; Simeon Ajayi

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the nutritional, microbial and sensory profile of regularly consumed commercial whole wheat breads in Nigeria in order to offer an insight into the overall quality of these foods. Four major local brands of commercial whole wheat breads (samples A, B, C and D) were evaluated. The normal white bread (sample E) served as control. Results of the physical properties obtained, showed that the white bread (sample E) had higher values for bread volume (2850 cm3 ), specific volume ...

  15. Evaluation of the Effect of Crop Rotations on Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Darya)

    OpenAIRE

    H. A. Fallahi; U. Mahmadyarov; H. Sabouri; M. Ezat-Ahmadi4

    2013-01-01

    Grain yield in wheat is influenced directly and indirectly by other plant characteristics. One of the main goals in wheat breeding programs is increase of grain yield. Considering the role of crop rotation in increasing grain yield, and in order to study the difference between crop rotations for wheat yield and yield components (Darya cultivar), an experiment was conducted with six rotation treatments (wheat-chickpea-wheat, wheat-cotton-wheat, wheat-watermelon-wheat, wheat-wheat-wheat, wheat-...

  16. Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agundez-Arvizu, Z. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Fernandez-Ramirez, M.V. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Arce-Corrales, M.E. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Cruz-Zaragoza, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares-UNAM, A.P. 70-543, Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico); Melendrez, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico); Chernov, V. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico); Barboza-Flores, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico)]. E-mail: mbarboza@cajeme.cifus.uson.mx

    2006-04-15

    Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage, insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.0 kGy using a {sup 6}C Gammabeam 651 PT irradiator facility. No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. Slight radiation effects were observed in the alveogram values and farinograph properties; the falling number decreased 11%, the absorption as well as the mixing tolerance were practically unchanged by irradiation. An increase of 15% in the stability value and a 29% in the dough development time were observed. Also the deformation energy decreased 7% with no change at all in the tenacity/extensibility factor. Total aerobic, yeast and mold counts were reduced 96%, 25% and 75%; respectively by the irradiation process. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties.

  17. Effects of Boron Fertilization on the Yield and Some Yield Components of Bread and Durum Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNEŞ, Aydın; ALPASLAN, Mehmet; İNAL, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse and a 1-year field study were conducted during the cropping season on the effects of B on yield and some yield components of bread (Triticum aestivum L, cv. Bezostaja) and durum (Triticum durum L. cv. Kiziltan) wheat cultivars in a B-deficient soil (0.68 mg kg-1, NH4OAc extractable). Boron was applied as H3BO3 at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mg B kg-1 in the greenhouse study and 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 kg B ha-1 in the field study. Shoot dry weights of Bezostaja and Kizilt...

  18. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Refined and Whole Wheat Flour and Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lilei; Nanguet, Anne-Laure; Beta, Trust

    2013-11-26

    Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were employed to determine the content of ethanol extractable phenolic compounds. HPLC was used to detect the presence of phenolic acids prior to their confirmation using LC-MS/MS. Whole wheat flour showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than refined flour (p bread-making process with the TPC of whole wheat bread (1.50-1.65 mg/g) and white bread (0.79-1.03 mg/g) showing a respective reduction of 28% and 33% of the levels found in whole wheat and refined flour. Similarly, baking decreased DPPH radical scavenging capacity by 32% and 30%. ORAC values, however, indicated that baking increased the antioxidant activities of whole wheat and refined flour by 1.8 and 2.9 times, respectively. HPLC analysis showed an increase of 18% to 35% in ferulic acid after baking to obtain whole and refined wheat bread containing 330.1 and 25.3 µg/g (average), respectively. Whole wheat flour and bread were superior to refined flour and bread in in vitro antioxidant properties.

  19. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Refined and Whole Wheat Flour and Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilei Yu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC were employed to determine the content of ethanol extractable phenolic compounds. HPLC was used to detect the presence of phenolic acids prior to their confirmation using LC-MS/MS. Whole wheat flour showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than refined flour (p < 0.05. There was a significant effect of the bread-making process with the TPC of whole wheat bread (1.50–1.65 mg/g and white bread (0.79–1.03 mg/g showing a respective reduction of 28% and 33% of the levels found in whole wheat and refined flour. Similarly, baking decreased DPPH radical scavenging capacity by 32% and 30%. ORAC values, however, indicated that baking increased the antioxidant activities of whole wheat and refined flour by 1.8 and 2.9 times, respectively. HPLC analysis showed an increase of 18% to 35% in ferulic acid after baking to obtain whole and refined wheat bread containing 330.1 and 25.3 µg/g (average, respectively. Whole wheat flour and bread were superior to refined flour and bread in in vitro antioxidant properties.

  20. Responses of Six Wheat Cultivars to Terminal Water Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Behrozi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the morpho-physiological and biochemical responses of six wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars to late season water deficit stress, this experiment was carried out in controlled conditions at College of Agriculture of Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran during 2013-14. The experimental treatments were water deficit (50 and 100% F.C. and wheat cultivars (Sirvan, Chamran, Shiraz, Marvdasht, Hamoun, Pishtaz. The results showed that water deficit significantly reduced flag leaf area (7.23%, number of grains per spike (17.37%, 1000 grain weight (20.88%, grain yield (17.73%, biological yield (15%, and harvest index (10.75% and increased the chlorophyll content (14.48% in all wheat cultivars. Significant differences were found in physiological responses among wheat cultivars. Under water deficit stress, Sirvan and Chamran cultivars had significantly higher growth and yield compared to other wheat cultivars. Water stress increased the activity of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and this increase was significantly higher in Sirvan and Chamran cultivars. It could be concluded that in Sirvan and Chamran cultivars the increased antioxidants activities led to the partial amelioration of the adverse effects of water deficit, resulting in greater grain yield and yield components, compared to the remaining genotypes.

  1. Nudging children towards whole wheat bread: a field experiment on the influence of fun bread roll shape on breakfast consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Kleef, van, J.; Vrijhof, M.N.; Polet, I.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Wijk, van, C.A.Ph.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many children do not eat enough whole grains, which may have negative health consequences. Intervention research is increasingly focusing on nudging as a way to influence food choices by affecting unconscious behavioural processes. The aim of this field study was to examine whether the shape of bread rolls is able to shift children’s bread choices from white to whole wheat during breakfast to increase whole grain intake. Methods: In a between-subjects experiment conducted at twelv...

  2. Wheat bread enrichment with hard-to-cook bean extruded flours: nutritional and acceptance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Karla A; Prudêncio, Sandra H; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the enrichment of wheat bread with hard-to-cook black bean (BBEF) and cowpea (CEF) extruded flours. Breads containing 10% BBEF and 10% CEF presented increase of, respectively, 9% and 10% in protein content. In addition the fiber content was 2.6 higher in 10% BBEF bread and 2.2 higher in 10% CEF bread in comparison with standard bread. Despite protein and fiber increasing, the energetic value of substituted breads remained unchanged. An increase in the substitution to 15% resulted in decrease of specific volume and density of the breads. Results of sensory analysis to 10% BBEF bread presented overall appearance scores higher than standard bread and overall flavor acceptance very similar to standard. A total of 10% CEF bread presented similar appearance to those standard bread and 73% overall flavor acceptance. It is interesting to point out that distribution of 10% CEF bread overall flavor scores showed 3 distinct levels of consumer's sensibility. Practical Application: Breads enriched with extruded bean flours presented fiber and protein content improved and a very good consumer's acceptance. These results indicate that extruded bean flours constitute ingredients nutritionally and economically viable for technological application in breads elaboration, conferring improvement of nutritional characteristics without changing sensory attributes.

  3. Cultivar variations in cadmium and lead accumulation and distribution among 30 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weitao; Liang, Lichen; Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, heavy metal pollution in agricultural soil in China has received public concern. The concept of low-accumulation cultivars (LACs) was proposed to minimize the influx of pollutants to the human food chain. Variations in Cd and Pb accumulation, distribution, and tolerance among 30 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were studied in a hydroponic experiment to preliminary identify LACs of Cd or Pb for further field experiments. Of the 30 wheat cultivars tested, 27 and 26 wheat cultivars showed no effect of the Cd/Pb treatments on the shoot and root biomass, respectively. The results showed that the tested wheat cultivars had considerable tolerance to Cd and Pb toxicity. Significant (p experiments.

  4. Evaluating spring wheat cultivars for drought tolerance through yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating spring wheat cultivars for drought tolerance through yield and physiological parameters at booting and anthesis. MJ Baloch, Jim Dunwell, Mike Dennet, Zia ul-hassan, I Rajpar, Wajid Ali Jatoi, NF Veesar ...

  5. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Bread and Durum Wheat Using Freshly Isolated Immature Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huixia; Doherty, Angela; Jones, Huw D.

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat is becoming a viable alternative to the more established biolistic protocols. It offers advantages in terms of simple, low-copy-number integrations and can be applied with similar efficiencies to specific durum wheat and spring and winter bread wheat types varieties.

  6. Whole wheat bread: Effect of bran fractions on dough and end-product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of whole-wheat based products is encouraged due to its important nutritional elements that beneficial to human health. However, processing of whole-wheat based products, such as whole-wheat bread, results in poor end-product quality. Bran was postulated as the major problem. In this stud...

  7. The Impact of Novel Fermented Products Containing Extruded Wheat Material on the Quality of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Vaiciulyte-Funk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei MI806, Pediococcus pentosaceus MI810 and Pediococcus acidilactici MI807, able to produce bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, were originally isolated from Lithuanian spontaneous rye sourdough and adapted in the novel fermentation medium containing extruded wheat material. The novel fermented products (50 and 65 % moisture content were stored at the temperatures used in bakeries (15 days at 30–35 °C in the summer period or 20 days under refrigeration conditions at 0–6 °C. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was determined during the storage of fermented products for 15–20 days. Furthermore, the effect of novel fermented products stored under different conditions on wheat bread quality was examined. Extruded wheat material was found to have a higher positive effect on LAB growth compared to the control medium by lowering the reduction of LAB populations in fermented products with the extension of storage time and increase of temperature. During storage, lower variation and lower decrease in LAB count were measured in the novel fermented products with a moisture content of 65 % compared to those with 50 %. Furthermore, this humidity allows for the production of a product with higher moisture content in continuous production processes. The addition of the new fermented products with 65 % humidity to the wheat bread recipe (10 % of the quantity of flour had a significant effect on bread quality: it increased the acidity of the crumb and specific volume of the bread, and decreased the fractal dimension of the crumb pores and crumb firmness. Based on the microbiological investigations of fermented products during storage and baking tests, the conditions of LAB cultivation in novel fermentation media were optimized (time of cultivation approx. 20 days at 0–6 °C and approx. 10 days at 30–35 °C.

  8. Defatted Soy Flour Supplementation of Wheat Bread ameliorates Blood Chemistry and Oxidative Stress in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuehi, O A T; Okafor, H K

    2015-01-01

    Bread is a convenience food made from wheat flour, which is derived from wheat and whose technology of which dates back to the ancient Egyptians. It is therefore of economic advantage if wheat importation to Nigeria can be reduced by substitution with other suitable materials. This led to the whole idea of composite flour, which is a mixture of wheat with other materials to form suitable flour for baking'purposes. The study is to ascertain the effect of supplementation of bread with defatted soy flour on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Wheat flour mixed with high quality defatted Soy flour at several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40. The 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40 flour mixtures were used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% Soya bread, respectively. The control bread (100%) was prepared with 100% wheat flour. Bread produced with these blends compared with regular 100% wheat bread and was tested for chemical and. organoleptic characteristics. Sixteen rats were randomly given codes and allocated to 2 different groups via tables with random numbers to feed on the 100% wheat blend and soy supplemented bread (90% wheat flour/10% soy flour) for 28 days. The weights and feedintake of the rats were computed on dailybasis. Blood was taken for biochemical assays and liver was used for antioxidant assay, that is activities of catalase, super oxider dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathine level. The activities of serum SOD and catalase were significantly increase (pbread as compared to the control, (wheat bread) and a significant decrease (pbread as compared to the control. There was a significant decrease (pbread.

  9. Effect of boron on growth criteria of some wheat cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Metwally; Rasha El-Shazoly; Afaf Mohamed Hamada

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Toxic soil concentrations of the essential micronutrient boron (B) represent major limitations to crop production worldwide. Plants have a range of defense systems that might be involved in their affinity to resist and tolerate nutrients stress.Materials and methods: The experiments were carried out to study the differential responses in five wheat cultivars to boron toxicity. Results: The fresh and dry matter yield of the test wheat cultivars showed marked decrease as the conc...

  10. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) Pulp
as a Functional Food Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Dziki, Dariusz; Jakubczyk, Anna; Karaś, Monika; Różyło, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Summary In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20% (converted to dry matter) caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory characteristics of the bread showed that a partial replacement of wheat flour with up to 10% of pumpkin pulp gave satisfactory results. The taste, aroma and overall acceptability of control bread and bread containing 5 or 10% of pulp had the highest degree of liking. The addition of higher levels of pumpkin pulp caused an unpleasant aroma and taste. Pumpkin pulp is a good material to complement the bread with potentially bioaccessible phenolics (including flavonoids) and, especially, with peptides. The highest antioxidant activity was observed, in most cases, of the samples with added 10 and 15% of pumpkin pulp. The addition of the pulp significantly enriched the bread with potentially bioaccessible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. The highest activity was determined in the bread with 15 and 20% pumpkin pulp. ACE inhibitors from the tested bread were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Pumpkin pulp seems to be a valuable source of active compounds to complement the wheat bread. Adding the pulp directly to the wheat flour gives satisfactory baking results and reduces the cost of production. Additionally, pumpkin pulp is sometimes treated as waste material after the acquisition of seeds, thus using it as bread supplement also has environmental and economic benefits. Key words: pumpkin, bread, texture, antioxidants, bioaccessibility in vitro, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition PMID:27904316

  11. Stem rust seedling resistance genes in Ethiopian wheat cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the major biotic limiting factors for wheat production in Ethiopia. Host plant resistance is the best option to manage stem rust from its economic and environmental points of view. Wheat cultivars are released for production without carrying race specific tests against ...

  12. stem rust seedling resistance genes in ethiopian wheat cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the major biotic limiting factors for wheat production in Ethiopia. Host plant resistance is the best option to manage stem rust from its economic and environmental points of view. Wheat cultivars are released for production without carrying race specific tests against ...

  13. The effect of a default-based nudge on the choice of whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Seijdell, Karen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2018-02-01

    Consumer choices are often influenced by the default option presented. This study examines the effect of whole wheat bread as a default option in a sandwich choice situation. Whole wheat bread consists of 100% whole grain and is healthier than other bread types that are commonly consumed, such as brown or white bread. A pilot survey (N = 291) examined the strength of combinations of toppings and bread type as carrier to select stimuli for the main study. In the main experimental study consisting of a two (bread type) by two (topping type) between-subjects design, participants (N = 226) were given a free sandwich at a university stand with either a relatively unhealthy deep-fried snack (croquette) or a healthy topping. About half of the participants were offered a whole wheat bun unless they asked for white bun, and the other half were offered a white bun unless they asked for a whole wheat bun. Regardless of the topping, the results show that when the whole wheat bun was the default option, 108 out of 115 participants (94%) decided to stick with this default option. When the default of bread offered was white, 89 out of 111 participants (80%) similarly chose to stick with this default. Across conditions, participants felt equally free to make a choice. The attractiveness of and willingness to pay for the sandwich were not affected by default type of bread. This study demonstrated a strong default effect of bread type. This clearly shows the benefit of steering consumers towards a healthier bread choice, by offering healthier default bread at various locations such as restaurants, schools and work place canteens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rheology of Potato flour Mixes and Wheat to Make Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Fernando Sacón-Vera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluate the rheological properties of flour mixes Ipomoea batata and Triticum vulgare for the preparation of bread dough, was the goal of this research for it a completely randomized design, as treatments sweet potato flour was used varieties are used: Toquecita, Guayaco Purple, Purple Ecuador, Brazil and Ina Purple in a 30/70 ratio (sweet potato flour / wheat flour respectively. The rheological variables: water absorption, development time, weakening of the dough stability, water absorption index (C1, mixing rate (C2, gluten strength index (C3, gel viscosity (C4, resistance index amylase (C5 and starch retro gradation index (C6 were evaluated with Mixolab equipment. The results showed that the variety Purple Brazil showed better characteristics of flours recommended premixes for the baking process in response to these indices

  15. Genetic control of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zine El Abidine Fellahi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nine bread wheat genotypes were crossed under a partial diallel scheme, in which group 1 counted five lines and group 2 four lines. The 20 F1 ’s and their parents were evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replications at the Field Crop Institute-Agricultural Experimental Station of Setif (Algeria during the 2011/2012 cropping season. The results showed that the components associated with additive effects were more relevant than those associated with the dominance effects for these traits. Based on the KD /KR ratio, the dominant alleles are present in greater frequency in the first group of parents, while the opposite is true for the second group. Values of the gene proportion with positive and negative effects in the parents revealed an unequal distribution of dominant genes in the parents for almost all the traits except for number of grain per spike in the second group which showed an equal distribution.

  16. Optimization of Bread Preparation from Wheat Flour and Malted Rice Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subajiny VELUPPILLAI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of partially replacing wheat flour with malted rice flour in bread making was evaluated in several formulations, aiming to find a formulation for the production of malted rice-wheat bread with better nutritional quality and consumer acceptance. The whole grains of a local rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica var. Mottaikaruppan were steeped in distilled water (12 h, 30°C and germinated for 3 days to obtain high content of soluble materials and amylase activity in bread making. The quality of bread was evaluated by considering the physical and sensorial parameters. When the wheat flour was substituted with malted rice flour, 35% substitution level and the malted rice flour from 3 days of germination was the best according to the physical and sensory qualities of bread. The quality of bread was improved by the addition of 20 g of margarine, 20 g of baking powder and 20 g of yeast in 1 kg of flour. Among different ratios of yeast and baking powder, 2:1 was the best. Bread improver containing amylases and oxidizing agents at the concentration of 40 g/kg was selected as the best concentration. When comparing the final formulation made in the bakery with wheat bread, malted rice-wheat bread contains more soluble dietary fiber (0.62%, insoluble dietary fiber (3.95%, total dietary fiber (4.57% and free amino acid content (0.64 g/kg than those in wheat bread (0.5%, 2.73%, 3.23% and 0.36 g/kg, respectively.

  17. Prediction of bread-making quality using size exclusion high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in the distribution of protein molecular weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum), influences breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars, resulting in either poor or good bread. The objective of this study was to predict breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars using size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography.

  18. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. Pulp as a Functional Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Różyło

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20 % (converted to dry matter caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory characteristics of the bread showed that a partial replacement of wheat fl our with up to 10 % of pumpkin pulp gave satisfactory results. The taste, aroma and overall acceptability of control bread and bread containing 5 or 10 % of pulp had the highest degree of liking. The addition of higher levels of pumpkin pulp caused an unpleasant aroma and taste. Pumpkin pulp is a good material to complement the bread with potentially bioaccessible phenolics (including flavonoids and, especially, with peptides. The highest antioxidant activity was observed, in most cases, of the samples with added 10 and 15 % of pumpkin pulp. The addition of the pulp significantly enriched the bread with potentially bioaccessible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors. The highest activity was determined in the bread with 15 and 20 % pumpkin pulp. ACE inhibitors from the tested bread were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Pumpkin pulp seems to be a valuable source of active compounds to complement the wheat bread. Adding the pulp directly to the wheat flour gives satisfactory baking results and reduces the cost of production. Additionally, pumpkin pulp is sometimes treated as waste material after the acquisition of seeds, thus using it as bread supplement also has environmental and economic benefi ts.

  19. Influence of dextran-producing Weissella cibaria on baking properties and sensory profile of gluten-free and wheat breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Czerny, Michael; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-02-17

    Breads based on gluten-free buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff flours were produced with addition of 20% sourdough fermented with exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing Weissella cibaria MG1. Wheat bread was baked as a reference. Dough rheology, bread quality parameters and sensory properties of the sourdough-containing breads were compared to sourdough non-containing control breads of the respective flour. The specific volume remained unaffected by sourdough application. In buckwheat, sorghum, teff and wheat sourdough breads acidification increased crumb porosity compared to control breads. Crumb hardness was significantly reduced in buckwheat (-122%), teff (-29%), quinoa (-21%) and wheat sourdough breads (-122%). The staling rate was significantly reduced in buckwheat, teff and wheat sourdough breads. Water activity of the sourdough containing bread crumb was not influenced by the presence of EPS. Due to the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and influence of acidification, the dough strength, AF, as measured by oscillation tests decreased significantly in sourdough-containing buckwheat, sorghum and wheat dough, but increased in sourdough-containing quinoa and teff dough. Microbial shelf-life was significantly prolonged neither for gluten-free sourdough nor for wheat sourdough breads. Scanning electron microscopy of control and sourdough bread crumbs did not show differences concerning structural starch features. In addition, the aroma of most bread was not improved by sourdough addition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Interaction between xylanase, glucose oxidase and ascorbic acid on the technological quality of whole wheat bread

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silva, Camila Batista da; Almeida, Eveline Lopes; Chang, Yoon Kil

    2016-01-01

    ... (glucose oxidase and ascorbic acid) on the quality of whole wheat bread. The experiment was based on a central composite rotational design and the Response Surface Methodology was used to analyze the results...

  1. Rheological properties and microstructure of xylanase containing whole wheat bread dough

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghoshal, G; Shivhare, U S; Banerjee, U C

    2017-01-01

    The present research work was undertaken to investigate the effect of xylanase, produced by Penicillium citrinum, on rheological behavior of whole wheat bread dough at large and small deformation respectively...

  2. Bioprocessing of Wheat Bran in Whole Wheat Bread Increases the Bioavailability of Phenolic Acids in Men and Exerts Antiinflammatory Effects ex Vivo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mateo Anson, N; Aura, A.M; Selinheimo, E; Mattila, I; Poutanen, K; van den Berg, R; Havenaar, R; Bast, A; Haenen, G.R.M.M

    2011-01-01

    ..., and ex vivo antiinflammatory properties. After consumption of a low phenolic acid diet for 3 d and overnight fasting, 8 healthy men consumed 300 g of whole wheat bread containing native bran (control bread...

  3. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-01-01

    .... In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic...

  4. EVALUATION OF CHOOSEN YIELD COMPONENTS OF SPELT WHEAT CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGDALENA LACKO-BARTOŠOVÁ

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available During 1996-1999 a field experiment with different varieties of spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L. was carried out on brown loamy arable soil within an ecological system in Nitra region. The yield formation characters and the crop yield itself were investigated in three spelt wheat cultivars (Bauländer Spelz, Schwabenkorn, Roquin and compared with common wheat, cultivar Samanta. The achieved results revealed that the agroecological conditions of Nitra region where most suitable for the Bauländer Spelz cultivar of German origin, with the highest crop yield of 6.06 t.ha-1, i. e. 92.2% of common wheat yield. This cultivar reached the lowest percentage of glumes (26.13%, the highest TGW (49.29 g, the longest spike (112.45 mm, the highest number of fertile spikelets (14.32 and the highest weight of grains per spike (1.33 g. All of the spelt wheat cultivars had lower productive density of stand (501.3 to 518.7 productive stems per square meter than common wheat (605.3 productive stems per square meter.

  5. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli

    2015-01-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products...... or insulin-independent glucose disposal. These results demonstrate that the structure of wheat bread can influence the postprandial metabolic response, with a more compact structure being more beneficial for health. Bread-making technology should be further explored to create healthier products....

  6. Optimization of Bread Preparation from Wheat Flour and Malted Rice Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Subajiny VELUPPILLAI; Ketheeswary NITHYANANTHARAJAH; Seevaratnam VASANTHARUBA; Sandrasegarampillai BALAKUMAR; Vasanthy ARASARATNAM

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of partially replacing wheat flour with malted rice flour in bread making was evaluated in several formulations, aiming to find a formulation for the production of malted rice-wheat bread with better nutritional quality and consumer acceptance. The whole grains of a local rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica var. Mottaikaruppan) were steeped in distilled water (12 h, 30°C) and germinated for 3 days to obtain high content of soluble materials and amylase activity in brea...

  7. Thermo-mechanical and micro-structural properties of xylanase containing whole wheat bread

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoshal, G.; Shivhare, U. S.; Banerjee, U. C.

    2016-01-01

    Xylanase is a hemicellulase that can hydrolyses the complex polysaccharides. Hemicelluloses are main components of cell walls of cereal grains. Moreover, hemicelluloses are considered as potential sources of mono- and oligosaccharides. In this study, influence of xylanase on the physicochemical properties and sensory qualities of the whole wheat bread during storage was investigated. Studies of whole wheat bread on microstructure, texture, thermotics, Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM), X-Ra...

  8. An addition of sourdough and whey proteins affects the nutritional quality of wholemeal wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, Aneta; Borczak, Barbara; Pysz, Mirosław; Sikora, Elżbieta; Sikora, Marek; Curic, Duska; Novotni, Dubravka

    2014-01-01

    Bread can be a good source of nutrients as well as non-nutrient compounds. This study was designed to assess the effect of adding of sourdough and whey proteins to wholemeal (WM) bread produced by bake-off technology on chemical composition and bioavailability of proteins, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron content in Wistar rats. Wholemeal breads were baked with using conventional or bake off technology. In breads chemical composition, selected minerals content, amino acid composition were measured. Five week-old Wistar rats (n = 30, male), were randomly divided into fi ve groups and fed with modified AIN-93G diets containing experimental breads. In animal study the nutritional value of breads' proteins and concentration of selected minerals in serum, liver and femoral bone, were measured. The body weight gain, biological value (BV) and net protein utilization (NPU) were significantly higher in rats fed with partially baked frozen wholemeal (PBF WM) bread with sourdough and whey proteins. The level of magnesium was significantly lower in serum of animals fed with the diet containing PBF WM bread with sourdough and whey proteins in comparison to rodents fed with conventional WM bread with sourdough. The content of iron was significantly higher in liver of rats fed with PBF WM with sourdough bread in comparison to the groups fed with conventional WM and conventional WM with sourdough breads. Sourdough addition can be recommended in a production of whole wheat partially baked frozen bread but its use is further more beneficial if it is fermented with whey proteins.

  9. Bread in the Economy of Qualities: The Creative Reconstitution of the Canada-UK Commodity Chain for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article traces the creative reconstitution of the Canada-UK wheat-bread commodity chain since the 1990s. In the mid-1990s, the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) and a British bakery, Warburtons, pioneered an innovative identity-preserved sourcing relationship that ties contracted prairie wheat growers to consumers of premium bread in the United…

  10. Progress in breeding of Novi Sad spring wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Petar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad began working on spring wheat breeding in 1979 in order to develop cultivars that could be grown in conditions and years unfavorable for winter wheat cultivation. At the start of the program, a collection of spring wheat cultivars from all over the world was assembled for hybridization purposes, with cultivars from Mexico being the most numerous group. Parental pairs were first chosen based on the concept of cultivar, then trait, and, finally and most recently, the concept of gene. After the selection of parental pairs, the hybridization process began and a total 1,700 combinations have been made since. The material was bred using pedigree selection. A large number of lines were developed by positive selection and the best among them were tested in variety trials of the State Variety Commission. Based on the results of those trials, 31 spring wheat cultivars from the Novi Sad program have been released so far. Among them, the cultivars Jarka, Nevesinjka (a facultative variety, Venera, and, more recently Nataša have proven particularly successful in commercial production. Some of these varieties have also been released in foreign countries or are presently being tested for registration abroad. In order to assess the progress of spring wheat breeding at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, a trial with all the cultivars released by the Institute thus far was set up. Statistical analysis after the trial has confirmed that significant progress towards better wheat cultivars has been made since the program was founded.

  11. Breeding value of primary synthetic wheat genotypes for grain yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    To introduce new genetic diversity into the bread wheat gene pool from its progenitor, Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmalh, 33 primary synthetic hexaploid wheat genotypes (SYN) were crossed to 20 spring bread wheat (BW) cultivars at the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Center. Modified single...

  12. Short-term storage evaluation of quality and antioxidant capacity in chestnut-wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Cirlini, Martina; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Bread traditionally made from wheat is now often supplemented with alternative functional ingredients as chestnut flours; no data have been previously published about the staling of chestnut-containing bread. Thus short-term storage (3 days) for chestnut flour-supplemented soft wheat bread is evaluated by means of selected physicochemical properties (i.e. water dynamics, texture, colour, crumb grain characteristic, total antioxidant capacity). Bread prepared with a 20:80 ratio of chestnut:soft wheat flours maintained its moisture content in both crust and crumb. Crumb hardness, after baking, was found to be significantly higher than that of the soft wheat bread; it did not change during storage, whereas it significantly increased in the control bread until the end of the shelf life. The supplemented bread presented a heterogeneous crumb structure, with a significant decrease in the largest pores during shelf life, relative to the shrinkage of crumb grain. The control exhibited a significant redistribution of crumb holes, with a decrease in the smallest grain classes and an increase in the intermediate ones, most likely caused by cell wall thickening. The colour of the crumb remained unaltered in both breads. The crust of the control presented a significant decrease of a* (redness) and that of the supplemented bread exhibited a decrease of b* (yellowness). The antioxidant capacity was detected after day 1 of storage in the chestnut flour bread only. Chestnut flour supplementation could represent a feasible way of producing bread with improved characteristics, not only just after baking but also during shelf life. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Protective effects of a wheat cultivar mixture against splash‐dispersed septoria tritici blotch epidemics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gigot, C; Saint‐Jean, S; Huber, L; Maumené, C; Leconte, M; Kerhornou, B; Vallavieille‐Pope, C

    2013-01-01

    .... To try to improve this strategy, a cultivar mixture was designed consisting of two wheat cultivars with contrasted resistance to Mycosphaerella graminicola , responsible for the rainborne disease...

  14. CULTIVAR RELEASE - CD 120 – wheat cultivar, standard quality soft, for the Southern Region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Schuster; Edson Feliciano de Oliveira; Tatiane Dalla Nora; Francisco de Assis Franco; Volmir Sergio Marchioro; Adriel Evangelista; Mateus Polo; Renato da Rocha

    2011-01-01

    The cultivar CD 120, developed by the Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agrícola (COODETEC) is suitable for cultivation in the VCU wheat-producing regions 1 and 2 of the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. It is tolerant to the major wheat diseases and pre-harvest germination and has soft wheat quality and a 6.5 % higher grain yield (3.678 kg ha-1) than the control.

  15. Effect of the Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Flour Addition on Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea flour is a good source of proteins, fibers, minerals and other bioactive compounds and it could be an ideal ingredient for improve the nutritional value of bread and bakery products. The aim of this study was to supplement wheat flour (WF with various levels of chickpea flour (CF in order to obtain bread with good nutritional and quality characteristics. Four experimental variants obtained by substituting wheat flour with different proportions (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of chickpea flour were used. The results showed a valuable increment in bread protein and fiber content. The volume of the breads decreased as the level of chickpea flour (CF increased due the dilution of gluten content in the blend and due to the interactions among fiber components, water and gluten. Nevertheless, substitution at 10%, 20% and 30%, gives parameter values at least as good as the control sample (WFB and produces acceptable bread, in terms of weight, volume and sensorial properties.

  16. A novel highly differentially expressed gene in wheat endosperm associated with bread quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, A.; Bundock, P. C.; Banks, P. M.; Fox, G.; Yin, X.; Henry, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of gene expression in developing wheat seeds was used to identify a gene, wheat bread making (wbm), with highly differential expression (~1000 fold) in the starchy endosperm of genotypes varying in bread making quality. Several alleles differing in the 5’-upstream region (promoter) of this gene were identified, with one present only in genotypes with high levels of wbm expression. RNA-Seq analysis revealed low or no wbm expression in most genotypes but high expression (0.2-0.4% of total gene expression) in genotypes that had good bread loaf volume. The wbm gene is predicted to encode a mature protein of 48 amino acids (including four cysteine residues) not previously identified in association with wheat quality, possibly because of its small size and low frequency in the wheat gene pool. Genotypes with high wbm expression all had good bread making quality but not always good physical dough qualities. The predicted protein was sulphur rich suggesting the possibility of a contribution to bread loaf volume by supporting the crossing linking of proteins in gluten. Improved understanding of the molecular basis of differences in bread making quality may allow more rapid development of high performing genotypes with acceptable end-use properties and facilitate increased wheat production. PMID:26011437

  17. Higher bioavailability of iron from whole wheat bread compared with iron-fortified white breads in caco-2 cell model: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikooyeh, Bahareh; Neyestani, Tirang R

    2017-06-01

    Bread, as the staple food of Iranians, with average per capita consumption of 300 g d -1 , could potentially be a good vehicle for many fortificants, including iron. In this study, iron bioavailability from flat breads (three fortified and one whole wheat unfortified) was investigated using in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion and absorption in a caco-2 cell model. Despite having a lower ferritin/protein ratio in comparison with fortified breads, whole wheat bread showed higher iron bioavailability than the other three types of bread. Assuming iron bioavailability from the ferrous sulfate supplement used as standard was about 10%, the estimated bioavailability of iron from the test breads was calculated as 5.0-8.0%. Whole wheat bread (∼8%), as compared with the fortified breads (∼5-6.5%), had higher iron bioavailability. Iron from unfortified whole wheat bread is more bioavailable than from three types of iron-fortified breads. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Thermo-mechanical and micro-structural properties of xylanase containing whole wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ghoshal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Xylanase is a hemicellulase that can hydrolyses the complex polysaccharides. Hemicelluloses are main components of cell walls of cereal grains. Moreover, hemicelluloses are considered as potential sources of mono- and oligosaccharides. In this study, influence of xylanase on the physicochemical properties and sensory qualities of the whole wheat bread during storage was investigated. Studies of whole wheat bread on microstructure, texture, thermotics, Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD were conducted at ambient temperature of 25 and 4 °C respectively. During storage at different temperatures, bread containing xylanase exhibited less firmness but larger volume with whiter crumb color and longer shelf life as compared to control bread. Results of firmness, enthalpy, Fourier Transformation Infra Red (FTIR and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD studies suggested a lower staling rate of bread containing xylanase as compared to control one. Bread containing xylanase showed a smoother surface and more uniform pore size than the control. Significant differences in microstructure of control and bread containing xylanase were observed which might be attributed due to the change in water starch gluten interaction. These differences were also found to be interrelated to the textural properties of bread. Better sensory features were achieved in bread containing xylanase.

  19. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  20. Fast neutron radiation induced Glu-B1 deficient lines of an elite bread wheat variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five isogenic wheat lines deficient in high-molecular weight subunit (HMW-GS) proteins encoded by the B-genome were identified from a fast-neutron radiation-mutagenized population of Summit, an elite variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The mutant lines differ from the wild-type progenit...

  1. Bran characteristics influencing quality attributes of whole wheat Chinese steamed bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the variations in the characteristics of brans obtained from a pilot-scale milling of 17 soft red winter wheat varieties and their influences on the quality of whole wheat northern-style Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from blends of a base flour and brans of different w...

  2. Sensory Quality of Wheat and Cassava Breads as Affected by Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of some leguminous seed flours (LSF) on the quality of wheat and cassava breads were investigated. Three LSF, namely Brachystegia eurycoma, Detarium microcarpum, and Mucuna sloanei were added into wheat flour and cassava flour at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% of the flour basis. The different flour ...

  3. Evidence of intralocus recombination at the Glu-3 loci in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low-molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) are a class of wheat seed storage proteins that play a critical role in the determination of wheat flour bread-making quality. These proteins are encoded by multigene families located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci (Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3), on t...

  4. Microbiological, Nutritional, and Sensory Quality of Bread Produced from Wheat and Potato Flour Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeme Joshua Josiah Ijah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrated uncooked potato (Irish and sweet flour was blended by weight with commercial wheat flour at 0 to 10% levels of substitution to make bread. Comparative study of the microbial and nutritional qualities of the bread was undertaken. The total aerobic bacterial counts ranged from 3.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.09 × 106 cfu/g while the fungal counts ranged from 8.0 × 101 cfu/g to 1.20 × 103 cfu/g of the sample. Coliforms were not detected in the bread. Bacteria isolated were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus while fungi isolates were species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Mucor. The mean sensory scores (color, aroma, taste, texture, and general acceptability were evaluated. The color of the bread baked from WF/IPF2 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5% blend was preferred to WF (wheat flour, 100% while WF/SPF1 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 100% and WF/IPF1 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 90 : 10% aroma were preferred to WF. However, the bread baked from WF, WF/IPF2 (wheat flour/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%, and WF/SPF2 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 95 : 5% was more acceptable than other blends. The use of hydrated potato flour in bread making is advantageous due to increased nutritional value, higher bread yield, and reduced rate of staling.

  5. Molecular basis of adaptation to high soil boron in wheat landraces and elite cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotta, Margaret; Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Hayes, Julie; Hay, Alison; Baumann, Ute; Paull, Jeff; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2014-10-02

    Environmental constraints severely restrict crop yields in most production environments, and expanding the use of variation will underpin future progress in breeding. In semi-arid environments boron toxicity constrains productivity, and genetic improvement is the only effective strategy for addressing the problem. Wheat breeders have sought and used available genetic diversity from landraces to maintain yield in these environments; however, the identity of the genes at the major tolerance loci was unknown. Here we describe the identification of near-identical, root-specific boron transporter genes underlying the two major-effect quantitative trait loci for boron tolerance in wheat, Bo1 and Bo4 (ref. 2). We show that tolerance to a high concentration of boron is associated with multiple genomic changes including tetraploid introgression, dispersed gene duplication, and variation in gene structure and transcript level. An allelic series was identified from a panel of bread and durum wheat cultivars and landraces originating from diverse agronomic zones. Our results demonstrate that, during selection, breeders have matched functionally different boron tolerance alleles to specific environments. The characterization of boron tolerance in wheat illustrates the power of the new wheat genomic resources to define key adaptive processes that have underpinned crop improvement.

  6. Yield and yield traits of durum wheat (Triticum durum desf. and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahverdiyev Tofig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of water stress on yield and yield traits of durum wheat and bread wheat genotypes. Water stress caused significant reduction in plant height (PH, peduncle length (PL, spike number/m2(SN, spike length (SL, spike width (SW, spikelets number/spike (SNS, spike mass (SM, grain number/spike (GNS, grain mass/spike (GMS, biological yield (BY, thousand kernel mass (TKM, grain yield (GY and harvest index (HI. Wheat traits such as SN, SM, BY, TKM, GY were more vulnerable to drought stress. Positive significant correlation of GY with SN, BY and HI under rain-fed condition was found. Genotypes of durum wheat were more sensitive to drought than that bread wheat genotypes. The significant and positive correlation of GY with Stress Tolerance Index (STI, Mean Productivity (MP and Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP indicated that these indices were more effective in identifying high yielding, drought tolerance genotypes.

  7. Effect of different iron compounds on wheat and gluten-free breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiskini, Alexandra; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Yanniotis, Stavros; Mandala, Ioanna

    2010-05-01

    Iron fortification of bread often results in sub-optimal quality of the final product due to undesirable changes in the physical characteristics and sensory properties of the bread. In this study both the form of iron (soluble, insoluble or encapsulated) and the type of bread (wheat or gluten-free) were varied in order to investigate the effect of iron and gluten on the product characteristics. The effect of iron on the quality characteristics of the breads investigated depended on iron type, but not on iron solubility. Colour, crust firmness, specific volume, cell number and uniformity as well as aroma were the attributes that were mainly affected in iron-enriched wheat bread. In some cases, specific volume was 30% lower than that of the control sample, while cell uniformity was significantly lower, as low as 50% of the control sample in some fortified samples. In gluten-free breads, differences between unfortified and fortified samples included colour, crust firmness, cell number, 'moisture' odour, metallic taste and stickiness. In some cases, the sensory scores were better for fortified samples. Differences due to iron fortification were less pronounced in gluten-free compared to wheat breads. The choice of the appropriate iron compound which will not cause adverse quality changes is still a challenge.

  8. Analytical and sensory studies on the release of sodium from wheat bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaum, Tabea; Konitzer, Katharina; Hofmann, Thomas; Koehler, Peter

    2013-07-03

    As a basis for sodium reduction, interactions between sodium and wheat bread ingredients and their impact on salt perception in bread crumb were examined. The theoretical sodium binding capacities of wheat proteins revealed that a maximum amount of 0.24% NaCl (based on flour) could be bound in bread crumb by ionic interactions between sodium ions and acidic amino acid side chains. However, the sodium binding capacities of wheat proteins, determined by a magnetic beads assay and a sodium-selective electrode, were only about 0.002% NaCl. They were negligible concerning the sensory perception of saltiness, as 0.075 and 0.3% NaCl were the lowest noticeable differences using bread containing 0 and 1% NaCl as a reference, respectively. Extracting bread crumb in a mastication simulator with ultrapure water, buffer solutions, and artificial and human saliva revealed that interactions between sodium and wheat bread ingredients were sufficiently weak to enable complete sodium extraction during simulated mastication.

  9. Virulence of wheat yellow rust races and resistance genes of wheat cultivars in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochoa, J.B.; Danial, D.L.; Paucar, B.

    2007-01-01

    Virulence factors of the yellow rust, Puccinia striiformis, populations in bread wheat were studied in Ecuador between 1973 and 2004. The number of virulence factors has increased markedly from very few in the early seventies to 16 at the end of the 90s. Isolates belonging to race 0E0 seem to be the

  10. Meiosis and fertility of F1 hybrids between hexaploid bread wheat and decaploid tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhar, P P

    1995-05-01

    As the first step in the transfer of barely yellow dwarf virus resistance and salt tolerance from decaploid tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum) into hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), octoploid intergeneric hybrids (2n = 8x = 56) were synthesized by crossing the tall wheatgrass cultivar 'Alkar' with wheat cvs. 'Fukuhokomugi' ('Fuko') and 'Chinese Spring'. ('Fuko' x 'Alkar') F1 hybrids were studied in detail. The F1 hybrids were perennial and generally resembled the male wheatgrass parent with regard to morphological features and gliadin profile. Most hybrids were euploid with 56 chromosomes and showed high chromosome pairing. On an average, in 6 hybrids 83.6% of the complement showed chiasmatic association, some between wheat and wheatgrass chromosomes. Such a high homoeologous pairing would be obtained if Ph1, the major homoeologous pairing suppressor in wheat, was somehow inactivated. Some of the 'Fuko' x 'Alkar' hybrids had high pollen fertility (18.5-42.0% with a mean of 31.5%) and high seed fertility (3-29 seeds wtih a mean of 12.3 seeds per spike), offering excellent opportunities for their direct backcrossing onto the wheat parent.

  11. Effect of high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition in common wheat on dough properties and steamed bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingping; Jondiko, Tom O; Tilley, Michael; Awika, Joseph M

    2014-10-01

    Steamed bread is a popular staple food in Asia with different flour quality requirements from pan bread. Little is known about how glutenin characteristics affect steamed bread quality. This work investigated how deletions of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) influence gluten properties and Chinese steamed bread quality using 16 wheat lines grown in Texas. Although similar in protein content (134-140 mg g⁻¹), gluten composition and dough properties differed widely among the lines. Compared with non-deletion lines, deletion lines had lower (P bread quality (score, 60.8-65.0) with good elasticity and crumb structure. Deletion at Glu-B1y and/or Glu-D1y loci in high-strength hard wheat produced good dough properties for steamed bread. This suggests that wheat functionality for steamed bread can be improved by manipulating HMW-GS composition. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Improvement of the quality of whole wheat bread by supplementation of xylanase from Aspergillus foetidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amita R; Shah, R K; Madamwar, Datta

    2006-11-01

    The possible use of xylanase from Aspergillus foetidus MTCC 4898 as a bread improver was tested in whole wheat bread. The partially purified xylanase was used as an additive at 12 U/g during mixing of wheat flour. The effects of xylanase addition on the fermentation stage and the final bread quality were analyzed. Remarkable decrease (11%) in water absorption and increase in dough rising (28.5%) were noticed. Final moisture content of the bread was higher (40.5%) than control (32.3%). Improvements in volume (53%) and specific volume (56%) were also significant. Sensory evaluation indicated better flavour, taste, softness and overall acceptability. Texture profile analysis confirmed the rheological changes. Firmness was decreased by more than four folds. Improvements in cohesiveness and decline in springiness and gumminess were observed.

  13. Freezing tolerance of wheat cultivars at the early growing season ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... Cold stress is a worldwide abiotic stress in temperate regions that affects plant development and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and other winter crops. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of freezing stress at the early growing season on survival and also the relationship.

  14. Freezing tolerance of wheat cultivars at the early growing season ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold stress is a worldwide abiotic stress in temperate regions that affects plant development and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and other winter crops. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of freezing stress at the early growing season on survival and also the relationship between resistances ...

  15. Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... salt-sensitive wheat cultivar Shi 4185. Under NaCl stress, oxidative damage was more severe and the potassium (K), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) accumulations were lower in Shi 4185 seedlings than in. Cang 6001 ... reductions in the yield and quality of many important crops. (Boyer, 1982; Jia et ...

  16. Effects of wheat cultivar, nonphytate phosphorus levels and enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mahmood

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... Sci. vol. 45. Table 5 Effects of two wheat cultivars, levels of non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) and enzyme supplementation on egg quality traits of laying hens (71 weeks old). Treatments. Abnormal eggs1. (%). Shell weight. (%). Shell thickness. (mm × 10–2). Specific gravity. Egg index. Haugh unit. Yolk colour.

  17. Whole-grain rye bread consumption by women correlates with plasma alkylresorcinols and increases their concentration compared with low-fiber wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linko, Anna-Maria; Juntunen, Katri S; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Adlercreutz, Herman

    2005-03-01

    Whole-grain rye and wheat products are rich in lignans, the precursors of enterolactone (ENL) and alkylresorcinols (ARs), which are phenolic lipids. In this crossover trial, we examined the effect of whole-grain rye bread compared with low-fiber wheat bread on plasma AR levels. Women (n = 39) aged 59 +/- 0.94 y (mean +/- SEM) were advised to consume rye (214 +/- 7.1 g/d) or wheat (178 +/- 6.5 g/d) bread (20% of total daily energy intake) in random order for 8 wk. The test periods were separated by an 8-wk washout period. ARs with different homologues and ENL were measured in plasma collected at the beginning (habitual diet) and end of the test bread periods. AR concentrations were higher (P bread (352 +/- 24.7 nmol/L) and habitual diet (97.7 +/- 12.1 and 88.3 +/- 8.7 nmol/L) periods than after the wheat bread period (36.6 +/- 4.2 nmol/L). Plasma AR concentrations were correlated with intake of rye bread (r = 0.34, P = 0.037), and with insoluble fiber from the whole diet during the rye (r = 0.39, P = 0.013) and wheat (r = 0.32, P = 0.047) bread periods. The plasma AR 17:0/21:0 ratio differed after the rye (0.84 +/- 0.04) and wheat (0.53 +/- 0.08) bread diet periods (P whole-grain rye intake, and their homologue pattern could be used as an indicator of the bread type consumed.

  18. Effect of boron on growth criteria of some wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Metwally

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Toxic soil concentrations of the essential micronutrient boron (B represent major limitations to crop production worldwide. Plants have a range of defense systems that might be involved in their affinity to resist and tolerate nutrients stress.Materials and methods: The experiments were carried out to study the differential responses in five wheat cultivars to boron toxicity. Results: The fresh and dry matter yield of the test wheat cultivars showed marked decrease as the concentration of boron was increased. Elevated concentration of boron had a notable inhibitory effect on the biosynthesis of pigments fractions in the test wheat cultivars as severely as dry matter gain. The adverse concentration effects of boron on some metabolic responses were clearly displayed by shoot and root systems, exhibited in the elevated rates of proline, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde formation. Potassium leakage was severely affected by boron-stress in some cultivars at all tested concentrations, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher boron concentrations.Conclusions: Sakha 93 out of all the different cultivars investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to boron-stress, while Gemmeza 9 was the most sensitive one.

  19. Genetic variability in Brazilian wheat cultivars assessed by microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Ivan; Vieira, Elisa Serra Negra; da Silva, Glacy Jaqueline; de Assis Franco, Francisco; Marchioro, Volmir Sérgio

    2009-07-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most important food staples in the south of Brazil. Understanding genetic variability among the assortment of Brazilian wheat is important for breeding. The aim of this work was to molecularly characterize the thirty-six wheat cultivars recommended for various regions of Brazil, and to assess mutual genetic distances, through the use of microsatellite markers. Twenty three polymorphic microsatellite markers (PMM) delineated all 36 of the samples, revealing a total of 74 simple sequence repeat (SSR) alleles, i.e. an average of 3.2 alleles per locus. Polymorphic information content (PIC value) calculated to assess the informativeness of each marker ranged from 0.20 to 0.79, with a mean of 0.49. Genetic distances among the 36 cultivars ranged from 0.10 (between cultivars Ocepar 18 and BRS 207) to 0.88 (between cultivars CD 101 and Fudancep 46), the mean distance being 0.48. Twelve groups were obtained by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means analysis (UPGMA), and thirteen through the Tocher method. Both methods produced similar clusters, with one to thirteen cultivars per group. The results indicate that these tools may be used to protect intellectual property and for breeding and selection programs.

  20. Molecular changes in soy and wheat breads during storage as probed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Alessia; Tiziani, Stefano; Vodovotz, Yael

    2007-07-11

    Addition of raw ground almond has been shown to improve loaf quality (e.g., loaf specific volume) of soy bread. To better understand the effects of almond addition to soy bread and to follow these through storage, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy relaxation times and cross-relaxation experiments were performed. Spin-spin relaxation times of water protons were similar for the two soy breads, and therefore changes of water interactions with the other components of the soy breads (with and without almond) were not considered to be major contributors to the differences in loaf quality observed between these breads. Additionally, T2 values of water protons were found to have a similar decreasing trend during storage, especially up to day 3, for all of the products studied. On the other hand, during storage, lipid proton relaxation times exhibited only small changes in wheat and regular soy bread, whereas the soy-almond bread showed a major decrease of lipid proton mobility in particular after day 3 and up to day 10. These findings may indicate that, after a few days of storage, the lipid fraction contributes to better plasticization of the soy bread with almond, which can affect acceptability and storage stability of the final product. Thus, the higher amount of lipids introduced in the almond-enriched soy bread is likely to be responsible for the improved loaf quality and may significantly affect shelf stability of the soy-containing product.

  1. Phytic acid, inorganic phosphorus, antioxidants in bread and durum wheat and their associations with agronomic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Branković

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The phytic acid (PA, inorganic phosphorus (Pi, yellow pigment (YP, water soluble phenolics (WSPH and free protein sulfhydryl groups (PSH of 15 Triticum aestivum and 15 Triticum durum wheats grown at six different environments were evaluated for variability, intra- and inter- relations with agronomic traits. The most variable properties in bread wheat were YP and WSPH with coefficients of variation (CV amounting to 14.59% and 14.10%, respectively, while in durum wheat those were PSH and YP with CV of 17.59% and 15.02%, respectively. PA in durum wheat showed the least variability (CV 3.61%. Among others, positive associations were obtained between WSPH and YP in bread and durum wheat, YP and PSH, WSPH and PSH, yield (YLD and WSPH, YLD and PSH in durum wheat, while negative associations were recorded for PA and YP, PA and WSPH, YLD and antioxidants (YP and WSPH in bread wheat, PA and antioxidants, PA and YLD in durum wheat.

  2. Effects of Wheat Gluten Hydrolysate and Its Ultrafiltration Fractions on Dough Properties and Bread Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouming Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two fractions (50-K and permeate from a proteolytic hydrolysate (degree of hydrolysis, DH=3.8 % of wheat gluten were separated using ultrafiltration (UF membrane with molecular mass cut-off of 50 kDa. The effects of the wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH and its UF fractions on the mixing behaviour and viscoelastic properties of wheat dough were presented. The WGH and its UF fractions modified the mixing properties of dough. The addition of these fractions improved the viscoelastic characteristics of wheat dough. A significant (p<0.05 effect of 50-K fraction on these characteristics of wheat dough was observed. After adding these fractions, the bread was considered acceptable by the sensory panel. Also, 50-K fraction resulted in significant (p<0.05 increase in the crumb firmness, while the bread made with wheat flour with WGH and permeate (P fraction showed softer crumbs compared to that of wheat flour. Moreover, these fractions had anti-staling properties for bread during storage. Hence, the wheat gluten hydrolysate and its UF fractions are the products with promising potential in the baking products.

  3. Effect of ovary induction on bread wheat anther culture: ovary genotype and developmental stage, and candidate gene association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Castillo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovary pre-conditioned medium and ovary co-culture increased the efficiency of green doubled haploid plant production in bread wheat anther culture. The positive effect of this medium led to a 6- and 11-fold increase in the numbers of embryos and green plants, respectively, having a greater effect on a medium-low responding cultivar. Ovary genotype and developmental stage significantly affected microspore embryogenesis. By he use of Caramba ovaries it was possible to reach a 2-fold increase in the number of embryos and green plants, and to decrease the rate of albinism. Mature ovaries from flowers containing microspores at a late binucleate stage raised the number of embryos and green plants by 25% and 46% as compared to immature ovaries (excised from flowers with microspores at a mid-late uninucleate stage. The highest numbers of embryos and green plants were produced when using mature Caramba ovaries. Ovaries from Galeón, Tigre and Kilopondio cultivars successfully induced microspore embryogenesis at the same rate as Caramba ovaries. Moreover, Tigre ovaries raised the percentage of spontaneous chromosome doubling up to 71%. Attempts were made to identify molecular mechanisms associated to the inductive effect of the ovaries on microspore embryogenesis. The genes TAA1b, FLA26 and WALI6 associated to wheat microspore embryogenesis, the CGL1 gene involved in glycan biosynthesis or degradation, and the FER gene involved in the ovary signalling process were expressed and/or induced at different rates during ovary culture. The expression pattern of FLA26 and FER could be related to the differences between genotypes and developmental stages in the inductive effect of the ovary. Our results open opportunities for new approaches to increase bread wheat doubled haploid production by anther culture, and to identify the functional components of the ovary inductive effect on microspore embryogenesis.

  4. Optimization of mold wheat bread fortified with soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erben, Melina; Osella, Carlos A

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of replacing a selected wheat flour for defatted soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate on both dough rheological characteristics and the performance and nutritional quality of bread. A mixture design was used to analyze the combination of the ingredients. The optimization process suggested that a mixture containing 88.8% of wheat flour, 8.2% of defatted soy flour, 0.0% of pea flour and 3.0% of whey protein concentrate could be a good combination to achieve the best fortified-bread nutritional quality. The fortified bread resulted in high protein concentration, with an increase in dietary fiber content and higher calcium levels compared with those of control (wheat flour 100%). Regarding protein quality, available lysine content was significantly higher, thus contributing with the essential amino acid requirement.

  5. The Impact of Parbaking on the Crumb Firming Mechanism of Fully Baked Tin Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivelle, Mieke A; Bosmans, Geertrui M; Delcour, Jan A

    2017-11-22

    The impact of parbaking on the quality and shelf life of large tin bread baked from 270 g of wheat flour was investigated using a proton nuclear magnetic resonance method combined with techniques that measure at different length scales. With increasing partial baking time, the resilience of fresh partially baked crumb increased because of its more extended amylose and gluten networks. During subsequent storage, the crumb became more firm due to an increased extent of amylopectin retrogradation and moisture redistribution. Although only amylopectin retrogradation was reversed during final baking, a fresh fully baked (FB) bread with reversed crumb softness was obtained. Furthermore, the rate of crumb firming during final storage of FB bread was not higher than that of conventionally baked bread. This was attributed to the high crumb to crust ratio of large tin bread which caused the crumb moisture content to remain sufficiently high despite nonreversible moisture redistribution during intermediate storage.

  6. Antioxidant capacity versus chemical safety of wheat bread enriched with pomegranate peel powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Brimer, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate peel powder (PP), a by-product of the pomegranate juice industry rich in polyphenols, was explored for use in bread production, due to its potential health effects. Wheat bread was prepared using different levels for replacement of flour with PP (0 to 10 g per 100 g flour) resulting...... in antioxidant levels expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values (TEAC) ranging from 1.8 to 6.8 µmol TEAC per g bread for fresh bread. TEAC remained constant during 5 days of storage in polyethylene bags at room temperature. The oxidative stability was evaluated by detection of radicals by direct...... electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, and peroxide value, and the highest capacity of scavenging of radicals (Fremy's salt) and the lowest content of peroxide values were found in bread with the highest percentage of PP. Safety evaluation was performed by the Artemia salina assay. An increased death...

  7. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lappi, J.; Salojärvi, J.; Kolehmainen, M.; Mykkänen, H.; Poutanen, K.; Vos, de W.M.; Salonen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the

  8. Molecular Features of Wheat Endosperm Arabinoxylan Inclusion in Functional Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Weili Li; Hui Hu; Qi Wang; Charles S. Brennan

    2013-01-01

    Arabinoxylan (AX) is a major dietary fibre component found in a variety of cereals. Numerous health benefits of arabinoxylans have been reported to be associated with their solubility and molecular features. The current study reports the development of a functional bread using a combination of AX-enriched material (AEM) and optimal commercial endoxylanase. The total AX content of bread was increased to 8.2 g per 100 g available carbohydrates. The extractability of AX in breads with and withou...

  9. Antioxidant capacity versus chemical safety of wheat bread enriched with pomegranate peel powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Brimer, Leon; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2013-04-30

    Pomegranate peel powder (PP), a by-product of the pomegranate juice industry rich in polyphenols, was explored for use in bread production, due to its potential health effects. Wheat bread was prepared using different levels for replacement of flour with PP (0 to 10 g per 100 g flour) resulting in antioxidant levels expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values (TEAC) ranging from 1.8 to 6.8 μmol TEAC per g bread for fresh bread. TEAC remained constant during 5 days of storage in polyethylene bags at room temperature. The oxidative stability was evaluated by detection of radicals by direct electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, and peroxide value, and the highest capacity of scavenging of radicals (Fremy's salt) and the lowest content of peroxide values were found in bread with the highest percentage of PP. Safety evaluation was performed by the Artemia salina assay. An increased death rate of the brine shrimp larvae was found as a function of the replacement of wheat flour with PP in fortified bread providing a general screening method for the toxicological test of polyphenol fortified bread to be recommended for use in product development in addition to subjective evaluation. Based on both toxicological and subjective evaluations an addition of 2.5% PP is recommended for the actual product.

  10. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lilei; Beta, Trust

    2015-08-26

    Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g) significantly (p 0.05) decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9%) compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109%) but decreased bound (2% to 3%) phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) significantly (p bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g). p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p bread.

  11. Comprehensive Identification and Bread-Making Quality Evaluation of Common Wheat Somatic Variation Line AS208 on Glutenin Composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyun Liu

    Full Text Available High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs are important seed storage proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum that determine wheat dough elasticity and processing quality. Clarification of the defined effectiveness of HMW-GSs is very important to breeding efforts aimed at improving wheat quality. To date, there have no report on the expression silencing and quality effects of 1Bx20 and 1By20 at the Glu-B1 locus in wheat. A wheat somatic variation line, AS208, in which both 1Bx20 and 1By20 at Glu-B1 locus were silenced, was developed recently in our laboratory. Evaluation of agronomic traits and seed storage proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC indicated that AS208 was highly similar to its parental cultivar Lunxuan987 (LX987, with the exception that the composition and expression of HMW-GSs was altered. The 1Bx20 and 1By20 in AS208 were further identified to be missing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR assays. Based on the PCR results for HMW-GS genes and their promoters in AS208 compared with LX987, 1Bx20 and 1By20 were speculated to be deleted in AS208 during in vitro culture. Quality analysis of this line with Mixograph, Farinograph, and Extensograph instruments, as well as analysis of bread-making quality traits, demonstrated that the lack of the genes encoding 1Bx20 and 1By20 caused various negative effects on dough processing and bread-making quality traits, including falling number, dough stability time, mixing tolerance index, crude protein values, wet gluten content, bread size, and internal cell structure. AS208 can potentially be used in the functional dissection of other HMW-GSs as a plant material with desirable genetic background, and in biscuit making industry as a high-quality weak gluten wheat source.

  12. Comprehensive Identification and Bread-Making Quality Evaluation of Common Wheat Somatic Variation Line AS208 on Glutenin Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lipu; Cao, Xinyou; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Yueming; Ye, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are important seed storage proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) that determine wheat dough elasticity and processing quality. Clarification of the defined effectiveness of HMW-GSs is very important to breeding efforts aimed at improving wheat quality. To date, there have no report on the expression silencing and quality effects of 1Bx20 and 1By20 at the Glu-B1 locus in wheat. A wheat somatic variation line, AS208, in which both 1Bx20 and 1By20 at Glu-B1 locus were silenced, was developed recently in our laboratory. Evaluation of agronomic traits and seed storage proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) indicated that AS208 was highly similar to its parental cultivar Lunxuan987 (LX987), with the exception that the composition and expression of HMW-GSs was altered. The 1Bx20 and 1By20 in AS208 were further identified to be missing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. Based on the PCR results for HMW-GS genes and their promoters in AS208 compared with LX987, 1Bx20 and 1By20 were speculated to be deleted in AS208 during in vitro culture. Quality analysis of this line with Mixograph, Farinograph, and Extensograph instruments, as well as analysis of bread-making quality traits, demonstrated that the lack of the genes encoding 1Bx20 and 1By20 caused various negative effects on dough processing and bread-making quality traits, including falling number, dough stability time, mixing tolerance index, crude protein values, wet gluten content, bread size, and internal cell structure. AS208 can potentially be used in the functional dissection of other HMW-GSs as a plant material with desirable genetic background, and in biscuit making industry as a high-quality weak gluten wheat source. PMID:26765256

  13. Rheological properties and bread quality of frozen yeast-dough with added wheat fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Vivian; Ragaee, Sanaa M; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M

    2017-01-01

    The rheological characteristics of frozen dough are of great importance in bread-making quality. The effect of addition of commercial wheat aleurone and bran on rheological properties and final bread quality of frozen dough was studied. Wheat aleurone (A) and bran (B) containing 240 g kg-1 and 200 g kg-1 arabinoxylan (AX), respectively, were incorporated into refined wheat flour at 150 g kg-1 substitution level (composite A and B, respectively). Dough samples of composite A and B in addition to two reference dough samples, refined flour (ref A) and whole wheat flour (ref B) were stored at -18°C for 9 weeks. Frozen stored composite dough samples contained higher amounts of bound water, less freezable water and exhibited fewer modifications in gluten network during frozen storage based on data from differential scanning calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Bread made from composite frozen dough had higher loaf volume compared to ref A or ref B throughout the storage period. The incorporation of wheat fiber into refined wheat flour produced dough with minimum alterations in its rheological properties during 9 weeks of frozen storage compared to refined and 100% wheat flour dough samples. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Genomic Selection for Processing and End-Use Quality Traits in the CIMMYT Spring Bread Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah D. Battenfield

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wheat ( L. cultivars must possess suitable end-use quality for release and consumer acceptability. However, breeding for quality traits is often considered a secondary target relative to yield largely because of amount of seed needed and expense. Without testing and selection, many undesirable materials are advanced, expending additional resources. Here, we develop and validate whole-genome prediction models for end-use quality phenotypes in the CIMMYT bread wheat breeding program. Model accuracy was tested using forward prediction on breeding lines ( = 5520 tested in unbalanced yield trials from 2009 to 2015 at Ciudad Obregon, Sonora, Mexico. Quality parameters included test weight, 1000-kernel weight, hardness, grain and flour protein, flour yield, sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation, Mixograph and Alveograph performance, and loaf volume. In general, prediction accuracy substantially increased over time as more data was available to train the model. Reflecting practical implementation of genomic selection (GS in the breeding program, forward prediction accuracies ( for quality parameters were assessed in 2015 and ranged from 0.32 (grain hardness to 0.62 (mixing time. Increased selection intensity was possible with GS since more entries can be genotyped than phenotyped and expected genetic gain was 1.4 to 2.7 times higher across all traits than phenotypic selection. Given the limitations in measuring many lines for quality, we conclude that GS is a powerful tool to facilitate early generation selection for end-use quality in wheat, leaving larger populations for selection on yield during advanced testing and leading to better gain for both quality and yield in bread wheat breeding programs.

  15. miR156-Targeted SBP-Box Transcription Factors Interact with DWARF53 to RegulateTEOSINTE BRANCHED1andBARREN STALK1Expression in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Cheng, Xiliu; Liu, Pan; Sun, Jiaqiang

    2017-07-01

    Genetic and environmental factors affect bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) plant architecture, which determines grain yield. In this study, we demonstrate that miR156 controls bread wheat plant architecture. We show that overexpression of tae-miR156 in bread wheat cultivar Kenong199 leads to increased tiller number and severe defects in spikelet formation, probably due to the tae-miR156-mediated repression of a group of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE ( SPL ) genes. Furthermore, we found that the expression of two genes TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 ( TaTB1 ) and BARREN STALK1 ( TaBA1 ), whose orthologous genes in diverse plant species play conserved roles in regulating plant architecture, is markedly reduced in the tae-miR156-OE bread wheat plants. Significantly, we demonstrate that the strigolactone (SL) signaling repressor DWARF53 (TaD53), which physically associates with the transcriptional corepressor TOPLESS, can directly interact with the N-terminal domains of miR156-controlled TaSPL3/17. Most importantly, TaSPL3/17-mediated transcriptional activation of TaBA1 and TaTB1 can be largely repressed by TaD53 in the transient expression system. Our results reveal potential association between miR156-TaSPLs and SL signaling pathways during bread wheat tillering and spikelet development. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Effect of the addition of mixture of plant components on the mechanical properties of wheat bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Monika; Dziki, Dariusz; Biernacka, Beata; Różyło, Renata; Miś, Antoni; Hassoon, Waleed H.

    2017-10-01

    Instrumental methods of measuring the mechanical properties of bread can be used to determine changes in the properties of it during storage, as well as to determine the effect of various additives on the bread texture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the mixture of plant components on the physical properties of wheat bread. In particular, the mechanical properties of the crumb and crust were studied. A sensory evaluation of the end product was also performed. The mixture of plant components included: carob fiber, milled grain red quinoa and black oat (1:2:2) - added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 % - into wheat flour. The results showed that the increase of the addition of the proposed additive significantly increased the water absorption of flour mixtures. Moreover, the use of the mixture of plant components above 5% resulted in the increase of bread volume and decrease of crumb density. Furthermore, the addition of the mixture of plant components significantly affected the mechanical properties of bread crumb. The hardness of crumb also decreased as a result of the mixture of plant components addition. The highest cohesiveness was obtained for bread with 10% of additive and the lowest for bread with 25% of mixture of plant components. Most importantly, the enrichment of wheat flour with the mixture of plant components significantly reduced the crust failure force and crust failure work. The results of sensory evaluation showed that the addition of the mixture of plant components of up to 10% had little effect on bread quality.

  17. Effect of the addition of wheat bran stream on dough rheology and bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Banu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The milling by-products have high nutritional value and can be incorporated into white flour. This study was aimed at comparatively examining the rheological behaviour of the doughs made from wheat white flour with different levels (3-30% of bran streams incorporated and from wholewheat. The results indicated significant correlations between the ash content of the wheat bran streams incorporated into flour and Alveograph, Rheofermentograph and Mixolab parameters. The white flour sample with 25% wheat bran streams had the ash content similar to wholewheat, but the dough rheology was improved. The quality of the white flour bread with 25% wheat bran streams was improved compared to the wholemeal bread.

  18. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi, J; Mykkänen, H; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2014-01-01

    .05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.ConclusionsBeneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than......BackgroundRye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism...... were similar between the WGR and BRB + WW periods. When compared to the WW period, postprandial insulin concentration at 120 min was lower (p = 0.023) and the first-phase insulin secretion improved (p = 0.033) only after the WGR period, whereas postprandial concentrations of butyrate (p 

  19. Molecular Features of Wheat Endosperm Arabinoxylan Inclusion in Functional Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinoxylan (AX is a major dietary fibre component found in a variety of cereals. Numerous health benefits of arabinoxylans have been reported to be associated with their solubility and molecular features. The current study reports the development of a functional bread using a combination of AX-enriched material (AEM and optimal commercial endoxylanase. The total AX content of bread was increased to 8.2 g per 100 g available carbohydrates. The extractability of AX in breads with and without endoxylanase was determined. The results demonstrate that water-extractable AX (WE-AX increased progressively through the bread making process. The application of endoxylanase also increased WE-AX content. The presence of 360 ppm of endoxylanase had positive effects on the bread characteristics in terms of bread volume and firmness by converting the water unextractable (WU-AX to WE-AX. In addition, the molecular weight (Mw distribution of the WE-AX of bread with and without endoxylanase was characterized by size-exclusion chromatography. The results show that as the portion of WE-AX increased, the amount of high Mw WE-AX (higher than 100 kDa decreased, whereas the amount of low Mw WE-AX (lower than 100 kDa increased from 33.2% to 44.2% through the baking process. The low Mw WE-AX further increased to 75.5% with the application of the optimal endoxylanase (360 ppm.

  20. Molecular Features of Wheat Endosperm Arabinoxylan Inclusion in Functional Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weili; Hu, Hui; Wang, Qi; Brennan, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    Arabinoxylan (AX) is a major dietary fibre component found in a variety of cereals. Numerous health benefits of arabinoxylans have been reported to be associated with their solubility and molecular features. The current study reports the development of a functional bread using a combination of AX-enriched material (AEM) and optimal commercial endoxylanase. The total AX content of bread was increased to 8.2 g per 100 g available carbohydrates. The extractability of AX in breads with and without endoxylanase was determined. The results demonstrate that water-extractable AX (WE-AX) increased progressively through the bread making process. The application of endoxylanase also increased WE-AX content. The presence of 360 ppm of endoxylanase had positive effects on the bread characteristics in terms of bread volume and firmness by converting the water unextractable (WU)-AX to WE-AX. In addition, the molecular weight (Mw) distribution of the WE-AX of bread with and without endoxylanase was characterized by size-exclusion chromatography. The results show that as the portion of WE-AX increased, the amount of high Mw WE-AX (higher than 100 kDa) decreased, whereas the amount of low Mw WE-AX (lower than 100 kDa) increased from 33.2% to 44.2% through the baking process. The low Mw WE-AX further increased to 75.5% with the application of the optimal endoxylanase (360 ppm). PMID:28239111

  1. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Refined and Whole Wheat Flour and Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Lilei Yu; Anne-Laure Nanguet; Trust Beta

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were employed to determine the content of ethanol extractable phenolic compounds. HPLC was used to detect the presence of phenolic acids prior to their confirmation using LC-MS/MS. Whole wheat flour showed significantly ...

  2. Allelic analysis of low molecular weight glutenin subunits using 2-DGE in Korean wheat cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) was used to determine the allelic compositions of LMW-GS in 32 Korean wheat cultivars. Protein patterns generated by 2-DGE from each cultivar were compared to patterns from standard wheat cultivars for each allele. At the Glu-A3 locus, thirteen c, twelve ...

  3. Reduction of acrylamide in whole-wheat bread by combining lactobacilli and yeast fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri Esfahani, Behnaz; Kadivar, Mahdi; Shahedi, Mohammad; Soleimanian-Zad, Sabihe

    2017-11-01

    This study mainly focuses on a strategy for reducing acrylamide content in whole-wheat bread by combining lactobacilli and yeast in sourdough breadmaking. Combinations of sourdough (fermented dough using different Lactobacillus strains including Lactobacillus plantarum PTCC 1896 [probiotic], L. sakei DSM 20,017, L. rhamnosus DSM 20,021, and L. delbrueckii DSM 20,081) and yeast, in comparison with yeast alone, were used for breadmaking. The results showed that acrylamide levels in breads fermented using sourdough+yeast were in all cases much lower (6.9-20 μg/kg on a dry weight basis [d.b.]) than those in the yeast-only fermented bread (47.6 μg/kg d.b.). Significant (p bread (r = 0.925, p breads and either the reducing sugar or free amino acid contents in dough samples. According to the different effects of Lactobacillus strains, it could be concluded that the acrylamide reducing potential of lactobacilli was strain-specific, with L. rhamnosus being the most effective. This suggests that sourdough fermentation with appropriate Lactobacillus strains can be used as an advantageous technology to reduce the acrylamide content of whole-wheat breads.

  4. Genetic analysis of differences in stomatal guard cell lengths of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталия Петровна Ламари

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Variation in stomatal guard cell length of parental cultivars and its inheritance in F1 and F2 hybrids have been studied after crossing between contrast genotypes of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Analysis of F2 populations has shown the action of three non-allelic genes in control of stomatal guard cell length of parental cultivars

  5. Quality and cost evaluation of bread produced from blends of wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study was necessitated by the need to improve the nutritional quality of baked products, ensure their acceptability and the baker's profitability. Objective: The aim of the study therefore was to evaluate the quality and cost of bread produced from composite flours of wheat and partially defatted soy. Materials ...

  6. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampuse Solvita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease at higher amounts. Sensory evaluation (appearance; surface, crust; porosity; texture, crumb; taste, and flavour of wheat bread with pumpkin revealed very high consumer acceptance except sample with 50% pomace addition. Total carotene content and colour b* value in wheat bread increased by adding pumpkin by-products. It is recommended to add 5% and 10% of pumpkin powder and no more than 30% of pumpkin pomace (calculated per 100 kg of flour to dough for production of wheat bread with pumpkin by-product additions.

  7. Volatile Compounds and Inositol Hexakisphosphate (IP6) Content in Wholemeal Wheat Bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohd Noor, Nor Qhairul Izzreen B

    In paper I and II, the influence of different fermentation temperature (8°C, 16°C and 32°C) and yeast level (2%, 4% and 6%) on the formation of volatile compounds in wholemeal wheat bread were investigated. The fermentation times were regulated to optimum bread height for each treatment......-methylbutanol. Fermentation with low yeast level (2%) resulted in bread with higher relative areas of 2- and 3-methylbutanal as well as (E)-2-nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal as important lipid oxidation compound in bread. Contrary, fermentation of bread with 6% yeast resulted in higher relative area...... stage of bread-making; after mixing, after fermentation and after baking. Around 60 to 70% of the initial value of IP6 in the flour (1002 mg/g) was reduced after dough mixing and additional 10 to 20% after fermentation. No further degradation of IP6 was observed in all bread after baking. Dough added...

  8. Products deriving from microbial fermentation are linked to insulinaemic response in pigs fed breads prepared from whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Serena, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The effects of wheat and rye breads made from whole-wheat grain (WWG), wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on net portal absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients (glucose, SCFA and lactate) and apparent insulin secretion were studied in a model experiment with catheterised...

  9. Products deriving from microbial fermentation are linked to insulinaemic response in pigs fed breads prepared from whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry; Serena, Anja; Hendrickson, Jessica; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2011-02-01

    The effects of wheat and rye breads made from whole-wheat grain (WWG), wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on net portal absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients (glucose, SCFA and lactate) and apparent insulin secretion were studied in a model experiment with catheterised pigs. The breads were similar in dietary fibre (DF, 120-125 g/kg DM) but differed in arabinoxylans (50-62 g/kg), β-glucans (4-9 g/kg) and content of soluble DF (13-29 g/kg). Six pigs in a repeated 3 × 3 crossover design were fitted with catheters in the portal vein and the mesenteric artery and a portal flow probe. Pigs were fed three meals daily (at 09.00, 14.00 and 19.00 hours), and blood profiles were collected repeatedly from 08.30 until 19.00 hours once weekly. Net portal absorption of glucose was similar among breads and between meals. In contrast, insulin secretion was lowest (P bread (3·9 nmol/h), intermediate in pigs fed WAF bread (5·4 nmol/h) and highest in pigs fed WWG bread (5·9 nmol/h), indicating that RAF bread improved insulin economy. Portal concentrations of propionate, butyrate and valerate were high, intermediate and low (P breads, respectively. Insulin secretion was higher (P bread was able to improve insulin economy compared to WWG bread.

  10. Impact of Triticum mosaic virus infection on hard winter wheat milling and bread baking quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rebecca A; Martin, T Joe; Seifers, Dallas L

    2012-03-15

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a newly discovered wheat virus. Information regarding the effect of wheat viruses on milling and baking quality is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of TriMV infection on the kernel characteristics, milling yield and bread baking quality of wheat. Commercial hard winter varieties evaluated included RonL, Danby and Jagalene. The TriMV resistance of RonL is low, while that of Danby and Jagalene is unknown. KS96HW10-3, a germplasm with high TriMV resistance, was included as a control. Plots of each variety were inoculated with TriMV at the two- to three-leaf stage. Trials were conducted at two locations in two crop years. TriMV infection had no effect on the kernel characteristics, flour yield or baking properties of KS96HW10-3. The effect of TriMV on the kernel characteristics of RonL, Danby and Jagalene was not consistent between crop years and presumably an environmental effect. The flour milling and bread baking properties of these three varieties were not significantly affected by TriMV infection. TriMV infection of wheat plants did not affect harvested wheat kernel characteristics, flour milling properties or white pan bread baking quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappi, Jenni; Mykkänen, Hannu; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Kirjavainen, Pirkka; Katina, Kati; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Poutanen, Kaisa; Kolehmainen, Marjukka

    2014-11-04

    Rye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Twenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre) during the test periods. A meal test providing 51/33/11 E % from carbohydrates/fat/protein was conducted at the end of each period. Fasting and postprandial plasma samples were analysed for glucose, insulin, and SCFA. Glucose and insulin responses and plasma concentrations of SCFAs to the meal test were similar between the WGR and BRB + WW periods. When compared to the WW period, postprandial insulin concentration at 120 min was lower (p = 0.023) and the first-phase insulin secretion improved (p = 0.033) only after the WGR period, whereas postprandial concentrations of butyrate (p bread periods. Beneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than WGR when compared to WW alone. Postprandially measured glucose metabolism and concentrations of SCFAs provided additional information along with fasting measurements.

  12. Population densities of wheat thrips, Haplothrips tritici Kurdjumov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population densities of Haplothrips tritici (H. tritici) Kurdjumov (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) were studied in Kahramanmaras, Turkey. In 2002, bread wheat cultivars, Bocro 4, Pehlivan and Yüreğir 89, durum wheat cultivars, Balcali 85, Ceylan 95 and Harran 95 and barley cultivars, Esterel and Pacific, were used. In 2003 ...

  13. Maximizing the concentrations of wheat grain fructans in bread by exploring strategies to prevent their yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae )-mediated degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspreet, Joran; Hemdane, Sami; Dornez, Emmie; Cuyvers, Sven; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2013-02-13

    The degradation of endogenous wheat grain fructans, oligosaccharides with possible health-promoting potential, during wheat whole meal bread making was investigated, and several strategies to prevent their degradation were evaluated. Up to 78.4 ± 5.2% of the fructans initially present in wheat whole meal were degraded during bread making by the action of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) invertase. The addition of sucrose to dough delayed fructan degradation but had no effect on final fructan concentrations. However, yeast growth conditions and yeast genotype did have a clear impact. A 3-fold reduction of fructan degradation could be achieved when the commercial bread yeast strain was replaced by yeast strains with lower sucrose degradation activity. Finally, fructan degradation during bread making could be prevented completely by the use of a yeast strain lacking invertase. These results show that the nutritional profile of bread can be enhanced through appropriate yeast technology.

  14. Postprandial differences in the plasma metabolome of healthy Finnish subjects after intake of a sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread versus white wheat bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The mechanism behind the lowered postprandial insulin demand observed after rye bread intake compared to wheat bread is unknown. The aim of this study was to use the metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolites related to amino acid metabolism involved in this mechanism. Methods A sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread (RB) and a standard white wheat bread (WB) as a reference were served in random order to 16 healthy subjects. Test bread portions contained 50 g available carbohydrate. In vitro hydrolysis of starch and protein were performed for both test breads. Blood samples for measuring glucose and insulin concentrations were drawn over 4 h and gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured. Changes in the plasma metabolome were investigated by applying a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform (GC×GC-TOF-MS). Results Plasma insulin response to RB was lower than to WB at 30 min (P = 0.004), 45 min (P = 0.002) and 60 min (P bread intake, and plasma glucose response was significantly higher at time point 90 min after RB than WB intake (P = 0.045). The starch hydrolysis rate was higher for RB than WB, contrary to the in vitro protein digestibility. There were no differences in GER between breads. From 255 metabolites identified by the metabolomics platform, 26 showed significant postprandial relative changes after 30 minutes of bread intake (p and q values bread intake. Conclusions A single meal of a low fibre sourdough rye bread producing low postprandial insulin response brings in several changes in plasma amino acids and their metabolites and some of these might have properties beneficial for health. PMID:22011443

  15. Antioxidant capacity and bioaccessibility of buckwheat-enhanced wheat bread phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Bączek, Natalia; Zieliński, Henryk

    2016-01-01

    The impact of an in vitro procedure that mimics the physiochemical changes occurring in gastric and small intestinal digestion on the antioxidant capacity and bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds from 16 types of buckwheat-enhanced wheat breads was assessed. The methodology was based on the Global Antioxidant Response (GAR) which combined bioaccessible antioxidant capacity of the soluble fraction from digestible portion measured by the standard Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay and antioxidant capacity of the insoluble fraction from the undigested portion by the QUENCHER method. The bioaccessibility of the phenolics was measured in the soluble fraction with Folin-Cicalteu reagent and in the insoluble fraction by modified QUENCHER method. The studies showed almost 20-fold higher GAR values as compared to the antioxidant capacity of the respective undigested reference breads. The bioaccessible antioxidant capacity of soluble fraction from digestible portion increased significantly whereas the undigested residue displayed antioxidant capacity that accounted for up to 15 % of the GAR. The bioaccessible phenolics accounted for up to 90 % of the total phenolics after digestion and were highly correlated with GAR results of buckwheat-enriched wheat breads. Our results indicate that in vitro digestion is the crucial step that releases of high amount of phenolic antioxidants. The combination of QUENCHER assay with Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and Total Phenolic Content (TPC) assay estimated on Folin-Ciocalteu reagent has been useful for the determination of the bioaccessible antioxidant activity and phenolics of the soluble and insoluble fraction of buckwheat-enhanced wheat breads.

  16. Patterns of homoeologous gene expression shown by RNA sequencing in hexaploid bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Lindsey J; Belfield, Eric J; Jiang, Caifu; Brown, Carly; Mithani, Aziz; Harberd, Nicholas P

    2014-04-11

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has a large, complex and hexaploid genome consisting of A, B and D homoeologous chromosome sets. Therefore each wheat gene potentially exists as a trio of A, B and D homoeoloci, each of which may contribute differentially to wheat phenotypes. We describe a novel approach combining wheat cytogenetic resources (chromosome substitution 'nullisomic-tetrasomic' lines) with next generation deep sequencing of gene transcripts (RNA-Seq), to directly and accurately identify homoeologue-specific single nucleotide variants and quantify the relative contribution of individual homoeoloci to gene expression. We discover, based on a sample comprising ~5-10% of the total wheat gene content, that at least 45% of wheat genes are expressed from all three distinct homoeoloci. Most of these genes show strikingly biased expression patterns in which expression is dominated by a single homoeolocus. The remaining ~55% of wheat genes are expressed from either one or two homoeoloci only, through a combination of extensive transcriptional silencing and homoeolocus loss. We conclude that wheat is tending towards functional diploidy, through a variety of mechanisms causing single homoeoloci to become the predominant source of gene transcripts. This discovery has profound consequences for wheat breeding and our understanding of wheat evolution.

  17. Patterns of homoeologous gene expression shown by RNA sequencing in hexaploid bread wheat.

    KAUST Repository

    Leach, Lindsey J

    2014-04-11

    BACKGROUND: Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has a large, complex and hexaploid genome consisting of A, B and D homoeologous chromosome sets. Therefore each wheat gene potentially exists as a trio of A, B and D homoeoloci, each of which may contribute differentially to wheat phenotypes. We describe a novel approach combining wheat cytogenetic resources (chromosome substitution \\'nullisomic-tetrasomic\\' lines) with next generation deep sequencing of gene transcripts (RNA-Seq), to directly and accurately identify homoeologue-specific single nucleotide variants and quantify the relative contribution of individual homoeoloci to gene expression. RESULTS: We discover, based on a sample comprising ~5-10% of the total wheat gene content, that at least 45% of wheat genes are expressed from all three distinct homoeoloci. Most of these genes show strikingly biased expression patterns in which expression is dominated by a single homoeolocus. The remaining ~55% of wheat genes are expressed from either one or two homoeoloci only, through a combination of extensive transcriptional silencing and homoeolocus loss. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that wheat is tending towards functional diploidy, through a variety of mechanisms causing single homoeoloci to become the predominant source of gene transcripts. This discovery has profound consequences for wheat breeding and our understanding of wheat evolution.

  18. Effect of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with High Quality Cassava Flour on the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Sensory Quality, and Microbial Quality of Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, Chinedum; Eleazu, Kate; Aniedu, Chinyere; Amajor, John; Ikpeama, Ahamefula; Ebenzer, Ike

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, wheat flour was mixed with high quality cassava flour (HQCF) in several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40, and used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) cassava bread, respectively. 100% wheat bread was prepared as a control (100% wheat bread). Five bread samples were prepared per group. Antioxidant assays [i.e., 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power assay] revealed that the bread samples had considerable antioxidant capacities. Substitution of wheat flour with HQCF at various concentrations resulted in dose dependent decreases in the mineral and protein contents of the resulting bread samples. The crude fiber content of the bread samples was minimal, while the carbohydrate content of the bread samples ranged from 43.86% to 48.64%. A 20% substitution of wheat flour with HQCF yielded bread samples with a general acceptability that was comparable to that of 100% wheat bread. The mean bacteria counts of the bread samples ranged from 2.0×103 CFU/mL to 1.4×104 CFU/mL, while the fungal counts ranged from 0 CFU/mL to 3×103 CFU/mL. There was a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the reducing powers of the bread samples (R2=0.871) and a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the flavonoid contents of the bread samples (R2=0.487). The higher microbial load of the NRCRI cassava bread samples indicates that these bread samples may have a shorter shelf life than the 100% wheat bread. The significant positive correlation between total flavonoid content and reducing power (R2=0.750) suggests that the flavonoids present in the lipophilic fractions of the bread samples could be responsible for the reductive capacities of the bread samples. PMID:25054110

  19. Concentrated arabinoxylan in wheat bread has beneficial effects as rye breads on glucose and changes in gene expressions in insulin-sensitive tissues of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartvigsen, Merete Lindberg; Jeppesen, Per Bendix; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Njabe, Elvis Ngande; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2013-05-29

    The health-promoting effects of dietary fiber may vary with content, structure, and composition in the diet. The aim was to study how low-fiber wheat bread (WB), wheat bread supplemented with wheat arabinoxylan (AX) or oat β-glucan (BG), whole meal rye bread (RM), and rye bread with kernels (RK) affected central parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and gene changes of Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Blood glucose response areas after an oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower after AX (mean ± SEM; 2117 ± 170 mmol/L·180 min), RM (1978 ± 206 mmol/L·180 min), and RK (2234 ± 262 mmol/L·180 min) breads than after WB (3586 ± 100 mmol/L·180 min; p wheat bread had beneficial effects on glycemic control as whole grain rye bread in this animal model.

  20. Mixture design of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch for optimization of gluten free bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, Camino M; Merino, Cristina; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Gluten-free bread production requires gluten-free flours or starches. Rice flour and maize starch are two of the most commonly used raw materials. Over recent years, gluten-free wheat starch is available on the market. The aim of this research was to optimize mixtures of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch using an experimental mixture design. For this purpose, dough rheology and its fermentation behaviour were studied. Quality bread parameters such as specific volume, texture, cell structure, colour and acceptability were also analysed. Generally, starch incorporation reduced G* and increased the bread specific volume and cell density, but the breads obtained were paler than the rice flour breads. Comparing the starches, wheat starch breads had better overall acceptability and had a greater volume than maize-starch bread. The highest value for sensorial acceptability corresponded to the bread produced with a mixture of rice flour (59 g/100 g) and wheat starch (41 g/100 g).

  1. Phytate negatively influences wheat dough and bread characteristics by interfering with cross-linking of glutenin molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of added phytate on dough properties and bread baking quality was studied to determine the role of phytate in the impaired functional properties of whole grain wheat flour for baking bread. Phytate addition to refined flour at a 1% level substantially increased mixograph mixing time, g...

  2. Dry-fractionation of wheat bran increases the bioaccessibility of phenolic acids in breads made from processed bran fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemery, Y.M.; Anson, N.M.; Havenaar, R.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Noort, M.W.J.; Rouau, X.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential of using ultra-fine grinding and electrostatic separation of wheat bran as methods to improve the bioaccessibility of para-coumaric acid (pCA), sinapic acid (SA) and ferulic acid (FA) from bran-rich breads. Bran fractions were produced and used to bake white bread,

  3. High molecular weight glutenin subunits of wheat : qualitative and quantitative variation in relation to bread-making quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolster, P.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the poor bread-making quality of the wheat grown in The Netherlands, only a small part of production is used for baking of bread. Therefore quality improvement is a major aim of plant breeding. Unfortunately, breeding for breadmaking quality is hampered by its complexity. The suitability

  4. Genetic architecture of seed longevity in bread wheat (Triticum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-20

    Jan 20, 2017 ... some non-congruency obtains between these two forms of testing for longevity. The genes underlying longevity appear to be independent of known genes determining dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting. [Arif MAR, Nagel M, Lohwasser U and Börner A 2017 Genetic architecture of seed longevity in bread ...

  5. Organoleptic and glycemic properties of chickpea-wheat composite breads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zafar, Tasleem A; Al-Hassawi, Fatima; Al-Khulaifi, Fatima; Al-Rayyes, Ghanima; Waslien, Carol; Huffman, Fatma G

    2015-01-01

    ...), WWB supplemented with chickpea flour at 25 % (25%ChB) and 35 % (35%ChB) levels. These breads were tested in healthy female subjects for acceptability and for effect on appetite, blood glucose, and physical discomfort in digestion...

  6. Plantain, banana and wheat flour composites in bread making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research into the use of indigenous raw materials in the production of composite bread, cakes and confectionery products has been carried out in several African research institutes and universities. These investigations have proven beyond doubt the baking potentials of various tropical crops including plantain and banana ...

  7. Studies regarding the influence of brown flaxseed flour addition in wheat flour of a very good quality for bread making on bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Gabriela CODINA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to incorporate brown flaxseed into bread in order to improve it quality. For this purpose, different levels of whole ground brown flaxseed (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were used to substitute wheat flour 650 type of a very good quality for bread making. The bread samples obtained were analyzed from the physical, colour, crumb cell, textural and sensory characteristics point of view. Samples containing 10% of brown flaxseed were with the highest values for loaf volume, porosity and elasticity. The control sample had lowerest redness and greenness value. The maximum hardness was found for bread with 20% brown flaxseed addition. With the increase level of brown flaxseed addition large cells can be noticed in crumb structure of bread. Samples containing 20% of flaxseed were rated poorest in tase, texture, overall acceptability, appearance. Our results indicated that brown flaxseed addition could be added to a typical bread formulation up to levels of 10% with a good overall acceptability offering promising healthy and nutritious alternative to consumers. Between bread flour characteristics at different brown flaxseed flour substitution levels principal component analysis shown significant correlations (p < 0.05 between bread physical characteristics (loaf volume, porosity, elasticity and bread  overall acceptability.

  8. Recombinant Wheat Endoplasmic Reticulum Oxidoreductin 1 Improved Wheat Dough Properties and Bread Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang; Wang, JingJing; Hou, Yi; Huang, Yan-Bo; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Li, Cunzhi; Li, Lin; Hu, Song-Qing

    2017-03-15

    Recombinant wheat endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1 (wEro1) with considerable ability was expressed in Escherichia coli. The functional roles of wEro1 in flour processing quality were investigated by farinographic, rheological, texture profile analysis, electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. wEro1 exhibited an obvious oxidation activity of sulfhydryl groups in small molecule and protein. Addition of wEro1 could strengthen the processing quality of dough, indicated by the improved mixing characteristics, viscoelastic properties, and bread qualities. These improvement effects of wEro1 could be attributed to the formation of macromolecular gluten polymers and massive gluten networks by disulfide cross-linking. Additionally, the increased β-turn structure further demonstrated the enhancement of dough strength. Moreover, the amount of peroxide in dough was improved significantly from 2.36 to 2.82 μmol/g of flour with 0.15% wEro1 treatment. Therefore, the results suggested that wEro1 is a promising novel flour improver.

  9. Differential Physiological Responses of Portuguese Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Genotypes under Aluminium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Garcia-Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The major limitation of cereal production in acidic soils is aluminium (Al phytotoxicity which inhibits root growth. Recent evidence indicates that different genotypes within the same species have evolved different mechanisms to cope with this stress. With these facts in mind, root responses of two highly Al tolerant Portuguese bread wheat genotypes—Barbela 7/72/92 and Viloso mole—were investigated along with check genotype Anahuac (Al sensitive, using different physiological and histochemical assays. All the assays confirmed that Barbela 7/72/92 is much more tolerant to Al phytotoxicity than Viloso Mole. Our results demonstrate that the greater tolerance to Al phytotoxicity in Barbela 7/72/92 than in Viloso Mole relies on numerous factors, including higher levels of organic acid (OAs efflux, particularly citrate efflux. This might be associated with the lower accumulation of Al in the root tips, restricting the Al-induced lipid peroxidation and the consequent plasma membrane integrity loss, thus allowing better root regrowth under Al stress conditions. Furthermore, the presence of root hairs in Barbela 7/72/92 might also help to circumvent Al toxicity by facilitating a more efficient uptake of water and nutrients, particularly under Al stress on acid soils. In conclusion, our findings confirmed that Portuguese bread wheat genotype Barbela 7/72/92 represents an alternative source of Al tolerance in bread wheat and could potentially be used to improve the wheat productivity in acidic soils.

  10. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... its vegetative growth and seed productivity are sensi- tive to high ... sition of shoot meristem from vegetative-to-reproductive phase, in ...... Wheat crop usually follows summer sown rice or autumn planted potato crops. The crop cycle is of about 150 days for wheat seeded at the optimum sow- ing time in ...

  11. Effect of consumption of micronutrient enriched wheat steamed bread on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su-Que, Lan; Ya-Ning, Meng; Xing-Pu, Li; Ye-Lun, Zhang; Guang-Yao, Song; Hui-Juan, Ma

    2013-05-17

    Steamed wheat bread have previously been shown to induce comparatively high postprandial plasma glucose responses, on the contrary, buckwheat products induced lower postprandial plasma glucose. The present study was to assess the effects of micronutrient enriched bread wheat variety Jizi439 and buckwheat on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and diabetic subjects comparing with buckwheat and other bread wheat varieties. Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of bread wheat variety Jizi439 on the postprandial plasma glucose levels of the randomly selected subjects. The first experiment involved three types of steamed bread with equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate fed to 10 normal weight young healthy subjects. Two types of steamed bread were made from two purple-grain bread wheat varieties, Jizi439 and Chu20, respectively, and the third type was made from the mixture of different white grain wheat varieties. Plasma glucose levels of each subject were measured at 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 min after eating. Glucose was used as a reference, the total area under curve (AUC) and glycemic index (GI) was calculated for test meal. The second experiment was performed among ten type 2 diabetics who were served equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate of steamed bread made from Jizi 439, the mixture of white grain bread wheat and buckwheat, respectively. The plasma glucose increment was determined two hours thereafter. In the first experiment, consumption of the steamed bread made from Jizi439 resulted in the least increase in plasma glucose and the GI was significantly lower than that of Chu20 and the mixture. In the second experiment, the average of postprandial 2 h plasma glucose increment of Jizi439 was 2.46 mmol/L which was significantly lower than that of the mixture of white wheat but was not significantly different from buckwheat. The results indicated that consumption of Jizi439 steamed bread resulted in significantly lower plasma glucose in

  12. Biofortification with Iron and Zinc Improves Nutritional and Nutraceutical Properties of Common Wheat Flour and Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccolini, Valentina; Pellegrino, Elisa; Coccina, Antonio; Fiaschi, Anna Ida; Cerretani, Daniela; Sgherri, Cristina; Quartacci, Mike Frank; Ercoli, Laura

    2017-07-12

    The effect of field foliar Fe and Zn biofortification on concentration and potential bioavailability of Fe and Zn and health-promoting compounds was studied in wholemeal flour of two common wheat varieties (old vs modern). Moreover, the effect of milling and bread making was studied. Biofortification increased the concentration of Zn (+78%) and its bioavailability (+48%) in the flour of the old variety, whereas it was ineffective in increasing Fe concentration in both varieties. However, the old variety showed higher concentration (+41%) and bioavailability (+26%) of Fe than the modern one. As regard milling, wholemeal flour had higher Fe, Zn concentration and health-promoting compounds compared to white flour. Bread making slightly change Fe and Zn concentration but greatly increased their bioavailability (77 and 70%, respectively). All these results are of great support for developing a production chain of enriched functional bread having a protective role against chronic cardio-vascular diseases.

  13. Cassava Flour Substitution Modulates Glycemic Responses and Glycemic Index of Wheat Breads in Apparent Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Ebelechukwu N; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Ozumba, Augusta U; Adewale, Chris O; Kayode, Funmi O; Asieba, Godfrey O; Adesegha, Olubukola I; Elemo, Gloria N

    2017-07-04

    Different carbohydrate foods produce different glycemic responses even with little or no difference in macronutrient composition. Cassava constitutes one of the major staples in Nigeria. Four blends of cassava-wheat bread samples with 0, 10, 15, and 20% cassava flour inclusion were fed individually to groups of healthy human volunteers. Subjects were studied on separate occasions in the morning after a 10-12-hr overnight fast. Blood glucose responses were measured at intervals of 30 min over a period of 2 hr. Glucose was used as a reference food. There were normal glucose responses to the bread samples studied. Increase in cassava incorporation led to less significant glycemic responses. The glycemic index values ranged from 91-94. Results from this study indicate that the inclusion of cassava flour in bread production might not pose a threat to blood glucose response of individuals.

  14. heterotic performance of quality characteristics of bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Sleper ... Gosal, 2001). Heterosis and inbreeding depression has a great influence on the breeding method to be used for improvement of a cultivar,. e.g. where heterosis is high, hybrid breeding method is used whereas in inbreeding depression.

  15. WHEAT CULTIVARS: RESPONSE TO IRRIGATION AND SOWING DATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klar A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in an Alfisol-Oxisol transition sandy-clay texture, using six wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum, L.: two tall and tolerant to soil aluminium toxicity (BH-1146, and IAC-18, and four semi-dwarf cultivars - Anahuac, IAC-162, IAC-24, and IAC-60 - of which only the first two are sensitive to soil aluminium toxicity. Two minimum soil water potentials (ys levels were used: 1. watered, when Ys reached about -0.05 MPa; 2. dry, when the water potential reached around -1.5 MPa. Two sowing dates, 05/22/92 and 06/11/92, were used. The results showed that Anahuac and IAC-60 are the most indicated cultivars for the studied region; when irrigated all cultivars presented similar yield level under no irrigation conditions; the irrigation was not sufficient to avoid yield differences between the two growing seasons; differences in rainfall were important for the crop in the dry treatment for both seasons.

  16. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J; Deacon, Carolyn F; Rehfeld, Jens F; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G

    2015-10-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products with a similar composition were created using different processing conditions. The postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response to bread with a compact structure (flat bread, FB) was compared to bread with a porous structure (control bread, CB) in a randomized, crossover study with ten healthy male volunteers. Pasta (PA), with a very compact structure, was used as the control. The rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE), endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate (GCR) was calculated using stable isotopes. Furthermore, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, several intestinal hormones and bile acids were analyzed. The structure of FB was considerably more compact compared to CB, as confirmed by microscopy, XRT analysis (porosity) and density measurements. Consumption of FB resulted in lower peak glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (ns) responses and a slower initial RaE compared to CB. These variables were similar to the PA response, except for RaE which remained slower over a longer period after PA consumption. Interestingly, the GCR after FB was higher than expected based on the insulin response, indicating increased insulin sensitivity or insulin-independent glucose disposal. These results demonstrate that the structure of wheat bread can influence the postprandial metabolic response, with a more compact structure being more beneficial for health. Bread-making technology should be further explored to create healthier products.

  17. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chaoran, E-mail: Chaoran.Li3@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Mörtelmaier, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.Moertelmaier@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Winter, Josef, E-mail: Josef.Winter@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gallert, Claudia, E-mail: Claudia.Gallert@HS-Emden-Leer.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); University of Applied Science, Hochschule Emden-Leer, Faculty of Technology, Division Microbiology – Biotechnology, Constantiaplatz 4, D-26723 Emden (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Volatile fatty acid spectra of acidified WBS, RBS or FBS differ, but methanogenesis is similar. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Biogas improvement by co-digestion of wheat and rye bread. • Increased population density at high organic loading rates. • Less Pelotomaculum but increased numbers of Syntrophobacter and Smithella found in rye bread reactor. • Replacement of Methanosarcinales by acetate-oxidizers in rye bread co-digestion. • Increasing proportion of Methanomicrobiales in biowaste + rye bread reactor. - Abstract: Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO{sub 2} and hydrogen.

  18. Enrichment of Bread with Nutraceutical-Rich Mushrooms: Impact of Auricularia auricula (Mushroom) Flour Upon Quality Attributes of Wheat Dough and Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Biao; Zhao, Liyan; Yang, Wenjian; McClements, David Julian; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Edible mushrooms contain a variety of bioactive molecules that may enhance human health and wellbeing. Consequently, there is increasing interest in fortifying functional foods with these nutraceutical-rich substances. However, incorporation of mushroom-based ingredients into foods should not adversely affect the quality attributes of the final product. In this study, the impact of incorporating powdered Auricularia auricula, a widely consumed edible mushroom, into bread products was examined. The rheological and structural properties of wheat dough and bread supplemented with 0% to 10% (w/w) A. auricula flour were measured. Supplementation of wheat doughs with A. auricula flour increased the peak viscosity and enhanced their water holding capacity. Rapid viscosity analysis showed that peak and final viscosities of the blended flour (wheat flour with A. auricula flour) were higher than wheat flour alone. However, dough stability and elastic modulus were reduced by blending wheat flour with A. auricula flour. SEM observation showed that doughs with up to 5% (w/w) A. auricula flour had acceptable gluten network microstructure. Characterization of the quality attributes of bread indicated that incorporation of A. auricula flour at levels >5% negatively impacted bread volume, height, texture, and appearance. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. A kaizen approach to food safety quality management in the value chain from wheat to bread

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a Management Science approach to quality management in food production. Aspects of food quality, product conformance and reliability/food safety are examined, starting with wheat and ending with its value chain transformation into bread. Protein qualities that influence glycemic index levels in bread are used to compare the value chains of France and the US. With Kaizen models the book shows how changes in these characteristics are the result of management decisions made by the wheat growers in response to government policy and industry strategy. Lastly, it provides step-by-step instructions on how to apply kaizen methodology and Deming's work on quality improvement to make the HACCPs (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) in food safety systems more robust.

  20. Impact of frozen storage time on the volatile profile of wheat bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Joana; Martínez, Mario M; Bernal, José; Gómez, Manuel

    2017-10-01

    The freezing of wheat bread before aroma analyses is a common practice in order to preserve loss of the volatile profile. However, the impact of the frozen storage time on the aroma profile has not been studied. For this purpose, the volatile profiles of wheat bread frozen for 1, 2 and 4weeks were analysed employing solvent extraction and static headspace methoologies with GC/MS. The results revealed that the freezing was effective to prevent the loss of volatiles during the first week. However, after two weeks, there was an increase of volatile compounds, probably generated by chemical reactions. Thus, a maximum of one week of frozen storage was recommended when using the solvent extraction methodology. When using the static headspace method, the samples should be analysed on the same day as preparation, since the extraction was surprisingly increased due to the starch retrogradation that occurred during freezing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of the effects of chia gels on wheat doughand bread rheology as well as the optimization of breadroll production with the Nelder-Mead simplex method

    OpenAIRE

    Zettel, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is becoming increasingly popular as ingredient for baked goods. The aim of the first part of this thesis was to investigate the influence of gel from ground chia on the rheology of different wheat dough systems and the resulting baked goods. The evaluated products were wheat bread and sweet pan bread. The effects of chia incorporated as gel in wheat bread dough as hydrocolloid were characterized using empirical and fundamental rheological methods and differential...

  2. Properties and nutritional value of wheat bread enriched by hemp products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Švec

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemp (Cannabis sativa is annual plant that is native to China and remained as important material for food, industrial  and medical purposes. As source of cannabinoids belongs to controversial, but due to its excellent nutritional profile, non-gluten protein, fat and fibre it has potential in bakery products. Addition of 5% - 20% of hemp press cake fine flour and fine wholemeal significantly increased dietary fibre content, but their influence on volume of laboratory baked bread was different. Reflecting actual dosage, both types of hemp press cake flour diminished bun sizes about 6% - 33%; volumes of bread containing hulled wholemeal were comparable to standard (mean 310 mL/100 g vs. 333 ml/100 g, respectively. Only dehulled wholemeal hemp form increased the bread specific volume (6% - 30%, especially as 10% fortification (434 mL/100 g. Six Canadian hemp products were added as 10% and 20% on wheat flour base, comprising fine hemp flour and coarse hemp powder, dehulled whole seeds, hulled hemp seeds with sea salt as well as 50% and 43% hemp protein concentrates (KP1-KP6, respectively. The higher level of KP1, KP2, KP5 and KP6, the lower bread specific volumes were determined (decrease about 9% - 48%. Soft increase in buns size caused by 10% and 20% KP3 (323 and 319 ml/100 g vs. 296 mL/100 g was insignificant. The effect of KP4 was reversely verifiable, magnifying the parameter about 25% and 17%, respectively. In terms of protein content in bread, a level 11.75% in wheat bread has risen to approx. 14.5% and 18.0% when 10% and 20% of KP3 and KP5, respectively, was included into bread recipe. All six Canadian hemp products increased dietary fibre content in bread, mainly owing to KP4 and both protein concentrates (up to 4 and 3 times, respectively. Incorporation of hemp flour up to the level of 10% positively affected bread sensorial properties.

  3. Interaction of water unextractable solids and xylanase with gluten protein: effect of wheat cultivar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Vliet, van T.; Hamer, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    A previously proposed explanation for the change in gluten properties on addition of pentosans to doughs was based on data for only one wheat cultivar. Using three wheat cultivars, Scipion, Soissons and Amazon, differing in technological quality from weak to strong we have obtained results that

  4. Bread making properties of wheat flour supplemented with thermally processed hypoallergenic lupine flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillamon, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Pedrosa, M. M.; Varela, A.; Cabellos, B.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in using lupine for human nutrition due to its nutritional properties and health benefits. Moreover, lupine is used as an ingredient in bread making because of its functional and technological properties. However, a higher number of allergic reactions to this legume have recently been reported as a consequence of a more widespread consumption of lupine-based foods. In a previous study, several thermal treatments were applied to lupine seeds and flours resulting in reduced allergenicity. In order to study how this thermal processing (autoclaving and boiling) affects the bread making properties, raw and thermally processed lupine flours were used to replace 10% of wheat flour. The effect of supplementing wheat flour with lupine flour on physical dough properties, bread structure and sensory characteristics were analysed. The results indicated that thermally-treated lupine flours, had similar bread making and sensorial properties as untreated lupine flour. These thermal treatments could increase the potential use of lupine flour as a food ingredient while reducing the risk to provoke allergic reactions. (Author) 36 refs.

  5. Water footprint assessment along the wheat-bread value chain towards the sustainable use of freshwater in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohlotsane, Pascalina; Owusu-Sekyere, Enoch; Jordaan, Henry

    2017-04-01

    A significant amount of water is used in food production. The current increase in demand for food and impact of climate change place much pressure on the available water resources. South Africa is soon approaching complete utilisation of its available surface water, with irrigated agriculture accountable for about 63% of the country's available water use. This poses a threat to food security. Wheat is the largest winter cereal crop produced in South Africa, approximately 80% of this wheat is used to produce Bread. Bread consumption in South Africa is estimated at 2.8 billion loaves per annum. About 62 loaves of bread are consumed per person per annum with noticeable differences in preferences. Therefore, it is important to account for the amount of water used along the wheat-bread production chain. In this paper, we examined water footprint along the wheat-bread value chain. The water footprint concept provides an appropriate framework for analysis to find the link between the consumption of agricultural goods and the use of water resources. The paper employed the Global Water Footprint Standard approach to calculating the volumetric green, blue and grey water footprint along the wheat-bread value chain. Our findings reveal that wheat production at the farm level accounts for 99.95 percent of the total water footprint of the bread, while processing and wholesale levels only account for 0.56 per cent. Our findings highlight the importance of effective and efficient water use at the farm level for wheat production. Specifically, the total water footprint of wheat bread is 937.42m3.ton-1. The green water component was found to be 190.59m3.ton-1 and that of blue water was 745.28 m3.ton-1. Grey water footprint accounted for only 1.55 m3.ton-1. The results indicate that the amount of water used at farm level is the largest contributor to the total water footprint of bread. Given the blue water scarcity situation in South Africa, it is very critical for wheat producers to

  6. Bioavailability and metabolism of phenolic compounds from wholegrain wheat and aleurone-rich wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Letizia; Scazzina, Francesca; Leonardi, Roberto; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Newell, Michael; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Melegari, Camilla; Ray, Sumantra; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    This work aimed at investigating absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of phenolic compounds after consumption of wholegrain bread or bread enriched with an aleurone fraction. Two commercially available breads were consumed by 15 participants on three occasions and matched for either the amount of ferulic acid in the bread or the amount of bread consumed. Urine was collected for 48 h from all the volunteers for phenolic metabolite quantification. Blood samples were collected for 24 h following bread consumption in five participants. A total of 12 and 4 phenolic metabolites were quantified in urine and plasma samples, respectively. Metabolites were sulfate and glucuronic acid conjugates of phenolic acids, and high concentrations of ferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate, dihydroferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate, and dihydroferulic acid-O-glucuronide were observed. The bioavailability of ferulic acid was significantly higher from the aleurone-enriched bread when all ferulic acid metabolites were accounted for. The study shows that low amounts of aleurone-enriched bread resulted in equivalent plasma levels of ferulic acid as wholegrain bread. This could suggest that, if the absorbed phenolic metabolites after wholegrain product intake exert health benefits, equal levels could be reached through the consumption of lower doses of refined products enriched in aleurone fraction. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Wheat bread enriched with green coffee - In vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolics and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Dziki, Dariusz; Baraniak, Barbara

    2017-04-15

    The potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolics, caffeine and antioxidant activity of wheat bread enriched with green coffee were studied. Supplementation enhanced nutraceutical potential by improving phenolic content and lipid protecting capacity. The simulated-digestion-released phenolics (mainly caffeic acid, syringic acid and vanillic acid) from bread, also caused significant qualitative changes (chlorogenic acids were cleaved and significant amounts of caffeic acid and ferulic acid were determined). Compared to the control, for the bread with 1% and 5% of the functional component the contents of phenolics were 1.6 and 3.33 times higher. Also, an approximately 2.3-fold increase in antioxidant activity was found in bread containing 5% of the supplement. The compounds responsible for antioxidant potential have high bioaccessibility but poor bioavailability. The qualitative composition of the phenolic fraction has a key role in developing the antioxidant potential of bread; however, caffeine and synergism between antioxidants are also important considerations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physicochemical composition and glycemic index of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Akanbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study entails quality assessment of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat. Quality protein maize and wheat were processed into flours and mixed at various ratios for bread production. The proximate compositions, physical properties, glycemic response, functional and sensory properties of the samples were evaluated using standard methods. The result showed no significant difference (p<0.05 in the proximate composition parameters of the bread samples. The loaf height (2.50 - 3.95 cm, volume (291.00 - 415.00 cm3 and specific volume(1.72 - 2.42 cm3/g decreased significantly with increasing level of quality protein maize, however, loaf length was not affected by the substitution of quality protein maize. The result of the functional properties showed that final viscosity, water absorption and swelling capacity increased with increasing level of quality protein maize. The result of the glycemic response showed that the inclusion of quality protein maize resulted in decline in the blood glucose content (glycemic index of the products. The bread samples were generally acceptable however; bread with 100% wheat was the most preferred. The result of the sensory properties showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05 in the texture and taste of 100% wheat bread and the other samples. The study concluded that substitution of quality protein maize with wheat produced acceptable whole grain loaves that have positive effect on the reduction of blood glucose level.

  9. Resposta à vernalização de cultivares brasileiras de trigo Vernalization response of brazilian wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Maus Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vernalização é o processo pelo qual as plantas são induzidas a florescer através da exposição a temperaturas baixas não congelantes. Funções de resposta à vernalização foram ajustadas para caracterizar trigos de inverno, mas ainda não as foram para trigos brasileiros. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar a sensibilidade à vernalização de algumas cultivares de trigo do sul do Brasil e ajustar uma função não linear de reposta à vernalização para estas cultivares. Foram aplicados oito tratamentos de vernalização (0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 e 49 dias de vernalização em seis cultivares de trigo (BRS Louro, BRS 177, BRS Tarumã, CEP 51, CEP 52 e Nova Era. A cultivar BRS Louro não foi responsiva aos tratamentos de vernalização, na cultivar BRS Tarumã ocorreu forte sensibilidade à vernalização, similar a trigos de inverno, e nas cultivares BRS 177, CEP 51, CEP 52 e Nova Era a resposta à vernalização foi intermediária. Para as cultivares responsivas à vernalização foram ajustadas funções não lineares que podem ser usadas em modelos de simulação do desenvolvimento de cultivares sul brasileiras de trigo com distintos requerimentos em vernalização.Vernalization is a process by which plants are inducted to enter the reproductive phase through an exposure to low nonfreezing temperatures. Vernalization response functions have been proposed for winter wheats, but no indication of vernalization response functions for Brazilian wheats were found in the literature. The objectives of this study were to evaluate vernalization response of some Brazilian wheat cultivars and to fit a vernalization response function for these cultivars. Eight vernalization treatments (0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 vernalization days and six wheat cultivars (BRS Louro, BRS 177, BRS Tarumã, CEP 51, CEP 52 e Nova Era were used. The cultivar BRS Louro showed no response to vernalization, BRS Tarumã was strongly sensitive to

  10. Quality characteristics of northern-style Chinese steamed bread prepared from soft red winter wheat flours with waxy wheat flour substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality characteristics of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from two soft red winter (SRW) wheat flours blended with 0-30% waxy wheat flour (WWF) were determined to estimate the influence of starch amylose content. The increased proportion of WWF in blends raised mixograph absorption with insign...

  11. Evaluation Grain Yield and Yield Component of Three Wheat Cultivars to Drought Stress and Different Levels of Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Enayatgholizadeh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of drought stress and N fertilizer application on biological yield, grain yield and yield component of three wheat cultivars, a field experiment was conducted in 2006-2007 at Shushter region in Iran. The experiment was a factorial based on completely randomized block design with replications. Treatments were wheat cultivars (Chamran, Showa and Falat, N fertilizer in two levels (50 and 150 kg/ha and levels of drought stress (without stress, and stress at grain filling. Chamran and Falat were soft bread wheat type  and Showa was durum. Results indicated that under drought stress Chamran had the higher grain yield (5584 kg/ha as compared to Showa (5332 kg/ha and Falat (4821 kg/ha.The high level of N increased grain yield by 45% against low level N application. Response of Chamran to N fertiliser was more than that of Showa and Falat respectively. Spike number, grain number per spike and 1000 grain weight affected grain yield

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSED PRODUCTS OF WHEAT GERM ON GRAIN BREAD QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and introduction of new types of bakery products with increased nutritional value is one of the basic and urgent problems in the bakery industry. The solution of it is the use of whole grains, as well as secondary products of their processing. The use of by-products of wheat germ (oil, oilcake, oilcake flour, which are rich in proteins and enhances the nutritional value of products is considered to be a promising area in the bakery industry. At the same time the program objectives products, developed in the framework of the "Strategy of development of the food processing industry of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020"products, are expanding the production of cereal-based foods , and involving of secondary resources in the economy. These technologies are re-source efficient. They allow efficient use of by-products raw materials of the milling industry. The process for the preparation of grain bread on the basis of a thick sourdough from bioactivated wheat grain is known. However, despite all the advantages of grain breads with high amounts of dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins, they exhibit low levels of protein and lysine deficiency. At present larger preference is given to the raw materials of natural origin (millet, buckwheat and oatmeal flours, fruit puree, whole grains, oil, flour and wheat germ flakes, and etc. for foods enrichment in modern food science. Products of processing of wheat germ: oil, flakes, oilcake and oil-cake flour are widely used in bakery technology. To improve the nutritional value flour from wheat germ oilcake was used in the work. In the course of the research its positive effect on the quality of semi-finished and finished products was found. They differed from the control sample in a high content of antioxidants and better digestibility of proteins bread crumb.

  13. Heavy Metal Contents of Soils, Durum and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkılıç Yanardaǧ, Asuman

    2013-04-01

    Soils are vital for regulating the biological effects and mobility of metals in nature. Iron and zinc are some of the essential nutrients for plants and animals, while other metals are potentially toxic such as lead and cadmium. Toxic heavy metals (HMs) can be taken up easily by organisms. HMs inputs to soil via the application of metal-contained fertilizers often exceed outputs in crops and drainage waters, thus toxic HMs content in many agricultural soils tends to be gradually increasing. Thus adverse human health effects due to soil-plant and plant-human transfer of HMs have been enhanced. HMs may cause harmful effects on human health due to the ingestion of food grain grown in soils. The objectives of this study were (1) to understand the chemistry of metals in soils for managing their agricultural and ecological impacts, (2) to identify metal uptakes of different genotypes of wheat. Concentrations of HMs (Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Mo, Pb) in wheat were investigated in different agricultural areas in Southeast, Turkey. The results showed that concentrations of HMs were in following order: Mn>Ni>Zn>Cu>Pb>Mo>Cd in surface and next to surface soil and Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb> Ni>Mo>Cd in wheat, respectively. HMs concentrations of several soil samples exceeded the permissible limits of Europe standard except for Ni and Mn. In addition, concentration of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb were higher in bread wheat than in durum wheat; however, concentration of Mn, Ni and Mo were higher in durum wheat than in bread wheat. Unusual amount of heavy metals found in some fertilizers used in the Southeast region of Turkey, it becomes an important subject to determine the amount of metals added to the soil every year. Heavy metals uptake by plants still remains to be an interest for researchers. As the heavy metals contents of plants were below the threshold levels, we conclude that the quality of wheat is high and it should receive attention in national and international markets. Keywords: Heavy Metals

  14. allelic variation of hmw glutenin subunits of ethiopian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    D1 and eleven different banding patterns were identified. Few cultivars had biotypes at Glu-A1 and Glu-D1 loci. There were highly significant differences between genotypes and banding patterns for the SDS-sedimentation test, mixograph development time, alveograph strength and loaf volume; but not for protein content.

  15. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The semidominant Ppd-D1a mutation confers photoperiod-insensitivity or rapid flowering in wheat under short day and long day conditions. The objective of this study was to reveal the nature of interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a mutations (active alleles of the respective genes vrn-1 and Ppd-D1b). Twelve Indian ...

  16. Molecular markers for drought tolerance in bread wheat | Ameen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers associated with drought tolerance was used in this study to characterize drought tolerance in six wheat genotypes with developed marker assisted drought tolerance. Four of them were tolerant and two were drought sensitive genotypes. The results indicate that tolerant ...

  17. Evaluation of bread wheat genotypes for salinity tolerance under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In two consecutive seasons (2007-08 and 2008-09), field experiments were conducted at Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian and Biosaline Agricultural Research Station, Pakka Aana, Pakistan. During 2007-08, 103 wheat landrace genotypes were evaluated for salinity tolerance. During 2008-09, 47 selected ...

  18. allelic variation of hmw glutenin subunits of ethiopian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    reduced subunits of glutenin proteins bands are separated: the high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) subunits (Payne et al.,1980; Jackson et al., 1983). The HMW glutenin subunits (GS) of wheat protein are quantitatively minor, but functionally an important group of gluten proteins in the process of ...

  19. Molecular markers for drought tolerance in bread wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... this stress arises from the changes in cellular gene expression profile ... loped through breeding for wide or specific adaptation. (Fisher et al. ..... Drought stress response in wheat, physiological and Molecular analysis of resistance and sensitive genotypes. Plant Cell Environ. 29:2143-2152. Rashed MA ...

  20. Genetic analysis for high temperature tolerance in bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heat stress, characterised by a trend in average temperature increase during anthesis and grain filling, leads to forced maturity is one of the major constraints of wheat production in arid and, semiarid regions of the world. This study examined the nature and magnitude of gene action for yield and its contributing characters ...

  1. Molecular markers for drought tolerance in bread wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... this study to characterize drought tolerance in six wheat genotypes with developed marker assisted drought tolerance. Four of ..... Abdel-Tawab FM, Eman MF, Bahieledin A, Asmhan AM, Moselihy. (2003). Marker RAPD and ISSR marker related to drought tolerance in Rice. Egypt. J. Genet. Cytol. 36:195- ...

  2. Analysis of the bread wheat genome using whole-genome shotgun sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenchley, Rachel; Spannagl, Manuel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Barker, Gary L A; D'Amore, Rosalinda; Allen, Alexandra M; McKenzie, Neil; Kramer, Melissa; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Bolser, Dan; Kay, Suzanne; Waite, Darren; Trick, Martin; Bancroft, Ian; Gu, Yong; Huo, Naxin; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Sehgal, Sunish; Gill, Bikram; Kianian, Sharyar; Anderson, Olin; Kersey, Paul; Dvorak, Jan; McCombie, W Richard; Hall, Anthony; Mayer, Klaus F X; Edwards, Keith J; Bevan, Michael W; Hall, Neil

    2012-11-29

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a globally important crop, accounting for 20 per cent of the calories consumed by humans. Major efforts are underway worldwide to increase wheat production by extending genetic diversity and analysing key traits, and genomic resources can accelerate progress. But so far the very large size and polyploid complexity of the bread wheat genome have been substantial barriers to genome analysis. Here we report the sequencing of its large, 17-gigabase-pair, hexaploid genome using 454 pyrosequencing, and comparison of this with the sequences of diploid ancestral and progenitor genomes. We identified between 94,000 and 96,000 genes, and assigned two-thirds to the three component genomes (A, B and D) of hexaploid wheat. High-resolution synteny maps identified many small disruptions to conserved gene order. We show that the hexaploid genome is highly dynamic, with significant loss of gene family members on polyploidization and domestication, and an abundance of gene fragments. Several classes of genes involved in energy harvesting, metabolism and growth are among expanded gene families that could be associated with crop productivity. Our analyses, coupled with the identification of extensive genetic variation, provide a resource for accelerating gene discovery and improving this major crop.

  3. Reduced-Gliadin Wheat Bread: An Alternative to the Gluten-Free Diet for Consumers Suffering Gluten-Related Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Altamirano-Fortoul, Rossana; Real, Ana; Comino, Isabel; Sousa, Carolina; Rosell, Cristina M.; Barro, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Wheat flour cannot be tolerated by those who suffer allergies to gluten. Human pathologies associated with grain proteins have increased worldwide in recent years, and the only effective treatment available is a lifelong gluten-free diet, which is complicated to follow and detrimental to gut health. This manuscript describes the development of wheat bread potentially suitable for celiac patients and other gluten-intolerant individuals. We have made bread using wheat flour with very low content of the specific gluten proteins (near gliadin-free) that are the causal agents for pathologies such as celiac disease. Loaves were compared with normal wheat breads and rice bread. Organoleptic, nutritional, and immunotoxic properties were studied. The reduced-gliadin breads showed baking and sensory properties, and overall acceptance, similar to those of normal flour, but with up to 97% lower gliadin content. Moreover, the low-gliadin flour has improved nutritional properties since its lysine content is significantly higher than that of normal flour. Conservative estimates indicate that celiac patients could safely consume 67 grams of bread per day that is made with low-gliadin flour. However, additional studies, such as feeding trials with gluten-intolerant patients, are still needed in order to determine whether or not the product can be consumed by the general celiac population, as well as the actual tolerated amount that can be safely ingested. The results presented here offer a major opportunity to improve the quality of life for millions of sufferers of gluten intolerance throughout the world. PMID:24621595

  4. Utilization of a maltotetraose-producing amylase as a whole wheat bread improver: dough rheology and baking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Woosung; Lee, Sung Ho; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Lee, Suyong

    2014-08-01

    A maltotetraose-producing enzyme (G4-amylase) was utilized to improve the baking performance of whole-grain wheat flour. Whole-grain bread dough prepared with G4-amylase showed reduced water absorption and increased development time, while the dough stability was not affected. Also, the G4-amylase-treated samples exhibited lower Mixolab torque values than the control upon heating and cooling. Rheological measurements showed the decreased ratio of Rmax /E and increased tan δ, clearly demonstrating that the viscous characteristics of whole-grain bread dough became dominant with increasing levels of G4-amylase. The use of G4-amylase produced whole-grain wheat breads with a variety of maltooligosaccharides, primarily maltotetraose that positively contributed to the bread volume (1.2-fold higher than the control). Moreover, G4-amylase delayed the crumb firming of whole-grain wheat bread during a 7-d storage period, showing that it can function as an antiretrogradation agent to enhance the quality attributes of whole-grain wheat bread. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Effect of Buckwheat Processing Products on Dough and Bread Quality Made from Whole-Wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vira Drobot

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a brief overview of the current nutritional status of the Ukrainian population and describes useful buckwheat properties. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of buckwheat processing products (flour and flakes on the technological process and quality of bread made from whole-wheat flour. This paper describes and analyzes research data on the rheological properties of dough samples which were determined by farinograph and amylograph. Investigation of structural and mechanical properties of dough showed an increase in water-absorbing capacity in all samples when adding buckwheat products. Moreover, dough made with buckwheat flakes has a lower value of mixing tolerance index (by 47 % than dough made from buckwheat flour, and a higher valorimetric value (by 20 %. Determination of dough properties by amylogram has shown that a sample containing buckwheat flakes has a higher maximum viscosity than a sample containing buckwheat flour. Determination of the gas-production and gas-retention capacity of dough is also presented, along with an analysis of the quality of finished products based on the results of laboratory baking tests. The samples of bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes have better shape stability (by 21 %, specific volume (by 12 % and porosity (by 11 % than bread made from buckwheat flour. The organoleptic evaluation of finished product quality has shown that bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes has a more fluffy-texture, elastic crumb and uniform porosity than bread made from buckwheat flour. Buckwheat flakes proved to have a better effect on parameters of the technological process and quality of bread when compared with buckwheat flour.

  6. History of wheat cultivars released by Embrapa in forty years of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In forty years of genetic breeding of wheat, Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation has developed over a hundred new cultivars for different regions of Brazil. Information regarding identification of these cultivars is often requested from Embrapa breeders. Data on year of release, name of pre-commercial line, the cross made, and the company unit responsible for indication of the cultivar are not always easily accessible and are often scattered throughout different documents. The aim of this study was to conduct a historical survey of all the wheat cultivars released by Embrapa, aggregating the information in a single document. Since 1974, Embrapa has released 112 wheat cultivars, including 12 by Embrapa Soybean - CNPSo (Londrina, PR, 14 by Embrapa Cerrado - CPAC (Brasília, DF, 9 by Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste - CPAO (Dourados, MS, and 77 by Embrapa Wheat - CNPT (Passo Fundo, RS.

  7. Technological quality of dough and breads from commercial algarroba-wheat flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, M J; Salinas, M V; Carbas, B; Ferrero, C; Brites, C; Puppo, M C

    2017-06-01

    Algarroba flour is used to supplement lysine-limiting systems such as wheat flour due to its amino acidic composition. The effects of adding up to 30% of this flour to wheat flour (W-A30) on dough characteristics and breadmaking performance were studied. Dough rheology was tested by farinograph, oscillatory rheometry and texture profile analyses. Molecular mobility was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance, and thermal properties were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and viscoamylograph studies. Besides, different bread quality parameters were evaluated. Incorporation of algarroba flour resulted into increase in water absorption, development time and degree of softening, and decrease in stability of wheat flour, leading to softer, less adhesive and elastic dough, although at intermediate replacement levels cohesiveness improved. At the molecular level, a reduction of water activity and limited proton motion were observed in W-A30 samples, suggesting that protons were highly bound to the dough matrix. Dough samples with algarroba flour showed lower G' and G″ values than the control, although with the formation of a more elastic structure for W-A30. In addition, algarroba flour produced a protective effect on starch granule disruption and interfered with amylose-amylose association during cooling. The specific volume of breads decreased with the increase in algarroba level, W-A30 reaching the highest decrease (15%). Bread crumbs with algarroba flour exhibited higher values of hardness and resilience. The use of algarroba flour resulted in lower quality when compared to the control. However, algarroba flour at 20% level can be added to wheat flour to obtain bakery products of similar technological quality and with improved nutritional components.

  8. Genetic diversity reduction in improved durum wheat cultivars of Morocco as revealed by microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Henkrar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It has been argued that genetic diversity in crop varieties has been on the decline in recent times due to plant breeding. This can have serious consequences for both the genetic vulnerability of crops and their plasticity when responding to changes in production environments. It is, therefore, vital for plant breeding programs to maintain sufficient diversity in the cultivars deployed for multi-period cultivation. In this study, to understand the temporal genetic diversity in durum wheat, 21 improved durum wheat cultivars released in Morocco, since 1956 and five exotic cultivars currently used in crossing programs were analyzed using 13 microsatellite markers. The analysis revealed a total of 44 alleles and average genetic diversity of 0.485 with genetic distances ranging from 0.077 to 0.846 at 13 microsatellite loci in Moroccan durum wheat cultivars. All the durum cultivars of Morocco could be distinguished using the 13 microsatellite markers. The total number of alleles and unique alleles were highest in cultivars developed before 1990, decreasing in cultivars developed during the 1990s and 2000s, indicating that recent durum breeding efforts have reduced allelic richness in recent cultivars. Thus, deployment of exotic durum wheat lines in breeding programs could enhance genetic diversity in durum wheat cultivars.

  9. Study of improving the quality of bread and wheat-aegilops hybrids with the biotechnological ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganbarzada, Aygun; Hasanova, Sudaba

    2016-08-01

    The great need of the people to bread demands to increase high qualitative grain plants. At present time for solving these problem different methods of biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology are widely used in the process of selection. To investigate biochemical peculiarities of wheat-aegilops hybrids and to define the correlative relation between these characteristics. To investigate the technological peculiarities of wheat- aegilops hybrids and to define the relation between their main biochemical and technological characteristics. The conclusion of this investigation showed the followings- the wheat-aegilops hybrids according to their morphological and biochemical characteristics have approached to wheats. The electrophoretic spectres of the wheat- aegilops hybrids which have stable for their morphological characteristics are homogeny and heterogenic. Hereditarily some group protein components have passed to their tribes from their parents. But spontaneous hybridisation results in taking part the components of other unknown wheats in these electrophoretic spectres. There is a relation between the electrophoretic spectres and the indications of the grain quality.

  10. PRODUCTION OF A NOVEL ROBERTSONIAN TRANSLOCATION FROM THINOPYRUM BESSARABICUM INTO BREAD WHEAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, S; Mirzaghaderi, G; Majdi, M

    2015-01-01

    Development of wheat-alien translocation lines will facilitate its practical utilization in wheat improvement. The objective of the present study was to produce compensating wheat--Thinopyrum bessarabicum whole arm Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) involving chromosomes 2B of wheat and 2E(b) of Th. bessarabicum through the mechanism of centric breakage-fusion. F2 population from crosses between DS2E(b)(2B) substitution line and bread wheat 'Roushan' (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) as female parent were made. Forty one F2 lines (L1 to L41) were screened for their chromosome composition. Three 2E(b) specific PCR-based Landmark Unique Gene (PLUG) markers were used for screening F2 progeny derived from plants double-monosomic for chromosome 2B and 2E(b). Two Rob Ts (-5%) were observed among F2 plants. Homozygous translocation (T2E(b)S.2BL) with good plant vigor and full fertility were selected from F3 families. The T2E(b)S.2BL stock has longer awn than that of its parents. It is cytogenetically stable, and may be useful in wheat improvement.

  11. Shelf life assessment of industrial durum wheat bread as a function of packaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardello, Fabio; Giannone, Virgilio; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Muratore, Giuseppe; Summo, Carmine; Giarnetti, Mariagrazia; Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    This study compared the effect of different packaging systems on industrial durum wheat bread shelf-life, with regard to thermoformed packaging (TF) and flow-packaging (FP). Two TFs having different thickness and one FP were compared by assessing physico-chemical and sensorial properties and volatile compounds of sliced bread during 90days of storage. Texture, a w and bread moisture varied according to a first-order kinetic model, with FP samples ageing faster than TFs. Sensorial features such as consistency, stale odor, and sour odor, increased their intensity during storage. Furans decreased, whereas hexanal increased. The Principal Component Analysis of the whole dataset pointed out that the TF system at reduced thickness could be adopted up to 60days, without compromising the standard commercial life of industrial bread and allowing to save packaging material. The FP system would allow further saving, but it should be preferred when the expected product turnover is within 30days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of wheat-bran arabinoxylan as partial flour replacer on bread properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegelenberg, Danika; Chimphango, Annie F A

    2017-04-15

    Effects on physical properties of white bread of adding crude (E1) and partially purified (E2) arabinoxylans (AX) from wheat bran to partially replace flour during baking, were investigated to identify optimal dosage. The E1 and E2 had molecular weights of 620,000 and 470,000Da with arabinose to xylose ratio of 0.7 and 0.6, respectively. However, ferulic acid of 1.5mg/100g, was detectable only in E1. The AXs were added to 100g white bread formulae at dosages of 0.8-1.2% with flour removal of 2-3%(w/w). The dough increased water absorption by 2% in the specified dosage range. An optimum dosage of 0.8% with 2.5% flour removal maintained similar weight, volume, height and firmness as standard white bread. At this dosage, AX addition in white bread holds both increased health and economic benefits because of combined roles as soluble dietary fibre and flour replacer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical Composition and Quality Characteristics of Wheat Bread Supplemented with Leafy Vegetable Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Odunlade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of supplementation of the leaf powders of Telfairia occidentalis, Amaranthus viridis, and Solanum macrocarpon on the chemical composition and the quality characteristics of wheat bread. The bread samples were supplemented with each of the vegetable leaf powders at 1%, 2%, and 3% during preparation. The bread samples were assayed for proximate composition, mineral composition, physical, sensory, and antioxidant properties using standard methods. The addition of vegetable powders significantly increased the protein (9.50 to 13.93%, fibre (1.81 to 4.00%, ash (1.05 to 2.38%, and fat (1.27 to 2.00%. Supplementation with vegetable powder however significantly decreased (p<0.05 the carbohydrate and moisture contents. Significant (p<0.05 increases were recorded for all evaluated minerals as the level of vegetable powder increased. Supplementation with vegetable powder caused significant decrease in total phenolic content, percentage DPPH inhibition, metal chelating ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total antioxidant capacity. Sensory results showed that there was significant decrease in sensory qualities with increasing supplementation. This therefore suggests that bread supplemented with vegetable powder could have more market penetration if awareness is highly created.

  14. Control of mixing step in the bread production with weak wheat flour and sourdough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Parenti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several old Italian grain varieties have been reinstated, and the market seems to reward the breads made with these flours. Among such varieties, cultivar Verna appears to be interesting because the regular consumption of bread obtained by this variety and sourdough provides beneficial effects on human health such as the improving of the lipid, inflammatory, and hemorheological profiles. However, flours derived from Verna shows low technological performances. For example, the W value of these flours, obtained with alveoghraphic tests and considered as the commercial standard for the flour “strength” evaluation, is largely inferior than the W values of the commercial flour blends currently used in the bread making process. Moreover, the W values broadly change among the batches of Verna flours, whereas, usually, commercial blends are provided to bakeries with standard technological properties. Hence, these properties of Verna flour could lead to developed or overworked doughs and therefore to breads of worse quality. In addition, the previous mentioned large variability of flours from Verna can affect also the sourdough microbiota. For these reasons the composition and activity of the sourdough microorganisms should be controlled while the mixing process should be able to adapt to the different flour properties. Some works, in literature, report that monitoring the electrical consumption could provide useful information about the dough rheology, and this could be used to monitor the mixing step. In the present work the effect of different mixing times are evaluated on breads made with Verna flour type 2 leavened with sourdough. Tests were carried out at industrial scale in two different days. During the tests the electric consumption was monitored to highlight some features suitable for the mixing phase control. The breads were evaluated in terms of loaf volume measurement, crumb image analysis and losses of moisture content during

  15. Differentiation of Bread Made with Whole Grain and Refined Wheat (T. aestivum) Flour Using LC/MS-based chromatographic Fingerprinting and Chemometric Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fuzzy chromatography mass spectrometric (FCMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric analysis was established to diffrentiate between whole wheat (WW) flours and refined wheat (RW) flour, and the breads made from them. The chemical compositions of the bread samples were profiled using h...

  16. Tocantins (IAC-23 e Tucuruí (IAC-24: novos cultivares de trigo Tocantins (IAC-23 and Tucuruí (IAC-24: new wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felício

    1988-01-01

    industrial qualities for bread production. In upland condition, the cultivars Tocantins and Tucuruí did not differ in grain yield from the control cultivars Anahuac. 'Tucuruí' differed from 'Anahuac' in the irrigated experiments carried out in acid soils. Under these conditions Tucuruí cultivars produced 2,842 and the Anahuac 2,421 kg/ha. 'Tucuruí', a semidwarf type, showed tolerance to 10 mg/l of Al in nutrient solution. 'Tocantins' presented susceptibility to 6 mg/l, in the same conditions. The new cultivars were moderately susceptible to leaf rust infection and showed low levels of stem rust infection like the cultivars Anahuac. 'Tucuruí' exhibited better bread qualities than the used commercial wheat flour and presented a little superior performance when compared with 'Tocantins'.

  17. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappi, Jenni; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa; de Vos, Willem M; Salonen, Anne

    2013-05-01

    Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the microbiota composition in Finnish individuals aged 60 ± 6 y with metabolic syndrome. Fecal samples from 51 participants (25 males, 26 females) before and after the intervention were processed for the microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reactions targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The intake of whole grains calculated from food records was higher in the group consuming rye breads (75 g) than in that consuming refined wheat breads (4 g; P whole grain intake. The intestinal microbiota composition did not significantly differ between the groups after the intervention. However, we detected a 37% decrease of Bacteroidetes (P wheat breads. In this group, the abundance of bacteria related to Bacteroides vulgatus, B. plebeius, and Prevotella tannerae decreased, whereas that of bacteria related to Collinsella and members of the Clostridium clusters IV and XI increased. In a multivariate regression analysis, the abundance of Bacteroides spp. was best explained by different fat compounds among dietary variables, whereas the main sugar-converting butyrate-producers were mostly associated with the intake of whole- and refined-grain bread and fiber. Our results indicate that the quality of grains has a minor effect on the intestinal microbiota composition in participants with metabolic syndrome and suggest that the dietary influence on the microbiota involves other dietary components such as fat.

  18. Difference in postprandial GLP-1 response despite similar glucose kinetics after consumption of wheat breads with different particle size in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli

    2017-01-01

    and metabolic response after their consumption. METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers participated in a randomized, crossover study, consuming (13)C-enriched breads with different structures; a control bread (CB) made from wheat flour combined with wheat bran, and a kernel bread (KB) where 85 % of flour....... Interestingly, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response was much lower after KB compared to CB (iAUC, P

  19. Reaction of wheat cultivars and differential lines to Puccinia triticina races in detached leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Turra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The method of preserving detached wheat leaves in Petri dish was used for the inoculation and development of the fungus Puccinia triticina, the causal agent of wheat leaf rust. The reaction of 26 wheat cultivars was compared by using seedlings cultivated in pots (in vivo and detached leaves (in vitro inoculated with four physiological races of the pathogen. After inoculation, the material was kept in a growth chamber for 15 days. The reaction was evaluated on the 15th day after inoculation. Results for each race in the evaluated genotypes confirmed the efficiency of the detached leaf method in assessing the reaction of wheat cultivars.

  20. Influence of endogenous ferulic acid in whole wheat flour on bread crust aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Marlene R; Bin, Qing; Elias, Ryan J; Peterson, Devin G

    2012-11-14

    The influence of wheat flour type (refined (RWF)/whole (WWF)) on bread crust aroma was investigated. Differences were characterized by aroma extract dilution analysis and quantified utilizing stable isotope surrogate standards. For RWF breads, five aroma compounds were higher in concentration, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-phenylethanol, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, and 2,4-dihyroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, by 4.0-, 3.0-, 2.1-, 1.7-, and 1.5-fold, respectively, whereas three compounds were lower, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and (E)-2-nonenal by 6.1-, 2.1-, and 1.8-fold, respectively. A trained sensory panel reported the perceived aroma intensity of characteristic fresh refined bread crust aroma was significantly higher in RWF compared to WWF crust samples. Addition of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-phenylethanol, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, and 2,4-dihyroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone to the WWF crust (at concentrations equivalent to those in the RWF crust) increased the intensity of the fresh refined bread crust aroma attribute; no significant difference was reported when compared to RWF crust. The liberation of ferulic acid from WWF during baking was related to the observed reduction in these five aroma compounds and provides novel insight into the mechanisms of flavor development in WWF bread.

  1. Bioprocessing of wheat bran in whole wheat bread increases the bioavailability of phenolic acids in men and exerts antiinflammatory effects ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo Anson, Nuria; Aura, Anna-Marja; Selinheimo, Emilia; Mattila, Ismo; Poutanen, Kaisa; van den Berg, Robin; Havenaar, Robert; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2011-01-01

    Whole grain consumption has been linked to a lower risk of metabolic syndrome, which is normally associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation. The benefits of whole grain are in part related to the inclusion of the bran, rich in phenolic acids and fiber. However, the phenols are poorly bioaccessible from the cereal matrix. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of bioprocessing of the bran in whole wheat bread on the bioavailability of phenolic acids, the postprandial plasma antioxidant capacity, and ex vivo antiinflammatory properties. After consumption of a low phenolic acid diet for 3 d and overnight fasting, 8 healthy men consumed 300 g of whole wheat bread containing native bran (control bread) or bioprocessed bran (bioprocessed bread) in a cross-over design. Urine and blood samples were collected for 24 h to analyze the phenolic acids and metabolites. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity was measured in plasma. Cytokines were measured in blood after ex vivo stimulation with LPS. The bioavailabilities of ferulic acid, vanillic acid, sinapic acid, and 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid from the bioprocessed bread were 2- to 3-fold those from the control bread. Phenylpropionic acid and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid were the main colonic metabolites of the nonbioaccessible phenols. The ratios of pro-:antiinflammatory cytokines were significantly lower in LPS-stimulated blood after the consumption of the bioprocessed bread. In conclusion, bioprocessing can remarkably increase the bioavailability of phenolic acids and their circulating metabolites, compounds which have immunomodulatory effects ex vivo.

  2. Organization and evolution of transposable elements along the bread wheat chromosome 3B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daron, Josquin; Glover, Natasha; Pingault, Lise; Theil, Sébastien; Jamilloux, Véronique; Paux, Etienne; Barbe, Valérie; Mangenot, Sophie; Alberti, Adriana; Wincker, Patrick; Quesneville, Hadi; Feuillet, Catherine; Choulet, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The 17 Gb bread wheat genome has massively expanded through the proliferation of transposable elements (TEs) and two recent rounds of polyploidization. The assembly of a 774 Mb reference sequence of wheat chromosome 3B provided us with the opportunity to explore the impact of TEs on the complex wheat genome structure and evolution at a resolution and scale not reached so far. We develop an automated workflow, CLARI-TE, for TE modeling in complex genomes. We delineate precisely 56,488 intact and 196,391 fragmented TEs along the 3B pseudomolecule, accounting for 85% of the sequence, and reconstruct 30,199 nested insertions. TEs have been mostly silent for the last one million years, and the 3B chromosome has been shaped by a succession of bursts that occurred between 1 to 3 million years ago. Accelerated TE elimination in the high-recombination distal regions is a driving force towards chromosome partitioning. CACTAs overrepresented in the high-recombination distal regions are significantly associated with recently duplicated genes. In addition, we identify 140 CACTA-mediated gene capture events with 17 genes potentially created by exon shuffling and show that 19 captured genes are transcribed and under selection pressure, suggesting the important role of CACTAs in the recent wheat adaptation. Accurate TE modeling uncovers the dynamics of TEs in a highly complex and polyploid genome. It provides novel insights into chromosome partitioning and highlights the role of CACTA transposons in the high level of gene duplication in wheat.

  3. Different levels of humoral immunoreactivity to different wheat cultivars gliadin are present in patients with celiac disease and in patients with multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaci-Nikolic Branka

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunity to food antigens (gliadin, cow's milk proteins is in the centre of the attention of modern medicine focused on the prevention of diseases, prevention which is based on the use of appropriate restriction diet. Detection of the enhanced levels of the immune reactions to antigen(s present in food is from this point of view of great importance because there are reports that some of health disturbances, like celiac disease (CD and some premalignant conditions, like monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS, were vanished after the appropriate restriction diets. It is well known that gliadin is toxic to small bowel mucosa of relatively small population of genetically predisposed individuals, who under this toxic action develop celiac disease (CD. As the quantity of immunogenic gliadin could vary between different wheat species, the first aim of this work was to determine the percentage of immunogenic gliadin in ten bread wheat cultivars and in three commercially grown durum wheat cultivars. The second part of the study was initiated by results of previous publication, reporting that sera of some of multiple myeloma (MM patients showed the presence of elevated levels of anti-gliadin IgA, without the enhanced levels of anti-gliadin IgG antibodies, determined with commercial ELISA test. It was designed to assess is it possible to reveal is there any hidden, especially anti-gliadin IgG immunoreactivity, in serum of mentioned group of patients. For this purpose we tested MM patients sera, as well as celiac disease (CD patients sera for the immunoreaction with the native gliadin isolated from wheat species used for bread and pasta making in corresponding geographic region. Results Gliadin was isolated from wheat flour by two step 60% ehanolic extraction. Its content was determined by commercial R5 Mendez Elisa using PWG gliadin as the standard. Results obtained showed that immunogenic gliadin content varies

  4. Effect of Salt Stress on Grain Reserve Composition in Ten Durum Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Kahrizi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Saline soils are defined as those that contain sufficient soluble salts in the root zone to impair plant growth. Wheat is one of the three major cereals dominating world agriculture to date. Durum wheat is the hardest wheat and the concept of durum wheat quality is complex and confusing. Quality factors such as protein content, gluten strength and color have different priorities in various durum wheat markets. Changes in the grain quality of ten durum wheat cultivars under salt stress studied at the greenhouse condition. A factorial experiment was carried out based on completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments were salinity including 0, 60 and 120 mM and ten durum wheat cultivars (Boomer, PGS, 71135, 61130,605, C1351, KND, KDM, Haurani and G1252. Biochemical grain reserves such total protein and carbohydrate content, gluten, phosphorous and beta carotene were measured. Results showed that interaction of salt and cultivars was significant for all studied traits except of beta-carotene. At this experiment, gluten content changed very little with salinity levels. Cultivar 71135 at all salinity levels had the highest gluten content. With increasing of salt severity, the content of protein and carbohydrate decreased and content of phosphorous increased compared with control. In 60 mM salinity, cultivars 61130 and 71135, in 120 mM, 71135 and KDM and in control, 61130 and PGS respectively, had the highest and lowest content of protein. Cultivars 71135 and 61130 had the highest and PGS had the lowest phosphorous content in control. At 60 mM, cultivars 71135 and PGS respectively, had the highest and lowest phosphorous content. At 120mM, 71135 and Haurani respectively, had the highest and lowest phosphorous content. In three salt levels, cultivar 71135 was determined as the most tolerant cultivar according to content of grain reserve composition results.

  5. Genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in Chinese bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) revealed by SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Lanfen; Ge, Hongmei; Dong, Yuchen; Zhang, Xueyong

    2011-02-18

    Two hundred and fifty bread wheat lines, mainly Chinese mini core accessions, were assayed for polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium (LD) based on 512 whole-genome microsatellite loci representing a mean marker density of 5.1 cM. A total of 6,724 alleles ranging from 1 to 49 per locus were identified in all collections. The mean PIC value was 0.650, ranging from 0 to 0.965. Population structure and principal coordinate analysis revealed that landraces and modern varieties were two relatively independent genetic sub-groups. Landraces had a higher allelic diversity than modern varieties with respect to both genomes and chromosomes in terms of total number of alleles and allelic richness. 3,833 (57.0%) and 2,788 (41.5%) rare alleles with frequencies of whole genome for locus pairs with r(2)>0.05 (Pwhole genome level was wheat genetic resources.

  6. Molecular analysis of phosphomannomutase (PMM genes reveals a unique PMM duplication event in diverse Triticeae species and the main PMM isozymes in bread wheat tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Shiwei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphomannomutase (PMM is an essential enzyme in eukaryotes. However, little is known about PMM gene and function in crop plants. Here, we report molecular evolutionary and biochemical analysis of PMM genes in bread wheat and related Triticeae species. Results Two sets of homoeologous PMM genes (TaPMM-1 and 2 were found in bread wheat, and two corresponding PMM genes were identified in the diploid progenitors of bread wheat and many other diploid Triticeae species. The duplication event yielding PMM-1 and 2 occurred before the radiation of diploid Triticeae genomes. The PMM gene family in wheat and relatives may evolve largely under purifying selection. Among the six TaPMM genes, the transcript levels of PMM-1 members were comparatively high and their recombinant proteins were all enzymatically active. However, PMM-2 homoeologs exhibited lower transcript levels, two of which were also inactive. TaPMM-A1, B1 and D1 were probably the main active isozymes in bread wheat tissues. The three isozymes differed from their counterparts in barley and Brachypodium distachyon in being more tolerant to elevated test temperatures. Conclusion Our work identified the genes encoding PMM isozymes in bread wheat and relatives, uncovered a unique PMM duplication event in diverse Triticeae species, and revealed the main active PMM isozymes in bread wheat tissues. The knowledge obtained here improves the understanding of PMM evolution in eukaryotic organisms, and may facilitate further investigations of PMM function in the temperature adaptability of bread wheat.

  7. Effect of Drought Stress in Remobilization of Dry Matter in Five Varieties ofBread Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mirtaheri; S. Syadat; ms Najafi; Gh Fathi; Kh Alami Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In a field experiment conducted in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, remobilization of dry matter (DM) after anthesis of five wheat cultivars evaluated in severe and moderate stresses. The statistical design was split plot in RCB (Randomized Complete Blocks) with four replications. In moderate and severe stresses conditions, Falat cv. produced the highest grain yield. However, Chamran cv. had the highest grain yield in control condition. The stress treatment had ...

  8. Seed priming and transgenerational drought memory improves tolerance against salt stress in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Tahira; Farooq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Riaz; Zohaib, Ali; Wahid, Abdul

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of seed priming following terminal drought on tolerance against salt stress in bread wheat. Drought was imposed in field sown wheat at reproductive stage (BBCH growth stage 49) and was maintained till physiological maturity (BBCH growth stage 83). Seeds of bread wheat, collected from crop raised under terminal drought and/or well-watered conditions, were subjected to hydropriming and osmopriming (with 1.5% CaCl2) and were sown in soil-filled pots. After stand establishment, salt stress treatments viz. 10 mM NaCl (control) and 100 mM NaCl were imposed. Seed from terminal drought stressed source had less fat (5%), and more fibers (11%), proteins (22%) and total soluble phenolics (514%) than well-watered seed source. Salt stress reduced the plant growth, perturbed water relations and decreased yield. However, an increase in osmolytes accumulation (4-18%), malondialdehyde (MDA) (27-35%) and tissue Na+ contents (149-332%) was observed under salt stress. The seeds collected from drought stressed crop had better tolerance against salt stress as indicated by better yield (28%), improved water relations (3-18%), osmolytes accumulation (21-33%), and less MDA (8%) and Na contents (35%) than progeny of well-watered crop. Seed priming, osmopriming in particular, further improved the tolerance against salt stress through improvement in leaf area, water relations, leaf proline, glycine betaine and grain yield while lowering MDA and Na+ contents. In conclusion, changed seed composition during terminal drought and seed priming improved the salt tolerance in wheat by modulating the water relations, osmolytes accumulation and lipid peroxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Mixtures of modern and historical wheat cultivars under organic management in western Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Pridham, Jackie; Entz, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Two historic (Red Fife and Marquis) and two modern (5602HR; AC Barrie) wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars were assessed to determine if cultivar mixtures provided a benefit to grain yield and disease and weed suppression in Manitoba over 3 site-years. 5602HR was the highest yielding sole cultivar while Marquis and AC Barrie were the lowest yielding sole cultivars. Red Fife yielded similar to 5602HR in several cases. Orthogonal contrasts across all site-years showed that 3 and 4 cultivar mix...

  10. The Relationship Between Grain Hardness, Dough Mixing Parameters and Bread-Making Quality in Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanowicz, Bolesław P.; Adamski, Tadeusz; Surma, Maria; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Karolina, Krystkowiak; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Banaszak, Zofia; Ługowska, Bogusława; Majcher, Małgorzata; Obuchowski, Wiktor

    2012-01-01

    The influence of grain hardness, determined by using molecular markers and physical methods (near-infrared (NIR) technique and particle size index—PSI) on dough characteristics, which in turn were determined with the use of a farinograph and reomixer, as well as bread-making properties were studied. The material covered 24 winter wheat genotypes differing in grain hardness. The field experiment was conducted at standard and increased levels of nitrogen fertilization. Results of molecular analyses were in agreement with those obtained by the use of physical methods for soft-grained lines. Some lines classified as hard (by physical methods) appeared to have the wild-type Pina and Pinb alleles, similar to soft lines. Differences in dough and bread-making properties between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of molecular data appeared to be of less significance than the differences between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of physical analyses of grain texture. Values of relative grain hardness at the increased nitrogen fertilization level were significantly higher. At both fertilization levels the NIR parameter determining grain hardness was significantly positively correlated with the wet gluten and sedimentation values, with most of the rheological parameters and bread yield. Values of this parameter correlated with quality characteristics in a higher degree than values of particle size index. PMID:22605973

  11. Low-calorie bread baked with charred cellulose granules and wheat flour to eliminate toxic xanthene food dye in the alimentary canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabara, Aya; Yamane, Chihiro; Seguchi, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    We baked low-calorie bread by mixing charred cellulose granules with wheat flour, using the charred cellulose granules to eliminate toxic xanthene food dyes contained in processed foods from the alimentary canal. The size of the charred cellulose granules played an important role in determining good breadmaking properties in respect of the bread height (mm) and specific volume (SV, cm3/g). Charred cellulose granules with a diameter above 270 μm were blended with wheat flour at 10% to obtain bread with a lower caloric content (1020 kcal/gram of bread) than the control bread (1126 kcal) made solely from wheat flour. The charred cellulose granules taken out from the bread adsorbed toxic xanthene food dyes at around pH 6.5, such that toxic food dyes taken into the alimentary canal were excreted in the feces with the non-digestible cellulose granules.

  12. Haplotypes of the TaGS5-A1 gene are associated with thousand-kernel weight in Chinese bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Sha Sha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In previous work, we cloned TaGS5 gene and found the association of TaGS5-A1 alleles with agronomic traits. In this study, the promoter sequence of the TaGS5-A1 gene was isolated from bread wheat. Sequencing results revealed that a G insertion was found in position -1925 bp of the TaGS5-A1 gene (Reference to ATG, which occurred in the Sp1 domain of the promoter sequence. Combined with previous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the TaGS5-A1 exon sequence, four genotypes were formed at the TaGS5-A1 locus and were designated as TaGS5-A1a-a, TaGS5-A1a-b, TaGS5-A1b-a, and TaGS5-A1b-b, respectively. Analysis of the association of TaGS5-A1 alleles with agronomic traits indicated that cultivars with the TaGS5-A1a-b allele possessed significantly higher thousand-kernel weight (TKW and lower plant height than cultivars with the TaGS5-A1a-a allele, and cultivars with the TaGS5-A1b-b allele showed higher TKW than cultivars with the TaGS5-A1b-a allele. The differences of these traits between the TaGS5-A1a-a and TaGS5-A1a-b alleles were larger than those of the TaGS5-A1b-a and TaGS5-A1b-b alleles, suggesting that the -1925G insertion plays the more important role in TaGS5-A1a genotypes than in TaGS5-A1b genotypes. qRT-PCR indicated that TaGS5-A1b-b possessed the significantly highest expression level among four TaGS5-A1 haplotypes in mature seeds and further showed a significantly higher expression level than TaGS5-A1b-a at five different developmental stages of the seeds, suggesting that high expression of TaGS5-A1 was positively associated with high TKW in bread wheat. This study could provide a relatively superior genotype in view of TKW in wheat breeding programs and could also provide important information for dissection of the regulatory mechanism of the yield-related traits.

  13. Investigation of The Relationship Between Grain Yield with Physiological Parameters in Some Bread Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KARAMAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the relationships between grain yield with physiological parameters in some bread wheat varieties. For this purpose, ten bread wheat genotypes were grown in randomized complete block design with 3 replications under rainfall conditions in the experimental field of GAP International Agricultural Research and Training Center during the 2012-2013 growing season. The most high yielding varieties in this study, Pehlivan, Kate A-1, Cemre and Anapo, were observed as standing out in terms of flag leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value, flag leaf ash ratio, leaf area index and grain filling period . The correlation analyses of the study showed positive and significant correlations between chlorophyll content of flag leaf at heading stage with chlorophyll content at flowering stage, between chlorophyll content of flag leaf at flowering and heading stages with chlorophyll content of flag leaf at milk stage and between grain filling rate with leaf area index, In addition, positive and significant correlations were identified between flag leaf ash ratio and NDVI reading prior to heading time with grain yield

  14. Sowing terms of winter bread wheat variety-innovations (Triticum aestivum L. in the conditions of change of climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Л. Дергачов

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of studying of influence of sowing terms on productivity and indices of quality of grain of winter bread wheat variety-innovations of V.M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat of NAAS of Ukraine in the conditions of Right-bank Forest-steppe are shown. Negative correlation of productivity of varieties on average temperature of air during the sowing period is shown.

  15. The effect of aluminium on enzyme activities in two wheat cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the effect of different aluminum (Al) concentrations on the enzyme activities of wheat seedlings and the effect of malate and citrate treatments as chelates for reducing the noxious effect of Al in medium culture, the seedlings of two wheat cultivars, Darab (Al-sensitive) and Maroon (Al-tolerant) were grown on ...

  16. The effect of aluminium on enzyme activities in two wheat cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-04-25

    Apr 25, 2011 ... dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) enzymes as possible mechanisms for Al stress adaptation in wheat. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant materials and experimental design. The seeds of two wheat cultivars, Darab (Al sensitive) and Maroon. (Al tolerant) were provided ...

  17. Genetics of leaf rust resistance in the hard red winter wheat cultivars Santa Fe and Duster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is a common and important disease of hard red winter wheat in the Great Plains of the United States. The hard red winter wheat cultivars 'Santa Fe' and 'Duster' have had effective leaf rust resistance since their release in 2003 and 2006, respectively. Both cul...

  18. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of bread and cracker products made from red or white wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challacombe, Carolyn A; Seetharaman, Koushik; Duizer, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    Whole grain consumption is being promoted due to a number of associated health benefits. However, whole grain consumption is below recommendations possibly due to the presence of characteristic flavors that consumers find unacceptable. The objective of this study was to investigate the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of products made from commercial whole grain flours produced from red or white wheats, and with fine or coarse bran particle sizes. Descriptive analysis and consumer acceptance panels were used to characterize both low (cracker) and intermediate (bread) moisture products made with the flours. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to correlate the descriptive and consumer data. Sensory differences in whole grain products made from red or white wheat with small or large bran particles sizes and product moisture contents were observed. Bran particle size had a greater effect on the sensory properties of the whole grain products, particularly within the cracker; conversely bran particle size had little influence on consumer acceptance. Red wheat products were found to be more acceptable than the white wheat products. However, a number of color × bran particle interactions were observed in both the descriptive and consumer data. PLS regression demonstrated that consumers could be divided into groupings based upon certain attributes and characteristics. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Evaluation of the technological characteristics and bread-making quality of alternative wheat cereals in comparison with common and durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualone, A; Piergiovanni, A R; Caponio, F; Paradiso, V M; Summo, C; Simeone, R

    2011-04-01

    The growing sensibility toward those foods that are characterized by natural and healthy features has raised the interest toward alternative wheat cereals. This research was carried out to compare the technological characteristics and the bread-making quality of Khorasan wheat, type Kamut and spelt (cv. Forenza), to those of common (cv. Rio) and durum wheat (cv. Norba). The results obtained show that both Forenza and Kamut gave an acceptable bread-making performance. A certain variability affected flour characteristics (protein content, carotenoid pigments and alveograph indices) over the 2 years of experimentation, due to environmental effects. This reflected on the corresponding breads but the statistical analysis indicated that, on the whole, Kamut bread was characterized by a high content of carotenoid pigments. Regarding sensory properties (profiled by means of 11 descriptors of visual appearance, texture, odor and flavor) and loaf volumes, breads from Forenza and Kamut appeared different from each other but similar to those obtained from Rio and Norba grown in the same environment, respectively.

  20. The Na+ transporter, TaHKT1;5-D, limits shoot Na+ accumulation in bread wheat

    KAUST Repository

    Byrt, Caitlin Siobhan

    2014-10-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a major salt tolerance locus, Kna1, responsible for the maintenance of a high cytosolic K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves of salt stressed plants. The Kna1 locus encompasses a large DNA fragment, the distal 14% of chromosome 4DL. Limited recombination has been observed at this locus making it difficult to map genetically and identify the causal gene. Here, we decipher the function of TaHKT1;5-D, a candidate gene underlying the Kna1 locus. Transport studies using the heterologous expression systems Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is a Na+-selective transporter. Transient expression in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and in situ polymerase chain reaction indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is localised on the plasma membrane in the wheat root stele. RNA interference-induced silencing decreased the expression of TaHKT1;5-D in transgenic bread wheat lines which led to an increase in the Na+ concentration in the leaves. This indicates that TaHKT1;5-D retrieves Na+ from the xylem vessels in the root and has an important role in restricting the transport of Na+ from the root to the leaves in bread wheat. Thus, TaHKT1;5-D confers the essential salinity tolerance mechanism in bread wheat associated with the Kna1 locus via shoot Na+ exclusion and is critical in maintaining a high K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves. These findings show there is potential to increase the salinity tolerance of bread wheat by manipulation of HKT1;5 genes.

  1. Effect of lactic acid fermentation of lupine wholemeal on acrylamide content and quality characteristics of wheat-lupine bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, Elena; Jakobsone, Ida; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2013-11-01

    The effect of supplementing wheat flour at a level of 15% with lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) wholemeal fermented by different lactic acid bacteria on acrylamide content in bread crumb as well as on bread texture and sensory characteristics was analysed. The use of fermented lupine resulted in a lower specific volume and crumb porosity of bread on an average by 14.1% and 10.5%, respectively, while untreated lupine lowered the latter parameters at a higher level (30.8% and 20.7%, respectively). The addition of lupine resulted in a higher by 43.3% acrylamide content compared to wheat bread (19.4 µg/kg dry weight (d.w.)). Results showed that acrylamide was significantly reduced using proteolytic Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus pentosaceus 10 strains for lupine fermentation. Although the bread supplemented with lupine spontaneous sourdough had the lowest level of acrylamide (15.6 µg/kg d.w.), it had the malodorous flavour and was unacceptable to the consumers. The lactofermentation could increase the potential use of lupine as a food ingredient while reducing acrylamide formation and enriching bread with high quality proteins.

  2. Evaluation of composite millet breads for sensory and nutritional qualities and glycemic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhavi, A; Sarita, S

    2012-04-01

    This study was undertaken with the objectives of formulating composite bread by utilising finger millet flour and foxtail millet flour and further to evaluate these breads for sensory, nutritional qualities, and glycemic response. Two genotypes of finger millet VL-146 and PRM-601 and one local cultivar of foxtail millet were studied. The finger millet flour (FMF) and foxtail millet flour (FTF) were individually blended in various proportions (30 to 60%) into refined wheat flour (RWF). These blends were then used in the preparation of composite breads. The refined wheat flour bread (RWF) served as the control. One bread from each millet flour blend was selected finally for further investigation on the basis of sensory scores. As the 30% millet flour substitution was most preferred among the three millet samples, it was selected for further evaluation. Nutrient composition of the selected breads showed that composite bread formulated using FTF showed significantly higher crude protein, crude fat, total ash, phosphorus and insoluble dietary fibre. The composite bread formulated using FMF contained significantly higher calcium, soluble dietary fibre, tannin and phytic acid. However, the control (RWF) bread contained significantly higher carbohydrate, physiological energy and starch. The lowest value for glycemic index among the breads was observed for bread containing FMF from genotype VL- 146 (41.43), followed by bread containing FMF from the genotype PRM- 601 (43.10), bread containing FTF (49.53) and control bread (67.82). Millet flour incorporated breads had low glycemic indices and were acceptable and nutritious.

  3. Wheat cultivar tolerance to boron deficiency and toxicity in nutrient solution

    OpenAIRE

    Furlani,Ângela Maria Cangiani; Carvalho,Cristiane Pierrotte; Freitas,José Guilherme de; Verdial,Marcelo Fontanetti

    2003-01-01

    Field symptoms of open spikelets in wheat were observed in specific cultivars and supposedly related to low B soils and differential B requirement among cultivars. This study aimed to evaluate the response of four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, IAC 24, IAC 60, IAC 287 and IAC 289, to increasing B concentrations in nutrient solution. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design, with four replicates and five B concentrations (0.0, 0.05, 0.2, 0.8 and 2.0 mg L-1), dur...

  4. IAC 25 (Pedrinhas e IAC 161 (Taiamã: novos cultivares de trigo IAC 25 (Pedrinhas and IAC 161 (Taiamã: new wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felíco

    1990-01-01

    , were evaluated in relation to grain yield and to reactions of the causal agents of leaf and stem rusts and to Helminthosporium sp. These cultivars were also evaluated in relation to industrial bread qualities. The trials were carried out in upland conditions at the Paranapanema Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil, and also under sprinkler irrigation at the North region of the same State. Grain yield of the new cultivars did not show significant differences from 'Anahuac' used as a control in upland conditions. However, in this condition, 'Pedrinhas' showed the advantage of being an early cultivar (100-115 days from emergence to maturation. Under sprinkler irrigation and acid soil conditions, 'Pedrinhas' and 'Taiamã' presented higher grain yield than 'Anahuac'; on low acidity soils no differences were observed among cultivars in relation to grain yield. In nutrient solution tests, 'Pedrinhas' and 'Taiamã' were moderately tolerant to Al3+; 'Taiamã' was highly sensitive to iron excess and 'Pedrinhas' moderately tolerant; and both cultivars were tolerant to manganese excess. Under greenhouse conditions 'Taiamã' presented resistance and 'Pedrinhas' moderate resistance to stem rust. 'Pedrinhas' was more susceptible to leaf rust than 'Taiamã' and 'Anahuac'; and the three cultivars were susceptible to Helminthosporium sp. under field conditions. Considering bread characteristics trials the flour from 'Taiamã' was superior in relation to "Pedrinhas', giving breads with excellent physical quality, showing a superior specific volume in comparison with the breads made with commercial wheat flour.

  5. Study on the Effects of Humic Acid on Germination of Four Wheat Cultivars (Triticun aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sabzevari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Humic acid is an organic acid without environmental destructive effects that is applied for increasing germination rate and wheat establishment. In order to evaluate effects of different levels of humic acid on germination of four wheat cultivars; an experiment was conducted in 2008 at Research Laboratory of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. A randomized completely block design with four replications used with factorial combination of humic acid concentration (0, 36, 54, and 72 mg/l and wheat cultivars (Sayons, Chamran, Pishtaz and Sabalan. Results showed that all traits except germination rate were significantly different (p

  6. Can an increase in celiac disease be attributed to an increase in the gluten content of wheat as a consequence of wheat breading? A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to assess the possibility that wheat breeding has been responsible for an increase in the gluten content of U.S. wheat cultivars and thereby responsible for an increase in the incidence of celiac disease, the available data from the 20th century has been analyzed. Although much of the infor...

  7. Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain…

  8. Thermo-mechanic and sensory properties of wheat and rye breads produced with varying concentration of the additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different concentrations of the complex additive containing emulsifiers, oxido-reductive substances and enzymes, on the rheological conditions of dough, and on the sensory properties of three groups of bread were investigated. The best initial quality and the lowest degree of protein network weakening had the dough obtained from mixed wheat and rye flours. The best expected baking properties were shown by the white wheat flour due to the least damage of its starch. The use of the additive has an effect on the absorption of water and on the majority of C-values of all sorts of flour. The amount of additive had a significant effect on the sensory properties of wheat bread crumb texture. Also, storage duration significantly affected (p <0.01 the sensory properties of integral wheat bread aroma-taste and the weighted mean score. The interaction of these two factors had no significant effect on any of sensory properties of the investigated groups of bread.

  9. Local trial network for organic wheat. A French multi-actors research project from grain to bread

    OpenAIRE

    Serpolay, Estelle; Chable, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    In West of France, the association Triptolème aims to develop farm seeds and cultivated biodiversity for organic agriculture and natural products for environment and human health. Scientists and practitioners of this association have built a participatory research project around wheat (PaysBlé) in order to explore diversity at different levels from grain to bread and try to link them.

  10. Eating Christmas Cookies, Whole-wheat Bread and Frozen Chicken in the Kindergarten: Doing Pedagogy by Other Means

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontopodis, M.

    2013-01-01

    The study presented here explores eating as a pedagogical practice by paying attention to arrangements of things such as Christmas cookies, whole-wheat and white bread, frozen chicken, plates, chairs, tables, and freezers. Through a series of ethnographic research examples from German and Brazilian

  11. Reduced-gliadin wheat bread: an alternative to the gluten-free diet for consumers suffering gluten-related pathologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gil-Humanes

    Full Text Available Wheat flour cannot be tolerated by those who suffer allergies to gluten. Human pathologies associated with grain proteins have increased worldwide in recent years, and the only effective treatment available is a lifelong gluten-free diet, which is complicated to follow and detrimental to gut health. This manuscript describes the development of wheat bread potentially suitable for celiac patients and other gluten-intolerant individuals. We have made bread using wheat flour with very low content of the specific gluten proteins (near gliadin-free that are the causal agents for pathologies such as celiac disease. Loaves were compared with normal wheat breads and rice bread. Organoleptic, nutritional, and immunotoxic properties were studied. The reduced-gliadin breads showed baking and sensory properties, and overall acceptance, similar to those of normal flour, but with up to 97% lower gliadin content. Moreover, the low-gliadin flour has improved nutritional properties since its lysine content is significantly higher than that of normal flour. Conservative estimates indicate that celiac patients could safely consume 67 grams of bread per day that is made with low-gliadin flour. However, additional studies, such as feeding trials with gluten-intolerant patients, are still needed in order to determine whether or not the product can be consumed by the general celiac population, as well as the actual tolerated amount that can be safely ingested. The results presented here offer a major opportunity to improve the quality of life for millions of sufferers of gluten intolerance throughout the world.

  12. Whole grain wheat sourdough bread does not affect plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in adults with normal or impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, K A; Tucker, A J; Duncan, A M; Graham, T E; Robinson, L E

    2012-09-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest whole grain consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly through alterations in glucose metabolism and subsequent effects on plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, a novel biomarker for CVD. Our aim was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole grain wheat sourdough bread consumption versus refined white bread on PAI-1. Normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic (NGI; n = 14; age 53 ± 6 y; BMI 26.5 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic (HGI; n = 14; age 57 ± 7 y; BMI 35.7 ± 5.7 kg/m(2)) adults incorporated whole grain wheat sourdough (162.5 g) or white (168.8 g) bread into their diet, for 6 wk in a randomized crossover study. Pre- and post-intervention, fasting blood samples were analyzed for PAI-1 (primary outcome), as well as glucose, insulin and glucagon (secondary outcomes) at fasting and postprandially after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Anthropometric measures, fasting glucose, insulin, glucagon and PAI-1 antigen and activity were not different between treatments in either NGI or HGI adults. Glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was lower (19%, P = 0.02) after 6 wk consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough bread compared to white bread in the HGI group, with no differences in insulin or glucagon iAUC in either group. Our data showed decreased glucose iAUC after an OGTT following 6 wk whole grain wheat bread consumption in adults with differing glycemic/insulinemic status, but no improvements in PAI-1 or fasting glycemic parameters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Wheat Cultivar Mixtures on Epidemic Progression of Septoria Tritici Blotch and Pathogenicity of Mycosphaerella graminicola

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cowger, Christina; Mundt, Christopher C

    2002-01-01

    .... We used four mixtures of moderately resistant and susceptible winter wheat cultivars naturally inoculated with Mycosphaerella graminicola to investigate impacts on disease progression in the field...

  14. Use of fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria for making wheat bread with an intermediate content of gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Curiel, José Antonio; Nionelli, Luana; Vincentini, Olimpia; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Silano, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco; Coda, Rossana

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed at combining the highest degradation of gluten during wheat flour fermentation with good structural and sensory features of the related bread. As estimated by R5-ELISA, the degree of degradation of immune reactive gluten was ca. 28%. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and RP-FPLC analyses showed marked variations of the protein fractions compared to the untreated flour. The comparison was also extended to in vitro effect of the peptic/tryptic-digests towards K562 and T84 cells. The flour with the intermediate content of gluten (ICG) was used for bread making, and compared to whole gluten (WG) bread. The chemical, structural and sensory features of the ICG bread approached those of the bread made with WG flour. The protein digestibility of the ICG bread was higher than that from WG flour. Also the nutritional quality, as estimated by different indexes, was the highest for ICG bread. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Resistance of Select Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Cultivars to Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvin, John; Whitworth, R Jeff; Rojas, Lina Maria Aguirre; Smith, C Michael

    2017-08-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) is a global pest of wheat and vectors some of the most damaging strains of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). In years of heavy R. padi infestation, R. padi and BYDV together reduce wheat yields by 30-40% in Kansas and other states of the U.S. Great Plains wheat production area. Cultivation of wheat cultivars resistant to R. padi can greatly reduce production costs and mitigate R. padi-BYDV yield losses, and increase producer profits. This study identified cultivars of hard red and soft white winter wheat with R. padi resistance that suppress R. padi populations or tolerate the effects of R. padi feeding damage. 'Pioneer (S) 25R40,' 'MFA (S) 2248,' 'Pioneer (S) 25R77,' and 'Limagrain LCS Mint' significantly reduced R. padi populations. MFA (S) 2248, Pioneer (S) 25R40, and 'Limagrain LS Wizard' exhibited tolerance expressed as significantly greater aboveground biomass. These findings are significant in that they have identified wheat cultivars currently available to producers, enabling the immediate improvement of tactics to manage R. padi and BYDV in heavily infested areas. Secondarily, these results identify cultivars that are good candidates for use in breeding and genetic analyses of arthropod resistance genes in wheat. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Sensory Quality and Consumer Perception of Wheat Bread : Towards Sustainable Production and Consumption. Effects of Farming System, Year, Technology, Information and Values

    OpenAIRE

    Kihlberg, Iwona

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the effect of production systems aimed at sustainability on product quality and of sensory and non-sensory factors on product acceptance – the effect of farming system, year, milling and baking techniques on the sensory qualities of wheat bread as a model product was investigated using a descriptive test, and the effect of information and values on liking of bread using consumer tests. Whole wheat and white breads were baked with wheat grown in six lots in established conven...

  17. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WHEAT CULTIVARS IN GRAIN PARAMETERS RELATED TO ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mikulíková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain samples from sixteen winter cultivars originated from four localities were evaluated and compared in traits related to ethanol production as grain yield, grain hardness, content of protein, starch and amylose, and α-amylase activity. Results obtained indicate significant differences between cultivars in amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness compared to grain yield, protein content, and starch content where differences were not significant. The amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness were affected by cultivar. Both testing methods for starch fermentation - separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF revealed difference between cultivars in ethanol yield.

  18. Assessment of genetic diversity among Syrian durum (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtar, S; Moualla, M Y; Kalhout, A; Röder, M S; MirAli, N

    2010-11-01

    Genetic diversity among 49 wheat varieties (37 durum and 12 bread wheat) was assayed using 32 microsatellites representing 34 loci covering almost the whole wheat genome. The polymorphic information content (PIC) across the tested loci ranged from 0 to 0.88 with average values of 0.57 and 0.65 for durum and bread wheat respectively. B genome had the highest mean number of alleles (10.91) followed by A genome (8.3) whereas D genome had the lowest number (4.73). The correlation between PIC and allele number was significant in all genome groups accounting for 0.87, 074 and 0.84 for A, B and D genomes respectively, and over all genomes, the correlation was higher in tetraploid (0.8) than in hexaploid wheat varieties (0.5). The cluster analysis discriminated all varieties and clearly divided the two ploidy levels into two separate clusters that reflect the differences in genetic diversity within each cluster. This study demonstrates that microsatellites markers have unique advantages compared to other molecular and biochemical fingerprinting techniques in revealing the genetic diversity in Syrian wheat varieties that is crucial for wheat improvement.

  19. Genotype x Environment interaction for antioxidants and phytic acid contents in bread and durum wheat as influenced by climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Brankovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants prevent oxidative stress and exert positive health effects. However, phytic acid among them decreases micronutrients absorption, representing also antinutrient to human and non-ruminant animals. Fifteen bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and 15 durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. genotypes were evaluated across six environments to determine contents of phytic acid (PA, inorganic P (Pi, total yellow pigment, total soluble phenolic compounds, free protein sulfhydryl groups (PSH, and also phytic acid P/Pi (Pp/Pi. The objective of this study was to quantify, for each trait the effects of environment, genotype, and their interaction; and the influence of climatic factors on the Genotype x Environment interaction (GEI by the use of the factorial regression. GEI (P < 0.001 prevailed as source of variation over genotype (P < 0.001 in determining PA content in bread and durum wheat (44.3% and 34.7% of sum of squares-SS, respectively, PSH content in bread and durum wheat (27% and 28.4% of SS, respectively and total soluble phenolic compounds content in durum wheat (35.5% of SS. The major contribution to the GEI represented climatic variables during stages of stem elongation for PA and phenolic compounds, and also flowering, fertilization, grain formation and grain filling for PSH. Total yellow pigment and Pi contents in bread and durum wheat were predominantly determined by genotype (P < 0.001. Models of climatic variables proved to be efficient in the explanation of more than 92% of the SS of GEI for PA and antioxidants contents.

  20. Characterization and expression patterns of key C4 photosynthetic pathway genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachir, Daoura Goudia; Saeed, Iqbal; Song, Quanhao; Linn, Tay Zar; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2017-06-01

    Wheat is a C3 plant with relatively low photosynthetic efficiency and is a potential target for C4 photosynthetic pathway engineering. Here we reported the characterization of four key C4 pathway genes and assessed their expression patterns and enzymatic activities at three growth stages in flag leaves of 59 bread wheat genotypes. The C4-like genes homologous to PEPC, NADP-ME, MDH, and PPDK in maize were identified in the A, B, and D sub-genomes of bread wheat, located on the long arms of chromosomes 3 and 5 (TaPEPC), short arms of chromosomes 1 and 3 (TaNADP-ME), long arms of chromosomes 1 and 7 (TaMDH), and long arms of chromosome 1 (TaPPDK), respectively. All the four C4-like genes were expressed in the flag leaves at the three growth stages with considerable variations among the 59 bread wheat genotypes. Significant differences were observed between the photosynthesis rates (A) of wheat genotypes with higher expressions of TaPEPC_5, TaNADP-ME_1, and TaMDH_7 at heading and middle grain-filling stages and those with intermediate and low expressions. Our results also indicated that the four C4 enzymes showed activity in the flag leaves and were obviously different among the 59 wheat genotypes. The activities of PEPcase and PPDK decreased at anthesis and slightly increased at grain-filling stage, while NADP-ME and MDH exhibited a decreasing trend at the three stages. The results of the current study could be very valuable and useful for wheat researchers in improving photosynthetic capacity of wheat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Extrusion Procedure on Selected Grain Parameters in Contrast Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Dvořáček

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the fact that the majority of registered wheats (Triticum aestivum L. belonging to cultivars suitable for baking applications, more than 60% of annual Czech wheat production is utilized for feeding. Regarding this fact, a proper extrusion process may offer an improvement of grain feeding quality. The study was aimed at monitoring of grain quality parameter changes in extruded wholemeal from three technologically contrasting cultivars (Elixier, Bodyček, Cimrmanova raná obtained after 8 different combinations of extrusion processes with variation in water dosage and insertion diameter. Technologically different wheat cultivars significantly changed extrusion temperature. Simultaneously, the extrusion process significantly increased RDS content in starch (from 36 to 86 %. On the contrary, the parameters CP and ADF content showed minimal changes after extrusion. The mild reduction of CF and NDF after extrusion probably included hemicellulose degradation. It is possible to conclude that the applied extrusion processes showed comparable effect in all 3 contrasting wheat cultivars on the one hand. On the other hand, the selection of a proper wheat cultivar with suitable grain composition can also bring a further progress in the final quality of extrudates.

  2. Novi Sad wheat cultivars and their seed production in the period 1970-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denčić Srbislav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad started a large-scale seed production of its wheat cultivars in1971. This activity was done in cooperation with a large number of seed companies from the former Yugoslavia and later on from Serbia. A total volume of production of all seed categories for the period from 1971 to 2010 was 3,790,712 tons. On average for this period, the annual production of certified seed was 94,768 t. The largest amount of seed of Novi Sad wheat cultivars was placed on the market in 1982 - 168,248 t (excluding exports. In the former Yugoslavia, Novi Sad wheat cultivars took from 30 to 65% of the total wheat market share. In the new Yugoslavia, Serbia and Montenegro, and finally in Serbia, the market share of Novi Sad cultivars ranged from 80 to 97%. The most popular and bestselling Novi Sad wheat cultivars were: Sava, Partizanka, Novi Sad Early 2 and 1, Balkan, Jugoslavija, Lasta, Evropa, Evropa 90, Pobeda, Novi Sad Early 5 and Renesansa.

  3. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A.; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A.; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O.; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A.

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05). PMID:26901186

  4. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio A. Chávez-Santoscoy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29 was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05.

  5. Effect of different iron compounds on rheological and technological parameters as well as bioaccessibility of minerals in whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebellato, Ana Paula; Bussi, Jéssica; Silva, Joyce Grazielle Siqueira; Greiner, Ralf; Steel, Caroline Joy; Pallone, Juliana Azevedo Lima

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of iron compounds used in whole wheat flour (WWF) fortification, both on rheological properties of the dough and on bread technological quality. Furthermore, bioaccessibility of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and calcium (Ca) in the final breads was determined. Rheological properties (mainly dough development time, stability, mixing tolerance index, resistance to extension and ratio number) of the dough and the technological quality of bread (mainly oven spring and cut opening) were altered. However, producing roll breads fortified with different iron compounds was still possible. NaFeEDTA (ferric sodium ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid) proved to be the most effective iron compound in the fortification of WWF, since it presented the highest levels of solubility (44.80%) and dialysability (46.14%), followed by microencapsulated ferrous fumarate (FFm). On the other hand, the microencapsulated ferrous sulfate (FSm) and reduced iron presented the lowest solubility (5.40 and 18.30%, respectively) and dialysability (33.12 and 31.79%, respectively). Zn dialysis was positively influenced by NaFeEDTA, FSm, and ferrous fumarate. As for Ca, dialysis was positively influenced by FSm and negatively influenced by FFm. The data indicated that there is a competitive interaction for the absorption of these minerals in whole wheat roll breads, but all studied minerals can be considered bioaccessible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-02-17

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05).

  7. Restoration of thiamine status with white or whole wheat bread in a thiamine-depleted rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batifoulier, F; Verny, M A; Besson, C; Chanliaud, E; Rémésy, C; Demigné, C

    2007-01-01

    Long-term thiamine deficiency has been largely documented, whilst little is known about effects of short-term depletion/repletion periods on thiamine vitamers status. Rats were submitted to short-term depletion (8 days) followed by different durations of repletion (3 or 14 days) with thiamine from bread (whole wheat bread or white bread, whole B and white B respectively) or corresponding controls. Short-term depletion drastically decreased plasma thiamine (-97%) and its urinary excretion (-77%). TDP (thiamine diphosphate) was strongly affected in liver (-67%) but less affected in cerebellum (-38%) or kidneys (-45%). Short-term repletion (3 days) with whole B diet or its control restored TDP at initial values in cerebellum and kidneys. A longer repletion (14 days) was required to restore liver TDP. Comparison of the diet groups indicates that thiamine status in tissues of rat fed whole B or white B diet was comparable to that of rats fed purified thiamine. Plasma thiamine concentration could not be restored at initial values in the bread groups or respective controls. In conclusion, thiamine in whole wheat bread appears effective in preventing marginal deficiencies and plasma thiamine is a less reliable indicator of thiamine status than tissue TDP levels.

  8. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Jensen, M.G.; Riboldi, G.

    2010-01-01

    ) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and El measured. The 180 min glucose responses were similar for wholemeal and refined products, but pasta meals gave significantly......Wholegrain foods have received much attention in recent years, and have been proposed to play a role in energy regulation through lowering of postprandial glycemia and appetite. This randomized crossover single meal study in 16 Young adults Was Conducted to test the effect of iso-caloric meals...... based oil wholemeal wheat breads and pasta in comparison to similar refined wheat products on postprandial glycemia, appetite and ad libitum energy intake (EI). Test meals (50 g carbohydrates; 2MJ) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP...

  9. Comparative Morpho-Biochemical Responses of Wheat Cultivars Sensitive and Tolerant to Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Water stress is likely the most important factor that adversely affects plant growth and development. In this study two wheat cultivars Gemmieza-7 (sensitive and Sahel-1 (tolerant were subjected to water stress and compared in terms of growth parameters (growth vigor of root and shoot, water relations (relative water content and saturation water deficit and protein as well as nucleic acids (DNA and RNA content in flag leaves of both cultivars. In general, water stress caused noticeable reduction in almost all growth criteria of root, shoot and flag leaf which was consistent with the progressive alteration in water relations, protein and nucleic acids content of both cultivars during grain filling. Furthermore, degree of leaf succulence and degree of leaf sclerophylly were severely affected by water stress in both wheat cultivars. In relation to wheat cultivar, the sensitive was more affected by water stress than the tolerant one. Generally, the application of salicylic acid, trehalose or their interaction induced marked increase in growth vigor of root and shoot, water relations and protein as well as nucleic acids in flag leaves of both wheat cultivars in compare with control and water stressed plants. In conclusion, Sahel-1 has suitable mechanisms to enable it to respond more effectively to water stress than Gemmieza-7.

  10. Influence of xylanase addition on the characteristics of loaf bread prepared with white flour or whole grain wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Zafalon Jaekel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the influence of the addition of the enzyme xylanase (four concentrations: 0, 4, 8, and 12 g.100 kg-1 flour on the characteristics of loaf bread made with white wheat flour or whole grain wheat flour. Breads made from white flour and added with xylanase had higher specific volumes than those of the control sample (no enzyme; however, the specific volume did not differ significantly (p < 0.05 among the breads with different enzyme concentrations. All formulations made from whole grain wheat flour and added with xylanase also had specific volumes significantly higher than those of the control sample, and the highest value was found for the 8 g xylanase.100 kg-1 flour formulation. With respect to moisture content, the formulations with different enzyme concentrations showed small significant differences when compared to the control samples. In general, breads made with the addition of 8 g enzyme.100 kg-1 flour had the lowest firmness values, thus presenting the best technological characteristics.

  11. Identificação de cultivares de trigo pelo teste de fenol Cultivars identification of wheat by phenol test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Lemos de Menezes

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O teste de fenol é recomendado para a identificação de cultivares de trigo em laboratório e se baseia na reação de compostos presentes no pericarpo das sementes. Devido à reação constante para cada cultivar, o teste serve para caracterização rápida e fácil de materiais com reações diferentes. No presente trabalho, com o objetivo de facilitar a identificação varietal em trigo, determinou-se a reação ao fenol de 42 cultivares, que estiveram ou estão em recomendação no Brasil.The phenol test is recommended for wheat cultivar identification and is based on the reaction of compounds present in the seeds pericarp. Due to the constant reaction for each cultivar, the test may be used for a rapid and easy characterization of different reactions materiais. In this essay, the phenol reaction was determined in 42 brazilian wheat varieties aiming to facilitate its identification.

  12. A three-tier phenotyping approach for hunting QTLs related to heat tolerance in bread wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    - with a top-to-bottom (forward) approach: Tier 1: Phenotyping: As a starting point,the quantification of heat tolerance was done by the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter, Fv/Fm, as a measure of maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry after heat stress treatment (40°C for 72h). This way......, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, suggesting that the tolerant cultivars had better evaporative cooling and stay green characteristics under heat stress. Further, cultivar Fv/Fm and dry matter content also showed a significant positive correlation. Tier 3: Linking phenotypic differences to QTLs......, wheat is sensitive to heat stress, particularly at the reproductive phase. Heat tolerance is a complex trait. In the present study, a combined approach of physiological phenotyping and quantitative genetics was used to dissect the complex nature of heat tolerance into photosynthesis related traits...

  13. Analysis of the bread wheat genome using whole genome shotgun sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenchley, Rachel; Spannagl, Manuel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Barker, Gary L.A.; D’Amore, Rosalinda; Allen, Alexandra M.; McKenzie, Neil; Kramer, Melissa; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Bolser, Dan; Kay, Suzanne; Waite, Darren; Trick, Martin; Bancroft, Ian; Gu, Yong; Huo, Naxin; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Sehgal, Sunish; Kianian, Sharyar; Gill, Bikram; Anderson, Olin; Kersey, Paul; Dvorak, Jan; McCombie, Richard; Hall, Anthony; Mayer, Klaus F.X.; Edwards, Keith J.; Bevan, Michael W.; Hall, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Summary Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a globally important crop, accounting for 20% of the calories consumed by mankind. We sequenced its large and challenging 17 Gb hexaploid genome using 454 pyrosequencing and compared this with the sequences of diploid ancestral and progenitor genomes. Between 94,000-96,000 genes were identified, and two-thirds were assigned to the A, B and D genomes. High-resolution synteny maps identified many small disruptions to conserved gene order. We show the hexaploid genome is highly dynamic, with significant loss of gene family members upon polyploidization and domestication, and an abundance of gene fragments. Several classes of genes involved in energy harvesting, metabolism and growth are among expanded gene families that could be associated with crop productivity. Our analyses, coupled with the identification of extensive genetic variation, provide a new resource for accelerating gene discovery and improving this major crop. PMID:23192148

  14. Interaction between xylanase, glucose oxidase and ascorbic acid on the technological quality of whole wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Batista da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to verify the performance of xylanase and its interaction with oxidants agents (glucose oxidase and ascorbic acid on the quality of whole wheat bread. The experiment was based on a central composite rotational design and the Response Surface Methodology was used to analyze the results. None of the xylanase, glucose oxidase or ascorbic acid concentrations within the studied range led to a significant difference in the specific volume. The highest moisture content and the lowest firmness values were reported in the bread with lower and intermediate levels of xylanase and larger amounts of glucose oxidase and ascorbic acid. This effect was observed mainly at the end of the storage period. A minimum amount of xylanase (from 33 to 63 EDX kg-1 flour showed to be essential for obtaining best results. Levels of ascorbic acid above 63mg kg-1 and glucose oxidase above 91 SRU kg-1 proved to be necessary to offer the beneficial effect of xylanase.

  15. Development and characterization of a new TILLING population of common bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    Full Text Available Mutagenesis is an important tool in crop improvement. However, the hexaploid genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. presents problems in identifying desirable genetic changes based on phenotypic screening due to gene redundancy. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes, a powerful reverse genetic strategy that allows the detection of induced point mutations in individuals of the mutagenized populations, can address the major challenge of linking sequence information to the biological function of genes and can also identify novel variation for crop breeding. Wheat is especially well-suited for TILLING due to the high mutation densities tolerated by polyploids. However, only a few wheat TILLING populations are currently available in the world, which is far from satisfying the requirement of researchers and breeders in different growing environments. In addition, current TILLING screening protocols require costly fluorescence detection systems, limiting their use, especially in developing countries. We developed a new TILLING resource comprising 2610 M(2 mutants in a common wheat cultivar 'Jinmai 47'. Numerous phenotypes with altered morphological and agronomic traits were observed from the M(2 and M(3 lines in the field. To simplify the procedure and decrease costs, we use unlabeled primers and either non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels or agarose gels for mutation detection. The value of this new resource was tested using PCR with RAPD and Intron-spliced junction (ISJ primers, and also TILLING in three selected candidate genes, in 300 and 512 mutant lines, revealing high mutation densities of 1/34 kb by RAPD/ISJ analysis and 1/47 kb by TILLING. In total, 31 novel alleles were identified in the 3 targeted genes and confirmed by sequencing. The results indicate that this mutant population represents a useful resource for the wheat research community. We hope that the use of this reverse genetics resource will provide novel allelic

  16. Genetic analyses using GGE model and a mixed linear model approach, and stability analyses using AMMI bi-plot for late-maturity alpha-amylase activity in bread wheat genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Golam; Glover, Karl D; Krishnan, Padmanaban G; Wu, Jixiang; Berzonsky, William A; Fofana, Bourlaye

    2017-06-01

    Low falling number and discounting grain when it is downgraded in class are the consequences of excessive late-maturity α-amylase activity (LMAA) in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Grain expressing high LMAA produces poorer quality bread products. To effectively breed for low LMAA, it is necessary to understand what genes control it and how they are expressed, particularly when genotypes are grown in different environments. In this study, an International Collection (IC) of 18 spring wheat genotypes and another set of 15 spring wheat cultivars adapted to South Dakota (SD), USA were assessed to characterize the genetic component of LMAA over 5 and 13 environments, respectively. The data were analysed using a GGE model with a mixed linear model approach and stability analysis was presented using an AMMI bi-plot on R software. All estimated variance components and their proportions to the total phenotypic variance were highly significant for both sets of genotypes, which were validated by the AMMI model analysis. Broad-sense heritability for LMAA was higher in SD adapted cultivars (53%) compared to that in IC (49%). Significant genetic effects and stability analyses showed some genotypes, e.g. 'Lancer', 'Chester' and 'LoSprout' from IC, and 'Alsen', 'Traverse' and 'Forefront' from SD cultivars could be used as parents to develop new cultivars expressing low levels of LMAA. Stability analysis using an AMMI bi-plot revealed that 'Chester', 'Lancer' and 'Advance' were the most stable across environments, while in contrast, 'Kinsman', 'Lerma52' and 'Traverse' exhibited the lowest stability for LMAA across environments.

  17. Genetic Analysis for Some of Morphological Traits in Bread Wheat under Drought Stress Condition Using Generations Mean Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamileh Abedi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Perception of genes action controlling of quantitative traits is very important in genetic breeding methods the plant populations. to study and estimate the parameters of genetic and appointment the best genetically model for justification the genetic changing some of traits the bread wheat under drought stress condition, parents (P1 & P2 and F3, F4, F5 generations together the four control cultivars (Kharchia, Gaspard, Moghan and Mahuti were evaluated by generation mean analysis using a agoment design including six blocks. Generation mean analysis was performed for all traits with Mather and Jinks model using joint scaling test. Three parameter model [m d h] provided the best fit for all traits expect harvest index, main spike grain weight, number of grain per plant, Total spike weight of plant with significant at 5% and 1% levels . Though additive and dominance effect both had interfered in controlling often the traits but with attention to difference effects and variety component was determined that dominance is more impressive than additive effect for traits of number of tiller, main spike weight, grain yield and grain number of main spike. Therefore will benefit using of these traits in the collection and to improve these traits hybridization would be much efficient than the selection strategies. In this study additive Ч additive epistasis effect only observed for traits of Total spike weight of plant, number of grain per plant, main spike grain weight and harvest index and other traits hadn’t any epistasis effect that it was demonstration lack of existence the genes reciprocal effect in the inheritance studied traits. Therefore we can suggest that the selection strategies perform in terminal generations and additive Ч additive epistasis effect would be confirmed in selection under self-pollination condition.

  18. Screening of bread wheat genotypes for drought tolerance using phenotypic and proline analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Learnmore Mwadzingeni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the leading constraints to wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production globally. Breeding for drought tolerance using novel genetic resources is an important mitigation strategy. This study aimed to determine the level of drought tolerance among diverse bread wheat genotypes using agronomic traits and proline analyses and to establish correlation of proline content and agronomic traits under drought-stress conditions in order to select promising wheat lines for breeding. Ninety-six diverse genotypes including 88 lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT’s heat and drought nurseries, and eight local checks were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions during 2014/15 and 2015/16 making four testing environments. The following phenotypic traits were collected after stress imposed during the heading to anthesis period: the number of days to heading (DTH, days to maturity (DTM, productive tiller number (TN, plant height (PH, spike length (SL, spikelet per spike (SPS, kernels per spike (KPS, thousand kernel weight (TKW and grain yield (GY and proline content (PC. Analysis of variance, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, principal component and stress tolerance index were calculated. Genotypes with high yield performance under stressed and optimum conditions maintained high values for yield components. Proline content significantly increased under stress, but weakly correlated with agronomic traits under both optimal and water limited conditions. The positive correlation observed between grain yield and proline content under-drought stress conditions provides evidence that proline accumulation might ultimately be considered as a tool for effective selection of drought tolerant genotypes. The study selected 12 genotypes with high grain yields under drought stressed conditions and favorable adaptive traits useful for breeding.

  19. UPLC-QTOF/MS metabolic profiling unveils urinary changes in humans after a whole grain rye versus refined wheat bread intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Barri, Thaer; Hanhineva, Kati

    2013-01-01

    Non-targeted urine metabolite profiling has not been previously exploited in the field of whole grain (WG) products. WG products, particularly rye, are important elements in a healthy Nordic diet. The aim of this study was to identify novel urinary biomarkers of WG rye bread (RB) intake...... in a randomised crossover study with RB versus refined wheat bread (WB)....

  20. Improvement of Fatty Acid Profile and Studio of Rheological and Technological Characteristics in Breads Supplemented with Flaxseed, Soybean, and Wheat Bran Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana B. Osuna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional breads constitute an interesting alternative as vehicle of new essential fatty acids sources. The aim of this study was to improve the fatty acids (FA profile of bakery products, producing breads with low saturated fatty acid (SFA content and with high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content, through partial substitution of wheat flour by other ingredients (soy flour, flax flour, and wheat bran and to analyze the effect of this change on the technological, rheological, and sensorial characteristics of breads. Flaxseed flour (FF, soybeans flour (SF, or wheat bran (WB was used to replace 50, 100, and 150 g kg−1 of wheat flour (WF in breads. FF or SF produced a decrease in monounsaturated and SFA and an increase of PUFA in these breads. Furthermore, breads replaced with FF presented considerable increase in the content of n3 FA, while, SF or WB contributed to rise of linoleic and oleic FA, respectively. The substitution percentage increase of FF, SF, or WB to formulation produced changes in the colour, rheological, textural, and technological characteristics of breads. This replacement resulted in improved lipid profile, being breads with 50 g kg−1 SF, the better acceptance, baking features, and enhanced fatty acid profile.

  1. Breadmaking performance and textural changes during storage of composite breads made from spelt wheat and different forms of amaranth grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipčev, Bojana; Bodroža-Solarov, Marija; Pestorić, Mladenka; Šimurina, Olivera

    2017-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess the baking properties of composite spelt wheat-amaranth blends and to study the staling of composite breads during a six-day storage. Different forms of amaranth grains were added to spelt bread formulation: native amaranth flour and flour from popped amaranth, including their scalded and non-scalded variants. Native amaranth flour (both scalded and non-scalded) gave loaves with the highest volume and contributed to significantly softer crumb but not in comparison to the control bread. Crumb resilience did not show significant differences among the breads but there were differences in the crumb stress relaxation parameters which indicated certain influence on the crumb viscoelastic properties. During storage, all samples developed firmer and less elastic crumbs. Drying loss and staling degree significantly increased with increased storage time. The staling rate was the highest in the bread with non-scalded amaranth flours (native and flour from popped amaranth). The changes in the crumb textural and elastic properties caused by staling turned significant after six days of storage. In general, inclusion of different forms of amaranth flour did not alter the staling of breads and they exerted similar behaviour during storage.

  2. Effect of processing on phenolic composition of dough and bread fractions made from refined and whole wheat flour of three wheat varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand; Fuerst, E Patrick; Kiszonas, Alecia M; Yu, Liangli; Morris, Craig F

    2014-10-29

    This study investigated the effect of breadmaking on the assay of phenolic acids from flour, dough, and bread fractions of three whole and refined wheat varieties. Comparison of the efficacy of two commonly used methods for hydrolysis and extraction of phenoilc acids showed that yields of total phenolic acids (TPA) were 5-17% higher among all varieties and flour types when samples were directly hydrolyzed in the presence of ascorbate and EDTA as compared to the method separating free, soluble conjugates and bound, insoluble phenolic acids. Ferulic acid (FA) was the predominant phenolic acid, accounting for means of 59 and 81% of TPA among all refined and whole wheat fractions, respectively. All phenolic acids measured were more abundant in whole wheat than in refined samples. Results indicated that the total quantified phenolic acids did not change significantly when breads were prepared from refined and whole wheat flour. Thus, the potential phytochemical health benefits of total phenolic acids appear to be preserved during bread baking.

  3. The role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited in salt tolerance studies involving the bread wheat cv. chinese spring

    OpenAIRE

    P. K. Martin; R. M.D. Koebner

    2014-01-01

    The intention of this study was to confirm the role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited during salinity tolerance experiments involving the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring. The nutrient film/rockwool hydroponics technique was utilised. This study concluded that seed size does not play a significant role in the non-genetic variation generated during a study of salinity tolerance of the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring.

  4. The role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited in salt tolerance studies involving the bread wheat cv. chinese spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this study was to confirm the role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited during salinity tolerance experiments involving the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring. The nutrient film/rockwool hydroponics technique was utilised. This study concluded that seed size does not play a significant role in the non-genetic variation generated during a study of salinity tolerance of the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring.

  5. Cluster analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC of gluten protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been substantial breeding efforts in North Dakota to produce wheat cultivars that are well adapted to weather conditions and disease resistance. In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed with regard to how they cluster in terms of...

  6. Physico-chemical characteristics and sensory evaluation of wheat bread partially substituted with banana (Musa acuminata X balbisiana cv. Awak) pseudo-stem flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lee-Hoon; Abdul Aziz, Noor Aziah; Azahari, Baharin

    2013-08-15

    The physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the control (BCtr), commercial wheat flour (CWF) bread substituted with 10% BPF (banana pseudo-stem flour) (B10BPF) and B10BPF with added 0.8% w/w (flour weight basis) xanthan gum (XG) or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (B10BPFXG and B10BPFCMC, respectively) were examined. The proximate analyses revealed that the composite bread had significantly higher moisture, ash, crude fibre, soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre contents but lower protein, fat and carbohydrate contents than the BCtr. Bread incorporated with BPF resulted in a lower volume, darker crumb and lighter crust colour than the BCtr. The addition of CMC improved the bread volume. All breads containing BPF had greater total phenolics, and antioxidant properties than the control bread. Sensory evaluation indicated that the B10BPFCMC bread had the highest acceptability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which precludes conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft whit...

  8. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: milling performance and end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which preclude conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft white...

  9. Genetic Parameters And Selection Response For Yield Traits In Bread Wheat Under Irrigated And Rainfed Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Iftikhar Hussain; at-ur-Rahman, Hiday; Khan, Imran

    2008-01-01

    A set of 22 F5:7 experimental wheat lines along with four check cultivars (Dera-98, Fakhr-e-Sarhad, Ghaznavi-98 and Tatara) were evaluated as independent experiments under irrigated and rainfed environments using a randomized complete block design at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar during 2004-05. The two environments were statistically different for days to heading and spike length only. Highly significant genetic variability existed among the wheat lines (P<0.01) in the combined analysis across environments for all traits. Genotype×environment interactions were non-significant for all traits except 1000-grain weight indicating consistent performance of wheat genotypes across the two environments. Wheat lines and check cultivars were 2 to 5 days early in heading under rainfed environment compared to the irrigated. Plant height, spike length, 1000-grain weight, biological and grain yields were generally reduced under rainfed environment. Genetic variances were of greater magnitude than environmental variances for most of the traits in both environments. The heritability estimates were of higher magnitude (0.74 to 0.96) for days to heading, plant height, spike length, biological and grain yield, while medium (0.31 to 0.51) for 1000-grain weight. Selection differentials were negative for heading (-7.3 days in irrigated vs -9.4 days in rainfed) and plant height (-9.0 cm in irrigated vs -8.7 cm in rainfed) indicating possibility of selecting wheat genotypes with early heading and short plant stature. Positive selection differentials of 1.3 vs 1.6 cm for spike length, 3.8 vs 3.4 g for 1000-grain weight, 2488.2 vs 3139.7 kg ha-1 for biological yield and 691.6 vs 565.4 kg ha-1 for grain yield at 20% selection intensity were observed under irrigated and rainfed environments, respectively. Expected selection responses were 7.98 vs 8.91 days for heading, 8.20 vs 9.52 cm for plant height, 1.01 vs 1.61 cm for spike length, 2.12 vs 1.15 g for 1000-grain weight, 1655

  10. Differential protection of ethylenediurea (EDU) against ambient ozone for five cultivars of tropical wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shalini; Agrawal, S B; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2009-01-01

    The antiozonant EDU (ethylenediurea) was used to assess the impact of ambient O(3) under field conditions on five cultivars of tropical wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). EDU solution (0 ppm and 400 ppm) was applied as soil drench (100 ml plant(-1)) 10 days after germination (DAG) at an interval of 12 days. EDU-treated plants showed significant increments in stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, variable fluorescence, total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, proline and protein contents and protective enzymes (POX, SOD and APX) activities in HUW468, HUW510 and HUW234 cultivars, while, a reverse trend was observed for lipid peroxidation. EDU application restored grain yield significantly by maintaining higher levels of antioxidants, metabolites and enzymes in cultivars HUW468 and HUW510. Sonalika and PBW343 showed least response of measured parameters under EDU treatment suggesting their greater resistance to O(3). EDU, thus proved its usefulness in screening suitable wheat cultivars for areas experiencing elevated concentrations of O(3).

  11. Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Compound Characterization and Their Biosynthesis Genes between Two Diverse Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Varieties Differing for Chapatti (Unleavened Flat Bread) Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monica; Sandhir, Rajat; Singh, Anuradha; Kumar, Pankaj; Mishra, Ankita; Jachak, Sanjay; Singh, Sukhvinder P.; Singh, Jagdeep; Roy, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) affect the bread quality and can also affect the other types of end-use food products such as chapatti (unleavened flat bread), now globally recognized wheat-based food product. The detailed analysis of PCs and their biosynthesis genes in diverse bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties differing for chapatti quality have not been studied. In this study, the identification and quantification of PCs using UPLC-QTOF-MS and/or MS/MS and functional genomics techniques such as microarrays and qRT-PCR of their biosynthesis genes have been studied in a good chapatti variety, “C 306” and a poor chapatti variety, “Sonalika.” About 80% (69/87) of plant phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in these varieties. Nine PCs (hinokinin, coutaric acid, fertaric acid, p-coumaroylqunic acid, kaempferide, isorhamnetin, epigallocatechin gallate, methyl isoorientin-2′-O-rhamnoside, and cyanidin-3-rutinoside) were identified only in the good chapatti variety and four PCs (tricin, apigenindin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and myricetin-3-glucoside) in the poor chapatti variety. Therefore, about 20% of the identified PCs are unique to each other and may be “variety or genotype” specific PCs. Fourteen PCs used for quantification showed high variation between the varieties. The microarray data of 44 phenolic compound biosynthesis genes and 17 of them on qRT-PCR showed variation in expression level during seed development and majority of them showed low expression in the good chapatti variety. The expression pattern in the good chapatti variety was largely in agreement with that of phenolic compounds. The level of variation of 12 genes was high between the good and poor chapatti quality varieties and has potential in development of markers. The information generated in this study can be extended onto a larger germplasm set for development of molecular markers using QTL and/or association mapping approaches for their application in wheat breeding

  12. Novi Sad wheat cultivars and their seed production in the period 1970-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Denčić Srbislav; Mladenov Novica; Kobiljski Borislav; Štatkić Slaviša

    2011-01-01

    Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad started a large-scale seed production of its wheat cultivars in1971. This activity was done in cooperation with a large number of seed companies from the former Yugoslavia and later on from Serbia. A total volume of production of all seed categories for the period from 1971 to 2010 was 3,790,712 tons. On average for this period, the annual production of certified seed was 94,768 t. The largest amount of seed of Novi Sad wheat cultivars was pl...

  13. Rheological study of mixed flour: wheat (Triticum vulgare, barley (Hordeum vulgare and potato (Solanum tuberosum for use in the preparation of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Sandoval

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With wheat flour imported and domestic wheat cereals produced in the country, and the potato tuber, a rheological study was performed to determine the most suitable proportions of substitution of wheat flour imported with the latter and its feasibility for making bread. We worked in mixtures of flour, wheat CWRS # 1 (red spring wheat in western Canada Cañicapa barley flour, wheat and potato Cojitambo Gabriela, from Ecuadorian cultures in proportions of 10, 20 and 30% (p / p. Masses from mixtures of flours were analyzed on a Brabender Farinograph, in order to determine the water absorption, development time, stability and rate of tolerance with a view to selecting the flour blends that have a behavior similar to CWRS wheat flour # 1. The best mixtures found were: wheat flour # 1 CWRS replaced with 10, 20 and 30% barley flour Cañicapa, and the mixture of wheat flour # 1 CWRS wheat flour in Cojitambo 30%. These flour mixes selected were also subjected to rheological analysis of their masses using a computer Mixolab. The breads made from flours selected were evaluated in a sensory panel. The breads more accepted by consumers were those containing 20 and 30% barley, followed by the group of those made with imported wheat with 30% wheat Cojitambo, and containing 10% of barley flour.

  14. Cultivar Mixture Cropping Increased Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Limited Irrigation Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Yunqi Wang; Yinghua Zhang; Wei Ji; Peng Yu; Bin Wang; Jinpeng Li; Meikun Han; Xuexin Xu; Zhimin Wang

    2016-01-01

    The effects of cultivar mixture cropping on yield, biomass, and water use efficiency (WUE) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated under non-irrigation (W0, no irrigation during growth stage), one time irrigation (W1, irrigation applied at stem elongation) and two times irrigation (W2, irrigation applied at stem elongation and anthesis) conditions. Nearly 90% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments experienced an increase in grain yield as compared with the mean of the pure s...

  15. A Major Locus for Chloride Accumulation on Chromosome 5A in Bread Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Yusuf; Taylor, Julian; Rongala, Jay; Oldach, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth, but can be toxic at high concentrations resulting in reduced growth and yield. Although saline soils are generally dominated by both sodium (Na+) and Cl− ions, compared to Na+ toxicity, very little is known about physiological and genetic control mechanisms of tolerance to Cl− toxicity. In hydroponics and field studies, a bread wheat mapping population was tested to examine the relationships between physiological traits [Na+, potassium (K+) and Cl− concentration] involved in salinity tolerance (ST) and seedling growth or grain yield, and to elucidate the genetic control mechanism of plant Cl− accumulation using a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis approach. Plant Na+ or Cl− concentration were moderately correlated (genetically) with seedling biomass in hydroponics, but showed no correlations with grain yield in the field, indicating little value in selecting for ion concentration to improve ST. In accordance with phenotypic responses, QTL controlling Cl− accumulation differed entirely between hydroponics and field locations, and few were detected in two or more environments, demonstrating substantial QTL-by-environment interactions. The presence of several QTL for Cl− concentration indicated that uptake and accumulation was a polygenic trait. A major Cl− concentration QTL (5A; barc56/gwm186) was identified in three field environments, and accounted for 27–32% of the total genetic variance. Alignment between the 5A QTL interval and its corresponding physical genome regions in wheat and other grasses has enabled the search for candidate genes involved in Cl− transport, which is discussed. PMID:24893005

  16. Effect of Recurrent Selection on Drought Tolerance and Related Morpho-Physiological Traits in Bread Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya P

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting wheat yield. A recurrent selection program was conducted to improve the drought tolerance and yield of bread wheat using drought tolerant advanced breeding lines from a drought tolerant x susceptible cross (HI 1500 x HUW 510. The parental lines were evaluated for yield, biomass and harvest index (HI in addition to the drought adaptive traits like Canopy Temperature (CT, chlorophyll content and Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI. After three rounds of recurrent selection, the half sib progenies exhibited a marked reduction in CT, chlorophyll content and biomass; whereas improvement was noted for yield, HI and NDVI. Drought tolerance of the half-sib population appeared enhanced as indicated by drought indices and grain yield. Compared to base population, half-sibs showed better HI, grain filling and a significant (17.1% increase in grain yield under water stress conditions. Cooler canopies and increased early vigour might have contributed to drought tolerance. A favourable combination of gibberellin sensitive and insensitive Rhtalleles was observed in the recombinant progenies. However, increased yield under water stress had a negative trade off in reduction of biomass. The study also identified potential lines with high yield and drought tolerance for subsequent varietal development for water limited areas.

  17. Genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in Chinese bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. revealed by SSR markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Hao

    Full Text Available Two hundred and fifty bread wheat lines, mainly Chinese mini core accessions, were assayed for polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium (LD based on 512 whole-genome microsatellite loci representing a mean marker density of 5.1 cM. A total of 6,724 alleles ranging from 1 to 49 per locus were identified in all collections. The mean PIC value was 0.650, ranging from 0 to 0.965. Population structure and principal coordinate analysis revealed that landraces and modern varieties were two relatively independent genetic sub-groups. Landraces had a higher allelic diversity than modern varieties with respect to both genomes and chromosomes in terms of total number of alleles and allelic richness. 3,833 (57.0% and 2,788 (41.5% rare alleles with frequencies of 0.05 (P<0.001 than the landraces. Mean LD decay distance for the landraces at the whole genome level was <5 cM, while a higher LD decay distance of 5-10 cM in modern varieties. LD decay distances were also somewhat different for each of the 21 chromosomes, being higher for most of the chromosomes in modern varieties (<5 ∼ 25 cM compared to landraces (<5 ∼ 15 cM, presumably indicating the influences of domestication and breeding. This study facilitates predicting the marker density required to effectively associate genotypes with traits in Chinese wheat genetic resources.

  18. Detection of antigens reactive to IgE and IgA during wheat seed maturation and in different wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Claudia; Touraev, Alisher; Heberle-Bors, Erwin; Quirce, Santiago; Huber, Wolf Dietrich; Valenta, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    Dietary intake of wheat causes hypersensitivity reactions in patients suffering from IgE-mediated food allergy and coeliac disease. To study the expression of IgE- and IgA-reactive antigens during wheat seed maturation and in different wheat cultivars. Summer wheat was grown in a glasshouse and seeds were harvested at defined maturation stages. Mature seeds were obtained from 13 different defined cultivars. Protein extracts were prepared from different maturation stages and cultivars with a standardized procedure based on seed weight and analysed by IgE and IgA immunoblotting using sera from clinically defined patients suffering from wheat allergy or coeliac disease. With a few exceptions the expression of IgE- and IgA-reactive wheat antigens increased during wheat seed maturation. Wheat cultivars could be identified in which the expression of certain IgE- and IgA-reactive components was strongly reduced or not detectable. The expression of IgE- and IgA-reactive antigens depends on wheat seed maturation and varies in different wheat cultivars.

  19. Study on the Effects of Humic Acid on Germination of Four Wheat Cultivars (Triticun aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    S Sabzevari; H Khazaie; M Kafi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Humic acid is an organic acid without environmental destructive effects that is applied for increasing germination rate and wheat establishment. In order to evaluate effects of different levels of humic acid on germination of four wheat cultivars; an experiment was conducted in 2008 at Research Laboratory of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. A randomized completely block design with four replications used with factorial combination of humic acid concentrati...

  20. Native and enzymatically modified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) endogenous lipids in bread making: a focus on gas cell stabilization mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerits, Lien R; Pareyt, Bram; Masure, Hanne G; Delcour, Jan A

    2015-04-01

    Lipopan F and Lecitase Ultra lipases were used in straight dough bread making to study how wheat lipids affect bread loaf volume (LV) and crumb structure setting. Lipase effects on LV were dose and dough piece weight dependent. The bread quality improving mechanisms exerted by endogenous lipids were studied in terms of gluten network strengthening, which indirectly stabilizes gas cells, and in terms of direct interfacial gas cell stabilization. Unlike diacetyl tartaric esters of mono- and diacylglycerols (DATEM, used as control), lipase use did not impact dough extensibility. The effect on dough extensibility was therefore related to its lipid composition at the start of mixing. Both lipases and DATEM strongly increase the levels of polar lipids in dough liquor and their availability for and potential accumulation at gas cell interfaces. Lipases form lysolipids that emulsify other lipids. We speculate that DATEM competes with (endogenous) polar lipids for interacting with gluten proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of durum wheat cultivars on physico-chemical and sensory properties of spaghetti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, Lucia; Mastromatteo, Marcella; Lecce, Lucia; Spinelli, Sara; Contò, Francesco; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2014-08-01

    Mixtures of different cultivars provide semolina with proper processing properties but not always good nutritional properties. In this study, the effects of mono-varietal cultivars of durum wheat on pasta quality were evaluated in order to find a good balance between nutritional and sensory properties of the final product. Durum wheat spaghetti was manufactured using semolina from six mono-varietal cultivars. A commercially available semolina mixture was also used to produce a control pasta sample. Instrumental (i.e. rheological and texture analysis), sensory (i.e. elasticity, firmness, adhesiveness) and nutritional (i.e. protein, ash and fibre content, glycaemic index) analyses were carried out. Results highlighted differences between selected cultivars. In particular, spaghetti obtained with Anco Marzio and Cappelli semolina (modern and old cultivars, respectively) showed the highest protein content and the lowest cooking loss, compared with the other samples. Spaghetti made with Cappelli semolina showed the lowest adhesiveness and the highest hardness; it recorded the best overall quality and presented the lowest glycaemic response. Hence, durum wheat pasta with a good balance between nutritional and cooking quality could be obtained from semolina based on mono-varietal cultivars. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Calasso, Maria; Campanella, Daniela; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-06-16

    This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, according to traditional protocols that are routinely used for making typical Italian breads. Based on kinetic of acidification and culture-dependent data, the wheat-legume sourdough was further characterized and selected for bread making. As determined by RAPD-PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene analyses, lactic acid bacteria in wheat-legume sourdough included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus coryneformis, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Two breads containing 15% (w/w) of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours were produced using selected wheat-legume sourdough (WLSB) and traditional wheat sourdough (WSB). Compared to wheat yeasted bread (WYB), the level of total free amino acids (FAA) was higher in WSB and WLSB. Phytase and antioxidant activities were the highest in WLSB. Compared to bread WYB, the addition of legume flours decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) (WYB versus WSB). However, the dough fermentation with WSLB favored an increase of IVPD. According to the levels of carbohydrates, dietary fibers and resistant starch, WSB and WLSB showed lower values of hydrolysis index (HI) compared to WYB. As showed by texture and image analyses and sensory evaluation of breads, a good acceptability was found for WSB and, especially, WLSB breads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies on certain aspects of seed-borne fungi. VI. Fungi associated with different cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Pandey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fungi associated with eight cultivars of wheat have been investigated. Twenty seven species were isolated from external and internal surface of all the wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars respectively. Out of five dominant and subdominant fungi anly Aspergillus terreus and Alternaria tenuis were able to colonize internally. The culture filtrates of test fungi reduced the germination of all wheat varieties up to different degrees.

  4. Physical Mapping of Bread Wheat Chromosome 5A: An Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfina Barabaschi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The huge size, redundancy, and highly repetitive nature of the bread wheat [ (L.] genome, makes it among the most difficult species to be sequenced. To overcome these limitations, a strategy based on the separation of individual chromosomes or chromosome arms and the subsequent production of physical maps was established within the frame of the International Wheat Genome Sequence Consortium (IWGSC. A total of 95,812 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones of short-arm chromosome 5A (5AS and long-arm chromosome 5A (5AL arm-specific BAC libraries were fingerprinted and assembled into contigs by complementary analytical approaches based on the FingerPrinted Contig (FPC and Linear Topological Contig (LTC tools. Combined anchoring approaches based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR marker screening, microarray, and sequence homology searches applied to several genomic tools (i.e., genetic maps, deletion bin map, neighbor maps, BAC end sequences (BESs, genome zipper, and chromosome survey sequences allowed the development of a high-quality physical map with an anchored physical coverage of 75% for 5AS and 53% for 5AL with high portions (64 and 48%, respectively of contigs ordered along the chromosome. In the genome of grasses, [ (L. Beauv.], rice ( L., and sorghum [ (L. Moench] homologs of genes on wheat chromosome 5A were separated into syntenic blocks on different chromosomes as a result of translocations and inversions during evolution. The physical map presented represents an essential resource for fine genetic mapping and map-based cloning of agronomically relevant traits and a reference for the 5A sequencing projects.

  5. Características físicas e fisiológicas na qualidade industrial de cultivares e linhagens de trigo e triticale Physiological and physical characteristics in the industrial quality of cultivars and lines of wheat and triticale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Smanhotto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se as características físicas, fisiológicas e reológicas de cultivares e linhagens de trigo - cultivares CD (COODETEC 103, 104, 105, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, linhagens CD 2017 e CDFAPA 2036 e triticale (EMBRAPA 53, para qualidade de farinha destinada à panificação. Foram analisados: peso do hectolitro (PH, peso de mil grãos (PMG, porcentagem de germinação, proteína total e farinografia, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, com exceção da farinografia, com duas repetições. As médias obtidas foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott Knott ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. As cultivares diferiram entre si quanto aos parâmetros testados, atenderam ao valor de PH para comercialização mas nem sempre o maior PH correspondeu ao maior PMG; apenas as cultivares CD 108 e 111 poderiam ser destinadas à fabricação de pão francês quanto ao parâmetro estabilidade. Em relação ao índice de tolerância à mistura, as cultivares e linhagens não diferiram entre si, porém, a farinha da linhagem 2017 atenderia aos valores estabelecidos para fabricação de pão francês e biscoitos fermentados. As cultivares CD 104, 108, 111 e as linhagens CD 2017 e CDFAPA 2036 apresentaram índices ideais também para biscoitos fermentados. Cultivares que apresentaram menor PMG forneceram melhor índice de tolerância à mistura. Não houve correspondência entre a porcentagem de proteína total e a farinografia.The physical, physiological and rheological characteristics of cultivars and lines of wheat CD (COODETEC 103, 104, 105, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111 and CD 2017 and CDFAPA 2036 lines and triticale (EMBRAPA 53, for quality of flour for bread making were studied. The weight of hectliter (HW, weight of thousand grains (WTG, percentage of germination, total protein and farinography, in a completely randomized experimental design, with four repetitions, except the farinography (with two repetitions were

  6. Using 3D virtual plants to assess the control of splash dispersed diseases by wheat cultivar mixtures.

    OpenAIRE

    Gigot, Christophe; Pope De Vallavieille, Claude,; Leconte, Marc; maumené, Claude; Huber, Laurent; Saint-Jean, Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    A model taking into account physical mechanisms involved in splash dispersal of pathogens and host cultivar quantitative resistance has been developed to study the potential of heterogeneous three-dimensional crop canopies such as cultivar mixtures to prevent disease progression. We investigated different spatial organizations, proportions and resistance levels of wheat cultivars mixtures to allow better control of septoria tritici blotch

  7. BREAD CRUMBS TEXTURE OF SPELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk – Szabó

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Texture analysis is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of bread crumb is important not only for quality assurance in the bakeries, but also for assessing the effects of changes in dough ingredients and processing condition and also for describing the changes in bread crumb during storage. Crumb cellular structure is an important quality criterion used in commercial baking and research laboratories to judge bread quality alongside taste, crumb colour and crumb physical texture. In the framework of our research during the years 2010 – 2011 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Altgold, Rubiota and Ostro grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Altgold and Ostro were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.65++, -0.66++. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  8. Identification and characterization of more than 4 million intervarietal SNPs across the group 7 chromosomes of bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kaitao; Lorenc, Michał T; Lee, Hong Ching; Berkman, Paul J; Bayer, Philipp Emanuel; Visendi, Paul; Ruperao, Pradeep; Fitzgerald, Timothy L; Zander, Manuel; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Manoli, Sahana; Stiller, Jiri; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a major international crop, our understanding of the wheat genome is relatively poor due to its large size and complexity. To gain a greater understanding of wheat genome diversity, we have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms between 16 Australian bread wheat varieties. Whole-genome shotgun Illumina paired read sequence data were mapped to the draft assemblies of chromosomes 7A, 7B and 7D to identify more than 4 million intervarietal SNPs. SNP density varied between the three genomes, with much greater density observed on the A and B genomes than the D genome. This variation may be a result of substantial gene flow from the tetraploid Triticum turgidum, which possesses A and B genomes, during early co-cultivation of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. In addition, we examined SNP density variation along the chromosome syntenic builds and identified genes in low-density regions which may have been selected during domestication and breeding. This study highlights the impact of evolution and breeding on the bread wheat genome and provides a substantial resource for trait association and crop improvement. All SNP data are publically available on a generic genome browser GBrowse at www.wheatgenome.info. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Characterization of a Wheat Breeders' Array suitable for high-throughput SNP genotyping of global accessions of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alexandra M; Winfield, Mark O; Burridge, Amanda J; Downie, Rowena C; Benbow, Harriet R; Barker, Gary L A; Wilkinson, Paul A; Coghill, Jane; Waterfall, Christy; Davassi, Alessandro; Scopes, Geoff; Pirani, Ali; Webster, Teresa; Brew, Fiona; Bloor, Claire; Griffiths, Simon; Bentley, Alison R; Alda, Mark; Jack, Peter; Phillips, Andrew L; Edwards, Keith J

    2017-03-01

    Targeted selection and inbreeding have resulted in a lack of genetic diversity in elite hexaploid bread wheat accessions. Reduced diversity can be a limiting factor in the breeding of high yielding varieties and crucially can mean reduced resilience in the face of changing climate and resource pressures. Recent technological advances have enabled the development of molecular markers for use in the assessment and utilization of genetic diversity in hexaploid wheat. Starting with a large collection of 819 571 previously characterized wheat markers, here we describe the identification of 35 143 single nucleotide polymorphism-based markers, which are highly suited to the genotyping of elite hexaploid wheat accessions. To assess their suitability, the markers have been validated using a commercial high-density Affymetrix Axiom® genotyping array (the Wheat Breeders' Array), in a high-throughput 384 microplate configuration, to characterize a diverse global collection of wheat accessions including landraces and elite lines derived from commercial breeding communities. We demonstrate that the Wheat Breeders' Array is also suitable for generating high-density genetic maps of previously uncharacterized populations and for characterizing novel genetic diversity produced by mutagenesis. To facilitate the use of the array by the wheat community, the markers, the associated sequence and the genotype information have been made available through the interactive web site 'CerealsDB'. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cellulosic ethanol: interactions between cultivar and enzyme loading in wheat straw processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felby Claus

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher yields than coarse particles. The amount of coarse particles from the cultivar with lowest sugar yield was negatively correlated with sugar conversion. Conclusions We conclude that genetic differences in sugar yield and response to enzyme loading exist for wheat straw at pilot scale, depending on differences in removal of hemicellulose, accumulation of ash and particle-size distribution introduced by the pretreatment.

  11. improvement in yield of bread wiœat cultivars released in ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-10-19

    Oct 19, 1994 ... Pn'nted in Uganda. All rights resewed ' ©1995, African Crop Science Society ... potential in Ethiopia than the indigenous dumm wheats (T. dumm ... b: lntemafional Centre for Maize and Wheat Improvement (based in Mexico).

  12. The Effect of Rates and Times of Nitrogen Fertilizer on N Accumulation and Remobilization Efficiency at Flag Leaf in Two Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum and Triticum.durum) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, A.; Sarvestani, Z. Tahmasebi; Bagheri, A. R.; Abad, H. Heidari Sharif

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the physiological basis of absorption and transportation of nitrogen by plants has specific importance. In this experiment, a bread cultivar and durum wheat cultivar, were treated with different rates and times of nitrogen application, by using split factorial with on the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications at Shiraz region during 2004-2005. Main plots were consisted of two levels of cultivars (Falat and Yavaros) and sub plots included nitrogen rates (40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1) and times of nitrogen application (T1 = all N fertilizer at planting, T2 = 1/2 at planting+1/2 during booting stage and T3 = 1/3 at planting+1/3 during booting stage+1/3 at heading stage). The results showed that there were significant differences between cultivars in flag leaf nitrogen content in maturity stage, N remobilization and its efficiency from flag leaf to grains and also grain protein percentage. Durum wheat was more efficient in nitrogen remobilization and therefore, had a higher grain protein percentage. Increasing in rates and times of nitrogen application had significant effect on most of the measured traits. There were significant interactions between cultivars, rates and times of N application, indicating that durum wheat was more efficient in N remobilization from flag leaf to the grain. It appeared that, N remobilization efficiency was the main factor affecting the grain protein percentage, under the conditions of low N absorption and drought after flowering, in this experiment.

  13. Effect of heat treatment to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Isela Carballo; Mu, Tai-Hua; Zhang, Miao; Ji, Lei-Lei

    2017-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment at 90, 100, 110 and 120 ℃ for 20 min to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread was investigated. The lightness (L*) and a* of sweet potato flour samples after heat treatment were increased, while the b* were decreased significantly, as well as the particle size, volume and area mean diameter ( p sweet potato flour was observed, where the number of irregular granules increased as the temperature increased from 90 to 120 ℃. Compared with sweet potato flour samples without heat treatment and with heat treatment at 90, 100 and 120 ℃, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy change of sweet potato flour at 110 ℃ were the lowest, which were 77.94 ℃ and 3.67 J/g, respectively ( p sweet potato flour increased significantly from 1199 ml without heat treatment to 1214 ml at 90 ℃ ( p sweet potato-wheat bread with sweet potato flour after heat treatment increased significantly, which was the largest at 90 ℃ (2.53 cm 3 /g) ( p sweet potato flour could be potentially used in wheat bread production.

  14. Supplementation of alkaline phytase (Ds11) in whole-wheat bread reduces phytate content and improves mineral solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yun-Jong; Park, Jiwon; Park, Ki-Hwan; Oh, Byung-Chul; Auh, Joong-Hyuck

    2011-08-01

    In this study, alkaline phytase was added to whole-wheat bread and the phytate content and mineral profiles were compared to commercially available acidic phytase. At neutral pH, some phytate (approximately 20%) was degraded by endogenous phytase in wheat flour, while 40% of phytate was hydrolyzed by alkaline phytase DS11 and a 35% reduction was observed with acidic phytase. Most of the enzymatic activity occurred during the proofing stage, and the rate of reaction depended on pH. DS11 phytase effectively degraded the phytate level within a 30 min treatment at pH 7; however, at least 60 min was needed with acidic phytase to achieve the same hydrolysis level. Mineral profiles were also dramatically affected by the phytate reduction. The biggest increase was observed in Fe²⁺ by the phytase treatment. The Fe²⁺ content increased 10-fold at pH 7 and 8-fold at pH 5 with alkaline phytase DS11. Alkaline phytase DS11 was shown to be effective at phytate reduction in whole-wheat bread preparation. Additionally, phytate degradation enhanced the mineral availability of bread. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Comparison of the effects of different heat treatment processes on rheological properties of cake and bread wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucsella, Blanka; Takács, Ágnes; Vizer, Viktoria; Schwendener, Urs; Tömösközi, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    Dry and hydrothermal heat treatments are efficient for modifying the technological-functional and shelf-life properties of wheat milling products. Dry heat treatment process is commonly used to enhance the volume of cakes. Hydrothermal heat treatment makes wheat flours suitable as thickener agents. In this study, cake and bread wheat flours that differed in baking properties were exposed to dry (100 °C, 12 min) and hydrothermal (95 °C, 5 min, 5-20 l/h water) heat treatments. Rheological differences caused by the treatments were investigated in a diluted slurry and in a dough matrix. Dry heat treatment resulted in enhanced dough stability. This effect was significantly higher in the cake flour than the bread flour. Altered viscosity properties of the bread flour in the slurry matrix were also observed. The characteristics of hydrothermally treated samples showed matrix dependency: their viscosity increases in the slurry and decreases in the dough matrix. These results can support us to produce flour products with specific techno-functional properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of textural, rheological, thermal, microstructural, and water mobility in wheat flour dough and bread affected by trehalose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Li, Youqian; Ding, Shiyong; Yang, Jun

    2017-10-15

    The study aims to elucidate the effects of trehalose on the mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties of wheat flour dough and water distribution in bread. Texture profile analysis, DSC, farinograph, extensograph, and frequency sweep were applied in dough. The results from SEM revealed that the gluten film became less notable with the presence of trehalose. The kinetics of staling process, low-field 1 H NMR, and water-binding capacity were employed to characterize physicochemical properties of bread. Trehalose decreased the staling rate constant k, indicating an inhibitory effect on firming process in bread. Trehalose had the ability to retain water by hindering the interaction among water molecules, gluten and starch, thus relatively increasing the immobility of the part of water represented by T 22 in low-field 1 H NMR tests. Trehalose restricted water mobilization during storage, resulting in a better water-holding capacity. Our findings reveal that trehalose could be an improver in dough and bread-making performance, as well as an antistaling agent in bread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Herança de caracteres do trigo relacionados à qualidade de panificação Inheritance of wheat traits related to bread-making quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉA MITTELMANN

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade de panificação possui grande importância para a indústria e produtores de trigo, e possibilita a agregação de valor de mercado ao produto. O melhoramento voltado para a qualidade, porém, tem sido dificultado pela complexidade do caráter e pela necessidade de testes adequados para a seleção em gerações segregantes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a herança dos caracteres volume de sedimentação, índice de sedimentação e teor de proteína, em dez cruzamentos envolvendo cinco cultivares de trigo classificadas distintamente quanto à qualidade de panificação. As médias dos genitores diferiram entre si em relação a todos os caracteres. Através das variâncias e dos parâmetros genéticos estimados, foi detectada variabilidade nos cruzamentos, no tocante aos caracteres avaliados, o que sugere a existência de genes complementares relativos a esses caracteres. A cultivar CEP 24-Industrial contribuiu com o maior número de genes para o incremento da qualidade no conjunto de cruzamentos analisados, e possui alelos favoráveis também para o teor de proteína. Os caracteres volume e índice de sedimentação foram fortemente associados e apresentaram herdabilidade semelhante. O teor de proteínas influenciou as medidas de qualidade obtidas pelo teste de sedimentação.Bread-making quality is important to the industry and farmers. It improves market value of wheat. Breeding for quality has been difficult because it is a very complex trait affected by genetic and environmental factors. In addition, it requires specific tests for early-generation selection. The objective of this study was to analyse the inheritance of sedimentation volume, sedimentation index and protein content in ten crosses between five cultivars with different bread-making quality. Parental means for sedimentation volume and index and protein content differed from each other. Variability for all traits was detected in the crosses by variances and

  18. Wheat cultivars affecting life history and digestive amylolytic activity of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzoui, E; Naseri, B

    2016-08-01

    The life history and digestive α-amylase activity of the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were studied on six wheat cultivars (Arg, Bam, Nai 60, Pishtaz, Sepahan and Shanghai) at 25 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 65 ± 5% and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. A delay in the developmental time of S. cerealella immature stages was detected when larvae were fed on cultivar Sepahan. The maximum survival rate of immature stages was seen on cultivar Bam (93.33 ± 2.10%), and the minimum rates were on cultivars Nai 60 (54.66 ± 2.49%) and Sepahan (49.33 ± 4.52%). The highest realized fecundity and fertility were recorded for females which came from larvae fed on cultivar Bam (93.30 ± 2.10 eggs/female and 91.90 ± 3.10%, respectively); and the lowest ones were observed for females which came from larvae fed on cultivar Sepahan (49.30 ± 4.50 eggs/female and 67.4 ± 11.1%, respectively). The heaviest male and female weights of S. cerealella were observed on cultivar Bam (2.97 ± 0.02 and 4.80 ± 0.01 mg, respectively). The highest amylolytic activity of the fourth instar was detected on cultivar Bam (0.89 ± 0.04 mg maltose min-1), which had the maximum mean hundred-wheat weight (5.92 ± 0.19 g). One α-amylase isozyme was detected in the midgut extracts from the fourth instar larvae fed on different wheat cultivars, and the highest intensity was found in larvae fed on cultivar Bam. Correlation analyses showed that very high correlations existed between the immature period, fecundity and fertility on one side and inhibition of α-amylase, soluble starch content and hundred-wheat weight on the other. According to the obtained results, cultivar Sepahan is an unfavorable host for the feeding and development of S. cerealella.

  19. ALLELIC VARIABILITY OF CROATIAN WHEAT CULTIVARS AT THE MICROSATELLITE LOCUS XGWM261

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Dvojković

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant height of wheat is an important quantitative trait, controlled by several genes with strong effect. However, in worldwide wheat breeding, only several of those genes have been used. Rht8 (Reduced Height Gene is especially important in agro-climatic conditions of South-East Europe. Because of its close linkage with dwarfing gene Rht8, microsatellite marker gwm261 has been accepted as the diagnostic molecular marker for gene Rht8. In this study, allelic variability at the locus Xgwm261 for 122 Croatian and foreign wheat cultivars by means of microsatellite marker gwm261 was determined. A 192 base pairs allele at the locus Xgwm261 was found for 84 Croatian cultivars. The genetic heritage of Croatian cultivars at the locus Xgwm261 is the consequence of new parental components usage, carriers of short plant and early maturity attributes and the consequent selection of progeny with these traits during breeding process. The results of this research will be helpful in characterization of domestic wheat cultivars, as well as in more accurate selection of parents for hybridization purposes.

  20. Zinc availability of two wheat cultivars in soil amended with organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutrients and organic matter in organic amendments provide a valuable resource to agriculture, forestry and remediation of degraded lands. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of two wheat cultivars (cv. Backcross and Alvand) on zinc (Zn) uptake in a loamy soil amended with organic and ...

  1. Effects of cultivar, isolate and environment on resistance of wheat to septoria tritici blotch in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arama, P.F.

    1996-01-01


    The research described in this thesis focused on the characterization of some of the factors that influence disease assessment, development and expression of resistance in wheat cultivars to septoria tritici blotch. Earliness appeared to have a strong effect and tallness a small effect on

  2. Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Andersen, Sven Bode; DeMartini, J.

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing cellulosic ethanol yield depends strongly on understanding the biological variation of feedstocks. Our objective was to study variation in capacity for producing fermentable sugars from straw of winter wheat cultivars with a high-throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis well-plate techni...

  3. Differential protection of ethylenediurea (EDU) against ambient ozone for five cultivars of tropical wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Shalini [Lab of Air Pollution and Global Climatic Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Agrawal, S.B., E-mail: sbagrawal56@gmail.co [Lab of Air Pollution and Global Climatic Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Agrawal, Madhoolika [Lab of Air Pollution and Global Climatic Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2009-08-15

    The antiozonant EDU (ethylenediurea) was used to assess the impact of ambient O{sub 3} under field conditions on five cultivars of tropical wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). EDU solution (0 ppm and 400 ppm) was applied as soil drench (100 ml plant{sup -1}) 10 days after germination (DAG) at an interval of 12 days. EDU-treated plants showed significant increments in stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, variable fluorescence, total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, proline and protein contents and protective enzymes (POX, SOD and APX) activities in HUW468, HUW510 and HUW234 cultivars, while, a reverse trend was observed for lipid peroxidation. EDU application restored grain yield significantly by maintaining higher levels of antioxidants, metabolites and enzymes in cultivars HUW468 and HUW510. Sonalika and PBW343 showed least response of measured parameters under EDU treatment suggesting their greater resistance to O{sub 3}. EDU, thus proved its usefulness in screening suitable wheat cultivars for areas experiencing elevated concentrations of O{sub 3}. - EDU successfully screened the sensitivity of tropical wheat cultivars to ambient O{sub 3} under natural field conditions.

  4. CD 116: A vigorous wheat cultivar with high industrial quality

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco de Assis Franco; Volmir Sergio Marchioro; Tatiane Dalla Nora; Ivan Schuster; Edson Feliciano de Oliveira; Elisa Serra Negra Vieira; Fábio Júnior Alcantara de Lima

    2009-01-01

    Cultivar CD 116 was developed by the Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agrícola (COODETEC) and issuitable for cultivation in the states of Paraná, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Goiás, andDistrito Federal. CD 116 is tolerant to the major diseases, particularly blast, has a high industrial grain quality and meanyield of 3908 kg ha-1, exceeding the control cultivars by 6%.

  5. Concentrated Arabinoxylan but Not Concentrated Beta-Glucan in Wheat Bread Has Similar Effects on Postprandial Insulin as Whole-Grain Rye in Porto-arterial Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    The acute glycemic effects of concentrated dietary fibers (DF) versus whole-grain rye were studied in portoarterial catheterized pigs. Two white wheat breads with wheat arabinoxylan (AX) or oat beta-glucan (BG), two rye breads with intact rye kernels (RK) or milled rye (GR), and a low DF white...... min postprandial for AX and GR (74.4 and 129 pmol/min for AX and GR, respectively, compared to 738 pmol/min for WF, P effective in improving insulin economy, suggesting that arabinoxylan from wheat and rye induces similar outcomes in the metabolic...

  6. Exogenous Cytokinins Increase Grain Yield of Winter Wheat Cultivars by Improving Stay-Green Characteristics under Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongqing; Li, Yong; Shi, Yuhua; Cui, Zhengyong; Luo, Yongli; Zheng, Mengjing; Chen, Jin; Li, Yanxia; Yin, Yanping; Wang, Zhenlin

    2016-01-01

    Stay-green, a key trait of wheat, can not only increase the yield of wheat but also its resistance to heat stress during active photosynthesis. Cytokinins are the most potent general coordinator between the stay-green trait and senescence. The objectives of the present study were to identify and assess the effects of cytokinins on the photosynthetic organ and heat resistance in wheat. Two winter wheat cultivars, Wennong 6 (a stay-green cultivar) and Jimai 20 (a control cultivar), were subjected to heat stress treatment from 1 to 5 days after anthesis (DAA). The two cultivars were sprayed daily with 10 mg L-1 of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) between 1 and 3 DAA under ambient and elevated temperature conditions. We found that the heat stress significantly decreased the number of kernels per spike and the grain yield (P cytokinin substances in the cultivation of heat-resistant wheat.

  7. Crystallinity changes in wheat starch during the bread-making process: Starch crystallinity in the bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, N.H. van; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, T. van

    2007-01-01

    The crystallinity of starch in crispy bread crust was quantified using several different techniques. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) demonstrated the presence of granular starch in the crust and remnants of granules when moving towards the crumb. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  8. Crystallinity changes in wheat starch during the bread-making process: starch crystallinity in the bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martin, C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, van N.H.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2007-01-01

    The crystallinity of starch in crispy bread crust was quantified using several different techniques. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) demonstrated the presence of granular starch in the crust and remnants of granules when moving towards the crumb. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  9. Exploitation of Albanian wheat cultivars: characterization of the flours and lactic acid bacteria microbiota, and selection of starters for sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nionelli, Luana; Curri, Nertila; Curiel, José Antonio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Cavoski, Ivana; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Six Albanian soft and durum wheat cultivars were characterized based on chemical and technological features, showing different attitudes for bread making. Gliadin and glutenin fractions were selectively extracted from flours, and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis. Linja 7 and LVS flours showed the best characteristics, and abundance of high molecular weight (HMW)-glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared through back slopping procedure, and the lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the predominant species. Thirty-eight representative isolates were singly used for sourdough fermentation of soft and durum wheat Albanian flours and their selection was carried out based on growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation, and proteolytic activity. Two different pools of lactic acid bacteria were designed to ferment soft or durum wheat flours. Sourdough fermentation with mixed and selected starters positively affected the quotient of fermentation, concentration of free amino acids, profile of phenolic acids, and antioxidant and phytase activities. This study provided the basis to exploit the potential of wheat Albanian flours based on an integrated approach, which considered the characterization of the flours and the processing conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of cold tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    homa azizi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cold tolerance of 14 wheat cultivars under field conditions was investigated. Cultivars including Anza, Bezostaja, Pishtaz, Tous, Zagros, Zarrin, Shahryar, Falat, Ghuds, Glenson, Maroon, Navid, Niknejad and MV-17 were planted in a complete randomized block design with 3 replications in the experimental station of college of agriculture , Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in autumn of 2004-2005. Growth stage of plants and chlorophyll content were measured before cold and winter survival, plant height, yield components and seed yield were measured at the end of growing season. Results showed that despite of a relatively extreme cold (-9.2 oC, most of the cultivars tolerated winter and only Zagros and Maroon with 93.3 and 73.3% winter survival, respectively, suffering winter damage. Toos cultivar had the highest seed yield and Maroon and Zagros cultivar had the lowest yield. Seed yield had the positive correlations with spikelet number per spike (r=0.85***, and 1000-seed weight (r=0.85***. Results of this experiment suggested that Glenson had the most level of cold tolerance and Maroon was the most cold sensitive cultivar. Key words: Cold tolerance, winter survival, yield, yield components, wheat.

  11. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Aghili

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower, ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF, and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  12. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  13. RNA-seq in grain unveils fate of neo- and paleopolyploidization events in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Caroline; Murat, Florent; Confolent, Carole; Balzergue, Sandrine; Salse, Jérôme

    2011-12-02

    Whole genome duplication is a common evolutionary event in plants. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a good model to investigate the impact of paleo- and neoduplications on the organization and function of modern plant genomes. We performed an RNA sequencing-based inference of the grain filling gene network in bread wheat and identified a set of 37,695 non-redundant sequence clusters, which is an unprecedented resolution corresponding to an estimated half of the wheat genome unigene repertoire. Using the Brachypodium distachyon genome as a reference for the Triticeae, we classified gene clusters into orthologous, paralogous, and homoeologous relationships. Based on this wheat gene evolutionary classification, older duplicated copies (dating back 50 to 70 million years) exhibit more than 80% gene loss and expression divergence while recent duplicates (dating back 1.5 to 3 million years) show only 54% gene loss and 36 to 49% expression divergence. We suggest that structural shuffling due to duplicated gene loss is a rapid process, whereas functional shuffling due to neo- and/or subfunctionalization of duplicates is a longer process, and that both shuffling mechanisms drive functional redundancy erosion. We conclude that, as a result of these mechanisms, half the gene duplicates in plants are structurally and functionally altered within 10 million years of evolution, and the diploidization process is completed after 45 to 50 million years following polyploidization.

  14. Mixing ability analysis of wheat cultivar mixtures under diseased and nondiseased conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, E A; Mundt, C C

    1990-09-01

    Mixing ability analyses, adapted from combining ability analyses used in plant breeding, were performed on yield and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) severity data for two-way mixtures among either four or five club wheat (Triticum aesitivum) cultivars grown in five environments. Initially, two statistics were calculated for each trait: general mixing ability (GMA), the average performance of a cultivar over all of the mixtures, and specific mixing ability (SMA), the deviation of a mixture from the estimated performance of the pair based on its average performance in mixtures. General mixing ability was further divided into two components: genotype performing ability (GPA), the innate ability of a cultivar to yield and resist disease in pure stand, and true general mixing ability (TGMA), the average ability of a cultivar to influence yield and disease when mixed with other cultivars. Significant mean squares for genotypes, GMA, SMA, and TGMA were found for all of the traits in most environments. Examination of TGMA and SMA revealed cultivars and cultivar combinations that were statistically better "mixers" than the others. Some of the significant effects were probably due to the use of cultivars that differed in height and stripe rust resistance, but for other combinations there was no apparent explanation for enhanced mixing ability.

  15. Economic Evaluation of Improved Irrigated Bread Wheat Varieties with National and International Origins and Its Impacts on Transfer of Supply Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hormoz asadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agricultural research is important and one of the determinant factors of development of technologies in agricultural sector. Among agricultural research disciplines, breeding programs, especially, wheat breeding programs are one of the applied approaches in improving of production and food security. Based on a study by Byerlee & Traxler (1995, economic benefits and Internal Rate of Return (IRR for Impact of International Wheat Improvement (for all breeding programs were estimated US$3.0 billion per year with internal rate of 53%, and economic benefits for Impact of International Wheat Improvement (Attributed to IWIN was estimated US$1.5 billion per year during 1966-90. Materials and methods The main objectives of this research were to determine shift of supply function of variety and impacts of breeding wheat varieties on reduction costs, and determination of economic return of released irrigated bread wheat in breeding program for the period of 1991-2000. Wheat varieties included; 23 varieties of released irrigated bread wheat by wheat breeding program of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII and Provincial Agricultural Research Centers. Ex-ante and Ex-post methods were used in this study. Measuring criteria for these methods were; quantity of shift in supply function, cost-benefit analysis and internal rate of return of varieties. For estimation of reduction costs and shift of supply function of varieties in breeding program were calculated following Brennan et al. (2002: Where: Cvb: Cost reduction due to breeding program, TCh: Cost production per ha, Yv (without: yield of check variety in breeding plots, Yv (with: yield of new variety in breeding plots, PSS: % supply shift in breeding program and Pw: price of wheat grain per kg For assessing economic criteria, Net Present Value (NPV, Cost-Benefit Analysis and Internal Rate of Return (IRR were used: Following Brennan et al (2002, gross benefit of irrigated bread wheat

  16. Study on the effects of wheat bran incorporation on water mobility and biopolymer behavior during bread making and storage using time-domain1H NMR relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdane, S; Jacobs, P J; Bosmans, G M; Verspreet, J; Delcour, J A; Courtin, C M

    2017-12-01

    Water binding is suggested to be key in the deleterious effect of wheat bran on bread quality. This study investigates water mobility and biopolymer behavior during bran-rich bread making and storage, using 1 H NMR. Coarse, ground, and pericarp-enriched bran were incorporated in bread dough, and their impact on freshly baked and stored bread properties was assessed. Compared to wheat flour control dough, bran incorporation resulted in a progressive immobilization of water during dough resting, which could be linked to changes in evolution of dough height during fermentation and oven rise. This, together with modified starch gelatinization behavior upon baking, can be related with the inferior quality of bran-rich breads. The impact was most pronounced with pericarp-enriched bran. Textural quality during storage was less affected for coarse or ground bran-rich bread compared to wheat flour bread, which could be principally attributed to retardation of amylopectin retrogradation in the presence of bran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of a high-nutritional-value functional food, the Update1 bread, with the supplementation of the wheat flour with high-protein-content raw food materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csapó J.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During our research, we added extracted soya bean meal, egg-white powder, gluten, wheat sourdough, and bamboo fibre to wheat flour in order to increase the quantity of the essential amino acid and the biological value of the wheat protein, producing such a functional, health-protecting, health-preservative food product which is suitable to satisfy the essential amino acid requirements of humans, assuming normal nutrition. Furthermore, we could produce such a food, which, on the one hand, was suitable to confine or prevent the essential amino acid’s malnutrition symptoms, while, on the other hand, when applied alone, to meet the consumers’ needs. During our work, we determined the protein content and amino acid composition of the wheat flour, of the additives used in bread baking, and in the bread both baked with supplementation (Update1 bread and without supplementation (normal bread, as well as the quantity of the Maillard reaction products (hydroxymethylfurfural. We calculated the biological value of the protein of different breads and evaluated the sensory characteristics of the produced functional food and the fortified bread, supplemented with high essential-amino-acid-containing additives.

  18. The Effect of Oat Fibre Powder Particle Size on the Physical Properties of Wheat Bread Rolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, Marcin; Wyrwisz, Jarosław; Piwińska, Monika; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Summary In response to the growing interest of modern society in functional food products, this study attempts to develop a bakery product with high dietary fibre content added in the form of an oat fibre powder. Oat fibre powder with particle sizes of 75 µm (OFP1) and 150 µm (OFP2) was used, substituting 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20% of the flour. The physical properties of the dough and the final bakery products were then measured. Results indicated that dough with added fibre had higher elasticity than the control group. The storage modulus values of dough with OFP1 most closely approximated those of the control group. The addition of OFP1 did not affect significantly the colour compared to the other samples. Increasing the proportion of oat fibre powder resulted in increased firmness, which was most prominent in wheat bread rolls with oat fibre powder of smaller particle sizes. The addition of oat fibre powder with smaller particles resulted in a product with the rheological and colour parameters that more closely resembled control sample. PMID:27904392

  19. The Effect of Oat Fibre Powder Particle Size on the Physical Properties of Wheat Bread Rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Wyrwisz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the growing interest of modern society in functional food products, this study attempts to develop a bakery product with high dietary fibre content added in the form of an oat fibre powder. Oat fibre powder with particle sizes of 75 μm (OFP1 and 150 μm (OFP2 was used, substituting 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 % of the flour. The physical properties of the dough and the fi nal bakery products were then measured. Results indicated that dough with added fibre had higher elasticity than the control group. The storage modulus values of dough with OFP1 most closely approximated those of the control group. The addition of OFP1 did not affect significantly the colour compared to the other samples. Increasing the proportion of oat fibre powder resulted in increased firmness, which was most prominent in wheat bread rolls with oat fibre powder of smaller particle sizes. The addition of oat fibre powder with smaller particles resulted in a product with the rheological and colour parameters that more closely resembled control sample.

  20. Comparative studies on storage stability of ferrous iron in whole wheat flour and flat bread (naan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Sahib; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Saleemullah; Riaz, Ayesha

    2007-02-01

    Whole wheat flour was fortified with premix containing ferrous sulfate, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid and folic acid (20.0:20.0:1.5 ppm) and was stored at ambient temperature for 60 days. Naans (flat bread) were prepared from 0 ppm, 25 ppm, 50 ppm and 75 ppm ferrous iron-fortified flour samples at 10-day intervals and were analyzed for physicochemical constants and sensory evaluation. It was observed that flour containing 75 ppm ferrous sulfate contained the highest iron residues. The total iron in flour samples showed no significant difference, while ferrous iron significantly decreased in fortified flour (0.53-3.08%) and in the naans (0.42-3.48%) because of its oxidation to ferric iron during storage. The phytic acid content decreased (0.886-0.810%) significantly during the same storage period. Iron levels affected some sensory characteristics significantly (P naans, but not taste and flavor. The sensory attributes of naans illustrated that naans containing 50 ppm ferrous iron are more acceptable than those prepared with 75 ppm ferrous iron.

  1. Rheological properties and microstructure of xylanase containing whole wheat bread dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, G; Shivhare, U S; Banerjee, U C

    2017-06-01

    The present research work was undertaken to investigate the effect of xylanase, produced by Penicillium citrinum, on rheological behavior of whole wheat bread dough at large and small deformation respectively. Dough attributes including textural properties (penetration) and structure related characteristics (oscillatory tests) were evaluated. Change in visco-elastic properties of xylanase containing dough was evaluated by oscillatory and creep measurements. The flow experiments were conducted under steady-state condition with shear rate ranging from 0.01 to 100 s-1. Frequency sweep experiments were performed between 0.01 and 10 Hz. It revealed that in both control and xylanase containing dough formulation, the elastic modulus was higher than viscous modulus in the entire range of frequency. Our results represent the adequacy of fitting of dynamic moduli in Power law model and week gel model. Peleg model as well as six element Kelvin model described well the creep behaviour of control and xylanase-containing dough. Uniaxial extensibility was assessed by Kieffer dough and gluten extensibility rig. Lyophilized powder of untreated and xylanase treated doughs were tested under scanning electron microscope. FTIR spectra of lyophilized powder of untreated and xylanase treated dough were recorded in the range of 600-4000 cm-1.

  2. [Freezing resistance and injury indices for different cultivars of winter-spring wheat in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. I . Comparison of freezing resistance for different cultivars of winter-spring wheat during mid-winter period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Cheng-ying; Yang, Xiao-guang; Yang, Jie; Li, Ke-nan; Zheng, Dong-xiao

    2015-10-01

    The relationships between mortality rate and low temperature for different cultivars of winter-spring wheat during mid-winter period were identified through two-year outdoor potting experiments and indoor manually controlled freezing experiments. We defined the lethally critical temperature and the density of antifreeze capability when the mortality rate reached 10%, 20% and 50% for different cultivars of winter-spring wheat during mid-winter period. The strong-winterness wheat (Yanda 1817 and Jing 411) showed the best freezing resistance and the 50%-lethal temperatures (LT50) of these two cultivars were -21.5 °C and -21.2 °C, respectively. The freezing resistance of winterness wheat and weak-winternes wheat were worse than that of strong-winterness wheat. The LT50 of winterness wheat cultivars Nongda 211 and Nongda 5363 were -21.1 °C and -20.3 °C, while that of weak-winterness wheat cultivars Zheng 366 and Ping' an 8 were -18.5 °C and -18.4 °C , respectively. Springness wheat (Zheng 9023 and Yanzhan 4110) showed the worst freezing resistance, and the LT50 were -15.4 °C and -14.7 °C, respectively. When temperature declined to freezing injury occurred, mortality rate increment for weak-winterness wheat was the highest for each 1 °C decrease. The mortality rates of weak-winterness wheat cultivars Zheng 366 and Ping' an 8 increased by 16.8% and 25.8%, and that of winterness wheat cultivars Nongda 211 and Nongda 5363 increased by 14.7% and 18.9%. The mortality rate of strong-winterness wheat cultivars Yanda 1817 and Jing 411 increased by 15.4% and 13.1%, and that of springiness wheat cultivas Zheng 9023 and Yanzhan 4110 increased by 13.8% and 15.1%. Comparatively, if temperature decreased continuously after the occurrence of freezing injury, the weak-winterness wheat would suffer greater risk.

  3. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the MADS-box gene family in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Yang, Yujie; Luo, Wei; Yang, Congcong; Ding, Puyang; Liu, Yaxi; Qiao, Linyi; Chang, Zhijian; Geng, Hongwei; Wang, Penghao; Jiang, Qiantao; Wang, Jirui; Chen, Guoyue; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, Youliang; Lan, Xiujin

    2017-01-01

    The MADS-box genes encode transcription factors with key roles in plant growth and development. A comprehensive analysis of the MADS-box gene family in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has not yet been conducted, and our understanding of their roles in stress is rather limited. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the MADS-box gene family in wheat. A total of 180 MADS-box genes classified as 32 Mα, 5 Mγ, 5 Mδ, and 138 MIKC types were identified. Evolutionary analysis of the orthologs among T. urartu, Aegilops tauschii and wheat as well as homeologous sequences analysis among the three sub-genomes in wheat revealed that gene loss and chromosomal rearrangements occurred during and/or after the origin of bread wheat. Forty wheat MADS-box genes that were expressed throughout the investigated tissues and development stages were identified. The genes that were regulated in response to both abiotic stresses (i.e., phosphorus deficiency, drought, heat, and combined drought and heat) and biotic stresses (i.e., Fusarium graminearum, Septoria tritici, stripe rust and powdery mildew) were detected as well. A few notable MADS-box genes were specifically expressed in a single tissue and those showed relatively higher expression differences between the stress and control treatment. The expression patterns of considerable MADS-box genes differed from those of their orthologs in Brachypodium, rice, and Arabidopsis. Collectively, the present study provides new insights into the possible roles of MADS-box genes in response to stresses and will be valuable for further functional studies of important candidate MADS-box genes.

  4. Comparison of autoclave, microwave, IR and UV-C stabilization of whole wheat flour branny fractions upon the nutritional properties of whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Mustafa Kürşat; Elgün, Adem

    2014-01-01

    In this study, whole wheat bread (WWB) prepared by whole wheat flour (WWF) which its branny fraction (35 ± 1% w/w whole flour) previously was stabilized with different processes. Branny fractions obtained by milling of two different Bezostaja-1 wheat samples (medium and high strong) at 65 ± 1% wheat flour extraction ratio. These fractions were stabilized using autoclave (AU), microwave (MW), infrared (IR) and ultraviolet-C (UV-C) methods. Then, WWF obtained by remixing of stabilized branny fraction (35 ± 1% w/w) and wheat flour (65 ± 1% w/w) of same wheat samples. Following this process, WWB was made from WWF. WWB were analyzed to determine their nutritional properties as crude protein, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), phytic acid content, total and HCl-extractable mineral concentrations, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity and total dietary fiber (TDF). While IVPD, TPC and antioxidant activity of WWB increased together with all stabilization methods, a significant (P < 0.05) loss was observed on phytic acid content of the WWB. Especially, UV-C and IR treatments had positive effects on TPC and antioxidant activity. AU and MW stabilization methods increased total mineral and HCl-extractable minerals of WWB. As a result of this study, all stabilization processes had an improving effect on nutritional characteristic of WWB.

  5. combining ability of quality characteristics of wheat cultivars grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    novel cultivars for breadmaking quality. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. I would like to extend my sincere gratitude to. National Research Foundation for funding the project and to the staff members of University of. The Free State in particular Dr. Hilka Maartens and Ms. Saidy Geldenhys for technical advices, guidance and support.

  6. Effects of wheat cultivar, nonphytate phosphorus levels and enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mahmood

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... performance of birds fed wheat-included diets, but these are closely related to the regulation of the metabolism and functioning of the growth-related endocrine system. For example, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in peripheral blood of laying hens play physiological functions in many ways, such as.

  7. Classification system for rain fed wheat grain cultivars using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificial neural network (ANN) models have found wide applications, including prediction, classification, system modeling and image processing. Image analysis based on texture, morphology and color features of grains is essential for various applications as wheat grain industry and cultivation. In order to classify the rain ...

  8. Cultivar Mixture Cropping Increased Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Limited Irrigation Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqi Wang

    Full Text Available The effects of cultivar mixture cropping on yield, biomass, and water use efficiency (WUE in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were investigated under non-irrigation (W0, no irrigation during growth stage, one time irrigation (W1, irrigation applied at stem elongation and two times irrigation (W2, irrigation applied at stem elongation and anthesis conditions. Nearly 90% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments experienced an increase in grain yield as compared with the mean of the pure stands under W0, those for W1 and W2 were 80% and 85%, respectively. Over 75% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments got greater biomass than the mean of the pure stands under the three irrigation conditions. Cultivar mixture cropping cost more water than pure stands under W0 and W1, whereas the water consumption under W2 decreased by 5.9%-6.8% as compared with pure stands. Approximately 90% of cultivar mixtures showed an increase of 5.4%-34.5% in WUE as compared with the mean of the pure stands, and about 75% of cultivar mixtures had 0.8%-28.5% higher WUE than the better pure stands under W0. Similarly, there were a majority of mixture cropping treatments with higher WUE than the mean and the better one of the pure stands under W1 and W2. On the whole, proper cultivar mixture cropping could increase yield and WUE, and a higher increase in WUE occurred under limited irrigation condition.

  9. Cultivar Mixture Cropping Increased Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Limited Irrigation Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqi; Zhang, Yinghua; Ji, Wei; Yu, Peng; Wang, Bin; Li, Jinpeng; Han, Meikun; Xu, Xuexin; Wang, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    The effects of cultivar mixture cropping on yield, biomass, and water use efficiency (WUE) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated under non-irrigation (W0, no irrigation during growth stage), one time irrigation (W1, irrigation applied at stem elongation) and two times irrigation (W2, irrigation applied at stem elongation and anthesis) conditions. Nearly 90% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments experienced an increase in grain yield as compared with the mean of the pure stands under W0, those for W1 and W2 were 80% and 85%, respectively. Over 75% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments got greater biomass than the mean of the pure stands under the three irrigation conditions. Cultivar mixture cropping cost more water than pure stands under W0 and W1, whereas the water consumption under W2 decreased by 5.9%-6.8% as compared with pure stands. Approximately 90% of cultivar mixtures showed an increase of 5.4%-34.5% in WUE as compared with the mean of the pure stands, and about 75% of cultivar mixtures had 0.8%-28.5% higher WUE than the better pure stands under W0. Similarly, there were a majority of mixture cropping treatments with higher WUE than the mean and the better one of the pure stands under W1 and W2. On the whole, proper cultivar mixture cropping could increase yield and WUE, and a higher increase in WUE occurred under limited irrigation condition.

  10. Chromosome-scale comparative sequence analysis unravels molecular mechanisms of genome evolution between two wheat cultivars

    KAUST Repository

    Thind, Anupriya Kaur

    2018-02-08

    Background: Recent improvements in DNA sequencing and genome scaffolding have paved the way to generate high-quality de novo assemblies of pseudomolecules representing complete chromosomes of wheat and its wild relatives. These assemblies form the basis to compare the evolutionary dynamics of wheat genomes on a megabase-scale. Results: Here, we provide a comparative sequence analysis of the 700-megabase chromosome 2D between two bread wheat genotypes, the old landrace Chinese Spring and the elite Swiss spring wheat line CH Campala Lr22a. There was a high degree of sequence conservation between the two chromosomes. Analysis of large structural variations revealed four large insertions/deletions (InDels) of >100 kb. Based on the molecular signatures at the breakpoints, unequal crossing over and double-strand break repair were identified as the evolutionary mechanisms that caused these InDels. Three of the large InDels affected copy number of NLRs, a gene family involved in plant immunity. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density revealed three haploblocks of 8 Mb, 9 Mb and 48 Mb with a 35-fold increased SNP density compared to the rest of the chromosome. Conclusions: This comparative analysis of two high-quality chromosome assemblies enabled a comprehensive assessment of large structural variations. The insight obtained from this analysis will form the basis of future wheat pan-genome studies.

  11. Composition and functional analysis of low-molecular-weight glutenin alleles with Aroona near-isogenic lines of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaofei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS strongly influence the bread-making quality of bread wheat. These proteins are encoded by a multi-gene family located at the Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 loci on the short arms of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, and show high allelic variation. To characterize the genetic and protein compositions of LMW-GS alleles, we investigated 16 Aroona near-isogenic lines (NILs using SDS-PAGE, 2D-PAGE and the LMW-GS gene marker system. Moreover, the composition of glutenin macro-polymers, dough properties and pan bread quality parameters were determined for functional analysis of LMW-GS alleles in the NILs. Results Using the LMW-GS gene marker system, 14–20 LMW-GS genes were identified in individual NILs. At the Glu-A3 locus, two m-type and 2–4 i-type genes were identified and their allelic variants showed high polymorphisms in length and nucleotide sequences. The Glu-A3d allele possessed three active genes, the highest number among Glu-A3 alleles. At the Glu-B3 locus, 2–3 m-type and 1–3 s-type genes were identified from individual NILs. Based on the different compositions of s-type genes, Glu-B3 alleles were divided into two groups, one containing Glu-B3a, B3b, B3f and B3g, and the other comprising Glu-B3c, B3d, B3h and B3i. Eight conserved genes were identified among Glu-D3 alleles, except for Glu-D3f. The protein products of the unique active genes in each NIL were detected using protein electrophoresis. Among Glu-3 alleles, the Glu-A3e genotype without i-type LMW-GS performed worst in almost all quality properties. Glu-B3b, B3g and B3i showed better quality parameters than the other Glu-B3 alleles, whereas the Glu-B3c allele containing s-type genes with low expression levels had an inferior effect on bread-making quality. Due to the conserved genes at Glu-D3 locus, Glu-D3 alleles showed no significant differences in effects on all quality parameters. Conclusions This work

  12. Prebiotic Content of Bread Prepared with Flour from Immature Wheat Grain and Selected Dextran-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Cavella, Silvana; Fagnano, Massimo; Brugno, Rachele

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years the need to produce food with added value has fueled the search for new ingredients and health-promoting compounds. In particular, to improve the quality of bakery products with distinct nutritional properties, the identification of new raw materials, appropriate technologies, and specific microbial strains is necessary. In this study, different doughs were prepared, with 10% and 20% flour from immature wheat grain blended with type “0 America” wheat flour. Immature flour was obtained from durum wheat grains harvested 1 to 2 weeks after anthesis. Doughs were obtained by both the straight-dough and sourdough processes. Two selected exopolysaccharide-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Leuconostoc lactis A95 and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2, were used as starters. Immature flour contained 2.21 g/100 g (dry weight) of fructo-oligosaccharides. Twenty percent immature flour in dough resulted in a shorter leavening time (4.23 ± 0.03 h) than with the control and dough with 10% immature flour. The total titratable acidity of sourdough with 20% immature flour was higher (12.75 ± 0.15 ml 0.1 N NaOH) than in the control and sourdough with 10% immature wheat flour (9.20 ml 0.1 N NaOH). Molecular analysis showed that all samples contained three LAB species identified as L. lactis, L. curvatus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. A larger amount of exopolysaccharide was found in sourdough obtained with 20% immature flour (5.33 ± 0.032 g/kg), positively influencing the exopolysaccharide content of the bread prepared by the sourdough process (1.70 ± 0.03 g/kg). The addition of 20% immature flour also led to a greater presence of fructo-oligosaccharides in the bread (900 mg/100 g dry weight), which improved its nutritional characteristics. While bread volume decreased as the concentration of immature wheat flour increased, its mechanical characteristics (stress at a strain of 30%) were the same in all samples obtained with different percentages

  13. Physicochemical and sensory evaluation of reinforce bread with partial replacement of wheat flour (Triticum aestivum) by corn (Zea mays) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) flours

    OpenAIRE

    Obregón, Antonio; Centro Latinoamericano de Enseñanza e Investigación en Bacteriología Alimentaria - CLEIBA. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Contreras, Eliana; Instituto de Investigación en Química Biológica, Microbiología y Biotecnología, “Marco Antonio Garrido Malo”. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Muñoz, Ana María; Instituto de Investigación en Química Biológica, Microbiología y Biotecnología, “Marco Antonio Garrido Malo”. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Ayquipa, Rita; Escuela Académica de Ciencia de los Alimentos. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Fernández, Wendy; Escuela Académica de Ciencia de los Alimentos. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    It was realized the sensorial evaluation and were studied the chemical composition and nutritional value of iron-fortified bread, with partial replacement of 10% of its wheat flour content by potato and corn flour, obtaining a bread with soft texture, palatable and very good acceptability for children of school age. The elaborated bread contains protein 13,10%; fat 9,80% and carbohydrates 50,32%, with an energy value of 341,88 kcal/100 g and an iron content 10,13 mg/100 g, that satisfies the ...

  14. Drought priming effects on alleviating later damages of heat and drought stress in different wheat cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendanha, Thayna; Hyldgaard, Benita; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    The ongoing change is climate; in particular the increase of drought and heat waves episodes are a major challenge in the prospect of food safety. Under many field conditions, plants are usually exposed to mild intermittent stress episodes rather than a terminal stress event. Previous, but limited...... studies suggest that plants subjected to early stress (primed) can be more resistant to future stress exposure than those not stressed during seedling stage. In our experiment we aimed to test if repeated mild drought stresses could improve heat and drought tolerance during anthesis heat and drought...... stresses in wheat cultivars. Two wheat cultivars, Gladius and Paragon, were grown in a fully controlled gravimetric platform and subjected to either no stress (control) or two (P) drought cycles during seedling stage, at three and five complete developed leaves. Each cycle consisted of withholding water...

  15. Genetic potential and heritability estimates of yield traits in F3 segregating populations of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soshma Jan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment comprising of 24 wheat genotypes was undertaken during 2011-12, at New Developmental Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, to elucidate information on the nature and magnitude of genetic variability, index of transmissibility and assessing the level of genetic improvement of the quantitative characters. The experimental material comprising 19 F3 populations along with their 5 parents of bread wheat were evaluated in randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. Analysis of variance exhibited highly significant (P ≤ 0.01 differences among genotypes for all the traits studied. F3 population Ghaznavi-98 x Pirsabak-05 showed maximum mean value for 1000-grain weight (47.3 g and biological yield (11474.9 kg ha-1, whereas, maximum values for grain yield (4027.3 kg ha-1, and harvest index (48.1% were observed for Pirsabak-05 x AUP-4006. Moreover, maximum spike length (11 cm was recorded for cross combination Pirsabak-05 x Pirsabak-04 and Janbaz x Pirsabak-05, respectively. In addition, Pirsabak-04 showed maximum value for number of grains spike-1 (55.0. Genetic variances were of greater magnitude than environmental variances for all the traits except for spike length and 1000-grain weight. Heritability estimates were of higher magnitude ranged from 0.64 to 0.92 for harvest index, biological yield, grain yield, and grains spike-1. Moderate to low heritability (0.40-0.46 was observed for 1000-grain weight, and spike length, respectively. Genetic gain was for spike length (0.48 cm, grains spike-1 (8.57, 1000-grain weight (2.93 g, grain yield (639.87 kg ha-1, biological yield (1790.03 kg ha-1, and harvest index (5.32 %. From high values of heritability and genetic advance, it could be concluded that selection for traits like grains spike-1 suggested good selection criteria and could be effective for future breeding programs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12630 International Journal of Environment

  16. Concentrated arabinoxylan but not concentrated β-glucan in wheat bread has similar effects on postprandial insulin as whole-grain rye in porto-arterial catheterized pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kirstine L; Hedemann, Mette S; Lærke, Helle N; Jørgensen, Henry; Mutt, Shivaprakash J; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Bach Knudsen, Knud E

    2013-08-14

    The acute glycemic effects of concentrated dietary fibers (DF) versus whole-grain rye were studied in porto-arterial catheterized pigs. Two white wheat breads with wheat arabinoxylan (AX) or oat β-glucan (BG), two rye breads with intact rye kernels (RK) or milled rye (GR), and a low DF white wheat bread were fed to six pigs in a randomized crossover design. Blood profiles were collected for 4 h after feeding. Glucose absorption was reduced in pigs fed the AX bread at 60 min postprandial (3.1 mmol/min for AX compared to 9.4 mmol/min for WF, P = 0.02) and insulin secretion was lowered at 30 min postprandial for AX and GR (74.4 and 129 pmol/min for AX and GR, respectively, compared to 738 pmol/min for WF, P breads were most effective in improving insulin economy, suggesting that arabinoxylan from wheat and rye induces similar outcomes in the metabolic response.

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Novel Genes Associated with Culm Cellulose Content in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simerjeet Kaur

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell wall formation is a complex, coordinated and developmentally regulated process. Cellulose is the most dominant constituent of plant cell walls. Because of its paracrystalline structure, cellulose is the main determinant of mechanical strength of plant tissues. As the most abundant polysaccharide on earth, it is also the focus of cellulosic biofuel industry. To reduce culm lodging in wheat and for improved ethanol production, delineation of the variation for stem cellulose content could prove useful. We present results on the analysis of the stem cellulose content of 288 diverse wheat accessions and its genome-wide association study (GWAS. Cellulose concentration ranged from 35 to 52% (w/w. Cellulose content was normally distributed in the accessions around a mean and median of 45% (w/w. Genome-wide marker-trait association study using 21,073 SNPs helped identify nine SNPs that were associated (p < 1E-05 with cellulose content. Four strongly associated (p < 8.17E-05 SNP markers were linked to wheat unigenes, which included β-tubulin, Auxin-induced protein 5NG4, and a putative transmembrane protein of unknown function. These genes may be directly or indirectly involved in the formation of cellulose in wheat culms. GWAS results from this study have the potential for genetic manipulation of cellulose content in bread wheat and other small grain cereals to enhance culm strength and improve biofuel production.

  18. Using wheat cultivar mixtures to reduce severity of Septoria tritici blotch, a rain-borne disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Gigot, Christophe; Saint-Jean, S.; Huber, Laurent; Leconte, Marc; Maumené, C; Pope De Vallavieille, Claude,

    2012-01-01

    Increasing plant diversity using cultivar mixtures is a worthwhile strategy that has been shown as a way of reducing wind-borne disease severity on crops and prolonging the efficacy period of plant resistance genes. The relevancy of this cultural practice remains to be assessed in the case of rain-borne diseases, such as septoria tritici blotch. This last one, due to the pathogen fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola, is a predominant foliar disease on wheat crops, able to cause substantial yield...

  19. Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS Revealed Molecular Genetic Diversity of Iranian Wheat Landraces and Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Alipour

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetic diversity is an essential resource for breeders to improve new cultivars with desirable characteristics. Recently, genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS, a next-generation sequencing (NGS technology that can simplify complex genomes, has now be used as a high-throughput and cost-effective molecular tool for routine breeding and screening in many crop species, including the species with a large genome.Results: We genotyped a diversity panel of 369 Iranian hexaploid wheat accessions including 270 landraces collected between 1931 and 1968 in different climate zones and 99 cultivars released between 1942 to 2014 using 16,506 GBS-based single nucleotide polymorphism (GBS-SNP markers. The B genome had the highest number of mapped SNPs while the D genome had the lowest on both the Chinese Spring and W7984 references. Structure and cluster analyses divided the panel into three groups with two landrace groups and one cultivar group, suggesting a high differentiation between landraces and cultivars and between landraces. The cultivar group can be further divided into four subgroups with one subgroup was mostly derived from Iranian ancestor(s. Similarly, landrace groups can be further divided based on years of collection and climate zones where the accessions were collected. Molecular analysis of variance indicated that the genetic variation was larger between groups than within group.Conclusion: Obvious genetic diversity in Iranian wheat was revealed by analysis of GBS-SNPs and thus breeders can select genetically distant parents for crossing in breeding. The diverse Iranian landraces provide rich genetic sources of tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and they can be useful resources for the improvement of wheat production in Iran and other countries.

  20. Evaluation the morph physiological changes in wheat cultivars from the use of Mycorrhiza and Azospirillum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jiriaie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Resolution nutrient requirements in crops by non-chemical resource are new approach in production the organic crops. In order to study evaluation the morph physiological changes in wheat cultivars from the use of Mycorrhiza and Azospirillum, an experiment was conducted in the research station of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran in 2012-13. The experimental design was factorial based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. The treatments including of bacteria Azospirillum lipoferum in the two-level (non-inoculated seeds and inoculated seed, Mycorrhiza fungi in three levels (no use of strain and using strain Glomus intraradices and Glomus mossaae, and wheat cultivars in three levels, (Chamran, Dena and Behrang. The results had indicated a significant and positive effect of microorganisms use on wheat cultivars for most traits. So that cooperation of Mycorrhiza 7 to 33% and associative symbiosis of Azospirillum 7 to 29% improved traits. However, concurrent use, led to increase the use of biological fertilizers effects on morphological traits of wheat. But the greatest plant height (103 cm, grain protein concentration (12.58% and number of spikes per unit area (519 m2 was obtained from inoculation of C.V Dena seeds with Azospirillum and G. mossaae and the highest flag leaf length (29.33 cm, days to maturity (118 days, the yield of single plant (6.96 g and spike length (9.33 cm was obtained from inoculation of C.V Chamran seeds with Azospirillum and G. mossaae. Also the highest mycorrhizal dependency (32% and Growth response (47% was obtained from C.V Dena seeds with G. mossaae. So wheat nutrition with Azospirillum and Mycorrhiza can be been suitable replacement for chemical fertilizers.

  1. Maracaí (IAC 17 e Xavantes (IAC 18: cultivares de trigo para o estado de São Paulo Maracaí (IAC 17 and Xavantes (IAC 18: wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. For the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felício

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados em experimentos localizados nas principais regiões tritícolas do Estado de São Paulo, a produtividade e as reações aos agentes da ferrugem-do-colmo(³ e ferrugem-da-folha, bem como as qualidades de panificação de dois novos cultivares de trigo, Maracaí (IAC 17 e Xavantes (IAC 18, provenientes de cruzamentos artificiais realizados no Instituto Agronômico e obtidos por seleção através do método de genealogia, comparados com os cultivares BH-1146 e IAC 5. Considerando a média de produção de grãos nos anos estudados, o 'Xavantes' foi superior estatisticamente 10 e 14% pelo teste de Duncan a 5% em relação, respectivamente, aos cultivares BH 1146 e IAC 5, utilizados como controles. O 'Maracaí' não apresentou diferença estatística significativa com relação as testemunhas: Relativamente à ferrugem-do-colmo (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, os cultivares apresentaram, nos anos estudados, graus de infecção inferiores aos registrados sobre a testemunha BH 1146. O 'Maracaí' apresentou resistência a um maior número de raças do patógeno ocorrentes em nossas condições. O comportamento desses cultivares com relação à ferrugem-da-folha (P. recondita assemelhou-se às testemunhas com infecções de campo consideradas médias. Nos ensaios de panificação, os dois cultivares evidenciarem valores próximos, apresentando o Xavantes leve superioridade em algumas características, porém ambos demonstraram fraca capacidade panificadora quando comparados ao cultivar padrão Tobari 66.The new cultivars Maracaí (IAC 17 and Xavantes (IAC 18 were selected in the wheat breeding program conducted at Instituto Agronômico. They were studied in the main wheat area of the State of São Paulo, compared with the commercial cultivars BH-1146 and IAC 5, in relation to yield, reactions to stem and leaf rusts and to bread quality. The results showed that the cultivar Xavantes yielded 10% and 14% more than BH-1146 and IAC 5

  2. Substitution of wheat flour with “acha” ( Digitaria exilis ) for bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate analysis on both composite flours and their bread products, as well as sensory evaluation of the products were determined. The analysis showed that crude protein and moisture content of the composite blends and their bread products decreased with high levels of 'Acha' substitution while the ash content ...

  3. Sensory evaluation of wheat/cassava composite bread and effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of 10, 20 and 30% cassava composite bread was carried out by evaluating the colour, aroma, texture, acceptability and buying preference. The samples were served to semi-trained panelists. The result showed that bread baked with 10 and 20% composite flour were not significantly different in all sensory ...

  4. Water Stress Effect on Anatomical and Physiological Characteristics of Two Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jafarian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of water stress on the anatomy of xylem and phloem vessels, mesophyll and epidermal cells, relative water content and ion transfer rate of two wheat cultivars including Azar2 as drought tolerant and Shole as drought susceptible cultivars at four leaf stages. Seeds were sown in pots under normal (soil water content at 100% of FC and the water stress (60% of FC conditions in a factorial experiment based on CRBD design at the Experimental Farm of Kerman University in 2011. Four samples were taken from different positions of the fully expanded 4th leaf. Results showed that in both cultivars water stress decreased the xylem and phloem vessel diameter and the area of the mesophyll and upper epidermal cells at all positions. However, no significant effect of water stress by cultivar interaction was found on lower surface epidermal cell size and RWC. Water stress effect on the amount of ion leakage up to 30 min after soaking the leaf samples in distilled water was highly significant while it was not significant at 60 min after soaking. The effect of water stress on ion leakage was higher in Shole compared to Azar 2. Anatomical changes of the wheat leaf under water stress condition can be considered as adaptation responses. The effects of such anatomical changes on the final yield need to be investigated in future studies.

  5. Wheat cultivar tolerance to boron deficiency and toxicity in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlani Ângela Maria Cangiani

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Field symptoms of open spikelets in wheat were observed in specific cultivars and supposedly related to low B soils and differential B requirement among cultivars. This study aimed to evaluate the response of four wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars, IAC 24, IAC 60, IAC 287 and IAC 289, to increasing B concentrations in nutrient solution. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design, with four replicates and five B concentrations (0.0, 0.05, 0.2, 0.8 and 2.0 mg L-1, during 1997/1998, in a greenhouse. Plants were grown to maturity and evaluated for plant height, spike number and length, open spikelet number, grains per spike, plant parts dry matter, B, P, K, Ca and Mg leaf concentrations and total nutrient contents. The visual symptoms of B deficiency consisted of open spikelets, distorted spikes without grains. 'IAC 60' and 'IAC 287' had higher B efficiency, with the highest grain yields in lower B concentrations. The 'IAC 287' and 'IAC 24' were more tolerant to the highest B concentrations. 'IAC 24' required more B for grain production as compared to the other cultivars. The critical leaf B concentration for deficiency was 25 mg kg-1 of dry matter tissue for all cultivars, and for toxicity were: 44 to 45 mg kg-1 for 'IAC 60' and 'IAC 289'; 228 and 318 mg kg-1 for 'IAC 24' and 'IAC 287', respectively. Except for the highest B level in the nutrient solution, the leaf P, K, Ca and Mg concentrations and whole plant contents were in an adequate range in the plants and did not vary among cultivars.

  6. Bread wheat progenitors:Aegilops tauschii(DD genome) andTriticum dicoccoides(AABB genome) reveal differential antioxidative response under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneja, Yadhu; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Bains, Navtej Singh

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant enzymes are known to play a significant role in scavenging reactive oxygen species and maintaining cellular homeostasis. Activity of four antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) was examined in the flag leaves of nine Aegilops tauschii and three Triticum dicoccoides accessions along with two bread wheat cultivars under irrigated and rain-fed conditions. These accessions were shortlisted from a larger set on the basis of field performance for a set of morpho-physiological traits. At anthesis, significant differences were observed in enzyme activities in two environments. A 45% elevation in average GR activity was observed under rain-fed conditions. Genotypic variation was evident within each environment as well as in terms of response to stress environment. Aegilops tauschii accession 3769 (86% increase in SOD, 41% in CAT, 72% in APX, 48% in GR activity) and acc. 14096 (37% increase in SOD, 32% CAT, 25% APX, 42% GR) showed up-regulation in the activity of all the four studied antioxidant enzymes. Aegilops tauschii accessions-9809, 14189 and 14113 also seemed to have strong induction mechanism as elevated activity of at least three enzymes was observed in them under rain-fed conditions. T. dicoccoides , on the other hand, maintained active antioxidative machinery under irrigated condition with relatively lower induction under stress. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.760) was identified between change in the activity of CAT and GR under stress. Changes in plant height, spike length and grain weight were recorded under stress and non-stress conditions on the basis of which a cumulative tolerance index was deduced and accessions were ranked for drought tolerance. Overall, Ae. tauschii accession 3769, 14096, 14113 (DD-genome) and T. dicoccoides accession 7054 (AABB-genome) may be used as donors to combine beneficial stress adaptive traits of all the three sub

  7. Characterization of the Bread Made with Durum Wheat Semolina Rendered Gluten Free by Sourdough Biotechnology in Comparison with Commercial Gluten-Free Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Durum wheat semolina was fermented with sourdough lactic acid bacteria and fungal proteases aiming at a complete gluten hydrolysis. The gluten-free (GF) semolina, added with naturally GF ingredients and structuring agents, was used to produce bread (rendered GF bread; rGFB) at industrial level. An integrated approach including the characterization of the main chemical, nutritional, structural, and sensory features was used to compare rGFB to a gluten-containing bread and to 5 commercial naturally GF breads. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for free amino acids (FAAs), organic acids, and ethanol analysis. A methanolic extract was used for determining total phenols and antioxidant activity. The bread characterization also included the analysis of dietary fibers, mycotoxins, vitamins, and heavy metals. Beyond chemical analysis, nutritional profile was evaluated considering the in vitro protein digestibility and the predicted glycemic index, while the instrumental texture profile analysis was performed to investigate the structure and the physical/mechanical properties of the baked goods. Beyond the huge potential of market expansion, the main advantages of durum wheat semolina rendered GF can be resumed in the high availability of FAAs, the high protein digestibility, the low starch hydrolysis index, and the better technological properties of bread compared to the commercial GF products currently present on the market. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber profiles are comparable to those of gluten-containing wheat bread. Also the sensory profile, determined by a panel test, can be considered the most similar to those of conventional baked goods, showing all the sourdough bread classic attributes. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Correlation of Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Fusarium-Infected Winter and Spring Wheat Cultivars with Secondary Metabolites at Different Growth Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzerodt, Thomas; Gislum, Rene; Laursen, Bente B; Heinrichson, Kirsten; Gregersen, Per L; Jørgensen, Lise N; Fomsgaard, Inge S

    2016-06-08

    Fusarium infection in wheat causes Fusarium head blight, resulting in yield losses and contamination of grains with trichothecenes. Some plant secondary metabolites inhibit accumulation of trichothecenes. Eighteen Fusarium infected wheat cultivars were harvested at five time points and analyzed for the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) and 38 wheat secondary metabolites (benzoxazinoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and flavonoids). Multivariate analysis showed that harvest time strongly impacted the content of secondary metabolites, more distinctly for winter wheat than spring wheat. The benzoxazinoid 2-β-glucopyranoside-2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA-glc), α-tocopherol, and the flavonoids homoorientin and orientin were identified as potential inhibitors of DON accumulation. Several phenolic acids, lutein and β-carotene also affected DON accumulation, but the effect varied for the two wheat types. The results could form a basis for choosing wheat cultivars using metabolite profiling as a marker for selecting wheat cultivars with improved resistance against Fusarium head blight and accumulation of trichothecene toxins in wheat heads.

  9. Plant Extract Control of the Fungi Associated with Different Egyptian Wheat Cultivars Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Baka Zakaria Awad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Grain samples of 14 Egyptian wheat cultivars were tested for seed-borne fungi. The deep freezing method was used. Five seed-borne fungi viz., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme and Penicillium chrysogenum were isolated from the wheat cultivars viz., Bani Suef 4, Bani Suef 5, Gemmiza 7, Gemmiza 9, Gemmiza 10, Giza 168, Misr 1, Misr 2, Sakha 93, Sakha 94, Shandaweel 1, Sids 1, Sids 2 and Sids 3. A. flavus, A. niger and F. moniliforme were the most prevalent fungal species. Their incidence ranged from 21.0-53.5%, 16.0-37.5%, and 12.0-31.0%, respectively. The antifungal potential of water extracts from aerial parts of five wild medicinal plants (Asclepias sinaica, Farsetia aegyptia, Hypericum sinaicum, Phagnalon sinaicum, and Salvia aegyptiaca were collected from the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The antifungal potential of water extracts from the aerial parts of these five plants were tested in the laboratory against the dominant fungi isolated from the wheat cultivars. All the aqueous plant extracts significantly (p ≤ 0.05 reduced the incidence of the tested seed-borne fungi. But the extract of Asclepias sinaica exhibited the most antifungal activity on tested fungi at all concentrations used when compared with other plant extracts. Maximum infested grain germination was observed in Giza 168 and minimum in Bani Suef 5. Treating grains with plant extract of A. sinaica (10% enhanced the percentage of grain germination of all cultivars in both laboratory and pot experiments. Maximum root and shoot length of seedlings was recorded in Bani Suef 4 during fungal infestation or treatment by plant extract. For one hour before sowing or storage, the aqueous extract of A. sinaica can be used to treat wheat grains, to reduce the fungal incidence. Aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of selected medicinal plants, particularly A. sinaica, are promising for protecting Egyptian wheat grain cultivars against major seed-borne fungi

  10. Cytomolecular characterization of cultivars and landraces of wheat tolerant and sensitive to aluminum toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Cristina de Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Karyotyping and chromosome complement knowledge are a prerequisite for cytogenetic mapping. The aim of this study was to characterize 1 common wheat cultivar (BH 1146 and 4 durum wheat genotypes (IAC 1003, Langdon, P19 and P33 from the breeding program of the Agronomic Institute of Campinas (IAC, using karyotype analysis together with Chromomycin A3/4’-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (CMA/DAPI banding techniques for longitudinal characterization of chromosomes and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH in the mapping of the 45S rDNA region. Durum wheat chromosome complement number was 2n = 4x = 28 with the following karyotype formula: 22m + 6sm. Common wheat chromosome complement number was 2n = 6x = 42 with the following karyotype formula: 34m + 8sm. Tetraploid and hexaploid genomes presented 2 pairs of chromosomes with secondary constriction and terminal satellites. All 5 wheat genotypes exhibited CMA and DAPI bands and signals in the 45S rDNA regions (FISH-probe pTa71 which varied in number and location on the chromosome complement. All lines showed greater amount of DAPI bands than CMA bands. The FISH-rDNA 45S in situ hybridization signals, related to the nucleolar organizing regions (NORs, were observed in common wheat, presenting signals for the 45S rDNA sequence in 3 pairs of chromosomes. Durum wheat presented signals in 2 pairs. The CMA bands coincided with the location of 45S rDNA region in the chromosomes of durum wheat. The techniques were efficient for chromosomal characterization of all 5 genotypes.

  11. Adaptability of Wheat Cultivars to a Late-Planted No-Till Fallow Production System

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    Arron H. Carter

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In Washington, over fifty percent of the wheat produced under rainfed conditions receives less than 300 mm of annual precipitation. Hence, a winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system has been adopted to obtain adequate moisture for winter wheat production. Current tilled fallow systems are exposed to significant soil degradation from wind and water erosion. As a result, late-planted no-till fallow systems are being evaluated to mitigate erosion concerns. The objective of this study was to evaluate current cultivars under late-planted no-till fallow systems to identify whether current breeding schemes in tilled fallow systems could select productive cultivars in late-planted no-till fallow systems. Thirty cultivars were planted in a split-plot design with fallow type as the main plot and genotype as the sub-plot. Fallow types evaluated were a tilled fallow system and a late planted no-till fallow system. Data were collected on heading date, plant height, grain volume weight, grain yield, and grain protein content. Analysis of variance was conducted on data across locations. Results were significant for all traits except for grain protein content. The late-planted no-till fallow system headed 16 days later was 5 cm shorter, yielded 36% less, and had a grain volume weight 3% less than the tilled fallow system. The lower yield and grain volume weight potential is hypothesized to be due to the 16 day delay in heading date leading to warmer temperatures during grain fill and a shorter duration. In order to breed wheat to be highly productive under a late-planted no-till fallow system, directly selecting in this system for early spring growth and earlier heading dates will be essential.

  12. Microsatellite polymorphism in wheat from Brazilian cultivars; inter- and intra-varietal studies

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    Lima Vitor Lopes de Abreu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven samples of wheat (Triticum aestivum from different Brazilian cultivars and six American varieties were compared for polymorphism, using primers for nine different STR loci. STR analysis of DNA from single grains of the Brazilian varieties showed that for most loci there was very little intra-cultivar polymorphism. The polymorphic variation observed for Brazilian cultivars was similar to that seen in the American varieties. For the Brazilian cultivars PCR analysis could be performed on only one half of a grain. The American samples required more seeds for analysis. The nucleotide sequences of five amplified microsatellites selected at random from the Brazilian samples were also determined and compared to those of the Chinese Spring variety. Although generally the dinucleotide sequence repeat was preserved for most loci, there were significant differences in sequences interspersed within the repeat domain. This result suggested that it may be possible to unequivocally identify the geographical origin of the cultivar by inspection of the DNA sequences of the repeat region.

  13. Quantitative plant resistance in cultivar mixtures: wheat yellow rust as a modeling case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapoukhina, Natalia; Paillard, Sophie; Dedryver, Françoise; de Vallavieille-Pope, Claude

    2013-11-01

    Unlike qualitative plant resistance, which confers immunity to disease, quantitative resistance confers only a reduction in disease severity and this can be nonspecific. Consequently, the outcome of its deployment in cultivar mixtures is not easy to predict, as on the one hand it may reduce the heterogeneity of the mixture, but on the other it may induce competition between nonspecialized strains of the pathogen. To clarify the principles for the successful use of quantitative plant resistance in disease management, we built a parsimonious model describing the dynamics of competing pathogen strains spreading through a mixture of cultivars carrying nonspecific quantitative resistance. Using the parameterized model for a wheat-yellow rust system, we demonstrate that a more effective use of quantitative resistance in mixtures involves reinforcing the effect of the highly resistant cultivars rather than replacing them. We highlight the fact that the judicious deployment of the quantitative resistance in two- or three-component mixtures makes it possible to reduce disease severity using only small proportions of the highly resistant cultivar. Our results provide insights into the effects on pathogen dynamics of deploying quantitative plant resistance, and can provide guidance for choosing appropriate associations of cultivars and optimizing diversification strategies. © 2013 INRA. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Improvement of a headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the analysis of wheat bread volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, Antonio; Carcea, Marina; Castagna, Claudia; Magrì, Andrea

    2015-08-07

    An improved method based on headspace solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) was proposed for the semi-quantitative determination of wheat bread volatile compounds isolated from both whole slice and crust samples. A DVB/CAR/PDMS fibre was used to extract volatiles from the headspace of a bread powdered sample dispersed in a sodium chloride (20%) aqueous solution and kept for 60min at 50°C under controlled stirring. Thirty-nine out of all the extracted volatiles were fully identified, whereas for 95 other volatiles a tentative identification was proposed, to give a complete as possible profile of wheat bread volatile compounds. The use of an array of ten structurally and physicochemically similar internal standards allowed to markedly improve method precision with respect to previous HS-SPME/GC-MS methods for bread volatiles. Good linearity of the method was verified for a selection of volatiles from several chemical groups by calibration with matrix-matched extraction solutions. This simple, rapid, precise and sensitive method could represent a valuable tool to obtain semi-quantitative information when investigating the influence of technological factors on volatiles formation in wheat bread and other bakery products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of wheat cultivars for pre-harvest sprouting Caracterización de cultivares de trigo por brotado en precosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bainotti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sprouting or germination in wheat takes place as a result of the rupture of the dormancy in grain, expressed in physiological terms as the increase of α-amylases and proteases activity, which has been associated with low values of falling number. Grain sprouting has been related with high moisture and temperature at harvest and it is a serious problem in the north of Argentina. The objectives of this study were to characterize introduced and local wheat cultivars for sprouting response through falling number and, tentatively, to identify adapted materials with good behavior for this trait. A set of thirty introduced and local late and early heading wheat varieties was tested through falling number in two experiments conducted at Marcos Juárez, Argentina in 2005 and 2006. Significant differences in falling number between tested cultivars were detected with a strong interaction with environment. Late heading cultivars introductions showed significantly higher falling number values than local cultivars, and early heading cultivars introductions and local cultivars showed similar values. In the early heading cultivars group, the highest falling number value was observed in Klein Proteo, a local cultivar.En trigo el término brotado se refiere a la ruptura de la dormición en el grano, lo que expresado en términos fisiológicos es el incremento de las actividades proteásica y α-amilásica, que se asocia con valores bajos del test falling number. El brotado de grano se ha relacionado con elevada temperatura y humedad a cosecha. En este estudio se propuso caracterizar la respuesta a brotado de cultivares de trigo, locales e introducidos, a través de falling number y tentativamente, identificar materiales adaptados con buen comportamiento a brotado de grano en precosecha. Treinta variedades de trigo locales e introducidas con espigazón precoz y tardía fueron evaluadas a través del falling number en dos experimentos conducidos en Marcos Ju

  16. Total phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of flour, noodles, and steamed bread made from different colored wheat grains by three milling methods

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    Yaoguang Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of wheat variety, food processing, and milling method on antioxidant properties. Black wheat variety Heibaoshi 1 had the highest total phenolic content (659.8 μg gallic acid equivalents g− 1, total flavonoid content (319.3 μg rutin equivalents g− 1, and antioxidant activity, whereas light purple wheat variety Shandongzimai 1 had the lowest total flavonoid content (236.2 μg rutin equivalents g− 1 and antioxidant activity. Whole wheat flour and partially debranned grain flour had significantly higher total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity than refined flour (P < 0.05. Compared with flour, total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity decreased in noodles and steamed bread, whereas noodles had slightly higher total phenolic and flavonoid content than steamed bread. Antioxidant activities (by ferric reducing ability of plasma assay of steamed bread made from whole wheat flour, partially debranned grain flour, and refined flour were 23.5%, 21.1%, and 31.6% lower, respectively, than the corresponding values of flour. These results suggested that black whole wheat flour and partially debranned grain flour are beneficial to human health.

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF HORMONE COMPOSITION OF NUTRIENT MEDIUM FOR IN VITRO EFFICIENT REGENERATION OF BREAD WHEAT

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    E. D. Nikitina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Optimal values of phytohormones in the differential nutrient medium providing the efficient realization of morphogenetic potencies of four spring bread wheat varieties (Skala, Spectr, Zarnitsa and Zhnitsa from immature embryo cultures have been determined. For callus induction explants 1.5 – 1.7 mmin size were used, which were subsequently passed to the medium by Linsmaier&Skoog possessing 0.8 % of agar, 3 % of sucrose and 2.0 mg l-1 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. Cell cultures were incubated in darkness at the temperature 26±1 °С. 30 – 35 days after in accordance with the scheme of complete factorial experiment of 32 type calli were passed to differential medium supplemented with 2,4-D at levels 0.5; 2.5; 4.0 mg l-1 and with kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine at levels 0.5; 2.25 and 4.0 mg l-1. Number of replications for each of 9 variants was four. As a result, 20 mathematic models (4 varieties × 5 stages of regeneration designed as polynomial quadric equation were obtained. On the ground of the analysis of models it was established that optimal values for factors are not equal both for cultures of genotypes analyzed and for different regeneration stages. For callus tissues of Skala and Spectr an optimal value of kinetin for all regeneration stages was 0.5 mg l-1 except for the frequency of morphogenesis. Optimal values of 2,4-D for the same varieties were within 2.3 – 3.2 mg l-1. For cell cultures of Zarnitsa and Zhnitsa recommended concentration intervals made up 1.3 – 2.2 mg l-1 on kinetin except for the frequency of rhizogenesis, and 1.9 – 2.7 on 2,4-D. The level of exogenous phytohormones necessary for stem differentiation was lower than the one for root formation. The dependence of morphogenesis results on the hormonal status of the explant has been discussed.

  18. Evaluation of wheat by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... makes the assessment of a direct measure of genetic variation possible. Protein sto- rage markers and RFLPs were more informative for their ability to classify 2 pre-definite germplasm classes. (Figliuolo and Zeuli, 2006). Identification and registration of bread wheat cultivars is mainly based on morphologic.

  19. Effect of conventional milling on the nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of wheat types common in Ethiopia and a recovery attempt with bran supplementation in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshe, Genet Gebremedhin; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Zewdu; Gemede, Habtamu Fekadu

    2016-07-01

    The effect of wheat flour refined milling on nutritional and antioxidant quality of hard and soft grown in Ethiopia was evaluated. Bread was prepared with the supplementation of the white wheat flour with different levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 25%) of wheat bran. Whole (100% extraction) and white wheat (68% extraction) flours were analyzed for proximates, minerals, and antioxidants. Results indicated that at a low extraction rate (68%), the protein, fat, fiber, ash, iron, zinc, phosphorous, and antioxidant contents of the samples significantly (P wheat flours, which ranged from 3.34 to 3.49 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalent)/g, was significantly (P whole wheat flours, whose TPC ranged from 7.66 to 8.20 GAE/g). At 50 mg/mL, the DPPH (2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging effect of the wheat extracts decreased in the order of soft whole, hard whole, soft white, and hard white wheat flour, which was 90.39, 89.89, 75.80, and 57.57%, respectively. Moreover, the proximate and mineral contents of the bran-supplemented breads increased significantly (P bread, and the highest values (protein, 12.0 g/100 g; fat, 2.6 g/100 g; fiber, 2.5 g/100 g; ash, 3.3 g/100 g; iron, 4.8 mg/100 g and zinc, 2.33 mg/100 g) were found in 25% bran supplemented bread. The sensory evaluation of bread showed that all the supplementation levels had a mean score above 4 for all preferences on a 7- point hedonic scale. The results indicated that refined milling at 68% extraction significantly reduces the nutritional and antioxidant activity of the wheat flours. Bread of good nutritional and sensory qualities can be produced from 10% and 20% bran supplementations.

  20. Fish filleting residues for enrichment of wheat bread: chemical and sensory characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Tavares, Tássia; de Sousa Gomes Pimenta, Maria Emília; Leal, Renato; Fabrício, Luís Felipe; Pimenta, Carlos José; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2014-01-01

    .... It is known that fish and its residue are a source of essential nutrients. Conversely, bread is a food accessible to different social classes but is deficient in protein, minerals, and fatty acids...

  1. Effect of microalgae incorporation on physicochemical and textural properties in wheat bread formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Segovia, Purificación; Pagán-Moreno, María J; Lara, Irene F; Martínez-Monzó, Javier

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of different microalgae on physicochemical and textural properties of bread. Four species of microalgae Isochrysis galbana, Tetraselmis suecica, Scenedesmus almeriensis, and Nannochloropsis gaditana were used in this study. Properties such as water activity, pH, microbiological counts, viscosity, and color were analyzed to determine the effect of microalgae addition on sourdough. The technological quality of breads was analyzed in terms of physicochemical properties, color, texture profile, and porosity. The main effect of microalgae addition was changes in bread color, crust, and crumb that implies an increase of browning and an evolution to more green-yellow tonalities. The textural parameters of breads such as hardness, chewiness, and resilience are not modified by microalgae addition.

  2. Difference in postprandial GLP-1 response despite similar glucose kinetics after consumption of wheat breads with different particle size in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Underlying mechanisms of the beneficial health effects of low glycemic index starchy foods are not fully elucidated yet. We varied the wheat particle size to obtain fiber-rich breads with a high and low glycemic response and investigated the differences in postprandial glucose kinetics...

  3. Fish filleting residues for enrichment of wheat bread: chemical and sensory characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Tavares, Tássia; de Sousa Gomes Pimenta, Maria Emília; Leal, Renato; Fabrício, Luís Felipe; Pimenta, Carlos José; Nunes,Cleiton Antônio; Pinheiro,Ana Carla Marques

    2014-01-01

    The fish processing industry generates a large amount of materials discarded as residue. It is known that fish and its residue are a source of essential nutrients. Conversely, bread is a food accessible to different social classes but is deficient in protein, minerals, and fatty acids. Thus, this study aimed to develop bread products based on the addition of flour from Red-tailed Brycon (Brycon cephalus) processing residue and then evaluate the chemical and sensory qualities of the products. ...

  4. QTL Characterization of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in CIMMYT Bread Wheat Line Soru#1.

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    Xinyao He

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB resistant line Soru#1 was hybridized with the German cultivar Naxos to generate 131 recombinant inbred lines for QTL mapping. The population was phenotyped for FHB and associated traits in spray inoculated experiments in El Batán (Mexico, spawn inoculated experiments in Ås (Norway and point inoculated experiments in Nanjing (China, with two field trials at each location. Genotyping was performed with the Illumina iSelect 90K SNP wheat chip, along with a few SSR and STS markers. A major QTL for FHB after spray and spawn inoculation was detected on 2DLc, explaining 15-22% of the phenotypic variation in different experiments. This QTL remained significant after correction for days to heading (DH and plant height (PH, while another QTL for FHB detected at the Vrn-A1 locus on 5AL almost disappeared after correction for DH and PH. Minor QTL were detected on chromosomes 2AS, 2DL, 4AL, 4DS and 5DL. In point inoculated experiments, QTL on 2DS, 3AS, 4AL and 5AL were identified in single environments. The mechanism of resistance of Soru#1 to FHB was mainly of Type I for resistance to initial infection, conditioned by the major QTL on 2DLc and minor ones that often coincided with QTL for DH, PH and anther extrusion (AE. This indicates that phenological and morphological traits and flowering biology play important roles in resistance/escape of FHB. SNPs tightly linked to resistance QTL, particularly 2DLc, could be utilized in breeding programs to facilitate the transfer and selection of those QTL.

  5. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  6. Molecular characterization of TaSTOP1 homoeologues and their response to aluminium and proton (H(+)) toxicity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Oliveira, Ana Luísa; Benito, César; Prieto, Pilar; de Andrade Menezes, Regina; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; Martins-Lopes, Paula

    2013-09-13

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity is considered to be one of the major constraints affecting crop productivity on acid soils. Being a trait governed by multiple genes, the identification and characterization of novel transcription factors (TFs) regulating the expression of entire response networks is a very promising approach. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clone, localize, and characterize the TaSTOP1 gene, which belongs to the zinc finger family (Cys2His2 type) transcription factor, at molecular level in bread wheat. TaSTOP1 loci were cloned and localized on the long arm of homoeologous group 3 chromosomes [3AL (TaSTOP1-A), 3BL (TaSTOP1-B) and 3DL (TaSTOP1-D)] in bread wheat. TaSTOP1 showed four potential zinc finger domains and the homoeologue TaSTOP1-A exhibited transactivation activity in yeast. Expression profiling of TaSTOP1 transcripts identified the predominance of homoeologue TaSTOP1-A followed by TaSTOP1-D over TaSTOP1-B in root and only predominance of TaSTOP1-A in shoot tissues of two diverse bread wheat genotypes. Al and proton (H(+)) stress appeared to slightly modulate the transcript of TaSTOP1 homoeologues expression in both genotypes of bread wheat. Physical localization of TaSTOP1 results indicated the presence of a single copy of TaSTOP1 on homoeologous group 3 chromosomes in bread wheat. The three homoeologues of TaSTOP1 have similar genomic structures, but showed biased transcript expression and different response to Al and proton (H(+)) toxicity. These results indicate that TaSTOP1 homoeologues may differentially contribute under Al or proton (H(+)) toxicity in bread wheat. Moreover, it seems that TaSTOP1-A transactivation potential is constitutive and may not depend on the presence/absence of Al at least in yeast. Finally, the localization of TaSTOP1 on long arm of homoeologous group 3 chromosomes and the previously reported major loci associated with Al resistance at chromosome 3BL, through QTL and genome wide association mapping

  7. Molecular characterization of TaSTOP1 homoeologues and their response to aluminium and proton (H+) toxicity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aluminium (Al) toxicity is considered to be one of the major constraints affecting crop productivity on acid soils. Being a trait governed by multiple genes, the identification and characterization of novel transcription factors (TFs) regulating the expression of entire response networks is a very promising approach. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clone, localize, and characterize the TaSTOP1 gene, which belongs to the zinc finger family (Cys2His2 type) transcription factor, at molecular level in bread wheat. Results TaSTOP1 loci were cloned and localized on the long arm of homoeologous group 3 chromosomes [3AL (TaSTOP1-A), 3BL (TaSTOP1-B) and 3DL (TaSTOP1-D)] in bread wheat. TaSTOP1 showed four potential zinc finger domains and the homoeologue TaSTOP1-A exhibited transactivation activity in yeast. Expression profiling of TaSTOP1 transcripts identified the predominance of homoeologue TaSTOP1-A followed by TaSTOP1-D over TaSTOP1-B in root and only predominance of TaSTOP1-A in shoot tissues of two diverse bread wheat genotypes. Al and proton (H+) stress appeared to slightly modulate the transcript of TaSTOP1 homoeologues expression in both genotypes of bread wheat. Conclusions Physical localization of TaSTOP1 results indicated the presence of a single copy of TaSTOP1 on homoeologous group 3 chromosomes in bread wheat. The three homoeologues of TaSTOP1 have similar genomic structures, but showed biased transcript expression and different response to Al and proton (H+) toxicity. These results indicate that TaSTOP1 homoeologues may differentially contribute under Al or proton (H+) toxicity in bread wheat. Moreover, it seems that TaSTOP1-A transactivation potential is constitutive and may not depend on the presence/absence of Al at least in yeast. Finally, the localization of TaSTOP1 on long arm of homoeologous group 3 chromosomes and the previously reported major loci associated with Al resistance at chromosome 3BL, through QTL and genome wide

  8. Effect of Grewia venusta FRESEN mucilage on the proximate composition, physical and sensory properties of bread produced from wheat and cassava composite flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arubi P. Alobo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat and cassava composite breads are generally associated with volume and textural defects in contrast with the traditional wheat based variants. Efforts to mitigate this challenge through use of synthetic additives have been unsuccessful owing to safety concerns. The objective of this study was to explore Grewia venusta mucilage as a potential natural additive in wheat-cassava composite bread production. Sweet cassava flour was used to replace wheat flour at 100: 0 (control, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30% ratios in bread making. Aqueous extract of G. venusta stem bark was oven dried (50±3 oC, milled and added at 0, 1.0 and 2.0% (w/w to the flour mixtures. These, along with other conventional inputs were mixed, and used to produce bread. Proximate compositions, physical and sensory properties of the bread loaves were evaluated. Cassava flour inclusion resulted in significant (P≤0.05 decrease in the protein content of the control from 18.1% to 12.1% (90:10%, 11.5% (80:20% and 9.9% (70:30%. Addition of mucilage marginally increased the protein and dietary fibre contents of the loaves. Loaves containing 1-2% mucilage were more regular in shape with smoother crust than those without mucilage. Cassava flour addition at 10%, 20% and 30% decreased loaf height from 6.0 cm to 5.8 cm, 5.7 cm and 5.5 cm, as well as loaf volume from 815.5 cm3 to 783.1 cm3, 776.8 cm3 and 744.5 cm3, respectively. Mucilage inclusion resulted in increased heights and volumes of the loaves and reduced weights of loaf fragments upon slicing. The mucilage significantly improved the texture of the bread loaves. 

  9. Effects of changing climate and cultivar on the phenology and yield of winter wheat in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kenan; Yang, Xiaoguang; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Shufen; Liu, Zhijuan; Lu, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how changing climate and cultivars influence crop phenology and potential yield is essential for crop adaptation to future climate change. In this study, crop and daily weather data collected from six sites across the North China Plain were used to drive a crop model to analyze the impacts of climate change and cultivar development on the phenology and production of winter wheat from 1981 to 2005. Results showed that both the growth period (GP) and the vegetative growth period (VGP) decreased during the study period, whereas changes in the reproductive growth period (RGP) either increased slightly or had no significant trend. Although new cultivars could prolong the winter wheat phenology (0.3∼3.8 days per decade for GP), climate warming impacts were more significant and mainly accounted for the changes. The harvest index and kernel number per stem weight have significantly increased. Model simulation indicated that the yield of winter wheat exhibited increases (5.0∼19.4%) if new cultivars were applied. Climate change demonstrated a negative effect on winter wheat yield as suggested by the simulation driven by climate data only (-3.3 to -54.8 kg ha(-1) year(-1), except for Lushi). Results of this study also indicated that winter wheat cultivar development can compensate for the negative effects of future climatic change.

  10. Fusarium head blight incidence and mycotoxin accumulation in three durum wheat cultivars in relation to sowing date and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyca, Anna; Oleksy, Andrzej; Gala-Czekaj, Dorota; Urbaniak, Monika; Laskowska, Magdalena; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz

    2018-02-01

    Durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum var. durum) is an important crop in Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean countries. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is considered as one of the most damaging diseases, resulting in yield and quality reduction as well as contamination of grain with mycotoxins. Three winter durum wheat cultivars originating from Austria, Slovakia, and Poland were analyzed during 2012-2014 seasons for FHB incidence and Fusarium mycotoxin accumulation in harvested grain. Moreover, the effects of sowing density and delayed sowing date were evaluated in the climatic conditions of Southern Poland. Low disease severity was observed in 2011/2012 in all durum wheat cultivars analyzed, and high FHB occurrence was recorded in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons. Fusarium graminearum was the most abundant pathogen, followed by Fusarium avenaceum. Through all three seasons, cultivar Komnata was the most susceptible to FHB and to mycotoxin accumulation, while cultivars Auradur and IS Pentadur showed less symptoms. High susceptibility of cv. Komnata was reflected by the number of Fusarium isolates and elevated mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and moniliformin) content in the grain of this cultivar across all three seasons. Nivalenol was identified in the samples of cv. Komnata only. Genotype-dependent differences in FHB susceptibility were observed for the plants sown at optimal date but not at delayed sowing date. It can be hypothesized that cultivars bred in Austria and Slovakia show less susceptibility towards FHB than the cultivar from Poland because of the environmental conditions allowing for more efficient selection of breeding materials.

  11. Effects of external potassium (k supply on drought tolerances of two contrasting winter wheat cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguang Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drought is a common stress limiting crops growth and productivities worldwide. Water deficit may increase cellular membrane permeability, resulting in K outflow. Internal K starvation may disorder plant metabolism and limit plant growth. However, it is seldom reported about the effects of external K on drought tolerance of contrasting wheat cultivars. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hydroponics experiment was carried out in a non-controlled greenhouse. Seedlings of drought-tolerant SN16 and intolerant JM22 were simultaneously treated by five levels of K2CO3 (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mM and two levels of PEG6000 (0, 20% for 7 days. External K2CO3 significantly increased shoot K(+ content, water potential, chlorophyll content as well as gas exchange, but decreased electrolyte leakage (EL and MDA content in both cultivars under PEG6000 stress. Antioxidant enzymes activities were up-regulated by PEG6000 while external K2CO3 reduced those changes. Molecular basis was explained by measuring the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes related genes. Shoot and root biomass were also increased by K2CO3 supply under drought stress. Although adequate K2CO3 application enhanced plant growth for both cultivars under drought stress, SN16 was better than JM22 due to its high drought tolerance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Adequate external K may effectively protect winter wheat from drought injuries. We conclude that drought-tolerant wheat combined with adequate external K supply may be a promising strategy for better growth in arid and semi-arid regions.

  12. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Organic Fertilizers Application on Yield Components of Two Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gholamalizadeh Ahangar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted in order to evaluate the direct effects of organic and bio - fertilizers on yield components of two native wheat cultivars, Bolani and cross - Bolani. The experiment conducted as a factorial in a completely randomized design with three replications. Treatment includes fertilizer factor: vermicompost (F1, vermicompost + compost (F2, vermicompost + mycorrhiza (F3, compost + vermicompost + mycorrhiza (F4, compost (F5, mycorrhiza + compost (F6, mycorrhiza (F7 and control (no fertilizer application F8 and cultivar factor includes two cultivar Bolani (C1 and cross - Bolani (C2. The results showed that the interaction effect of combined treatments (F7C2 of high yield (1.13 g.pot-1 obtained. The treatment combination (F7C2 of (0.355 was highest harvest index. The high correlation between weight per plant with plant height, spike length, grain yield and harvest index were observed. Generally the combined application of vermicompost and mycorrhiza cultivar cross - Bolani is more suitable for grain production.

  13. The transportation and accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, and phosphorus in 12 wheat cultivars and their relationships with each other

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Gao Ling; Zhu, Shun; Bai, Sheng Nan; Xia, Yan; Lou, Lai Qing, E-mail: loulq@njau.edu.cn; Cai, Qing Sheng, E-mail: qscai@njau.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • As and Cd concentrations in wheat grain differed significantly among 12 cultivars. • As and Cd in wheat grains were correlated with P in straw and grain. • A significant positive correlation was observed between root As and Cd. • Rachis may play a key role in the difference between As and Cd transport to grains. - Abstract: Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the difference in arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and phosphorus (P) uptake, accumulation, and translocation among 12 wheat cultivars and their relationships with each other in soil “naturally” contaminated with both As and Cd. As, Cd, and P concentrations in wheat grain, straw, and root differed significantly (p < 0.05) among the 12 wheat cultivars. The grain As concentration was not correlated with straw and root As, or the total As content in plants, but was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with As translocation factors (TFs), i.e., TFs{sub (Grain/Root)} and TFs{sub (Grain/Straw)}. The grain Cd concentration was positively correlated with the total Cd content and TFs{sub (Grain/Straw).} The grain P concentration was positively correlated with straw and root P. Both As and Cd concentrations in wheat grains were correlated with P in wheat straw and grain. Compared with As, Cd was more easily transported to the wheat grain, and the rachis played a key role in ensuring this difference. A significant positive correlation was observed between root As and Cd, but no significant relationship was detected between grain As and Cd concentrations. The lack of a relationship between grain As and Cd suggests the possibility of selecting cultivars in which little As and Cd accumulation occurs in the wheat grain.

  14. Seedling Resistance to Stem Rust and Molecular Marker Analysis of Resistance Genes in Wheat Cultivars of Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ya Li

    Full Text Available Stem rust is one of the most potentially harmful wheat diseases, but has been effectively controlled in China since 1970s. However, the interest in breeding wheat with durable resistance to stem rust has been renewed with the emergence of Ug99 (TTKSK virulent to the widely used resistance gene Sr31, and by which the wheat stem rust was controlled for 40 years in wheat production area worldwide. Yunnan Province, located on the Southwest border of China, is one of the main wheat growing regions, playing a pivotal role in the wheat stem rust epidemic in China. This study investigated the levels of resistance in key wheat cultivars (lines of Yunnan Province. In addition, the existence of Sr25, Sr26, Sr28, Sr31, Sr32, and Sr38 genes in 119 wheat cultivars was assessed using specific DNA markers. The results indicated that 77 (64.7% tested wheat varieties showed different levels of resistance to all the tested races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Using molecular markers, we identified the resistance gene Sr31 in 43 samples; Sr38 in 10 samples; Sr28 in 12 samples, and one sample which was resistant against Ug99 (avirulent to Sr32. No Sr25 or Sr26 (effective against Ug99 was identified in any cultivars tested. Furthermore, 5 out of 119 cultivars tested carried both Sr31 and Sr38 and eight contained both Sr31 and Sr28. The results enable the development of appropriate strategies to breed varieties resistant to stem rust.

  15. Temperature Impact on the Forage Quality of Two Wheat Cultivars with Contrasting Capacity to Accumulate Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo Lorenzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is increasingly used as a dual-purpose crop (for forage and grain production worldwide. Plants encounter low temperatures in winter, which commonly results in sugar accumulation. High sugar levels might have a positive impact on forage digestibility, but may also lead to an increased risk of bloat. We hypothesized that cultivars with a lower capacity to accumulate sugars when grown under cold conditions may have a lower bloat risk than higher sugar-accumulating genotypes, without showing significantly lower forage digestibility. This possibility was studied using two wheat cultivars with contrasting sugar accumulation at low temperature. A series of experiments with contrasting temperatures were performed in controlled-temperature field enclosures (three experiments and growth chambers (two experiments. Plants were grown at either cool (8.1 °C–9.3 °C or warm (15.7 °C–16.5 °C conditions in field enclosures, and at either 5 °C or 25 °C in growth chambers. An additional treatment consisted of transferring plants from cool to warm conditions in the field enclosures and from 5 °C to 25 °C in the growth chambers. The plants in the field enclosure experiments were exposed to higher irradiances (i.e., 30%–100% than those in the growth chambers. Our results show that (i low temperatures led to an increased hemicellulose content, in parallel with sugar accumulation; (ii low temperatures produced negligible changes in in vitro dry matter digestibility while leading to a higher in vitro rumen gas production, especially in the higher sugar-accumulating cultivar; (iii transferring plants from cool to warm conditions led to a sharp decrease in in vitro rumen gas production in both cultivars; and (iv light intensity (in contrast to temperature appeared to have a lower impact on forage quality.

  16. Effects of supplemental irrigation on water consumption characteristics and grain yield in different wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Weiwei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of water resources is a major limiting factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production in the North China Plain. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of supplemental irrigation (SI on water use characteristics and grain yield of the wheat cultivars 'Jimai 22'and 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Two supplemental irrigation treatment regimens were designed based on target relative soil moisture contents in 0-140 cm soil layers at jointing rising to 75% of field capacity (FC for each cultivar, and at anthesis rising to 65% and 75% (W1, and 70% and 80% (W2 in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively. Rain-fed (W0 treatment was used as control. Under W1, grain yield of 'Jimai 22' was 5.22% higher than that of W2, and water use efficiency (WUE of 'Zhouyuan 9369' was 4.0% higher than that under W2. No significant differences in WUE of 'Jimai 22' and grain yield of 'Zhouyuan 9369' were observed for the two treatment regimens in 2009-2010. Grain yield and WUE in W1 were higher than those of W2 for both cultivars in 2010-2011. W1 enhanced soil water consumption compared to W2, especially in the 100-200 cm soil layers, for both cultivars in 2009-2011. Meanwhile, 'Jimai 22' showed higher soil water consumption and ET from anthesis to mature stage, which resulted in increase in grain yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' by 8.15-21.7% and 7.75-11.73% in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively, compared with 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Thus, our results showed that SI increased the yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' and W1 was the better treatment regimen.

  17. Cultivar mixtures for the simultaneous management of multiple diseases: tan spot and leaf rust of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, C M; Garrett, K A; Bowden, R L; Fritz, A K; Dendy, S P; Heer, W F

    2004-09-01

    ABSTRACT Because of differences in life histories between Puccinia triticina, a highly specialized, polycyclic, windborne pathogen with a shallow dispersal gradient, and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, a residue-borne pathogen with a steep dispersal gradient, wheat mixtures are expected to be more effective at controlling leaf rust than tan spot. The objectives of this research were to determine the effect of two-cultivar mixtures with varying proportions and different pathogen resistance profiles on the severity of tan spot and leaf rust, to evaluate yield of the mixtures in the presence or absence of disease, and to directly compare the relative effectiveness of cultivar mixing for tan spot versus leaf rust. In a field experiment at two sites in Kansas over two growing seasons, winter wheat cvs. Jagger and 2145, which have differential resistance reactions to leaf rust and tan spot, each were planted in proportions of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00. Plots were inoculated with each pathogen alone, both pathogens, treated with a fungicide, or exposed to ambient conditions. For both diseases for all siteyears, severity decreased substantially on the susceptible cultivar as the proportion of that cultivar decreased in mixture. Mixtures were significantly more effective at reducing leaf rust than tan spot in three of four site-years. Mixtures generally yielded the same as the weighted mean of components in monoculture although, in two of three site-years, at least one fungicide-treated and one diseased mixture each yielded higher than expected values. Although this particular mixture produced only modest yield benefits, the potential for simultaneous reductions in tan spot and leaf rust was demonstrated.

  18. Analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC of gluten proteins using Ward's clustering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been substantial breeding efforts in North Dakota to produce wheat cultivars that are well adapted to weather conditions and are disease resistant. In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed with regard to how they cluster in terms...

  19. Impact of wheat bran derived arabinoxylanoligosaccharides and associated ferulic acid on dough and bread properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelders, Jeroen; Dornez, Emmie; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-07-23

    The impact of arabinoxylanoligosaccharides (AXOS) with varying bound or free ferulic acid (FA) content on dough and bread properties was studied in view of their prebiotic and antioxidant properties. AXOS with an FA content of 0.1-1.7% caused an increase in dough firmness with increasing AXOS concentration. AXOS with a high FA content (7.2%), on the contrary, resulted in an increase in dough extensibility and a decrease in resistance to extension, similar to that for free FA, when added in levels up to 2%. Higher levels resulted in unmanageable dough. A limited impact on dough gluten network formation was observed. These results suggest that for highly feruloylated AXOS, the FA-mediated dough softening supersedes the firming effect displayed by the carbohydrate moiety of AXOS. The impact of the different AXOS on bread volume, however, was minimal. Furthermore, AXOS in bread were not engaged in covalent cross-linking and significantly increased its antioxidant capacity.

  20. Screening of Bread Wheat Genotypes for Stem Reserves Remobilization, Relative Water Content and Osmotic Adjustment under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Soleimani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought one of the most important global threats against bread wheat production. In order to identify physiological traits associated with drought tolerance, 52 bread wheat varieties were cultured under two normal and drought stress condition in a randomized complete block desigen with three replications. RWC (in three independent times, leaf rolling, leaf silvering, days to flowering, days to maturity and stem reserve remobilization were investigeted. Also in a pot experiment osmotic adjustment of the varieties were measured at seedling stage. varieties Star and Bezostaya had the highest RWC (0.79 and 0.78, respectively. Osmotic adjustment in Rasol and Unknown11 were highest (0.58 and 0.56, respectively. Varieties Tipik, Unknown11 and Azar2 showed the least decrease in thousand grain weight after spraying with KI (4.8, 5.5 and 5.5, respectively. Also varieties Dez, Gaspard and MV-17 have the highest degree of leaf silvering and varieties Niknejad, Star and Kohdasht under drought stress were able than the other varieties bring their leaves to form a rolling and cope with water deficit. Under drought stress, Varieties Alborz, Zagros and Inia were observed premature than the other varieties and Gaspard and Kaslojen varieties were observed late mature than the other varieties. Altogetehr varieties Kohdasht, Star and Bezostaya can be used as genetic resources for leaf water retention under drought stress condition for imjproving other varieties. Also as Azar2 and Unknown11 had highest amount of thousand grain weight under normal condition and simoultanously showed high ability in stem reserves remobilization they can be selected as parents in crosses for improving these traits.

  1. Comparison of Stability and Adaptability in New Cereal; Primary Tritipyrum, with Iranian Bread Wheat and Triticale Using Different Stability Parameters in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Farokhzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the genotype-environment interaction for grain yield in eight primary and combined primary tritipyrum lines in comparison with four Iranian bread wheat varieties and five promising triticale lines, an experiment in randomized completely block design with three replication in three locations of Iran (Kerman, Sirjan, Neyriz including 7 separate environment during 2001-2002, 2005-2006 and 2010-2011 were conducted. The results of combined analysis of variance for grain yield showed significant differences between environments and genotype × environment interactions. The results of stability analysis for high yielding lines/cultivars indicated first, in Eberhart and Russell grouping method Based on slope of regression line, grain yield average and also deviation of regression line parameters, combined primary tritipyrum line (Ka/b(Cr/b-5 and triticale 4115, 4108 and M45 lines showed good compatibility in all environments. Second, the results of genotypes category in cluster analysis based on criteria ecovalance and stability variance was exactly the same. Third,, based on ecovalance, stability variance parameters and mean yield, the combined primary tritipyrum line (Ka/b(Cr/b-5 and promising triticales 4108 and M45 Lines indicated low genotype × environment interaction and high growth performance in comparison with all varieties and lines. This tritipyrum line can be introduced as a potential pasture Line in arid and semi arid area of Iran particulary with brackish water and saline soils. The two triticale lines can be registerd as high grain lines in poor lands of Iran for cereal production for the first time.

  2. mlo-based powdery mildew resistance in hexaploid bread wheat generated by a non-transgenic TILLING approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Garcia, Johanna; Spencer, David; Thieron, Hannah; Reinstädler, Anja; Hammond-Kosack, Kim; Phillips, Andrew L; Panstruga, Ralph

    2017-03-01

    Wheat is one of the most widely grown cereal crops in the world and is an important food grain source for humans. However, wheat yields can be reduced by many abiotic and biotic stress factors, including powdery mildew disease caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt). Generating resistant varieties is thus a major effort in plant breeding. Here, we took advantage of the non-transgenic Targeting Induced Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) technology to select partial loss-of-function alleles of TaMlo, the orthologue of the barley Mlo (Mildew resistance locus o) gene. Natural and induced loss-of-function alleles (mlo) of barley Mlo are known to confer durable broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance, typically at the expense of pleiotropic phenotypes such as premature leaf senescence. We identified 16 missense mutations in the three wheat TaMlo homoeologues, TaMlo-A1, TaMlo-B1 and TaMlo-D1 that each lead to single amino acid exchanges. Using transient gene expression assays in barley single cells, we functionally analysed the different missense mutants and identified the most promising candidates affecting powdery mildew susceptibility. By stacking of selected mutant alleles we generated four independent lines with non-conservative mutations in each of the three TaMlo homoeologues. Homozygous triple mutant lines and surprisingly also some of the homozygous double mutant lines showed enhanced, yet incomplete, Bgt resistance without the occurrence of discernible pleiotropic phenotypes. These lines thus represent an important step towards the production of commercial non-transgenic, powdery mildew-resistant bread wheat varieties. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF DISPERSION OF FLOUR’S PARTICLES FROM WHOLE-GRAIN WHEAT AND DISPERSED GRAIN MASS ON STRUCTURE FORMATION OF DOUGH AND BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Cheshinskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. On structure of "whipped" bread and dough is influenced by many factors, one of which is a dispersion of particles of flour. In this regard, was determined to investigate the structure formation processes of bread depending on the dispersity of the particles of flour. For this I have chosen two parties coarse whole meal flour from wheat grains with different grain size, select different modes humidity test and the experiment in the mixing-whipping-forming installation. The results of the experiment were obtained graphs showing the dependence of the current strength of the drive and volume weight on the duration of the process of churning the dough. At the stage deposits with increasing wetness of the dough decreases its viscosity and decreases the value of the current intensity. At the stage of churning Pro-comes a saturation test the air, thus decreasing its viscosity and current drive. Properties of dough and bread from different batches were compared. The dough obtained from flour II party, i.e., low dispersion, has a small viscosity, and the bread is slightly moist to the touch. . Thus, the results of the experiment showed that the physic-chemical and colloidal processes in structure formation of dough and bread is higher, the higher dispersity particles of flour, and, consequently, improves the quality of "whipped" bread.

  4. Glycine betaine and salicylic acid induced modification in productivity of two different cultivars of wheat grown under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of foliar application of glycine betaine (10mM, grain presoaking in salicylic acid (0.05 M and their interaction on drought tolerance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars (sensitive, Sakha 94 and resistant, Sakha 93. Water stress decreased wheat yield components (spike length, number of spikelets / main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number / spike, grain yield / spike, grain yield / plant, straw yield / plant, crop yield / plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices and the biochemical aspects of grains(grain biomass, carbohydrates, total protein, total phosphorus, ions content and amino acids in both wheat cultivars. The applied chemicals appeared to alleviate the negative effects of water stress on wheat productivity (particularly the sensitive one and the biochemical aspects of yielded grains. The effect was more pronounced with GB+SA treatment. This improvement would result from the repairing effect of the provided chemicals on growth and metabolism of wheat plants grown under water deficit condition. In response to the applied water stress and the used chemicals, the grain yield of the sensitive and resistant wheat cultivars was strongly correlated with all the estimated yield components (shoot length, spike length, plant height, main spike weight, number of spikelets per main spike, 100 kernel weight, grain number per spike, grain weight per plant, straw weight per plant, crop yield per plant, harvest, mobilization and crop indices.

  5. Structural differences between rye and wheat breads but not total fiber content may explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juntunen, Katri S; Laaksonen, David E; Autio, Karin

    2003-01-01

    -fiber rye bread; each bread provided 50 g available carbohydrate and was served with breakfast. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and serum C-peptide were measured in fasting and 8 postprandial blood samples. In vitro starch hydrolysis......BACKGROUND: Rye bread has a beneficial effect on the postprandial insulin response in healthy subjects. The role of rye fiber in insulin and glucose metabolism is not known. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the content of rye fiber in rye breads on postprandial insulin...... and the microscopic structure of the breads were also determined. RESULTS: Postprandial insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and C-peptide responses to the rye breads were significantly lower than the response to the control; no significant differences in insulin and C-peptide responses to the rye...

  6. Using 3D virtual plants to evaluate the canopy role in the progression of a splash-dispersed crop disease: a case study based on wheat cultivar mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Gigot, Christophe; De Vallavieille-Pope, Claude; Leconte, Marc; maumené, Claude; Huber, Laurent; Saint-Jean, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    International audience; A model taking into account physical mechanisms involved in splash dispersal of pathogens and host cultivar quantitative resistance has been developed to study the potential of heterogeneous three-dimensional crop canopies such as cultivar mixtures to prevent disease progression. We investigated different spatial organizations, proportions and resistance levels of wheat cultivars mixtures to allow better control of septoria tritici blotch

  7. The Effect of Chlormequat Chloride on Yield and Yield Components of Three Wheat Cultivars under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH. Rokhafrooz

    2016-07-01

    to 5 g L-1. The positive effect of CCC was greater under control and light stress compared to under severe stress conditions. In the greenhouse study where Marvdasht, Shiraz, and Chamran cultivars were evaluated, Chamran cultivar produced the highest grain yield under both normal and drought conditions; although Shiraz cultivar was found more responsive to CCC. Overall; drought stress reduced growth and grain yield of wheat crop; however, CCC could compensate, at least in part (i.e. 30% to 60% for the latter reductions.

  8. Effect of bread dough mixing method on rye bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Dragutin A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sourdough (indirect bread dough mixing method on the quality of rye/wheat bread (TYPE 500 wheat flour and whole grain rye flour - 60:40 and determine its advantages over the straight dough method. Three bread dough mixing methods were used: I - indirect bread dough mixing using flour scalding; II - indirect bread dough mixing without flour scalding; III - straight dough mixing. The study involved the monitoring of the following: microbial characterristics of the flour and dough (yeasts and lactic acid bacteria and of the bread (presence of Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts and moulds; chemical properties of the dough and the bread (pH and degree of acidity; organoleptic attributes of bread (volume, porosity according to Dallman, crumb elasticity, pore structure fineness, bread crumb score, external appearance, crumb appearance, flavour of both the crust and the crumb. The results showed the highest counts of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the indirect bread dough mixing method using rye flour scalding. The rye/wheat bread made with sourdough had a mild sourish flavour, an intense aroma, a prolonged shelf life, and reduced crumbliness. The study suggests that the technological process of sourdough-type rye/wheat bread making is an important requirement in improving bread quality and assortment that can be used in any bakery facility.[ Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31057 i br. III 46009

  9. Genetics and mapping of stem rust resistance to Ug99 in the wheat cultivar Webster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Colin W; Fetch, Thomas G; Zegeye, Taye

    2010-06-01

    New races of wheat stem rust, namely TTKSK (Ug99) and its variants, pose a threat to wheat production in the regions where they are found. The accession of the wheat cultivar Webster (RL6201) maintained at the Cereal Research Centre in Winnipeg, Canada, shows resistance to TTKSK and other races of stem rust. The purpose of this study was to study the inheritance of seedling resistance to stem rust in RL6201 and genetically map the resistance genes using microsatellite (SSR) markers. A population was produced by crossing the stem rust susceptible line RL6071 with Webster. The F(2) and F(3) were tested with TPMK, a stem rust race native to North America. The F(3) was also tested with TTKSK. Two independently assorting genes were identified in RL6201. Resistance to TPMK was conferred by Sr30, which was mapped with microsatellites on chromosome 5DL. The second gene, temporarily designated SrWeb, conferred resistance to TTKSK. SrWeb was mapped to chromosome 2BL using SSR markers. Comparison with previous genetic maps showed that SrWeb occupies a locus near Sr9. Further analysis will be required to determine if SrWeb is a new gene or an allele of a previously identified gene.

  10. Domestication and crop physiology: roots of green-revolution wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waines, J Giles; Ehdaie, Bahman

    2007-11-01

    Most plant scientists, in contrast to animal scientists, study only half the organism, namely above-ground stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, and neglect below-ground roots. Yet all acknowledge roots are important for anchorage, water and nutrient uptake, and presumably components of yield. This paper investigates the relationship between domestication, and the root systems of landraces, and the parents of early, mid- and late green-revolution bread wheat cultivars. It compares the root system of bread wheat and 'Veery'-type wheat containing the 1RS translocation from rye. Wheat germplasm was grown in large pots in sand culture in replicated experiments. This allowed roots to be washed free to study root characters. The three bread wheat parents of early green-revolution wheats have root biomass less than two-thirds the mean of some landrace wheats. Crossing early green-revolution wheat to an F(2) of 'Norin 10' and 'Brevor', further reduced root biomass in mid-generation semi-dwarf and dwarf wheats. Later-generation semi-dwarf wheats show genetic variation for root biomass, but some exhibit further reduction in root size. This is so for some California and UK wheats. The wheat-rye translocation in 'Kavkaz' for the short arm of chromosome 1 (1RS) increased root biomass and branching in cultivars that contained it. Root size of modern cultivars is small compared with that of landraces. Their root system may be too small for optimum uptake of water and nutrients and maximum grain yield. Optimum root size for grain yield has not been investigated in wheat or most crop plants. Use of 1RS and similar alien translocations may increase root biomass and grain yield significantly in irrigated and rain-fed conditions. Root characters may be integrated into components of yield analysis in wheat. Plant breeders may need to select directly for root characters.

  11. Effects of water stress on the composition and immunoreactive properties of gliadins from two wheat cultivars: Nawra and Tonacja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Bartosz; Stasiewicz, Katarzyna

    2017-03-01

    Water shortage during wheat vegetation causes changes in the composition of gliadins in grains, which can lead to changes in their immunoreactive properties. The investigated wheat cultivars exposed to water stress accumulated significantly lower amounts (P Water shortage results in a decreased share of αβ and γ fractions in total gliadins. Grains of wheat cultivated under water stress contain significantly higher (P Water stress promotes an increase in the share of P and Q/E residues in gliadins. In protein samples R5 antibodies recognized increased amounts of gliadins matching the QQPFP sequence. Wheat proteins also reacted with IgE antibodies isolated from subjects allergic to gluten. Cultivation of wheat under conditions of water stress results in the qualitative and quantitative changes of gliadins by increasing their immunoreactivity. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Monitoring the staling of wheat bread using 2D MIR-NIR correlation spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Tine; Siesler, Heinz Wilhelm; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2017-01-01

    was found to correlate positively with increased bread hardness and to co-vary with the near-infrared band at 910 nm in the short wavelength region (r2 = 0.88 to hardness), the near-infrared band at 1688 nm in the 1. overtone region (r2 = 0.97 to hardness) and to the near-infrared band in the long...... wavelength region at 2288 nm (r2 = 0.97 to hardness). The spectral information from the first principal component on near-infrared and the first principal component on mid-infrared was found to be highly correlated by a r2 = 0.98. It is demonstrated that the major bread staling processes such as amylopectin...... retrogradation and water loss can be followed with both near- and mid-infrared spectroscopy....

  13. Improved Method for Reliable HMW-GS Identification by RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE in Common Wheat Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, You-Ran; Beom, Hye-Rang; Altenbach, Susan B; Lee, Min-Ki; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Lee, Jong-Yeol

    2017-06-24

    The accurate identification of alleles for high-molecular weight glutenins (HMW-GS) is critical for wheat breeding programs targeting end-use quality. RP-HPLC methods were optimized for separation of HMW-GS, resulting in enhanced resolution of 1By and 1Dx subunits. Statistically significant differences in retention times (RTs) for subunits corresponding to HMW-GS alleles were determined using 16 standard wheat cultivars with known HMW-GS compositions. Subunits that were not identified unambiguously by RP-HPLC were distinguished by SDS-PAGE or inferred from association with linked subunits. The method was used to verify the allelic compositions of 32 Korean wheat cultivars previously determined using SDS-PAGE and to assess the compositions of six new Korean cultivars. Three cultivars contained subunits that were identified incorrectly in the earlier analysis. The improved RP-HPLC method combined with conventional SDS-PAGE provides for accurate, efficient and reliable identification of HMW-GS and will contribute to efforts to improve wheat end-use quality.

  14. Wheat cultivar-specific selection of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas species from resident soil populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzola, M.; Funnell, D.L.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    An emerging body of evidence indicates a role for plant genotype as a determinant of the species and genetic composition of the saprophytic microbial community resident to the rhizosphere. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the capacity of five different wheat cultivars to

  15. Evaluation of Diversity and Traits Correlation in Spring Wheat Cultivars under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza NAGHAVI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of diversity and classify agro-morphological characters under normal irrigation and drought stress in spring wheat cultivars, 20 cultivars were evaluated in the research farm of University of Tabriz, Iran. According to the results, significant correlation was found between grain yield and number of spikes per plant, number of tiller per plant, number of fertile tillers, spike length, root length, root number, root volume, root diameter and root dry weight under both conditions. Moreover, 1,000 grain weight and plant dry weight had significant positive correlation with grain yield under drought stress. Factor analysis detected four and two factors which explained 96.77% and 90.59% of the total variation in normal irrigation and drought stress conditions, respectively. In drought stress condition the first factor justified 69.52% of total variation and was identified as yield factor. The second factor explained 21.07% of total variation and represented the biomass and plant height factor. Cluster analysis was based on the four and two factors obtained. According to the amount of factors for clusters obtained under drought stress, ‘Kavir’, ‘Niknejhad’, ‘Moghan 3’, ‘Darya’ and ‘Marvdasht’ were identified as the most drought tolerant cultivars. Other cluster was comprised of ‘Bahar’, ‘Pishtaz’, ‘Bam’, ‘Sepahan’, ‘Sistan’, ‘Pars’ and ‘Sivand’ and was named as the most sensitive under drought stress. Tolerant cultivars identified within the study can be used for direct culture or as genitors in breeding programs.

  16. Ozone pollution effects on gas exchange, growth and biomass yield of salinity-treated winter wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanhai; Cheng, Da; Simmons, Matthew

    2014-11-15

    A sand-culture experiment was conducted in four Open-Top-Chambers to assess the effects of O3 on salinity-treated winter wheat. Two winter wheat cultivars, salt-tolerant Dekang961 and salt-sensitive Lumai15, were grown under saline (100 mM NaCl) and/or O3 (80±5 nmol mol(-1)) conditions for 35 days. Significant (Pgrowth and biomass yield in the no-salinity treatment. Significant (Psalinity treatment. Soluble sugar and proline contents significantly increased in both cultivars in combined salinity and O3 exposure. O3-induced down-regulation in the gradients of A-C(i) and A-PPFD response curves were much larger in Dekang961 than in Lumai15 under saline conditions. Significant (Psalinity×cultivars and salinity×O3 stresses. The results clearly demonstrated that O3 injuries were closely correlated with plant stomatal conductance (g(s)); the salt-tolerant wheat cultivar might be damaged more severely than the salt-sensitive cultivar by O3 due to its higher g(s) in saline conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. IAC 60 Centenário e IAC 162 Tuiuiú: cultivares de trigo para sequeiro e irrigado no Estado de São Paulo IAC 60 Centenário and IAC 162 Tuiuiú: wheat cultivars for upland and irrigated conditions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felício

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Os cultivares de trigo IAC 60 (Centenário e IAC 162 (Tuiuiú, provenientes de cruzamentos artificiais e obtidos por seleção genealógica, foram avaliados quanto à produção de grãos e às reações aos agentes causais da ferrugem-do-colmo (casa de vegetação, da ferrugem-da-folha, da helmintosporiose e da brusone na região do Vale do Paranapanema, em condições de sequeiro, e na região Norte do Estado de São Paulo, com irrigação por aspersão. Foram também avaliadas as qualidades industriais de panificação. As produções de grãos dos novos cultivares (sequeiro não diferiram dos cultivares controles BH 1146 e IAC 24, em solos com elevada acidez (AA, e do Anahuac, em solos mais férteis (BA. Com irrigação, o IAC 60 e o IAC 162 expressaram todo o seu potencial produtivo, diferindo significativamente das testemunhas IAC 24 e Anahuac. O 'IAC 60' demonstrou moderada suscetibilidade à helmintosporiose, suscetibilidade à ferrugem-da-folha e moderada resistência à brusone, enquanto o 'IAC 162' foi resistente à ferrugem-da-folha e à brusone, porém suscetível à helmintosporiose. O 'IAC 60' apresentou tolerância ao alumínio tóxico e o 'IAC 162', moderada suscetibilidade; ambos foram moderadamente suscetíveis à toxicidade de ferro e exibiram tolerância para o manganês, quando testados em soluções contendo esses elementos. Nos ensaios de panificação, os novos cultivares apresentaram valores superiores aos obtidos com pães feitos com farinha de trigo comercial (padrão. O 'IAC 162' revelou volume específico do pão superior ao 'IAC 60', mas inferior quanto às características internas (miolo e externas (crosta.In trials carried out in upland condition at the Paranapanema Valley, and under sprinkler irrigation at the North Region State of São Paulo, Brazil, the wheat cultivars IAC 60 Centenário and IAC 162 Tuiuiú originated from artificial crosses and selected by the pedigree method, were evaluated in relation to

  18. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces marxianus Cocultures Allow Reduction of Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, and Monosaccharides and Polyols Levels in Whole Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Nore; Laurent, Jitka; Verspreet, Joran; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2017-10-04

    Fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) are small molecules that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine and rapidly fermented in the large intestine. There is evidence that a diet low in FODMAPs reduces abdominal symptoms in approximately 70% of the patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. Wheat contains relatively high fructan levels and is therefore a major source of FODMAPs in our diet. In this study, a yeast-based strategy was developed to reduce FODMAP levels in (whole wheat) bread. Fermentation of dough with an inulinase-secreting Kluyveromyces marxianus strain allowed to reduce fructan levels in the final product by more than 90%, while only 56%  reduction was achieved when a control Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was used. To ensure sufficient CO 2 production, cocultures of S. cerevisiae and K. marxianus were prepared. Bread prepared with a coculture of K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae had fructan levels ≤0.2% dm, and a loaf volume comparable with that of control bread. Therefore, this approach is suitable to effectively reduce FODMAP levels in bread.

  19. Genetic variability in anthocyanin composition and nutritional properties of blue, purple, and red bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum) wheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficco, Donatella B M; De Simone, Vanessa; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Pecorella, Ivano; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Finocchiaro, Franca; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

    2014-08-27

    Renewed interest in breeding for high anthocyanins in wheat (Triticum ssp.) is due to their antioxidant potential. A collection of different pigmented wheats was used to investigate the stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. The data show higher anthocyanins in blue-aleurone bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), followed by purple- and red-pericarp durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum), using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as standard. HPLC of the anthocyanin components shows five to eight major anthocyanins for blue wheat extracts, compared to three anthocyanins for purple and red wheats. Delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside are predominant in blue wheat, with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in purple wheat. Of the total anthocyanins, 40-70% remain to be structurally identified. The findings confirm the high heritability for anthocyanins, with small genotype × year effects, which will be useful for breeding purposes, to improve the antioxidant potential of cereal-based foods.

  20. Effect of Nitrogen and Chlormequat Chloride on Grain Yield, Phytomass and Water Use Efficiency of Four Rainfed Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Miranzadeh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It appears that the risk of crop production under dry land conditions would be increased due to climate change in the next future decades. Recently, because of in most dryland regions, water use efficiency (WUE is low due to undesirable production management. Water stress affects many physiological processes, involved in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. yield formation. In order to improve economy of water use, regulation of root and shoot growth is important. In this study effects of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and plant growth retardant (Chlormequat Chloride on grain, phytomass yield and WUE of four rainfed wheat cultivars were examined in a field experiment during 2006-07 and 2007-08 growing seasons in College of Agriculture, Shiraz University located in Badjgah. The results showed that differences between cultivars for grain yield, phytomass and WUE were significant. Effects of chlormequat chloride and nitrogen on grain and phytomass yield were significant. In the first year the highest grain yield and phytomass production (192.4 and 431.2 g/m2, respectively were obtained from Nicknejad cultivar, Chlormequat Chloride application and using 80 kg/ha nitrogen, and in the second years from Azar-2 cultivar (121.5 and 333.5 g/m2, respectively. Chlormequat chloride and nitrogen had significant effects on WUE in both years. Interaction of chlormequat chloride and 80 kg/ha nitrogen application in both years on WUE were significant (0.95 and 2.35 g/m2/mm, respectively. It appeared that nitrogen and chlormequat chloride application with increase root expansion and proliferation improved soil water uptake. It might be recommended that selecting resistant cultivars to later season drought stress, together with application of chlormequat chloride and nitrogen fertilizer have beneficial effects on increase of WUE of rainfall and could improve wheat grain yield under rainfed conditions. Keywords: Dryland Wheat Cultivars, Plant Growth