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Sample records for bread spoilage fungi

  1. Effects of aqueous extract of Cinnamomum verum on growth of bread spoilage fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Monir Doudi; Mahbubeh Setorki; Zahra Rezayatmand

    2016-01-01

    Food waste has been identified as a considerable problem and bread is the most wasted food. This study aimed to evaluate In-vitro anti-fungal activity of cinnamon extract on bread spoilage fungi and to determine its anti-fungal effect in the bread slices. At first, the MIC and MFC values of the extract were determined against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium notatum and Rhizopus oryzae. Then, Aspergillus sp was sele...

  2. Effects of aqueous extract of Cinnamomum verum on growth of bread spoilage fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Doudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food waste has been identified as a considerable problem and bread is the most wasted food. This study aimed to evaluate In-vitro anti-fungal activity of cinnamon extract on bread spoilage fungi and to determine its anti-fungal effect in the bread slices. At first, the MIC and MFC values of the extract were determined against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium notatum and Rhizopus oryzae. Then, Aspergillus sp was selected to assess antifungal activities of different doses of cinnamon extract in bread slices. Cinnamon extract at a dose of 64 mg/ml completely inhibited all standard and bread isolated fungi. This concentration of extract also inhibited Aspergillus growth on bread slices and delayed colony formation but adversely affected the sensory characteristics of bread. Cinnamon extract at 32 mg/ml not only delayed fungal growth, but also improved bread shelf life and delayed its staling. Moreover, 32mg/ml of extract did not adversely affect bread aroma, flavor and texture. However, sodium acetate inhibited the growth of Aspergillus sp but is not recommended for fungal control because it is considered as chemical. Therefore 32 mg/ml of extract is recommended for increasing the shelf-life of flat bread.

  3. Antifungal activity of essential oils evaluated by two different application techniques against rye bread spoilage fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To study how antifungal activity of natural essential oils depends on the assay method used.Methods and Results: Oils of bay, cinnamon leaf, clove, lemongrass, mustard, orange, sage, thyme and two rosemary oils were tested by two methods: (1) a rye bread-based agar medium was supplemented...... with 100 and 250 mu l l(-1) essential oil and (2) real rye bread was exposed to 136 and 272 mu l l(-1) volatile oil in air. Rye bread spoilage fungi were used for testing. Method 1 proved thyme oil to be the overall best growth inhibitor, followed by clove and cinnamon. On the contrary, orange, sage...... and rosemary oils had very limited effects. Mustard and lemongrass were the most effective oils by the volatile method, and orange, sage and one rosemary showed some effects. Oil compositions were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrography.Conclusions: Antifungal effects of the essential oils depended...

  4. Isolation and Identification of Spoilage Fungi Associated With Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spoilage fungi isolated were Aspergillus species, Rhizopus, Penicilluim, Fusarium, Eurotium, Mucor, Geotrichum, Alternaria, Cladosporium and Actinomyces species. The predominant spoilage fungi in the grains were Aspergillus species. The populations of some spoilage fungi isolated from the grains were not high ...

  5. Spoilage fungi and their mycotoxins in commercially marketed chestnuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overy, David Patrick; Seifert, K.A.; Savard, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    A nationwide survey was carried out to assess mould spoilage of Castanea sativa nuts sold in Canadian grocery stores in 1998-99. Morphological and cultural characters, along with secondary metabolite profiles derived from thin-layer chromatography, were used to sort and identify fungi cultured from...

  6. Sea salts as a potential source of food spoilage fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biango-Daniels, Megan N; Hodge, Kathie T

    2018-02-01

    Production of sea salt begins with evaporation of sea water in shallow pools called salterns, and ends with the harvest and packing of salts. This process provides many opportunities for fungal contamination. This study aimed to determine whether finished salts contain viable fungi that have the potential to cause spoilage when sea salt is used as a food ingredient by isolating fungi on a medium that simulated salted food with a lowered water activity (0.95 a w ). The viable filamentous fungi from seven commercial salts were quantified and identified by DNA sequencing, and the fungal communities in different salts were compared. Every sea salt tested contained viable fungi, in concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 1.71 colony-forming units per gram of salt. In total, 85 fungi were isolated representing seven genera. One or more species of the most abundant genera, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Penicillium was found in every salt. Many species found in this study have been previously isolated from low water activity environments, including salterns and foods. We conclude that sea salts contain many fungi that have potential to cause food spoilage as well as some that may be mycotoxigenic. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of semi-synthetic bread substrates for examination of bread spoilage organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enk, Michael; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1998-01-01

    Shelf life studies of bread are highly irreproducible due to the very heterogenous structure of bread and the difficulties in obtaining sterile bread. We hypothesize that novel semi-synthetic bread substrates with chemical and microbial properties similar to those of bread can be developed....... The bread based substrates can prove valuable in predicting shelf life of bread and in the routine hygienic control of bread factories.Our objective was to develop substrates with properties, which both chemically and microbiologically resembles those of dark and white bread respectively.Nineteen dark (DB......) and 19 white (WB) bread based substrates were made based on a factorial design. Lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, ethanol and glucose were added in amounts found in different brand of bread by chemical analysis. Water activity was adjusted by polyethylene glycol. The substrates were evaluated...

  8. Mold spoilage of bread and its biopreservation: A review of current strategies for bread shelf life extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axel, Claudia; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2017-11-02

    Microbial spoilage of bread and the consequent waste problem causes large economic losses for both the bakery industry and the consumer. Furthermore the presence of mycotoxins due to fungal contamination in cereals and cereal products remains a significant issue. The use of conventional chemical preservatives has several drawbacks, necessitating the development of clean-label alternatives. In this review, we describe current research aiming to extend the shelf life of bread through the use of more consumer friendly and ecologically sustainable preservation techniques as alternatives to chemical additives. Studies on the in situ-production/-expression of antifungal compounds are presented, with special attention given to recent developments over the past decade. Sourdough fermented with antifungal strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is an area of increasing focus and serves as a high-potential biological ingredient to produce gluten-containing and gluten-free breads with improved nutritional value, quality and safety due to shelf-life extension, and is in-line with consumer's demands for more products containing less additives. Other alternative biopreservation techniques include the utilization of antifungal peptides, ethanol and plant extracts. These can be added to bread formulations or incorporated in antimicrobial films for active packaging (AP) of bread. This review outlines recent progress that has been made in the area of bread biopreservation and future perspectives in this important area.

  9. Longterm storage of post-packaged bread by controlling spoilage pathogens using Lactobacillus fermentum C14 isolated from homemade curd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Barman

    Full Text Available One potent lactic acid bacterial strain C14 with strong antifungal activity was isolated from homemade curd. Based on morphological as well as biochemical characters and 16S rDNA sequence homology the strain was identified as Lactobacillus fermentum. It displayed a wide antimicrobial spectrum against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, and also against number of food spoilage, plant and human pathogenic fungi. The cell free supernatant (CFS of the strain C14 was also effective against the fungi tested. Inhibition of radial growth of Penicillium digitatum, Trichophyton rubrum and Mucor sp. was noticed in the presence of CFS of C14 even at low concentration (1%. More than 94.3 ± 1.6% and 91.5 ± 2.2% inhibition of conidial germination of P. digitatum and Mucor sp. were noticed in the presence of 10-fold-concentrated CFS of C14. Massive deformation of the fungal mycelia was observed by SEM studies, and losses of cellular proteins and DNA are also evident upon its treatment with C14. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of phenyl lactic acid, lactic acid along with some unidentified compounds in the antifungal extract. Challenge experiment showed immense potential of the strain C14 in preventing the spoilage of bread samples caused by Mucor sp. and Bacillus subtilis. The bread samples remained fresh upto 25 days even after inoculation with Mucor sp. (3.7 × 104 spores /ml and B. subtilis (4.6 × 104 CFU /ml. Along with the antifungal properties, the isolated lactic acid bacterial strain also showed very good antioxidant activities. Unchanged level of liver enzymes serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase in albino mice upon feeding with C14 also suggested non-toxic nature of the bacterial isolate.

  10. Stress tolerance in fungi - to kill a spoilage yeast.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, G.J.; Brul, S.

    2005-01-01

    The fungal spoilage of ingredients of food manufacture is an economic problem, often causes product loss and may constitute a health hazard. To effectively combat fungal food spoilage, a mechanistic understanding of tolerance for, and adaptation to, the preservation method used is crucial. Both are

  11. Diversity and Control of Spoilage Fungi in Dairy Products: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valence, Florence; Mounier, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Fungi are common contaminants of dairy products, which provide a favorable niche for their growth. They are responsible for visible or non-visible defects, such as off-odor and -flavor, and lead to significant food waste and losses as well as important economic losses. Control of fungal spoilage is a major concern for industrials and scientists that are looking for efficient solutions to prevent and/or limit fungal spoilage in dairy products. Several traditional methods also called traditional hurdle technologies are implemented and combined to prevent and control such contaminations. Prevention methods include good manufacturing and hygiene practices, air filtration, and decontamination systems, while control methods include inactivation treatments, temperature control, and modified atmosphere packaging. However, despite technology advances in existing preservation methods, fungal spoilage is still an issue for dairy manufacturers and in recent years, new (bio) preservation technologies are being developed such as the use of bioprotective cultures. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the diversity of spoilage fungi in dairy products and the traditional and (potentially) new hurdle technologies to control their occurrence in dairy foods. PMID:28788096

  12. Diversity and Control of Spoilage Fungi in Dairy Products: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucille Garnier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are common contaminants of dairy products, which provide a favorable niche for their growth. They are responsible for visible or non-visible defects, such as off-odor and -flavor, and lead to significant food waste and losses as well as important economic losses. Control of fungal spoilage is a major concern for industrials and scientists that are looking for efficient solutions to prevent and/or limit fungal spoilage in dairy products. Several traditional methods also called traditional hurdle technologies are implemented and combined to prevent and control such contaminations. Prevention methods include good manufacturing and hygiene practices, air filtration, and decontamination systems, while control methods include inactivation treatments, temperature control, and modified atmosphere packaging. However, despite technology advances in existing preservation methods, fungal spoilage is still an issue for dairy manufacturers and in recent years, new (bio preservation technologies are being developed such as the use of bioprotective cultures. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the diversity of spoilage fungi in dairy products and the traditional and (potentially new hurdle technologies to control their occurrence in dairy foods.

  13. Isolation and Identification of Fungi Associated with the Spoilage of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out in Sokoto Metropolis to isolate and identify fungi associated with the deterioration of sweet orange fruits. A total of one hundred samples of fresh sweet Oranges (Citrus sinensis L) were used. First, a total of seventy samples were obtained from the three selected marketing centres in Sokoto ...

  14. Spoilage of vegetable crops by bacteria and fungi and related health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournas, V H

    2005-01-01

    After harvest, vegetables are often spoiled by a wide variety of microorganisms including many bacterial and fungal species. The most common bacterial agents are Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas spp., Corynebacterium, Xanthomonas campestris, and lactic acid bacteria with E. carotovora being the most common, attacking virtually every vegetable type. Fungi commonly causing spoilage of fresh vegetables are Botrytis cinerea, various species of the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Phomopsis, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phoma, Phytophthora, Pythium and Rhizopus spp., Botrytis cinerea, Ceratocystis fimbriata, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and some mildews. A few of these organisms show a substrate preference whereas others such as Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Phytophthora, and Rhizopus spp., affect a wide variety of vegetables causing devastating losses. Many of these agents enter the plant tissue through mechanical or chilling injuries, or after the skin barrier has been broken down by other organisms. Besides causing huge economic losses, some fungal species could produce toxic metabolites in the affected sites, constituting a potential health hazard for humans. Additionally, vegetables have often served as vehicles for pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and parasites and were implicated in many food borne illness outbreaks. In order to slow down vegetable spoilage and minimize the associated adverse health effects, great caution should be taken to follow strict hygiene, good agricultural practices (GAPs) and good manufacturing practices (GMPs) during cultivation, harvest, storage, transport, and marketing.

  15. Decrease of bacterial spoilage of bread by low-dose irradiation of its flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Andrassy, E.

    1981-01-01

    A variant of Bacillus subtilis causing the ''rope'' defect of bread was isolated from spoiled bread and the heat resistance of its spores was investigated in a liquid medium similar in its composition to the soluble part of the bread dough. The spores almost completely survived a 64-min heat treatment at 25 0 C and only slightly more than one log-cycle destruction was observed after 30 min at 99.5 0 C. The radiation destruction of freeze-dried spores proved to be exponential in the 0 - 8.0 kGy dose range studied, and it showed a D 10 value of 1.9 kGy. Gamma irradiation considerably decreased the heat resistance of the surviving spores against moist heat. The dormancy of spores was also significantly decreased, by 1.0 kGy or higher doses. Baking trials were performed with untreated and irradiated (0.75 and 1.5 kGy) flour samples within two weeks and after two months of post-irradiation storage of wheat flour. The shelf-life of bread prepared from irradiated flour was longer by 50% than that of the control at 30 0 C. Development of surviving ''ropy'' spores into colonies inside the bread proved to be easily detectable by triphenyl-tetrazolium-chloride on the basis of their dehydrogenase activity. The favourable microbiological effect of radiation treatment of wheat flour did not diminish during its two-month post-irradiation storage. Organoleptic quality of the flour and that of the bread were not affected by the 0.75 kGy dose. Off-flavour formation was induced by the 1.5 kGy dose, which diminished, however, in the bread-making procedure. (author)

  16. Antifungal Activity of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria and Propionic Acid Bacteria against Dairy-Associated Spoilage Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing

    Bacterial cultures of lactic and propionic acid bacteria are widely used in fermented products including dairy products. Spoilage fungi may constitute a quality and safety issue in these products. The antifungal properties of some lactic and propionic acid bacteria make them potential candidates...... defined interaction medium (CDIM) was developed allowing growth of protective Lb. paracasei and P. freudenreichii subsp. shermaniii as well as the spoilage fungi, Penicillium spp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Debaryomyces hansenii isolated from fermented dairy products. Lb. paracasei and P....... freudenreichii subsp. shermanii grew in CDIM and showed antifungal properties similar to those observed in milk-based systems. Most of the antifungal effect of the protective bacterial ferment was lost after removal of cells. This was explained by a marked decrease in diacetyl concentration, which...

  17. Evaluation of five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon for controlling food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguefack, J; Leth, V; Amvam Zollo, P H; Mathur, S B

    2004-08-01

    Five essential oils (EO) extracted from Cymbopogon citratus, Monodora myristica, Ocimum gratissimum, Thymus vulgaris and Zingiber officinale were investigated for their inhibitory effect against three food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi, Fusarium moniliforme, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. Five strains of each fungus were tested. The agar dilution technique was used to determine the inhibitory effect of each EO on the radial growth of the fungus, and a dose response was recorded. The EO from O. gratissimum, T. vulgaris and C. citratus were the most effective and prevented conidial germination and the growth of all three fungi on corn meal agar at 800, 1000 and 1200 ppm, respectively. Moderate activity was observed for the EO from Z. officinale between 800 and 2500 ppm, while the EO from M. myristica was less inhibitory. These effects against food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi indicated the possible ability of each essential oil as a food preservative. A comparative test on the preservative ability of the EO from O. gratissimum and potassium sorbate against A. flavus at pH 3.0 and 4.5 showed that the EO remained stable at both pH, whereas the efficacy of potassium sorbate was reduced at higher pH. We concluded that the EO from O. gratissimum is a potential food preservative with a pH dependent superiority against potassium sorbate, and these are novel scientific information.

  18. The Relationship between Black Point and Fungi Species and Effects of Black Point on Seed Germination Properties in Bread Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    TOKLU, Faruk; AKGÜL, Davut Soner; BİÇİCİ, Mehmet; KARAKÖY, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between some fungi species and black point incidence and the effect of black point on seed weight, germination percentage, seedling emergence, seedling establishment, number of embryonic roots, and coleoptile length under field conditions in bread wheat. In this research, black-pointed and black point-free kernel samples of 5 bread wheat cultivars, namely Ceyhan-99, Doğankent-1, Yüreğir-89, Seyhan-95, and Adana-99 - commonly grown unde...

  19. Differences Among Commonly Sprayed Orchard Fungicides in Targeting the Beneficial Fungi Associated with Honey Bee Colony and Bee Bread Provisions (In Vitro)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our studies evaluated the effects of representative fungicides, boscalid and pyraclostrobin, propiconazole, and chlorothalonil, alone and in combination, on 12 fungi species isolated from bee bread. Chlorothalonil was fungicidal (slowed growth without killing) and was least effective on Aspergillus...

  20. Stereo and scanning electron microscopy of in-shell Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.): part two-surface sound nut fungi spoilage susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scussel, Vildes M; Manfio, Daniel; Savi, Geovana D; Moecke, Elisa H S

    2014-11-01

    This work reports the in-shell Brazil nut spoilage susceptible morpho-histological characteristics and fungi infection (shell, edible part, and brown skin) through stereo and scanning electron microscopies (SEM). The following characteristics related to shell (a) morphology-that allow fungi and insects' entrance to inner nut, and (b) histology-that allow humidity absorption, improving environment conditions for living organisms development, were identified. (a.1) locule in testae-the nut navel, which is a cavity formed during nut detaching from pods (located at 1.0 to 2.0/4th of the shell B&C nut faces linkage). It allows the nut brown skin (between shell and edible part) first contact to the external environment, through the (a.2) nut channel-the locule prolongation path, which has the water/nutrients cambium function for their transport and distribution to the inner seed (while still on the tree/pod). Both, locule followed by the channel, are the main natural entrance of living organisms (fungi and insects), including moisture to the inner seed structures. In addition, the (a.3) nut shell surface-which has a crinkled and uneven surface morphology-allows water absorption, thus adding to the deterioration processes too. The main shell histological characteristic, which also allows water absorption (thus improving environment conditions for fungi proliferation), is the (b.1) cell wall porosity-the multilayered wall and porous rich cells that compose the shell faces double tissue layers and the (b.2) soft tissue-the mix of tissues 2 faces corner/linkage. This work also shows in details the SEM nut spoilage susceptible features highly fungi infected with hyphae and reproductive structures distribution. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. The influence of bread improvers and different technological parameters on bread quality

    OpenAIRE

    Duobienė, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Goal of the research: to analyse quality parameters of different types of bread, produced with or without improvers, also to evaluate intensity of microbiological spoilage of bread during storage. Results and findings: Different bread technologies have influence on bread quality parameters and in all cases bread improvers have positive influence on bread quality: „Lietuviškas ragaišis“ (Lithuanian whole wheat bread) using improvers the higher specific volume (21.27%) and porosity (9.02%...

  2. Fungicide contamination reduces beneficial fungi in bee bread based on an area-wide field study in honey bee, Apis mellifera, colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jay A; Jajack, Andrew J; Rosselot, Andrew E; Smith, Terrance J; Yerke, Mary Clare; Sammataro, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation by fungi converts stored pollen into bee bread that is fed to honey bee larvae, Apis mellifera, so the diversity of fungi in bee bread may be related to its food value. To explore the relationship between fungicide exposure and bee bread fungi, samples of bee bread collected from bee colonies pollinating orchards from 7 locations over 2 years were analyzed for fungicide residues and fungus composition. There were detectable levels of fungicides from regions that were sprayed before bloom. An organic orchard had the highest quantity and variety of fungicides, likely due to the presence of treated orchards within bees' flight range. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Cladosporium (beneficial fungi) were the primary fungal isolates found, regardless of habitat differences. There was some variation in fungal components amongst colonies, even within the same apiary. The variable components were Absidia, Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Bipolaris, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Mucor, Nigrospora, Paecilomyces, Scopulariopsis, and Trichoderma. The number of fungal isolates was reduced as an effect of fungicide contamination. Aspergillus abundance was particularly affected by increased fungicide levels, as indicated by Simpson's diversity index. Bee bread showing fungicide contamination originated from colonies, many of which showed chalkbrood symptoms.

  3. Moulds in food spoilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filtenborg, Ole; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Thrane, Ulf

    1996-01-01

    There is an increasing knowledge and understanding of the role played by moulds in food spoilage. Especially the discovery of mycotoxin production in foods has highligh-ted the importance of moulds in food quality. It is, however, only within the last 5-10 years that major progresses have been made...... the associated or critical funga and has been shown to consist of less than 10 species. In this paper the associated funga is described for the following foods: Citrus and pomaceous fruits, potato and yam tubers, onions, rye, wheat, rye bread, cheese and fermented sausages and whenever possible the selective...

  4. Beneficial bread without preservatives

    OpenAIRE

    Denkova, Zapryana; Denkova, Rositsa

    2014-01-01

    Besides their inherent nutritional value functional foods contain substances that have beneficial impact on the functioning of organs and systems in the human body and reduce the risk of disease. Bread and bakery goods are basic foods in the diet of contemporary people. Preservatives are added to the composition of foods in order to ensure their microbiological safety, but these substances affect directly the balance of microflora in the tract. A great problem is mold and bacterial spoilage (...

  5. Food spoilage - interactions between food spoilage bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Flodgaard, Lars; Rasch, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Food spoilage is a complex process and excessive amounts of foods are lost due to microbial spoilage even with modem day preservation techniques. Despite the heterogeneity in raw materials and processing conditions, the microflora that develops during storage and in spoiling foods can be predicted...... based on knowledge of the origin of the food, the substrate base and a few central preservation parameters such as temperature, atmosphere, a(w) and pH. Based on such knowledge, more detailed sensory, chemical and microbiological analysis can be carried out on the individual products to determine...... the actual specific spoilage organism. Whilst the chemical and physical parameters are the main determining factors for selection of spoilage microorganisms, a level of refinement may be found in some products in which the interactive behavior of microorganisms may contribute to their growth and/or spoilage...

  6. Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajek, Ann E.; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt

    2018-01-01

    been the focus of most ecological research. Some taxa of invertebrate pathogenic fungi have evolved adaptations for utilizing living plants as substrates, and these lifestyles have recently received increased attention from researchers following the initial documentations of such plant associations...

  7. Potential of Lactobacillus reuteri from Spontaneous 
Sourdough as a Starter Additive for Improving Quality Parameters of Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaičiulytė-Funk, Lina; Šalomskienė, Joana; Alenčikienė, Gitana; Mieželienė, Aldona

    2016-01-01

    Summary Retardation of microbial spoilage of bread can be achieved by the use of spontaneous sourdough with an antimicrobial activity. This study was undertaken to identify lactic acid bacteria naturally occurring in spontaneous sourdough and use them for quality improvement and prolonging shelf life of rye, wheat and rye with wheat bread. Identification of isolates from spontaneous sourdough by pyrosequencing assay showed that Lactobacillus reuteri were dominant lactic acid bacteria. The isolates showed a wide range of antimicrobial activity and displayed a synergistic activity against other lactobacilli, some lactococci and foodborne yeasts. The best application of spontaneous sourdough was noticed in the rye bread with the lowest crumb firmness of the final product, although the sensory results of wheat and rye with wheat bread did not statistically differ from control bread. L. reuteri showed a high preserving capacity against fungi during storage. This may be due to bacteriocins and various fatty acids secreted into the growth medium that were identified by agar well diffusion assay and gas chromatography. L. reuteri showing high antimicrobial activity have the potential to be used as a starter additive that could improve safety and/or shelf life of bread. PMID:27956866

  8. Potential of Lactobacillus reuteri from Spontaneous Sourdough as a Starter Additive for Improving Quality Parameters of Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Vaičiulytė-Funk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Retardation of microbial spoilage of bread can be achieved by the use of spontaneous sourdough with an antimicrobial activity. This study was undertaken to identify lactic acid bacteria naturally occurring in spontaneous sourdough and use them for quality improvement and prolonging shelf life of rye, wheat and rye with wheat bread. Identification of isolates from spontaneous sourdough by pyrosequencing assay showed that Lactobacillus reuteri were dominant lactic acid bacteria. The isolates showed a wide range of antimicrobial activity and displayed a synergistic activity against other lactobacilli, some lactococci and foodborne yeasts. The best application of spontaneous sourdough was noticed in the rye bread with the lowest crumb fi rmness of the fi nal product, although the sensory results of wheat and rye with wheat bread did not statistically diff er from control bread. L. reuteri showed a high preserving capacity against fungi during storage. This may be due to bacteriocins and various fatty acids secreted into the growth medium that were identified by agar well diffusion assay and gas chromatography. L. reuteri showing high antimicrobial activity have the potential to be used as a starter additive that could improve safety and/or shelf life of bread.

  9. Effect of weak acid preservatives on growth of bakery product spoilage fungi at different water activities and pH values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2004-01-01

    moisture sponge cake types (a(w) 0.80-0.95, pH 4.7-7.4). Initially, rye bread conditions (a(w) 0.94-0.97 and pH 4.4-4.8) in combination with calcium propionate were investigated. Results showed that the highest concentration of propionate (0.3%) at all conditions apart from high a(w) (0.97) and high pH (4...... enhanced at high water activity levels. The effect of propionate on production of secondary metabolites (mycophenolic acid, rugulovasine, echinulin, flavoglaucin) was also studied, and variable or isolate dependent results were found. Subsequently, a screening experiment representing a wider range...

  10. Meat spoilage during distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nychas, George-John E; Skandamis, Panos N; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2008-01-01

    Meat spoilage during distribution can be considered as an ecological phenomenon that encompasses the changes of the available substrata (e.g., low molecular compounds), during the prevailing of a particular microbial association, the so-called specific spoilage organisms (SSO). In fact, spoilage of meat depends on an even smaller fraction of SSO, called ephemeral spoilage organisms (ESO). These ESO are the consequence of factors that dynamically persist or imposed during, e.g., processing, transportation and storage in the market. Meanwhile spoilage is a subjective judgment by the consumer, which may be influenced by cultural and economic considerations and background as well as by the sensory acuity of the individual and the intensity of the change. Indeed, when spoilage progresses, most consumers would agree that gross discoloration, strong off-odors, and the development of slime would constitute the main qualitative criteria for meat rejection. On the other hand, meat industry needs rapid analytical methods or tools for quantification of these indicators to determine the type of processing needed for their raw material and to predict remaining shelf life of their products. The need of an objective evaluation of meat spoilage is of great importance. The use of metabolomics as a potential tool for the evaluation of meat spoilage can be of great importance. The microbial association of meat should be monitored in parallel with the estimation of changes occurring in the production and/or assimilation of certain compounds would allow us to evaluate spoilage found or produced during the storage of meat under different temperatures as well as packaging conditions.

  11. Fractal Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbenshade, Donald H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Develops the idea of fractals through a laboratory activity that calculates the fractal dimension of ordinary white bread. Extends use of the fractal dimension to compare other complex structures as other breads and sponges. (MDH)

  12. Antifungal properties of gliadin films incorporating cinnamaldehyde and application in active food packaging of bread and cheese spread foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, Mari Pau; Lopez-Carballo, Gracia; Catala, Ramon; Gavara, Rafael; Hernandez-Munoz, Pilar

    2013-09-16

    Gliadin films incorporating 1.5, 3 and 5% cinnamaldehyde (g/100g protein) were tested against food-spoilage fungi Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger in vitro, and were employed in an active food packaging system for sliced bread and cheese spread. Gliadin films incorporating cinnamaldehyde were highly effective against fungal growth. P. expansum and A. niger were completely inhibited after storage in vitro for 10 days in the presence of films incorporating 3% cinnamaldehyde. Indeed 1.5% cinnamaldehyde was sufficient in the case of P. expansum. The amount of cinnamaldehyde retained in films after storage for 45 days at 20 °C and 0% RH was also sufficient in most cases to prevent fungal growth in vitro. Active food packaging with gliadin films incorporating 5% cinnamaldehyde increased the shelf-life of both sliced bread and cheese spread. Mold growth was observed on sliced bread after 27 days of storage at 23 °C with active packaging, whereas in the control bread packaged without the active film fungal growth appeared around the fourth day. In the cheese spread, no fungi were observed after 26 days of storage at 4 °C when the product was packaged with the active film. However, growth of fungi was observed in control packaged cheese after 16 days of storage. This work demonstrates a noteworthy potential of these novel bioplastics incorporating natural antimicrobial compounds as innovative solutions to be used in active food packaging to extend shelf-life of food products. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of Volatile Oil of Mustard and Vanillin as an Effective Food Preservation System for Military Bread and Baked Goods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muller, Wayne S; Sikes, Anthony; Yeomans, Walter; Anderson, Danielle; Senecal, Andy

    2006-01-01

    ...) vanillin is an effective food preservation system for molds and yeast. Four bread spoilage organisms were evaluated in the study Penicillium notatum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera...

  14. Bread's oven and baking bread

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelic, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This thesis researches the connection between baker's oven and baking bread. Furthermore, it presents the history and development of the above issue in the Slovenian territory, its significance and preservation over time. The thesis deals with the building of bread’s over, its function and usability. Moreover, it focuses on baking bread in bread’s oven, presenting the entire baking process from ingredients to the baked loaf of bread and various tools and techniques, which can be used during t...

  15. Strategies to Extend Bread and GF Bread Shelf-Life: From Sourdough to Antimicrobial Active Packaging and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Melini; Francesca Melini

    2018-01-01

    Bread is a staple food worldwide. It commonly undergoes physico-chemical and microbiological changes which impair its quality and shelf-life. Staling determines organoleptic impairment, whereas microbiological spoilage causes visible mould growth and invisible production of mycotoxins. To tackle this economic and safety issue, the bakery industry has been working to identify treatments which allow bread safety and extended shelf-life. Physical methods and chemical preservatives have long been...

  16. Lactobacillus brevis-based bioingredient inhibits Aspergillus niger growth on pan bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariaelena Di Biase

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bread shelf life is generally compromised by fungi mainly belonging to Aspergillus and Penicillium genera, which colonise the surface of the product within few days from the production. The aim of this study was to select a Lactobacillus brevis-based bioingredient (LbBio able to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus niger ITEM5132 on pan bread in order to prolong its shelf life. Four LbBio formulations, obtained by growing a selected L. brevis strain in a flour-based medium containing different carbon sources or acid precursors (fructose, LbBio1; fructose and maltose, LbBio2; α-chetoglutaric acid, LbBio3; short-chain fructooligosaccharides, LbBio4, were evaluated for their content of organic acids (lactic, acetic, propionic, phenyllactic, 4-hydroxy-phenyllactic, valeric, isovaleric acids. The LbBio formulations were applied in yeast-leavened bread during bread-making trials and the resulting products were inoculated after baking with A. niger spore’s suspension and the fungal growth was monitored during storage (25°C for 6 days. The formulation showing the highest inhibitory activity was separated by ultra-filtration method, and whole and fractions obtained were evaluated for their in vitro activity. The fraction showing the highest activity was further separated by gel-filtration and the resulting products were investigated for their protein content and in vitro inhibition. The results from the bread-making trials performed using different formulations of LbBio showed a delay in fungal growth (1 day respect to the bread not containing the bioingredient (control or including calcium propionate (0.3% w/w. The formulation LbBio2, prepared with fructose and maltose 1% (w/vol, contained the highest amount of total organic acids, including phenyllactic and hydroxyl-phenyllactic acids, and reduced the visual spoilage of bread. This formulation was separated by ultra-filtration and fractions containing metabolites with molecular weight higher than 30 k

  17. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  18. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in bread in Nigeria | Efuntoye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Nigeria on samples of brown bread for growth of moulds and natural occurrence of aflatoxins. Mycological analysis showed the presence of six genera of filamentous fungi, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Mucor, Penicillium, Alternaria and Geotrichum. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of bread ...

  19. 104 Key words: Moringa, marinade, bacteria, fungi, catfish, smoke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-01-16

    Jan 16, 2013 ... spoilage thus limiting economic loss and possible heath risk to consumers. Key words: Moringa, marinade, bacteria, fungi, catfish, smoke-dried. Introduction ..... were reared because E. coli is an indicator organism and its ...

  20. Fungal Spoilage in Food Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Abigail B; Worobo, Randy W

    2018-06-01

    Food processing, packaging, and formulation strategies are often specifically designed to inhibit or control microbial growth to prevent spoilage. Some of the most restrictive strategies rely solely or on combinations of pH reduction, preservatives, water activity limitation, control of oxygen tension, thermal processing, and hermetic packaging. In concert, these strategies are used to inactivate potential spoilage microorganisms or inhibit their growth. However, for select microbes that can overcome these controls, the lack of competition from additional background microbiota helps facilitate their propagation.

  1. Fish spoilage bacteria - problems and solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Dalgaard, Paw

    2002-01-01

    Microorganisms are the major cause of spoilage of most seafood products. However, only a few members of the microbial community, the specific spoilage organisms (SSOs), give rise to the offensive off-flavours associated with seafood spoilage. Combining microbial ecology, molecular techniques, ana...

  2. Strategies to Extend Bread and GF Bread Shelf-Life: From Sourdough to Antimicrobial Active Packaging and Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Melini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bread is a staple food worldwide. It commonly undergoes physico-chemical and microbiological changes which impair its quality and shelf-life. Staling determines organoleptic impairment, whereas microbiological spoilage causes visible mould growth and invisible production of mycotoxins. To tackle this economic and safety issue, the bakery industry has been working to identify treatments which allow bread safety and extended shelf-life. Physical methods and chemical preservatives have long been used. However, new frontiers have been recently explored. Sourdough turned out an ancient but novel technology to preserve standard and gluten-free bread. Promising results have also been obtained by application of alternative bio-preservation techniques, including antifungal peptides and plant extracts. Active packaging, with absorbing and/or releasing compounds effective against bread staling and/or with antimicrobials preventing growth of undesirable microorganisms, showed up an emerging area of food technology which can confer many preservation benefits. Nanotechnologies are also opening up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry and the consumers. This work thus aims to provide an overview of opportunities and challenges that traditional and innovative anti-staling and anti-spoilage methods can offer to extend bread shelf-life and to provide a basis for driving further research on nanotechnology applications into the bakery industry.

  3. Selling bread

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, John, 1837-1921, photographer

    2003-01-01

    85 x 107 mm. Woodburytype. A portrait of an old woman seated on a chair, with a basket on her lap. The portrait is in Thomson's 'Through Cyprus with the camera, in the autumn of 1878' (vol.1, London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, 1879). The photograph is annotated: 'In the features of this old dame, who earns her living by selling bread in Larnaca, there still linger traces of youthful comeliness. Her thin locks are silvered with age, and the years, as they dragged heavily...

  4. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  5. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF WARANKASHI ENRICHED BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Dudu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the microbiological and nutritional quality, organoleptic, rheological and textural effect as well as the effect on the shelf life of wheat bread enriched with West African cottage cheese (warankashi at different substitution levels (1 %, 3 % and 5 %. The protein and fat content of wheat bread significantly increased but carbohydrate levels decreased significantly as enrichment with Warankashi increased. The amino acid profile of the wheat bread increased with increasing enrichment. The incorporation of Warankashi into wheat flour affected the rheological and textural properties of wheat flour; the rate of water absorption of the wheat flour decreased as Warankashi incorporation levels increased. Also, the dough stability time of the enriched flours was lesser than that of the wheat flour. The 3 % enrichment level had the highest dough consistency (520 BU. The extensibility of 1 % and 3 % wara bread dough were the same while that of wheat flour bread and 5 % Warankashi were the same. The 3 % wara bread dough had the highest resistance to extension. Shelf life of the bread remained unaffected by Warankashi incorporation but the rate of bacteria and fungi (yeast and mould growth decreased significantly (P < 0.05 as enrichment levels increased. There was no significant difference between the organoleptic properties of wheat bread to that of the enriched breads but the 3 % Warankshi enriched bread had the highest consumer acceptability.

  6. Microbiological Spoilage of Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledenbach, Loralyn H.; Marshall, Robert T.

    The wide array of available dairy foods challenges the microbiologist, engineer, and technologist to find the best ways to prevent the entry of microorganisms, destroy those that do get in along with their enzymes, and prevent the growth and activities of those that escape processing treatments. Troublesome spoilage microorganisms include aerobic psychrotrophic Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, molds, heterofermentative lactobacilli, and spore-forming bacteria. Psychrotrophic bacteria can produce large amounts of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, and the extent of recontamination of pasteurized fluid milk products with these bacteria is a major determinant of their shelf life. Fungal spoilage of dairy foods is manifested by the presence of a wide variety of metabolic by-products, causing off-odors and flavors, in addition to visible changes in color or texture.

  7. Solving Microbial Spoilage Problems in Processed Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavero, Rocelle

    This chapter surveys common microbial food spoilage processes. The chapter is organized by food products and includes sections addressing spoilage in meat, poultry, fish; dairy products (milk, butter, cheese); beverage products; bakery products; canned foods; fruit and confectionery products; and emulsions. It addresses the isolation and identification of spoilage organisms and provides several case studies as examples. It introduces various organisms responsible for spoilage including Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria, Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, yeasts, molds, and fungal contaminants. Throughout the chapter, attention is given to when, where, and how spoilage organisms enter the food processing chain. Troubleshooting techniques are suggested. The effect (or lack of effect) of heating, dehydration, pH change, cooling, and sealing on various organisms is explained throughout. The chapter contains four tables that connect specific organisms to various spoilage manifestations in a variety of food products.

  8. Control of Microbiological Spoilage of Food by Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J. [Central Food Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary)

    1978-04-15

    Papers published from 1973 to 1977 in the field of radiation control of microbiological spoilage are reviewed, grouping the subjects according to the type of process and food treated. Various laboratories from 33 countries have recently published data on the subject, radurization of dates, prepackaged vegetables, wet grains, bread, various meats and meat products being reported. The most widespread research activities could be observed in the field of radurization of fish and marine products (shellfish, shrimps). Radiation decontamination of dry food ingredients (enzyme preparates, protein preparates, starch, spices) and cork stoppers was studied in various laboratories. Radappertization research of several animal-protein foods has made remarkable progress and the minimal dose requirements are well established. Combination of radiation treatment with other antimicrobial agents (salt, preservatives, heat, etc.) has been investigated by many laboratories. Foods involved in these investigations were bread, several tropical and subtropical fruits, apple juice, groundnuts, fish fillets and shrimps, but a considerable part of the data relate to model systems. A better understanding of the synergistic effect will require additional knowledge and the continuation of long-range research and development in the field of combined treatments is recommended. (author)

  9. Control of microbiological spoilage of food by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1978-01-01

    Papers published from 1973 to 1977 in the field of radiation control of microbiological spoilage are reviewed, grouping the subjects according to the type of process and food treated. Various laboratories from 33 countries have recently published data on the subject, radurization of dates, prepackaged vegetables, wet grains, bread, various meats and meat products being reported. The most widespread research activities could be observed in the field of radurization of fish and marine products (shellfish, shrimps). Radiation decontamination of dry food ingredients (enzyme preparates, protein preparates, starch, spices) and cork stoppers was studied in various laboratories. Radappertization research of several animal-protein foods has made remarkable progress and the minimal dose requirements are well established. Combination of radiation treatment with other antimicrobial agents (salt, preservatives, heat, etc.) has been investigated by many laboratories. Foods involved in these investigations were bread, several tropical and subtropical fruits, apple juice, groundnuts, fish fillets and shrimps, but a considerable part of the data relate to model systems. A better understanding of the synergistic effect will require additional knowledge and the continuation of long-range research and development in the field of combined treatments is recommended. (author)

  10. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  11. Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Isabel; Blesa, Jesús; Herrera, Marta; Ariño, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking. PMID:24451845

  12. isolation and identification of postharvest spoilage fungi associated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    (5%). Proper handling from the farm as well as during storage and the avoidance of mixing of diseased ones with the healthy ones were identified as important factors in preventing loss. The use of suitable chemical treatment of the orange is also recommended as means of reducing economic loss due to fungal pathogens.

  13. Growth Inhibition of Grain Spoilage Fungi by Selected Herbs and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/star.v3i4.19 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  14. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, L; Huss, H H

    1996-11-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram-positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish is well understood, much less is known about spoilage of lightly preserved fish products. It is concluded that the spoilage is probably caused by lactic acid bacteria, certain psychotrophic Enterobacteriaceae and/or Photobacterium phosphoreum. However, more work is needed in this area.

  15. Effect of ethanol on growth of Chrysonilia sitophila ('the red bread mould') and Hyphopichia burtonii ('the chalky mould') in sliced bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni, E; Scaramuzza, N

    2013-10-01

    Contamination of food industrial environments and recontamination of finished products by Chrysonilia sitophila and Hyphopichia burtonii have long represented serious problems for the bakery industries. As one of the most common ways to slow down or avoid fungal spoilage on bakery products is the use of ethanol, in the present work the effect of this substance has been assessed on growth of two of the most frequently occurring associated moulds, C. sitophila and H. burtonii, by means of tests on both synthetic media and sliced bread. Test on synthetic media: H. burtonii was less markedly affected in lag-phase duration and radial growth rates by the addition of ethanol to DG18 and the reduction in incubation temperature than C. sitophila that failed to grow at the highest concentrations of ethanol tested (2·0 and 4·0% at 15°C; 4·0% at 25°C). Test on sliced bread: ethanol proved to be effective to prevent spoilage by C. sitophila even at the lowest concentration tested (0·8%, w/w), while higher concentrations (2·0%, w/w) were needed to prevent spoilage by H. burtonii. This study shows that ethanol could represent an effective barrier to prevent spoilage of bakery products by associated moulds such as Chrysonilia sitophila and Hyphopichia burtonii, whose growth on packed and sliced bread was inhibited at very low (0·8%) or medium (2·0%) ethanol concentrations, respectively. The results obtained represent a fundamental point of reference for the bakery industries, as they can apply them in the productive practice to avoid spoilage by C. sitophila and H. burtonii on their products. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; Konings, WN

    2003-01-01

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and

  17. The physics of bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2017-10-01

    Nathan Myhrvold - the polymath physicist whose passions range from cosmology to cooking - is this month publishing a massive, five-volume book about the science of bread and bread-making. Robert P Crease catches up with this intellectual livewire at his Cooking Lab headquarters in Seattle

  18. Microbiological Spoilage of Canned Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evancho, George M.; Tortorelli, Suzanne; Scott, Virginia N.

    Nicolas Appert (1749-1841) developed the first commercial process that kept foods from spoiling in response to an offer from the French government for a method of preserving food for use by the army and navy. Appert, a confectioner and chef, began to experiment in his workshop in Massy, near Paris, but since little was known about bacteriology and the causes of spoilage (Louis Pasteur had yet to formulate the germ theory), much of his work involved trial and error. In 1810, after years of experimenting, he was awarded the prize of 12,000 francs for his method of preservation, which involved cooking foods in sealed jars at high temperatures. He described his method of preserving food in a book published in 1811, "L'Art De Conserver, Pendant Plusiers Annes, Toutes les Substances Animales et Végétales," which translated means "The Art of Preserving All Kinds of Animal and Vegetable Substances for Several Years." He later built a bottling factory and began to produce preserved foods for the people of France and is credited with being the "Father of Canning."

  19. THE OCCURRENCE OF MICROMYCETES IN THE BREAD SAMPLES AND THEIR POTENTIAL ABILITY PRODUCE MYCOTOXINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Císarová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate microscopic fungi that can cause occurrence of mould in bread. We used breads from experimental baking with different addition of walnuts (0 - 15% as model samples. Bread samples were stored in the fridge, in plastic bags and in the bread box. After three days of storage 25% of samples were moldy. The middle parts of breads (4 pieces, that were not moldy, were stored on DRBC and cultured at 25±1oC for three days. All the colonies of micromycets were inserted on identification agar. Molding of bread samples was caused by species of genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium and Rhizopus. 28 strains of potentially toxigenic species of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium were tested by TLC method for the ability to produce chosen mycotoxins in conditions in vitro. We discovered the production of cyclopiazonic acid, penitrem A and roquefortin C using mentioned method.

  20. Proximate composition, bread

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... indicate that carbohydrate, crude fiber, and ash contents of the .... percentage (% EE) was determined using Soxhlet system HT-extraction technique ..... composite bread and effect of label information on acceptance and ...

  1. Consumers’ preferences for bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Gamborg, Christian; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2017-01-01

    Consumers are apprehensive about transgenic technologies, so cisgenics, which limit gene transfers to sexually compatible organisms, have been suggested to address consumer concerns. We study consumer preferences for rye bread alternatives based on transgenic or cisgenic rye, grown conventionally...

  2. Undergraduate Laboratory Exercises Specific to Food Spoilage Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Abigail B.; Worobo, Randy W.; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Food spoilage has an enormous economic impact, and microbial food spoilage plays a significant role in food waste and loss; subsequently, an equally significant portion of undergraduate food microbiology instruction should be dedicated to spoilage microbiology. Here, we describe a set of undergraduate microbiology laboratory exercises that focus…

  3. Modeling growth of specific spoilage organisms in tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilapia is an important aquatic fish, but severe spoilage of tilapia is most likely related to the global aquaculture. The spoilage is mostly caused by specific spoilage organisms (SSO). Therefore, it is very important to use microbial models to predict the growth of SSO in tilapia. This study firstly verified Pseudomonas and Vibrio ...

  4. Bacterial spoilage profiles to identify irradiated fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alur, M.D.; Venugopal, V.; Nerkar, D.P.; Nair, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    Effects of low dose gamma-irradiation of fish product on spoilage potentials of bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus megaterium, and Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa) and mixed flora were examined for ability to proliferate in radurized fish and produce volatile acids (TVA) and bases (TVBN). Bacteria proliferated well in unirradiated and irradiated fish, but formation of VA and VB were lower in irradiated than unirradiated counterparts. This was found in Bombay duck, Indian mackerel, white pomfret, seer and shrimp gamma-irradiated at 0 to 5 kGy under ice. TVA and TVBN produced by the organisms or mixed flora from fish were only 30-50% those of controls. A method for identifying radiation-processed fish could evolve based on lower susceptibility of irradiated fish to bacterial spoilage

  5. Consumer perception of bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellynck, Xavier; Kühne, Bianka; Van Bockstaele, Filip; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2009-08-01

    Bread contains a wide range of important nutritional components which provide a positive effect on human health. However, the consumption of bread is declining during the last decades. This is due to factors such as changing eating patterns and an increasing choice of substitutes like breakfast cereals and fast foods. The aim of this study is to investigate consumer's quality perception of bread towards sensory, health and nutrition attributes. Four consumer segments are identified based on these attributes. The different consumer segments comprise consumers being positive to all three quality aspects of bread ("enthusiastic") as wells as consumers perceiving bread strongly as "tasteless", "non-nutritious" or "unhealthy". Moreover, factors are identified which influence the consumers' quality perception of bread. The results of our study may help health professionals and policy makers to systematically inform consumers about the positive effects of bread based on its components. Furthermore, firms can use the results to build up tailor-made marketing strategies.

  6. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  7. Bread Baking Contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Amy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a classroom project in which elementary students bake homemade bread to learn about the settlement period in Canadian history and the early history of the students' community. Maintains that students learn to compare the lifestyle of the past with the present. (CFR)

  8. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kanta; Konings, Wil N

    2003-12-31

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and Megasphaera cerevisiae. They can spoil beer by turbidity, acidity and the production of unfavorable smell such as diacetyl or hydrogen sulfide. For the microbiological control, many advanced biotechnological techniques such as immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been applied in place of the conventional and time-consuming method of incubation on culture media. Subsequently, a method is needed to determine whether the detected bacterium is capable of growing in beer or not. In lactic acid bacteria, hop resistance is crucial for their ability to grow in beer. Hop compounds, mainly iso-alpha-acids in beer, have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. They act as ionophores which dissipate the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane and reduce the proton motive force (pmf). Consequently, the pmf-dependent nutrient uptake is hampered, resulting in cell death. The hop-resistance mechanisms in lactic acid bacteria have been investigated. HorA was found to excrete hop compounds in an ATP-dependent manner from the cell membrane to outer medium. Additionally, increased proton pumping by the membrane bound H(+)-ATPase contributes to hop resistance. To energize such ATP-dependent transporters hop-resistant cells contain larger ATP pools than hop-sensitive cells. Furthermore, a pmf-dependent hop transporter was recently presented. Understanding the hop-resistance mechanisms has enabled the development of rapid methods to discriminate beer spoilage strains from nonspoilers. The horA-PCR method has been applied for bacterial control in breweries. Also, a discrimination method was developed based on ATP pool measurement in lactobacillus cells. However

  9. Avaliação de óleos essenciais de condimentos sobre o desenvolvimento micelial de fungos associados a produtos de panificação Evaluation of condiments essential oils on micelial growth of fungi associated to bread-making products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sára Maria Chalfoun de Souza

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito "in vitro" de óleos essenciais dos condimentos alho (Allium sativum L., canela (Cinnamomum burnannil Meissn, cravo-da-índia (Caryophillus aromaticus L. e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L., que foram adicionados aos meios de cultura (BDA E CYA20S. Os óleos foram extraídos pela técnica de arraste a vapor e testados nas concentrações de 500; 1000; 1500 e 2000 mg/mL, exceto o cravo, que foi testado nas concentrações de 200; 400; 600 e 800 mg/mL. Como culturas-teste, foram utilizados os fungos Rhizopus sp.; Penicillium spp.; Eurotium repens e Aspergillus niger, isolados de pães envelhecidos. O óleo essencial da canela inibiu completamente o desenvolvimento dos fungos testados. Os óleos de tomilho e alho tiveram o mesmo efeito nas concentrações mais altas. O cravo inibiu o desenvolvimento dos fungos Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. e Eurotium repens com a concentração de 600 mg/mL e do fungo Penicillium spp. com a de 800 mg/mL.The objective of this work was to evaluate the "in vitro" effect of essential oils of garlic (Allium sativum L., cinnamon (Cinnmomum burnannil Meissn, clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L. and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. condiments that were added to culture media (PDA and CYA 20S. The essential oils were extracted by utilizing the vapor "dragging" technique and tested in the concentrations of 500; 1000; 1500 and 2000 mg/mL, exept clove, which was tested in concentrations of 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/mL. The fungi Rhizopus sp., Penicillium spp., Eurotium repens and Aspergillus niger, isolated of breads discarded for consumption. The cinnamon essential oil inhibited completely the tested fungi development. The thyme and garlic oils presented a pronounced effect at the higher concentrations. The essencial oil of clove inhibited the growth of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. and Eurotium repens at concetrations above 600 mg/mL and of Penicillium above 800 mg/mL.

  10. ANCIENT BREAD STAMPS FROM JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Kakish, Randa

    2014-01-01

    Marking bread was an old practice performed in different parts of the old world. It was done for religious, magical, economic and identification purposes. Bread stamps differ from other groups of stamps. Accordingly, the aim of this article is to identify such stamps, displayed or stored, in a number of Jordanian Archaeological Museums. A col-lection of twelve ancient bread stamps were identified and studied. Two of the stamps were of unknown provenance while the others came from al-Shuneh, D...

  11. Effects of water activity on the performance of potassium sorbate and natamycin as preservatives against cheese spoilage moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín P.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the effects of the food preservatives potassium sorbate and natamycin, combined with different levels of ionic (sodium chloride and non-ioinic (glycerol water activity (aw, on growth of fungi involved in cheese spoilage. In general, the combined effect of water stress and presence of preservatives enhanced fungal inhibition. However, some doses of potassium sorbate (0.02% and natamycin (1, 5 and 10 ppm were able to stimulate growth of Aspergillus varians, Mucor racemosus, Penicillium chrysogenum and P. roqueforti at aw values in the range of 0.93–0.97. P. solitum was the only species whose growth was consistently reduced by any doses of preservative. The results also showed that sodium chloride and glycerol differentially affected the efficacy of preservatives. This study indicates that aw of cheese is a critical parameter to be considered in the formulation of preservative coatings used against fungal spoilage.

  12. Relationship between bread and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Majem, Luis; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada

    2015-04-01

    Some studies have indicated that promoting the Mediterranean diet pattern as a model of healthy eating may help to prevent weight gain and the development of overweight/obesity. Bread consumption, which has been part of the traditional Mediterranean diet, has continued to decline in Spain and in the rest of the world, because the opinion of the general public is that bread fattens. The present study was conducted to assess whether or not eating patterns that include bread are associated with obesity and excess abdominal adiposity, both in the population at large or in subjects undergoing obesity management. The results of the present review indicate that reducing white bread, but not whole-grain bread, consumption within a Mediterranean-style food pattern setting is associated with lower gains in weight and abdominal fat. It appears that the different composition between whole-grain bread and white bread varies in its effect on body weight and abdominal fat. However, the term 'whole-grain bread' needs to be defined for use in epidemiological studies. Finally, additional studies employing traditional ways of bread production should analyse this effect on body-weight and metabolic regulation.

  13. Mycology and spoilage of retail cashew nuts | Adebajo | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the species recovered induced detectable loss in weights of the milled nuts, though to varying extents and would be expected to cause considerable spoilage of the nuts. Key words: Cashew nut, Anacardium occidentale, fungal count, mycology, Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., spoilage. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  14. Effect of different storage temperatures on bacterial spoilage of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the bacterial organisms associated with Oreochromis niloticus spoilage at two storage temperatures (6 and 20°C) and also assessed the ability of the individual bacterial isolates to cause spoilage at the two storage temperatures. Bacteriological analysis revealed the association of five bacteria ...

  15. Bacterial spoilage of fresh meat in some selected Lagos markets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the bacteria associated with spoilage of fresh meat was carried out. The flora causing spoilage of meat include Alcaligenes liquefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Lactobacillus sp., Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sarcina sp. Serratia ...

  16. CRUMB TEXTURE OF SPELT BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk-Szabó

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Crumb texture is an important quality indicator, as consumer prefer different bread taste. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators for bread texture quality of five Triticum spelta L. varieties – Altgold, Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Ostro, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard method and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn and Altgold were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.81++, -0.78++. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  17. Radioprotective effect of bread products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadzhijski, L.; Alyakov, M.; Tsvetkova, E.; Kavrakirova, S.; Chamova, S.; Vasileva, R.

    1993-01-01

    A new technology for preparation of bread for special purposes is developed. The technology includes the use of pectin as an additive with decontaminating properties. Pectin shows well pronounced radioprotective effect on the haemopoiesis when persons are subjected to external irradiation. However, bread with pectin have no decontaminating effect against radiostrontium and radiocesium. (author)

  18. BREAD CRUMBS TEXTURE OF SPELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk – Szabó

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Texture analysis is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of bread crumb is important not only for quality assurance in the bakeries, but also for assessing the effects of changes in dough ingredients and processing condition and also for describing the changes in bread crumb during storage. Crumb cellular structure is an important quality criterion used in commercial baking and research laboratories to judge bread quality alongside taste, crumb colour and crumb physical texture. In the framework of our research during the years 2010 – 2011 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Altgold, Rubiota and Ostro grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Altgold and Ostro were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.65++, -0.66++. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  19. Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agúndez-Arvizu, Z.; Fernández-Ramírez, M. V.; Arce-Corrales, M. E.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Meléndrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2006-04-01

    Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage, insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.0 kGy using a 60C Gammabeam 651 PT irradiator facility. No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. Slight radiation effects were observed in the alveogram values and farinograph properties; the falling number decreased 11%, the absorption as well as the mixing tolerance were practically unchanged by irradiation. An increase of 15% in the stability value and a 29% in the dough development time were observed. Also the deformation energy decreased 7% with no change at all in the tenacity/extensibility factor. Total aerobic, yeast and mold counts were reduced 96%, 25% and 75%; respectively by the irradiation process. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties.

  20. Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agundez-Arvizu, Z. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Fernandez-Ramirez, M.V. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Arce-Corrales, M.E. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Cruz-Zaragoza, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares-UNAM, A.P. 70-543, Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico); Melendrez, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico); Chernov, V. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico); Barboza-Flores, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico)]. E-mail: mbarboza@cajeme.cifus.uson.mx

    2006-04-15

    Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage, insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.0 kGy using a {sup 6}C Gammabeam 651 PT irradiator facility. No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. Slight radiation effects were observed in the alveogram values and farinograph properties; the falling number decreased 11%, the absorption as well as the mixing tolerance were practically unchanged by irradiation. An increase of 15% in the stability value and a 29% in the dough development time were observed. Also the deformation energy decreased 7% with no change at all in the tenacity/extensibility factor. Total aerobic, yeast and mold counts were reduced 96%, 25% and 75%; respectively by the irradiation process. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties.

  1. Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agundez-Arvizu, Z.; Fernandez-Ramirez, M.V.; Arce-Corrales, M.E.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Melendrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2006-01-01

    Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage, insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.0 kGy using a 6 C Gammabeam 651 PT irradiator facility. No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. Slight radiation effects were observed in the alveogram values and farinograph properties; the falling number decreased 11%, the absorption as well as the mixing tolerance were practically unchanged by irradiation. An increase of 15% in the stability value and a 29% in the dough development time were observed. Also the deformation energy decreased 7% with no change at all in the tenacity/extensibility factor. Total aerobic, yeast and mold counts were reduced 96%, 25% and 75%; respectively by the irradiation process. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties

  2. Bread and Butter

    OpenAIRE

    Billington, Freya

    2014-01-01

    Bread and Butter is an experimental musical that gives voice to the unspoken dreams and desires we have to keep the lid on in the workplace...\\ud Collaboration with Jennifer Bell and The Beautiful Machine\\ud \\ud Screenings:\\ud Aesthetica Film Festival, York, UK \\ud Cambridge FIlm Festival, UK (BAFTA accredited)\\ud Kraljevski Filmski Festival, Serbia\\ud UP:SCREEN UoG Gallery Installation\\ud NY Short FilmFridays - Bahche\\ud SEIFF Film Festival, Seoul KOREA\\ud Syracuse International Film Festiva...

  3. Lactic acid bacteria as bio-preservatives in bakery – Role of sourdough systems in the quality, safety and shelf life of bread

    OpenAIRE

    Koy, Rebaz

    2017-01-01

    Microbial contamination and survival during storage of bread are a cause of both health concerns and economic losses. Traditional fermentation systems were studied as sources of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with antagonistic potential against foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms, with the aim to improve the safety and shelf life of bakery products. The antagonistic activity of four types of buttermilk (BM) products fermented with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis was evaluated against a...

  4. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  5. [Why is bread consumption decreasing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, M F; Chabert, C; Serville, Y

    1977-01-01

    In France bread plays a very special and ambivalent role among our foodstuffs because of the considerable drop in its consumption, its alleged harmful effects on our health and the respect in which it is traditionally held. More than half the 1 089 adults interviewed in this study say they have decreased their consumption of bread in the last 10 years. The reasons given vary according to age, body weight and urbanization level. The main reasons given for this restriction are the desire to prevent or reduce obesity, the decrease in physical activity, the general reduction in food consumption and the possibility of diversifying foods even further. Moreover, the decreasing appeal of bread in relation to other foods, as well as a modification in the structure of meals, in which bread becomes less useful to accompany other food, accentuate this loss of attraction. However, the respect for bread as part of the staple diet remains very acute as 95 p. 100 of those interviewed express a reluctance to throw bread away, more for cultural than economic reasons. Mechanization and urbanization having brought about a decrease in energy needs, the most common alimentary adaptation is general caloric restriction by which glucids, and especially bread, are curtailed.

  6. Bioinformatic Analysis of Genomic and Transcriptomic Variation in Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrmann, T.

    2018-01-01

    Fungi are microorganisms whose astounding variety can be found in every conceivable ecosystem on the planet. Fungi are nutrient recyclers, playing an irreplaceable role in the carbon cycle. They grow on land and in the sea, on plants and animals and in the soil. They feed us as mushrooms, and drive our economy as bioreactors. They leaven our bread and brew our beer, nourish our crops and spoil our food. They even directly play a role in human health. Fungi are, however, far more complex organ...

  7. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    and the volatile compounds from the bread crumb were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling and analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A wide range of volatile compounds was identified in bread crumb, mainly originating from the activity of yeast and from oxidation of flour lipids. The dominating...... headspace extraction (Paper II, III and V). The compounds were evaluated according to their odour activity value (OAV). The most aroma active compounds (OAV > 6) identified in bread crumb were; (E)-2-nonanal (green, tallow), 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methyl-1-butanol (balsamic, alcoholic), nonanal (citrus...

  8. Salt in bread - succesful?) Reduction of content in danish bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Trolle, Ellen

    High intakes of sodium are associated with high blood pressure, elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases and early death. In the Nordic countries reduction of average sodium intake to about 2-2.7 g/d, or 5-7 g salt/d, is recommended. Main sources of salt in the diet are processed foods e.g. bread...... of view a gradual reduction would do in order to adapt to lower salt preference. To demonstrate a possible reduction, current salt levels must be assessed, and in the present study salt content of bread, covering Danish consumption in 2014, was investigated. When monitoring a possible trend samples...... studied must represent the current consumption. Thus getting an overview of market shares is important, and quite a challenge as selection of bread is changing continuously. A strategic sampling plan was made representing all relevant types of bread, based on information from manufacturers...

  9. The effect of sourdough and calcium propionate on the microbial shelf-life of salt reduced bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Markus C E; Mairinger, Regina; Zannini, Emanuele; Ryan, Liam A M; Cashman, Kevin D; Arendt, Elke K

    2012-10-01

    The consumption of low-salt bread represents an efficient way to improve public health by decreasing cardiovascular health issues related to increased intakes of sodium chloride (NaCl). The reduction of NaCl influences the bread quality characteristics, in particular the shelf-life. Calcium propionate (CP) is commonly used in bread as an antifungal agent. Alternatively, sourdough can be used as a natural preservative. This work addresses the feasibility of NaCl reduction in wheat bread focussing on shelf-life and the compensation using sourdough as well as chemical preservatives. The impact of NaCl reduction and the addition of preservative agents in conjunction with different NaCl concentrations on the shelf-life of bread were tested under 'environmental' conditions in a bakery as well as using challenge tests against selected fungi. The challenge tests were performed using fungi commonly found in the bakery environment such as Penicillium expansum, Fusarium culmorum and Aspergillus niger. NaCl reduction decreased the shelf-life by 1-2 days. The addition of sourdough with antifungal activity prolonged the shelf-life to 12-14 days whereas the addition of 0.3 % calcium propionate prolonged the shelf-life to 10-12 days only. The fungal challenge tests revealed differences in the determined shelf-life between the different fungi based on their resistance. Similar antifungal performance was observed in sourdough breads and calcium propionate breads when tested against the different indicator moulds. The findings of this study indicate that addition of sourdough fermented using a specifically selected antifungal Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 19280 can replace the chemical preservative calcium propionate addition and compensate for the reduced level and, therefore, guarantee the product safety of low-salt bread.

  10. Effects of innovative and conventional sanitizing treatments on the reduction of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera defects on industrial durum wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Virgilio; Pitino, Iole; Pecorino, Biagio; Todaro, Aldo; Spina, Alfio; Lauro, Maria Rosaria; Tomaselli, Filippo; Restuccia, Cristina

    2016-10-17

    Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Hyphopichia burtonii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera are spoilage yeasts causing chalk mold defects on sliced bread packaged under modified atmosphere. The first objective of this study, carried out in a bread-making company for two consecutive years, was to genetically identify yeasts isolated from spoiled sliced bread in Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) and to determine the dominant species among identified strains. The second objective was to evaluate the effects of hydrogen peroxide and silver solution 12% (HPS) treatment in the leavening cells and cooling chambers, in comparison with the conventional Ortho-Phenylphenol (OPP) fumigating treatment, on the incidence of chalk defects of the commercialized products. One-hundred percent of the isolated yeasts were identified as S. fibuligera, while H. burtonii and W. anomalus were not detected. Concerning mean water activity (aw) and moisture content values, packaged bread samples were, respectively, included in the range 0.922-0.940 and 33.40-35.39%. S. fibuligera was able to grow in a wide range of temperature (11.5 to 28.5°C) and relative humidity (70.00 to 80.17%) in the processing environments, and product aw<0.94. Compared to OPP, the combined treatment with hydrogen peroxide and silver solution, in association with MAP, reduced to a negligible level yeast contamination of industrial sliced bread. The identification of the spoilage organisms and a comprehensive understanding of the combined effects of aw, pO2/pCO2 inside the packages, environmental conditions and sanitizing treatment on the growth behaviour is essential for future development of adequate preventive process strategies against chalk mold defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and melissa (Melissa Officinalis) waste on quality and shelf life of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, Ivelina; Denkova, Rositsa; Chochkov, Rosen; Teneva, Desislava; Denkova, Zapryana; Dessev, Tzvetelin; Denev, Petko; Slavov, Anton

    2018-07-01

    The effect of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and melissa (Melissa Officinalis) waste on preparation, characteristics and shelf life of bread was investigated. It was found that lavender and melissa waste, generated yearly in large amounts, were rich on polyphenols (especially rosmarinic acid) and aroma compounds, and exhibited high antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The bread with 2.5% lavender waste was characterized with the highest loaf volume and loaf specific volume. The total dietary fiber increased three times and the polyphenols and flavonoids increased more than four times for breads with added 5% lavender and melissa waste, compared to control sample. The breads with 2.5% and 5% added lavender waste had increased shelf life (up to 96 h) compared to control, and no fungal or bacterial spoilage was observed during storage at 22 °C, 30 °C and 37 °C for four days. The sensory evaluation demonstrated that the consumers preferred mainly bread with 2.5% lavender waste. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The odour of white bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, E.J.

    1973-01-01

    Volatile constituents of white bread were investigated. Different methods were used for isolating and concentrating components to avoid artefacts as far as possible. Especially good was enlarged vapour analysis. Ninety-four components were identified, including hydrocarbons, alcohols,

  13. Transformation of Bread Industry Structure by Consumer Tastes and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    丸山, 泰広; 豊, 智行; 福田, 晋; 甲斐, 諭

    2003-01-01

    Bread industry is classfied two types of business. One type is Bread manufacturer which makes bread and sells them to retailer and supermarket. Another type is Bread self-making bakery which makes bread by themselves and directly sells them to consumer. Bread consumer tastes are freshness and diversification. Bread manufacturar copes with diversification by naking many items. Bread self-making bakery copes with freshness by directly providing consumer. But by a innovation a new group is organ...

  14. Characterization of Norwegian women eating wholegrain bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Toril; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri

    2015-10-01

    To investigate dietary and non-dietary characteristics of wholegrain bread eaters in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study. Cross-sectional study using an FFQ. Women were divided into two groups according to wholegrain bread consumption. Adult women (n 69 471). Median daily consumption of standardized slices of wholegrain bread was 2·5 in the low intake group and 4·5 in the high intake group. The OR for high wholegrain bread consumption was 0·28, 2·19 and 4·63 for the first, third and fourth quartile of energy intake, respectively, compared with the second quartile. Living outside Oslo or in East Norway and having a high level of physical activity were associated with high wholegrain bread consumption. BMI and smoking were inversely associated with wholegrain bread consumption. Intake of many food items was positively associated with wholegrain bread consumption (P trend food items was inversely associated with wholegrain bread consumption (P trend <0·001). The mean intakes of thiamin and Fe were higher in those with high wholegrain bread consumption, even after taking energy intake into account. Energy intake was strongly positively associated with wholegrain bread consumption. Geographical differences in wholegrain bread consumption were observed. Our study suggests that women with high wholegrain bread consumption do not generally have a healthier diet than those who eat less wholegrain bread, but that they tend to be healthier in regard to other lifestyle factors.

  15. Synergistic effect of Aspergillus tubingensis CTM 507 glucose oxidase in presence of ascorbic acid and alpha amylase on dough properties, baking quality and shelf life of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriaa, Mouna; Ouhibi, Rabeb; Graba, Héla; Besbes, Souhail; Jardak, Mohamed; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-02-01

    The impact of Aspergillus tubingensis glucose oxidase (GOD) in combination with α-amylase and ascorbic acid on dough properties, qualities and shelf life of bread was investigated. Regression models of alveograph and texture parameters of dough and bread were adjusted. Indeed, the mixture of GOD (44 %) and ascorbic acid (56 %) on flour containing basal improver showed its potential as a corrective action to get better functional and rheological properties of dough and bread texture. Furthermore, wheat flour containing basal additives and enriched with GOD (63.8 %), ascorbic acid (32 %) and α- amylase (4.2 %) led to high technological bread making parameters, to decrease the crumb firmness and chewiness and to improve elasticity, adhesion, cohesion and specific volume of bread. In addition to that, the optimized formulation addition significantly reduced water activity and therefore decreased bread susceptibility to microbial spoilage. These findings demonstrated that GOD could partially substitute not only ascorbic acid but also α-amylase. The generated models allowed to predict the behavior of wheat flour containing additives in the range of values tested and to define the additives formula that led to desired rheological and baking qualities of dough. This fact provides new perspectives to compensate flour quality deficiencies at the moment of selecting raw materials and technological parameters reducing the production costs and facilitating gluten free products development. Graphical abstractᅟ.

  16. Avaliação in vitro da atividade fungitóxica de extratos de condimentos na inibição de fungos isolados de pães artesanais In vitro evaluation of the fungitoxic activity of seasonings on the inhibition of fungi isolated from homemade breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Zanúncio Araujo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, na presente pesquisa, avaliar a atividade antifúngica in vitro de alho, gengibre, orégano, cravo, canela e tomilho sobre a inibição e o desenvolvimento de Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium roqueforti, Rhizopus stolonifer, desenvolvidos em pães artesanais. Para cada planta foram preparados extratos alcólicos (EA10%, EA20% e EA25%, extrato aquoso (EAQ10%, extrator alcoólico puro (EAP e testemunha sem extrato e álcool. Para alho, gengibre, orégano incluiu-se o extrato alcoólico da planta fresca (EAF 10%. Os experimentos foram instalados no Laboratório de Fitopatologia do EcoCentro/EPAMIG, Lavras, MG e no Laboratório de Fitopatologia do Incaper/CRDS-CS, em Domingos Martins, ES. Os tratamentos foram aplicados sobre os fungos inoculados em placas de petri, em meio BDA. Calcularam-se médias do Índice de Velocidade de Crescimento Micelial (IVCM e esporulação. Os EA de plantas desidratadas a 10%, 20% e 25% inibiram totalmente o crescimento micelial dos fungos estudados, com exceção do EA 25% de alho sobre o Penicillium roqueforti e o EA 25% de gengibre sobre o desenvolvimento do Aspergillus ochraceus que não se diferenciaram da testemunha. O EA de alho teve um efeito não inibitório sobre P. roqueforti. Os EA, EAF e EAP apresentaram menor esporulação em relação à testemunha, exceto com gengibre e cravo sobre a esporulação do R. stolonifer e o EAQ apresentou um efeito semelhante ao da testemunha.This research was carried out to evaluate the in vitro anti-fungus activity of alcoholic extracts of garlic, ginger, oregano, clove, cinnamon, and thyme on the inhibition and development of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium roqueforti, and Rhizopus stolonifer, which develop in homemade breads. For each commercial seasoning, alcoholic extracts (AE were prepared (AE10%, AE20% and AE25% as well as aqueous extract (AQE at 10%, pure alcoholic extract (PAE, and control without extract and alcohol. For garlic, ginger and oregano

  17. Consumer perception of bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate consumers’ perception of bread quality in Slovakia. Bread belongs to essential foodstuffs and we all have it served on our table every day.Cereal products keep their importance in people’s nutrition mainly because of their preventive effects on health. They saturate about 40 % of the daily energy need of an average European, who in ave­ra­ge acquires from cereals about 30 % of proteins, vitamin B1, niatin and phosphorus, around 1/6 of fats (out of it 19 % of linol acid, almost 60 % of saccharides, Ľ iron and about 13 % of vitamin B2 and calcium. If we add some cereal fiber which is an effective prevention factor of cardiovascular di­sea­ses, metabolic and oncological diseases of colon and anus, we will get a complex picture about positive effects of cereals in our nutrition. If we were to mark any foodstuff which has been accompanying the mankind in the course of history, it could be bread. Its consummation is spread in the whole world. Only the ones who once suffered from its lack have recognized its value.It results from our research that consumers in Slovakia prefer consuming the wheat-ray bread (38.5 %. The respondents – consumers prefer at choosing buying bread in terms of the external, subjective factors, the overall shape when choosing bread (45 % and dark color of crust (25 %. They showed minimum interest in white color crust and packaging size. In terms of the internal, objective factors, the most important factor for respondents, for women as well as for men was freshness of foodstuffs followed by fiber (with a big difference (12.82 %.Almost 60 % of bread consumers claimed that they did not have any possibility to obtain the required information regarding bread in supermarkets and hypermarkets because it is not possible to find professional staff providing them with the required information. A different situation is in the classical, small, self-service, and

  18. A mechanistic approach to postirradiation spoilage kinetics of fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenmez, I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In order to simulate postirradiation spoilage of fish, the mechanistic aspects of the growth of surviving microorganisms during chill storage and their product formation in irradiated fish were analyzed. Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) samples those unirradiated and irradiated at 1, 2 and 3 kGy doses of gamma radiation were stored at +2 o C for 21 days. Total bacterial counts (TBC) and trimethylamine (TMA) analysis of the samples were done periodically during storage. Depending on the proposed spoilage mechanism, kinetic model equations were derived. By using experimental data of TBC and TMA in the developed model, the postirradiation spoilage parameters including growth rate constant, inital and maximum attainable TBC, lag time and TMA yield were evaluated and microbial spoilage of fish was simulated for postirradiation storage. Shelf life of irradiated fish was estimated depending on the spoilage kinetics. Dose effects on the kinetic parameters were analyzed. It is suggested that the kinetic evaluation method developed in this study may be used for quality assessment, shelf life determination and dose optimization for radiation preservation of fish

  19. Filamentous Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers-Fletcher, Margaret V; Kendall, Brian A; Griffin, Allen T; Hanson, Kimberly E

    2016-06-01

    Filamentous mycoses are often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential for good clinical outcomes in immunocompromised patients. The host immune response plays an essential role in determining the course of exposure to potential fungal pathogens. Depending on the effectiveness of immune response and the burden of organism exposure, fungi can either be cleared or infection can occur and progress to a potentially fatal invasive disease. Nonspecific cellular immunity (i.e., neutrophils, natural killer [NK] cells, and macrophages) combined with T-cell responses are the main immunologic mechanisms of protection. The most common potential mold pathogens include certain hyaline hyphomycetes, endemic fungi, the Mucorales, and some dematiaceous fungi. Laboratory diagnostics aimed at detecting and differentiating these organisms are crucial to helping clinicians make informed decisions about treatment. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the medically important fungal pathogens, as well as to discuss the patient characteristics, antifungal-therapy considerations, and laboratory tests used in current clinical practice for the immunocompromised host.

  20. Bioactive proteins against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Z. Sitohy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is likely that both human nutrition and the nutrition of livestock are benefited by the presence of bioactive proteins within their respective diet regimes. Bioactive proteins have been defined as specific protein fragments that positively impact bodily functions or conditions and may, ultimately, influence overall human health. The ingestion of bioactive proteins may have an effect on the major body systems—namely, the cardiovascular, digestive, immune and nervous systems. According to their functional properties, bioactive proteins may be classified as antimicrobial, antithrombotic, antihypertensive, opioid, immune-modulatory, mineral binding and anti-oxidative. There are many examples of biologically active food proteins and active peptides that can be obtained from various food protein sources. They have a physiological significance beyond the pure nutritional requirements; in other wordsthey have the acquisition of nitrogen for normal growth and maintenance. Objective: This study aims to specify and characterize the extent and mode of action of bioactive proteins in their native form, (glycinin, glycinin basic sub-unit and β-conglycinin against specific main pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. We will be using standard media while identifying the main constituents responsible for this action. Methods: Glycinin, basic sub-unit and β-conglycinin were isolated from soybean protein and tested for their antimicrobial action against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, They were thencompared to the properties of penicillin. Methylated soybean protein and also methylated chickpea protein (MSP and MCP, with isoelectric points around pI 8, were prepared by esterifying. 83 % of their free carboxyl groups and their interactions with Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were examined. Results: The three divisions of cationic proteins exhibited antibacterial

  1. Relationship between fungal contamination and ergosterol content and control of wheat grain spoilage by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, A.M.; Mahrous, S.R.; Aziz, N.H.; El-Zeany, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The fungal flora and the ergosterol content of wheat grains were determined and the effect of gamma-irradiation on some important grain fungi to control mould spoilage of wheat grains was also investigated. At the start of storage, the ergosterol content and the number of moulds of wheat grains were 3.3μg/g and 3x10 3 /g, respectively and the technological values as germinative capacity and fat acidity were wholly satisfactory. After 50 days of storage, the ergosterol content and the number of moulds of the grains were 45.5 μg/g and 80x10 5 /g, respectively and all the germinative capacity and fat acidity values were not satisfactory. The ergosterol content of wheat grains irradiated at a dose level 3 kGy was 0.5 μg/g and the number of moulds were 8x10 2 /g. After 50 days of storage, the ergosterol content of the 3 kGy irradiated grains was 0.90 μg/g and the number of moulds were 15x10 2 /g and all the technological values were satisfactory. The fungal biomass and the ergosterol content of some grains fungi were decreased by increasing the irradiation dose levels. At irradiation dose level 4 kGy, there was no ergosterol in wheat grains and the moulds were completely inhibited and the technological values are wholly satisfactory over 50 days of storage

  2. Prevention of fungal spoilage in food products using natural compounds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribes, Susana; Fuentes, Ana; Talens, Pau; Barat, Jose Manuel

    2017-04-10

    The kingdom Fungi is the most important group of microorganism contaminating food commodities, and chemical additives are commonly used in the food industry to prevent fungal spoilage. However, the increasing consumer concern about synthetic additives has led to their substitution by natural compounds in foods. The current review provides an overview of using natural agents isolated from different sources (plants, animals, and microorganisms) as promising antifungal compounds, including information about their mechanism of action and their use in foods to preserve and prolong shelf life. Compounds derived from plants, chitosan, lactoferrin, and biocontrol agents (lactic acid bacteria, antagonistic yeast, and their metabolites) are able to control the decay caused by fungi in a wide variety of foods. Several strategies are employed to reduce the drawbacks of some antifungal agents, like their incorporation into oil-in-water emulsions and nanoemulsions, edible films and active packaging, and their combination with other natural preservatives. These strategies facilitate the addition of volatile agents into food products and, improve their antifungal effectiveness. Moreover, biological agents have been investigated as one of the most promising options in the control of postharvest decay. Numerous mechanisms of action have been elucidated and different approaches have been studied to enhance their antifungal effectiveness.

  3. Willingness to use functional breads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassallo, Marco; Saba, Anna; Arvola, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The present study focused on the role of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in predicting willingness to use functional breads, across four European countries: UK (N = 552), Italy (N = 504), Germany (N = 525) and Finland (N = 513). The behavioural evaluation components of the HBM (the perceived benefits...... which was significant only in Finland. Young consumers seemed more interested in the functional bread with a health claim promoting health rather than in reducing risk of disease, whereas the opposite was true for older people. However, functional staple foods, such as bread in this European study......, are still perceived as common foods rather than as a means of avoiding diseases. Consumers seek these foods for their healthiness (the perceived benefits) as they expect them to be healthier than regular foods and for the pleasantness (the perceived barriers) as they do not expect any change in the sensory...

  4. Consumer Perception of Bread Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Gellynck, Xavier; Kuhne, Bianka; Van Bockstaele, F.; Van de Walle, D.; Dewettinck, K.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate consumers’ perception of bread quality in Slovakia. Bread belongs to essential foodstuffs and we all have it served on our table every day.Cereal products keep their importance in people’s nutrition mainly because of their preventive effects on health. They saturate about 40 % of the daily energy need of an average European, who in ave­ra­ge acquires from cereals about 30 % of proteins, vitamin B1, niatin and phosphorus, around 1/6 of fats (out of it 19 % ...

  5. Seafood Spoilage Predictor - development and distribution of a product specific application software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Buch, P.; Silberg, Steen

    2002-01-01

    To allow shelf-life prediction of a range of products, the Seafood Spoilage Predictor (SSP) software has been developed to include both kinetic models for growth of specific spoilage microorganisms and empirical relative rates of spoilage models. SSP can read and evaluate temperature profile data...

  6. Quality evaluation of the sourdough rye breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIANA BANU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sourdough fermentation is a biotechnological process that has been reported to improve dough properties, to increase bread flavor and taste, to enhance nutritional value and to extend shelf life of sourdough bread. The quality of rye breads prepared with 20 and 40% sourdough, fermented with different mixed starter cultures was investigated in this study. The bread quality was evaluated in terms of specific volume, humidity, total titratable acidity, crumb characteristics and sensory profiles. Digital image analysis revealed that rye bread with 40% sourdough had a considerably denser crumb structure. Rye bread with 20% sourdough maintained superior texture characteristics over the storage period, while increasing the sourdough content to 40% had a negative effect on the texture. The sensory profiles of the bread highly depended on the type of starter cultures used for fermentation.

  7. Application of atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet for bread mold decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonglor, P.; Amnuaycheewa, P.

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric-pressure argon plasma (APAP) is a promising non-thermal technology for microbial control and prevention minimally affecting quality of foods. Effect of APAP jet on the growth of bread molds, including two Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, and Penicillium roqueforti, isolated from white bread were investigated. The molds were isolated, verified, cultured to fully grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA), and subsequently treated with APAP jet using plasma generating power at 24 W for 5, 10, and 20 min, respectively. The inhibition of mold growth was investigated by comparing fungal dry weights and the effect on fungal cell structure was observed using compound light microscope. The results indicated that the 20-min treatment time is most effective in retarding the growth of the three bread molds. However, this level of generating power did not lead to destruction of the cellular structures for all the four fungi. Plasma generating power and treatment time are significant parameters determining the success of bread mold decontamination and further investigation on real bread matrix is needed.

  8. Microbiological, Nutritional, and Sensory Quality of Bread Produced from Wheat and Potato Flour Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeme Joshua Josiah Ijah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrated uncooked potato (Irish and sweet flour was blended by weight with commercial wheat flour at 0 to 10% levels of substitution to make bread. Comparative study of the microbial and nutritional qualities of the bread was undertaken. The total aerobic bacterial counts ranged from 3.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.09 × 106 cfu/g while the fungal counts ranged from 8.0 × 101 cfu/g to 1.20 × 103 cfu/g of the sample. Coliforms were not detected in the bread. Bacteria isolated were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus while fungi isolates were species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Mucor. The mean sensory scores (color, aroma, taste, texture, and general acceptability were evaluated. The color of the bread baked from WF/IPF2 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5% blend was preferred to WF (wheat flour, 100% while WF/SPF1 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 100% and WF/IPF1 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 90 : 10% aroma were preferred to WF. However, the bread baked from WF, WF/IPF2 (wheat flour/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%, and WF/SPF2 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 95 : 5% was more acceptable than other blends. The use of hydrated potato flour in bread making is advantageous due to increased nutritional value, higher bread yield, and reduced rate of staling.

  9. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  10. Metabolic strategies of beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; von Kamp, Kristina; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-04

    Beer contains only limited amounts of readily fermentable carbohydrates and amino acids. Beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have to come up with metabolic strategies in order to deal with selective nutrient content, high energy demand of hop tolerance mechanisms and a low pH. The metabolism of 26 LAB strains of 6 species and varying spoilage potentialwas investigated in order to define and compare their metabolic capabilities using multivariate statistics and outline possible metabolic strategies. Metabolic capabilities of beer spoilage LAB regarding carbohydrate and amino acids did not correlate with spoilage potential, but with fermentation type (heterofermentative/homofermentative) and species. A shift to mixed acid fermentation by homofermentative (hof) Pediococcus claussenii and Lactobacillus backii was observed as a specific feature of their growth in beer. For heterofermentative (hef) LAB a mostly versatile carbohydrate metabolism could be demonstrated, supplementing the known relevance of organic acids for their growth in beer. For hef LAB a distinct amino acid metabolism, resulting in biogenic amine production, was observed, presumably contributing to energy supply and pH homeostasis.

  11. Microorganisms associated with the spoilage of avocado pear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microorganisms associated with the spoilage of Avocado pear, Persea americana fruits, purchased fresh from various markets in Benin City were investigated. The pour plate method was used for the isolation. A total of nine species of microorganisms were isolated and identified in this study. They comprise of seven ...

  12. Spoilage potential of Paenibacillussp. in Brazilian raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Ribeiro Júnior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Bacterial spores are widespread in the environment and can contaminate milk. Spores are resistant to thermal conditions and your germination reduces milk shelf-life because the aerobic bacteria that are sporulated produce proteases and lipases. The aim of this study was identify Paenibacillus sp., the spoilage microbiota, arising from the germination of spores in raw milk and your spoilage potential. Twenty different milk samples were treated at 80°C/12min and plated to isolate spore-forming bacteria. These strains were picked in milk agar and tributyrin agar for verification of their potential proteolytic and lipolytic activities, respectively. Amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of the strains for identification by similarity to the DNA sequences deposited in GenBank was performed. One hundred and thirty-seven isolates were obtained, of which 40 (29.2% showed spoilage activity for milk. Of these, three (7.5% were identified as strains of Paenibacillus sp., and all were lipolytic. Paenibacillus sp. have been identified as primarily responsible for the spoilage of pasteurized milk with a long shelf-life in other countries. To increase the shelf-life of Brazilian pasteurized milk, it is important to identify the sporulated microbes to determine their origin and to control the contamination of milk by vegetative forms such as spores.

  13. Bacterial spoilage of meat and cured meat products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borch, E.; Kant-Muermans, M.L.T.; Blixt, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors (product composition and storage conditions) on the selection, growth rate and metabolic activity of the bacterial flora is presented for meat (pork and beef) and cooked, cured meat products. The predominant bacteria associated with spoilage of refrigerated

  14. Rapid measurement of meat spoilage using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binlin; Dahlberg, Kevin; Gao, Xin; Smith, Jason; Bailin, Jacob

    2017-02-01

    Food spoilage is mainly caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria. In this study, we measure the autofluorescence in meat samples longitudinally over a week in an attempt to develop a method to rapidly detect meat spoilage using fluorescence spectroscopy. Meat food is a biological tissue, which contains intrinsic fluorophores, such as tryptophan, collagen, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) etc. As meat spoils, it undergoes various morphological and chemical changes. The concentrations of the native fluorophores present in a sample may change. In particular, the changes in NADH and FAD are associated with microbial metabolism, which is the most important process of the bacteria in food spoilage. Such changes may be revealed by fluorescence spectroscopy and used to indicate the status of meat spoilage. Therefore, such native fluorophores may be unique, reliable and nonsubjective indicators for detection of spoiled meat. The results of the study show that the relative concentrations of all above fluorophores change as the meat samples kept in room temperature ( 19° C) spoil. The changes become more rapidly after about two days. For the meat samples kept in a freezer ( -12° C), the changes are much less or even unnoticeable over a-week-long storage.

  15. Studies On Quality Criteria For Irradiated Breaded Chicken Breast Fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSAN, I.M.; IBRAHIM, M.T.; MAHMOUD, A.A.; SHAMS EL DIN, N.M.M.; MOHAMMAD, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Quality criteria of irradiated breaded chicken breast fillets were studied. Fresh boneless and skinless breaded chicken breast meats samples were divided into four separate batches and packed in plastic bags and sealed by an impulse sealer. Samples in plastic bags were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation (2.5, 5 and 7 kGy) at ambient temperature. Just after irradiation, the samples were stored at 4 ±1 0 C. All samples were evaluated for microbiological, chemical and sensorial properties after irradiation and throughout the storage periods. During storage, the total bacterial count was significantly increased (P<0.05) in all samples with higher rates of increase in non-irradiated samples. In all irradiated samples, Staphylococcus aureus did not detected up to 6 days then detected after 22 days in samples treated with 2.5 kGy as well as 31 days in samples treated with 5 kGy. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus was detected after 45 days in samples treated with 7 kGy. Salmonella sp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni could not detected in untreated and treated samples. The protein content showed significant decrease immediately after irradiation and during the refrigerated storage. The TVN values for non-irradiated samples were significantly higher (P<0.05) than irradiated samples. The present data showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in protein solubility percentages of irradiated samples at day 0 and 6 of refrigerated storage. The observed decrease was related to the increase of radiation dose. At the end of storage period (62 days), 2.5 kGy samples were significantly higher in TBA values than other irradiated samples. On the other hand, irradiation was significantly reduced (P<0.05) the amount of major mono unsaturated and poly unsaturated fatty acids. Sensory attributes of breaded chicken breast fillets did not affected by irradiation. It could be concluded that irradiation dose of 5 kGy can be used in chicken samples stored in

  16. Can bread processing conditions alter glycaemic response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evelyn; Soong, Yean Yean; Zhou, Weibiao; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2015-04-15

    Bread is a staple food that is traditionally made from wheat flour. This study aimed to compare the starch digestibility of western baked bread and oriental steamed bread. Four types of bread were prepared: western baked bread (WBB) and oriental steamed bread (OSB), modified baked bread (MBB) made with the OSB recipe and WBB processing, and modified steamed bread (MSB) made with the WBB recipe and OSB processing. MBB showed the highest starch digestibility in vitro, followed by WBB, OSB and MSB. A similar trend was observed for glycaemic response in vivo. MBB, WBB, OSB and MSB had a glycaemic index of 75±4, 71±5, 68±5 and 65±4, respectively. Processing differences had a more pronounced effect on starch digestibility in bread, and steamed bread was healthier in terms of glycaemic response. The manipulation of processing conditions could be an innovative route to alter the glycaemic response of carbohydrate-rich foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of the antifungal activity of titanium dioxide based nanosilver packaging and conventional polyethylene packaging in consumed bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using titanium dioxide nanosilver packaging which is antibacterial and resistance to the diffusion of gases such as oxygen is increasing in food industry. Therefore we compared the effect of titanium dioxide based nanosilver packaging and conventional polyethylene packaging - on fungal flora of consuming bread in order to increase the shelf life storage of  consuming bread. One hundred forty four samples of 6 different types of loaf of bread randomly obtained from 12 bakeries in District 2 of Tehran. The samples were packaged with 3%, 5% and 10% nano coatings and also conventional polyethylene coatings as control group. The bacterial examination and monitoring of samples, according to the national standards of Iran was carried out 3 times, on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28, of study period.This study showed that the film type and storage period, were main factors which significantly influenced fungal flora of bread. The lowest rate of various fungi growth (%14 was observed in 10% Nano film, while the highest rate of various fungi growth (47% was observed in conventional polyethylene coating (P<0.001. With increasing storage periods,  the number of various fungi increased, however this correlation was not similar in most of breads and fungi types. There were significant difference between them (P = 0.001. According to the results of the present study, due to increasing population growth and in order to improve food security, using packages with nanosilver particles which are based on titanium dioxide, prevails over the polyethylene packages. Therefore using such packages are highly recommended in bakery industry.

  18. Formation of Guaiacol by Spoilage Bacteria from Vanillic Acid, a Product of Rice Koji Cultivation, in Japanese Sake Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Toshihiko; Konno, Mahito; Shimura, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Seiei; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Hashizume, Katsumi

    2016-06-08

    The formation of guaiacol, a potent phenolic off-odor compound in the Japanese sake brewing process, was investigated. Eight rice koji samples were analyzed, and one contained guaiacol and 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG) at extraordinarily high levels: 374 and 2433 μg/kg dry mass koji, respectively. All samples contained ferulic and vanillic acids at concentrations of mg/kg dry mass koji. Guaiacol forming microorganisms were isolated from four rice koji samples. They were identified as Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens/subtilis, and Staphylococcus gallinarum using 16S rRNA gene sequence. These spoilage bacteria convert vanillic acid to guaiacol and ferulic acid to 4-VG. However, they convert very little ferulic acid or 4-VG to guaiacol. Nine strains of koji fungi tested produced vanillic acid at the mg/kg dry mass koji level after cultivation. These results indicated that spoilage bacteria form guaiacol from vanillic acid, which is a product of koji cultivation in the sake brewing process.

  19. Characterization and control of Mucor circinelloides spoilage in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Abigail B; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2016-07-02

    Consumer confidence in the food industry is severely affected by large-scale spoilage incidents. However, relatively little research exists on spoilage potential of members of the fungal subphylum Mucormycotina (e.g. Mucor), which includes dimorphic spoilage organisms that can switch between a yeast-like and hyphal phase depending on environmental conditions. The presence of Mucor circinelloides in yogurt may not cause spoilage, but growth and subsequent changes in quality (e.g. container bloating) can cause spoilage if not controlled. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on M. circinelloides of pasteurization regimen, natamycin concentrations, and storage temperature in yogurt production, as measured by fungal proliferation and carbon dioxide production. A strain of M. circinelloides isolated from commercially spoiled yogurt showed greater yogurt-spoilage potential than clinical isolates and other industrial strains. D-values and z-values were determined for the spoilage isolate in milk as an evaluation of the fungus' ability to survive pasteurization. Natamycin was added to yogurt at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20ppm (μg/ml) to determine its ability to inhibit M. circinelloides over the course of month-long challenge studies at 4°C, 15°C, and 25°C. Survivors were recovered on acidified PDA and carbon dioxide levels were recorded. The D-values at 54°C, 56°C, and 58°C for hyphae/sporangiospores were (in min) 38.31±0.02, 10.17±0.28, and 1.94±0.53, respectively, which yielded a z-value of 3.09°C. The D-values at 51°C, 53°C, and 55°C for yeast-like cells were (in min) 14.25±0.12, 6.87±1.19, and 2.44±0.35, respectively, which yielded a z-value of 0.34°C. These results indicated that M. circinelloides would not survive fluid milk pasteurization if contamination occurred prior to thermal treatment. CO2 production was only observed when M. circinelloides was incubated under low-oxygen conditions, and occurred only at temperatures above 4

  20. Investigations of Bread Production with Postponed Staling Applying Instrumental Measurements of Bread Crumb Color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. Popov

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Crumb color quality characteristics of bread of different compositions (whole grain, rye, barley and diet bread at 24 hours intervals during three days after bread preparation were investigated by means of a MOM-color 100 tristimulus photo colorimeter, in CIE, CIELab, ANLAB and Hunter systems. The highest value of average reflectance y (% was found for barley bread (immediately after preparation, so that can be said that this sample was “conditionally” the lightest. The lowest values of y (% were found for diet bread, so that it can be considered as the “conditionally” the darkest product. Colors of all investigated bread samples were lighter after three days of keeping compared to day 0. Changes of average reflectance of bread samples packed in polyethylene packaging with keeping time can be described by linear equation (correlation coefficient 0.99. The dominant wavelength of barley and diet bread confirm the presence of yellow pigment. Color qualities of the mentioned kinds of bread depend on processes during bread staling and raw material composition of bread (flour. Color quality measurements can be used as easy auxiliary method for screening in the development of slower staling bread.

  1. Multifractal characterisation and classification of bread crumb digital images

    OpenAIRE

    Baravalle, Rodrigo Guillermo; Delrieux, Claudio Augusto; Gómez, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Adequate models of the bread crumb structure can be critical for understanding flow and transport processes in bread manufacturing, creating synthetic bread crumb images for photo-realistic rendering, evaluating similarities, and establishing quality features of different bread crumb types. In this article, multifractal analysis, employing the multifractal spectrum (MFS), has been applied to study the structure of the bread crumb in four varieties of bread (baguette, sliced, bran, and sandwic...

  2. Multigrain bread processing with extruded flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Crosa Balestra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect in bread quality of a new bread making process and two replacement levels (20%, 36% of refined wheat flour by extrusion precooked prepared based on combination of oats, soybeans and wheat bran was studied. Composite flour was characterized according to its functional properties (water absorption index, grain size and nutritional properties (protein, total fiber, soluble fiber, ash, fat. The volume, whiteness index, rheological measurements (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and chewiness of the bread were monitored. No significant changes were recorded in hardness, elasticity and chewiness of bread according to the level of substitution of composite flour; bread with 36% substitution was 7% less cohesive, with 27% less volume bread with 20% substitution. The process conditions caused greatest impact on the quality of bread. The new process resulted in a 37% increase in volume, 6% elasticity, 15% of cohesiveness and 44% decrease in hardness and 34% in chewiness, compared to the traditional process. This trend continued in the four days following the date of processing. The substitution level of composite flour did not cause significant changes in hardness, elasticity and chewiness of bread, but changes were observed in cohesiveness and volume. Bread with 36% substitution was 7% less cohesive, with 27% less volume than the 20% substitution.

  3. Characterization of Norwegian women eating wholegrain bread

    OpenAIRE

    Bakken, Toril; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri

    2015-01-01

    Source: doi: 10.1017/S1368980015000245 To investigate dietary and non-dietary characteristics of wholegrain bread eaters in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study.Cross-sectional study using an FFQ.Women were divided into two groups according to wholegrain bread consumption.Adult women (n 69 471).Median daily consumption of standardized slices of wholegrain bread was 2·5 in the low intake group and 4·5 in the high intake group. The OR for high wholegrain bread consumption was 0·28, 2·19 and ...

  4. The Production of Synbiotic Bread by Microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedain-Ardabili, Mojan; Sharifan, Anousheh; Tarzi, Babak Ghiassi

    2016-03-01

    Bread is a global staple food. Despite attempts to develop functional breads containing viable microorganisms, this has not been done yet because of the high temperature during baking. The aim of this study is to obtain synbiotic bread, hence hamburger bun and white pan bread were selected. Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and L. casei 431 were encapsulated with calcium alginate and Hi-maize resistant starch via emulsion technique and coated with chitosan. The morphology and size of microcapsules were measured by scanning electron microscopy and particle size analyser. Inulin was added at 5% wheat flour mass basis for prebiotic effect. The encapsulated probiotics were inoculated into the bread dough and bread loaves were baked. The survival of encapsulated probiotics was determined after baking; also sensory evaluation was performed. Both types of bread met the standard criteria for probiotic products. The probiotic survival was higher in hamburger bun. L. casei 431 was more resistant to high temperature than L. acidophilus LA-5. A significant increase in probiotic survival was observed when the protective coating of chitosan was used in addition to calcium alginate and Hi-maize resistant starch. Storage for 4 days did not have any effect on the viability of encapsulated bacteria. The addition of encapsulated bacteria did not have any effect on flavour and texture; however, 5% inulin improved the texture of bread significantly. Results show that microencapsulation used in the production of synbiotic bread can enhance the viability and thermal resistance of the probiotic bacteria.

  5. The Production of Synbiotic Bread by Microencapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anousheh Sharifan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bread is a global staple food. Despite attempts to develop functional breads containing viable microorganisms, this has not been done yet because of the high temperature during baking. The aim of this study is to obtain synbiotic bread, hence hamburger bun and white pan bread were selected. Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and L. casei 431 were encapsulated with calcium alginate and Hi-maize resistant starch via emulsion technique and coated with chitosan. The morphology and size of microcapsules were measured by scanning electron microscopy and particle size analyser. Inulin was added at 5 % wheat flour mass basis for prebiotic effect. The encapsulated probiotics were inoculated into the bread dough and bread loaves were baked. The survival of encapsulated probiotics was determined after baking; also sensory evaluation was performed. Both types of bread met the standard criteria for probiotic products. The probiotic survival was higher in hamburger bun. L. casei 431 was more resistant to high temperature than L. acidophilus LA-5. A significant increase in probiotic survival was observed when the protective coating of chitosan was used in addition to calcium alginate and Hi-maize resistant starch. Storage for 4 days did not have any effect on the viability of encapsulated bacteria. The addition of encapsulated bacteria did not have any effect on flavour and texture; however, 5 % inulin improved the texture of bread significantly. Results show that microencapsulation used in the production of synbiotic bread can enhance the viability and thermal resistance of the probiotic bacteria.

  6. An investigation of radiosensitivity of selected stored seed and seed borne fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Chatterjee, S.; Mishra, D.; Chakraborty, A.; Saha, A.; Santra, S.C.; Chanda, S.

    2004-01-01

    Spoilage of nutritional value of the grains by the microbes, especially those producing mycotoxins, is a worldwide economic problem. The decontamination method, using gamma ray or fast electrons, is receiving growing attention. The present investigation was designed to determine an appropriate dose-range of gamma radiation for the stored grains to reduce levels of pathogenic fungi with minimal loss in viability, food value and/or germinating potential of the selected seeds. Further the study also aimed at assessing response of specific fungus to gamma irradiation in isolated condition and when attached to seeds to discern host-specific interaction if any, of the concerned fungi

  7. Application of Starch Foams Containing Plant Essential Oils to Prevent Mold Growth and Improve Shelf Life of Packaged Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lotfinia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, considerable attention has been allocated in the area of using natural preservatives in foods, especially vegetable oils. Starch foams prepared from high amylose starch are useful for encapsulation of substances such as chemicals, liquids or solids, including flavor compounds, pharmaceuticals and essential oils. The foams have the ability to trap the active material and subsequently release the activity. Cinnamon oil is absorbed to foam starch microparticles and acts as an antimicrobial agent. This study was designed and implemented to evaluate the use of starch foam containing vegetable oil to prevent mold growth and improve packaged bread shelf life. For this purpose, first cinnamon essential oil was extracted with water by distillation method then, 250 groups of bread were prepared within polypropylene plastic bags. Various amounts of cinnamon essential oil (500, 750, 1000and1500ppm with 1 g of starch foam powder inside sterilized filter paper were added to these packages.The obtained results of multi-way and intergroup repeated tests indicated that there was a significant difference (P <0/05 between the control groups and various groups containing cinnamon essential oil in terms of microbial load. In the groups containing essential oils, less increase was showed in microbial load and with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil, mold and yeast growth rate decreased. It concluded that by using starch foam containing cinnamon essential oil in bulky bread packing at ambient temperature (25°C, the spoilage process of bulky bread can be postponed 3 to 6 days, and it can be used as an appropriate natural and antifungal preservative in packaging of bread.

  8. Application of Starch Foams Containing Plant Essential Oils to Prevent Mold Growth and Improve Shelf Life of Packaged Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lotfinia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, considerable attention has been allocated in the area of using natural preservatives in foods, especially vegetable oils.  Starch foams prepared from high amylose starch are useful for encapsulation of substances such as chemicals, liquids or solids, including flavor compounds, pharmaceuticals and essential oils. The foams have the ability to trap the active material and subsequently release the activity. Cinnamon oil is absorbed to foam starch microparticles and acts as an antimicrobial agent. This study was designed and implemented to evaluate the use of starch foam containing vegetable oil to prevent mold growth and improve packaged bread shelf life. For this purpose, first cinnamon essential oil was extracted with water by distillation method then, 250 groups of bread were prepared within polypropylene plastic bags. Various amounts of cinnamon essential oil (500, 750, 1000and1500ppm with 1 g of starch foam powder inside sterilized filter paper were added to these packages.The obtained results of multi-way and intergroup repeated tests indicated that there was a significant difference (P <0/05 between the control groups and various groups containing cinnamon essential oil in terms of microbial load. In the groups containing essential oils, less increase was showed in microbial load and with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil, mold and yeast growth rate decreased. It concluded that by using starch foam containing cinnamon essential oil in bulky bread packing at ambient temperature (25°C, the spoilage process of bulky bread can be postponed 3 to 6 days, and it can be used as an appropriate natural and antifungal preservative in packaging of bread.

  9. Identification of beer spoilage microorganisms using the MALDI Biotyper platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Michelle Elizabeth; Weiland, Florian; Meneses, Jon; Sterenberg, Nick; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Beer spoilage microorganisms present a major risk for the brewing industry and can lead to cost-intensive recall of contaminated products and damage to brand reputation. The applicability of molecular profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in combination with Biotyper software was investigated for the identification of beer spoilage microorganisms from routine brewery quality control samples. Reference mass spectrum profiles for three of the most common bacterial beer spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus lindneri, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus damnosus), four commercially available brewing yeast strains (top- and bottom-fermenting) and Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis wild yeast were established, incorporated into the Biotyper reference library and validated by successful identification after inoculation into beer. Each bacterial species could be accurately identified and distinguished from one another and from over 5600 other microorganisms present in the Biotyper database. In addition, wild yeast contaminations were rapidly detected and distinguished from top- and bottom-fermenting brewing strains. The applicability and integration of mass spectrometry profiling using the Biotyper platform into existing brewery quality assurance practices within industry were assessed by analysing routine microbiology control samples from a local brewery, where contaminating microorganisms could be reliably identified. Brewery-isolated microorganisms not present in the Biotyper database were further analysed for identification using LC-MS/MS methods. This renders the Biotyper platform a promising candidate for biological quality control testing within the brewing industry as a more rapid, high-throughput and cost-effective technology that can be tailored for the detection of brewery-specific spoilage organisms from the local environment.

  10. Predicting and preventing mold spoilage of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2013-03-01

    This article is a review of how to quantify mold spoilage and consequently shelf life of a food product. Mold spoilage results from having a product contaminated with fungal spores that germinate and form a visible mycelium before the end of the shelf life. The spoilage can be then expressed as the combination of the probability of having a product contaminated and the probability of mold growth (germination and proliferation) up to a visible mycelium before the end of the shelf life. For products packed before being distributed to the retailers, the probability of having a product contaminated is a function of factors strictly linked to the factory design, process, and environment. The in-factory fungal contamination of a product might be controlled by good manufacturing hygiene practices and reduced by particular processing practices such as an adequate air-renewal system. To determine the probability of mold growth, both germination and mycelium proliferation can be mathematically described by primary models. When mold contamination on the product is scarce, the spores are spread on the product and more than a few spores are unlikely to be found at the same spot. In such a case, models applicable for a single spore should be used. Secondary models can be used to describe the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on either the germination or proliferation of molds. Several polynomial models and gamma-type models quantifying the effect of water activity and temperature on mold growth are available. To a lesser extent, the effect of pH, ethanol, heat treatment, addition of preservatives, and modified atmospheres on mold growth also have been quantified. However, mold species variability has not yet been properly addressed, and only a few secondary models have been validated for food products. Once the probability of having mold spoilage is calculated for various shelf lives and product formulations, the model can be implemented as part of a risk management

  11. A loaf of bread: Price and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J

    1998-03-01

    In the Western world, the basic staple of nutrition is bread. It evolved, from Neolithic times in Mesopotamia and the Levant, from flour made from natural hybrids of emmer and einkorn. Its form has changed from that of a dark, coarse and heavy loaf, baked in the ashes, to the enriched artistic breads of the late twentieth century. Its variety of forms conferred status on those who ate its refined and whitened form. The wheel of fashion and nutrition has turned full circle to the quality-controlled, vitamin and mineral-enriched wholemeal loaf of the new millennium to come. Bread has changed from a staple not simply of nutrition itself, but to that of a 'functional food' whose fibre confers protection against preventible disease. The bread of the new century thus will be both a food and a medicine. So fundamental to Western life is bread, that its price has long been the last item to remain controlled, when all else is left to the dictates of a free market economy. Bread is the fundamental unit of exchange and forms the last link in a chain of commodities which starts from items of luxury to those of survival itself. The price of bread can thus be used as a currency datum. As such, the price of a loaf of bread, and the minutes of labour needed to produce it, can be used to measure the economy, and to give a measured perspective of its influence on a community's history. Costs, throughout history, can be expressed in 'bread units'. As such, the latter forms an absolute index of the worth of other items, particularly a person's labour. As such, bread and its value forms a partly independent measure of inflationary and other social influences. Bread remains a fundamental part not only of nutrition, but of life itself.

  12. Phytoalexins as Possible Controlling Agents of Microbial Spoilage of Irradiated Fresh Fruit and Vegetables During Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, S. A. [Radiobiology Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Commission, Cairo (Egypt)

    1978-04-15

    The decline in bio generating capacity to form natural antibiotic compounds (phytoalexins), rishitin and lubimin in potato tubers and rishitin in tomatoes, after gamma irradiation seems to be the essence of the suppression of natural immunity exhibited by an increase in per cent of rotted tubers and fruits during storage. In vitro studies postulated that the rot-causing fungi Phytophthora infestons (Mond) De Bary, Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) James and Grout, Botrytis cinerea Persson., Fusarium oxysporum Syder and Hansen and Rhizopus stolonifer Ehrenberg were significantly controlled by the application of phytoalexins that had been initially formed by potato tubers (rishitin), tomato fruits (rishitin) and pepper fruits (capsidiol). In vivo studies revealed that post-irradiation treatment of potato tubers and tomato fruits with phytoalexins that had been produced by the same plant organ or by another of the same family seems to be experimentally feasible to reduce the radiation dose or increase the efficiency of irradiation in controlling microbial spoilage during storage of irradiated potatoes and tomatoes. (author)

  13. Phytoalexins as possible controlling agents of microbial spoilage of irradiated fresh fruit and vegetables during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The decline in biogenerating capacity to form natural antibiotic compounds (phytoalexins), rishitin and lubimin in potato tubers and rishitin in tomatoes, after gamma irradiation seems to be the essence of the suppression of natural immunity exhibited by an increase in per cent of rotted tubers and fruits during storage. In vitro studies postulated that the rot-causing fungi Phytophthora infestans (Mond) De Bary, Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) James and Grout, Botrytis cinerea Persson., Fusarium oxysporum Syder and Hansen and Rhizopus stolonifer Ehrenberg were significantly controlled by the application of phytoalexins that had been initially formed by potato tubers (rishitin), tomato fruits (rishitin) and pepper fruits (capsidiol). In vivo studies revealed that post-irradiation treatment of potato tubers and tomato fruits with phytoalexins that had been produced by the same plant organ or by another of the same family seems to be experimentally feasible to reduce the radiation dose or increase the efficiency of irradiation in controlling microbial spoilage during storage of irradiated potatoes and tomatoes. (author)

  14. 186 183 Potassium Bromate Content of Bread

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... milk or juice) fats, sugar, salt, eggs, leavening ... soluble in water and almost insoluble in alcohol. It has a vapour ... quality of bread as the main vitamins available in bread are ... metropolis are still being exposed to this toxic ...

  15. TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF SPELT WHEAT BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what are inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%.Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was measured in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn were the most firm and stiff. Relative elasticity confirmed that the lowest firmness and stiffness was found in Rubiota bread. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety.

  16. Chemical ecology of fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteller, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology.

  17. 18 Evaluation of Microbial Spoilage of Some Aquacultured Fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    bacteria species namely; Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp., Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., and four fungi species namely; Aspergillis niger, Geotrichum sp., Rhizopus sp. and .... Penicillium sp .... FERMENTATION.

  18. Fungal flora of Egyptian baladi bread with special reference to the mutagenic effects of their toxic metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megalla, S E; Abdou, R F; Bagy, M M

    1985-01-01

    The fungal flora of wheat flour and baladi bread in upper Egypt were investigated. Most of the isolated fungal species belong to the genus Aspergillus. The presence of non heat resistant fungi of the both flat surfaces of baladi bread, came from contamination after baking and from improper handling at homes. Among the heat resistant fungi, A. fumigatus and A. niger, were recorded to inhabit the spongy crumb although the high temperature of baking process which reached approximately 100 degrees C in the center of the bread. The mutagenic effects of the fungal metabolites of the extract of mouldy Egypt were investigated. Most of the isolated fungal species all stages of mitotic division. The most interesting effect of these fungal metabolites were the induction of tripolar and quadripolar spindle. Multinucleate and polyploid cells were also observed under relatively high concentrations. It was noticed that at either higher concentrations or lower concentrations with long exposure, damaged cells were observed. The hazards involved through the consumption of individuals to such mouldy bread, is accumulation of possible deleterious effects from both long and short term exposure to these toxic metabolites.

  19. Development of a bread slicing machine from locally sourced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the development of a bread slicing machine which is a mechanical device that is used for slicing bread instead of the crude cumbersome and unhygienic method of manual slicing of bread. In an attempt to facilitate the final processing of bread which is a common daily food requirement of most Nigerians ...

  20. Physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread prepared from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread prepared from wheat and ... Different levels (0, 1, 2 and 3% w/w) of cissus gum powder was added to ... flours for bread making where 100% wheat bread without cissus gum served as control. ... serve as a gluten substitute in preparing acceptable wheat bread substituted ...

  1. Biotechnology of marine fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.R.; Singh, P.; Raghukumar, S.

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still...

  2. The Determination of Bromine in Wheat, Flour and Bread by Neutron Activation Analysis. RCN Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.; Hoede, D.; Zonderhuis, J.

    1969-07-01

    Gaseous germicides are commonly used to improve the tenability of wheat. The bulk material is exposed to a gas which is highly poisonous to fungi. Methylene and ethylene dibromide are often used for this purpose. Traces of these compounds in wheat, flour and bread are dangerous. Consequently, the persistence of these gases should be determined experimentally. This implies that sensitive methods to detect traces of methylene and ethylene dibromide must be available. Neutron activation analysis can be used to determine the total amount of bromine present in the sample. This datum is a useful addition to the gaschromato-graphic determinations of the compounds involved. A routine method for the determination of bromine in corn, flour and bread has been developed and is described in the text

  3. Higher marine fungi from mangroves (Manglicolous fungi)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ChinnaRaj, S.

    of higher marine fungi which included 23 Ascomycetes, 2 Basidiomycetes and 17 Deuteromycetes (Kohlmeyer and Kohlmeyer, 1979). Hyde (1990a) listed 120 species from 29 mangroves from all over the World this includes 87 Ascomycetes, 2 Basidiomycetes and 31...

  4. Two resistant starches applied in bread

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šárka, E.; Kubová, M.; Wiege, I.; Horák, Pavel; Smrčková, P.; Dvořáček, V.; Chena, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2017), s. 67-72 ISSN 1212-1800 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : bread * additives * Mixolab Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 0.787, year: 2016

  5. Spoilage potential of brettanomyces bruxellensis strains isolated from Italian wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzon, Raffaele; Larcher, Roberto; Guarcello, Rosa; Francesca, Nicola; Settanni, Luca; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2018-03-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis is an important wine spoilage agent. In this study a population of Brettanomyces strains isolated from Italian wines was thoroughly investigated to evaluate adaptability to wine conditions and spoilage potential. The presumptive isolates of Brettanomyces were identified at species level with 26S rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific PCR, and subsequently subjected to analysis of intra-species variability through the study of intron splice sites (ISS-PCR). Although, some strains were tracked in wines from different regions, extensive genetic biodiversity was observed within the B. bruxellensis population investigated. All strains were evaluated for their growth ability in the presence of ethanol, high sugar content, low pH, different temperatures and sulphur dioxide, using optical density and flow cytometry measurement. The ability of yeasts to produce ethyl phenols in red wines with different chemical compositions was evaluated by means of high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The results highlighted wide variability in B. bruxellensis in response to wine limiting factors and in terms of the accumulation of ethyl phenols. As regards this last aspect, the differences found among strains were closely related to chemical composition of wine and strain resistance to environmental stress factors, making a priori evaluation of risk of wine alteration quite difficult. These results suggest that strategies for the control of Brettanomyces should be tailored on the basis of strain distribution and wine characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A prototype sensor system for the early detection of microbially linked spoilage in stored wheat grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacy Costello, B. P. J.; Ewen, R. J.; Gunson, H.; Ratcliffe, N. M.; Sivanand, P. S.; Spencer-Phillips, P. T. N.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors based on composites of metal oxides were fabricated and tested extensively under high-humidity and high-flow conditions with exposure to vapours reported to increase in the headspace of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum cv Hereward) colonized by fungi. The sensors that exhibited high sensitivity to target vapours combined with high stability were selected for inclusion into a four-sensor array prototype system. A sampling protocol aligned to parallel gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and human olfactory assessment studies was established for use with the sensor system. The sensor system was utilized to assess irradiated wheat samples that had been conditioned to 25% moisture content and inoculated with pathogens known to cause spoilage of grain in storage. These included the fungi Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium vulpinum, Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium culmorum, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus and the actinomycete, Streptomyces griseus. The sensor system successfully tracked the progress of the infections from a very early stage and the results were compared with human olfactory assessment panels run concurrently. A series of dilution studies were undertaken using previously infected grain mixed with sound grain, to improve the sensitivity and maximize the differentiation of the sensor system. An optimum set of conditions including incubation temperature, incubation time, sampling time, and flow rate were ascertained utilizing this method. The sensor system differentiated samples of sound grain from samples of sound grain with 1% (w/w) fungus infected grain added. Following laboratory trials, the prototype sensor system was evaluated in a commercial wheat grain intake facility. Thresholds calculated from laboratory tests were used to differentiate between sound and infected samples (classified by intake laboratory technicians) collected routinely from trucks delivering grain for use in food manufacture. All samples identified as having

  7. Development and analysis of composite flour bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Lakshmi; Majumdar, Swarnali Dutta; Ravi, Usha

    2015-07-01

    The study elucidates the effect of utilizing cereal-pulse-fruit seed composite flour in the development and quality analysis of leavened bread. The composite flour was prepared using refined wheat flour (WF), high protein soy flour (SF), sprouted mung bean flour (MF) and mango kernel flour (MKF). Three variations were formulated such as V-I (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 85:5:5:5), V-II (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 70:10:10:10), and V-III (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 60:14:13:13). Pertinent functional, physico-chemical and organoleptic attributes were studied in composite flour variations and their bread preparations. Physical characteristics of the bread variations revealed a percentage decrease in loaf height (14 %) and volume (25 %) and 20 % increase in loaf weight with increased substitution of composite flour. The sensory evaluation of experimental breads on a nine-point hedonic scale revealed that V-I score was 5 % higher than the standard bread. Hence, the present study highlighted the nutrient enrichment of bread on incorporation of a potential waste material mango kernel, soy and sprouted legume. Relevant statistical tests were done to analyze the significance of means for all tested parameters.

  8. Development and validation of a colorimetric sensor array for fish spoilage monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsy, Mohamed K.; Zor, Kinga; Kostesha, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    their color changes in response to compounds present in fresh products (hexanal, 1-octane-3-ol) used as negative controls. The colorimetric sensor array was used to follow fish spoilage over time at room temperature for up to 24 h as well as at 4 °C for 9 days. Additionally, fish decay was monitored using......Given the need for non-destructive methods and sensors for food spoilage monitoring, we have evaluated sixteen chemo-sensitive compounds incorporated in an array for colorimetric detection of typical spoilage compounds (trimethylamine, dimethylamine, cadaverine, putrescine) and characterized...

  9. Physico-Chemical Analysis and Sensory Evaluation of Bread

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shuaibu et al.

    Physico-Chemical Analysis and Sensory Evaluation of Bread Produced Using ... analysis of the bread samples revealed that the moisture content ..... 72. Jarup, L. ,2003. Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br Med. Bull; 68, pp.167-82.

  10. Staling of wheat bread stored in modified atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Hansen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Modified atmosphere packing (MAP) of bread is known to extend the microbial shelf-life. However, the effect of MAP on staling of bread is more questionable, and conflicting results are reported in the literature. To investigate the effect of BT AP, wheat bread was packed in modified atmosphere...... containing 100% CO2 and in a mixture gas of 50% CO2 and 50% N-2, respectively. The control bread was packed in atmospheric air. No significant effects of MAP were found during storage of bread for 7 days at 20 degreesC compared to control bread. when changes in bread firmness and starch retrogradation...... measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used as parameters for the staling rates. Ira addition, no significant differences were obtained in firmness between bread stored in 100% CO,, and in the mixture gas of CO2 and N-2 after 7 and 14 days, respectively. The present study thus...

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF ALPHA AMYLASE ON THE QUALITY OF BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA CHEREJI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the quality of bread obtained from the control sample flour (M and the quality of bread obtained from flour with addition of 3 different percentages of alpha amylase (P1-280000 U.SKB/ 100kg flour; P2-560000 U.SKB/ 100kg flour;P3-840000 U.SKB/ 100kg flour. Fungal alpha amylase was used in these concentrations in order to establish which one is the most suitable to be added in flour in order to obtain superior quality characteristics for bread: superior volume of bread, finer texture of the bread, prolonging the freshness of the bread, improving the color and flavor of the bread, improving the slicing proprieties of the bread.

  12. Proteomics of Filamentous Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passel, van M.W.J.; Schaap, P.J.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae traditionally have had an important role in providing enzymes and enzyme cocktails that are used in food industry. In recent years the genome sequences of many filamentous fungi have become available. This combined with

  13. Marine fungi: A critique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    in the sea have been ignored to a large extent. However, several instances of terrestrial species of fungi, active in marine environment have been reported. The arguments to support the view that terrestrial species of fungi by virtue of their physiological...

  14. Study of benzoate, propionate, and sorbate salts as mould spoilage inhibitors on intermediate moisture bakery products of low pH (4.5-5.5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynot, M E; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V; Marín, S

    2005-05-25

    A hurdle technology approach has been applied to control common mold species causing spoilage of intermediate moisture bakery products (Eurotium spp., Aspergillus spp., and Penicillium corylophilum), growing on a fermented bakery product analogue (FBPA). The factors studied included a combination of different levels of weak acid preservatives (potassium sorbate, calcium propionate, and sodium benzoate; 0-0.3%), pH (4.5-5.5), and water activity (a(w); 0.80-0.90). Potassium sorbate was found to be the most effective in preventing fungal spoilage of this kind of products at the maximum concentration tested (0.3%) regardless of a(w). The same concentration of calcium propionate and sodium benzoate was effective only at low a(w) levels. On the other hand, potassium sorbate activity was slightly reduced at pH 5.5, the 0.3% being only effective at 0.80 a(w). These findings indicate that potassium sorbate may be a suitable preserving agent to inhibit deterioration of a FBPA of slightly acidic pH (near 4.5) by xerophilic fungi. Further studies have to be done in order to adjust the minimal inhibitory concentration necessary to obtain a product with the required shelf life.

  15. Impact of Added Colored Wheat Bran on Bread Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Machálková; Marie Janečková; Luděk Hřivna; Yvona Dostálová; Joany Hernandez; Eva Mrkvicová; Tomáš Vyhnánek; Václav Trojan

    2017-01-01

    The impact of colored wheat bran addition on bread quality was tested on wheat varieties with purple pericarp (Konini, Rosso and Karkulka) and on a variety containing blue aleurone (Skorpion). The effect of 10 %, 15 % and 20 % bran addition on sensory evaluation, bread color and texture was compared to the characteristics of bread prepared from wheat variety Mulan. The addition of 10 % bran significantly increased the sensory evaluation scores of bread. Crumb characteristics were improved mai...

  16. Quality of Bread Supplemented with Antrodia
salmonea-Fermented Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Rao-Chi; Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal

    2016-01-01

    Summary Fermented grains of buckwheat, oat, embryo rice and wheat, which were prepared by solid-state fermentation with Antrodia salmonea, and the mycelium was used to substitute 7% of wheat flour to make bread. No difference in proximate composition, texture profile and contents of non-volatile taste components was observed among bread samples. White bread and bread supplemented with mycelium and fermented grains looked different. Bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar thermal properties, which differed from those of white bread and bread supplemented with mycelium. Bread supplemented with fermented grains contained substantial mass fractions (on dry mass basis) of adenosine (0.92–1.96 µg/g), ergosterol (24.53–30.12 µg/g), ergothioneine (2.16–3.18 µg/g) and γ-aminobutyric acid (2.20–2.45 µg/g). In addition, bread supplemented with mycelium contained lovastatin (0.43 µg/g). White bread and bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar sensory results. Overall, fermented grains could be incorporated into bread to provide beneficial effects. PMID:27904408

  17. 21 CFR 136.130 - Milk bread, rolls, and buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk bread, rolls, and buns. 136.130 Section 136.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....130 Milk bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods milk bread, milk rolls, and milk buns conforms...

  18. Everyone Eats Bread: A Multicultural Unit for First Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanus, Betty J.; Kerst, Catherine H.

    This multicultural teaching unit was developed and tested with the first grade classes of Glenhaven Elementary School, Wheaton, Maryland. The lessons focus on bread as a common food in the world but explores the many types of bread and its symbolism. The unit is divided into four parts. Part 1, "Introduction to Bread," contains lessons…

  19. Quality of Bread Supplemented with Antrodia salmonea-Fermented Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao-Chi Chien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented grains of buckwheat, oat, embryo rice and wheat, which were prepared by solid-state fermentation with Antrodia salmonea, and the mycelium was used to substitute 7 % of wheat flour to make bread. No difference in proximate composition, texture profile and contents of non-volatile taste components was observed among bread samples. White bread and bread supplemented with mycelium and fermented grains looked different. Bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar thermal properties, which differed from those of white bread and bread supplemented with mycelium. Bread supplemented with fermented grains contained substantial mass fractions (on dry mass basis of adenosine (0.92–1.96 μg/g, ergosterol (24.53–30.12 μg/g, ergothioneine (2.16–3.18 μg/g and γ-aminobutyric acid (2.20–2.45 μg/g. In addition, bread supplemented with mycelium contained lovastatin (0.43 μg/g. White bread and bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar sensory results. Overall, fermented grains could be incorporated into bread to provide beneficial effects.

  20. Glycaemic indices of three Sri Lankan wheat bread varieties and a bread-lentil meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2009-01-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) concept ranks individual foods and mixed meals according to the blood glucose response. Low-GI foods with a slow and prolonged glycaemic response are beneficial for diabetic people, and several advantages have been suggested also for non-diabetic individuals. The recent investigations imply an increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Sri Lanka. Thus, the present study was designed primarily to determine the glycaemic indices of some bread varieties in Sri Lanka as bread has become a staple diet among most of the urban people. A second objective was to observe the effects of macronutrients and physicochemical properties of starch on GI. Glycaemic responses were estimated according to FAO/WHO guidelines and both glucose and white bread were used as standards. Non-diabetic individuals aged 22-30 years (n=10) participated in the study. The test meals included white sliced bread, wholemeal bread, ordinary white bread and a mixed meal of wholemeal bread with lentil curry. The GI values (+/-standard error of the mean) of the meals were 77+/-6, 77+/-6, 80+/-4, 61+/-6, respectively (with glucose as the standard). The GI values of the bread varieties or the meal did not differ significantly (P >0.05). However, the meal can be categorized as a medium-GI food while the other bread varieties belong to the high-GI food group. A significant negative correlation was obtained with protein (P=0.042) and fat (P=0.039) contents of the food items and GI. Although the GI values of the foods are not significantly different, the inclusion of lentils caused the GI to decrease from a high-GI category to a medium-GI category. According to the present study, a ratio of 1.36 can be used to interconvert the GI values obtained with the two standards.

  1. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread

    OpenAIRE

    Sandvik, Pernilla; Kihlberg, Iwona; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Marklinder, Ingela; Nydahl, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known.Objective: To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that i...

  2. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  3. POSSIBILITIES OF UTILIZATION OF LEFTOVER BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZVONKO B. NJEŽIĆ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Food production is a top priority issue, as the lack of food for the continuously growing population is becoming an increasing problem in the world and in Serbia as well. Increase of food production for humans and animals can be achieved by use of new technologies in biotechnology, i.e. in bioindustry. Nowadays, there are many different ways for thermal processing of cereals: toasting, extrusion, hydrothermal processing, micronization, microwave treat-ment, while in Serbia, the most frequently used processes are extrusion and hydrothermal processing. The baking industry is highly developed in Serbia. Bread consumption per capita in Serbia is far above average consumption in the EU. According to the survey conducted, there is a significant amount of leftover bread in Serbia. Leftover bread represents an environmental problem, but also a potentially valuable raw material for human food and animal feed.

  4. Involvement of bacterial quorum-sensing signals in spoilage of bean sprouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Maria; Andersen, Jens Bo; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial communication signals, acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), were extracted from samples of commercial bean sprouts undergoing soft-rot spoilage. Bean sprouts produced in the laboratory did not undergo soft-rot spoilage and did not contain AHLs or AHL-producing bacteria, although...... the bacterial population reached levels similar to those in the commercial sprouts, 10(8) to 10(9) CFU/g. AHL-producing bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonads) were isolated from commercial sprouts, and strains that were both proteolytic and pectinolytic were capable of causing soft-rot spoilage in bean...... sprouts. Thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed the presence of N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone in spoiled bean sprouts and in extracts from pure cultures of bacteria. During normal spoilage, the pH of the sprouts increased due to proteolytic...

  5. Modelling the effect of ethanol on growth rate of food spoilage moulds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dantigny, P.; Guilmart, A.; Radoi, F.; Bensoussan, M.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of ethanol (E) on the radial growth rate (¿) of food spoilage moulds (Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Eurotium herbariorum, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium

  6. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of red-color spoilage in cucumber pickle products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; Kelling, R E; Hale, S; Breidt, F; McFeeters, R F

    2007-09-01

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in pickled cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the fruits. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from 2 outbreaks of this spoilage that occurred about 15 y apart during the last 3 decades. Both organisms were shown to produce this spoilage when inoculated into pickled cucumbers while concomitantly degrading the azo dye tartrazine (FD&C yellow nr 5). This food dye is used as a yellow coloring in the brine cover solutions of commercial pickled cucumber products. The red color does not occur in the absence of tartrazine, nor when turmeric is used as a yellow coloring in the pickles. Addition of sodium benzoate to the brine cover solutions of a pickled cucumber product, more specifically hamburger dill pickles, prevented growth of these lactic acid bacteria and the development of the red spoilage.

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss Essential Oil against Some Fish Spoilage Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hashemi; Saber Barkhori-Mehni; Saeed Khanzadi; Mohammad Azizzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (EO) against six fish spoilage bacteria for evaluation of its potential utilization in the preservation of minimally processed fish products. Methods: Firstly, GC-MS analysis of the EO was performed to determine its chemical composition. Then, antibacterial effect of the EO in a range of 0.031 to 4 mg/ml was tested against different fish spoilage bacteria such as Aeromonas h...

  8. Applications of Active Packaging in Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Göncü

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes on consumer preferences lead to innovations and improvements in new packaging technologies. With these new developments passive packaging technologies aiming to protect food nowadays have left their place to active and intelligent packaging technologies that have other various functions beside protection of food. Active packaging is defined as an innovative packaging type and its usage increases the shelf life of food significantly. Applications of active packaging have begun to be used for packaging of breads. In this study active packaging applications in breads have been reviewed.

  9. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Pernilla; Kihlberg, Iwona; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Marklinder, Ingela; Nydahl, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    Background Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known. Objective To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that is, where and when it is consumed. Design Secondary analysis was performed on bread consumption data from a national dietary survey (n=1,435). Respondents were segmented into consumer groups according to the type and amount of bread consumed. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to study how selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the consumer groups. Selected consumption groups were compared in terms of whole-grain intake and consumption context. Consumption in different age groups was analysed more in detail. Results One-third of the respondents consumed mainly white bread. Socio-demographic, geographic, and healthy-lifestyle-related factors were associated with the bread type consumed. White bread consumption was associated with younger age groups, less education, children in the family, eating less fruit and vegetables, and more candy and snacks; the opposite was seen for mainly whole-grain bread consumers. Older age groups more often reported eating dry crisp bread, whole-grain bread, and whole-grain rye bread with sourdough whereas younger respondents reported eating bread outside the home, something that also mainly white bread eaters did. Low consumers of bread also consumed less whole grain in total. Conclusions Traditional bread consumption structures were observed, as was a transition among young consumers who more often consumed fast food bread and bread outside the home, as well as less rye and whole

  10. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Pernilla; Kihlberg, Iwona; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Marklinder, Ingela; Nydahl, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known. To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that is, where and when it is consumed. Secondary analysis was performed on bread consumption data from a national dietary survey (n=1,435). Respondents were segmented into consumer groups according to the type and amount of bread consumed. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to study how selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the consumer groups. Selected consumption groups were compared in terms of whole-grain intake and consumption context. Consumption in different age groups was analysed more in detail. One-third of the respondents consumed mainly white bread. Socio-demographic, geographic, and healthy-lifestyle-related factors were associated with the bread type consumed. White bread consumption was associated with younger age groups, less education, children in the family, eating less fruit and vegetables, and more candy and snacks; the opposite was seen for mainly whole-grain bread consumers. Older age groups more often reported eating dry crisp bread, whole-grain bread, and whole-grain rye bread with sourdough whereas younger respondents reported eating bread outside the home, something that also mainly white bread eaters did. Low consumers of bread also consumed less whole grain in total. Traditional bread consumption structures were observed, as was a transition among young consumers who more often consumed fast food bread and bread outside the home, as well as less rye and whole-grain bread. Target groups for communication strategies

  11. Bread consumption patterns in a Swedish national dietary survey focusing particularly on whole-grain and rye bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Sandvik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bread types with high contents of whole grains and rye are associated with beneficial health effects. Consumer characteristics of different bread consumption patterns are however not well known. Objective: To compare bread consumption patterns among Swedish adults in relation to selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors. For selected consumer groups, the further aim is to investigate the intake of whole grains and the context of bread consumption, that is, where and when it is consumed. Design: Secondary analysis was performed on bread consumption data from a national dietary survey (n=1,435. Respondents were segmented into consumer groups according to the type and amount of bread consumed. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to study how selected socio-demographic, geographic, and lifestyle-related factors were associated with the consumer groups. Selected consumption groups were compared in terms of whole-grain intake and consumption context. Consumption in different age groups was analysed more in detail. Results: One-third of the respondents consumed mainly white bread. Socio-demographic, geographic, and healthy-lifestyle-related factors were associated with the bread type consumed. White bread consumption was associated with younger age groups, less education, children in the family, eating less fruit and vegetables, and more candy and snacks; the opposite was seen for mainly whole-grain bread consumers. Older age groups more often reported eating dry crisp bread, whole-grain bread, and whole-grain rye bread with sourdough whereas younger respondents reported eating bread outside the home, something that also mainly white bread eaters did. Low consumers of bread also consumed less whole grain in total. Conclusions: Traditional bread consumption structures were observed, as was a transition among young consumers who more often consumed fast food bread and bread outside the home, as well as

  12. Studies on the effect of brown rice and maize flour on the quality of bread

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M.Z; Shams, M.

    2011-01-01

    Breads were prepared with various combinations of maize, brown rice and wheat flours in the basic formulation of bread. The baking properties and chemical composition of bread were evaluated and analysed, respectively. The bread volume decreased, where as bread weight and moisture content increased with the increasing level of maize and brown rice flour. The crumb and crust colour of breads were improved with addition of 8% maize and 8% brown rice flour in bread formulation. The protein conte...

  13. Exploring lot-to-lot variation in spoilage bacterial communities on commercial modified atmosphere packaged beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säde, Elina; Penttinen, Katri; Björkroth, Johanna; Hultman, Jenni

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the factors influencing meat bacterial communities is important as these communities are largely responsible for meat spoilage. The composition and structure of a bacterial community on a high-O 2 modified-atmosphere packaged beef product were examined after packaging, on the use-by date and two days after, to determine whether the communities at each stage were similar to those in samples taken from different production lots. Furthermore, we examined whether the taxa associated with product spoilage were distributed across production lots. Results from 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing showed that while the early samples harbored distinct bacterial communities, after 8-12 days storage at 6 °C the communities were similar to those in samples from different lots, comprising mainly of common meat spoilage bacteria Carnobacterium spp., Brochothrix spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus spp. Interestingly, abundant operational taxonomic units associated with product spoilage were shared between the production lots, suggesting that the bacteria enable to spoil the product were constant contaminants in the production chain. A characteristic succession pattern and the distribution of common spoilage bacteria between lots suggest that both the packaging type and the initial community structure influenced the development of the spoilage bacterial community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Performance of rice varieties in making bread without gluten].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, R L; González, R J; Sánchez, H D; Osella, C A; de la Torre, M A

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this work was the evaluation of the technological behavior of seven rice genotypes, using a baking test for bread without gluten, and taking account the influence of particle size and physicochemical properties of the rice on the technological aptitude to produce the bread. Total and insoluble amylose content and hydration were used to make its relationship with bread quality. The genotypes Rico and H-144-7 have contributed to give the best results at baking test while waxy rices gave the lower quality bread. Also we emphasize that a certain relationships can be assumed between hydration and insoluble amylose content with the organoleptic evaluation of breads.

  15. Spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species isolated from goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  16. Activation of waste brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Stevan D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste brewer's yeast S. cerevisiae (activated and non-activated was compared with the commercial baker's yeast regarding the volume of developed gas in dough, volume and freshness stability of produced bread. The activation of waste brewer's yeast resulted in the increased volume of developed gas in dough by 100% compared to non-activated brewer's yeast, and the obtained bread is of more stable freshness compared to bread produced with baker's yeast. The activation of BY affects positively the quality of produced bread regarding bread volume. The volume of developed gas in dough prepared with the use of non-activated BY was not sufficient, therefore, it should not be used as fermentation agent, but only as an additive in bread production process for bread freshness preservation. Intense mixing of dough results in more compressible crumb 48 hrs after baking compared to high-speed mixing.

  17. Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-08-10

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 150 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  18. Maarja Unduski 'Fungi'

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    24. nov.-st Linnagaleriis Tallinnas Maarja Unduski kolmas isiknäitus 'Fungi'. Eksponeeritud hiigelseened ja rida värviliste lehtedega ramatuid, mille kaante valmistamisel on autor esmakordselt kasutanud ka lõuendit ja paberreljeefi.

  19. Manglicolous fungi from India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chinnaraj, S.; Untawale, A.G.

    This paper deals with nine Ascomycetous fungi viz. Rhizophila marina Hyde et Jones, Trematosphaeria striatispora Hyde, Lineolata rhizophorae (Kohlm. et. Kohlm.) Kohlm. et. Volkm.-Kohlm., Caryosporella rhizophorae Kohlm., Passeriniella savoryellopsis...

  20. Application of model bread baking in the examination of arabinoxylan-protein complexes in rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksa, Krzysztof

    2016-09-05

    The changes in molecular mass of arabinoxylan (AX) and protein caused by bread baking process were examined using a model rye bread. Instead of the normal flour, the dough contained starch, water-extractable AX and protein which were isolated from rye wholemeal. From the crumb of selected model breads, starch was removed releasing AX-protein complexes, which were further examined by size exclusion chromatography. On the basis of the research, it was concluded that optimum model mix can be composed of 3-6% AX and 3-6% rye protein isolate at 94-88% of rye starch meaning with the most similar properties to low extraction rye flour. Application of model rye bread allowed to examine the interactions between AX and proteins. Bread baked with a share of AX, rye protein and starch, from which the complexes of the highest molar mass were isolated, was characterized by the strongest structure of the bread crumb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maillard reaction products in bread: A novel semi-quantitative method for evaluating melanoidins in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Cynthia; Jacolot, Philippe; Niquet-Léridon, Céline; Gadonna-Widehem, Pascale; Tessier, Frédéric J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the methods currently in use and to develop a new protocol for the evaluation of melanoidins in bread. Markers of the early and advanced stages of the Maillard reaction were also followed in the crumb and the crust of bread throughout baking, and in a crust model system. The crumb of the bread contained N(ε)-fructoselysine and N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine but at levels 7 and 5 times lower than the crust, respectively. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural was detected only in the crust and its model system. The available methods for the semi-quantification of melanoidins were found to be unsuitable for their analysis in bread. Our new method based on size exclusion chromatography and fluorescence measures soluble fluorescent melanoidins in bread. These melanoidin macromolecules (1.7-5.6 kDa) were detected intact in both crust and model system. They appear to contribute to the dietary fibre in bread. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reducing Salt in Raw Pork Sausages Increases Spoilage and Correlates with Reduced Bacterial Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougy, Lysiane; Desmonts, Marie-Hélène; Coeuret, Gwendoline; Fassel, Christine; Hamon, Erwann; Hézard, Bernard; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine; Chaillou, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    Raw sausages are perishable foodstuffs; reducing their salt content raises questions about a possible increased spoilage of these products. In this study, we evaluated the influence of salt reduction (from 2.0% to 1.5% [wt/wt]), in combination with two types of packaging (modified atmosphere [50% mix of CO2-N2] and vacuum packaging), on the onset of spoilage and on the diversity of spoilage-associated bacteria. After 21 days of storage at 8°C, spoilage was easily observed, characterized by noticeable graying of the products and the production of gas and off-odors defined as rancid, sulfurous, or sour. At least one of these types of spoilage occurred in each sample, and the global spoilage intensity was more pronounced in samples stored under modified atmosphere than under vacuum packaging and in samples with the lower salt content. Metagenetic 16S rRNA pyrosequencing revealed that vacuum-packaged samples contained a higher total bacterial richness (n = 69 operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) than samples under the other packaging condition (n = 46 OTUs). The core community was composed of 6 OTUs (Lactobacillus sakei, Lactococcus piscium, Carnobacterium divergens, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Serratia proteamaculans, and Brochothrix thermosphacta), whereas 13 OTUs taxonomically assigned to the Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Leuconostocaceae families comprised a less-abundant subpopulation. This subdominant community was significantly more abundant when 2.0% salt and vacuum packaging were used, and this correlated with a lower degree of spoilage. Our results demonstrate that salt reduction, particularly when it is combined with CO2-enriched packaging, promotes faster spoilage of raw sausages by lowering the overall bacterial diversity (both richness and evenness). Our study takes place in the context of raw meat product manufacturing and is linked to a requirement for salt reduction. Health guidelines are calling for a reduction in dietary salt intake

  3. Reducing Salt in Raw Pork Sausages Increases Spoilage and Correlates with Reduced Bacterial Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougy, Lysiane; Desmonts, Marie-Hélène; Coeuret, Gwendoline; Fassel, Christine; Hamon, Erwann; Hézard, Bernard; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Raw sausages are perishable foodstuffs; reducing their salt content raises questions about a possible increased spoilage of these products. In this study, we evaluated the influence of salt reduction (from 2.0% to 1.5% [wt/wt]), in combination with two types of packaging (modified atmosphere [50% mix of CO2-N2] and vacuum packaging), on the onset of spoilage and on the diversity of spoilage-associated bacteria. After 21 days of storage at 8°C, spoilage was easily observed, characterized by noticeable graying of the products and the production of gas and off-odors defined as rancid, sulfurous, or sour. At least one of these types of spoilage occurred in each sample, and the global spoilage intensity was more pronounced in samples stored under modified atmosphere than under vacuum packaging and in samples with the lower salt content. Metagenetic 16S rRNA pyrosequencing revealed that vacuum-packaged samples contained a higher total bacterial richness (n = 69 operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) than samples under the other packaging condition (n = 46 OTUs). The core community was composed of 6 OTUs (Lactobacillus sakei, Lactococcus piscium, Carnobacterium divergens, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Serratia proteamaculans, and Brochothrix thermosphacta), whereas 13 OTUs taxonomically assigned to the Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Leuconostocaceae families comprised a less-abundant subpopulation. This subdominant community was significantly more abundant when 2.0% salt and vacuum packaging were used, and this correlated with a lower degree of spoilage. Our results demonstrate that salt reduction, particularly when it is combined with CO2-enriched packaging, promotes faster spoilage of raw sausages by lowering the overall bacterial diversity (both richness and evenness). IMPORTANCE Our study takes place in the context of raw meat product manufacturing and is linked to a requirement for salt reduction. Health guidelines are calling for a reduction in

  4. Inactivation of the Radiation-Resistant Spoilage Bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, D. E.; Anderson, A. W.; Elliker, P. R.

    1963-01-01

    A simplified technique permitting the pipetting of raw puréed meats for quantitative bacteriological study is described for use in determining survival of these non-sporing bacteria, which are exceptionally resistant to radiation. Survival curves, using gamma radiation as the sterilizing agent, were determined in raw beef with four strains of Micrococcus radiodurans. Survival curves of the R1 strain in other meat substrates showed that survival was significantly greater in raw beef and raw chicken than in raw fish or in cooked beef. Resistance was lowest in the buffer. Cells grown in broth (an artificial growth medium) and resuspended in beef did not differ in resistance from cells that had been grown and irradiated in beef. Survival rate was statistically independent of the initial cell concentration, even though there appeared to be a correlation between lower death rate and lower initial cell concentrations. The initial viable count of this culture of the domesticated R1 strain in beef was reduced by a factor of about 10-5 by 3.0 megarad, and 4.0 megarad reduced the initial count by a factor of more than 10-9. Data suggest that M. radiodurans R1 is more resistant to radiation than spore-forming spoilage bacteria for which inactivation rates have been published. PMID:14063780

  5. Prediction of Mold Spoilage for Soy/Polyethylene Composite Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmay Naphade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mold spoilage was determined over 109 days on soy/PE fibers held under controlled temperatures (T ranging from 10°C to 40°C and water activities (aw from 0.11 to 0.98. Water activities were created in sealed containers using saturated salt solutions and placed in temperature-controlled incubators. Soy/PE fibers that were held at 0.823 aw or higher exhibited mold growth at all temperatures. As postulated, increased water activity (greater than 0.89 and temperature (higher than 25°C accelerated mold growth on soy/PE fibers. A slower mold growth was observed on soy/PE fibers that were held at 0.87 aw and 10°C. A Weibull model was employed to fit the observed logarithmic values of T, aw, and an interaction term log⁡T×log⁡aw and was chosen as the final model as it gave the best fit to the raw mold growth data. These growth models predict the expected mold-free storage period of soy/PE fibers when exposed to various environmental temperatures and humidities.

  6. Recall costs balanced against spoilage control in Dutch custard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velthuis, A G J; Reij, M W; Baritakis, K; Dang, M; van Wagenberg, C P A

    2010-06-01

    The relation between the moment at which a recall of Dutch custard is initiated and the direct costs of this recall was investigated. A simulation model of the custard supply chain was developed to compare scenarios with and without a quarantine of 48 h at the storage of the production plant. The model consists of 3 parts: 1) the distribution of a 24,000-L batch of custard over the supply chain over time is simulated; 2) the time to detect spoilage bacteria with a recontamination test procedure is simulated; and 3) the direct recall costs of custard over the different parts of the supply chain are calculated. Direct recall costs increase from about 25,000 euros/batch to 36,171 euros/batch from 57 to 135 h in the situation without quarantine and from 25,000 euros/batch to 36,648 euros/batch from 123 h to 163 h for the situation with quarantine. Then costs decrease because more and more custard is at the consumer level and only 0.13% of the consumers will ask for a refund. With low true contamination probabilities quarantine is not profitable, but at later detection moments with high probabilities it is. We conclude that a simulation model is a helpful tool to evaluate the efficiency of risk management strategies like end product testing and a quarantine situation. 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ancient Item Spoilage Ritual Used in Nomadic Burial Rite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beisenov Arman Z.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the findings of items in ancient burials which were intentionally spoiled prior to deposition in graves. This tradition was widely spread both in terms of chronology and geography, and therefore cannot be attributed to any individual cultures or regions. The authors present new information on the ritual obtained during an investigation of Borsyk burial mound of the Middle Sarmatian period located in West Kazakhstan. The central grave of barrow 6 contained a heavily damaged bronze cauldron. The grave was looted in antiquity. Individual scattered bones of a human skeleton and minor gold foil adornments from the ceremonial dress of a nobleman were discovered in the grave. The authors suggest that the cauldron was intentionally deformed by the participants of an ancient mortuary and memorial ritual. According to the principal hypothesis concerning the essence of this ritual, spoilage of the items was related to the idea of assign the items with “different” and “transcendent” properties, which resulted from the necessity of burying the owner. Cauldrons played an important role in the life of steppe leaders. The authors assume a sacral nature of the use of cauldrons in the culture of steppe peoples associated with feasts, battles, and sacred hunting. Perhaps, there was a tradition of burying cauldrons together with their owners after spoiling the items in view of the concept of the other world and the role of a heroic leader therein.

  8. Nudging children towards whole wheat bread: a field experiment on the influence of fun bread roll shape on breakfast consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Vrijhof, Milou; Polet, Ilse A; Vingerhoeds, Monique H; de Wijk, René A

    2014-09-02

    Many children do not eat enough whole grains, which may have negative health consequences. Intervention research is increasingly focusing on nudging as a way to influence food choices by affecting unconscious behavioural processes. The aim of this field study was to examine whether the shape of bread rolls is able to shift children's bread choices from white to whole wheat during breakfast to increase whole grain intake. In a between-subjects experiment conducted at twelve primary schools in the Netherlands, with school as the unit of condition assignment, children were exposed to an assortment of white and whole wheat bread rolls, both varying in shape (regular versus fun). Children were free to choose the type and number of bread rolls and toppings to eat during breakfast. Consumption of bread rolls was measured at class level via the number of bread rolls before and after breakfast. In addition, children (N = 1113) responded to a survey including questions about the breakfast. Results of the field experiment showed that about 76% of bread consumption consisted of white bread rolls. Consumption of white bread rolls did not differ according to shape (all P-values > 0.18). However, presenting fun-shaped whole wheat bread rolls almost doubled consumption of whole wheat bread (P = 0.001), particularly when the simultaneously presented white bread rolls had a regular shape (interaction P = 0.02). Survey results suggest that slight increases in perceived pleasure and taste are associated with these effects. Overall, presenting whole wheat bread in fun shapes may be helpful in increasing consumption of whole wheat bread in children. Future research could examine how improving the visual appeal of healthy foods may lead to sustained behaviour changes.

  9. Quality of wholemeal wheat bread enriched with green coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Gawlik-Dziki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific studies have revealed that bioactive components of coffee play a preventive role against various degenerative diseases. Green coffee, in particular, is characterized by its unique composition and properties. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of green coffee (Coffea arabica beans (GCB addition on the quality and antioxidant properties (AA of the wholemeal bread. For bread preparation, flour form GCB, and wholemeal wheat flour, type 2000 were used. Wholemeal wheat flour was replaced with GCB flour at 1 to 5% levels. Loaf volume, texture, color and sensory properties of bread were determined. Furthermore, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were evaluated. The results showed that bread supplementation with GCB had little influence on the bread volume. The highest volume of bread was obtained with 3 and 4% of GCB flour. The texture properties of bread crumb (hardness, elasticity, cohesiveness and chewiness were slightly changed as a result of the GCB addition. The lightness of bread crumb decreased with the GCB addition (average from 46.3 to 42.6. Besides, the addition of GCB significantly enriched wheat bread with hydrophilic phenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Moreover, the GCB addition enhanced antiradical activity of bread.

  10. Development of soy-based bread with acceptable sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovski, B; Seetharaman, K; Duizer, L M

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of soy protein has been associated with benefits related to numerous areas of health. Due to the widespread consumption of bread, one means of contributing to the health of individuals is through the incorporation of soy protein into bread. To this end, soy flour (SF) or soy protein isolates (SPIs) in 20% and 12% substitution levels, respectively, were added to flour during bread manufacture. The developed breads were tested using a consumer panel for acceptability, using a refined white bread as a control. These data were compared to attribute intensity data collected by the trained panel to identify specific flavor and texture characteristics affecting liking. The sensory profile of the 20% SF bread was acceptable and comparable to the control bread, despite a significantly stronger beany flavor. No significant differences in sensory properties of the SF and control breads were detected by the trained panel for many sensory attributes. The SPI bread, however, had a sensory profile that was significantly more firm, dense, sour, beany, bitter, and astringent with a strong aftertaste in comparison to the wheat control bread. Consumer liking scores for the SPI bread was significantly lower than the liking of the control and the SF added bread. Many soy-enriched foods, while contributing positively to health, are considered unacceptable by consumers. This is due to negative sensory properties, such as beany, painty, and astringent notes, often perceived by consumers. This study provides information on the level of SF that can be included in bread in an amount that does not detract from consumer acceptability. This level also allows for a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) health claim to be made. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Consumer detection and acceptability of reduced-sodium bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Croix, Kimberly W; Fiala, Steven C; Colonna, Ann E; Durham, Catherine A; Morrissey, Michael T; Drum, Danna K; Kohn, Melvin A

    2015-06-01

    Bread is the largest contributor of Na to the American diet and excess Na consumption contributes to premature death and disability. We sought to determine the Na level at which consumers could detect a difference between reduced-Na bread and bread with typical Na content, and to determine if consumer sensory acceptability and purchase intent differed between reduced-Na bread and bread with typical Na content. Difference testing measured ability to detect differences in control bread and reduced-Na bread using two-alternative forced choice testing. Acceptability was measured using a nine-point hedonic scale and purchase intent was measured using a five-point purchase intent scale. Difference and acceptability testing were conducted in Portland, OR, USA in January 2013. Eighty-two consumers participated in difference testing and 109 consumers participated in acceptability testing. Consumers did not detect a difference in saltiness between the control bread and the 10 % reduced-Na bread, but did detect a difference between the control bread and bread reduced in Na content by 20 % and 30 %. Na reductions had no effect on consumer acceptability of sensory characteristics, including overall liking, appearance, aroma, flavour, sweetness, salt level and texture, or purchase intent. Reducing Na levels by up to 30 % in the sandwich bread tested did not affect consumer liking or purchase intent of the product. These results support national recommendations for small, incremental Na reductions in the food supply over time and assure bread manufacturers that sensory characteristics and consumer purchase intent of their products will be preserved after Na reductions occur.

  12. Nematode-Trapping Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2017-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are a unique and intriguing group of carnivorous microorganisms that can trap and digest nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures. They can develop diverse trapping devices, such as adhesive hyphae, adhesive knobs, adhesive networks, constricting rings, and nonconstricting rings. Nematode-trapping fungi have been found in all regions of the world, from the tropics to Antarctica, from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. They play an important ecological role in regulating nematode dynamics in soil. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the majority of nematode-trapping fungi belong to a monophyletic group in the order Orbiliales (Ascomycota). Nematode-trapping fungi serve as an excellent model system for understanding fungal evolution and interaction between fungi and nematodes. With the development of molecular techniques and genome sequencing, their evolutionary origins and divergence, and the mechanisms underlying fungus-nematode interactions have been well studied. In recent decades, an increasing concern about the environmental hazards of using chemical nematicides has led to the application of these biological control agents as a rapidly developing component of crop protection.

  13. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Lactobacillus casei- casei and Lactobacillus reuteri on acrylamide formation in flat bread and Bread roll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastmalchi, Farnaz; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Faraji, Mohammad; Labbafi, Mohsen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contains lactobacillus (L.) casei- casei and L. reuteri on acrylamide formation and physicochemical properties of the Iranian flat bread named, Sangak, and Bread roll. Sangak and Bread roll were made with whole and white wheat flour, respectively. Whole-wheat flour had upper content of protein, sugar, ash, fiber, damaged starch and the activity of amylase than the white wheat flour. After 24 h of fermentation, the pH values of the sourdoughs made from whole-wheat flour (3.00, 2.90) were lower, in compared to sourdoughs prepared from white wheat flour (3.60, 3.58). In addition, in Sangak bread, glucose, and fructose were completely utilized after fermentation, but in bread roll, the reduced sugar levels increased after fermentation and baking that represent microorganisms cannot be activated and utilized sugars. Acrylamide formation was impacted by pH of sourdough and total reducing sugar (r = 0.915, r = 0.885 respectively). Bread roll and Sangak bread were fermented by L. casei- casei contained lowest acrylamide content, in two bread types (219.1, 104.3 μg/kg respectively). As an important result, the acrylamide content of Sangak bread in all cases was lower than in the Bread roll.

  15. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part II: Breads Not Containing Oil as an Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Ranawana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes the second part of a study investigating the effect of adding vegetables on the nutritional, physico-chemical, and oxidative properties of wheat bread, and specifically focuses on bread that does not contain oil as an added ingredient. Wheat flour breads fortified with freeze-dried carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were developed and assessed for their nutritional composition, antioxidant potential, oxidative stability, and storage properties. Using a simulated in vitro model, the study also examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables improved the nutritional and functional attributes of the oil-free breads. However, they demonstrated a lower antioxidant potential compared to their oil-containing counterparts. Similarly, the textural and storage properties of the oil-free vegetable breads were poorer compared to the oil-containing breads. As expected, in the absence of oil the oil-free breads were associated with lower lipid oxidation both in their fresh form and during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables reduced protein oxidation in the fresh oil-free breads but had no effect during gastro-intestinal digestion. The impact of vegetables on macronutrient oxidation in the oil-free breads during digestion appears to be vegetable-specific with broccoli exacerbating it and the others having no effect. Of the evaluated vegetables, beetroot showed the most promising nutritional and physico-chemical benefits when incorporated into bread that does not contain added oil.

  16. Efficacy of lactoferricin B in controlling ready-to-eat vegetable spoilage caused by Pseudomonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Baruzzi; Pinto, Loris; Quintieri, Laura; Carito, Antonia; Calabrese, Nicola; Caputo, Leonardo

    2015-12-23

    The microbial content of plant tissues has been reported to cause the spoilage of ca. 30% of chlorine-disinfected fresh vegetables during cold storage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial peptides in controlling microbial vegetable spoilage under cold storage conditions. A total of 48 bacterial isolates were collected from ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables and identified as belonging to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Aeromonas media, Pseudomonas cichorii, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas jessenii, Pseudomonas koreensis, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas simiae and Pseudomonas viridiflava species. Reddish or brownish pigmentation was found when Pseudomonas strains were inoculated in wounds on leaves of Iceberg and Trocadero lettuce and escarole chicory throughout cold storage. Bovine lactoferrin (BLF) and its hydrolysates (LFHs) produced by pepsin, papain and rennin, were assayed in vitro against four Pseudomonas spp. strains selected for their heavy spoiling ability. As the pepsin-LFH showed the strongest antimicrobial effect, subsequent experiments were carried out using the peptide lactoferricin B (LfcinB), well known to be responsible for its antimicrobial activity. LfcinB significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) spoilage by a mean of 36% caused by three out of four inoculated spoiler pseudomonads on RTE lettuce leaves after six days of cold storage. The reduction in the extent of spoilage was unrelated to viable cell density in the inoculated wounds. This is the first paper providing direct evidence regarding the application of an antimicrobial peptide to control microbial spoilage affecting RTE leafy vegetables during cold storage.

  17. Changes of Bacterial Diversity Depend on the Spoilage of Fresh Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hwan Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Almost 10~30% of vegetables were discarded by the spoilage from farms to tables. After harvest, vegetables are often spoiled by a wide variety of microorganisms including many bacterial and fungal species. This investigation was conducted to extent the knowledge of relationship the spoilage of vegetables and the diversity of microbes. The total aerobic bacterial numbers in fresh lettuce, perilla leaf, and chicory were 2.6~2.7×106, 4.6×105, 1.2×106 CFU/g of fresh weight, respectively. The most common bacterial species were Pseudomonas spp., Alysiella spp., and Burkholderia spp., and other 18 more genera were involved in. After one week of incubation of those vegetables at 28℃, the microbial diversity had been changed. The total aerobic bacterial numbers increased to 1.1~4.6×108, 4.9×107, and 7.6×108 CFU/g of fresh weight for lettuce, perilla leaf, and chicory that is about 102 times increased bacterial numbers than that before spoilage. However, the diversity of microbes isolated had been simplified and fewer bacterial species had been isolated. The most bacterial population (~48% was taken up by Pseudomonas spp., and followed by Arthrobacter spp. and Bacillus spp. The spoilage activity of individual bacterial isolates had been tested using axenic lettuce plants. Among tested isolates, Pseudomonas fluorescence and Pantoea agglomerans caused severe spoilage on lettuce.

  18. Study on spoilage capability and VBNC state formation and recovery of Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyan; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Peters, Brian M; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the capability of L. plantarum strain BM-LP14723 to enter into and recover from the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state and to cause beer spoilage. VBNC state was induced by incubating in beer with subculturing or low temperature treatment. Culturable, total, and viable cells numbers were assessed by MRS agar plate counting, acridine orange direct counting, and Live/Dead BacLight bacterial viability kit, respectively. Organic acids concentrations were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. VBNC L. plantarum cells were detected after 189 ± 1.9 days low temperature treatment or 29 ± 0.7 subcultures in beer. The VBNC L. plantarum retained spoilage capability. Addition of catalase is an effective method for the recovery of the VBNC L. plantarum cells. L. plantarum strain BM-LP14723 is capable of entering into and recovery from the VBNC state and maintained spoilage capability. The current study presented that beer-spoilage L. plantarum can hide both in breweries and during transporting and marketing process and thus lead to beer-spoilage incidents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbiological, chemical and sensory spoilage analysis of raw Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stored under modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuuliala, L; Al Hage, Y; Ioannidis, A-G; Sader, M; Kerckhof, F-M; Vanderroost, M; Boon, N; De Baets, B; De Meulenaer, B; Ragaert, P; Devlieghere, F

    2018-04-01

    During fish spoilage, microbial metabolism leads to the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), characteristic off-odors and eventual consumer rejection. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the development of intelligent packaging technologies by identifying and quantifying VOCs that indicate spoilage of raw Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) under atmospheres (%v/v CO 2 /O 2 /N 2 ) 60/40/0, 60/5/35 and air. Spoilage was examined by microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses over storage time at 4 or 8 °C. Selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) was used for quantifying selected VOCs and amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used for the characterization of the cod microbiota. OTUs classified within the Photobacterium genus increased in relative abundance over time under all storage conditions, suggesting that Photobacterium contributed to spoilage and VOC production. The onset of exponential VOC concentration increase and sensory rejection occurred at high total plate counts (7-7.5 log). Monitoring of early spoilage thus calls for sensitivity for low VOC concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Introduction to the Microbiological Spoilage of Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, William H.

    Though direct evidence of ancient food-handling practices is difficult to obtain and examine, it seems safe to assume that over the span of several million years, prehistoric humans struggled to maintain an adequate food supply. Their daily food needed to be hunted or harvested and consumed before it spoiled and became unfit to eat. Freshly killed animals, for example, could not have been kept for very long periods of time. Moreover, many early humans were nomadic, continually searching for food. We can imagine that, with an unreliable food supply, their lives must have often been literally "feast or famine." Yet, our ancestors gradually learned by accident, or by trial and error, simple techniques that could extend the storage time of their food (Block, 1991). Their brain capacity was similar to that of modern humans; therefore, some of them were likely early scientists and technologists. They would have learned that primitive cereal grains, nuts and berries, etc. could be stored in covered vessels to keep them dry and safer from mold spoilage. Animal products could be kept in cool places or dried and smoked over a fire, as the controlled use of fire by humans is thought to have begun about 400,000 years ago. Quite likely, naturally desiccated or fermented foods were also noticed and produced routinely to provide a more stable supply of edible food. Along with the development of agricultural practices for crop and animal production, the "simple" food-handling practices developed during the relatively countless millennia of prehistory paved the way for human civilizations.

  1. Kinetics of the crust thickness development of bread during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani Pour-Damanab, Alireza; Jafary, A; Rafiee, Sh

    2014-11-01

    The development of crust thickness of bread during baking is an important aspect of bread quality and shelf-life. Computer vision system was used for measuring the crust thickness via colorimetric properties of bread surface during baking process. Crust thickness had a negative and positive relationship with Lightness (L (*) ) and total color change (E (*) ) of bread surface, respectively. A linear negative trend was found between crust thickness and moisture ratio of bread samples. A simple mathematical model was proposed to predict the development of crust thickness of bread during baking, where the crust thickness was depended on moisture ratio that was described by the Page moisture losing model. The independent variables of the model were baking conditions, i.e. oven temperature and air velocity, and baking time. Consequently, the proposed model had well prediction ability, as the mean absolute estimation error of the model was 7.93 %.

  2. Effect of Bread Making Process on Aflatoxin Level Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar Milani; Seyed Saman Seyed Nazari; Elmira Bamyar; Gisou Maleki

    2014-01-01

    Wheat flour is a commodity with a high risk of aflatoxins (AFs) contamination. During the bread making there are many processes that can affect the AFs stability. The effect of bread making process using different yeast types on AFs levels was investigated. For this purpose, standards of AFs including B and Gwere added to flour and then bread loaves were prepared. Three types of commercially available yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast were used for dough...

  3. Activation of waste brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bread production

    OpenAIRE

    Popov Stevan D.; Dodić Siniša N.; Mastilović Jasna S.; Dodić Jelena M.; Popov-Raljić Jovanka V.

    2005-01-01

    The waste brewer's yeast S. cerevisiae (activated and non-activated) was compared with the commercial baker's yeast regarding the volume of developed gas in dough, volume and freshness stability of produced bread. The activation of waste brewer's yeast resulted in the increased volume of developed gas in dough by 100% compared to non-activated brewer's yeast, and the obtained bread is of more stable freshness compared to bread produced with baker's yeast. The activation of BY affects positive...

  4. Heteroresistance and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gabriella F; Santos, Daniel A

    2017-09-01

    The concept of heteroresistance refers to the heterogeneous susceptibility to an antimicrobial drug in a microorganism population, meaning that some clones may be resistant and others are susceptible. This phenomenon has been widely studied in bacteria, but little attention has been given to its expression in fungi. We review the available literature on heteroresistance in fungi and invite the reader to recognise this phenomenon as a fungal mechanism to adapt to environmental stress, which may interfere both in resistance and virulence. Finally, heteroresistance may explain the treatment failures to eradicate mycosis in some patients treated with a seemingly appropriate antifungal. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Formation of acrylamide in cheese bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sobrinho, Luis Gualberto De Andrade; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    Low addition of grated Mozzarella cheese (13.4 g/100 g dough) resulted after baking for 20 min at 200 degrees C in a moderate increase of acrylamide from 4 ppb in buns without cheese to 7 ppb in the cheese buns as analyzed by a LCMS/MS technique. The effect was strongly dependent on the amount...... of cheese added, and addition of 23.7 g cheese resulted in 958 ppb acrylamide. For an o/w rapeseed oil emulsion as a food model heated under conditions similar to those persisting inside bread during baking, it was further shown that acrylamide formation also occurred in absence of reducing sugars....... In contrast, acrylamide was not observed in Pao de queijo a traditional Brazilian bread product made from fermented cassava flour, fresh eggs and a mixture of Brazilian Gouda type cheese and Mozzarella cheese pointing towards a role of eggs in protection against acrylamide formation....

  6. Occurrence and growth of yeasts in processed meat products - implications for potential spoilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Jacobsen, Tomas; Jespersen, Lene

    2008-01-01

    of the processed meat products. The yeast microflora was complex with 4-12 different species isolated from the different production sites. In general, Candida zeylanoides, Debaryomyces hansenii and the newly described Candida alimentaria were found to be the dominant yeast species. In addition, three putatively......Spoilage of meat products is in general attributed to bacteria but new processing and storage techniques inhibiting growth of bacteria may provide opportunities for yeasts to dominate the microflora and cause spoilage of the product. With the aim of obtaining a deeper understanding of the potential...... role of yeast in spoilage of five different processed meat products (bacon, ham, salami and two different liver patés), yeasts were isolated, enumerated and identified during processing, in the final product and in the final product at the end of shelf life. Yeasts were isolated along the bacon...

  7. Influence of calcium acetate on rye bread volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina FUCKERER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The positive accepted savoury taste of rye bread is dependent on acetate concentration in the dough of such breads. In order to study how calcium acetate influences rye bread properties, the pH of rye doughs fortified with calcium acetate and the resulting volume of the breads were measured. Furthermore, CO2 formation of yeast with added calcium acetate and yeast with different pH levels (4, 7, 9 were measured. Thereby, it was determined that the addition of calcium acetate increased the pH of dough from 4.42 to 5.29 and significantly reduced the volume of the breads from 1235.19 mL to 885.52 mL. It could be proven that bread volume was affected by a 30.9% lower CO2 amount production of yeast, although bread volume was not affected by changing pH levels. Due to reduced bread volume, high concentrations of calcium acetate additions are not recommended for improving rye bread taste.

  8. Enhancement of the folate content in Egyptian pita bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefni, Mohammed; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2012-01-01

    Egypt has a high incidence of neural tube defects related to folate deficiency. One major food source for folate is pita (baladi) bread, which is consumed daily. Bioprocessing (e.g. germination) has been reported to increase the folate content in cereals. The aim was to produce pita bread with increased folate content using germinated wheat flour (GWF). Prior to milling the effects of germination and drying conditions on folate content in wheat grains were studied. Pita bread was baked from wheat flour substituted with different levels of GWF. The folate content in dough and bread and rheological properties of dough were determined. Germination of wheat grains resulted in, depending on temperature, 3- to 4-fold higher folate content with a maximum of 61 µg/100 g DM (dry matter). The folate content in both flour and bread increased 1.5 to 4-fold depending on the level of flour replacement with GWF. Pita bread baked with 50% sieved GWF was acceptable with respect to colour and layer separation, and had a folate content of 50 µg/100 g DM compared with 30 µg/100 g DM in conventional pita bread (0% GWF). Using 50% GWF, pita bread with increased folate content, acceptable for the Egyptian consumer, was produced. Consumption of this bread would increase the average daily folate intake by 75 µg.

  9. Enhancement of the folate content in Egyptian pita bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia M. Witthöft

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Egypt has a high incidence of neural tube defects related to folate deficiency. One major food source for folate is pita (baladi bread, which is consumed daily. Bioprocessing (e.g. germination has been reported to increase the folate content in cereals. The aim was to produce pita bread with increased folate content using germinated wheat flour (GWF.Methods: Prior to milling the effects of germination and drying conditions on folate content in wheat grains were studied. Pita bread was baked from wheat flour substituted with different levels of GWF. The folate content in dough and bread and rheological properties of dough were determined.Results: Germination of wheat grains resulted in, depending on temperature, 3- to 4-fold higher folate content with a maximum of 61 µg/100 g DM (dry matter. The folate content in both flour and bread increased 1.5 to 4-fold depending on the level of flour replacement with GWF. Pita bread baked with 50% sieved GWF was acceptable with respect to colour and layer separation, and had a folate content of 50 µg/100 g DM compared with 30 µg/100 g DM in conventional pita bread (0% GWF.Conclusion: Using 50% GWF, pita bread with increased folate content, acceptable for the Egyptian consumer, was produced. Consumption of this bread would increase the average daily folate intake by 75 µg.

  10. Viability and heat resistance of murine norovirus on bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Michiko; Takahashi, Hajime; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2016-01-04

    Contaminated bread was the cause of a large-scale outbreak of norovirus disease in Japan in 2014. Contamination of seafood and uncooked food products by norovirus has been reported several times in the past; however the outbreak resulting from the contamination of bread products was unusual. A few reports on the presence of norovirus on bread products are available; however there have been no studies on the viability and heat resistance of norovirus on breads, which were investigated in this study. ce:italic>/ce:italic> strain 1 (MNV-1), a surrogate for human norovirus, was inoculated directly on 3 types of bread, but the infectivity of MNV-1 on bread samples was almost unchanged after 5days at 20°C. MNV-1 was inoculated on white bread that was subsequently heated in a toaster for a maximum of 2min. The results showed that MNV-1 remained viable if the heating period was insufficient to inactivate. In addition, bread dough contaminated with MNV-1 was baked in the oven. Our results indicated that MNV-1 may remain viable on breads if the heating duration or temperature is insufficient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of novel starter cultures for sourdough bread production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessas, S; Alexopoulos, A; Mantzourani, I; Koutinas, A; Voidarou, C; Stavropoulou, E; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2011-12-01

    Sourdough application has been extensively increased in the last years due to the consumers demand for food consumption without the addition of chemical preservatives. Several starter cultures have been applied in sourdough bread making targeting the increase of bread self-life and the improvement of sensorial character. More specific, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus sakei as single and mixed cultures were used for sourdough bread making. Various sourdough breads were produced with the addition of sourdough perviously prepared with 10% w/w L. acidophilus, 10% w/w L. sakei and 5% w/w L. acidophilus and 5% w/w L. sakei at the same time. Various chemical parameters were determined such as lactic acid, total titratable acidity and pH. The results revealed that the produced sourdough bread made with sourdough containing the mixed culture was preserved for more days (12 days) than all the other breads produced in the frame of this study, since it contained lactic acid in higher concentrations. The respective total titratable acidity varied between 10.5 and 11 ml NaOH N/10. The same sourdough bread had a firmer texture, better aroma, flavor and overall quality compared to other sourdough breads examined in this study, as shown by sensory evaluation tests and results obtained through SPME GC-MS analysis, which revealed significant differences among the different bread types. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bread Water Content Measurement Based on Hyperspectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhi; Møller, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Water content is one of the most important properties of the bread for tasting assesment or store monitoring. Traditional bread water content measurement methods mostly are processed manually, which is destructive and time consuming. This paper proposes an automated water content measurement...... for bread quality based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging against the conventional manual loss-in-weight method. For this purpose, the hyperspectral components unmixing technology is used for measuring the water content quantitatively. And the definition on bread water content index is presented...

  13. Fungi and mycotoxins in cocoa: from farm to chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pitt, John I; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2014-05-16

    Cocoa is an important crop, as it is the raw material from which chocolate is manufactured. It is grown mainly in West Africa although significant quantities also come from Asia and Central and South America. Primary processing is carried out on the farm, and the flavour of chocolate starts to develop at that time. Freshly harvested pods are opened, the beans, piled in heaps or wooden boxes, are fermented naturally by yeasts and bacteria, then dried in the sun on wooden platforms or sometimes on cement or on the ground, where a gradual reduction in moisture content inhibits microbial growth. Beans are then bagged and marketed. In processing plants, the dried fermented beans are roasted, shelled and ground, then two distinct processes are used, to produce powdered cocoa or chocolate. Filamentous fungi may contaminate many stages in cocoa processing, and poor practices may have a strong influence on the quality of the beans. Apart from causing spoilage, filamentous fungi may also produce aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. This review deals with the growth of fungal species and formation of mycotoxins during the various steps in cocoa processing, as well as reduction of these contaminants by good processing practices. Methodologies for fungal and mycotoxin detection and quantification are discussed while current data about dietary exposure and regulation are also presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Enumeration of fungi in barley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rabie, CJ

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of fungal contamination of barley grain is important as certain fungi can proliferate during the malting process. The following factors which may affect the enumeration of fungi were evaluated: dilution versus direct plating, pre...

  15. The impact of baking time and bread storage temperature on bread crumb properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Lagrain, Bert; Fierens, Ellen; Delcour, Jan A

    2013-12-15

    Two baking times (9 and 24 min) and storage temperatures (4 and 25 °C) were used to explore the impact of heat exposure during bread baking and subsequent storage on amylopectin retrogradation, water mobility, and bread crumb firming. Shorter baking resulted in less retrogradation, a less extended starch network and smaller changes in crumb firmness and elasticity. A lower storage temperature resulted in faster retrogradation, a more rigid starch network with more water inclusion and larger changes in crumb firmness and elasticity. Crumb to crust moisture migration was lower for breads baked shorter and stored at lower temperature, resulting in better plasticized biopolymer networks in crumb. Network stiffening, therefore, contributed less to crumb firmness. A negative relation was found between proton mobilities of water and biopolymers in the crumb gel network and crumb firmness. The slope of this linear function was indicative for the strength of the starch network. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular comparisons for identification of food spoilage yeasts and prediction of species that may develop in different food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoilage of foods and beverages by yeasts is often characterized by objectionable odors, appearance, taste, texture or build-up of gas in packaging containers, resulting in loss of the product. Seldom is human health compromised by products spoiled by yeasts even though some spoilage is caused by sp...

  17. Changes in the texture and viscoelastic properties of bread containing rice porridge during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Ling; Sugiyama, Junichi; Shibata, Mario; Kokawa, Mito; Fujita, Kaori; Tsuta, Mizuki; Nabetani, Hiroshi; Araki, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rice porridge on the texture and viscoelastic properties of bread during storage. Three types of bread, wheat flour bread, 15% rice flour bread, and 15% rice porridge bread, were prepared. After baking and storing the bread for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h at room temperature, we measured the texture and viscoelastic properties of the bread crumbs by texture profile analysis (TPA) and creep test. The 15% rice porridge bread showed a significantly higher specific volume and maintained softer crumbs than the other two types (pbread crumbs during storage.

  18. Fecal excretion of Maillard reaction products and the gut microbiota composition of rats fed with bread crust or bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, C; Anton, P M; Niquet-Léridon, C; Spatz, M; Tessier, F J; Gadonna-Widehem, P

    2017-08-01

    A comparison between the impacts of advanced (N ε -carboxymethyllysine - CML) and terminal (melanoidins) Maillard reaction products from bread on gut microbiota was carried out in this study. Gut microbiota composition as well as fecal excretion of CML from both bread crust and bread crumb, and of melanoidins from bread crust were assessed on a rodent model. Rats were fed with pellets supplemented or not with 13% of bread crust, bread crumb, a fiber-free bread crust model (glucose, starch and gluten heated together) or a fiber-free-melanoidin-free bread model (glucose-starch and gluten heated separately) for four weeks. These model systems were developed to limit the presence of wheat-native dietary fibers such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. CML and melanoidins in pellets and feces were evaluated by LC/MS-MS and HPLC/fluorescence respectively, and gut microbiota composition was determined by cultivation and molecular approaches. Diets supplemented with crumb or the fiber-free-melanoidin-free model contained respectively 17% and 64% less melanoidins than their respective controls. A higher excretion of melanoidins was observed for rats fed with crust or bread crust model compared to their controls, confirming that melanoidins are in contact with gut microbiota. No impact of diets was observed on Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and lactic flora. A decrease of enterobacteria was only observed for rats fed with the diet supplemented with the fiber-free bread crust model. Moreover, a significant increase of bifidobacteria numbers in the presence of crust, crumb and both bread models was observed, showing that this bifidogenic effect of bread is not due to the presence of melanoidins or wheat-native dietary fibers.

  19. Genera of phytopathogenic fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin-Felix, Y.; Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita; Wingfield, M.J.; Akulov, A.; Carnegie, A.J.; Cheewangkoon, R.; Gramaje, D.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Guarnaccia, V.; Halleen, F.; Lombard, L.; Luangsa-ard, J.; Marincowitz, S.; Moslemi, A.; Mostert, L.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Schumacher, R.K.; Spies, C.F.J.; Thangavel, R.; Taylor, P.W.J.; Wilson, A.M.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wood, A.R.; Crous, P.W.

    2019-01-01

    This paper represents the second contribution in the Genera of Phytopathogenic Fungi (GOPHY) series. The series provides morphological descriptions and information regarding the pathology, distribution, hosts and disease symptoms for the treated genera. In addition, primary and secondary DNA

  20. Deep-sea fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C; Damare, S.R.

    significant in terms of carbon sequestration (5, 8). In light of this, the diversity, abundance, and role of fungi in deep-sea sediments may form an important link in the global C biogeochemistry. This review focuses on issues related to collection...

  1. Fun with Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Describes hands-on activities with fungi that may provoke the curiosity of early adolescents and increase their enjoyment and understanding of a vast, important portion of botany. Some of the activities may be conducted during the winter months when most fieldwork ceases. (PR)

  2. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides ; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients- Candida , Pneumocystis , and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  3. Philatelic Mycology: Families of Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasas, W.F.O.; Marasas, H.M.; Wingfield, M.J.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Philately, the study of postage stamps, and mycology, the study of fungi, are seldom connected by those that practice these very different activities. When associated, philatelic mycology would be considered as the study of fungi on stamps. The Fungi touch every aspect of our daily lives, most

  4. Recycled palm oil spoilage: Correlation between physicochemical properties and oleophilicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Ili Afiqa Ab; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Jurid, Lailatul Syema

    2016-11-01

    Palm oil is widely used for domestic and commercial frying due to its techno-economic advantages as compared to other vegetable oils. However, if the oil is used beyond its recommended usage cycle, it might lead to oil spoilage. Therefore this study focuses on the comprehensive analysis of chemical and physical properties of recycled palm oil. Recycled palm oil was prepared by frying potato strips up to 4 batches; 5 cycles for each batch) was carried out with potato (g)-to-oil (ml) ratio of 3/20 prior to physico-chemical analysis (moisture content, color measurement, viscosity, density and iodine value. From 5 tests used to indicate physico-chemical properties of recycled palm oil, only color measurement, viscosity and IV shows results accordingly to theories. Whereas moisture content and density were not comply to theories. With increasing frying times, recycled palm oil color has been darker due to chemical reaction that occurs during frying. The trend line illustrates that with increasing frying times, recycled palm oil lightness decreases. It also means that its color has been darker. Meanwhile, b* rate increase indicating that recycled palm oil show tendency towards green color. Whereas, a* rate decreased, showing low tendency towards red color. Viscosity and moisture content increase with frying cycle. This situation occurred might be due to formation of hydrolysis products which are volatile while frying process. But the remaining non-volatile compounds among the hydrolysis products might also accumulate in palm oil and thus affect the total oil/fat chemical changes. Meanwhile the density of palm oil was quite constant at 0.15 g/cm3 except for cycle 2 with 0.17 g/cm3. The result obtained from this experiment were comply with previous study that stated frying batch number is a significant variable (a = 0.05) affecting the density of oil only after 20 frying batch. The contact angle of recycled palm oil on PHBV thin film was more than 90 °. Hence it shows

  5. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  6. Shelf life characteristics of bread produced from ozonated wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadi, Mohammed; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Peng, Wei; Sulieman, Abdellatif A; Mahdi, Amer Ali; Mohammed, Khalid; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2017-11-13

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of ozone treatment on the quality of bread and its shelf life. Flour was treated with ozone gas a rate of 5 L/min for 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 min. Baking studies showed that bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min exhibited improved quality properties (in terms of specific volume, bread color, and crumb cell numbers). Exposure to ozone for shorter times did not cause obvious changes in the major volatile compounds of bread. A shelf life tests showed that ozone gas treatment influenced the extent of starch crystallinity. The relative starch crystallinity of bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min was lower than the control value, as were the hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness. Microscopic examination of crumb structure revealed remarkable differences between control and treated breads. Although ozone is a naturally occurring substance found in the atmosphere, ozone can also be produced synthetically. Recently, ozone has come to be regarded as a new treatment for flour. Especially in countries where the chlorination is forbidden, ozone treatment may be of a great interest if it were associated with significant and reliable changes in flour. Ozone treatment of wheat flour tends to improve bread shelf life and quality in terms of physiochemical, baking properties, X-ray diffraction data, volatile compound levels, crumb structure, and textural characteristics. Given such findings, desirable shelf life and bread qualities may be achieved when ozone is used as a flour oxidant prior to bread baking. Analyses of the effects of ozone gas on treatment of flour on bread shelf life and quality would aid the production of high quality and extend the shelf life of bread. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A research on bread consumption of families living in the central district of Tokat province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep EKMEKCİ BAL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bread consumption statuses of families living in the central district of Tokat province were identified. Data were obtained from 272 consumers in November 2012. According to the findings, the amount of per capita bread consumption is 291.95 g which is lower than the national average consumption. The most frequently consumed bread type of families was loaf bread with 70.59%. Consumers were mainly purchased bread from supermarkets (80.51% and oven (25.37%. More than half of consumers think that the quality of bread sold in the market is insufficient. Several families cannot consume a significant portion of bread purchased during the day; they re-used some of the staled bread and wasted the rest of staled bread. Measures should be taken to prevent the waste of bread. The quality of the bread produced should be increased and a necessary care for hygiene should be taken during production and sales stages.

  8. Fungi infection in honeybee hives in regions affected by Brazilian sac brood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Keller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Sac Brood is a disease that affects apiaries of Africanized bee hives in Brazil, thereby making them susceptible to high losses. This study investigated the pathogenicity of Africanized bee hives by the entomopathogenic fungi in a Brazilian Sac Brood endemic region. The degree of fungal contamination, presence of mycotoxins in beehive elements, and vulnerability of healthy beehives in environments subjected and not subjected to the disease were investigated. From the contaminating fungal load, species that are mycotoxin producers and pathogenic causing mortality in the bees have been isolated. The analysis of bee pollen and bee bread samples did not show the presence of the toxic pollen of Stryphnodendron (Fabaceae, which has been indicated as the causative agent of mortality in pre-pupal stage larvae. However, bee bread showed the highest correlation between substrate and fungal contamination.

  9. Application of extrusion technology to prepare bread crumb, a comparison with oven method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, I.; Asim, M.

    2015-01-01

    The current research project was designed to conclude the upshot of extrusion cooking temperature on the properties and acceptability of bread crumb. Bread crumbs were obtained by drying the bread, maintaining moisture up to 3-8% and then broken down using hammer mill or crusher which breaks the bread into bread crumbs. Significantly highest moisture contents 7.26% was observed in oven baked bread crumb as compared to 6.25% in bread crumb prepared by extrusion cooking method. The highest bulk density (28.13 g/100 L) was observed in extruded bread crumb whereas, the oven baked bread crumbs showed lower bulk density (7.03 g/100 L). The fat uptake of extruded and oven baked bread crumbs were found 0.516 mg/g and 0.493 mg/g, respectively. The extruded bread crumb showed higher water binding capacity as 34.76 g H/sub 2/O/kg as compared to oven baked bread crumb which showed 27.92 g H/sub 2/O/kg. Sensory evaluation of extruded and oven baked bread crumbs depicted that bread crumbs prepared from extrusion cooking methods got significantly higher scores for taste, flavour and over all acceptability as compared to those prepared by oven baked method. As far as crispiness is concerned oven baked bread crumbs got comparatively higher scores. Moreover, it was concluded that the treatment T2 of extruded bread crumbs got more sensory scores than oven baked bread crumbs. (author)

  10. Wheat bread aroma compounds in crumb and crust: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Joana; Bernal, José; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Bread is one of the most widely consumed foods in the world. Among the different properties that define its quality, the aroma of bread is considered essential to its approval by consumers. Knowing what the compounds found in bread are, as well as the most important ones in crumb and crust, and understanding their biological sources and how they affect the final aroma of bread, could make it possible to modify the steps of bread manufacturing in order to enhance those with a positive impact and reduce those with a negative impact. The aim of this review is to provide a guideline correlating a great deal of the information now available regarding wheat bread aroma. For this purpose, a total of 326 volatile compounds reported in the literature have been included. The sensorial correlation of these compounds with the final aroma of wheat bread has also been explained, as well as the biological sources that generate them. Finally, it is shown how modifying the production stages of wheat bread could also affect the odour quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physico-chemical analysis and sensory evaluation of bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study carried out the physico-chemical analysis and sensory evaluation of bread produced using different indigenous yeast isolates in order to offer an insight into the overall quality of the bread. Four (4) different yeast species were isolated from sweet orange, pineapple and palm wine. The yeasts were characterized ...

  12. Nutritive value of selected variety breads and pastas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranhotra, G S; Gelroth, J A; Novak, F A; Bock, M A; Winterringer, G L; Matthews, R H

    1984-03-01

    Nine types of commercially produced variety breads, plain bagels, corn tortillas, and three types of pasta products were obtained from each of four cities, New York, San Francisco, Atlanta, and Kansas City. Proximate components and 12 minerals and vitamins were determined in these and in cooked pasta products. Available carbohydrate and energy values were calculated. On the average, French, Italian, and pita breads were lower in moisture than other breads. Protein in bread products averaged between 7.6% and 10.4% and in cooked pastas and tortillas between 4.4% and 5.3%. Bagels averaged 10.2% protein. Insoluble dietary fiber in whole wheat bread averaged 5.6%; for most products, dietary fiber values were five- to eightfold higher than crude fiber values. Pasta products and tortillas were virtually free of sodium. Sodium in bread products averaged between 379 and 689 mg/100 gm. Although all pasta products and most bread products were enriched, calcium was often not included. Iron averaged from 2.16 to 3.29 mg/100 gm in bread products and 3.10 to 4.24 mg/100 gm in dry pasta products. Products made with unrefined or less-refined flours and/or containing germ and bran tended to be high in phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and manganese, and, to a lesser extent, in copper. A good portion of potassium, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin in pasta products was lost during cooking.

  13. Influence of additive from sugar beet on white bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Nada K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The additive of acceptable sensory, physical and chemical and microbiological characteristics was made from cossettes. Great water binding capacity related to microcrystals of cellulose qualifies this additive as a desired one in bread making process. Bread was baked in the laboratory and patent flour was used. The additive with particles smaller than 95 (m was supplemented in the quantities of 2, 5 and 10%. The data related to the influence of the quantity of additive on white bread quality point that parallel to increasing the amount of the additive in the dough, yield of dough and bread were also increased. Negative effects are detected as volume depression and inferior bread crumb quality and altered crumb color. The decrease in bread quality is small if 2% of additive was applied, but significant with 5 and 10%. The bread freshness was highly graded 48 hours after baking due to the ability of the additive to retain water. On the whole, bread of superior quality supplemented by 5 and 10% of the additive from sugar beet fiber can be easily made by fortifying flour with gluten and by adding appropriate dough conditioner.

  14. Thermal inactivation kinetics of β-galactosidase during bread baking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Chen, Xiao Dong; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, β-galactosidase was utilized as a model enzyme to investigate the mechanism of enzyme inactivation during bread baking. Thermal inactivation of β-galactosidase was investigated in a wheat flour/water system at varying temperature-moisture content combinations, and in bread during

  15. Laying the foundations for dough-based oat bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Londoño, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The motivation to perform this study was to generate the fundamentals to use oats for bread-making applications. This will offer consumers a healthier alternative product to wheat bread in their daily diet, because oat foods, especially through their high amount of soluble fibre (notably

  16. Agronomic Performance and Bread Making Quality of Advanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty bread wheat lines selected on the basis of their average grain protein content and yield were evaluated for six agronomic and eight baking quality traits associated with bread-making quality. All the lines were grown in randomly complete block design at two locations in Eastern Oromia, Ethiopia; namely, Haramaya ...

  17. Fracture behaviour of bread crust: Effect of ingredient modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Beukelaer, H. de; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, T. van

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the formulation on the crispness of bread crust was studied. Crispness is a relevant sensory attribute that depends on several factors particularly the plasticizer content (water), the mechanical properties of the solid matrix and the morphological architecture of the bread. Enzymes

  18. Detarium microcarpium Bread Meal: It's Physiological Effects on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental breads rolls provided 5g of s-NSP as calculated from the nutrient analysis plus s-NSP from the brown flour. The subjects visited the metabolic kitchen twice a week after an overnight fast. All the subjects ate the two types of meals detarium and control bread meal in random order. The subjects were ...

  19. Bread Making Potential of Composite Flour of Wheat-Acha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bread-making potentials of composite flours containing 90% wheat and 10% acha enriched with 0-15% cowpea flour were investigated. Proximate composition and functional properties of the blends were studied using AOAC standard methods. Bread loaves were prepared from the blends using the straight dough method ...

  20. Potassium bromate content of some baked breads sold in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Potassium bromate is an additive used by some bakers to make the bread rise rapidly, create a good texture in the finished product and to give bulkiness to the dough. Objective: The main objective of this work was to assess the potassium bromate residues of some baked breads sold in some selected local ...

  1. Determination of propionate in bread using capillary zone electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackermans, M.T.; Ackermans-Loonen, J.C.J.M; Beckers, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    A method for the determination of propionate in bread is described. The propionate was extracted from the bread with a repeated extraction procedure and measured using capillary zone electrophoresis in the indirect UV mode applying a background electrolyte of 0.005 M Tris adjusted at pH 4.6 by

  2. Exergetic comparison of food waste valorization in industrial bread production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, F.K.; Moejes, S.N.; Rossier Miranda, F.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the thermodynamic performance of three industrial bread production chains: one that generates food waste, one that avoids food waste generation, and one that reworks food waste to produce new bread. The chemical exergy flows were found to be much larger than the physical exergy

  3. Photocatalytic disinfection of spoilage bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens and Macrococcus caseolyticus by nano-TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photocatalytic disinfection of spoilage bacteria gram-negative (G-) P. fluorescens and gram-positive (G+) M. caseolyticus by nano-TiO2 under different experimental conditions and the disinfection mechanism were investigated. The experimental conditions included the initial bacterial populations, nan...

  4. Amplicon sequencing for the quantification of spoilage microbiota in complex foods including bacterial spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de P.; Caspers, M.; Sanders, J.W.; Kemperman, R.; Wijman, J.; Lommerse, G.; Roeselers, G.; Montijn, R.; Abee, T.; Kort, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background
    Spoilage of food products is frequently caused by bacterial spores and lactic acid bacteria. Identification of these organisms by classic cultivation methods is limited by their ability to form colonies on nutrient agar plates. In this study, we adapted and optimized 16S rRNA amplicon

  5. The occurrence of spoilage yeasts in cream-filled bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osimani, Andrea; Milanović, Vesna; Taccari, Manuela; Cardinali, Federica; Pasquini, Marina; Aquilanti, Lucia; Clementi, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    Filling creams can provide an adequate substrate for spoilage yeasts because some yeasts can tolerate the high osmotic stress in these products. To discover the source of spoilage of a cream-filled baked product, end products, raw materials, indoor air and work surfaces were subjected to microbiological and molecular analyses. The efficacy of disinfectants against spoilage yeasts was also assessed. The analyses on end products revealed the presence of the closest relatives to Zygosaccharomyces bailii with counts ranging from 1.40 to 4.72 log cfu g -1 . No spoilage yeasts were found in the indoor air and work surfaces. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, carried out directly on filling creams collected from unopened cans, showed the presence of bands ascribed to the closest relatives to Z. bailii sensu lato, although with counts products, reliable and sensitive methods must be used. Moreover, hygiene and the application of good manufacturing practices represent the most efficient way for the prevention and minimization of cross-contamination. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Spoilage of lightly salted lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) roe at 5°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basby, Merethe; Jeppesen, V.F.; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    sulphury, sour odors. The microflora consisted of lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrio spp. Concentration of lactic acid, acetic acid, trimethylamine and total volatile bases were unrelated to spoilage odors. Volatile sulfur compounds (H2S, probably CS2, CH3SH and CH3CH2SH or CH3SCH3...

  7. Growth inhibitory effect of grape phenolics against wine spoilage yeasts and acetic acid bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pastorková, E.; Žáková, T.; Landa, Přemysl; Nováková, J.; Vadlejch, J.; Kokoška, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 3 (2013), s. 209-213 ISSN 0168-1605 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD11005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Phenolic compound * Antimicrobial activity * Wine spoilage microorganism Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 3.155, year: 2013

  8. Effect of Some Plant Extracts on the Microbial Spoilage of Cajanus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of ethanolic extracts of seven plant sources on the microbial spoilage of Cajanus cajan extract was investigated. The results showed that the extracts obtained from Aloe vera, bitter leaf, Gultiferae (garcinia or bitter kola), Ocimum gratissimum (scent leaf) and Zingiber officialae (ginger) were effective against ...

  9. Effect of Bread Making Process on Aflatoxin Level Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Milani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour is a commodity with a high risk of aflatoxins (AFs contamination. During the bread making there are many processes that can affect the AFs stability. The effect of bread making process using different yeast types on AFs levels was investigated. For this purpose, standards of AFs including B and Gwere added to flour and then bread loaves were prepared. Three types of commercially available yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast were used for dough preparation. AFs levels in flour, dough, and bread were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detector. The results showed that maximum reduction in aflatoxin levels observed during first proof while the least decline was seen for the baking stage. The order of AFs reduction in bread making process was AFB1>AFB2>AFG1. Furthermore, the results indicated that the most effective yeast for AFs reduction was instant dry yeast.

  10. The information presented on labels for bread produced in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murniece, Irisa; Straumite, Evita

    2014-11-01

    Bakery products, particularly bread, make up a significant share of the food guide pyramid. To help consumers make more informed choices from the bread available in the market, it is essential to provide correct and appropriate information on food labels. The aim of this research was to analyse the information shown on labels for different types of bread produced in Latvia. Different types of bread were chosen from 28 bakeries located in regions throughout Latvia. For statistical analysis, the data were processed using the S-PLUS 6.1 Professional Edition. From the analysis of labels on bread in Latvian, we conclude there is an absence of information about energy; only 4.8% of labels presented energy calculated according to the Nutritional Labelling Regulation 90/496/ECC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nuclear movement in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2017-12-11

    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Determine the Quality of Bread Samples Used in Qazvin, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Qajarbeygi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In most societies, rich and important source of food considered bread. Some bakeries using sodium bicarbonate as baking soda and extra salt in bread production that his chemical compounds has adverse effects on the public health. That's why in this study we decided to evaluation of In most societies, rich and important source of food considered bread. Some bakeries using sodium bicarbonate as baking soda and extra salt in bread production that his chemical compounds has adverse effects on the public health. That's why in this study we decided to evaluation of produced bread in Qazvin province in terms of sodium bicarbonate and salt. Assessment of pH and salt take place according to Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (IRIS. Our Results demonstrated the mean±SD of pH for sangak, lavash, taftun, barbari and baguette 5.95±0.37, 5.76±0.54, 5.80±0.71, 6.10±0.68 and 7.86±1.26 respectively, and the mean±SD of salt 1.10±0.47, 1.41±0.57, 1.45±0.36, 1.40±0.32 and 1.55±1.09 respectively and the results demonstrated the value of pH and salt in the samples 65.77% (98 out of 149 and 12.75% (130 out of 149 respectively, out of standard range. Baking Soda in sangak breads and salt in baguette breads, more common of other breads. Although the Ministry of Health has banned officially the use of baking soda in breads production process, but demonstrated in this study baking soda and extra salt used in the process of breads production. Thus require more supervision and training on the non-use of sodium bicarbonate for bakers its necessary.

  13. Baking the first bread in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This Getaway Special program is a joint venture between Spar, Monarch flour and Telesat, with Telesat being responsible for the design, manufacture and implementation of the equipment. The purpose of the experiment is to investigate the behavior of bread yeast in the absence of gravity and in the presence of normal atmospheric pressure. The proposed design mixes flour, water and yeast on-orbit, allows the mixture to prove and then bakes it. This paper outlines the development history of the experiment, the various test programs and some of the problems encountered, with their solutions.

  14. Appropriate Patterns of Bread Preparation and Consumption According To Teachings of the Quran, Ahadith, and Persian Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Atieh Sadat Danesh; Hossein Moradi; Fatemeh Nojavan

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Historically, bread has been the most important source of human nutrition.  The pattern of bread consumption is not desirable in Iran and approximately 16% of bread produced in this country is wasted.  The most important cause of this waste rate is low quality of the produced bread and inadequate public attention paid to Islam recommendation on bread sanctity. The modification of bread consumption and the culture of bread consumption are one of the necessi...

  15. Toxins of filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yu, Jiujiang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C

    2002-01-01

    Mycotoxins are low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites of fungi. The most significant mycotoxins are contaminants of agricultural commodities, foods and feeds. Fungi that produce these toxins do so both prior to harvest and during storage. Although contamination of commodities by toxigenic fungi occurs frequently in areas with a hot and humid climate (i.e. conditions favorable for fungal growth), they can also be found in temperate conditions. Production of mycotoxins is dependent upon the type of producing fungus and environmental conditions such as the substrate, water activity (moisture and relative humidity), duration of exposure to stress conditions and microbial, insect or other animal interactions. Although outbreaks of mycotoxicoses in humans have been documented, several of these have not been well characterized, neither has a direct correlation between the mycotoxin and resulting toxic effect been well established in vivo. Even though the specific modes of action of most of the toxins are not well established, acute and chronic effects in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, including humans have been reported. The toxicity of the mycotoxins varies considerably with the toxin, the animal species exposed to it, and the extent of exposure, age and nutritional status. Most of the toxic effects of mycotoxins are limited to specific organs, but several mycotoxins affect many organs. Induction of cancer by some mycotoxins is a major concern as a chronic effect of these toxins. It is nearly impossible to eliminate mycotoxins from the foods and feed in spite of the regulatory efforts at the national and international levels to remove the contaminated commodities. This is because mycotoxins are highly stable compounds, the producing fungi are ubiquitous, and food contamination can occur both before and after harvest. Nevertheless, good farm management practices and adequate storage facilities minimize the toxin contamination problems. Current research is

  16. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Asta, Margherita; Bresciani, Letizia; Calani, Luca; Cossu, Marta; Martini, Daniela; Melegari, Camilla; Del Rio, Daniele; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brighenti, Furio; Scazzina, Francesca

    2016-01-13

    Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers.

  17. The Use of Xylanases from Different Microbial Origin in Bread Baking and Their Effects on Bread Qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Widyan, Omar; Khataibeh, Moayad H.; Abu-Alruz, Khaled

    Effects of xylanases on bread quality were examined. Enzymes used were endo-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) from different sources of microorganisms. Baked loaves were assessed for Loaves volume, colour and staling rate. Xylanases produced from rumen microorganisms M6 had clearly positive effects on loaf volume of bread as well as anti-firming potential. M3 (produced from Trichoderma longibrachiatum) improved crumb softness. The use of xylanase for breadmaking lowered firmness of bread crumb effectively compared with control loaf. It can be summarized that xylanases had significant positive effects on bread characteristics. In particular, they had advantage in retarding the staling rate of bread. It is recommended that the optimum dosage of enzymes, method of application in industrial scale especially with xylanase should be studied further in order to gain the great advantages of enzyme addition in breadmaking.

  18. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Dall’Asta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers.

  19. Analysis of Growth Inhibition and Metabolism of Hydroxycinnamic Acids by Brewing and Spoilage Strains of Brettanomyces Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lentz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brettanomyces yeasts are well-known as spoilage organisms in both the wine and beer industries, but also contribute important desirable characters to certain beer styles. These properties are mediated in large part by Brettanomyces’ metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs present in beverage raw materials. Here we compare growth inhibition by, and metabolism of, HCAs among commercial brewing strains and spoilage strains of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus. These properties vary widely among the different strains tested and between the HCAs analyzed. Brewing strains showed more efficient metabolism of ferulic acid over p-coumaric acid, a trait not shared among the spoilage strains.

  20. Analysis of Growth Inhibition and Metabolism of Hydroxycinnamic Acids by Brewing and Spoilage Strains of Brettanomyces Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Michael; Harris, Chad

    2015-10-15

    Brettanomyces yeasts are well-known as spoilage organisms in both the wine and beer industries, but also contribute important desirable characters to certain beer styles. These properties are mediated in large part by Brettanomyces ' metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) present in beverage raw materials. Here we compare growth inhibition by, and metabolism of, HCAs among commercial brewing strains and spoilage strains of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus . These properties vary widely among the different strains tested and between the HCAs analyzed. Brewing strains showed more efficient metabolism of ferulic acid over p -coumaric acid, a trait not shared among the spoilage strains.

  1. Transcriptomic analysis on the formation of the viable putative non-culturable state of beer-spoilage Lactobacillus acetotolerans

    OpenAIRE

    Junyan Liu; Yang Deng; Brian M. Peters; Lin Li; Bing Li; Lequn Chen; Zhenbo Xu; Mark E. Shirtliff

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common beer-spoilage bacteria regardless of beer type, and thus pose significant problems for the brewery industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanisms involved in the ability of the hard-to-culture beer-spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus acetotolerans to enter into the viable putative non-culturable (VPNC) state. A genome-wide transcriptional analysis of beer-spoilage L. acetotolerans strains BM-LA14526, BM-LA14527, and BM-LA1...

  2. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Franco, Wendy; Perez-Diaz, Ilenys; McFeeters, Roger F

    2012-07-01

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial instability. Objectives of this study were to determine the combined effects of NaCl and pH on fermented cucumber spoilage and to determine the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) spoilage isolates to initiate lactic acid degradation in fermented cucumbers. Cucumbers fermented with 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% NaCl were blended into slurries (FCS) and adjusted to pH 3.2, 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 prior to centrifugation, sterile-filtration, and inoculation with spoilage organisms. Organic acids and pH were measured initially and after 3 wk, 2, 6, 12, and 18 mo anaerobic incubation at 25 °C. Anaerobic lactic acid degradation occurred in FCS at pH 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 regardless of NaCl concentration. At pH 3.2, reduced NaCl concentrations resulted in increased susceptibility to spoilage, indicating that the pH limit for lactic acid utilization in reduced NaCl fermented cucumbers is 3.2 or lower. Over 18 mo incubation, only cucumbers fermented with 6% NaCl to pH 3.2 prevented anaerobic lactic acid degradation by spoilage bacteria. Among several LAB species isolated from fermented cucumber spoilage, Lactobacillus buchneri was unique in its ability to metabolize lactic acid in FCS with concurrent increases in acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. Therefore, L. buchneri may be one of multiple organisms that contribute to development of fermented cucumber spoilage. Microbial spoilage of fermented cucumbers during bulk storage causes economic losses for producers. Current knowledge is insufficient to predict or control these losses. This study demonstrated that in the absence of oxygen, cucumbers fermented with 6% sodium chloride to pH 3.2 were not subject to spoilage. However, lactic acid was degraded

  3. Co-ingestion of essence of chicken to moderate glycaemic response of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Wei Jie Tan, Kevin; Jeyakumar Henry, Christiani

    2015-01-01

    Essence of chicken (EOC) beverage is a chicken meat extract, widely consumed in Asian countries for health benefits. EOC is a rich source of peptides and amino acids. White bread has become a popular staple food in all regions of Southeast Asia. A randomized controlled, crossover, non-blind trial was performed to investigate the role of EOC on glycaemic response (GR) of white bread. Ten healthy young subjects returned on five separate days for three glucose and two bread sessions. Subjects consumed bread or bread with EOC. The 120 min incremental area under the curve was significantly lower after consuming two bottles of EOC with bread than white bread alone. The glycaemic index (GI) of white bread was 83 and white bread with EOC 57. The co-ingestion of EOC may be a practical and simple way to reduce the GR of bread and other starch-based staples.

  4. Molecular Features of Wheat Endosperm Arabinoxylan Inclusion in Functional Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weili; Hu, Hui; Wang, Qi; Brennan, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    Arabinoxylan (AX) is a major dietary fibre component found in a variety of cereals. Numerous health benefits of arabinoxylans have been reported to be associated with their solubility and molecular features. The current study reports the development of a functional bread using a combination of AX-enriched material (AEM) and optimal commercial endoxylanase. The total AX content of bread was increased to 8.2 g per 100 g available carbohydrates. The extractability of AX in breads with and without endoxylanase was determined. The results demonstrate that water-extractable AX (WE-AX) increased progressively through the bread making process. The application of endoxylanase also increased WE-AX content. The presence of 360 ppm of endoxylanase had positive effects on the bread characteristics in terms of bread volume and firmness by converting the water unextractable (WU)-AX to WE-AX. In addition, the molecular weight (Mw) distribution of the WE-AX of bread with and without endoxylanase was characterized by size-exclusion chromatography. The results show that as the portion of WE-AX increased, the amount of high Mw WE-AX (higher than 100 kDa) decreased, whereas the amount of low Mw WE-AX (lower than 100 kDa) increased from 33.2% to 44.2% through the baking process. The low Mw WE-AX further increased to 75.5% with the application of the optimal endoxylanase (360 ppm). PMID:28239111

  5. Technological characteristics of bread containing integral irradiated flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Christian A.H.M.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2011-01-01

    Wheat is normally used to make bread, pasta, and noodles, because among the cereal flours, only wheat flour has the ability to form cohesive dough upon hydration. For that reason, only partial substitution of wheat flour can be recommended. In this work, pan breads were prepared with 30% content of irradiated whole wheat, whole rye and coarse cornmeal and the influence of blending on bread making capabilities investigated through some technological characteristics. All-brand wheat, rye and cornmeal flours were irradiated with 0, 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a 60 Co and the deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with those blends were then determined. Breads prepared with irradiated whole wheat flour showed an increase in the deformation force with the increase of radiation dose. The bread height presented also an increase for the doses of 1 and 3 kGy. Breads prepared with refined wheat flour blended with irradiated whole rye flour showed an increased deformation force for radiation doses of 1 and 3 kGy and an increase in weight for samples irradiated with 1 kGy. Coarse cornmeal blended flour showed a great increase of the deformation force upon irradiation, and an increase in weight for samples irradiated with 3 kGy. The results indicate that the addition of irradiated integral flour, whole wheat, whole rye flour and cornmeal to wheat flour may confer changes in physical properties beside an increment in nutritional value. (author)

  6. Molecular Features of Wheat Endosperm Arabinoxylan Inclusion in Functional Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinoxylan (AX is a major dietary fibre component found in a variety of cereals. Numerous health benefits of arabinoxylans have been reported to be associated with their solubility and molecular features. The current study reports the development of a functional bread using a combination of AX-enriched material (AEM and optimal commercial endoxylanase. The total AX content of bread was increased to 8.2 g per 100 g available carbohydrates. The extractability of AX in breads with and without endoxylanase was determined. The results demonstrate that water-extractable AX (WE-AX increased progressively through the bread making process. The application of endoxylanase also increased WE-AX content. The presence of 360 ppm of endoxylanase had positive effects on the bread characteristics in terms of bread volume and firmness by converting the water unextractable (WU-AX to WE-AX. In addition, the molecular weight (Mw distribution of the WE-AX of bread with and without endoxylanase was characterized by size-exclusion chromatography. The results show that as the portion of WE-AX increased, the amount of high Mw WE-AX (higher than 100 kDa decreased, whereas the amount of low Mw WE-AX (lower than 100 kDa increased from 33.2% to 44.2% through the baking process. The low Mw WE-AX further increased to 75.5% with the application of the optimal endoxylanase (360 ppm.

  7. Rice varieties in relation to rice bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hye Min; Cho, Jun Hyeon; Kang, Hang Won; Koh, Bong Kyung

    2012-05-01

    It is difficult to predict rice bread quality only from the amylose content (AC) or dough characteristics of new lines produced by rice breeding programmes. This study investigated the AC relative to bread baking quality of rice varieties developed in Korea, and identified specific characteristics that contribute to rice bread quality. Manmibyeo, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng and Hanareumbyeo were classified as low AC, YR24088 Acp9, Suweon517, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo as intermediate AC and Milyang261 as high AC. Suweon517, Milyang261 and Manmibyeo had a high water absorption index (WAI), while Goamibyeo, YR24088 Acp9, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng, Hanareumbyeo and Chenmaai had a low WAI. The gelatinisation enthalpy of flour varied from 9.2 J g(-1) in Milyang261 to 14.8 J g(-1) in YR24088 Acp9. After 7 days of storage the rate of flour retrogradation and crumb firmness were weakly correlated, with the exception of Jinsumi. Bread volumes of Jinsumi, Chenmaai, YR24088 Acp9 and Goamibyeo were comparable to that of wheat flour, but the rest were unsuited to bread making because of their low volume and hard crumb texture. Based on volume, texture and crumb firmness ratio, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo were the most appropriate varieties for making bread. An intermediate AC and low WAI were the primary indicators of rice bread flour quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. ATTEMPT TO APPLY STABILIZED WHEAT GERM FOR BREAD SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Gambuś

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increased interest in rational nutrition causes, that from many years is observed a growing consumption of bread, and novel food supplemented with health promoting components. For the bread production in Poland mainly wheat and rye cake flours are used, depleted of a many valuable nutrients such as protein, dietary fibre, minerals and vitamins. Because of their unique chemical composition wheat germs are a particularly valuable resource, both for direct consumption and to enhance the nutritional value of food products. The aim of the study was to prepare wheat bread with a 10% addition of commercial stabilized wheat germs. Based on the obtained results, it was found that wheat germs, due to their unique chemical composition, were a particularly valuable resource to supplement the nutritional value of bread. However, germs had detrimental effect on mechanical properties of dough, and on bread quality. Texture of bread crumb and its chemical composition were analysed. It was shown, that germs subjected to fermentation process could be used in wheat bread production as dietary fibre and mineral compound supplement.

  9. Autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Fei; Snyder, John Hugh; Shi, Huan-Bin; Lu, Jian-Ping; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Autophagy is a conserved cellular process that degrades cytoplasmic constituents in vacuoles. Plant pathogenic fungi develop special infection structures and/or secrete a range of enzymes to invade their plant hosts. It has been demonstrated that monitoring autophagy processes can be extremely useful in visualizing the sequence of events leading to pathogenicity of plant pathogenic fungi. In this review, we introduce the molecular mechanisms involved in autophagy. In addition, we explore the relationship between autophagy and pathogenicity in plant pathogenic fungi. Finally, we discuss the various experimental strategies available for use in the study of autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Natural substrata for corticioid fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene O. Yurchenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the types of substrata inhabited by non-poroid resupinate Homobasidiomycetes in situ in global scale with both examples from literature sources and from observations on Belarus corticioid fungi biota. The groups of organic world colonized by corticioid basidiomata and vegetative mycelium are arboreous, semi-arboreous, and herbaceous vascular plants, Bryophyta, epiphytic coccoid algae, lichenized and non-lichenized fungi, and occasionally myxomycetes and invertebrates. The fungi occur on living, dying, and dead on all decay stages parts of organisms. Besides, the fungi are known on soil, humus, stones, artificial inorganic and synthetic materials and dung.

  11. Fusarium and other opportunistic hyaline fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter focuses on those fungi that grow in tissue in the form of hyaline or lightly colored septate hyphae. These fungi include Fusarium and other hyaline fungi. Disease caused by hyaline fungi is referred to as hyalohyphomycosis. Hyaline fungi described in this chapter include the anamorphic,...

  12. Bee bread - perspective source of bioactive compounds for future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bee bread is product with long history used mainly in folk medicine. Nowadays, bee bread is growing in commercial interest due to its high nutritional properties. The objective of this study was to determine biological activity of ethanolic extract of bee bread obtained from selected region of Ukraine - Poltava oblast, Kirovohrad oblast, Vinnica oblast, Kyiv oblast, Dnepropetrovsk oblast. The antioxidant activity was measured with the radical scavenging assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical as well as phosphomolybdenum assay. Total polyphenol content was determined with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and total flavonoid content by aluminium-chloride method. Secondary was also evaluated antimicrobial activity in bee bread samples with disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations. Antioxidant activity expressed as mg TEAC per g of dry weight (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity was the highest in bee bread from Poltava oblast in DPPH and also phosphomolybdenum method. Samples of bee bread contained high levels of total polyphenols (12.36 - 18.24 mg GAE - gallic acid equivalent per g of dry weight and flavonoids (13.56 - 18.24 μg QE - quercetin equivalent per g of dry weight with the best values of bee bread from Poltava oblast. An elevated level of antioxidant potential in the bee bread determines its biological properties, which conditioned of the biological active substances. The best antibacterial activity of bee bred with disc diffusion method was found against Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19. The antibacterial activity inhibited by the bee bread extract in the present study indicate that best minimal inhibition concentration was against bacteria Escherichia coli CCM 3988 and Salmonella enterica subs. enterica CCM 3807.

  13. Biochemiluminescence of certain fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Sławiński

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve species of fungi growing on the Sabouraud medium in darkness and illumination in an incubator, were tested to find out their ability to emit the ultra-weak biochemiluminescence. Using a sensitive photon-counling device, it was possible to measure biochemiluminescence intensity during ten days of cultures growth. Boletus edulis, Pestalotia funerea and Microsporum gypseum displayed biochemiluminescence, while Aspergillus nidulans, A. quadrilineatus, Beauveria bassiana, Macrophoma candollei, Mucor lausanensis, Paecilomyces farinosus, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma lignorum and Tricholoma equestre failed to do it. Illumination put down biochemiluminescence and stimulated colour formation in both mycelia and in the medium.

  14. Bread-Making Quality of Standard Winter Wheat Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Ćurić, Duška; Novotni, Dubravka; Bauman, Ingrid; Krička, Tajana; Jukić, Željko; Voća, Neven; Kiš, Darko

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define an impact of the cultivar, year and cultivation area of the standard Croatian winter wheat on the bread-making quality. The bread-making quality of cultivars ‘Divana’, ‘Žitarka’ and ‘Sana’ from the crop years 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006, and from Zagreb and Osijek location was analyzed. Wheat from the cultivar tests cultivated under the same agro technological conditions was used for this testing. The tested winter wheat bread-making quality primari...

  15. Modified starches or stabilizers in preparation of cheese bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Dias dos Anjos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheese bread is a Brazilian product which originated in Minas Gerais and which is highly consumed. In industrial production, there is increasing use of additives which enrich and enhance the physical of this product, adding value in the eyes of the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to study the effect of addition of modified starch and stabilizers on the physical-chemical of cheese bread. For this reason, measures taken so moisture, pH and acidity, volume, density, coefficient of expansion, and compression resistance (texturometer Results show that the stabilizers used improve these characteristics in the cheese bread, showing better physicochemical characteristics.

  16. The development and evaluation of a bread baking intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Line

    2012-01-01

    Master i samfunnsernæring Bread is part of the Norwegian food culture, and a large part of our daily diet. However, the intake of fibre and hole grains is to low, and the Norwegian government encourages an increase in the intake of wholemeal bread and cereals. In addition, only half of the Norwegian population reaches the recommendation of being physical active for at least 30 minutes a day. This thesis describes the development and evaluation of a bread baking intervention. The i...

  17. Effects of Carbohydrate Consumption Case Study: carbohydrates in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms; they are an important source of energy. The body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuel that gives it energy and helps keep everything going. However, excess carbohydrate consumption has negative health effects. Bread is a basic product in our nutrition and it also is a product with a high content of carbohydrates. So, it is important to find out more information on bread and on the recommended bread type best for consumption.

  18. The processing technology of bread crumbs sterilization by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiating; Li Zhengkui; Zhao Yongfu; Zhang Weidong; Jin Jie; Wu Lei; Wang Xinghai

    2003-01-01

    The processing technology of bread crumbs sterilization by irradiation was studied. The results demonstrated that dose heterogeneity had osculatory connection with pile height and turning, sterilization effect had positive correlation with the irradiation dose and negative correlation with colour. Compared with the CK, the content of crud protein, fat, carbohydrate, microelement and amino acid in irradiated bread crumbs had no obvious change. It is recommended that the range of best sterilization dose be 6-10 kGy and the shelf time of bread crumbs be extended to one year

  19. Buckwheat-enriched wheat bread: National market placement possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakač Marijana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality parameters and the possibility of successful placement of buckwheat-enriched wheat bread on the national market are presented in this paper. Analysis of the market position of buckwheat-enriched wheat bread includes demands, offer and competition. Elements that affect the overall retail price of buckwheat-enriched wheat bread are given in details, along with SWOT analysis and marketing plan including target market, market supply and product marketing mix. According to all performed analyses it could be concluded that this product should be positioned on the national market, especially for people with special needs and requirements.

  20. Draft genome sequence and annotation of Lactobacillus acetotolerans BM-LA14527, a beer-spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyan; Li, Lin; Peters, Brian M; Li, Bing; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2016-09-01

    Lactobacillus acetotolerans is a hard-to-culture beer-spoilage bacterium capable of entering into the viable putative nonculturable (VPNC) state. As part of an initial strategy to investigate the phenotypic behavior of L. acetotolerans, draft genome sequencing was performed. Results demonstrated a total of 1824 predicted annotated genes, with several potential VPNC- and beer-spoilage-associated genes identified. Importantly, this is the first genome sequence of L. acetotolerans as beer-spoilage bacteria and it may aid in further analysis of L. acetotolerans and other beer-spoilage bacteria, with direct implications for food safety control in the beer brewing industry. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part 1: Breads Containing Oil as an Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Ranawana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing emphasis on reformulating processed foods to make them healthier. This study for the first time comprehensively investigated the effects of fortifying bread (containing oil as an ingredient with freeze-dried vegetables on its nutritional and physico-chemical attributes. Breads fortified with carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were assessed for nutrition, antioxidant potential, storage life, shelf stability, textural changes and macronutrient oxidation. Furthermore, using an in vitro model the study for the first time examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during human gastro-intestinal digestion. As expected, adding vegetables improved the nutritional and antioxidant properties of bread. Beetroot and broccoli significantly improved bread storage life. None of the vegetables significantly affected bread textural changes during storage compared to the control. Lipid oxidation in fresh bread was significantly reduced by all four types of vegetables whilst protein oxidation was lowered by beetroot, carrot and broccoli. The vegetables demonstrated varying effects on macronutrient oxidation during gastro-intestinal digestion. Beetroot consistently showed positive effects suggesting its addition to bread could be particularly beneficial.

  2. Broth and agar hop-gradient plates used to evaluate the beer-spoilage potential of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakensen, M; Schubert, A; Ziola, B

    2009-03-15

    Identification of the beer-spoilage Lactobacillus and Pediococcus bacteria has largely taken two approaches; identification of spoilage-associated genes or identification of specific species of bacteria regardless of ability to grow in beer. The problem with these two approaches is that they are either overly inclusive (i.e., detect all bacteria of a given species regardless of spoilage potential) or overly selective (i.e., rely upon individual, putative spoilage-associated genes). Our goal was to design a method to assess the ability of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus to spoil beer that is independent of speciation or genetic background. In searching for a method by which to differentiate between beer-spoilage bacteria and bacteria that cannot grow in beer, we explored the ability of lactobacilli and pediococci isolates to grow in the presence of varying concentrations of hop-compounds and ethanol in broth medium versus on agar medium. The best method for differentiating between bacteria that can grow in beer and bacteria that do not pose a threat as beer-spoilage organisms was found to be a hop-gradient agar plate containing ethanol. This hop-gradient agar plate technique provides a rapid and simple solution to the dilemma of assessing the ability of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus isolates to grow in beer, and provides new insights into the different strategies used by these bacteria to survive under the stringent conditions of beer.

  3. Mapping microbial ecosystems and spoilage-gene flow in breweries highlights patterns of contamination and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Ziola, Barry; Mills, David A

    2015-03-10

    Distinct microbial ecosystems have evolved to meet the challenges of indoor environments, shaping the microbial communities that interact most with modern human activities. Microbial transmission in food-processing facilities has an enormous impact on the qualities and healthfulness of foods, beneficially or detrimentally interacting with food products. To explore modes of microbial transmission and spoilage-gene frequency in a commercial food-production scenario, we profiled hop-resistance gene frequencies and bacterial and fungal communities in a brewery. We employed a Bayesian approach for predicting routes of contamination, revealing critical control points for microbial management. Physically mapping microbial populations over time illustrates patterns of dispersal and identifies potential contaminant reservoirs within this environment. Habitual exposure to beer is associated with increased abundance of spoilage genes, predicting greater contamination risk. Elucidating the genetic landscapes of indoor environments poses important practical implications for food-production systems and these concepts are translatable to other built environments.

  4. Isolation and Identification of Spoilage Yeasts in Wine Samples by MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many genera and species of microorganisms can be found in grape musts and wines at various times during the winemaking process. For instance, Saccharomyces, Brettanomyces, and Pediococcus can be found together in wine. There are many species of yeast involved in wine spoilage during storage. Aim of this study was to isolate the spoilage yeasts from wine samples with using special selective agar media and identified on species level by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Fly Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Six red wines used in this study. We identified 10 yeast species from 152 isolates. The most common species in wine samples was Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We also identified four Candida species, two Zygosaccharomyces species and one species from genus Rhodotorula, Saccharomycodes and Dekkera.

  5. A salt reduction of 50% in bread does not decrease bread consumption or increase sodium intake by the choice of sandwich fillings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Temme, E.H.M.; Koeman, F.T.; Noort, M.W.J.; Kremer, S.; Janssen, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Bread is a major contributor to sodium intake in many countries. Reducing the salt (NaCl) content in bread might be an effective way to reduce overall sodium intake. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of gradually lowering the salt content in brown bread, with and without

  6. A micromechanics model for bread dough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, M. A. P.; Tarleton, E.; Charalambides, M. N.; Williams, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of dough and gluten was studied in an effort to investigate whether bread dough can be treated as a two phase (starch and gluten) composite material. The dough and gluten show rate dependent behaviour under tension, compression and shear tests, and non-linear unloading-reloading curves under cyclic compression tests. There is evidence from cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that damage in the form of debonding between starch and gluten occurs when the sample is stretched. A composite finite element model was developed using starch as filler and gluten as matrix. The interaction between the starch and gluten was modelled as cohesive contact. The finite element analysis predictions agree with trends seen in experimental test data on dough and gluten, further evidence that debonding of starch and gluten is a possible damage mechanism in dough.

  7. A micromechanics model for bread dough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M. A. P; Tarleton, E.; Charalambides, M. N.; Williams, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of dough and gluten was studied in an effort to investigate whether bread dough can be treated as a two phase (starch and gluten) composite material. The dough and gluten show rate dependent behaviour under tension, compression and shear tests, and non-linear unloading-reloading curves under cyclic compression tests. There is evidence from cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that damage in the form of debonding between starch and gluten occurs when the sample is stretched. A composite finite element model was developed using starch as filler and gluten as matrix. The interaction between the starch and gluten was modelled as cohesive contact. The finite element analysis predictions agree with trends seen in experimental test data on dough and gluten, further evidence that debonding of starch and gluten is a possible damage mechanism in dough

  8. A micromechanics model for bread dough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, M. A. P; Tarleton, E.; Charalambides, M. N.; Williams, J. G. [Imperial College London, Mechanical Engineering Department, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-22

    The mechanical behaviour of dough and gluten was studied in an effort to investigate whether bread dough can be treated as a two phase (starch and gluten) composite material. The dough and gluten show rate dependent behaviour under tension, compression and shear tests, and non-linear unloading-reloading curves under cyclic compression tests. There is evidence from cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that damage in the form of debonding between starch and gluten occurs when the sample is stretched. A composite finite element model was developed using starch as filler and gluten as matrix. The interaction between the starch and gluten was modelled as cohesive contact. The finite element analysis predictions agree with trends seen in experimental test data on dough and gluten, further evidence that debonding of starch and gluten is a possible damage mechanism in dough.

  9. EPR study of free radicals in bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanov, Nicola D.; Mladenova, Ralitsa

    2004-05-01

    The features of the recorded EPR spectra of paramagnetic species formed in bread and rusk are reported. The appearance of free radicals in them is only connected with their thermal treatment since the starting materials (flour and grains) exhibit very weak EPR signal. The obtained EPR spectra are complex and indicate that: (i) the relative number of paramagnetic species depends on the temperature and treating time of the raw product; (ii) the g-values are strongly temperature dependent with a tendency to coincide at t≥220 °C. Because of the relatively low (150-220 °C) temperature of thermal treatment, the studied free radicals can be assumed to appear in the course of the browning (Maillard) reaction and not to the carbonization of the material.

  10. Inhibitory Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Moulds Associated with Spoilage of Bakery Products

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Adesina; A. O. Ojokoh; D. J. Arotupin

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the potentiality of LAB strains isolated from different fermented products to inhibit moulds associated with spoilage of bakery products. Methodology: Lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains obtained from fermented products (“burukutu”, “pito”, yoghurt, and “iru”) were screened for antifungal activity against moulds (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus repens and Penicillium sp.) isolated from spoilt bakery products. Inhibitory activities of the lactic acid...

  11. Effect of microbial cell-free meat extract on the growth of spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nychas, G-J E; Dourou, D; Skandamis, P; Koutsoumanis, K; Baranyi, J; Sofos, J

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the effect of microbial cell-free meat extract (CFME) derived from spoiled meat, in which quorum sensing (QS) compounds were present, on the growth kinetics (lag phase, and growth rate) of two spoilage bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Serratia marcescens. Aliquots of CFME from spoiled meat were transferred to Brain Heart Infusion broth inoculated with 10(3) CFU ml(-1) of 18 h cultures of Ps. fluorescens or Ser. marcescens, both fresh meat isolates; CFME derived from unspoiled fresh meat ('clean' meat) served as a control. Changes in impedance measurements were monitored for 48 h, and the detection time (Tdet) was recorded. It was found that in the absence of CFME containing QS compounds the Tdet was shorter (P meat. The rate of growth of Ps. fluorescens, recorded as the maximum slope rate of conductance changes (MSrCC), after Tdet, was higher (P meat. Similar results in MSrCC of impedance changes were obtained for Ser. marcescens. The study indicated that the growth rate (expressed in MSrCC units) of meat spoilage bacteria in vitro was enhanced in samples supplemented with CFME containing QS compounds compared to control samples (i.e., without CFME or with CFME from 'clean' meat). This behaviour may explain the dominant role of these two bacteria in the spoilage of meat. These results illustrate the potential effect of signalling compounds released during storage of meat on the behaviour of meat spoilage bacteria. Understanding such interactions may assist in the control of fresh meat quality and the extension of its shelf life.

  12. Spectrophotometeric Determination of Bromate in Bread by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    dough, improves the quality of the bread, and increases ... to improve the gluten content (de Man, 1990; Alias and Linden, 1999). ... prepared in the range, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 ppm ..... Chemical formula, Synonyms, Prescription and Uses.

  13. Reduction of acrylamide content in bread crust by starch coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Xiaojie; Man, Yong; Liu, Yawei

    2018-01-01

    A technique of starch coating to reduce acrylamide content in bread crust was proposed. Bread was prepared in accordance with a conventional procedure and corn or potato starch coating was brushed on the surface of the fermented dough prior to baking. Corn starch coating caused a decrease in acrylamide of 66.7% and 77.1% for the outer and inner crust, respectively. The decrease caused by the potato starch coating was 68.4% and 77.4%, respectively. Starch coating reduced asparagine content significantly (43.4-82.9%; P coating, which effectively shortened the time span (4-8 min) over which acrylamide could form and accumulate. The present study demonstrates that starch coating could be a simple, effective and practical application for reducing acrylamide levels in bread crust without changing the texture and crust color of bread. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Evaluation of 14 winter bread wheat genotypes in normal irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of 14 winter bread wheat genotypes in normal irrigation and stress conditions after anthesis stage. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Using biplot graphic method, comparison of indices amounts and mean rating of indices for ...

  15. Screening of recombinant inbred lines for salinity tolerance in bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... 2Department of Molecular Physiology, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran ... indexes for screening bread wheat genotypes for salinity tolerance. ... published on screening methods in salinity tolerance in.

  16. Water sorption and transport in dry crispy bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, M.B.J.; Nieuwenhuijzen, van N.H.; Tromp, R.H.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2010-01-01

    Water sorption and dynamical properties of bread crust have been studied using gravimetric sorption experiments. Water uptake and loss were followed while relative humidity (RH) was stepwise in- or decreased (isotherm experiment) or varied between two adjusted values (oscillatory experiment).

  17. COATING OF FOOD PRODUCTS : BATTER AND BREADING TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen KAYMAK ERTEN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The coating process of food products with various mixtures prior to frying is a common application in kitchens whereas it still requires much investigation in technological area. In this study, batter and breading technology used in coating of foods is reviewed. The coating process was defined, and the function of predusting, battering and breading, the general composition of batter and breading mixtures and the functions of the ingradients were explained. In the coating application, the most important problem known as adhesion and the effects of it on the efficiency and cost were investigated. Batter and breading processing equipments used in the industry and the process lines were reviewed, and the problems, new designs and the latest patents relating them were discussed. New coating systems known as tumbling and fluidization were investigated and compared with other systems.

  18. Optimization of Bread Enriched with Garcinia mangostana Pericarp Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, U. K.; Salleh, R. Mohd; Maqsood-ul-Hague, S. N. S.; Hashib, S. Abd; Karim, S. F. Abd

    2018-05-01

    The aim of present work is to optimize the formulation of bread enhanced with Garcinia mangostana pericarp powder with the combination of baking process conditions. The independent variables used were baking time (15 - 30 minutes), baking temperature (180 - 220°C) and pericarp powder concentration (0.5 - 2.0%). The physical and chemical properties of bread sample such as antioxidant activity, phenolic content, moisture analysis and colour parameters were studied. Bread dough without fortification of pericarp powder was used as control. Data obtained were analyzed by multiple regressions and the significant model such as linear and quadratic with variables interactions were used. As a conclusion, the optimum baking conditions were found at 213°C baking temperature with 23 minutes baking time and addition of 0.87% for Garcinia mangostana pericarp powder to the bread formulation.

  19. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olise, Felix S.; Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P.; Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO3) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO3 levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about -16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  20. Soybean hulls as an iron source for bread enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.D.; Berry, M.F.; Weaver, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Soybean hulls, a concentrated source of iron, may have potential as a source of iron fortification in baked products. Retention of 59 Fe in rats from white bread containing intrinsically labeled soybean hulls did not differ significantly (p<0.05) from extrinsically labeled white bread fortified with bakery grade ferrous sulfate (70.4 and 63.1%, respectively). Physical and sensory evaluations of bread containing up to 5% soybean hulls did not differ from white bread in loaf volume, cross-sectional area, tenderness or overall acceptance. These results suggest that soybean hulls are a good source of available iron and may be added to bakery products without deleterious effects in baking performance and sensory acceptability

  1. Ingested bread clip as an unexpected diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Sharon M; Russell, Michael J; Lau, Yee C; Dunn, Joel W; Roberts, Ross

    2018-03-23

    We describe a case where a bread clip has in fact became lodged adjacent to a portion of small bowel affected by a deposit of previously undiagnosed metastatic serous carcinoma of likely ovarian origin.

  2. 10443 HIDDEN SALT IN BREADS OF BLANTYRE (MALAWI) AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AggreyGamma

    brands of breads were sampled from the five major retail shops. Twelve ... States on potential societal savings from reduced sodium consumption in the U.S. adult ..... current experience of worldwide salt reduction programmes. Journal of ...

  3. Identification of micro satellite markers on chromosomes of bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of micro satellite markers on chromosomes of bread wheat showing an association with karnal bunt resistance. M Kumar, OP Luthra, NR Yadav, L Chaudhary, N Saini, R Kumar, I Sharma, V Chawla ...

  4. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.

  5. Twin study of heritability of eating bread in Danish and Finnish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Silventoinen, Karri; Keskitalo, Kaisu

    2010-01-01

    Bread is an elementary part of the western diet, and especially rye bread is regarded as an important source of fibre. We investigated the heritability of eating bread in terms of choice of white and rye bread and use-frequency of bread in female and male twins in Denmark and Finland. The study...... cohorts included 575 Danish (age range 18-67 years) and 2009 Finnish (age range 22-27 years) adult twin pairs. Self-reported frequency of eating bread was obtained by food frequency questionnaires. Univariate models based on linear structural equations for twin data were used to estimate the relative...... magnitude of the additive genetic, shared environmental and individual environmental effects on bread eating frequency and choice of bread. The analysis of bread intake frequency demonstrated moderate heritability ranging from 37-40% in the Finnish cohort and 23-26% in the Danish cohort. The genetic...

  6. Twin study of heritability of eating bread in Danish and Finnish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Silventoinen, Karri; Keskitalo, Kaisu

    2010-01-01

    magnitude of the additive genetic, shared environmental and individual environmental effects on bread eating frequency and choice of bread. The analysis of bread intake frequency demonstrated moderate heritability ranging from 37-40% in the Finnish cohort and 23-26% in the Danish cohort. The genetic...... predisposition. Environmental factors shared by the co-twins (e.g., childhood environment) seem to have no significant effects on bread consumption and preference in adulthood.......Bread is an elementary part of the western diet, and especially rye bread is regarded as an important source of fibre. We investigated the heritability of eating bread in terms of choice of white and rye bread and use-frequency of bread in female and male twins in Denmark and Finland. The study...

  7. High insoluble fibre content increases in vitro starch digestibility in partially baked breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, Felicidad; Rivero, Pablo; Caballero, Pedro A; Quilez, Joan

    2012-12-01

    Wheat breads prepared from frozen partially baked breads were characterized by their content of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) by the in vitro starch digestibility method developed by Englyst. Breads with different contents and types of fibre and breads prepared with different fermentation processes were studied. Bread with inulin and with a double fermentation had the lowest RDS content of 58.8 ± 1.7 and 60.0 ± 1.9 (% dry matter), respectively. Wheat bran bread, seeded bread, triple fermentation white bread and baguette-type bread showed values of RDS between 63.1 ± 1.7 and 65.7 ± 1.7 with no significant differences between them (p breads than in breads with added fibre. The highest values of the starch digestive rate index (SDRI) were obtained by the three types of breads with added fibre, which ranged from 91.8 ± 3.5 to 95.8 ± 3.5 versus 80.2 ± 3.5 to 87.5 ± 3.5 for white wheat breads. A significant (p bread crumbs corroborated this statement.

  8. Glycemic, insulinemic, and appetite responses of patients with type 2 diabetes to commonly consumed breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Cathy; Ryan, Miriam; Gibney, Michael J; Corrigan, Michelle; O'Shea, Donal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the breads most commonly consumed by adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and then examine the postprandial glycemic, insulinemic, and appetite responses that these breads elicit. One hundred people with T2DM were surveyed to identify the varieties of bread they most frequently consumed. According to a randomized crossover design, 11 fasting participants with T2DM consumed 50 g of available carbohydrate from 4 breads. Glucose and insulin concentrations and appetite ratings were determined over 270 minutes. Three commonly consumed varieties (white, whole wheat buttermilk, whole grain) identified in the survey-plus a lower-glycemic-index "control" bread (pumpernickel rye)-were tested in the second phase. Despite perceived differences between "brown" and "white" breads, the white, whole wheat buttermilk, and wholegrain breads promoted similar glycemic and insulinemic responses. Pumpernickel bread resulted in a significantly lower peak glucose (P breads and a lower peak insulin (P bread. Similar appetite responses were found with all 4 breads. Adults with T2DM are choosing a variety of breads with perceived differential effects on glycemic, insulinemic, and appetite responses. Appreciable benefits, however, are not conferred by the commonly consumed breads. If breads known to promote favorable metabolic responses are unavailable, the primary emphasis in education should be placed on portion control. Conveying this information to patients is crucial if nutrition education is to achieve its aim of empowering individuals to manage their diabetes through their food choices.

  9. Twin study of heritability of eating bread in Danish and Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselbalch, Ann L; Silventoinen, Karri; Keskitalo, Kaisu; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Rissanen, Aila; Heitmann, Berit L; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2010-04-01

    Bread is an elementary part of the western diet, and especially rye bread is regarded as an important source of fibre. We investigated the heritability of eating bread in terms of choice of white and rye bread and use-frequency of bread in female and male twins in Denmark and Finland. The study cohorts included 575 Danish (age range 18-67 years) and 2009 Finnish (age range 22-27 years) adult twin pairs. Self-reported frequency of eating bread was obtained by food frequency questionnaires. Univariate models based on linear structural equations for twin data were used to estimate the relative magnitude of the additive genetic, shared environmental and individual environmental effects on bread eating frequency and choice of bread. The analysis of bread intake frequency demonstrated moderate heritability ranging from 37-40% in the Finnish cohort and 23-26% in the Danish cohort. The genetic influence on intake of white bread was moderate (24-31%), while the genetic influence on intake of rye bread was higher in men (41-45%) than in women (24-33%). Environmental influences shared by the twins were not significant. Consumption of bread as well as choice of bread is influenced by genetic predisposition. Environmental factors shared by the co-twins (e.g., childhood environment) seem to have no significant effects on bread consumption and preference in adulthood.

  10. Spoilage and shelf-life extension of fresh fish and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashie, I N; Smith, J P; Simpson, B K

    1996-01-01

    Fresh fish and shellfish are highly perishable products due to their biological composition. Under normal refrigerated storage conditions, the shelf life of these products is limited by enzymatic and microbiological spoilage. However, with increasing consumer demands for fresh products with extended shelf life and increasing energy costs associated with freezing and frozen storage, the fish-processing industry is actively seeking alternative methods of shelf life preservation and marketability of fresh, refrigerated fish and at the same time economizing on energy costs. Additional methods that could fulfill these objectives include chemical decontamination, low-dose irradiation, ultra-high pressure, and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). This review focuses on the biochemical and microbiological composition of fresh fish/shellfish, the spoilage patterns in these products, factors influencing spoilage, and the combination treatments that can be used in conjunction with refrigeration to extend the shelf life and keeping quality of fresh fish/shellfish. The safety concerns of minimally processed/MAP fish, specifically with respect to the growth of Clostridium botulinum type E, is also addressed.

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss Essential Oil against Some Fish Spoilage Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (EO against six fish spoilage bacteria for evaluation of its potential utilization in the preservation of minimally processed fish products. Methods: Firstly, GC-MS analysis of the EO was performed to determine its chemical composition. Then, antibacterial effect of the EO in a range of 0.031 to 4 mg/ml was tested against different fish spoilage bacteria such as Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis by broth microdilution method to determine minimum inhibitory (MIC and minimum bactericidal (MBC concentrations. Results: GC-MS results showed that phenolic components such as carvacrol (51.55% and thymol (25.49% were predominant constituents of the EO. Zataria multiflora Boiss EO exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria. Shewanella Putrefaciens was the most sensitive bacteria with MBC value of 0. 5 mg/ml. Conclusion: According to the results, this EO could be used as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food specially seafood products to preserve them against bacterial spoilage.

  12. Experimental study on bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jufang; Dong Xicun; Li Wenjian; Xiao Guoqing; Ma Liang; Gao Feng

    2008-01-01

    As a substitute for food supplies, sweet sorghum juice with high grade has demonstrated out- standing advantage in fermentation. To obtain the optimized fermentation conditions, the growth, the bio- mass of bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice and total residual sugar were investigated in the paper. The fermentation was performed and optimized in a 10-100 1 bio-reactor. The results show that the application of sweet sorghum juice in bread yeast production is very potential. (authors)

  13. Characteristics of starch breads enriched with red potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gumul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch breads may often be low in nutritional value, in comparison to traditional products, as they contain less dietary fibre, protein and micro and macro elements. As an effect a risk of mineral deficiencies and digestive problems caused by lack of dietary fibre could be expected in persons adhering to gluten free diet. To eliminate such problems, a continuous research on gluten-free bread nutritional enrichment, has been done in recent years. Raw material used to enrich gluten free products should include: inulin, lupine, radish, soy, lucerne sprouts, oilseeds, different type of dried fruits. Among the most commonly used raw materials, there are flours from gluten free cereals and pseudocereals such as buckwheat, amaranth and maize are very popular. It seem that valuable alternative could be considered a red, purple or pink potatoes as starch breads additives. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect addition of freeze-dried color potatoes on crude fiber, polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids and nutritional value of gluten free breads. It could be concluded, that freeze-dried color (red, purple, pink potatoes enriched the gluten free breads (starch breads with health promoting bioactive components, like polyphenols, and highly valuable protein. The most promising additive was Magenta Love red potato variety lyophilisates, because gluten free breads enriched with this component were characterized by high protein content and the highest content of free and bound polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins. The presence of all these components increased the nutritional and pro-health value of gluten free product as starch bread.

  14. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ON GRAPES IN CENTRAL SLOVAK WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Rybárik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern about filamentous fungi in the vineyards has traditionally been linked to spoilage of grapes due to fungal growth. The aims of this study were to monitor the mycobiota in Central Slovak wine region. The Central Slovak wine region is divided into seven different subregions. In this work we had ten grape samples from seven various wine growing subregions and eight different villages. Five of these samples were from white grape berries and five were from red grape berries. The sample nr. 7 was without chemical protection (interspecific variety and three samples (nr. 8, 9, 10 were from bio-production. In the samples were determined exogenous contamination (direct platting method and endogenous contamination (surface-disinfected grapes. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method that each sample of 50 grape berries without visible damage was direct plated on to a DRBC agar medium. In exogenous contamination was detected 17 different genera Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Sordaria, Trichoderma and group Mycelia sterilia in which we included all colony of filamentous fungi that after incubation did not create fruiting bodies necessary for identification to genera level. By the endogenous contamination was each sample of 50 grape berries was surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (1% for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water three times and plated onto a DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol medium, Merck, Germany. The plates were incubated at 25±1 ºC for 7 days in the dark. By the endogenous plating method was identified 15 different genera from all ten samples Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gelasinospora, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelia sterilia.

  15. QUALITY OF GLUTEN-FREE BUCKWHEAT-RICE BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dvořáková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In case of celiac disease the products containing gluten must be excluded from the nutrition. The offer of gluten-free products (especially pastry is low and in addition the gluten-free breads are typical of dry crust and crumb and higher firmness in comparison with wheat bread. This work deals with gluten-free mixtures prepared from buckwheat and rice flour and the effect of rising amount of these flours on bread quality, crumb hardness, elasticity, chewiness and gumminess. With rising portion of buckwheat flour in the mixture the bread volume, dough and bread yield increased. The biggest improvement was found for mean bread volume (30% between the samples FO 1090 (166.7 cm3 and FO 9010 (216.7 cm3. The texture analysis showed positive effect of rice flour on hardness, chewiness and gumminess. Hardness decreased from 114.5 N (F 100 to 91.3 N (FO 1090. Very similar results showed chewiness and gumminess. Chewiness of F 100 (314.0 was reduced by 32.5% to 212.2 at the sample FO 1090. Gumminess was improved almost linearly through the samples, the biggest difference (44.3% was found between the check sample F 100 (88.3 and FO 1090 (49.7.

  16. Exergetic comparison of food waste valorization in industrial bread production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Moejes, Sanne N.; Rossier-Miranda, Francisco J.; Goot, Atze Jan van der; Boom, Remko M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the thermodynamic performance of three industrial bread production chains: one that generates food waste, one that avoids food waste generation, and one that reworks food waste to produce new bread. The chemical exergy flows were found to be much larger than the physical exergy consumed in all the industrial bread chains studied. The par-baked brown bun production chain had the best thermodynamic performance because of the highest rational exergetic efficiency (71.2%), the lowest specific exergy losses (5.4 MJ/kg brown bun), and the almost lowest cumulative exergy losses (4768 MJ/1000 kg of dough processed). However, recycling of bread waste is also exergetically efficient when the total fermented surplus is utilizable. Clearly, preventing material losses (i.e. utilizing raw materials maximally) improves the exergetic efficiency of industrial bread chains. In addition, most of the physical (non-material related) exergy losses occurred at the baking, cooling and freezing steps. Consequently, any additional improvement in industrial bread production should focus on the design of thermodynamically efficient baking and cooling processes, and on the use of technologies throughout the chain that consume the lowest possible physical exergy. - Highlights: • Preventing material losses is the best way to enhance the exergetic efficiency. • Most of the physical exergy losses occur at the baking, cooling and freezing steps. • Par-baking “saves” chemical exergy but consumes an equal amount of physical exergy

  17. ASSESSMENT OF FLOW AND TECHNOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF FRENCH BREAD PREMIXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. VALDUGA

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    In this work formulations of French bread premixes were investigated. The premixes were based on blends of Argentinean and Brazilian wheat. The bread produced with the mixtures was compared to the bread obtained with standard flour, which did not contain any additives. The flour was characterized by physico-chemical and biochemical analysis (humidity, ashes, water absorption, color, gluten index, flour strength and a-amylase activity. The bread rolls were prepared using a standard formulation (without additives and two different formulations, using ascorbic acid, a-amylase, esterlac, soybean flour and diacetyl tartaric acid emulsifier. The physico-chemical analysis results indicate that the standard flour is better than the formulations. Nevertheless bread-making tests showed that the premixes formulations have better performance concerning the specific volume and the sensory characteristics. Statistical analysis confirmed that there is a significant difference in the specific volume and the sensory characteristics between the formulations, proving that the use of additives can enhance the quality of the French bread.

  18. Speciation of chromium in bread and breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathebula, Mpho Wendy; Mandiwana, Khakhathi; Panichev, Nikolas

    2017-02-15

    Bread and breakfast cereals are a major constituents of the human diet, yet their Cr(VI) content is not known. Chromium(VI) was determined in these products by high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer (HR-CS AAS) after leaching Cr(VI) with 0.10molL(-1) Na2CO3. The results showed that 33-73% of total Cr (58.17±5.12μgkg(-1)-156.1±6.66μgkg(-1)) in bread exist as Cr(VI) and the highest total Cr content was found in brown bread. It was shown that Cr(III) is oxidized to Cr(VI) during toasting of bread. Chromium(VI) content in breakfast cereals ranged between 20.4±4μgkg(-1) and 470.4±68μgkg(-1). Therefore, it can be concluded that bread and breakfast cereals contains Cr(VI) which does not exceed maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) of 0.003mgkg(-1)bw(-1)day(-1) through daily consumption of half a bowl (65g) of breakfast cereal and four slices of toasted (122g) or untoasted bread (160g). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight dough bread formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Courtney W; Hunt-Schmidt, Emily; Simsek, Senay; Hall, Clifford; Biswas, Atanu

    2014-09-01

    Pinto beans were milled and then air-classified to obtain a raw high protein fraction (RHPF) followed by extrusion to texturize the protein fraction. The texturized high protein fraction (THPF) was then milled to obtain flour, and combined with wheat flour at 5, 10, and 15% levels to make bread. The air-classification process produced flour with high concentration of lipids and phytic acid in the protein-rich fraction. However, extrusion significantly reduced hexane extractable lipid and phytic acid. However, the reduction observed may simply indicate a reduction in recovery due to bind with other components. Total protein and lysine contents in composite flours increased significantly as THPF levels increased in composite flour. Bread made with 5% THPF had 48% more lysine than the 100 % wheat flour (control). The THPF helped to maintain dough strength by reducing mixing tolerance index (MTI), maintaining dough stability and increasing departure time on Farinograph. Bread loaf volume was significantly reduced above 5% THPF addition. THPF increased water absorption causing an increase in bread weights by up to 6%. Overall, loaf quality deteriorated at 10 and 15% THPF levels while bread with 5% THPF was not significantly different from the control. These results support the addition of 5% THPF as a means to enhance lysine content of white pan bread.

  20. Optimization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Waste Bread before Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Hudečková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding of optimal hydrolysis conditions is important for increasing the yield of saccharides. The higher yield of saccharides is usable for increase of the following fermentation effectivity. In this study optimal conditions (pH and temperature for amylolytic enzymes were searched. As raw material was used waste bread. Two analytical methods for analysis were used. Efficiency and process of hydrolysis was analysed spectrophotometrically by Somogyi-Nelson method. Final yields of glucose were analysed by HPLC. As raw material was used waste bread from local cafe. Waste bread was pretreated by grinding into small particles. Hydrolysis was performed in 100 mL of 15 % (w/v waste bread particles in the form of water suspension. Waste bread was hydrolysed by two commercial enzymes. For the liquefaction was used α‑amylase (BAN 240 L. The saccharification was performed by glucoamylase (AMG 300 L. Optimal conditions for α‑amylase (pH 6; 80 °C were found. The yield of total sugars was 67.08 g∙L-1 (calculated to maltose. As optimal conditions for glucoamylase (pH 4.2; 60 °C were found. Amount of glucose was 70.28 g∙L1. The time of waste bread liquefaction was 180 minutes. The time of saccharification was 90 minutes. The results were presented at the conference CECE Junior 2014.

  1. Continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Huang, Jingang; Zhao, Hongting; Li, Yongfeng

    2016-07-01

    In this study, continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge was performed. The waste bread was first hydrolyzed by the crude enzymes which were generated by Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae via solid-state fermentation. It was observed that 49.78g/L glucose and 284.12mg/L free amino nitrogen could be produced with waste bread mass ratio of 15% (w/v). The waste bread hydrolysate was then used for biohydrogen production by anaerobic sludge in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The optimal hydrogen production rate of 7.4L/(Ld) was achieved at chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 6000mg/L. According to the results obtained from this study, 1g waste bread could generate 0.332g glucose which could be further utilized to produce 109.5mL hydrogen. This is the first study which reports continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...... morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary...... to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations....

  3. A salt reduction of 50% in bread does not decrease bread consumption or increase sodium intake by the choice of sandwich fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Temme, Elisabeth H M; Koeman, Fari T; Noort, Martijn W J; Kremer, Stefanie; Janssen, Anke M

    2011-12-01

    Bread is a major contributor to sodium intake in many countries. Reducing the salt (NaCl) content in bread might be an effective way to reduce overall sodium intake. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of gradually lowering the salt content in brown bread, with and without flavor compensation (KCl and yeast extract), on bread consumption and sodium intake compensation by choice of sandwich fillings. A total of 116 participants (age: 21 ± 3 y; BMI: 22 ± 2 kg/m²) consumed a buffet-style breakfast on weekdays for 4 wk. Participants received either regular bread (control group: n = 39), bread whose salt content was gradually lowered each week by 0, 31, 52, and 67% (reduced group: n = 38), or bread whose salt content was also gradually lowered each week but which was also flavor compensated (compensated group: n = 39). A reduction of up to 52% of salt in bread did not lead to lower consumption of bread compared to the control (P = 0.57), whereas less bread was consumed when salt was reduced by 67% (P = 0.006). When bread was flavor compensated, however, a reduction of 67% did not lead to lower consumption (P = 0.69). Salt reduction in bread (with and without flavor compensation) did not induce sodium intake compensation (P = 0.31). In conclusion, a salt reduction of up to 52% in bread or even up to 67% in flavor-compensated bread neither affected bread consumption nor choice of sandwich fillings.

  4. Upgrading of shamy wheat bread quality through supplement with flour of certain gamma irradiated legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Soybean flour,chick peas flour and lupines were irradiated at 0,5 and 10 kGy and individually used to replace 5,10 or 15% of wheat flour in shamy bread. The effect of supplementation of wheat flour with these legume flours on the major, chemical composition and nutritional quality of bread was studied. Results indicated that protein, ash and fiber contents of supplemented shamy bread were higher than the control. On the other hand, the amino acids of the shamy wheat bread supplemented irradiated legumes flour, improved the quality (water retention capacity, stailing rate and bread freshness) of bread

  5. Nudging children towards whole wheat bread: a field experiment on the influence of fun bread roll shape on breakfast consumption

    OpenAIRE

    van Kleef, Ellen; Vrijhof, Milou; Polet, Ilse A; Vingerhoeds, Monique H; de Wijk, René A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many children do not eat enough whole grains, which may have negative health consequences. Intervention research is increasingly focusing on nudging as a way to influence food choices by affecting unconscious behavioural processes. The aim of this field study was to examine whether the shape of bread rolls is able to shift children’s bread choices from white to whole wheat during breakfast to increase whole grain intake. Methods: In a between-subjects experiment conducted at twelv...

  6. Structural differences between rye and wheat breads but not total fiber content may explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juntunen, Katri S; Laaksonen, David E; Autio, Karin

    2003-01-01

    and glucose responses. DESIGN: Nineteen healthy postmenopausal women aged 61 +/- 1 y, with a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 26.0 +/- 0.6, and with normal glucose tolerance participated in the study. The test products were refined wheat bread (control), endosperm rye bread, traditional rye bread, and high......BACKGROUND: Rye bread has a beneficial effect on the postprandial insulin response in healthy subjects. The role of rye fiber in insulin and glucose metabolism is not known. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the content of rye fiber in rye breads on postprandial insulin...

  7. Optimization of Pan Bread Prepared with Ramie Powder and Preservation of Optimized Pan Bread Treated by Gamma Irradiation during Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.J.; Joo, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop an optimal composite recipe for pan bread with ramie powder that has high sensory approval with all age groups and to estimate the DPPH radical scavenging activity and the pan bread shelf life after gamma irradiation. The sensory evaluation results showed significant differences in flavor (p less than 0.05), appearance (p less than 0.01), color (p less than 0.01), moistness (p less than 0.01), and overall quality (p less than 0.05) based on the amount of ramie powder added. As a result, the optimum formulations by numerical and graphical methods were calculated to be as follows: ramie powder 2.76 g (0.92%) and water 184.7 mL. Optimized pan bread with ramie powder and white pan bread were irradiated with gamma-rays at doses of 0, 10, 15, and 20 kGy. The total bacterial growth increased with the longer storage time and the least amount of ramie powder added. Consequently, these results suggest that the addition of ramie powder to pan bread provides added value to the bread in terms of increased shelf life

  8. Impact of bread making on fructan chain integrity and effect of fructan enriched breads on breath hydrogen, satiety, energy intake, PYY and ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C; Lynn, A; Neveux, C; Hall, A C; Morris, G A

    2015-08-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in the satiety inducing properties of inulin type fructans (ITF) as a tool for weight management. As a staple food, breads provide an excellent vehicle for ITF supplementation however the integrity of the ITF chains and properties upon bread making need to be assessed. Breads enriched with 12% fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and 12% inulin were baked and the degree of polymerisation of fructans extracted from the breads were compared to those of pure compounds. An acute feeding study with a single blind cross-over design was conducted with 11 participants to investigate the effect of ITF enriched breads on breath hydrogen, self-reported satiety levels, active ghrelin, total PYY and energy intake. Size exclusion chromatography indicated that little or no depolymerisation of inulin occurred during bread making, however, there was evidence of modest FOS depolymerisation. Additionally, ITF enriched breads resulted in increased concentrations of exhaled hydrogen although statistical significance was reached only for the inulin enriched bread (p = 0.001). There were no significant differences between bread types in reported satiety (p = 0.129), plasma active ghrelin (p = 0.684), plasma PYY (p = 0.793) and energy intake (p = 0.240). These preliminary results indicate that inulin enriched bread may be a suitable staple food to increase ITF intake. Longer intervention trials are required to assess the impact of inulin enriched breads on energy intake and body weight.

  9. Some mycogenous fungi from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chlebicki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the results of earlier studies on mycogenous fungi which were gathered occasionally are summarized. Fifieen specres. previously Pyrenomycetes s.l., have been found growing on other fungi Immothia hypoxylon and Lophiostoma polyporicola are new species to the Polish mycoflora. Sphaeronaemella Kulczyńskiana described by K. R o u p p e r t (1912 is considered to be Eleuteromyces subultus. Relatively high number of fungi inhabiting stromata of Diatrypella favacea is probably connected with its early colonization of the Polish area.

  10. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w was evaluated in combination with high-methylated pectin (HM-pectin added at levels of 1 to 3% (w/w according to a full factorial design. Addition of pectin to cassava flour made it possible to bake bread with acceptable bread quality even at concentration as high as 40%. In addition to cassava concentration, the type of cassava flour had the biggest effect on bread quality. With high level of cassava, bread with roasted cassava had a higher volume compared with sun-dried and fermented. The pectin level had a significant effect on improving the volume in high level roasted cassava bread. Crumb firmness similar to wheat bread could be obtained with sun-dried and roasted cassava flours. Roasted cassava bread was the only bread with crust colour similar to wheat bread.

  11. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo, Maria; Svanberg, Ulf; Oliveira, Jorge; Ahrné, Lilia

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented) on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w) was evaluated in combination with high-methylated pectin (HM-pectin) added at levels of 1 to 3% (w/w) according to a full factorial design. Addition of pectin to cassava flour made it possible to bake bread with acceptable bread quality even at concentration as high as 40%. In addition to cassava concentration, the type of cassava flour had the biggest effect on bread quality. With high level of cassava, bread with roasted cassava had a higher volume compared with sun-dried and fermented. The pectin level had a significant effect on improving the volume in high level roasted cassava bread. Crumb firmness similar to wheat bread could be obtained with sun-dried and roasted cassava flours. Roasted cassava bread was the only bread with crust colour similar to wheat bread.

  12. Sourdough microbial community dynamics: An analysis during French organic bread-making processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Emilie; Urien, Charlotte; Legrand, Judith; Dousset, Xavier; Onno, Bernard; Sicard, Delphine

    2016-02-01

    Natural sourdoughs are commonly used in bread-making processes, especially for organic bread. Despite its role in bread flavor and dough rise, the stability of the sourdough microbial community during and between bread-making processes is debated. We investigated the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast communities in traditional organic sourdoughs of five French bakeries during the bread-making process and several months apart using classical and molecular microbiology techniques. Sourdoughs were sampled at four steps of the bread-making process with repetition. The analysis of microbial density over 68 sourdough/dough samples revealed that both LAB and yeast counts changed along the bread-making process and between bread-making runs. The species composition was less variable. A total of six LAB and nine yeast species was identified from 520 and 1675 isolates, respectively. The dominant LAB species was Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, found for all bakeries and each bread-making run. The dominant yeast species changed only once between bread-making processes but differed between bakeries. They mostly belonged to the Kazachstania clade. Overall, this study highlights the change of population density within the bread-making process and between bread-making runs and the relative stability of the sourdough species community during bread-making process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena

    2010-01-01

    factories for sustainable production of important molecules. For developing fungi into efficient cell factories, the project includes identification of important factors that control the flux through the pathways using metabolic flux analysis and metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways....

  14. Hydrolysate from a mixture of legume flours with antifungal activity as an ingredient for prolonging the shelf-life of wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Verni, Michela; Bordignon, Stefano; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at identifying antifungal compounds from plant matrices to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, a water/salt-soluble extract (WSE) was produced from a legume enzyme hydrolysate, consisting of a mixture of pea, lentil, and faba bean flours, and assayed towards Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. Agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the optimal processing conditions for hydrolysis. As shown by hyphal radial growth rate, the inhibition was observed towards several fungi, including Aspergillus parasiticus CBS971.97, Penicillium carneum CBS 112297, Penicillium paneum CBS 101032, Penicillium polonicum 112490. A multi-step purification was carried out to identify the active compounds. The antifungal activity was attributed to native proteins (nsLTP, ubiquitin, lectin alpha-1 chain, wound-induced basic protein, defensin-1, defensin-2) and a mixture of peptides, which were released during hydrolysis. Nine peptides were purified and identified as sequences encrypted in legume vicilins, lectins and chitinases. WSE was used as ingredient for making bread under pilot plant conditions. Chemical, structural and sensory characterization of bread showed the lack of significant changes compared to control. The bread made with the legume hydrolysate had a longer shelf-life than that of the control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antifungal effect of phenolic extract of fermented rice bran with Rhizopus oryzae and its potential use in loaf bread shelf life extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardi-Souza, Taiana; Luz, Carlos; Mañes, Jordi; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana; Meca, Giuseppe

    2018-03-30

    In this study the antifungal potential of a phenolic extract obtained from rice bran fermented with Rhizopus oryzae CECT 7560 and its application in the elaboration of bread was assessed. Eighteen compounds with antifungal potential were identified by LC-ESI-qTOF-MS in the extract: organic acids, gallates and gallotannins, flavonoids, ellagic acid and benzophenone derivatives. The extract was active against strains of Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium, with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 390 to 3100 µg mL -1 and minimum fungicidal concentration variable from 780 to 6300 µg mL -1 . The strains that were most sensitive to the phenolic extract were F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. poae, P. roqueforti, P. expansum and A. niger. The phenolic extract added at 5 and 1 g kg -1 concentrations in the preparation of bread loaves contaminated with P. expansum produced a reduction of 0.6 and 0.7 log CFU g -1 . The bread loaves treated with calcium propionate and 10 g kg -1 of the phenolic extract evidenced an improvement in their shelf lives of 3 days. The phenolic extract assessed in this study could be considered as an alternative for inhibiting toxigenic fungi and as a substitute for synthetic compounds in food preservation. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Fibre fortification of wheat bread: impact on mineral composition and bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Zita E; Pinto, Edgar; Almeida, Agostinho A; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2017-05-24

    In this work, wheat bread was fortified with fibre enriched extracts recovered from agroindustry by-products, namely, elderberry skin, pulp and seeds (EE); orange peel (OE); pomegranate peel and interior membranes (PE); and spent yeast (YE). The impact of this fortification on the total and bioaccessible mineral composition of wheat breads, estimated mineral daily intake, and the relationship between bioaccessibility and dietary fibre was evaluated. Fortification with OE, EE, and PE improved the content of essential minerals in bread when compared to control bread. The exception was bread fortified with YE, which presented a mineral content similar to control bread, but its mineral bioaccessibility was significantly higher than in all the other bread formulations. The opposite was observed for PE bread, which presented a significant reduction of bioaccessible minerals. We concluded that the origin of the fibre rich extract must be carefully selected, to avoid potential negative impact on mineral bioaccessibility.

  17. The use of potato fibre to improve bread physico-chemical properties during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Elena; Carini, Eleonora; Diantom, Agoura; Vittadini, Elena

    2016-03-15

    Bread staling reduction is a very important issue for the food industry. A fibre with high water holding capacity, extracted from potato peel, was studied for its ability to reduce bread staling even if employed at low level (0.4 g fibre/100 g flour). Physico-chemical properties (water activity, moisture content, frozen water content, amylopectin retrogradation) and (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance molecular mobility were characterised in potato fibre added bread over 7 days of storage. Potato fibre addition in bread slightly affected water activity and moisture content, while increased frozen water content and resulted in a softer bread crumb, more importantly when the optimal amount of water was used in the formulation. Potato fibre also reduced (1)H NMR molecular mobility changes in bread crumb during storage. Potato fibre addition in bread contributed to reduce bread staling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. THE EFFECT OF SOME TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE RYE SOURDOUGH BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Banu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The modern biotechnology of bread production uses sourdough as a natural leavening agent. In rye bread making the sourdough is essential. The aim of this paper was to examine the influence of starter culture types, flour extraction rate, dough yield and temperature of fermentation on the quality of the sourdough rye bread. The sourdough was prepared using a mixed culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis. The rye breads prepared with 20% sourdough and bread with no sourdough were investigated. The addition of sourdough increases the loaf specific volume relative to control sample. The best results were obtained in case of sourdough made from dark rye flour, 300 dough yield, after 24 h fermentation at 30 °C. The porosity of the bread was estimated by analyzing the scanned images of the vertically halved bread. Digital image analysis revealed that the cell-to-total area ratio was lower for the sourdough prepared with whole rye bread.

  19. Influence of health and environmental information on hedonic evaluation of organic and conventional bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, L E; Muralidharan, V; Boxall, P C; Cash, S B; Wismer, W V

    2008-05-01

    Grain from paired samples of the hard red spring wheat cultivar "Park" grown on both conventionally and organically managed land was milled and baked into 60% whole wheat bread. Consumers (n= 384) rated their liking of the bread samples on a 9-point hedonic scale before (blind) and after (labeled) receiving information about organic production. Consumers liked organic bread more (P bread under blind and labeled conditions. Environmental information about organic production did not impact consumer preference changes for organic bread, but health information coupled with sensory evaluation increased liking of organic bread. Ordinary least squares (OLS) and binary response (probit) regression models identified that postsecondary education, income level, frequency of bread consumption, and proenvironmental attitudes played a significant role in preference changes for organic bread. The techniques used in this study demonstrate that a combination of sensory and econometric techniques strengthens the evaluation of consumer food choice.

  20. Characteristics and oxidative stability of bread fortified with encapsulated shrimp oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirima Takeungwongtrakul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics and oxidative stability of bread fortified with micro-encapsulated shrimp oil (MSO were determined. The addition of MSO could improve the loaf volume of bread. Chewiness,gumminess and resilience of resulting bread were decreased. Bread crust and crumb showed higher redness and yellowness when MSO was incorporated (P<0.05. Microstructure study revealed that MSO remained intact with bread crumbs. The addition of MSO up to 3% had no adverse effect on bread quality and sensory acceptability. Oxidation took place in bread fortified with 5%MSO to a higher extent, compared with those with 1 or 3% MSO. Therefore, the bread could be fortified with MSO up to 3%.

  1. Evaluation of the spoilage potential of bacteria isolated from chilled chicken in vitro and in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Yu; Wang, Hu-Hu; Han, Yi-Wei; Xing, Tong; Ye, Ke-Ping; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhou, Guang-Hong

    2017-05-01

    Microorganisms play an important role in the spoilage of chilled chicken. In this study, a total of 53 isolates, belonging to 7 species of 3 genera, were isolated using a selective medium based on the capacity to spoil chicken juice. Four isolates, namely Aeromonas salmonicida 35, Pseudomonas fluorescens H5, Pseudomonas fragi H8 and Serratia liquefaciens 17, were further characterized to assess their proteolytic activities in vitro using meat protein extracts and to evaluate their spoilage potential in situ. The in vitro studies showed that A. salmonicida 35 displayed the strongest proteolytic activity against both sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins. However, the major spoilage isolate in situ was P. fragi H8, which exhibited a fast growth rate, slime formation and increased pH and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) on chicken breast fillets. The relative amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from the microorganisms, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and several sulfur compounds, increased during storage. In sum, this study demonstrated the characteristics of 4 potential spoilage bacteria on chilled yellow-feather chicken and provides a simple and convenient method to assess spoilage bacteria during quality management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ABSORBABLE IRON IN BREAD: PROCEDURES OF ITS AUGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M SABZEVARY

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As many as 35 percent of the world population suffer from some degree of iron deficiency anemia. According to recent reports published by WHO and ICN (International Congress of Nutrition 20-40 percent of women are suffering from iron deficiency. Iron deficiency anemia is caused by lack of intake of the necessary doses of Fe+2 called Heme. The recommended intake dose is 10-17 mg Fe + 2/day. In Iran, bread is the main source of daily iron intake. However, the iron content of bread is Fe+3 which is not absorbable. The objectives of this study is to determine the levels of absorbable iron (Fe + 2 in two common types of Iranian bread and identify the means of raising these to an adequate levels.
    Methods: Random sampling method together with the normal distribution curve was employed in testing 120 samples of flour and bread. Quantification was carried out on each sample in duplicate using spectrophotometer at 510 mu, micrometer wave length. The effect of three organic acids (lactic ascorbic and acetic acid converting of Fe+3 to Fe + 2 was investigated. Two groups of bread was tested. One group was baked in tratitional oven (Noon-e-Tanoori and the second group through the common Iranian hot rotating iron plate baking machine (Noon-e-Machini.
    Results: Our results showed that the amount of absorbable Fe+2 in breads baked in rotatory oven (Noon-e-Tanoori is 0.8 ± 0.32 mg and the amount of unabsorbable Fe+3 in dried bread is 2.34 ± 0.25 mg/100 gm while the amount of absorbable Fe + 2 baked in traditional ovens is only 0.3±0.11 mg versus of unabsorbable Fe  + 3 1.9±0.13 mg/100 gm of dried bread. Meanwhile it was found that lactic and ascorbic acids can convert Fe+3 to Fe+2. Therefore, addition of one of these two acids to bread can catalyze conversion of unabsorbable Fe+3 to absorbable Fe + 2.
    Discussion: On the average an Iranian consumes 370 gm of

  3. Industrial Potential of Two Varieties of Cocoyam in Bread Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabuk O. Eddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the chemical (proximate composition, mineral composition, toxicant composition and vitamin composition, nutritional and industrial potentials of two varieties of cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium (XS and Colocasia esculenta (CE were carried out using recommended methods of analysis. Baking trials were conducted with the two varieties of cocoyam at different levels of substitution (20%, 30% and 50%. The produced bread samples were analyzed for their physical parameters and proximate composition. Sensory evaluation test was also carried out on the produced bread. The result of the analysis showed that the preferred bread in terms of loaf weight, volume and specific volume was given by sample I (control sample containing 100% wheat flour with a specific volume of 3.54 cm3/g. This was closely followed by sample A with specific volume of 3.25 cm3/g containing 20% substitution level of CE. Sample H containing 50% substitution level of XS with specific volume of 2.58 cm3/g gave the poorest performance. The sensory evaluation result further revealed that apart from the 100% wheat flour based sample I, sample D with 20% substitution level of XS was rated good and maintained better performance amongst the cocoyam varieties while samples G and C with 100% and 50% substitution level of CE respectively were rated the poorest. The proximate composition of the bread samples was also carried out. CE, XS and wheat bread samples (100% recorded 15.0633±1.4531, 12.1133±1.5975 and 11.2867±0.7978 respectively for the moisture content. XS bread recorded the highest carbohydrate content of 45.0133±3.0274. In terms of ash, CE bread recorded the highest value of 31.4367±1.6159 while wheat bread recorded the highest value for protein i.e. 20.6033± 0.8113. XS performed better in terms of crude fat and energy value of 12.2967± 0.8914 and 371.5367 respectively. The use of cocoyam - wheat flour mixture in producing composite bread is therefore

  4. Sensory profile and evaluation of the degree of acceptability of bread produced with inulin and oligofructose

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Kelli de Souza-Borges; Ana Carolina Conti-Silva

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Homemade bread was produced with 4.4 and 4.45 g of total fructans per 50 g serving to meet Brazilian standards for prebiotic claims. The bread samples were characterized for their sensory profiles using descriptive analysis and for their sensory acceptability using hedonic and just-about-right scales for sweetness intensity. The sensory profiles of the breads were similar and sweetness was the term that discriminated the bread samples obtained, since the intensity decreased from the ...

  5. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo, Maria; Svanberg, Ulf; Oliveira, Jorge; Ahrn?, Lilia

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented) on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w) was evaluated in combination with...

  6. Effect of Buttermilk on the Physicochemical, Rheological, and Sensory Qualities of Pan and Pita Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jahani, Amani H.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of buttermilk on the physicochemical and sensory attributes of pan and pita breads. Different amounts of buttermilk (30, 60, and 100% of added water) were mixed with other ingredients of pan and pita bread formulations. The doughs and bread were analyzed for rheological, physicochemical, and sensory qualities. The results demonstrated that incorporation of different concentrations of buttermilk in bread formulations progressively enhanced wa...

  7. Reaction of Rust on Some Bread Wheat Varieties in Çukurova Region

    OpenAIRE

    AY, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted with 126 varieties of wheat between 2009-2010 years in Adana. There has not been artificially inoculated yellow, leaf and stem rusts. Races of rust in natural were evaluated in both years. Between 2009-2010 this study was conducted in Adana, with 126 varieties of bread wheat. In both years, only the natural environment leaf rust races inoculated for assessments reactions of bread wheat. According to results, 49 bread wheat varieties were found resistant, 6 bread wheat...

  8. Evolution of bread-making quality of Spanish bread-wheat genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M.; Aparicio, N.; Ruiz-Paris, E.; Oliete, B.; Caballero, P. A.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, 36 Spanish wheat genotypes (five modern commercial cultivars, four cultivars introduced after the green revolution and 27 land races from northwestern Spain) were evaluated. Grain (yield, specific weight, protein content and falling number) and flour (yield, protein content, Zeleny index, wet gluten and gluten index) properties were analyzed. Dough behaviour during mixing (DoughLAB) and handling (alveograph) was also considered. An evolution in grain and flour properties was observed over time. In modern cultivars, grain yield was improved owing to higher grain production. In land races, higher grain yields were related to larger grain size. Unlike in land races, an inverse correlation between grain yield and protein content was found in modern cultivars. In addition, because of their high protein quality, modern cultivars surpassed land races in bread-making properties. Land races showed considerable variability in protein quality and scored lower curve configuration ratio values than other cultivars with similar strength. Cultivars introduced after the green revolution reached the highest levels of bread-making quality, a feature attributable to their high protein quality. (Author) 24 refs.

  9. HEALTH BENEFITS OF KVASS MANUFACTURED FROM RYE WHOLEMEAL BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Gambuś

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kvass based on traditional technology completely disappeared from polish market. It was replaced by drinks, prepared from malt concentrates, wrongly named kvass. The aim of this study was therefore to obtain traditional bread kvass (by fermentation, using the mash prepared from commercial wholemeal rye bread, produced by 5-phase dough fermentation method, and to determine the quality of this kvass in terms of consumer acceptance, chemical composition and antioxidant activity. It has been demonstrated that based on the traditional wholemeal rye bread, it is possible to produce good quality bread kvass, with similar organoleptic qualities to the commercial kvasses, which contain several added flavours and preservatives. Natural bread kvass can be consumed by consumers of all ages, since it contains only trace amounts of alcohol, and it has almost double the dietary fibre content and three times lower content of reducing sugars as compared to the commercial kvasses. Laboratory made kvasses by natural fermentation also showed an increase in antioxidant activity by 60%, when compared to commercial kvasses.

  10. Salt in bread in Europe: potential benefits of reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilez, Joan; Salas-Salvado, Jordi

    2012-11-01

    Bread is widely considered to be the foodstuff that provides the most dietary salt to the diet. As such, it is one of the key public health targets for a salt reduction policy. In this respect, it has been shown that a reduction in the salt content of bread is possible, and an alternative approach involves partial replacement with other, mainly potassium-based salts, which also counteract the effects of sodium. This replacement should be undertaken on the basis of criteria that maintain the product's sensory profile, and it tends to be more successful in breads with more naturally flavorful taste. The present review was conducted to examine salt intake in Europe and the health problems associated with its excessive consumption; particular focus is placed on the salt content of bread and the effects of its possible reduction and/or correction. The beneficial effects of such changes are highlighted by way of a theoretical calculation in baguette-type wheat bread. European legislation in the field of nutrition and health claims allows the positive aspects of such salt reduction and replacement methods to be stated. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  11. Role of plasmids in Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 hop tolerance and beer spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Baecker, Nina; Pittet, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2015-02-01

    Specific isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can grow in the harsh beer environment, thus posing a threat to brew quality and the economic success of breweries worldwide. Plasmid-localized genes, such as horA, horC, and hitA, have been suggested to confer hop tolerance, a trait required for LAB survival in beer. The presence and expression of these genes among LAB, however, do not universally correlate with the ability to grow in beer. Genome sequencing of the virulent beer spoilage organism Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 revealed the presence of eight plasmids, with plasmids 1, 2, and 3 containing horA, horC, and hitA, respectively. To investigate the roles that these and the other five plasmids play in L. brevis BSO 464 growth in beer, plasmid curing with novobiocin was used to derive 10 plasmid variants. Multiplex PCRs were utilized to determine the presence or absence of each plasmid, and how plasmid loss affected hop tolerance and growth in degassed (noncarbonated) beer was assessed. Loss of three of the eight plasmids was found to affect hop tolerance and growth in beer. Loss of plasmid 2 (horC and 28 other genes) had the most dramatic effect, with loss of plasmid 4 (120 genes) and plasmid 8 (47 genes) having significant, but smaller, impacts. These results support the contention that genes on mobile genetic elements are essential for bacterial growth in beer and that beer spoilage ability is not dependent solely on the three previously described hop tolerance genes or on the chromosome of a beer spoilage LAB isolate.

  12. Higher bioavailability of iron from whole wheat bread compared with iron-fortified white breads in caco-2 cell model: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikooyeh, Bahareh; Neyestani, Tirang R

    2017-06-01

    Bread, as the staple food of Iranians, with average per capita consumption of 300 g d -1 , could potentially be a good vehicle for many fortificants, including iron. In this study, iron bioavailability from flat breads (three fortified and one whole wheat unfortified) was investigated using in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion and absorption in a caco-2 cell model. Despite having a lower ferritin/protein ratio in comparison with fortified breads, whole wheat bread showed higher iron bioavailability than the other three types of bread. Assuming iron bioavailability from the ferrous sulfate supplement used as standard was about 10%, the estimated bioavailability of iron from the test breads was calculated as 5.0-8.0%. Whole wheat bread (∼8%), as compared with the fortified breads (∼5-6.5%), had higher iron bioavailability. Iron from unfortified whole wheat bread is more bioavailable than from three types of iron-fortified breads. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Consumer acceptance of salt-reduced 'soy sauce' bread over repeated in home consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Shimojo, R.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Koester, E.P.; Mojet, J.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of liking for salt reduced/re-formulated bread was tested in a home use test for three weeks. Salt was partially replaced by naturally brewed soy sauce. 56 Consumers were provided with regular bread (variant A) and another 59 were provided with salt-reduced soy sauce bread (variant B).

  14. Miniature bread baking as a timesaving research approach and mathematical modeling of browning kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lu; Putranto, Aditya; Zhou, Weibiao; Boom, Remko M.; Schutyser, Maarten A.I.; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2016-01-01

    Miniature bread baking is presented as an economical and timesaving laboratory approach to study the baking process in the present work. Results indicate that the miniature bread baking is essentially analogical to the baking process of regular-sized bread: quality-related properties of miniature

  15. 48 CFR 852.270-2 - Bread and bakery products-quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bread and bakery products... Bread and bakery products—quantities. As prescribed in 870.111-3, insert the following clause: Bread and Bakery Products—Quantities (JAN 2008) The bidder agrees to furnish up to 25 percent more or 25 percent...

  16. The effect of a default-based nudge on the choice of whole wheat bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van Ellen; Seijdell, Karen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Wijk, de René A.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Consumer choices are often influenced by the default option presented. This study examines the effect of whole wheat bread as a default option in a sandwich choice situation. Whole wheat bread consists of 100% whole grain and is healthier than other bread types that are commonly consumed, such as

  17. Functional role of ascorbic acid in bread-making | Dadzie-Mensah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bread characteristics. Various levels of ascorbic acid and bromate were used in the bread production to compare critical functional properties of bread. The results showed that the specific volume of the loaves increased from 2.80 cm3/g ...

  18. Potential effect of fortified pan bread with Aloe vera juice on alloxan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study was designed to investigate (1) the potential use of Aloe vera juice (AVJ) for fortification of pan bread with evaluates the sensory characteristics and the nutritive value. (2) The possible beneficial role of 5% and 10% AVJ-fortified bread against diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Bread fortified with ...

  19. Optimization of gluten-free formulations for French-style breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezaize, S; Chevallier, S; Le Bail, A; de Lamballerie, M

    2009-04-01

    The formulation of gluten-free bread, which will be suitable for patients with coeliac disease, was optimized to provide bread similar to French bread. The effects of the presence of hydrocolloids and the substitution of the flour basis by flour or proteins from different sources were studied. The added ingredients were (1) hydrocolloids (carboxymethylcellulose [CMC], guar gum, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose [HPMC], and xanthan gum), and (2) substitutes (buckwheat flour, whole egg powder, and whey proteins). The bread quality parameters measured were specific volume, dry matter of bread, crust color, crumb hardness, and gas cell size distribution. Specific volume was increased by guar gum and HPMC. Breads with guar gum had color characteristics similar to French bread. Hardness decreased with the addition of hydrocolloids, especially HPMC and guar. Breads with guar gum had the most heterogeneous cell size distribution, and guar gum was therefore selected for further formulations. Bread prepared with buckwheat flour had improved quality: an increased specific volume, a softer texture, color characteristics, and gas-cell size distribution similar to French bread. Bread with 1.9% guar gum (w/w, total flour basis) and 5% buckwheat flour (of all flours and substitutes) mimicked French bread quality attributes.

  20. Effect of a new starch-free bread on metabolic control in NIDDM patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Mehlsen, J; Hamberg, O

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect on blood glucose levels in non-insulin-dependent diabetics (NIDDM) of reduction of the carbohydrate content through the use of a new, almost starch-free type of bread (SF-bread). We only substituted the bread in the breakfast meal....

  1. Addition of enzymes to improve sensory quality of composite wheat–cassava bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serventi, Luca; Jensen, Sidsel; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Composite wheat–cassava (WC) bread was recently proposed as a sustainable alternative to wheat bread. Nonetheless, using >20 % cassava flour on flour basis in bread baking has consistently been proven to impair the sensory quality. Selected enzymes: fungal alpha-amylase Fungamyl® 2500 SG (Fungamy...

  2. LTR retrotransposons in fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Muszewska

    Full Text Available Transposable elements with long terminal direct repeats (LTR TEs are one of the best studied groups of mobile elements. They are ubiquitous elements present in almost all eukaryotic genomes. Their number and state of conservation can be a highlight of genome dynamics. We searched all published fungal genomes for LTR-containing retrotransposons, including both complete, functional elements and remnant copies. We identified a total of over 66,000 elements, all of which belong to the Ty1/Copia or Ty3/Gypsy superfamilies. Most of the detected Gypsy elements represent Chromoviridae, i.e. they carry a chromodomain in the pol ORF. We analyzed our data from a genome-ecology perspective, looking at the abundance of various types of LTR TEs in individual genomes and at the highest-copy element from each genome. The TE content is very variable among the analyzed genomes. Some genomes are very scarce in LTR TEs (8000 elements. The data shows that transposon expansions in fungi usually involve an increase both in the copy number of individual elements and in the number of element types. The majority of the highest-copy TEs from all genomes are Ty3/Gypsy transposons. Phylogenetic analysis of these elements suggests that TE expansions have appeared independently of each other, in distant genomes and at different taxonomical levels. We also analyzed the evolutionary relationships between protein domains encoded by the transposon pol ORF and we found that the protease is the fastest evolving domain whereas reverse transcriptase and RNase H evolve much slower and in correlation with each other.

  3. Behaviour of co-inoculated pathogenic and spoilage bacteria on poultry following several decontamination treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernando, Alicia; Capita, Rosa; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    The potential of chemical decontaminants to cause harmful effects on human health is among the causes of the rejection of antimicrobial treatments for removing surface contamination from poultry carcasses in the European Union. This study was undertaken to determine whether decontaminants might give a competitive advantage to pathogenic bacteria on poultry and involve a potential risk to consumer. A total of 144 chicken legs were co-inoculated with similar concentrations of pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis or Escherichia coli) and spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta or Pseudomonas fluorescens). Samples were dipped for 15min in solutions (w/v) of trisodium phosphate (12%; TSP), acidified sodium chlorite (1200ppm; ASC), citric acid (2%; CA), peroxyacids (220ppm; PA) or chlorine dioxide (50ppm; CD), or were left untreated (control). Microbiological analyses were carried out on day 0 and every 24h until day 7 of storage (at 10±1°C). The modified Gompertz equation was used as the primary model to fit observed data. TSP, ASC and CA were effective in extending the lag phase (L, ranging from 1.47±1.34days to 4.06±1.16days) and in decreasing the concentration of bacteria during the stationary phase (D, ranging from 2.46±0.51 log(10) cfu/cm(2) to 8.64±0.53 log(10) cfu/cm(2)), relative to the control samples (L values ranging from 0.59±0.38days and 2.52±2.28days, and D values ranging from 6.32±0.89 log(10) cfu/cm(2) to 9.39±0.39 log(10) cfu/cm(2), respectively). Both on untreated and on most decontaminated samples the overgrowth of spoilage bacteria among the species tested was observed throughout storage, suggesting that spoilage would occur prior to any noteworthy increase in the levels of pathogenic microorganisms. However, L. monocytogenes counts similar to, or higher than, those for spoilage bacteria were observed on samples treated with TSP, ASC or CA, suggesting that these

  4. Combination treatment of gamma radiation and paraben in controlling spoilage of poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiralkar, N.D.; Rege, D.V.

    1977-01-01

    With a view of controlling spoilage, combination treatment of poultry meat with gamma radiation and a chemical preservative has been investigated. Raw poultry pieces of about 25 g. weight were dipped in 0.1% propyl-paraben solution for two hours and were given a 0.1 Mrad dose from 60 Co gamma radiation. It was found that paraben was not affected by irradiation. The flavour evaluation scores indicated the shelf-life of poultry meat was prolonged by a couple of days as compared to untreated controls in refrigerated storage. (M.G.B.)

  5. Fungi with multifunctional lifestyles: endophytic insect pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Larissa; Moonjely, Soumya; Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the symbiotic, evolutionary, proteomic and genetic basis for a group of fungi that occupy a specialized niche as insect pathogens as well as endophytes. We focus primarily on species in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria, traditionally recognized as insect pathogenic fungi but are also found as plant symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these fungi are more closely related to grass endophytes and diverged from that lineage ca. 100 MYA. We explore how the dual life cycles of these fungi as insect pathogens and endophytes are coupled. We discuss the evolution of insect pathogenesis while maintaining an endophytic lifestyle and provide examples of genes that may be involved in the transition toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been co-opted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. We suggest that their evolution as insect pathogens allowed them to effectively barter a specialized nitrogen source (i.e. insects) with host plants for photosynthate. These ubiquitous fungi may play an important role as plant growth promoters and have a potential reservoir of secondary metabolites.

  6. The use of chitooligosaccharide in beer brewing for protection against beer-spoilage bacteria and its influence on beer performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Yu, Zhimin; Wang, Ting; Guo, Xuan; Luan, Jing; Sun, Yumei; Li, Xianzhen

    2016-04-01

    To identify a biological preservative that can protect beer from microbial contamination, which often results in the production of turbidity and off-flavor. The antimicrobial activity of a chitooligosaccharide against beer-spoilage bacteria and its effect on the fermentation performance of brewer's yeast was studied. Chitooligosaccharide with an average 2 kDa molecular weight was the best at inhibiting all tested beer-spoilage bacteria. The application of chitooligosaccharide in the brewing process did not influence the fermentation of brewer's yeast. The change in beer performance induced by the contamination of Lactobacillus brevis could be effectively controlled by application of chitooligosaccharide in the beer brewing process. The experimental data suggested that chitooligosaccharide should be an excellent preservative to inhibit beer-spoilage bacteria in the brewing process and in the end product.

  7. Efficacy of a participatory intervention to remove the soda bread, From traditional bread processing in a city at 1387

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fazadkia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsBread is considered one of the most important nutritional sources in all societies. To prepare the ground for enrichment of floor and bread, the Iranian Ministry ofHealth and Medical Education was required in 2001 to enforce elimination of baking soda from the process of preparing traditional breads. Various legal and statutory means have been used in the past years to enforce the elimination, including inspections, taking legal proceedings against infringing bakers, etc. The results, however, have been far from satisfactory in large cities.MethodsThe aim of the present Quasi -experimental study was to design and develop a participative model for elimination of baking soda from processing of traditional breads and to determine knowledge, attitude, and practice in study and control groups, performed in Andisheh New City in 2008.Results All interviewed persons were female by mean age 38 ±11 years.89( 72% had education hStatistical analysis showed that the knowledge, attitude, and practice of bakers in  intervention group differed significantly after the intervention was made (p-value< 0.001.ConclusionFocusing solely on legal and statutory measures seems insufficient in fully eliminating baking soda from processing breads and inter-sectoral cooperation merits further  attention. Besides, the currently applied educational programs should be revised to meet real learning needs with further emphasis on participative aspects of public health programs.

  8. Effect of the bread-making process on zearalenone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Sara; Milani, Jafar; Nazari, Seyed Saman Seyed Jafar

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the bread-making process including fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum) and baking at 200°C on zearalenone (ZEA) levels were investigated. Standard solutions of ZEA were added to flour and then loaves of bread were prepared. Sourdough and three types of yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast were used for the fermentation of dough. ZEA levels in flour, dough and bread were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection after extraction and clean-up on an immunoaffinity column. The highest reduction in levels of ZEA was found in the first fermentation (first proof), while the lowest reduction was observed in the baking stage. In addition, the results showed that compressed yeast had the maximum reduction potential on ZEA levels even at the baking stage.

  9. Respiratory symptoms and sensitization in bread and cake bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T A; Smith, P W

    1998-07-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to wheat flour, soya flour and fungal amylase and the development of work-related symptoms and sensitization in bread and cake bakery employees who have regular exposure to these substances. The study populations consisted of 394 bread bakery workers and 77 cake bakery workers whose normal jobs involved the sieving, weighing and mixing of ingredients. The groups were interviewed with the aim of identifying the prevalence, nature and pattern of any work-related respiratory symptoms. They were also skin-prick tested against the common bakery sensitizing agents, i.e., wheat flour, soya flour, rice flour and fungal amylase. The results of personal sampling for sieving, weighing and mixing operations at the bakeries from which the study groups were taken were collated in order to determine typical exposures to total inhalable dust from the ingredients, expressed as 8 hour time-weighted average exposures. Data from the health surveillance and collated dust measurements were compared with the aim of establishing an exposure-response relationship for sensitization. The prevalence of work-related symptoms in bread bakery and cake bakery ingredient handlers was 20.4% and 10.4% respectively. However, in a large proportion of those reporting symptoms in connection with work, the symptoms were intermittent and of short duration. It is considered that the aetiology of such symptoms is likely to be due to a non-specific irritant effect of high total dust levels, rather than allergy. None of the cake bakers and only 3.1% of the bread bakers had symptoms which were thought to be due to allergy to baking ingredients. Using skin-prick testing as a marker of sensitization, the prevalence of positive tests to wheat flour was 6% for the bread bakers and 3% for the cake bakers. Comparable prevalences for soya flour were 7% and 1% respectively. However, the prevalence of positive skin-prick tests to fungal amylase

  10. Influence of bread volume on glycaemic response and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Pat; Lightowler, Helen J

    2006-11-01

    The role of carbohydrates in health and disease has received a high profile in recent years, in particular the glycaemic index (GI) as a physiological classification of carbohydrate foods. A common carbohydrate source in the UK is white bread, which is considered to have a high GI value and low satiety value. In the present study, the possibility of favourably altering the GI of white bread by manipulating bread structure (loaf form) was investigated. In a randomised repeated-measures design, ten subjects were tested for glycaemic and satiety responses to four loaves of varying volume, but of consistent macronutrient content. Peak plasma glucose levels and GI values were shown to be significantly reduced by lowering loaf volume (P=0.007, Pbread, which is generally considered to be high-GI and low-SI, can favourably alter metabolic and appetite responses. Relatively small differences in the GI of regularly consumed starch foods have been shown to have beneficial effects on health.

  11. Thermodynamics of bread baking: A two-state model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Ulrich

    2014-03-01

    Bread baking can be viewed as a complex physico-chemical process. It is governed by transport of heat and is accompanied by changes such as gelation of starch, the expansion of air cells within dough, and others. We focus on the thermodynamics of baking and investigate the heat flow through dough and find that the evaporation of excess water in dough is the rate-limiting step. We consider a simplified one-dimensional model of bread, treating the excess water content as a two-state variable that is zero for baked bread and a fixed constant for unbaked dough. We arrive at a system of coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are solved using a standard Runge-Kutta integration method. The calculated baking times are consistent with common baking experience.

  12. Radionuclides in noodles and bread consumed in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Mao, S.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Most of the natural occurring radionuclides in both noodles and bread are found to have specific activities below the detectable limit of the high purity germanium (n-type) spectrometer system of the EG and G Ortec Company. For dried bread, 40 K, 137 Cs and 60 Co are found to be 44.45∼84.52, -3 ∼0.074 Bq/kg respectively. The weighted committed dose equivalents due to the ingestion of 137 Cs from noodles and bread for a male and female adults have been estimated to be 0.5 and 0.6 μSv, respectively, being less than the values recommended by ICRP

  13. The viable but nonculturable state induction and genomic analyses of Lactobacillus casei BM-LC14617, a beer-spoilage bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyan; Li, Lin; Peters, Brian M; Li, Bing; Chen, Lequn; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state and genomic features of a beer-spoilage strain, Lactobacillus caseiBM-LC14617. Induction on the VBNC state of L. casei strain BM-LC14617 was conducted by both low-temperature storage and continuous passage in beer, and formation of VBNC state was detected after 196 ± 3.3 days and 32 ± 1.6 subcultures, respectively. Resuscitation of VBNC cells was successfully induced by addition of catalase, and culturable, VBNC, and resuscitated cells shared similar beer-spoilage capability. Whole genome sequencing was performed, and out of a total of 3,964 predicted genes, several potential VBNC and beer-spoilage-associated genes were identified. L. casei is capable of entering into and resuscitating from the VBNC state and possesses beer-spoilage capability. The genomic characterization yield insightful elucidation of VBNC state for L. casei. This study represents the first evidence on VBNC state induction of L. casei and beer-spoilage capability of VBNC and resuscitated cells. Also, this is the first genomic characterization of L. casei as a beer-spoilage bacterium. The current study may aid in further study on L. casei and other beer-spoilage bacteria, and guide the prevention and control of beer spoilage. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Lectins in human pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Belém; Martínez, Ruth; Pérez, Laura; Del Socorro Pina, María; Perez, Eduardo; Hernández, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins widely distributed in nature. They constitute a highly diverse group of proteins consisting of many different protein families that are, in general, structurally unrelated. In the last few years, mushroom and other fungal lectins have attracted wide attention due to their antitumour, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. The present mini-review provides concise information about recent developments in understanding lectins from human pathogenic fungi. A bibliographic search was performed in the Science Direct and PubMed databases, using the following keywords "lectin", "fungi", "human" and "pathogenic". Lectins present in fungi have been classified; however, the role played by lectins derived from human pathogenic fungi in infectious processes remains uncertain; thus, this is a scientific field requiring more research. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioethanol production from waste bread samples made from mixtures of wheat and buckwheat flours

    OpenAIRE

    Ačanski, Marijana; Pastor, Kristian; Razmovski, Radojka; Vučurović, Vesna; Psodorov, Đorđe

    2014-01-01

    In this paper yields of bioethanol from seven samples of bread were compared. Samples of bread were produced and prepared in a laboratory by mixing wheat and buckwheat flour in amounts of 0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100%. At first, the analysis of all seven samples of bread was done (dry matter, starch content and pH value of bread sample suspensions). Then the waste bread suspensions were hydrolyzed by applying commercial hydrolytic enzymes, Termamyl® SC and SAN Extra® L. The fermentation proc...

  16. Characterization of the spoilage lactic acid bacteria in “sliced vacuum-packed cooked ham”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalschne, Daneysa Lahis; Womer, Rute; Mattana, Ademir; Sarmento, Cleonice Mendes Pereira; Colla, Luciane Maria; Colla, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    The lactic acid bacteria are involved with food fermentation and in such cases with food spoilage. Considering the need to reduce the lactic acid bacteria growth in meat products, the aim of this work was to enumerated and investigated the lactic acid bacteria present on sliced vacuum-packed cooked ham stored at 4 °C and 8 °C for 45 days by phenotypic and molecular techniques. The quantification showed that the lactic acid bacteria were present from the first day with mean count of 1.98 log cfu/g for the four batches analyzed. The lactic acid bacteria grew rapidly on the samples, and plate counts around 7.59 log cfu/g and 8.25 log cfu/g were detected after 45 days of storage at 4 °C and 8 °C, respectively; storage temperatures studied showed significant influence on the microorganism in study growth. The predominant lactic acid bacteria associated with the spoilage samples at one day of storage includes Lactobacillus sp., the phenotypic overlap Leuconostoc / Weissella sp. and Enterococcus sp. At 45 days of storage at 4 and 8 °C the mainly specie was Lactobacillus curvatus , following by Lactobacillus sakei and Leuconostoc mesentereoides ; the Enterococcus sp. was not present in the samples. PMID:26221105

  17. Risk assessment of fungal spoilage: A case study of Aspergillus niger on yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougouli, Maria; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2017-08-01

    A quantitative risk assessment model of yogurt spoilage by Aspergillus niger was developed based on a stochastic modeling approach for mycelium growth by taking into account the important sources of variability such as time-temperature conditions during the different stages of chill chain and individual spore behavior. Input parameters were fitted to the appropriate distributions and A. niger colony's diameter at each stage of the chill chain was estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. By combining the output of the growth model with the fungus prevalence, that can be estimated by the industry using challenge tests, the risk of spoilage translated to number of yogurt cups in which a visible mycelium of A. niger is being formed at the time of consumption was assessed. The risk assessment output showed that for a batch of 100,000 cups in which the percentage of contaminated cups with A. niger was 1% the predicted numbers (median (5 th , 95 th percentiles)) of the cups with a visible mycelium at consumption time were 8 (5, 14). For higher percentages of 3, 5 and 10 the predicted numbers (median (5 th , 95 th percentiles)) of the spoiled cups at consumption time were estimated to be 24 (16, 35), 39 (29, 52) and 80 (64, 94), respectively. The developed model can lead to a more effective risk-based quality management of yogurt and support the decision making in yogurt production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

  19. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.

  20. Emerging preservation techniques for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.

  1. The Occurrence of Beer Spoilage Lactic Acid Bacteria in Craft Beer Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Cristiana; Osimani, Andrea; Milanović, Vesna; Taccari, Manuela; Aquilanti, Lucia; Clementi, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Beer is one of the world's most ancient and widely consumed fermented alcoholic beverages produced with water, malted cereal grains (generally barley and wheat), hops, and yeast. Beer is considered an unfavorable substrate of growth for many microorganisms, however, there are a limited number of bacteria and yeasts, which are capable of growth and may spoil beer especially if it is not pasteurized or sterile-filtered as craft beer. The aim of this research study was to track beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inside a brewery and during the craft beer production process. To that end, indoor air and work surface samples, collected in the brewery under study, together with commercial active dry yeasts, exhausted yeasts, yeast pellet (obtained after mature beer centrifugation), and spoiled beers were analyzed through culture-dependent methods and PCR-DGGE in order to identify the contaminant LAB species and the source of contamination. Lactobacillus brevis was detected in a spoiled beer and in a commercial active dry yeast. Other LAB species and bacteria ascribed to Staphylococcus sp., Enterobaceriaceae, and Acetobacter sp. were found in the brewery. In conclusion, the PCR-DGGE technique coupled with the culture-dependent method was found to be a useful tool for identifying the beer spoilage bacteria and the source of contamination. The analyses carried out on raw materials, by-products, final products, and the brewery were useful for implementing a sanitization plan to be adopted in the production plant. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. American lobsters (Homarus americanus not surviving during air transport: evaluation of microbial spoilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Tirloni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen American lobsters (Homarus americanus, dead during air transport, were analysed in order to evaluate the microbial population of meat, gills and gut: no specific studies have ever been conducted so far on the microbiological quality of American lobsters’ meats in terms of spoilage microbiota. The meat samples showed very limited total viable counts, in almost all the cases below the level of 6 Log CFU/g, while higher loads were found, as expected, in gut and gills, the most probable source of contamination. These data could justify the possibility to commercialise these notsurviving subjects, without quality concerns for the consumers. Most of the isolates resulted to be clustered with type strains of Pseudoalteromonas spp. (43.1% and Photobacterium spp. (24.1%, and in particular to species related to the natural marine environment. The distribution of the genera showed a marked inhomogeneity among the samples. The majority of the isolates identified resulted to possess proteolytic (69.3% and lipolytic ability (75.5%, suggesting their potential spoilage ability. The maintanance of good hygienical practices, especially during the production of ready-to-eat lobsters-based products, and a proper storage could limit the possible replication of these microorganisms.

  3. American Lobsters (Homarus Americanus) not Surviving During Air Transport: Evaluation of Microbial Spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirloni, Erica; Stella, Simone; Gennari, Mario; Colombo, Fabio; Bernardi, Cristian

    2016-04-19

    Eighteen American lobsters ( Homarus americanus ), dead during air transport, were analysed in order to evaluate the microbial population of meat, gills and gut: no specific studies have ever been conducted so far on the microbiological quality of American lobsters' meats in terms of spoilage microbiota. The meat samples showed very limited total viable counts, in almost all the cases below the level of 6 Log CFU/g, while higher loads were found, as expected, in gut and gills, the most probable source of contamination. These data could justify the possibility to commercialise these not-surviving subjects, without quality concerns for the consumers. Most of the isolates resulted to be clustered with type strains of Pseudoalteromonas spp. (43.1%) and Photobacterium spp. (24.1%), and in particular to species related to the natural marine environment. The distribution of the genera showed a marked inhomogeneity among the samples. The majority of the isolates identified resulted to possess proteolytic (69.3%) and lipolytic ability (75.5%), suggesting their potential spoilage ability. The maintanance of good hygienical practices, especially during the production of ready-to-eat lobsters-based products, and a proper storage could limit the possible replication of these microorganisms.

  4. Optimising the inactivation of grape juice spoilage organisms by pulse electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsellés-Fontanet, A Robert; Puig, Anna; Olmos, Paola; Mínguez-Sanz, Santiago; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2009-04-15

    The effect of some pulsed electric field (PEF) processing parameters (electric field strength, pulse frequency and treatment time), on a mixture of microorganisms (Kloeckera apiculata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus hilgardii and Gluconobacter oxydans) typically present in grape juice and wine were evaluated. An experimental design based on response surface methodology (RSM) was used and results were also compared with those of a factorially designed experiment. The relationship between the levels of inactivation of microorganisms and the energy applied to the grape juice was analysed. Yeast and bacteria were inactivated by the PEF treatments, with reductions that ranged from 2.24 to 3.94 log units. All PEF parameters affected microbial inactivation. Optimal inactivation of the mixture of spoilage microorganisms was predicted by the RSM models at 35.0 kV cm(-1) with 303 Hz pulse width for 1 ms. Inactivation was greater for yeasts than for bacteria, as was predicted by the RSM. The maximum efficacy of the PEF treatment for inactivation of microorganisms in grape juice was observed around 1500 MJ L(-1) for all the microorganisms investigated. The RSM could be used in the fruit juice industry to optimise the inactivation of spoilage microorganisms by PEF.

  5. Characterisation and detection of spoilage mould responsible for black spot in dry-cured fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; Rodríguez, Alicia; Cordero, Mirian; Bernáldez, Victoria; Reyes-Prieto, Mariana; Córdoba, Juan J

    2015-02-01

    Moulds responsible for black spot spoilage of dry-cured fermented sausages were characterised. For this purpose, samples were taken from those dry-cured fermented sausages which showed black spot alteration. Most of the mould strains were first tentatively identified as Penicillium spp. due to their morphological characteristics in different culture conditions, with one strain as Cladosporium sp. The Cladosporium strain was the only one which provoked blackening in culture media. This strain was further characterised by sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA and β-tubulin genes. This mould strain was able to reproduce black spot formation in dry-cured fermented sausage 'salchichón' throughout the ripening process. In addition, a specific and sensitive real-time PCR method was also developed to detect Cladosporium oxysporum responsible for the black spot formation in sausages. This method could be of great interest for the meat industry to detect samples contaminated with this mould before spoilage of product avoiding economic losses for this sector.

  6. Characterization of spoilage bacteria in pork sausage by PCR-DGGE analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Silva Dias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate microbial diversity and identify spoilage bacteria in fresh pork sausages during storage, twelve industrial pork sausages of different trademarks were stored at 4 ºC for 0, 14, 28 and 42 days, 80% relative humidity and packaged in sterile plastic bags. Microbiological analysis was performed. The pH and water activity (a w were measured. The culture-independent method performed was the Polymerase Chain Reaction - Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE. The culture-dependent method showed that the populations of mesophilic bacteria and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB increased linearly over storage time. At the end of the storage time, the average population of microorganisms was detected, in general, at the level of 5 log cfu g-1. A significant (P < 0.005 increase was observed in pH and a w values at the end of the storage time. The PCR-DGGE allowed a rapid identification of dominant communities present in sausages. PCR-DGGE discriminated 15 species and seven genera of bacteria that frequently constitute the microbiota in sausage products. The most frequent spoilage bacteria identified in the sausages were Lactobacillus sakei and Brochothrix thermosphacta. The identification of dominant communities present in fresh pork sausages can help in the choice of the most effective preservation method for extending the product shelf-life.

  7. Optimized dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles and antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Espitia, Paula Judith; Ferreira Soares, Nilda de Fátima; Teófilo, Reinaldo F.; Vitor, Débora M.; Reis Coimbra, Jane Sélia dos; Andrade, Nélio José de; Sousa, Frederico B. de; Sinisterra, Rubén D.; Medeiros, Eber Antonio Alves

    2013-01-01

    Single primary nanoparticles of zinc oxide (nanoZnO) tend to form particle collectives, resulting in loss of antimicrobial activity. This work studied the effects of probe sonication conditions: power, time, and the presence of a dispersing agent (Na 4 P 2 O 7 ), on the size of nanoZnO particles. NanoZnO dispersion was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and characterized by the zeta potential (ZP) technique. NanoZnO antimicrobial activity was investigated at different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 % w/w) against four foodborne pathogens and four spoilage microorganisms. The presence of the dispersing agent had a significant effect on the size of dispersed nanoZnO. Minimum size after sonication was 238 nm. An optimal dispersion condition was achieved at 200 W for 45 min of sonication in the presence of the dispersing agent. ZP analysis indicated that the ZnO nanoparticle surface charge was altered by the addition of the dispersing agent and changes in pH. At tested concentrations and optimal dispersion, nanoZnO had no antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Listeria monocytogenes. However, it did have antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger. Based on the exhibited antimicrobial activity of optimized nanoZnO against some foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms, nanoZnO is a promising antimicrobial for food preservation with potential application for incorporation in polymers intended as food-contact surfaces.

  8. Controlling Brochothrix thermosphacta as a spoilage risk using in-package atmospheric cold plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patange, Apurva; Boehm, Daniela; Bueno-Ferrer, Carmen; Cullen, P J; Bourke, Paula

    2017-09-01

    Brochothrix thermosphacta is the predominant spoilage microorganism in meat and its control in processing environments is important to maintain meat product quality. Atmospheric cold plasma is of interest for control of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in foods. This study ascertained the potential of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (DBD-ACP) for control of B. thermosphacta, taking microbial and food environment factors into consideration, and investigated the shelf-life of lamb chop after in-package plasma treatment in modified atmosphere. Community profiling was used to assess the treatment effects on the lamb microflora. ACP treatment (80 kV) for 30s inactivated B. thermosphacta populations below detection levels in PBS, while 5 min treatment achieved a 2 Log cycle reduction using a complex meat model medium and attached cells. The antimicrobial efficacy of plasma was reduced but still apparent on lamb chop surface-inoculated with high concentrations of B. thermosphacta. Lamb chop treated under modified atmosphere exhibited reduced microbial growth over the product shelf-life and community profiling showed no evident changes to the microbial populations after the treatment. The overall results indicated potential of ACP to enhance microbial control leading to meat storage life extension through adjusting the modality of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Filamentous Growth in Eremothecium Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Therese

    , this thesis deals with some of the aspects of hyphal growth, which is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi infecting both humans and plants. Hyphal establishment through continuous polar growth is a complex process, requiring the careful coordination of a large subset of proteins involved......-regulatory activity of AgGts1, the protein could have additional actin organizing properties. In the second and third part, this thesis addresses the use of A. gossypii and its relative E. cymbalariae as model organisms for filamentous growth. A series of assays analyzed the capability of Eremothecium genus fungi...... of molecular tools for E. cymbalariae to enable a faster and more efficient approach for genetic comparisons between Eremothecium genus fungi....

  10. Bread fortified with anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice as nutraceutical sources: Its quality attributes and in vitro digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Weibiao

    2016-04-01

    Anthocyanin-rich black rice extract powder (ABREP) as a nutraceutical source was fortified into bread. The quality and digestibility behaviors of bread with ABREP were evaluated through instrumental and in vitro digestion studies. The quality of bread with 2% of ABREP was not significantly (p>0.05) different from the control bread; however, increasing the ABREP level to 4% caused less elasticity and higher density of bread. A mathematical model was further developed to systemically describe the trajectory of bread digestion. The digestion rates of bread with ABREP were found to be reduced by 12.8%, 14.1%, and 20.5% for bread with 1%, 2%, and 4% of ABREP, respectively. Results of the study suggest that the fortification of anthocyanins into bread could be an alternative way to produce functional bread with a lower digestion rate and extra health benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abboud Al-Saleh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between breadmaking quality, kernel properties (physical and chemical, and dough rheology were investigated using flours from six genotypes of Syrian wheat lines, comprising both commercially grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines. Genotypes were grown in 2008/2009 season in irrigated plots in the Eastern part of Syria. Grain samples were evaluated for vitreousness, test weight, 1000-kernel weight and then milled and tested for protein content, ash, and water content. Dough rheology of the samples was studied by the determination of the mixing time, stability, weakness, resistance and the extensibility of the dough. Loaf baking quality was evaluated by the measurement of the specific weight, resilience and firmness in addition to the sensory analysis. A comparative study between the six Syrian wheat genotypes and two English flour samples was conducted. Significant differences were observed among Syrian genotypes in vitreousness (69.3%–95.0%, 1000-kernel weight (35.2–46.9 g and the test weight (82.2–88.0 kg/hL. All samples exhibited high falling numbers (346 to 417 s for the Syrian samples and 285 and 305 s for the English flours. A significant positive correlation was exhibited between the protein content of the flour and its absorption of water (r = 0.84 **, as well as with the vitreousness of the kernel (r = 0.54 *. Protein content was also correlated with dough stability (r = 0.86 **, extensibility (r = 0.8 **, and negatively correlated with dough weakness (r = −0.69 **. Bread firmness and dough weakness were positively correlated (r = 0.66 **. Sensory analysis indicated Doumah-2 was the best appreciated whilst Doumah 40765 and 46055 were the least appreciated which may suggest their suitability for biscuit preparation rather than bread making.

  12. Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Abboud; Brennan, Charles S

    2012-11-22

    The relationships between breadmaking quality, kernel properties (physical and chemical), and dough rheology were investigated using flours from six genotypes of Syrian wheat lines, comprising both commercially grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines. Genotypes were grown in 2008/2009 season in irrigated plots in the Eastern part of Syria. Grain samples were evaluated for vitreousness, test weight, 1000-kernel weight and then milled and tested for protein content, ash, and water content. Dough rheology of the samples was studied by the determination of the mixing time, stability, weakness, resistance and the extensibility of the dough. Loaf baking quality was evaluated by the measurement of the specific weight, resilience and firmness in addition to the sensory analysis. A comparative study between the six Syrian wheat genotypes and two English flour samples was conducted. Significant differences were observed among Syrian genotypes in vitreousness (69.3%-95.0%), 1000-kernel weight (35.2-46.9 g) and the test weight (82.2-88.0 kg/hL). All samples exhibited high falling numbers (346 to 417 s for the Syrian samples and 285 and 305 s for the English flours). A significant positive correlation was exhibited between the protein content of the flour and its absorption of water (r = 0.84 **), as well as with the vitreousness of the kernel (r = 0.54 *). Protein content was also correlated with dough stability (r = 0.86 **), extensibility (r = 0.8 **), and negatively correlated with dough weakness (r = -0.69 **). Bread firmness and dough weakness were positively correlated (r = 0.66 **). Sensory analysis indicated Doumah-2 was the best appreciated whilst Doumah 40765 and 46055 were the least appreciated which may suggest their suitability for biscuit preparation rather than bread making.

  13. Structural changes of starch during baking and staling of rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihhalevski, Anna; Heinmaa, Ivo; Traksmaa, Rainer; Pehk, Tõnis; Mere, Arvo; Paalme, Toomas

    2012-08-29

    Rye sourdough breads go stale more slowly than wheat breads. To understand the peculiarities of bread staling, rye sourdough bread, wheat bread, and a number of starches were studied using wide-angle X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CP MAS NMR, (1)H NMR, (31)P NMR), polarized light microscopy, rheological methods, microcalorimetry, and measurement of water activity. The degree of crystallinity of starch in breads decreased with hydration and baking to 3% and increased during 11 days of storage to 21% in rye sourdough bread and to 26% in wheat bread. (13)C NMR spectra show that the chemical structures of rye and wheat amylopectin and amylose contents are very similar; differences were found in the starch phospholipid fraction characterized by (31)P NMR. The (13)C CP MAS NMR spectra demonstrate that starch in rye sourdough breads crystallize in different forms than in wheat bread. It is proposed that different proportions of water incorporation into the crystalline structure of starch during staling and changes in starch fine structure cause the different rates of staling of rye and wheat bread.

  14. Fungi isolated in school buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of fungi occurring on wall surfaces and in the air in school buildings. Fungi isolated from the air using the sedimentation method and from the walls using the surface swab technique constituted the study material. Types of finish materials on wall surfaces were identified and used in the analysis. Samples were collected in selected areas in two schools: classrooms, corridors, men's toilets and women's toilets, cloakrooms, sports changing rooms and shower. Examinations were conducted in May 2005 after the heating season was over. Fungi were incubated on Czapek-Dox medium at three parallel temperatures: 25, 37 and 40°C, for at least three weeks. A total of 379 isolates of fungi belonging to 32 genera of moulds, yeasts and yeast-like fungi were obtained from 321 samples in the school environment. The following genera were isolated most frequently: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. Of the 72 determined species, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum occurred most frequently in the school buildings. Wall surfaces were characterised by an increased prevalence of mycobiota in comparison with the air in the buildings, with a slightly greater species diversity. A certain species specificity for rough and smooth wall surfaces was demonstrated. Fungi of the genera Cladosporium and Emericella with large spores adhered better to smooth surfaces while those of the genus Aspergillus with smaller conidia adhered better to rough surfaces. The application of three incubation temperatures helped provide a fuller picture of the mycobiota in the school environment.

  15. Fungi and mycotoxins: Food contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of fungi on food causes physical and chemical changes which, further affect negatively the sensory and nutritive quality of food. Species from genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternariа, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Eurotium and Emericella are usually found. Some of them are potentially dangerous for humans and animals, due to possible synthesis and excretion of toxic secondary metabolites - mycotoxins into the food. Their toxic syndroms in animals and humans are known as mycotoxicoses. The pathologic changes can be observed in parenhimatic organs, and in bones and central nervous system also. Specific conditions are necessary for mycotoxin producing fungi to synthetize sufficient quantities of these compounds for demonstration of biologic effects. The main biochemical paths in the formation of mycotoxins include the polyketide (aflatoxins, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone, citrinine, patulin, terpenic (trichothecenes, aminoacid (glicotoxins, ergotamines, sporidesmin, malformin C, and carbonic acids path (rubratoxins. Aflatoxins are the most toxigenic metabolites of fungi, produced mostly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus species. Aflatoxins appear more frequently in food in the tropic and subtropic regions, while the food in Europe is more exposed to also very toxic ochratoxin A producing fungi (A. ochraceus and some Penicillium species. The agricultural products can be contaminated by fungi both before and after the harvest. The primary mycotoxicoses in humans are the result of direct intake of vegetable products contaminated by mycotoxins, while the secondary mycotoxicoses are caused by products of animal origin. The risk of the presence of fungi and mycotoxin in food is increasing, having in mind that some of them are highly thermoresistent, and the temperatures of usual food sterilization is not sufficient for their termination. The paper presents the review of most important mycotoxins, their biologic effects

  16. Recycling of waste bread as culture media for efficient biological treatment of wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Pil-Jin; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Chang-Soo; Qureshi, T.I.

    2012-01-01

    Possibilities of recycling of waste bread as culture media for efficient biological treatment of wastewater were investigated. In order to get the highest growth of microorganism for increased contaminants' removal efficiency of the system, different compositions of waste bread and skim milk with and without adding Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) were tested. Mixed waste bread compositions with added PAC showed relatively higher number of microorganisms than the compositions without added PAC. A composition of 40% mixed waste bread and 60% skim milk produced highest number of microorganisms with subsequent increased contaminants' removal efficiency of the system. 'Contrast' alone showed lower contaminants' removal efficiency than mixed bread compositions. Use of waste bread in the composition of skim milk reduced cost of using foreign source of nutrients in biological treatment of wastewater and also facilitated waste bread management through recycling. (author)

  17. Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, Lars; Christensen, Tue

    2007-01-01

    Objective To measure the iodine content in bread and household salt in Denmark after mandatory iodine fortification was introduced and to estimate the increase in iodine intake due to the fortification. Design The iodine content in rye breads, wheat breads and salt samples was assessed. The incre......, and the current fortification level of salt ( 13 ppm) seems reasonable.......% of the rye breads and 90% of the wheat breads were iodized. The median iodine intake from bread increased by 25 ( 13-43) mu g/day and the total median iodine intake increased by 63 (36-104) mu g/day. Conclusions The fortification of bread and salt has resulted in a desirable increase in iodine intake...

  18. Pilot Study: Comparison of Sourdough Wheat Bread and Yeast-Fermented Wheat Bread in Individuals with Wheat Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijo Laatikainen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many patients suspect wheat as being a major trigger of their irritable bowel syndrome (IBS symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate whether sourdough wheat bread baked without baking improvers and using a long dough fermentation time (>12 h, would result in lower quantities of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs and Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs, and would be better tolerated than yeast-fermented wheat bread for subjects with IBS who have a poor subjective tolerance to wheat. The study was conducted as a randomised double-blind controlled 7-day study (n = 26. Tetrameric ATI structures were unravelled in both breads vs. baking flour, but the overall reduction in ATIs to their monomeric form was higher in the sourdough bread group. Sourdough bread was also lower in FODMAPs. However, no significant differences in gastrointestinal symptoms and markers of low-grade inflammation were found between the study breads. There were significantly more feelings of tiredness, joint symptoms, and decreased alertness when the participants ate the sourdough bread (p ≤ 0.03, but these results should be interpreted with caution. Our novel finding was that sourdough baking reduces the quantities of both ATIs and FODMAPs found in wheat. Nonetheless, the sourdough bread was not tolerated better than the yeast-fermented bread.

  19. Studies regarding the influence of brown flaxseed flour addition in wheat flour of a very good quality for bread making on bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Gabriela CODINA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to incorporate brown flaxseed into bread in order to improve it quality. For this purpose, different levels of whole ground brown flaxseed (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were used to substitute wheat flour 650 type of a very good quality for bread making. The bread samples obtained were analyzed from the physical, colour, crumb cell, textural and sensory characteristics point of view. Samples containing 10% of brown flaxseed were with the highest values for loaf volume, porosity and elasticity. The control sample had lowerest redness and greenness value. The maximum hardness was found for bread with 20% brown flaxseed addition. With the increase level of brown flaxseed addition large cells can be noticed in crumb structure of bread. Samples containing 20% of flaxseed were rated poorest in tase, texture, overall acceptability, appearance. Our results indicated that brown flaxseed addition could be added to a typical bread formulation up to levels of 10% with a good overall acceptability offering promising healthy and nutritious alternative to consumers. Between bread flour characteristics at different brown flaxseed flour substitution levels principal component analysis shown significant correlations (p < 0.05 between bread physical characteristics (loaf volume, porosity, elasticity and bread  overall acceptability.

  20. Postprandial differences in the plasma metabolome of healthy Finnish subjects after intake of a sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread versus white wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykkänen Hannu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanism behind the lowered postprandial insulin demand observed after rye bread intake compared to wheat bread is unknown. The aim of this study was to use the metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolites related to amino acid metabolism involved in this mechanism. Methods A sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread (RB and a standard white wheat bread (WB as a reference were served in random order to 16 healthy subjects. Test bread portions contained 50 g available carbohydrate. In vitro hydrolysis of starch and protein were performed for both test breads. Blood samples for measuring glucose and insulin concentrations were drawn over 4 h and gastric emptying rate (GER was measured. Changes in the plasma metabolome were investigated by applying a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform (GC×GC-TOF-MS. Results Plasma insulin response to RB was lower than to WB at 30 min (P = 0.004, 45 min (P = 0.002 and 60 min (P in vitro protein digestibility. There were no differences in GER between breads. From 255 metabolites identified by the metabolomics platform, 26 showed significant postprandial relative changes after 30 minutes of bread intake (p and q values Conclusions A single meal of a low fibre sourdough rye bread producing low postprandial insulin response brings in several changes in plasma amino acids and their metabolites and some of these might have properties beneficial for health.

  1. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  2. Spoilage Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science and Children, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Have you ever tucked away a piece of fruit for later and returned to find it past its prime? Or found some leftovers that had outlived their welcome in the refrigerator? Whether it's fresh or processed, all food eventually spoils. Methods such as freezing, canning, and the use of preservatives lengthen the lifespan of foods, and we--and the modern…

  3. Isolation, identification and in silico analysis of alpha-amylase gene of Aspergillus niger strain CSA35 obtained from cassava undergoing spoilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oghenetega J. Avwioroko

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, a gene (CDF_Amyl encoding extracellular α-amylase in Aspergillus niger strain CSA35 associated with cassava spoilage was amplified using specific primers and characterized in silico. The gene had a partial nucleotide sequence of 968 bp and encoded a protein of 222 aa residues with a molecular weight and isoelectric point of 25.13 kDa and 4.17, respectively. Its catalytic site was located in the active site domain. BLASTp analysis showed that the protein primary sequence of the α-amylase gene had 98% and 99% homologies with the α-amylase of A. niger and A. oryzae RIB40, respectively. The gene is more closely related to α-amylase genes from fungi than to bacterial, plant, or animal α-amylase genes. Restriction mapping of the gene showed it can be digested with restriction enzymes like NcoI, PstI, SmaI, and BcLI among others but not with EcoRI and EcoRV. Its protein product had a hydrophobicity score of − 0.43 but no transmembrane helix. The CDF_Amyl protein was subcellularly localized in the secretory pathway, an indication of its release into extracellular space after secretion. Also, the 3D structure of the CDF-Amyl protein was barrel-shaped with domains characteristic of α-amylases. The encoded α-amylase Vmax is 6.90 U/mg protein and Km is 6.70 mg/ml. It was concluded that the unique characteristics of the CDF_Amyl gene and its deduced protein could find applications in biotechnological, food and pharmaceutical industries where cloning and further modification of this gene would be required for product development and improvement.

  4. PARAMETER ESTIMATION IN BREAD BAKING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto Hadiyanto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bread product quality is highly dependent to the baking process. A model for the development of product quality, which was obtained by using quantitative and qualitative relationships, was calibrated by experiments at a fixed baking temperature of 200°C alone and in combination with 100 W microwave powers. The model parameters were estimated in a stepwise procedure i.e. first, heat and mass transfer related parameters, then the parameters related to product transformations and finally product quality parameters. There was a fair agreement between the calibrated model results and the experimental data. The results showed that the applied simple qualitative relationships for quality performed above expectation. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the microwave input is most meaningful for the internal product properties and not for the surface properties as crispness and color. The model with adjusted parameters was applied in a quality driven food process design procedure to derive a dynamic operation pattern, which was subsequently tested experimentally to calibrate the model. Despite the limited calibration with fixed operation settings, the model predicted well on the behavior under dynamic convective operation and on combined convective and microwave operation. It was expected that the suitability between model and baking system could be improved further by performing calibration experiments at higher temperature and various microwave power levels.  Abstrak  PERKIRAAN PARAMETER DALAM MODEL UNTUK PROSES BAKING ROTI. Kualitas produk roti sangat tergantung pada proses baking yang digunakan. Suatu model yang telah dikembangkan dengan metode kualitatif dan kuantitaif telah dikalibrasi dengan percobaan pada temperatur 200oC dan dengan kombinasi dengan mikrowave pada 100 Watt. Parameter-parameter model diestimasi dengan prosedur bertahap yaitu pertama, parameter pada model perpindahan masa dan panas, parameter pada model transformasi, dan

  5. Solid-State Fermentation of Silybum marianum L. Seeds Used as Additive to Increase the Nutritional Value of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Cizeikiene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study Silybum marianum L. seeds were fermented using solid-state fermentation (SSF with several lactic acid bacteria (LAB of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus genera, isolated from spontaneously fermented Lithuanian rye sourdough. A possibility to improve sensory properties (flavour of Silybum marianum L. seeds using LAB fermentation was investigated. The composition of volatile compounds of the unfermented and LAB-fermented seeds of this plant was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Fermented seeds have shown considerable differences mainly due to the accumulation of higher alcohols. Total amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of unfermented and fermented seeds were determined spectrophotometrically. The obtained results indicate that Silybum marianum L. seeds are a valuable source of bioactive compounds. The highest content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids (4596 and 1346 mg of rutin equivalents (RE per 100 g, respectively was determined in the seeds fermented with Pediococcus acidilactici KTU05-7 bacteria in solid-state fermentation. Silybum marianum L. seeds fermented with P. acidilactici KTU05-7 and Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-9 showed stronger antioxidant activity (1263 and 1041 mg of RE per 100 g, respectively, compared to the unfermented seeds (805 mg of RE per 100 g. The addition of Silybum marianum L. seeds fermented with P. acidilactici KTU05-7 bacteria had the highest effect on the decrease of the bacterial spoilage of bread. The aroma compounds from the fermented seeds extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. Ultrasonic pretreatment of the seeds reduced the total amount of microorganisms in the raw material. Microbiological tests revealed that the highest antimicrobial effect was achieved using the solid-state fermentation conditions. This

  6. Fight Fungi with Fungi: Antifungal Properties of the Amphibian Mycobiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Kearns

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases caused by fungal taxa are increasing and are placing a substantial burden on economies and ecosystems worldwide. Of the emerging fungal diseases, chytridomycosis caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (hereafter Bd is linked to global amphibian declines. Amphibians have innate immunity, as well as additional resistance through cutaneous microbial communities. Despite the targeting of bacteria as potential probiotics, the role of fungi in the protection against Bd infection in unknown. We used a four-part approach, including high-throughput sequencing of bacterial and fungal communities, cultivation of fungi, Bd challenge assays, and experimental additions of probiotic to Midwife Toads (Altyes obstetricans, to examine the overlapping roles of bacterial and fungal microbiota in pathogen defense in captive bred poison arrow frogs (Dendrobates sp.. Our results revealed that cutaneous fungal taxa differed from environmental microbiota across three species and a subspecies of Dendrobates spp. frogs. Cultivation of host-associated and environmental fungi realved numerous taxa with the ability to inhibit or facilitate the growth of Bd. The abundance of cutaneous fungi contributed more to Bd defense (~45% of the fungal community, than did bacteria (~10% and frog species harbored distinct inhibitory communities that were distinct from the environment. Further, we demonstrated that a fungal probiotic therapy did not induce an endocrine-immune reaction, in contrast to bacterial probiotics that stressed amphibian hosts and suppressed antimicrobial peptide responses, limiting their long-term colonization potential. Our results suggest that probiotic strategies against amphibian fungal pathogens should, in addition to bacterial probiotics, focus on host-associated and environmental fungi such as Penicillium and members of the families Chaetomiaceae and Lasiosphaeriaceae.

  7. Breaking bread with female 'criminals': towards generation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breaking bread with incarcerated women incarcerated in prisons is a decolonising methodological framework which aims to bring the voices of an otherwise silenced population into the mainstream criminological discourse. In throwing their voices, women were able to single out what was and still is significant in their lives ...

  8. Purification and Characterization of α-Amylase from Waste Bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.Irshad

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... The objective of this study was to purify and characterize the α-amylase for industrial perspective. The production of α-amylase through solid-state fermentation by Ganoderma tsuage was investigated by using waste bread as substrates. Production parameters were optimized as 2 mL of inoculum size,.

  9. Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Bread Enriched with Broccoli Sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Sęczyk, Łukasz; Złotek, Urszula; Różyło, Renata; Kaszuba, Kinga; Ryszawy, Damian; Czyż, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    This study is focused on antioxidant and anticancer capacity of bread enriched with broccoli sprouts (BS) in the light of their potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Generally, bread supplementation elevated antioxidant potential of product (both nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant capacities); however, the increase was not correlated with the percent of BS. A replacement up to 2% of BS gives satisfactory overall consumers acceptability and desirable elevation of antioxidant potential. High activity was especially found for extracts obtained after simulated digestion, which allows assuming their protective effect for upper gastrointestinal tract; thus, the anticancer activity against human stomach cancer cells (AGS) was evaluated. A prominent cytostatic response paralleled by the inhibition of AGS motility in the presence of potentially mastication-extractable phytochemicals indicates that phenolic compounds of BS retain their biological activity in bread. Importantly, the efficient phenolics concentration was about 12 μM for buffer extract, 13 μM for extracts after digestion in vitro, and 7 μM for extract after absorption in vitro. Our data confirm chemopreventive potential of bread enriched with BS and indicate that BS comprise valuable food supplement for stomach cancer chemoprevention. PMID:25050366

  10. The Physiological Effect of Detarium Bread Meal on the Postprandial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study elicited the effect of Detarium bread meal on the post prandial plasma glucose and insulin levels of non insulin dependent diabetic mellitus (NIDDM) subjects. Subject and Method: This is a clinical study that involved twelve African and Afro-Caribbean men with NIDDM. These men were screened and ...

  11. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sprouted soybean flour on wheat bread was studied. Sprouting significantly increased the vitamin C content of soybean flour from 2.0 mg kg-1 to 3.25 mg kg-1. The sprouted soybean flour resulted in increased loaf volume, a firmer, spongy and more elastic loaf. However, increasing the sprouted soybean flour ...

  12. Development and Evaluation of Charcoal-Powered Bread Baking Oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimasunya E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal-powered bread baking oven was developed and evaluated with functional efficiencies of 91.2% and 92.1% for baking dough of mass 0.5kg and 1.5 kg to bread at BP of 27.7minutes, 35.9 minutes with the baking temperature (BT of 153.8 oC and 165.9 oC respectively. Baking temperature-heating interval of the oven as computed at 100 oC at 20 minutes at charcoal emitted heat of 861000 KJ. The oven has the capacity of generating 455.9 oC at 270 minutes time interval. The oven has bread baking capacities of 56, 36, 28, 22 and 18 pieces of bread per batch operation using dough mass of 0.5kg, 0.75kg, 1.00kg, 1.250kg and 1.500kg respectively. It is sensitive to the baking time and temperature in relation to dough mass with resolution value of 0.22. Charcoal-powered oven, is cheap and efficient and can be used both in the rural and urban settlement for domestic consumption and smallscale business.

  13. Numerical and experimental characterization of a batch bread baking oven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploteau, J.P.; Nicolas, V.; Glouannec, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the thermal characterization of an electrical static oven used for bread baking. The heating is provided by natural convection, infrared radiation and conduction with a cement slab. The paper describes a methodology to apprehend the heat flux which is applied to the products during baking. The oven was experimentally investigated and a finite element numerical model is established. The monitoring of temperatures at various points in the installation and of electrical power is carried out. Then, to characterize thermal exchanges around the bread during curing, thermal responses of a cylindrical sample is also measured. The numerical model made it possible to calculate the heat flux exchanges with the product, while separating the contributions of convection and radiation. The comparison of simulated responses with experimental data shows the relevance of the model. - Highlights: ► This study concerns the thermal characterization of an electric static oven used for bread baking. ► An original, experimental and numerical approach of thermal problem is proposed. ► Contributions by radiation and convection are separated. ► The goal is to provide boundary conditions for numerical models of bread baking. ► Results are encouraging to optimize energy consumption in industrial oven.

  14. A new look at old bread: ancient Egyptian baking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delwen Samuel

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite abundant archaeological, pictorial and textual evidence of ancient Egyptian life and death, we have little detailed information about the staple diet of most of the population. Now experimental work by a postdoctoral Wellcome Research Fellow in Bioarchaeology at the Institute is revealing how the ancient Egyptians made their daily bread.

  15. Cracks in bread crust cause longer crispness retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirte, A.; Hamer, R.J.; Hoffmann, L.; Primo Martin, C.

    2013-01-01

    Crispness is among the most important factors that the consumer uses to assess the quality of crispy bread. However, this quality attribute is rapidly lost after baking. It is known that crispness retention can be increased more than eight times by enhancing the water vapor permeability of the

  16. Mineral content in French type bread with sodium replacement using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral content in French type bread with sodium replacement using fluorescence spectrometry X-rays by energy dispersive. Thaisa A. Souza Gusmão, Rennan P. De Gusmão, Severina De Sousa, Mário Eduardo R. Moreira Cavalcanti Mata, Maria Elita M Duarte, Rossana Maria F. De Figuereido, Ricardo T Moreira ...

  17. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olise, Felix S., E-mail: felix_olise@rushpost.com [Department of Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220005 (Nigeria); Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P. [CFA: Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A. [IST/CTN: Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear (CTN), EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFA: Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The PIXE technique has been used to determine K and Br in a major Nigerian food item. • Samples were analysed using two proton beam energies, namely 1.25 MeV and 2.15 MeV. • Mismatched Ca results reflect its nature and accuracy/precision of the procedure. • Explanations for the presence of the contaminant in the samples are presented. • Other sources originating from erroneous burning of dangerous products suspected. -- Abstract: The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO{sub 3}) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO{sub 3} levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about −16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  18. Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight dough bread formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto beans were milled and then air-classified to obtain a raw high protein fraction (RHPF) followed by extrusion to texturize the protein fraction. The texturized high protein fraction (THPF) was then milled to obtain flour, and combined with wheat flour at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels to make bread. A...

  19. QUALITY EVALUATION OF WHEAT-PUMPKIN-GOLDEN FLAXSEED COMPOSITE BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Gabriela CODINĂ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to optimize the level of wheat, pumpkin seed (PSF and golden flaxseed flour (GFs that can be used in order to obtain high quality bread. The independent variables levels used were between 90 and 95 % for wheat flour and between 2.5% and 7.5% for pumpkin seed and golden flaxseed flour. The quality parameters analyzed were the following: loaf volume, porosity, elasticity and bread crumb structure. The mixture experiment design was used for optimization. Special quadratic mixture models were obtained for all the dependent variables. The optimum mixture levels were of 92.43% for wheat flour, 5.06% for pumkin seed flour and 2.51% for golden seed flour. The values of these flours in terms of loaf volume of bread, porosity and elasticity were of 422 cm3/100g, 76.15%, and 92.82%, respectively. The textural properties (hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, viscosity, elasticity, gumminess, chewiness were analyzed for the control sample and the optimum bread sample obtained with PSF and GFs addition. For the last one mentioned hardness, elasticity, gumminess and chewiness increase with 25.03%, 7.31%, 23.41%, 25.77% while the cohesiveness value decreases with 1.47%.

  20. Molecular markers for drought tolerance in bread wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... Molecular markers for drought tolerance in bread wheat. Tharwat El Ameen. Department of Genetics, South Valley University, Qena, 83523, Egypt. Accepted 3 May, 2013. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers associated with drought tolerance was used in this study to characterize drought ...

  1. Response of bread wheat ( Tritcum aestivum L. ) to nitrogen after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop rotation is a common practice in the study area, but there is no enough information on the specific rate of nitrogen to be applied after legumes for wheat production. Hence, on farm field experiments were conducted to determine the amount of nitrogen fertilizer rates needed for bread wheat after chick pea, grass pea, ...

  2. Prediction of bread-making quality using size exclusion high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in the distribution of protein molecular weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum), influences breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars, resulting in either poor or good bread. The objective of this study was to predict breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars using size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography.

  3. Identification of bitter compounds in whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Deshou; Peterson, Devin G

    2013-11-15

    Bitterness in whole wheat bread can negatively influence product acceptability and consumption. The overall goal of this project was to identify the main bitter compounds in a commercial whole wheat bread product. Sensory-guided fractionation of the crust (most bitter portion of the bread sample) utilising liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, ultra-filtration and 2-D offline RPLC revealed multiple bitter compounds existed. The compounds with the highest bitterness intensities were selected and structurally elucidated based on accurate mass-TOF, MS/MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Eight bitter compounds were identified: Acortatarins A, Acortatarins C, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural(HMF), 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4(H)-pyran-4-one (DDMP), N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl)-l-tryptophan (ARP), Tryptophol (TRO), 2-(2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl-1H-pyrrole-1-yl)butanoic acid (PBA) and Tryptophan (TRP). Based on the structures of these compounds, two main mechanisms of bitterness generation in wheat bread were supported, fermentation and Maillard pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of Romanian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, fourteen bread wheat varieties, twelve of which were introduced into Turkey from Romania, were evaluated for grain yield and seven agronomic properties in Biga, Çanakkale in northwest part of Turkey in 2005 - 2006 and 2006 - 2007 growing seasons. The objectives of the research, carried out in a completely ...

  5. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... additives as defined in section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; or if they are food... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  6. Bread in a Bag. Teacher's Packet. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This unit is designed to familiarize students in grades 3-6 with wheat production; teach them the nutritional value of wheat products and their role in a well-balanced diet; and give then an easy, hands-on experience in bread making with a nominal amount of cleanup for teachers. The kit suggests that in the first week, teachers discuss wheat…

  7. Yr10 gene polymorphism in bread wheat varieties | Temel | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yellow rust resistance locus Yr10 located on chromosome 1B in Moro and originated from the Turkish line PI178383 was investigated in terms of polymorphism in seven winter type bread wheat cvs. (Triticum aestivum ssp. Aestivum) Altay2000, zgi2001, Sönmez2001 (yellow rust resistant), Aytýn98, ES14, Harmankaya99 ...

  8. Response of bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) to application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both biological and partial budget analysis reveals that the use of N at rate of 64 kg N ha-1 as UREAStabil and 64 kg N ha-1 as conventional urea could give optimum bread wheat yield in Hawzien and in Emba Alaje, respectively, and in areas where the rainfall distribution and soil type is similar with study districts where ...

  9. Genetic diversity among old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 88; Issue 3. Genetic diversity among old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars and botanical varieties evaluated by ITS rDNA PCR-RFLP markers. A. Carvalho H. Guedes-Pinto J. Lima-Brito. Research Note Volume 88 Issue 3 December 2009 pp 363-367 ...

  10. Quality assessment of flour and bread from sweet potato wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the quality of the flour and bread produced from sweet potato wheat composite flour blends. Matured and freshly harvested sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) was obtained from a local market in Akure, Nigeria. The tubers were thoroughly washed, peeled, washed again, drained, chipped, oven dried, ...

  11. Supplementary data: Genetic diversity among old Portuguese bread ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table 1. Passport data of the old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars (2n = 6x = 42;. AABBDD). Cultivar passport code Botanical variety. Cultivar name. 1 milturum. Alentejano. 23 milturum. Eborense. 33 milturum. Galego Rapado. 51 milturum. Mocho de Espiga Ruiva. 4 lutescens. Almadense. 34 lutescens. Gentil Rosso. 48.

  12. The effects of commercial fibres on frozen bread dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA FILIPOVIĆ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The daily intake of dietary fibres in highly industrialized countries is at a low level and, therefore, adversely affecting human health. The objective of this research was to analyze the influence of different commercial fibres (originating from sugar beet pulp fibrex, and Jerusalem artichoke inulin HPX and GR in yeast dough at a level of 5 %, on the rheological properties of dough and the quality of bread during frozen storage. Frozen dough characteristics were determined using a Brabender maturograph and test baking was followed according the AACC procedure. The dough was frozen at –18 °C and stored over a period of 60 days. The results concerning the dough (proving time and stability and bread quality (volume and crumb quality were statistically analyzed by multivariance Manova and discriminative analysis, which indicated that there was a significant difference between dough without fibres and dough with different fibres (fibrex, inulin HPX and GR. The discrimination coefficient points that the greatest influence of fibres on the final proof and proving stability is after 30 days (6.250 and after 0 days (6.158, respectively, but the greatest influence of fibres on bread volume and bread crumb quality (15.488 and 3.638, respectively can be expected on non frozen dough, due to above mention their adverse the effect on gluten network.

  13. Inclusion of sweet sorghum flour in bread formulations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Inclusion of sweet sorghum flour in bread formulations. Veronica Freitas Pires Araujo1, Wellingthon da Silva Guimaraes Junnyor1, Marco Antonio. Pereira da Silva1* ..... Revista Brasileira de Saúde e. Produção Animal.

  14. Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Bread Enriched with Broccoli Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Gawlik-Dziki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on antioxidant and anticancer capacity of bread enriched with broccoli sprouts (BS in the light of their potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Generally, bread supplementation elevated antioxidant potential of product (both nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant capacities; however, the increase was not correlated with the percent of BS. A replacement up to 2% of BS gives satisfactory overall consumers acceptability and desirable elevation of antioxidant potential. High activity was especially found for extracts obtained after simulated digestion, which allows assuming their protective effect for upper gastrointestinal tract; thus, the anticancer activity against human stomach cancer cells (AGS was evaluated. A prominent cytostatic response paralleled by the inhibition of AGS motility in the presence of potentially mastication-extractable phytochemicals indicates that phenolic compounds of BS retain their biological activity in bread. Importantly, the efficient phenolics concentration was about 12 μM for buffer extract, 13 μM for extracts after digestion in vitro, and 7 μM for extract after absorption in vitro. Our data confirm chemopreventive potential of bread enriched with BS and indicate that BS comprise valuable food supplement for stomach cancer chemoprevention.

  15. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olise, Felix S.; Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P.; Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The PIXE technique has been used to determine K and Br in a major Nigerian food item. • Samples were analysed using two proton beam energies, namely 1.25 MeV and 2.15 MeV. • Mismatched Ca results reflect its nature and accuracy/precision of the procedure. • Explanations for the presence of the contaminant in the samples are presented. • Other sources originating from erroneous burning of dangerous products suspected. -- Abstract: The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO 3 ) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO 3 levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about −16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples

  16. Estimation of trace metal contents in locally-baked breads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Rehman, S.

    2013-01-01

    In order to establish base line levels, estimation of some essential trace metals (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) has been conducted in four brands of fifteen locally baked breads of Rawalpindi /Islamabad area employing Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The samples were digested in a mixture of nitric acid and perchloric acid and the analysis was done with air-acetylene flame. The reliability of the procedure employed was verify by analyzing Standard Reference Material, i.e., wheat flour (NBS-SRM-1567) for its Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn contents which were in good agreement with the certified values. The results revealed that brown breads contained higher amount of Fe 177.3 micro g g/sup -1/and Zn 19.27 micro g g/sup -1/while levels of Cu 21.90 micro g g/-sup 1/was found higher in the samples of plain bread. The determined metal concentrations in the bread samples were compared with the reported values for other countries. The effect of kneading/baking/slicing processes on the concentration levels of these metals was also studied. The daily intake of these metals through this source was calculated and compared with the recommended dietary allowance. (author)

  17. Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolic compounds in bread: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelino, Donato; Cossu, Marta; Marti, Alessandra; Zanoletti, Miriam; Chiavaroli, Laura; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele; Martini, Daniela

    2017-07-19

    Cereal-based products, like breads, are a vehicle for bioactive compounds, including polyphenols. The health effects of polyphenols like phenolic acids (PAs) are dependent on their bioaccessibility and bioavailability. The present review summarizes the current understanding of potential strategies to improve phenolic bioaccessibility and bioavailability and the main findings of in vitro and in vivo studies investigating these strategies applied to breads, including the use of raw ingredients with greater phenolic content and different pre-processing technologies, such as fermentation and enzymatic treatment of ingredients. There is considerable variability between in vitro studies, mainly resulting from the use of different methodologies, highlighting the need for standardization. Of the few in vivo bioavailability studies identified, acute, single-dose studies demonstrate that modifications to selected raw materials and bioprocessing of bran could increase the bioavailability, but not necessarily the net content, of bread phenolics. The two medium-term identified dietary interventions also demonstrated greater phenolic content, resulting from the modification of the raw materials used. Overall, the findings suggest that several strategies can be used to develop new bread products with greater phenolic bioaccessibility and bioavailability. However, due to the large variability and the few studies available, further investigations are required to determine better the usefulness of these innovative processes.

  18. Transfer of stripe rust resistance from Aegilops variabilis to bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of area, the bread wheat producing regions of China comprise the largest area in the world that is constantly threatened by stripe rust epidemics. Consequently, it is important to exploit new adultplant resistance genes in breeding. This study reports the transfer of stripe rust resistance from Aegilops variabilis to ...

  19. Freezing effect on bread appearance evaluated by digital imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Inna Y.

    1999-01-01

    In marketing channels, bread is sometimes delivered in a frozen sate for distribution. Changes occur in physical dimensions, crumb grain and appearance of slices. Ten loaves, twelve bread slices per loaf were scanned for digital image analysis and then frozen in a commercial refrigerator. The bread slices were stored for four weeks scanned again, permitted to thaw and scanned a third time. Image features were extracted, to determine shape, size and image texture of the slices. Different thresholds of grey levels were set to detect changes that occurred in crumb, images were binarized at these settings. The number of pixels falling into these gray level settings were determined for each slice. Image texture features of subimages of each slice were calculated to quantify slice crumb grain. The image features of the slice size showed shrinking of bread slices, as a results of freezing and storage, although shape of slices did not change markedly. Visible crumb texture changes occurred and these changes were depicted by changes in image texture features. Image texture features showed that slice crumb changed differently at the center of a slice compared to a peripheral area close to the crust. Image texture and slice features were sufficient for discrimination of slices before and after freezing and after thawing.

  20. Role of certain cellular composition in radio-resistant fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, A.A.M.; Hammad, A.A.I.; Hazaa, M.M.; Swelim, M.A.; Mohamed, Y.A.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty three fungal isolates of genera Curvularia, Alternaria and Fusarium were isolated from different sources included crops, vegetables, fruits in addition to bread, chicken feed soil and air. Five isolates were selected from each genus according to the difference in the morphological characters and its source. The fifteen isolates were exposed to increasing doses of gamma rays from 0.5 to 10.0 I 10 values when irradiated in saline solution were found to be 1.92,1.25, 1.47,0.47,1.31 and 0.70 respectively while their D 10 values were 2.25, 1.56, 1.70, 1.30, 1.83 and 1.23 as the irradiation process was done in their natural sources. The values of total protein, total lipids and total nucleic acids either RNA or DNA were relatively higher in radio-resistant strains than sensitive ones. Amino acids containing sulfur (cysteine, methionine) or double bonds (histidine) and the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids were also higher in resistant strains than the sensitive ones. Exposing the six selected strains to dose level 4 kGy obviously decreased each of total protein, total amino acids and total nucleic acids especially DNA and the values of decreases were found to be higher in sensitive than the resistant strains. Dose level 12.5 kGy was quiet enough to eliminate the radioresistant fungi from the contaminated food whatever the level of contamination is

  1. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL ADDITIVES ON PROTEIN COMPLEX OF BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Urminská

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on researching the influence of natural additives on certain technological characteristics of mixtures used for bread production, more particularly the influence of N substances in used raw material on selected qualitative parameters of bread. The blends for bread production to be analysed were prepared by mixing wheat flour with an addition of oat, buckwheat, lentil and chickpea wholegrain flour in different portions (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The experiment showed that the addition of natural additives worsened the protein complex of the blends used in bread production (worsening also qualitative parameters known as product volume. The loaves prepared with an addition of buckwheat, oat, lentil and chickpea were evaluated to be of a lesser quality from a technological viewpoint when compared with pure wheat loaves. The lower content of gluten forming proteins and the generally changed protein composition of blends due to additives caused a lower percentage of wet gluten content, its lower extensibility and swelling capacity. The sedimentation value (Zeleny index decreased proportionally with the increase of addition until the level was unsatisfactory for raw material intended for bakery purposes. The N content in experimental loaves was higher than in the reference loaves and it increased according to the selected additive and its portion in the blend (more with the addition of lentil and chickpea, less in case of buckwheat and oat which is considered as positive from a nutritional point of view. But from the technological point of view the additives did not show any positive influence and caused a lower loaf bread volume. The most significant decrease of the loaf bread volume was found with the addition of 50 % of buckwheat (- 45.6 %. Better results were obtained with a lower portion of the additive: loaf with an addition of 30 % of chickpea (volume decreased by 12.8 % > loaf with an addition of 30 % of lentil (volume

  2. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of anamorphic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid Lorca, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Anamorphic fungi (those reproducing asexually) are a big part of kingdom Fungi. Most of them occur as saprobes in nature, but numerous species are pathogenic to plants and animals including man. With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the diversity and distribution of anamorphic fungi, we performed a phenotypic and molecular characterization of environmental and clinical isolates of these fungi. Based on a polyphasic taxonomy approach which included morphology, physiology and DNA seq...

  3. Modelling and predicting the simultaneous growth of Listeria monocytogenes and spoilage micro-organisms in cold-smoked salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, B.; Dalgaard, Paw

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate and model the simultaneous growth of Listeria monocytogenes and spoilage micro-organisms in cold-smoked salmon.Methods and Results: Growth kinetics of L. monocytogenes, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae, enterococci and Photobacterium phosphoreum were determined...

  4. Complete genome sequences of two strains of the meat spoilage bacterium Brochothrix thermosphacta isolated from ground chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochothrix thermosphacta is an important meat spoilage bacterium. Here we report the genome sequences of two strains of B. thermosphacta isolated from ground chicken. The genome sequences were determined using long-read PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT©) technology and are the first complete ...

  5. Transcriptomic analysis on the formation of the viable putative non-culturable state of beer-spoilage Lactobacillus acetotolerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyan; Deng, Yang; Peters, Brian M; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Chen, Lequn; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2016-11-07

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common beer-spoilage bacteria regardless of beer type, and thus pose significant problems for the brewery industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanisms involved in the ability of the hard-to-culture beer-spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus acetotolerans to enter into the viable putative non-culturable (VPNC) state. A genome-wide transcriptional analysis of beer-spoilage L. acetotolerans strains BM-LA14526, BM-LA14527, and BM-LA14528 under normal, mid-term and VPNC states were performed using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and further bioinformatics analyses. GO function, COG category, and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were conducted to investigate functional and related metabolic pathways of the differentially expressed genes. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis indicated that heightened stress response and reduction in genes associated with transport, metabolic process, and enzyme activity might play important roles in the formation of the VPNC state. This is the first transcriptomic analysis on the formation of the VPNC state of beer spoilage L. acetotolerans.

  6. Fungi as a Source of Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Joëlle; Dequin, Sylvie; Giraud, Tatiana; Le Tacon, François; Marsit, Souhir; Ropars, Jeanne; Richard, Franck; Selosse, Marc-André

    2017-06-01

    In this article, we review some of the best-studied fungi used as food sources, in particular, the cheese fungi, the truffles, and the fungi used for drink fermentation such as beer, wine, and sake. We discuss their history of consumption by humans and the genomic mechanisms of adaptation during artificial selection.

  7. Marketing mix strategies of bread producers in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Ejup Fejza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing is a fundamental or core function of the business which more than any other business function deals with customers and their satisfaction. Creation and implementation of a successful marketing strategy in business is very crucial, especially when we deal with a business such is bread manufacturing. Thus, the purpose of the research was to analyze the development of marketing as an organizational function of bread manufacturers companies in Kosovo, to analyze their marketing strategies and to provide clear recommendations for companies that do not use marketing strategies. During the research I have find that bread producers do not even have established a marketing department and/or do not have employed a marketing or sales person. Only few companies, three out of fifteen, intend to establish marketing department in the future, which is a sign that bread producers still do not see marketing as core function in their activities. They do think more on production than on sales and marketing. None of the companies have promotional activities regularly and only two of them exhibits regularly on the trade fairs in Kosovo and only one company exhibited abroad. There should be continuous insistence of manufacturing companies to advance marketing department, creating a special unit of market research and behavior with consumer. The data for research were collected through questionnaire in fifteen bread manufacturing companies. Methods used for research have been descriptive, comparative, analysis, and synthesis. The research instrument was a questionnaire, the technique has been direct communication and research was conducted between months June up to September 2009.

  8. Mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria from meat and their spoilage potential in vitro and in beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolini, Danilo; Russo, Federica; Nasi, Antonella; Ferranti, Pasquale; Villani, Francesco

    2009-04-01

    Mesophilic and psychrotrophic populations from refrigerated meat were identified in this study, and the spoilage potential of microbial isolates in packaged beef was evaluated by analyzing the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fifty mesophilic and twenty-nine psychrotrophic isolates were analyzed by random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR, and representative strains were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Carnobacterium maltaromaticum and C. divergens were the species most frequently found in both mesophilic and psychrotrophic populations. Acinetobacter baumannii, Buttiauxella spp. and Serratia spp. were identified among the mesophilic isolates, while Pseudomonas spp. were commonly identified among the psychrotrophs. The isolates were further characterized for their growth at different temperatures and their proteolytic activity in vitro on meat proteins extracts at 7 degrees C. Selected proteolytic strains of Serratia proteamaculans, Pseudomonas fragi, and C. maltaromaticum were used to examine their spoilage potential in situ. Single strains of these species and mixtures of these strains were used to contaminate beef chops that were packed and stored at 7 degrees C. At time intervals up to 1 month, viable counts were determined, and VOC were identified by GC/MS. Generally, the VOC concentrations went to increase during the storage of the contaminated meats, and the profiles of the analyzed meat changed dramatically depending on the contaminating microbial species. About 100 volatiles were identified in the different contaminated samples. Among the detected volatiles, some specific molecules were identified only when the meat was contaminated by a specific microbial species. Compounds such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 2-buten-1-ol, 2-hexyl-1-octanol, 2-nonanone, and 2-ethylhexanal were detectable only for C. maltaromaticum, which also produced the highest number of aldehydes, lactones, and sulfur compounds. The

  9. Antimicrobial activity of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) cultivar Avenger against pathogenic bacteria, phytopathogenic filamentous fungi and yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Cano, R D; Salcedo-Hernández, R; López-Meza, J E; Bideshi, D K; Barboza-Corona, J E

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to show whether the edible part of broccoli has antibacterial and antifungal activity against micro-organism of importance in human health and vegetable spoilage, and to test if this effect was partially due to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Crude extracts were obtained from florets and stems of broccoli cultivar Avenger and the inhibitory effect was demonstrated against pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Proteus vulgaris), phytopathogenic fungi (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Asperigillus niger) and yeasts (Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp.). It was shown that samples treated with proteolytic enzymes had a reduction of approximately 60% in antibacterial activity against Staph. xylosus, suggesting that proteinaceous compounds might play a role in the inhibitory effect. Antimicrobial components in crude extracts were thermoresistant and the highest activity was observed under acidic conditions. It was shown that antifungal activity of broccoli's crude extracts might not be attributed to chitinases. Organic broccoli cultivar Avenger has antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria, yeast and phytophatogenic fungi. Data suggest that this effect is partially due to AMPs. Broccoli's crude extracts have activity not only against pathogenic bacteria but also against phytophatogenic fungi of importance in agriculture. We suggest for first time that the inhibitory effect is probably due to AMPs. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. A study on fibre addition to gluten free bread: its effects on bread quality and in vitro digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarini, L S; Bustos, M C; Vignola, M B; Paesani, C; Salinas, C N; Pérez, G T

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of fibre addition on gluten-free (GF) dough properties and bread technological quality, and on protein and starch in vitro digestibility. Soluble (Inulin, In) and insoluble fibres (oat fibre, OF, and type IV resistant starch, RSIV) were used at 5 and 10% substitution levels. Dough firmness increased when insoluble fibres were added, and decreased when In was used. Incorporation of insoluble fibres resulted into bread with a low specific volume (SBV) since firmer dough were more difficult to expand during proofing and baking. Staling rate was reduced after fibre addition, with the exception being OF 10%, as its lower SBV may have favoured molecule re-association. In general, protein and starch digestibility increased when fibres were added at 5%, and then decreased after further increasing the level. Fibres may have disrupted bread crumb structure, thus increasing digestibility, although the higher addition may have led to a physical and/or chemical impediment to digestion. Inulin has well-known physiological effects, while RS presented the most important effect on in vitro starch digestibility (GI). These results showed the possibility of adding different fibres to GF bread to decrease the GI and increase protein digestibility, while obtaining an overall high quality end-product.

  11. Crystallinity changes in wheat starch during the bread-making process: Starch crystallinity in the bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, N.H. van; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, T. van

    2007-01-01

    The crystallinity of starch in crispy bread crust was quantified using several different techniques. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) demonstrated the presence of granular starch in the crust and remnants of granules when moving towards the crumb. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  12. Crystallinity changes in wheat starch during the bread-making process: starch crystallinity in the bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martin, C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, van N.H.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2007-01-01

    The crystallinity of starch in crispy bread crust was quantified using several different techniques. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) demonstrated the presence of granular starch in the crust and remnants of granules when moving towards the crumb. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  13. Influence of Barley Sourdough and Vacuum Cooling on Shelf Life Quality of Partially Baked Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Summary Driven by the bakery industry urge to satisfy consumer demand for fresh, diverse and high quality bakery products, we investigated the influence of barley sourdough and vacuum cooling on shelf life quality of partially baked bread stored in modified atmosphere packaging at ambient conditions. Barley sourdough was fermented with Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 20016, F275). Partially baked bread with sourdough was microbiologically acceptable during 30 days of storage, while bread without sourdough had detectable mould on the 30th day. Stored bread samples were rebaked after 1, 8, 15, 22 and 30 days to determine moisture content, physical and sensorial properties. Moisture loss (5%) was detected on the 15th day, after which it remained stable until the end of investigated storage period. Nevertheless, textural quality of stored bread continuously declined due to crumb firming. Bread flavour did not change during mould-free storage time. The principal component analysis identified major differences in the flavour of sour and control bread, also in crumb firmness and moisture content of samples. This study indicates the positive role of barley sourdough fermented with L. reuteri in improving crumb texture for at least 15 days, and ensuring mould- and bacteria-free partially baked bread for 30 days. Vacuum cooling combined with sourdough improved bread shape, porosity, and reduced sour taste, crust colouring and crumbliness. Hence, it can successfully extend shelf life quality of partially baked bread in modified atmosphere packaging. PMID:29540981

  14. Modification of appetite by bread consumption: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Anton, Carolina; Artacho, Reyes; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria D; Gil, Angel; Mesa, Maria D

    2017-09-22

    The inclusion of different ingredients or the use of different baking technologies may modify the satiety response to bread, and aid in the control of food intake. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic search of randomized clinical trials on the effect of bread consumption on appetite ratings in humans. The search equation was ("Bread"[MeSH]) AND ("Satiation"[MeSH] OR "Satiety response"[MeSH]), and the filter "clinical trials." As a result of this procedure, 37 publications were selected. The satiety response was considered as the primary outcome. The studies were classified as follows: breads differing in their flour composition, breads differing in ingredients other than flours, breads with added organic acids, or breads made using different baking technologies. In addition, we have revised the data related to the influence of bread on glycemic index, insulinemic index and postprandial gastrointestinal hormones responses. The inclusion of appropriate ingredients such as fiber, proteins, legumes, seaweeds and acids into breads and the use of specific technologies may result in the development of healthier breads that increase satiety and satiation, which may aid in the control of weight gain and benefit postprandial glycemia. However, more well-designed randomized control trials are required to reach final conclusions.

  15. Monotonous consumption of fibre-enriched bread at breakfast increases satiety and influences subsequent food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touyarou, Peio; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Gagnaire, Aude; Issanchou, Sylvie; Brondel, Laurent

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to observe the influence of the monotonous consumption of two types of fibre-enriched bread at breakfast on hedonic liking for the bread, subsequent hunger and energy intake. Two groups of unrestrained normal weight participants were given either white sandwich bread (WS) or multigrain sandwich bread (MG) at breakfast (the sensory properties of the WS were more similar to the usual bread eaten by the participants than those of the MG). In each group, two 15-day cross-over conditions were set up. During the experimental condition the usual breakfast of each participant was replaced by an isocaloric portion of plain bread (WS or MG). During the control condition, participants consumed only 10 g of the corresponding bread and completed their breakfast with other foods they wanted. The results showed that bread appreciation did not change over exposure even in the experimental condition. Hunger was lower in the experimental condition than in the control condition. The consumption of WS decreased energy intake while the consumption of MG did not in the experimental condition compared to the corresponding control one. In conclusion, a monotonous breakfast composed solely of a fibre-enriched bread may decrease subsequent hunger and, when similar to a familiar bread, food intake. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Impact of new ingredients obtained from brewer's spent yeast on bread characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Z E; Pinho, O; Ferreira, I M P L V O

    2018-05-01

    The impact of bread fortification with β-glucans and with proteins/proteolytic enzymes from brewers' spent yeast on physical characteristics was evaluated. β-Glucans extraction from spent yeast cell wall was optimized and the extract was incorporated on bread to obtain 2.02 g β-glucans/100 g flour, in order to comply with the European Food Safety Authority guidelines. Protein/proteolytic enzymes extract from spent yeast was added to bread at 60 U proteolytic activity/100 g flour. Both β-glucans rich and proteins/proteolytic enzymes extracts favoured browning of bread crust. However, breads with proteins/proteolytic enzymes addition presented lower specific volume, whereas the incorporation of β-glucans in bread lead to uniform pores that was also noticeble in terms of higher specific volume. Overall, the improvement of nutritional/health promoting properties is highlighted with β-glucan rich extract, not only due to bread β-glucan content but also for total dietary fibre content (39% increase). The improvement was less noticeable for proteins/proteolytic enzymes extract. Only a 6% increase in bread protein content was noted with the addition of this extract and higher protein content would most likely accentuate the negative impact on bread specific volume that in turn could impair consumer acceptance. Therefore, only β-glucan rich extract is a promising bread ingredient.

  17. Effects on bread and oil quality after functionalization with microencapsulated chia oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Agustín; Martínez, Marcela L; León, Alberto E; Ribotta, Pablo D

    2018-03-23

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids-rich oils suffer oxidation reactions that alter their chemical and organoleptic quality. Microencapsulation can be a powerful tool for protection against ambient conditions. In the present study, the addition of microencapsulated chia oil as an ingredient in bread preparations and its effect on the technological and chemical quality of breads was investigated. Microencapsulation of chia oil was carried out by freeze-drying with soy proteins as wall material and oil release was determined under in vitro gastric and intestinal conditions. Encapsulated oil-containing bread showed no differences in specific volume, average cell area, firmness and chewiness with respect to control bread. Unencapsulated oil-containing bread showed a marked increase in hydroperoxide values respect to control, whereas encapsulated oil-containing bread values were not affected by baking and bread storage. The fatty acid profiles showed a decrease of 13% and 16%, respectively, in α-linolenic acid in the encapsulated and unencapsulated oils with respect to bulk chia oil. Sensory analysis showed no significant differences between bread samples. The addition of encapsulated chia oil did not alter the technological quality of breads and prevented the formation of hydroperoxide radicals. A ration of encapsulated oil-containing bread contributes 60% of the recommended dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Physical and antioxidant properties of gluten-free bread enriched with carob fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różyło, Renata; Dziki, Dariusz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Biernacka, Beata; Wójcik, Monika; Ziemichód, Alicja

    2017-07-01

    There are no reports of addition of carob fibre to gluten-free bread, as only carob germ flour was used. The research task was to determine what level of carob fibre can be used and how it influences the physical and sensorial properties of gluten-free bread. Especially, the knowledge of the antioxidant properties of such bread is very valuable. The gluten-free bread from rice, corn, and buckwheat flour (35:35:30%) was prepared after mixing (5 min), proofing (40 min, 30°C), and baking (45-50 min, 230°C) of dough. Carob fibre was added in the amounts of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% of the total flour content. The results showed that increased content of carob fibre induced significant and favourable changes in the volume, colour, and texture (hardness and springiness) of the bread crumb. Carob fibre enriched the breads with lipophilic compounds able to chelate metal ions. The activity of hydrophilic compounds was significantly higher in the case of control bread and bread with the lowest percentage of the additive. In conclusion, the highest increase in antioxidant activity was found for breads with 1 and 2% of carob fibre. The most acceptable gluten-free bread can be obtained by adding up to 2% of carob.

  19. Characteristics of bread prepared from wheat flours blended with various kinds of newly developed rice flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, S; Suzuki, K; Ohtsubo, K

    2009-04-01

    Characteristics of the bread prepared from wheat flour blended with the flour of various kinds of newly developed rice cultivars were investigated. Qualities of the bread made from wheat flour blended with rice flour have been reported to be inferior to those from 100% wheat flour bread. To improve its qualities, we searched for the new-characteristic rice flours among the various kinds of newly developed rice cultivars to blend with the wheat flour for the bread preparation. The most suitable new characteristic rices are combination of purple waxy rice, high-amylose rice, and sugary rice. Specific volume of the bread from the combination of wheat and these 3 kinds of rice flours showed higher specific volume (3.93) compared with the traditional wheat/rice bread (3.58). We adopted the novel method, continuous progressive compression test, to measure the physical properties of the dough and the bread in addition to the sensory evaluation. As a result of the selection of the most suitable rice cultivars and blending ratio with the wheat flour, we could develop the novel wheat/rice bread, of which loaf volume, physical properties, and tastes are acceptable and resistant to firming on even 4 d after the bread preparation. To increase the ratio of rice to wheat, we tried to add a part of rice as cooked rice grains. The specific volume and qualities of the bread were maintained well although the rice content of total flour increased from 30% to 40%.

  20. Recent advances in possible effects of bread types and enrichment on appetite during Ramadan fasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Movahed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bread is the staple food of most Muslims and can be considered to be a component with a remarkable effect on satiety and appetite during Ramadan fasting. This study aimed to present the recent advances in investigating the effect of different types of bread and enrichments on satiety and appetite. Methods: In this paper, articles focusing on the effect of various bread types (including enriched bread on satiety and appetite, particularly during fasting were reviewed. Articles were found in databases such as ISI, PubMed and Google Scholar. Results: Different bread types with lower glycemic index are recommended for Ramadan fasting, especially for the Sahur meal, due to better satiety and sglycemic control. In addition, fermentable dietary fibers, such as arabinoxylans, β-glucan, fructans, and resistant starch, can influence appetite through fermentation in the colon by saccharolytic bacteria and gastrointestinal tract releasing hormones changes. Consumption of wholemeal bread results in the moderation of satiety and starvation. Barely, oat and rye breads demonstrate the better improvement of satiety compared to white wheat bread due to their higher fiber content, probiotic ingredients and steadier glycemia. On the other hand, use of protein-rich breads can result in delayed gastric emptying, steadier insulin levels and higher satiety. Beta-glucan enrichment shows similar significant results in terms of reducing hunger and increasing satiety by influencing the appetite and satiety and regulating hormones such as insulin, ghrelin and PYY. Fiber enrichment and probiotics (Fructo-oligosaccharides/Inulin could also be considered in this regard. Conclusion: During Ramadan fasting, barley bread, oat bread and wholegrain wheat bread could be suggested as the preferred bread types to be incorporated into the main meals to improve satiety and decrease hunger feeling.

  1. Nut-enriched bread is an effective and acceptable vehicle to improve regular nut consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Asika; Chisholm, Alexandra; Gray, Andrew; Tey, Siew Ling; Williamson-Poutama, Destynee; Cameron, Sonya L; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-10-01

    Consuming 30 g of nuts/day is recommended to reduce chronic disease. However, nut consumption appears far from ideal among several populations. A potential strategy to increase consumption is to add nuts to a staple, for example, bread. Whether the health benefits and acceptability of nuts persist in this form is currently unknown. Thus, we examined the effects of consuming three nut-enriched breads on postprandial glycaemia, satiety, gastrointestinal tolerance, dietary intakes, and acceptance. In this controlled, crossover study, 32 participants were randomly allocated to receive one of four breads for 8 days each. Three breads contained either 30 g of finely sliced hazelnuts, 30 g semi-defatted hazelnut flour, or 15 g of each (amounts per 120 g bread) and were compared with a control nut-free bread. Blood glucose response was measured over 120 min, along with ratings of gastrointestinal discomfort. Appetite ratings and diet diaries were completed during each treatment period. Area under the blood glucose curve was significantly lower for the nut breads compared to the control bread (all P breads (all P ≥ 0.130). There were no significant differences in satiety (all P ≥ 0.135) or gastrointestinal symptoms (all P ≥ 0.102) between the breads. Acceptance was highest for the finely sliced hazelnut bread. Furthermore, consuming hazelnut-enriched bread improved diet quality, increasing monounsaturated fat, vitamin E, and dietary fibre intakes. Bread appears to be an effective and acceptable vehicle for increasing nut consumption, resulting in improved postprandial glycaemia and diet profiles. Long-term studies are now required.

  2. Quality characterization of wheat, maize and sorghum steamed breads from Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhabutlane, Pulane; du Rand, Gerrie E; de Kock, Henriëtte L

    2014-08-01

    In Lesotho, traditional bread covers different types of dumplings prepared with cereal flour, water, salt and sourdough. This study characterized eight steamed breads prepared from wheat, maize and sorghum. Breads were prepared from both commercial and self-milled flours according to the procedures followed in rural and urban areas of Lesotho. Descriptive sensory evaluation was conducted to profile sensory properties of the breads. Flour particle sizes, sourdough properties and bread colour, volume and texture were also characterized. The type of cereal and milling properties of the flour used had substantial effects on the physical and sensory properties of the bread. Steamed wheat breads had greater volume, softer crumb and more bland flavour compared with sorghum and maize breads. Both sorghum and maize steamed breads prepared according to traditional Basotho procedures were characterized by low loaf volume, denser crumb, more complex and strong flavours and aroma, notably sour, musty, malty, dairy sour and fermented aroma. The texture of the non-wheat bread types was heavy, chewy, dry, fibrous and more brittle and needed a higher compression force to deform. This study provided insight on the sensory properties of steamed bread as prepared in Lesotho. Further research is needed to optimize sensory properties of the non-wheat steamed breads by controlling the flour particle size, compositing non-wheat flours with different levels of wheat flour, addition of protein sources and gums, altering the amount of water, improving the pre-gelatinization process and optimizing the steaming method of cooking bread. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) Pulp
as a Functional Food Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różyło, Renata; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Dziki, Dariusz; Jakubczyk, Anna; Karaś, Monika; Różyło, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20% (converted to dry matter) caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory characteristics of the bread showed that a partial replacement of wheat flour with up to 10% of pumpkin pulp gave satisfactory results. The taste, aroma and overall acceptability of control bread and bread containing 5 or 10% of pulp had the highest degree of liking. The addition of higher levels of pumpkin pulp caused an unpleasant aroma and taste. Pumpkin pulp is a good material to complement the bread with potentially bioaccessible phenolics (including flavonoids) and, especially, with peptides. The highest antioxidant activity was observed, in most cases, of the samples with added 10 and 15% of pumpkin pulp. The addition of the pulp significantly enriched the bread with potentially bioaccessible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. The highest activity was determined in the bread with 15 and 20% pumpkin pulp. ACE inhibitors from the tested bread were highly bioaccessible in vitro . Pumpkin pulp seems to be a valuable source of active compounds to complement the wheat bread. Adding the pulp directly to the wheat flour gives satisfactory baking results and reduces the cost of production. Additionally, pumpkin pulp is sometimes treated as waste material after the acquisition of seeds, thus using it as bread supplement also has environmental and economic benefits. Key words : pumpkin, bread, texture, antioxidants, bioaccessibility in vitro, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition.

  4. Use of a MS-electronic nose for prediction of early fungal spoilage of bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, S; Vinaixa, M; Brezmes, J; Llobet, E; Vilanova, X; Correig, X; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V

    2007-02-28

    A MS-based electronic nose was used to detect fungal spoilage (measured as ergosterol concentration) in samples of bakery products. Bakery products were inoculated with different Eurotium, Aspergillus and Penicillium species, incubated in sealed vials and their headspace sampled after 2, 4 and 7 days. Once the headspace was sampled, ergosterol content was determined in each sample. Different electronic nose signals were recorded depending on incubation time. Both the e-nose signals and ergosterol levels were used to build models for prediction of ergosterol content using e-nose measurements. Accuracy on prediction of those models was between 87 and 96%, except for samples inoculated with Penicillium corylophilum where the best predictions only reached 46%.

  5. Classification of photobacteria associated with spoilage of fish products by numerical taxanomy and pyrolysis mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Manfio, G.P.; Goodfellow, M.

    1997-01-01

    , from spoiled products and by using a specific detection method. The data were analysed using the similarity coefficient and the unweighted pair-group with arithmetic averages algorithm. In addition twenty-six of the fish isolates and five reference strains were analysed by Curie-point pyrolysis mass...... sub-groups. One sub-group of psychrotolerant P. phosphoreum strains, which was selected in modified atmosphere packed fish stored at low temperature, was also highlighted using each of the methods. The importance of classifying food spoilage bacteria has been shown and a simple key generated......Forty strains of luminous and non-luminous Photobacterium phosphoreum isolates from cod (Gadus morhua) and seven reference strains of psychrotolerant and mesophilic photobacteria were examined for 156 unit characters in a numerical taxonomic study. The fish strains were isolated from the intestines...

  6. Importance of Photobacterium phosphoreum in relation to spoilage of modified atmosphere-packed fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Mejlholm, Ole; Christiansen, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Occurrence and growth of Photobacterium phosphoreum were studied in 20 experiments with fresh fish from Denmark, Iceland and Greece. The organism was detected in all marine fish species but not in fish from fresh water. Growth of P. phosphoreum to high levels (>10(7) cfu g(-1)) was observed in most...... products and the organism is likely to be of importance for spoilage of several modified atmosphere-packed (MAP) marine fish species when stored at chill temperatures. Some microbiological methods recommended for control of fish products by national and international authorities are inappropriate...... for detection of psychrotolerant and heat-labile micro-organisms like P. phosphoreum. These methods have been used in many previous studies of MAP fish and this could explain why, contrary to the findings in the present study, P. phosphoreum in general was not detected previously in spoiled MAP fish....

  7. Optimum level of salt in French-type bread. Influence of income status, salt level in daily bread consumption, and test location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, M; Flores, A; Hough, G; Apro, N; Ferreyra, V; Orbea, M M

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of the present study were to measure the ideal salt concentration in French-type bread among Argentine consumers in a home-usage-test (HUT) considering income status and salt content of daily bread consumption as covariables, and to compare the ideal salt concentrations measured in a HUT and a central-location test (CLT). For the HUT, 420 consumers each received a sample of bread with a single salt concentration, and for the CLT, 100 consumers each received 7 samples with different salt concentrations. For each sample, consumers responded if they found the bread "not-salty-enough,"okay," or "too-salty." Neither income level nor salt content of daily bread influenced probability of rejection. The optimum sodium concentrations (milligrams per 100 g of bread dry basis) +/- 95% confidence limits for the HUT and CLT were 980 +/- 74 and 1157 +/- 87, respectively. These values are substantially higher than 628, the mean sodium content of the bread sampled from the bakery shops where consumers bought their daily bread.

  8. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi, J; Mykkänen, H; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundRye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism...... and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs).  MethodsTwenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre.......05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.ConclusionsBeneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than...

  9. Optimized dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles and antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Espitia, Paula Judith; Ferreira Soares, Nilda de Fatima, E-mail: nfsoares1@gmail.com [Department of Food Technology, Federal University of Vicosa (Brazil); Teofilo, Reinaldo F. [Federal University of Vicosa, Department of Chemistry (Brazil); Vitor, Debora M.; Reis Coimbra, Jane Selia dos; Andrade, Nelio Jose de [Department of Food Technology, Federal University of Vicosa (Brazil); Sousa, Frederico B. de; Sinisterra, Ruben D. [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Department of Chemistry (Brazil); Medeiros, Eber Antonio Alves [Department of Food Technology, Federal University of Vicosa (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    Single primary nanoparticles of zinc oxide (nanoZnO) tend to form particle collectives, resulting in loss of antimicrobial activity. This work studied the effects of probe sonication conditions: power, time, and the presence of a dispersing agent (Na{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}), on the size of nanoZnO particles. NanoZnO dispersion was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and characterized by the zeta potential (ZP) technique. NanoZnO antimicrobial activity was investigated at different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 % w/w) against four foodborne pathogens and four spoilage microorganisms. The presence of the dispersing agent had a significant effect on the size of dispersed nanoZnO. Minimum size after sonication was 238 nm. An optimal dispersion condition was achieved at 200 W for 45 min of sonication in the presence of the dispersing agent. ZP analysis indicated that the ZnO nanoparticle surface charge was altered by the addition of the dispersing agent and changes in pH. At tested concentrations and optimal dispersion, nanoZnO had no antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Listeria monocytogenes. However, it did have antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger. Based on the exhibited antimicrobial activity of optimized nanoZnO against some foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms, nanoZnO is a promising antimicrobial for food preservation with potential application for incorporation in polymers intended as food-contact surfaces.

  10. Control of Native Spoilage Yeast on Dealcoholized Red Wine by Preservatives Alone and in Binary Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rubio, Marta; Guerrouj, Kamal; Taboada-Rodríguez, Amaury; López-Gómez, Antonio; Marín-Iniesta, Fulgencio

    2017-09-01

    In order to preserve a commercial dealcoholized red wine (DRW), a study with 4 preservatives and binary mixtures of them were performed against 2 native spoilage yeasts: Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) for potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium metabisulfite and dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) were evaluated in DRW stored at 25 °C. MICs of potassium sorbate and sodium metabisulfite were 250 and 60 mg/kg, respectively for both target strains. However for sodium benzoate, differences between yeasts were found; R. mucilaginosa was inhibited at 125 mg/kg, while S. cerevisiae at 250 mg/kg. Regarding MFC, differences between strains were only found for sodium metabisulfite obtaining a MFC of 500 mg/kg for R. mucilaginosa and a MFC of 250 mg/kg for S. cerevisiae. Potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate showed the MFC at 1000 mg/kg and DMDC at 200 mg/kg. Regarding the effect of binary mixtures the Fractional Fungicidal Concentration Index (FFC i ) methodology showed that binary mixtures of 100 mg/kg DMDC/200 mg/kg potassium sorbate (FFC i = 0.7) and 50 mg/kg DMDC / 400 mg/kg sodium benzoate (FFC i = 0.65) have both synergistic effect against the 2 target strains. These binary mixtures can control the growth of spoilage yeasts in DRW without metabisulfite addition. The results of this work may be important in preserving the health of DRW consumers by eliminating the use of metabisulfite and reducing the risk of growth of R. mucilagosa, recently recognized as an emerging pathogen. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Kinetics of spoilage fermentation in radurized fish and optimization of irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenmez, I.; Ersen, M.S.; Bakioglu, A.T.

    1997-01-01

    Kinetic studies on radiation-inactivation and the postirradiation growth of spoilage microorganisms during chill storage and their product formation inradurized fish were carried out. Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) samples unirradiated, and those irradiated at 1,2 and 3 kGy doses of gamma radiation were stored at +2 o C for 21 days. Microbiological analyses of mesophilic, psycrophilic and total bacterial counts (TBC) and chemical analyses of trimethylamine (TMA) and total volatile bases (TVB) of the samples were done immediately after irradiation and periodically during storage. Radiation induced inactivations of bacteria were expressed with a first-order decreasing kinetics. A spoilage fermentation modeling was used to evaluate the quality control parameters of radurized fish in which the increase in TBC of survivor microorganisms during storage was described by a first-order growth with a lag phase and the production of TMA and TVB was described by a growth associated product formation. Examinations of the dose effects on the kinetic parameters resulted in that the relation between the product formation rate constants and the irradiation dose represented a parabolic function which was satisfactorily used to determine optimum irradiation dose. Optimum irradiation dose was found 1.719+- 0.471 kGy with TVB data resulting in an extended shelf-life of 15-16 days of fish. It is suggested that the kinetic evaluation method developed in this study may be substitute for or used with the analytical estimate in use comprising microbiological chemical and organoleptic controls for quality assessment and dose optimization of radurization processing of fish and other sea foods.(2 tab s. and 24 refs.)

  12. Development of a novel colorimetric sensor based on alginate beads for monitoring rainbow trout spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdinasab, Marjan; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hashem; Sepidname, Marziyeh; Negahdarifar, Manizheh; Li, Peiwu

    2018-05-01

    Alginate is a non-toxic, renewable, and linear copolymer obtained from the brown algae Laminaria digitata that can be easily shaped into beads. Its good gel forming properties have made it useful for entrapping food and pharmaceutical ingredients. In this study, alginate beads were used in a novel application as a colorimetric sensor in food intelligent packaging. Colorimetric sensor was developed through entrapping red cabbage extract as a pH indicator in alginate beads. The pH indicator beads were used in rainbow trout packaging for monitoring fillets spoilage. Color change of beads during fish storage was measured using the CIELab method. The alginate bead colorimetric sensor is validated by measuring total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) levels and microbial populations in fish samples. Moreover, peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated during storage. Results indicated that increasing the bacterial population during storage and production of proteolytic enzymes resulted in protein degradation, accumulation of volatile amine compounds, increase in the pH and finally color change of alginate beads. The values of TVB-N, pH, PV and TBARS increased with time of storage. The results of TVB-N and microbial growth were in accordance with color change of beads and CIELab data. Therefore, the proposed system enjoys a high sensitivity to pH variations and is capable of monitoring the spoilage of fish or other protein-rich products through its wide range of color changes. The alginate beads containing the red cabbage extract can, thus, be used as a low-cost colorimetric sensor for intelligent packaging applications.

  13. The fate of acetic acid during glucose co-metabolism by the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Zygosaccharomyces bailii is one of the most widely represented spoilage yeast species, being able to metabolise acetic acid in the presence of glucose. To clarify whether simultaneous utilisation of the two substrates affects growth efficiency, we examined growth in single- and mixed-substrate cultures with glucose and acetic acid. Our findings indicate that the biomass yield in the first phase of growth is the result of the weighted sum of the respective biomass yields on single-substrate medium, supporting the conclusion that biomass yield on each substrate is not affected by the presence of the other at pH 3.0 and 5.0, at least for the substrate concentrations examined. In vivo(13C-NMR spectroscopy studies showed that the gluconeogenic pathway is not operational and that [2-(13C]acetate is metabolised via the Krebs cycle leading to the production of glutamate labelled on C(2, C(3 and C(4. The incorporation of [U-(14C]acetate in the cellular constituents resulted mainly in the labelling of the protein and lipid pools 51.5% and 31.5%, respectively. Overall, our data establish that glucose is metabolised primarily through the glycolytic pathway, and acetic acid is used as an additional source of acetyl-CoA both for lipid synthesis and the Krebs cycle. This study provides useful clues for the design of new strategies aimed at overcoming yeast spoilage in acidic, sugar-containing food environments. Moreover, the elucidation of the molecular basis underlying the resistance phenotype of Z. bailii to acetic acid will have a potential impact on the improvement of the performance of S. cerevisiae industrial strains often exposed to acetic acid stress conditions, such as in wine and bioethanol production.

  14. Survival of Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms on Cardboard and Plastic Packaging Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Siroli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the interaction of corrugated and plastic materials with pathogenic and spoiling microorganisms frequently associated to fresh produce. The effect of the two packaging materials on the survival during the storage of microorganisms belonging to the species Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Aspergillus flavus was studied through traditional plate counting and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results obtained showed that cardboard materials, if correctly stored, reduced the potential of packaging to cross-contaminate food due to a faster viability loss by spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms compared to the plastic ones. In fact, the cell loads of the pathogenic species considered decreased over time independently on the inoculation level and packaging material used. However, the superficial viability losses were significantly faster in cardboard compared to plastic materials. The same behavior was observed for the spoilage microorganisms considered. The SEM microphotographs indicate that the reduction of superficial contamination on cardboard surfaces was due to the entrapping of the microbial cells within the fibers and the pores of this material. In addition, SEM data showed that the entrapped cells were subjected to more or less rapid lyses, depending on the species, due to the absence of water and nutrients, with the exception of molds. The latter spoilers were able to proliferate inside the cardboard fibers only when the absorption of water was not prevented during the storage. In conclusion, the findings of this work showed the reduction of cross-contamination potential of corrugated compared to plastic packaging materials used in fruit and vegetable sector. However, the findings outlined the importance of hygiene and low humidity during cardboard storage to prevent the mold growth on

  15. Toxigenic genes, spoilage potential, and antimicrobial resistance of Bacillus cereus group strains from ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seza; Eyi, Ayla; Küçüksarı, Rümeysa

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus spp. can be recovered from almost every environment. It is also found readily in foods, where it may cause food spoilage and/or food poisoning due to its toxigenic and pathogenic nature, and extracellular enzymes. In this study, 29 Bacillus cereus group strains from ice cream were examined for the presence of following virulence genes hblC, nheA, cytK and ces genes, and tested for a range of the extracellular enzymes, and antimicrobial susceptibility. The strains were found to produce extracellular enzymes: proteolytic and lipolytic activity, gelatin hydrolysis and lecithinase production (100%), DNase production (93.1%) and amylase activity (93.1%). Of 29 strains examined, 24 (82.8%) showed hemolytic activity on blood agar. Beta-lactamase enzyme was only produced by 20.7% of B. cereus group. Among 29 B. cereus group from ice cream, nheA was the most common virulence gene detected in 44.8% of the strains, followed by hblC gene with 17.2%. Four (13.8%) of the 29 strains were positive for both hblC gene and nheA gene. Contrarily, cytK and ces genes were not detected in any of the strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility of ice cream isolates was tested to 14 different antimicrobial agents using the disc diffusion method. We detected resistance to penicillin and ampicillin with the same rate of 89.7%. Thirty-one percent of the strains were multiresistant to three or more antibiotics. This study emphasizes that the presence of natural isolates of Bacillus spp. harboring one or more enterotoxin genes, producing extracellular enzymes which may cause spoilage and acquiring antibiotic resistance might hold crucial importance in the food safety and quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pulsed-light inactivation of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria on cheese surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, J; Hsu, L C; Miller, B M; Sullivan, G; Paradis, K; Moraru, C I

    2015-09-01

    Cheese products are susceptible to postprocessing cross-contamination by bacterial surface contamination during slicing, handling, or packaging, which can lead to food safety issues and significant losses due to spoilage. This study examined the effectiveness of pulsed-light (PL) treatment on the inactivation of the spoilage microorganism Pseudomonas fluorescens, the nonenterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (nonpathogenic surrogate of Escherichia coli O157:H7), and Listeria innocua (nonpathogenic surrogate of Listeria monocytogenes) on cheese surface. The effects of inoculum level and cheese surface topography and the presence of clear polyethylene packaging were evaluated in a full factorial experimental design. The challenge microorganisms were grown to early stationary phase and subsequently diluted to reach initial inoculum levels of either 5 or 7 log cfu/slice. White Cheddar and process cheeses were cut into 2.5×5 cm slices, which were spot-inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspension. Inoculated cheese samples were exposed to PL doses of 1.02 to 12.29 J/cm(2). Recovered survivors were enumerated by standard plate counting or the most probable number technique, as appropriate. The PL treatments were performed in triplicate and data were analyzed using a general linear model. Listeria innocua was the least sensitive to PL treatment, with a maximum inactivation level of 3.37±0.2 log, followed by P. fluorescens, with a maximum inactivation of 3.74±0.8 log. Escherichia coli was the most sensitive to PL, with a maximum reduction of 5.41±0.1 log. All PL inactivation curves were nonlinear, and inactivation reached a plateau after 3 pulses (3.07 J/cm(2)). The PL treatments through UV-transparent packaging and without packaging consistently resulted in similar inactivation levels. This study demonstrates that PL has strong potential for decontamination of the cheese surface. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc

  17. Heat-resistant fungi of importance to the food and beverage industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournas, V

    1994-01-01

    Spoilage of pasteurized and canned fruit and fruit products caused by heat-resistant molds have been reported repeatedly in recent years. Species most commonly implicated in fruit and fruit product disintegration are Byssochlamys fulva, Byssochlamys nivea, Neosartorya fischeri, Talaromyces flavus, and Eupenicillium brefeldianum. These organisms are saprophytic rather than parasitic and usually contaminate fruits on or near the ground. They can survive heat treatments used for fruit processing and can grow and spoil the products during storage at room temperature, which results in great economic losses. Mold heat resistance is attributed to the formation of sexual spores, ascospores. Ascospores have a wide range of heat resistance, depending on species, strain, age of organism, heating medium, pH, presence of sugars, fats, and acids in heating medium, growth conditions, etc. The mechanism(s) of thermoresistance are not clear; probably some very stable compound(s) critical to germination and outgrowth are present in the heat-resistant ascospores. Besides spoilage, the heat-resistant molds produce a number of toxic secondary metabolites, such as byssotoxin A; byssochlamic acid; the carcinogen, patulin, the tremorgenic substances, fumitremorgin A and C, and verruculogen; fischerin, which caused fatal peritonitis in mice; and eupenifeldin, a compound possessing cytotoxicity as well as in vivo antitumor activity. Growth of heat-resistant fungi can be controlled by lowering the water activity, adding sulfur dioxide, sorbate, or benzoate; washing of fruits in hypochlorite solution before heat treatment reduces the number of ascospores and makes the heat destruction more successful. More research is needed to elucidate the mechanism(s) of thermoresistance and develop new methods for the complete inactivation of resistant ascospores.

  18. BREAD-MAKING QUALITY OF SLOVAK AND SERBIAN WHEAT VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic prerequisite for the production of bakery products of a good quality is the knowledge of the quality parameters of raw materials introduced in the production process and the ability to use their potential. The bread making properties of 17 pure European wheat cultivars were analysed. Baking experiments were carried out according to the methodology of the research workplace; 1000 g of flour was processed with the addition of salt, sugar and yeast. Fermentation for 35 minutes at 30 ° C was followed by the baking with steaming (at 240 ° C and then 220 ° C. During an experimental baking test the selected parameters: loaf volume (cm3, specific loaf volume (cm3.100g-1 loaf, volume efficiency (cm3.100g-1 flour, cambering (loaf height/width ratio, bread yield (%, bread yield baking loss (% in bread were evaluated. Loaf volume has been considered as the most important criterion for the bread-making quality. In the analysed samples (11 varieties of Slovak origin and 6 varieties of Serbian origin, the value of this parameter ranged from 3575 cm3 to 5575 cm3 with higher values occurred in Slovak varieties (average 4 640.91 cm3 compared to the Serbian varieties (average 4 363.33 cm3. Based on the complex evaluation of wheat varieties of the Slovak and Serbian origin assessing the selected quality parameters of the baking experiment it can be concluded that in terms of baking quality the three Slovak varieties IS Ezopus, Bonavita and Jarissa were the best. Therefore, they are recommended for cultivation and their subsequent use in the baking industry, in particular for the production of bread According to a baking quality the evaluated varieties can be sorted from best to worst in the following order: IS Ezopus (SK > Bonavita (SK > Jarissa (SK > IS Questor > Etida (SRB > Venistar (SK > Renesansa (SRB > IS Conditor (SK > IS Corvinus (SK > Zvezdana (SRB > Simonida (SRB > Viglanka (SK > IS Agape (SK > NS 40S (SRB > Panonnija (SRB > IS Escoria (SK

  19. Chemical Composition, Toxicity and Antifungal Activities of Megaphrynium macrostachyum (K. Schum Leaf Extract against Foodborne Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwagbenga Oluwasola ADEOGUN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the preservative potential of Megaphrynium macrostachyum on fungi responsible for the deterioration of orange juice and corn Jell-O. The phytochemicals from plants’ leaves were extracted with four solvents: acetone, aqueous, ethanol and hexane. The solvents were differently and tested against fungi isolated from orange juice and corn Jell-O using disc diffusion method. Phytochemical screening of the extracts from the leaves was carried out, and the most active extract was tested via GC-MS for the essential oils and HPLC fingerprinting. The toxicity test of the extracts against brine shrimp was carried out after exposure for 24 hours. The toxicity test showed that the extracts were non-toxic on the Brine Shrimps at LC50 (379.21μg/ml and 107.21μg/ml for aqueous and ethanol extracts. The qualitative phytochemical test reported the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, and terpenoids in different extracts of the plant’ leaves. The quantitative phytochemical determination of the most active extract revealed alkaloids with the highest contents of 107.48mg/100g. The GC-MS analyses of the fresh leaves of the plants revealed the presence of isodecane with the highest percentage at 15.56%. The GC-MS analyses of the dried leaves revealed isodecane with the highest percentage at 10.43%. The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of various phytochemical constituents in the dried leaves. This study has been able to establish the potency of Megaphrynium macrostachyum leaves on fungi associated with the spoilage of Citrus sinensis (orange juice and Corn Jell-O (‘Eko’ which contribute to tremendous research towards the use and acknowledgment of natural antimicrobials for the preservation of food.

  20. Mitigation of the processing contaminant acrylamide in bread by reducing asparagine in the bread dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaiti, Tatiana; Granby, Kit

    2016-09-01

    Over the past few years there has been an increasing awareness regarding acrylamide (AAM) content of various foods. Although there are several relevant articles on AAM mitigation in industrially prepared products, the literature regarding homemade preparations is rather scarce. The objective of this study is to mitigate the AAM formation in baked buns made with 1:1 sifted wheat/wholegrain flour through the depletion of asparagine (ASN) in the bread dough. Using a full-factorial design, the effect of four factors (yeast amount, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and yeast types) was tested. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for AAM and its main precursor, ASN, determination. The resulting ASN depletion in the dough (68-89%) is significantly affected by fermentation time and yeast type, while AAM mitigation levels in the baked buns are significantly influenced by yeast amount, fermentation time and yeast type. The mean concentrations for each combination range between 5 and 15 µg kg(-)(1).

  1. Characteristics of remixed fermentation dough and its influence on the quality of steamed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijian; Deng, Cui; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Changhong; Bian, Ke

    2015-07-15

    In this study, the effects of the amount of remixed flour on the properties of remixed fermentation dough and the quality of Chinese steamed breads were investigated. The hardness, chewiness and whiteness of steamed bread increased when the amount of remixed flour was higher than 10 g/100 g, whereas the specific volume of steamed bread significantly decreased. SEM analysis demonstrated that the gas cells of the steamed bread remained as a discrete spherical or oval-like entity only at 10 g/100 g level of remixed flour. Time-domain NMR showed that water migrated from T22 population to T21 population with increasing the amount of remixed flour. The XRD results indicated that starch in the steamed bread with remixed flour was gelatinized. A significant decrease of both the rate and extent of starch hydrolysis of the steamed bread was observed when flour was remixed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Starch and protein analysis of wheat bread enriched with phenolics-rich sprouted wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2017-08-01

    Wheat flour in the bread formula was replaced with sprouted wheat flour (SF) characterized by enhanced nutraceutical properties, at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% levels. The addition of SF slightly increased the total protein content; however, it decreased their digestibility. Some qualitative and quantitative changes in the electrophoretic pattern of proteins were also observed; especially, in the bands corresponding with 27kDa and 15-17kDa proteins. These results were also confirmed by SE-HPLC technique, where a significant increase in the content of proteins and peptides (molecular masses breads with 20% of SF. Bread enriched with sprouted wheat flour had more resistant starch, but less total starch, compared to control bread. The highest in vitro starch digestibility was determined for the control bread. The studied bread with lowered nutritional value but increased nutritional quality can be used for special groups of consumers (obese, diabetic). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Combined effects of added beta glucan and black tea in breads on starch functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Abbe Maleyki M; Edwards, Christine A; Combet, Emilie; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Garcia, Ada L

    2015-03-01

    Bread and tea are usually consumed separately, but there may be different food-matrix interactions and changes in starch characteristics when they are combined in bread. This study developed breads (white bread, WF; black tea, BT; beta glucan, βG; beta glucan plus black tea, βGBT) and determined their starch functionalities. Breads were developed using a standard baking recipe and determined their starch characteristics. There was no significant difference in starch hydrolysis between BT and WF but βGBT reduced early (10 min) starch hydrolysis compared with βG. The starch granules in βG and βGBT were elliptical and closely packed together. These results suggest that the addition of beta glucan and black tea to bread preserved the elliptical starch granules and lowered short-term starch hydrolysis.

  4. Nutritional, amylolytic enzymes inhibition and antioxidant properties of bread incorporated with Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge C; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda B; Matus-Basto, Angel J; Segura-Campos, Maira R

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bread with sucrose content replaced with different levels of stevia extract was compared with traditional wheat bread. The ability to reduce glucose intake was highlighted by performing enzymatic assays using α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was measured by determining the scavenging effect on α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical. In comparison with the control, the bread with stevia extract was softer and had lower microbial growth during the shelf-life study. The sensory test showed that the substitution of 50% stevia extract was more acceptable when comparing with all the quality characteristics. Regarding the nutritional contribution, the content of dietary fiber and digestible carbohydrates in the bread with stevia extract was higher and lower respectively, so caloric intake was significantly reduced. The results showed that the biological properties of Stevia rebaudiana extract were retained after the bread making process and that the proposed bread could be suitable as functional food in human nutrition.

  5. Evolution of entomopathogenicity in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humber, Richard A

    2008-07-01

    The recent completions of publications presenting the results of a comprehensive study on the fungal phylogeny and a new classification reflecting that phylogeny form a new basis to examine questions about the origins and evolutionary implications of such major habits among fungi as the use of living arthropods or other invertebrates as the main source of nutrients. Because entomopathogenicity appears to have arisen or, indeed, have lost multiple times in many independent lines of fungal evolution, some of the factors that might either define or enable entomopathogenicity are examined. The constant proximity of populations of potential new hosts seem to have been a factor encouraging the acquisition or loss of entomopathogenicity by a very diverse range of fungi, particularly when involving gregarious and immobile host populations of scales, aphids, and cicadas (all in Hemiptera). An underlying theme within the vast complex of pathogenic and parasitic ascomycetes in the Clavicipitaceae (Hypocreales) affecting plants and insects seems to be for interkingdom host-jumping by these fungi from plants to arthropods and then back to the plant or on to fungal hosts. Some genera of Entomophthorales suggest that the associations between fungal pathogens and their insect hosts appear to be shifting away from pathogenicity and towards nonlethal parasitism.

  6. Effector proteins of rust fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Benjamin; Joly, David L; Duplessis, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi include many species that are devastating crop pathogens. To develop resistant plants, a better understanding of rust virulence factors, or effector proteins, is needed. Thus far, only six rust effector proteins have been described: AvrP123, AvrP4, AvrL567, AvrM, RTP1, and PGTAUSPE-10-1. Although some are well established model proteins used to investigate mechanisms of immune receptor activation (avirulence activities) or entry into plant cells, how they work inside host tissues to promote fungal growth remains unknown. The genome sequences of four rust fungi (two Melampsoraceae and two Pucciniaceae) have been analyzed so far. Genome-wide analyses of these species, as well as transcriptomics performed on a broader range of rust fungi, revealed hundreds of small secreted proteins considered as rust candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs). The rust community now needs high-throughput approaches (effectoromics) to accelerate effector discovery/characterization and to better understand how they function in planta. However, this task is challenging due to the non-amenability of rust pathosystems (obligate biotrophs infecting crop plants) to traditional molecular genetic approaches mainly due to difficulties in culturing these species in vitro. The use of heterologous approaches should be promoted in the future.

  7. Chewing bread: impact on alpha-amylase secretion and oral digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Marianne; Septier, Chantal; Brignot, Hélène; Salles, Christian; Panouillé, Maud; Feron, Gilles; Tournier, Carole

    2017-02-22

    During chewing, saliva helps in preparing the food bolus by agglomerating the formed particles, and it initiates enzymatic food breakdown. However, limited information is actually available on the adaptation of saliva composition during the oral processing of complex foods, especially for foods that are sensitive to salivary enzymes. We addressed this question in the context of starch-based products and salivary alpha-amylase. The objectives were two-fold: (1) to determine if salivary alpha-amylase secretion can be modulated by the bread type and (2) to evaluate the contribution of the oral phase in bread enzymatic breakdown. Mouthfuls of three different wheat breads (industrial, artisan and whole-meal breads) were chewed by twelve subjects. Saliva samples were collected at rest and at different times corresponding to 33, 66 and 100% of the individual's chewing sequence. Alpha-amylase activity and total protein content were determined for all saliva samples that were collected. Additionally, the salivary maltose concentration was measured as a marker of bread enzymatic digestion. Boluses were collected at the swallowing time to evaluate the saliva uptake. Chewing industrial bread induced higher saliva uptake than the other breads despite a similar chewing duration. The evolution of salivary amylase activity tended to depend on the type of bread and was highly influenced by a large degree of inter- and intra-subject variability. The protein and maltose concentration steadily increased during chewing as a result of bread breakdown. The salivary protein concentration was mainly affected by the release of the water-soluble proteins of the bread. The salivary maltose concentration was found to be significantly lower for the whole-meal bread. When considering the weight of the mouthful, enzymatic breakdown was found to be most efficient for the breads ranking from industrial > artisan > whole-meal.

  8. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) Pulp as a Functional Food Product

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Różyło; Dariusz Dziki; Anna Jakubczyk; Monika Karaś; Urszula Gawlik-Dziki; Krzysztof Różyło

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20 % (converted to dry matter) caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory chara...

  9. Reducing salt in bread: a quasi-experimental feasibility study in a bakery in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Garcia, Lorena; Sosa-Zevallos, Vanessa; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    To explore salt content in bread and to evaluate the feasibility of reducing salt contained in 'pan francés' bread. The study had two phases. Phase 1, an exploratory phase, involved the estimation of salt contained in bread as well as a triangle taste test to establish the amount of salt to be reduced in 'pan francés' bread without detection by consumers. In Phase 2, a quasi-experimental, pre-post intervention study assessed the effects of the introduction of low-salt bread on bakery sales. A municipal bakery in Miraflores, Lima, Peru. Sixty-five clients of the bakery in Phase 1 of the study; sales to usual costumers in Phase 2. On average, there was 1·25 g of salt per 100 g of bread. Sixty-five consumers were enrolled in the triangle taste test: fifty-four (83·1 %) females, mean age 58·9 (sd 13·7) years. Based on taste, bread samples prepared with salt reductions of 10 % (P=0·82) and 20 % (P=0·37) were not discernible from regular bread. The introduction of bread with 20 % of salt reduction, which contained 1 g of salt per 100 g of bread, did not change sales of 'pan francés' (P=0·70) or other types of bread (P=0·36). Results were consistent when using different statistical techniques. The introduction of bread with a 20 % reduction in salt is feasible without affecting taste or bakery sales. Results suggest that these interventions are easily implementable, with the potential to contribute to larger sodium reduction strategies impacting the population's cardiovascular health.

  10. Changes in quality parameters of bread supplemented with OSA starch during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Hadnađev-Dapčević, Tamara R.; Dokić, Ljubica P.; Hadnađev, Miroslav S.; Pojić, Milica M.; Rakita, Slađana M.; Torbica, Aleksandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Different methods are available for the monitoring of visual and structural changes during bread staling such as differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, enzymatic tests, sensory evaluations and/or crumb texture analysis. However, since they are often rather expensive and time consuming, the aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to monitor the progress of bread stalling by following the changes in bread crumb colour characteristics. In order to achieve this, the re...

  11. Assessment of salt concentration in bread commonly consumed in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jawaldeh, Ayoub; Al-Khamaiseh, Manal

    2018-04-05

    Hypertension is the most important cardiovascular risk factor in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region. Excessive salt and sodium intake is directly related to hypertension, and its reduction is a priority of WHO. Bread is the leading staple food in the Region; therefore, reducing the amount of salt added to bread could be an effective measure for reducing salt intake. The study sought to determine the levels of sodium and salt in locally produced staple bread from 8 countries in the Region. Bread samples were collected randomly from bakeries located in the capital cities of the selected countries. The samples were analysed for sodium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The mean salt content of breads varied from 4.28 g/kg in Jordan to 12.41 g/kg in Tunisia. The mean salt and sodium content in bread for all countries was 7.63 (SD 3.12) and 3.0 (SD 1.23) g/kg, respectively. The contribution of bread to daily salt intake varied considerably between countries, ranging from 1.3 g (12.5%) in Jordan to 3.7 g (33.5%) in Tunisia. Interventions to reduce population salt intake should target reduction of salt in bread in all countries. The amount of salt added to bread should be standardized and relevant legislation developed to guide bakers. Setting an upper limit for salt content in flat bread (pita or Arabic bread) at 0.5% is strongly recommended. However, salt levels at ≤ 1% would be appropriate for other kind of breads. Copyright © World Health Organization (WHO) 2018. Some rights reserved. This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/igo).

  12. Consumers’Willingness to Pay for Safety Attributes of Bread in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Anyam, Osemeke E.; Fashogbon, Ayodele E.; Oni, Omobowale A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined consumer’s willingness to pay for food safety attributes in bread in Lagos metropolis. It empirically analyzed the factors driving willingness to pay for improved bread and the effect of attributes on willingness to pay and mean willingness to pay for improved bread. The data for the study using a well-structured questionnaire containing Choice Experiment (CE) questions for eliciting willingness to pay was collected from 150 respondents using a two-stage random sampling te...

  13. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. Pulp as a Functional Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Różyło

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20 % (converted to dry matter caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory characteristics of the bread showed that a partial replacement of wheat fl our with up to 10 % of pumpkin pulp gave satisfactory results. The taste, aroma and overall acceptability of control bread and bread containing 5 or 10 % of pulp had the highest degree of liking. The addition of higher levels of pumpkin pulp caused an unpleasant aroma and taste. Pumpkin pulp is a good material to complement the bread with potentially bioaccessible phenolics (including flavonoids and, especially, with peptides. The highest antioxidant activity was observed, in most cases, of the samples with added 10 and 15 % of pumpkin pulp. The addition of the pulp significantly enriched the bread with potentially bioaccessible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors. The highest activity was determined in the bread with 15 and 20 % pumpkin pulp. ACE inhibitors from the tested bread were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Pumpkin pulp seems to be a valuable source of active compounds to complement the wheat bread. Adding the pulp directly to the wheat flour gives satisfactory baking results and reduces the cost of production. Additionally, pumpkin pulp is sometimes treated as waste material after the acquisition of seeds, thus using it as bread supplement also has environmental and economic benefi ts.

  14. Effect of Rice bran on the Quality of Rice Flour Breads (Gluten-free)

    OpenAIRE

    仲上, 晴世; 矢部, えん; Haruyo, Nakagami; En, Yabe

    2016-01-01

    Over recent years progress has been made in the development of substitute foods for allergy patients. One such is rice flour bread. However, typically rice flour bread uses polysaccharide thickener in substitution for the gluten in wheat. Most polysaccharide thickeners are of dietary fiber origin, and the nutritive value is poor. Therefore, in this study, I made rice flour bread adding rice bran in place of polysaccharide thickener. Various nutrients are included in rice bran, including vitam...

  15. Rising dough and baking bread at the Australian synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, S. C.; McCann, T.; Day, L.; Favaro, J.; Tuhumury, H.; Thompson, D.; Maksimenko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat protein quality and the amount of common salt added in dough formulation can have a significant effect on the microstructure and loaf volume of bread. High-speed synchrotron micro-CT provides an ideal tool for observing the three dimensional structure of bread dough in situ during proving (rising) and baking. In this work, the synchrotron micro-CT technique was used to observe the structure and time evolution of doughs made from high and low protein flour and three different salt additives. These experiments showed that, as expected, high protein flour produces a higher volume loaf compared to low protein flour regardless of salt additives. Furthermore the results show that KCl in particular has a very negative effect on dough properties resulting in much reduced porosity. The hundreds of datasets produced and analysed during this experiment also provided a valuable test case for handling large quantities of data using tools on the Australian Synchrotron's MASSIVE cluster.

  16. Development of newly enriched bread with quinoa flour and whey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, D. M.; Naranjo, M.; Pérez, L. V.; Valencia, A. F.; Acurio, L. P.; Gallegos, L. M.; Alvarez, F. C.; Amancha, P. I.; Valencia, M. P.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Arancibia, M. Y.

    2017-07-01

    Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru are countries with the highest amount of quinoa production in the world due to the proximity to the Andes. Further, Ecuador has a high production of dairy products, particularly fresh cheese of which production gives a high volume of whey, without further use, with the consequent loss of their nutritional value. The present study was performed to develop a new fortified bread through the incorporation of quinoa flour and whey at three different concentrations. The use of quinoa and whey improved the texture, shelf life and sensory characteristics of bread, compared to those prepared with wheat flour. This study shows the potential of quinoa flour and whey as ingredients in the development of baked products.

  17. Genome interplay in the grain transcriptome of hexaploid bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Matthias; Kugler, Karl G; Sandve, Simen R; Zhan, Bujie; Rudi, Heidi; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Mayer, Klaus F X; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    2014-07-18

    Allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) provides approximately 20% of calories consumed by humans. Lack of genome sequence for the three homeologous and highly similar bread wheat genomes (A, B, and D) has impeded expression analysis of the grain transcriptome. We used previously unknown genome information to analyze the cell type-specific expression of homeologous genes in the developing wheat grain and identified distinct co-expression clusters reflecting the spatiotemporal progression during endosperm development. We observed no global but cell type- and stage-dependent genome dominance, organization of the wheat genome into transcriptionally active chromosomal regions, and asymmetric expression in gene families related to baking quality. Our findings give insight into the transcriptional dynamics and genome interplay among individual grain cell types in a polyploid cereal genome. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Organic Bread Wheat Production and Market in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, C.; Abecassis, J.; Carcea, M.

    2012-01-01

    yield under organic production. The choice of cultivar, green manure, fertilization and intercropping legumes – grain or forage – are efficient ways to obtain high grain quality and quantity. The economic viability of wheat production in Europe is also affected by subsidies from European Union agri......This chapter is a first attempt to analyse bottlenecks and challenges of European organic bread wheat sector involving technical, political and market issues. From 2000, the organic grain market has largely increased in Western Europe. To balance higher consumer demand there is a need to increase...... organic production by a new transition and technical improvement. Bread wheat is grown in a variety of crop rotations and farming systems where four basic organic crop production systems have been defined. Weeds and nitrogen deficiency are considered to be the most serious threat inducing lowest grain...

  19. Vulnerability of Bread-Baskets to Weather Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.; West, P. C.; Foley, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Many analyses of food security consider broad trends in food supply (crop production, crop use) and demand (changing diets, population growth.) However, if past shocks to the food system due to weather events (i.e. droughts) were to repeat themselves today, the resulting famines could be far more serious due to increased concentration of grain production in vulnerable bread-baskets, and decreased resilience of global and regional food systems (i.e. lower stocks, dependence on fewer crops). The present research project takes advantage of high-resolution historical weather datasets to assess probabilities of historically observed droughts repeating themselves in one or more of today's bread-basket regions. Using recently developed relationships between weather and crop yield, we consider the likelihood of region-wide crop failures under current conditions, and also under various climate scenarios.

  20. Soft plastic bread packaging: lead content and reuse by families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, C; Demak, M; Marcus, S; Goldstein, B D

    1991-06-01

    The presence of lead in labels painted on soft plastic bread packaging was evaluated. Lead was detected on the outside of 17 of 18 soft plastic bread bags that were analyzed, with an average of 26 +/- 6 mg per bag with lead. Of 106 families questioned, 16 percent of respondents reported turning the bags inside out before reusing for food storage, thus putting food in contact with the lead paint. We estimate that a weak acid, such as vinegar, could readily leach 100 micrograms of lead from a painted plastic bag within 10 minutes. Further, lead and other metals painted on food packaging of any type becomes part of the municipal waste stream subject to incineration and to land-filling. The use of lead in packaging presents an unnecessary risk to public health.