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Sample records for brazilian urban area

  1. Characterization of human thermal comfort in urban areas of brazilian semiarid

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    Pedro Vieira de Azevedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Experimental studies were conducted aiming to characterize the thermal conditions in urban areas of the Brazilian semiarid for identifying the level of human thermal comfort in urban areas of the municipalities of Mossoró-RN, Serra Talhada-PE, Petrolina-PE and Juazeiro-BA. The results showed that the constituent elements of urban areas contribute to human thermal discomfort index (DIT. Both the wet and dry seasons showed up an uncomfortable condition in Mossoró on May 15th and on 23rd, 2008 (rural area and on May 25rd, 2008 (urban area. By applying Thom's equation for obtaining the DIT, it was observed that the urban areas reported thermal comfort conditions always inferior to those observed in the rural areas. The results indicate conditions of partial comfort for the all areas surveyed. However, the incidence of human thermal discomfort related to the minimum, average and maximum air temperatures are, probably associated to the formation of urban heat islands. In addition, the afforestation is an effective mechanism of mitigating the adverse effects of these structures with better quality of life to the population. Therefore, it can be stated that the Brazilian semiarid region has specific urban climate, which is influenced by the design characteristics of the urban structure and buildings.

  2. Lymphatic Filariasis in Brazilian Urban Area (Maceió, Alagoas

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    Fontes Gilberto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey conducted among evening students was used to determine the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in Maceió, capital of the State of Alagoas, northeast Brazil. A single thick-blood smear was used, being collected between 10 p.m. and 12 a.m. From a total of 29,551 students enrolled at evening elementary schools in the 33 city sectors, 16,569 (56.4% were random selected for inclusion in the study. From those, 10,857 (65.5% were interviewed and examined and 73 (0.7% were found to have microfilaraemia. Autochthonous W. bancrofti carriers live in 10 of the 33 city sectors, suggesting a focal distribution. Moreover, 84% of infections were diagnosed among 29% of all students examined, inhabiting three contiguous sectors at the city central area, presenting infection rates up to 5.3%. Students living in city sectors with prevalence of microfilariae carriers greater than 1% were found to have a higher risk for infection when compared to students from the rest of the town [Relative Odds (RO 12.8, 95% CI 6.7 - 25.1]. Eleven positive individuals from non endemic areas were living in Maceió for more than 10 years; time of residence in the area was a major risk factor for infection among students not born in the region (p<0.01. Regarding sex, male students presented a higher proportion of positive (RO 1.7, 95% CI 1.1 - 2.9.

  3. Bird-plant interaction networks: a study on frugivory in Brazilian urban areas

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    Diego Silva Freitas Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, few studies compare the consumption of native and exotic fruits, especially in an urban environment. The Network Theory may be useful in such studies, because it allows evaluating many bird and plant species involved in interactions. The goals of this study were: evaluate a bird frugivory interaction network in an urban environment; checking the role played by native and exotic plants in the network and comparing the consumer assemblies of these two plant groups. A literature review on bird frugivory in Brazilian urban areas was conducted, as well as an analysis to create an interaction network on a regional scale. The analysis included 15 papers with 70 bird species eating fruits from 15 plant species (6 exotic and 9 native. The exotic and native fruit consumers did not form different groups and the interaction network was significantly nested (NODF = 0.30; p < 0.01 and not modular (M = 0.36; p = 0.16. Two exotic plant species are in the generalist core of the frugivory network (Ficus microcarpa and Michelia champaca. The results point out that a relatively diversified bird group eats fruits in Brazilian urban areas in an opportunistic way, with no preference for native or exotic plants.

  4. VIROLOGICAL AND SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF RABIES IN BATS FROM AN URBAN AREA IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rubens Souza de; Costa, Lanna Jamile Corrêa da; Andrade, Fernanda Atanaena Gonçalves de; Uieda, Wilson; Martorelli, Luzia Fátima Alves; Kataoka, Ana Paula de Arruda Geraldes; Rosa, Elizabeth Salbé Travassos da; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa; Pereira, Armando de Souza; Carmo, Antônio Ismael Barros do; Fernandes, Marcus Emanuel Barroncas

    2015-12-01

    The outbreaks of rabies in humans transmitted by Desmodus rotundus in 2004 and 2005, in the northeast of the Brazilian State of Para, eastern Amazon basin, made this a priority area for studies on this zoonosis. Given this, the present study provides data on this phenomenon in an urban context, in order to assess the possible circulation of the classic rabies virus (RABV) among bat species in Capanema, a town in the Amazon basin. Bats were collected, in 2011, with mist nets during the wet and dry seasons. Samples of brain tissue and blood were collected for virological and serological survey, respectively. None of the 153 brain tissue samples analyzed tested positive for RABV infection, but 50.34% (95% CI: 45.67-55.01%) of the serum samples analyzed were seropositive. Artibeus planirostris was the most common species, with a high percentage of seropositive individuals (52.46%, 95% CI: 52.31 52.60%). Statistically, equal proportions of seropositive results were obtained in the rainy and dry seasons (c2 = 0.057, d.f. = 1, p = 0.88). Significantly higher proportions of males (55.96%, 95% CI: 48.96-62.96%) and adults (52.37%, 95% CI: 47.35-57.39%) were seropositive. While none of the brain tissue samples tested positive for infection, the high proportion of seropositive specimens indicates that RABV may be widespread in this urban area.

  5. VIROLOGICAL AND SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF RABIES IN BATS FROM AN URBAN AREA IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rubens Souza de; Costa, Lanna Jamile Corrêa da; Andrade, Fernanda Atanaena Gonçalves de; Uieda, Wilson; Martorelli, Luzia Fátima Alves; Kataoka, Ana Paula de Arruda Geraldes; Rosa, Elizabeth Salbé Travassos da; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa; Pereira, Armando de Souza; Carmo, Antônio Ismael Barros do; Fernandes, Marcus Emanuel Barroncas

    2015-12-01

    The outbreaks of rabies in humans transmitted by Desmodus rotundus in 2004 and 2005, in the northeast of the Brazilian State of Para, eastern Amazon basin, made this a priority area for studies on this zoonosis. Given this, the present study provides data on this phenomenon in an urban context, in order to assess the possible circulation of the classic rabies virus (RABV) among bat species in Capanema, a town in the Amazon basin. Bats were collected, in 2011, with mist nets during the wet and dry seasons. Samples of brain tissue and blood were collected for virological and serological survey, respectively. None of the 153 brain tissue samples analyzed tested positive for RABV infection, but 50.34% (95% CI: 45.67-55.01%) of the serum samples analyzed were seropositive. Artibeus planirostris was the most common species, with a high percentage of seropositive individuals (52.46%, 95% CI: 52.31 52.60%). Statistically, equal proportions of seropositive results were obtained in the rainy and dry seasons (c2 = 0.057, d.f. = 1, p = 0.88). Significantly higher proportions of males (55.96%, 95% CI: 48.96-62.96%) and adults (52.37%, 95% CI: 47.35-57.39%) were seropositive. While none of the brain tissue samples tested positive for infection, the high proportion of seropositive specimens indicates that RABV may be widespread in this urban area. PMID:27049703

  6. VIROLOGICAL AND SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF RABIES IN BATS FROM AN URBAN AREA IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Souza de OLIVEIRA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreaks of rabies in humans transmitted by Desmodus rotundus in 2004 and 2005, in the northeast of the Brazilian State of Para, eastern Amazon basin, made this a priority area for studies on this zoonosis. Given this, the present study provides data on this phenomenon in an urban context, in order to assess the possible circulation of the classic rabies virus (RABV among bat species in Capanema, a town in the Amazon basin. Bats were collected, in 2011, with mist nets during the wet and dry seasons. Samples of brain tissue and blood were collected for virological and serological survey, respectively. None of the 153 brain tissue samples analyzed tested positive for RABV infection, but 50.34% (95% CI: 45.67-55.01% of the serum samples analyzed were seropositive. Artibeus planirostris was the most common species, with a high percentage of seropositive individuals (52.46%, 95% CI: 52.31 52.60%. Statistically, equal proportions of seropositive results were obtained in the rainy and dry seasons (c2 = 0.057, d.f. = 1, p = 0.88. Significantly higher proportions of males (55.96%, 95% CI: 48.96-62.96% and adults (52.37%, 95% CI: 47.35-57.39% were seropositive. While none of the brain tissue samples tested positive for infection, the high proportion of seropositive specimens indicates that RABV may be widespread in this urban area.

  7. Quality of water sources used as drinking water in a Brazilian peri-urban area

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    Maria Tereza Pepe Razzolini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to assess bacteriological quality of drinking water in a peri-urban area located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 89 water samples were collected from community plastic tanks and 177 water samples from wells were collected bimonthly, from September 2007 to November 2008, for evaluating bacteriological parameters including: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and heterotrophic plate count (HPC. Clostridium perfringens was investigated in a subsample (40 samples from community plastic tank and 40 from wells. E. coli was present in 5 (5.6% samples from community plastic tanks (2.0 - 5.1x10(4 MPN/100mL and in 70 (39.5% well samples (2.0 - 8.6x10(4 MPN/100mL. Thus, these samples were not in accordance with the Brazilian Regulation. Enterococcus was detected in 20 (22.5% samples of the community plastic tanks (1 to 79 NC/100mL and in 142 (80.2% well samples (1 to >200 NC/100mL. C. perfringens was detected in 5 (12.5% community plastic tanks samples and in 35 (87.5% wells samples (2.2 to >16 MPN/100mL. HPC were above 500 CFU/mL in 5 (5.6% waters from community plastic tanks. In wells samples, the HPC ranged from <1 to 1.6x10(4 CFU/mL. The residual chlorine did not attend the standard established in the drinking water legislation (0.2 mg/L, except in 20 (22.5% samples. These results confirm the vulnerability of the water supply systems in this peri-urban area what is clearly a public health concern.

  8. [Anopheles cruzii larvae found in bromelias in an urban area on the Brazilian coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Gisela R A M; Forattini, Oswaldo Paulo

    2009-04-01

    The occurrence of Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii larvae is reported for the first time in bromelias on the ground located in an urban area within the municipality of Ilha Bela, on the northern coast of the State of São Paulo. From March 1998 to July 1999 312 immature forms of An. cruzii were captured, being that 8.6% of them were in bromelias in the urban environment, 40.1% in periurban bromelias and 51.3% in the forest. The average number of bromelias containing An. cruzii was 4.0% of the total investigated. The positive rate in the periurban and forested environments presented similar values. The presence of An. cruzii is probably due to their having been present previously in the forest, together with the frequent presence of these breeding places, food sources and appropriate shelter in the urban area. This set of factors makes it necessary to warn against the possibility of transferring infections from one environment to the other.

  9. Sprawl in European urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastacos, Poulicos; Lagarias, Apostolos

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the 2006 edition of the Urban Atlas database is used to tabulate areas of low development density, usually referred to as "sprawl", for many European cities. The Urban Atlas database contains information on the land use distribution in the 305 largest European cities. Twenty different land use types are recognized, with six of them representing urban fabric. Urban fabric classes are residential areas differentiated by the density of development, which is measured by the sealing degree parameter that ranges from 0% to 100% (non-developed, fully developed). Analysis is performed on the distribution of the middle to low density areas defined as those with sealing degree less than 50%. Seven different country groups in which urban areas have similar sprawl characteristics are identified and some key characteristics of sprawl are discussed. Population of an urban area is another parameter considered in the analysis. Two spatial metrics, average patch size and mean distance to the nearest neighboring patch of the same class, are used to describe proximity/separation characteristics of sprawl in the urban areas of the seven groups.

  10. Fractal cartography of urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnação, Sara; Gaudiano, Marcos; Santos, Francisco C; Tenedório, José A; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2012-01-01

    In a world in which the pace of cities is increasing, prompt access to relevant information is crucial to the understanding and regulation of land use and its evolution in time. In spite of this, characterization and regulation of urban areas remains a complex process, requiring expert human intervention, analysis and judgment. Here we carry out a spatio-temporal fractal analysis of a metropolitan area, based on which we develop a model which generates a cartographic representation and classification of built-up areas, identifying (and even predicting) those areas requiring the most proximate planning and regulation. Furthermore, we show how different types of urban areas identified by the model co-evolve with the city, requiring policy regulation to be flexible and adaptive, acting just in time. The algorithmic implementation of the model is applicable to any built-up area and simple enough to pave the way for the automatic classification of urban areas worldwide.

  11. Hábitos de higiene bucal de adultos porto-alegrenses Oral hygiene habits among Brazilian adults in an urban area of Southern Brazil

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    Claídes Abegg

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar alguns hábitos de higiene bucal (escovação dentária, uso do palito e uso do fio dental em um grupo de adultos, em relação a fatores sociodemográficos, e investigar o nível de placa bacteriana e sangramento gengival. METODOLOGIA: A amostra foi constituída por 234 mulheres e 237 homens de duas categorias socioeconômicas, com idade entre 24 e 44 anos. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas estruturadas e exames clínicos. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de escovação encontrada foi alta: (mediana e moda de três vezes ao dia e apresentou associação com sexo e categoria socioeconômica. A maioria dos entrevistados (67,5% declarou usar fio dental, estando seu uso associado com sexo e categoria socioeconômica. Usar palito foi descrito como um hábito comum para a maioria das pessoas entrevistadas:(54,6% o usam. O uso do palito apresentou associação com sexo, idade e categoria socioeconômica . O nível de placa bacteriana foi moderado para a maioria das pessoas (62,6%, e estava associado com a categoria socioeconômica. Um quarto dos participantes do estudo não apresentou sangramento gengival, e este estava associado com a idade e a categoria socioeconômica. CONCLUSÃO: Os hábitos de higiene bucal foram considerados bons para a maioria dos indivíduos que participaram do estudo, havendo necessidade de melhoria para os homens e pessoas de categoria socioeconômica inferior.AIMS: This study sought to analyse the oral hygiene habits (toothbrushing frequency, use of toothpick and dental floss, of a group of Brazilian adults, in relation to socio-demographic variables. The level of dental plaque and number of teeth with gums bleeding after probing were also investigated. METHODOLOGY: The sample was composed of 234 women and 237 men, from two socioeconomic status. The age range was from 24 to 44 years. Data was collected through structured interviews and clinical examinations. RESULTS: Daily toothbrushing was

  12. Reclamation of urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature study was conducted in order to compare the effectiveness and cost of different reclamation procedures that may be employed after an accident on a nuclear facility takes place in which radioactive material is released to the atmosphere. A substantial amount of work has been done on reclaming soil and snow-covered surfaces. Using scrapers or other soil-moving equipment decontamination factors are 10-100. (The decontamination factor is the ratio of the contamination before to that after the decontamination procedure). However, information on decontamination of paved areas by simple methods such as firehosing and vacuum sweeping are poorly documented. Therefore, only a very uncertain figure in the range 2-10 can be given for the decontamination factor here. It is recommended that a major effort be made in the future to investigate the efficiency of these simple methods, because of their relatively low cost. Also, more expensive methods for reducing the dose such as vacuuming, road planing and deep plowing are treated because of their feasibility under certain circumstances. Using these methods dose reduction factors in the 2-100 range can be obtained. Very expensive techniques, such as sandblasting, water cannon, flame spalling, etc. are justifiable usable only in special situations and are therefore considered very briefly here. The methods vary widely in cost. A simple method like vacuum sweeping costs $0.004 per square meter of surface; whereas one like road planing can reach $4 per square meter. A more sophisticated technique like flame spalling costs as much as $100 per square meter. (author)

  13. Suburban areas and urban life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melgaard, Bente

    - a principle which at that time was the planners' best answer to the city's challenges: disease, pollution and overpopulation. Thus the suburbs were not planned to have a vibrant city life with traditional urban qualities. The suburb had a strong dependency to the city centre in their origin, where...... and counteracting the segregation of the suburbs into sharply socially-separated residential areas are major challenges. Therefore, in these years the post-war era’s suburban areas are being revitalized and the suburb urban life and urban qualities are concepts, which are often brought up in this context....... In this paper I will explore the concepts “suburb” and “urban life”. More than half of the Danish population live in suburban areas, and the majority of suburbs were built in a short and hectic period in the years from 1960 to 1975 and in conformity with the functionalist ideals that gave rise to a number...

  14. Urbanization effects on natural radiation in anomalous areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urbanization effects and their possible causes on the environmental gamma radiation levels, in an anomalous area, were studied. The field work was accomplished in Guarapari, located in the seacoast of the Brazilian state of Espirito Santo, which is rich in monazite sands, with thorium and uranium contents. The results show clearly that there was a reduction in the levels of external exposition in the streets and squares of Guarapari. It was ascertained that the reduction was due to the materials used in the urbanization. (L.C.J.A.)

  15. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes. PMID:23597586

  16. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes.

  17. AIR POLLUTION OF URBAN AREAS

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    MAKAROVA V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  18. The Employment Advantages of Skilled Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Escobar, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores whether the agglomeration of human capital leads to social employment advantages in urban labor markets of a developing country: Colombia. I estimate the social effects of human capital agglomeration by comparing employment opportunities of individuals located in urban areas in which the level of education differs. Results show that employment opportunities are higher on average in skilled urban areas. Three explanations have been offered: human capital externalities, prod...

  19. Creating small area measures of urban deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Richard J; Longley, Paul A.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, the scale and pace of urban change have been associated with fine-scale fragmentation of the lifestyles of urban populations. One manifestation of this is that households of diverse means and circumstances may be found living in proximity to one another, particularly in urban areas. In this paper we argue that in these changed circumstances conventional deprivation indicators fail adequately to detect within and between small area variations in socioeconomic and environmental...

  20. THE IMPACTS OF LOCAL DEMANDS, URBANIZATION AND AMAZONIAN METROPOLITAN REGIONS OVER DEFORESTATION ON BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    OpenAIRE

    Castelani, Sergio; GUILHOTO, Joaquim; Igliori, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    The paper estimates how much of the Amazon deforestation is due to the consumption of goods and services from households who live within the Amazon region itself, comparing it to deforestation driven by consumers who live outside Amazon. As the Brazilian Amazon contains 5 big Metropolitan Regions, and in order to take into account this referred urbanization process, it not only compared the effects of demand vectors from within and outside Brazilian Amazon, but also with the isolated effects ...

  1. Expanding worldwide urban solid waste recycling: The Brazilian social technology in waste pickers inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Jacqueline E; Rutkowski, Emília W

    2015-12-01

    'If an integrated urban waste management system includes the informal recycling sector (IRS), there is a good chance that more solid waste is recycled' is common sense. However, informal integration brings additional social, environmental, and economic benefits, such as reduction of operational costs and environmental impacts of landfilling. Brazil is a global best practice example in terms of waste picker inclusion, and has received international recognition for its recycling levels. In addition to analysing the results of inclusive recycling approaches, this article evaluates a selection of the best Brazilian inclusive recycling practices and summaries and presents the resulting knowledge. The objective is to identify processes that enable the replication of the inclusion of the informal recycling sector model as part of municipal solid waste management. Qualitative and quantitative data have been collected in 25 Brazilian cities that have contracted waste pickers co-operatives for door-to-door selective collection of recyclables. Field data was collected in action research projects that worked with waste pickers co-operatives between 2006 and 2013. The Brazilian informal recycling sector integration model improves municipal solid waste recycling indicators: it shows an increase in the net tonness recycled, from 140 to 208 t month(-1), at a much lower cost per tonne than conventional selective collection systems. Inclusive systems show costs of US$35 per tonne of recyclables collected, well below the national average of US$195.26. This inclusive model improves the quality of collected material and the efficiency of municipal selective collection. It also diminishes the negative impacts of informal recycling, by reducing child labour, and by improving the conditions of work, occupational health and safety, and uncontrolled pollution. Although treating the Brazilian experience as a blueprint for transfer of experience in every case is unrealistic, the results

  2. Expanding worldwide urban solid waste recycling: The Brazilian social technology in waste pickers inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Jacqueline E; Rutkowski, Emília W

    2015-12-01

    'If an integrated urban waste management system includes the informal recycling sector (IRS), there is a good chance that more solid waste is recycled' is common sense. However, informal integration brings additional social, environmental, and economic benefits, such as reduction of operational costs and environmental impacts of landfilling. Brazil is a global best practice example in terms of waste picker inclusion, and has received international recognition for its recycling levels. In addition to analysing the results of inclusive recycling approaches, this article evaluates a selection of the best Brazilian inclusive recycling practices and summaries and presents the resulting knowledge. The objective is to identify processes that enable the replication of the inclusion of the informal recycling sector model as part of municipal solid waste management. Qualitative and quantitative data have been collected in 25 Brazilian cities that have contracted waste pickers co-operatives for door-to-door selective collection of recyclables. Field data was collected in action research projects that worked with waste pickers co-operatives between 2006 and 2013. The Brazilian informal recycling sector integration model improves municipal solid waste recycling indicators: it shows an increase in the net tonness recycled, from 140 to 208 t month(-1), at a much lower cost per tonne than conventional selective collection systems. Inclusive systems show costs of US$35 per tonne of recyclables collected, well below the national average of US$195.26. This inclusive model improves the quality of collected material and the efficiency of municipal selective collection. It also diminishes the negative impacts of informal recycling, by reducing child labour, and by improving the conditions of work, occupational health and safety, and uncontrolled pollution. Although treating the Brazilian experience as a blueprint for transfer of experience in every case is unrealistic, the results

  3. Crime in Urban Areas: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Gumus, Erdal

    2003-01-01

    Crime is an illness that attacks rights of individuals. It therefore interests everybody in a society. It is argued that as urbanization increases so does crime. The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the determinants of crime in urban areas by using cross-sectional data. The results we get indicate that per capita income, income inequality, population, and present of black population are all important determinants of urban crime. Our results also confirm previous empirical s...

  4. Rural areas under urban pressure in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, M.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this Introduction paper, I will describe the motivation behind this special issue on the role of rural-urban relationships in preserving the rural landscape in Europe. Based on the RURBAN project 'Building new relationships in rural areas under urban pressure', the special issue aims to identify

  5. Obtaining the borders of urban areas

    CERN Document Server

    Comin, Cesar Henrique; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2015-01-01

    The access to an ever increasing amount of information in the modern world gave rise to the development of many quantitative indicators about urban regions in the globe. Therefore, there is a growing need for a precise definition of how to delimit urban regions, so as to allow proper respective characterization and modeling. Here we present a straightforward methodology to automatically detect urban region borders. The method is based on the density of street crossings around a single seed point associated to the urban area of interest. We exemplify the potential of the methodology by characterizing the geometry and topology of 21 urban regions obtained from 8 distinct countries. The geometry is studied by employing the lacunarity measurement, which is associated to the regularity of holes contained in a pattern. The topology is analyzed by associating the betweenness centrality of the streets with their respective class, such as motorway or residential, obtained from a database.

  6. Identifying areas susceptible to desertification in the Brazilian Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. da Silva Pinto Vieira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 57% of the Brazilian Northeast region is recognized as semiarid land and has been undergoing intense land use processes in the last decades, which have resulted in severe degradation of its natural assets. Therefore, the objective of this study is to identify the areas that are susceptible to desertification in this region based on the eleven driving factors of desertification (pedology, geology, geomorphology, topography data, land use and land cover change, aridity index, livestock density, rural population density, fire hot spot density, human development index (HDI, conservation units which were model-simulated for two different periods: 2000 and 2010. Each indicator were assigned weights ranging from 1 to 2 (representing the best and the worst conditions, representing classes indicating low, moderate and high susceptibility to desertification. The result indicates that 94% of the Brazilian Northeast region is under moderate to high susceptibility to desertification. The areas that were susceptible to soil desertification increased by approximately 4.6% (83.35 km2 from 2000 to 2010. The implementation of the methodology provide the technical basis for decision making that involves mitigating actions, as well as the first comprehensive national assessment within the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification framework.

  7. Improving the environment in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamkus, V.V.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the need for improvements to the environment in urban areas, and efforts being made under the direction of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to address these problems. The impact the new Clean Air Act can have on emissions from gasoline powered autos, diesel burning trucks, fixed emission sources ranging from utilities to chemical plants, and consumer products like hair sprays and charcoal starters, will all work together to improve air quality in urban areas. The author also discusses Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Plan efforts being supported by the EPA in a coordinated plan to get municipalities involved in cleaning up areas with pollution, to remove the blight on the urban areas, provide new land for development, and promote additional jobs.

  8. Improving the environment in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the need for improvements to the environment in urban areas, and efforts being made under the direction of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to address these problems. The impact the new Clean Air Act can have on emissions from gasoline powered autos, diesel burning trucks, fixed emission sources ranging from utilities to chemical plants, and consumer products like hair sprays and charcoal starters, will all work together to improve air quality in urban areas. The author also discusses Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Plan efforts being supported by the EPA in a coordinated plan to get municipalities involved in cleaning up areas with pollution, to remove the blight on the urban areas, provide new land for development, and promote additional jobs

  9. From lab to field: the influence of urban landscapes on the invasive potential of Wolbachia in Brazilian Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Leandro Carneiro Dutra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The symbiotic bacterium Wolbachia is currently being trialled as a biocontrol agent in several countries to reduce dengue transmission. Wolbachia can invade and spread to infect all individuals within wild mosquito populations, but requires a high rate of maternal transmission, strong cytoplasmic incompatibility and low fitness costs in the host in order to do so. Additionally, extensive differences in climate, field-release protocols, urbanization level and human density amongst the sites where this bacterium has been deployed have limited comparison and analysis of Wolbachia's invasive potential.We examined key phenotypic effects of the wMel Wolbachia strain in laboratory Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with a Brazilian genetic background to characterize its invasive potential. We show that the wMel strain causes strong cytoplasmic incompatibility, a high rate of maternal transmission and has no evident detrimental effect on host fecundity or fertility. Next, to understand the effects of different urban landscapes on the likelihood of mosquito survival, we performed mark-release-recapture experiments using Wolbachia-uninfected Brazilian mosquitoes in two areas of Rio de Janeiro where Wolbachia will be deployed in the future. We characterized the mosquito populations in relation to the socio-demographic conditions at these sites, and at three other future release areas. We then constructed mathematical models using both the laboratory and field data, and used these to describe the influence of urban environmental conditions on the likelihood that the Wolbachia infection frequency could reach 100% following mosquito release. We predict successful invasion at all five field sites, however the conditions by which this occurs vary greatly between sites, and are strongly influenced by the size of the local mosquito population.Through analysis of laboratory, field and mathematical data, we show that the wMel strain of Wolbachia possesses the characteristics

  10. Entrepreneurship within Urban and Rural Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Nielsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The entrepreneurial dynamics of urban and rural areas are different, and this paper explores creativity and social networks factors in both places. The probabilities of becoming an entrepreneur and of surviving are analyzed. The results are based on longitudinal data combined with a questionnaire...

  11. Locating ATMs in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi MoradiTabar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the banks and financial institutions have considerably attempted to provide better and more varied services to the customers. These varied services may satisfy needs of differentgroup of customers. In this regard, the location of these services as well as their level of accessibility (access to these services is greatly important. The importance of these issues is well recognized by responsible managers of the financial firms. In other words, the managers accept the importance of these services and they know that the quality and location of these services significantly affect their success in the business. Therefore, bank managers sought scientific methods, which may facilitate the locating process for their services. How to select the most effective methods and how to use these methods in this regard depend on following factors: the customers' demands, local capacities and fair distribution of theservices, etc. The effective impact of these factors as well as the interactive relationship between them should also be noted in the application. This study is a descriptive kind of research, which is applicable in various areas. Library and environmental studies were used to conduct the study. Considering the parameters that considerably affect the level of acceptability of ATMs services and analyzing the importance of these parameters according to this criterion, the researchers tried to use multiple attribute decision-making model. a heuristic algorithm was used in the context of this approach. Then, the most appropriate locations around the optimal locations were introduced based on fuzzy concept as well as quantitative and qualitative factors, including the minimum cost and maximum coverage according to the customers’ demands. The case study was located in the 13th district of Tehran city.

  12. Urban malaria in the Brazilian Western Amazon Region I: high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers in an urban riverside district is associated with a high level of clinical malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Shugiro Tada

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cross sectional studies on malaria prevalence was performed in 2001, 2002, and 2004 in Vila Candelária, an urban riverside area of Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the Brazilian Western Amazon, followed by longitudinal surveys on malaria incidence. Vila Candelária is a working class district, provided with electricity, water supply, and basic sanitation. Previous preliminary surveys indicated high malaria incidence in this community. At the end of year 2000 regular diagnostic and treatment measures for malaria were introduced, with active search of febrile cases among residents. Despite of both rapid treatment of cases and relative good sanitary and housing conditions, the malaria incidence persisted at high levels during the following years with an annual parasite index of 150 to 300/1000 inhabitants. Parasite surveys in 2001, 2002, and 2004 achieved through microscopy and polymerase chain reaction to diagnose malaria showed a constant high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers for both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax parasites. It was concluded that asymptomatic carriers represent an important reservoirs of parasites and that the carriers might contribute to maintaining the high level of transmission. Comparing our findings to similar geo-demographic situations found in other important urban communities of the Brazilian Amazon, we propose that asymptomatic carriers could explain malaria's outbreaks like the one recently observed in Manaus.

  13. Assessing emergency situations and their aftermath in urban areas: The EMRAS II Urban Areas Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Berkovskyy, V.;

    2011-01-01

    The Urban Areas Working Group is part of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s EMRAS II (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) Programme. The goal of this Working Group is to test and improve the capabilities of models used in assessment of radioactive contamination in urban settings, ...

  14. Mapping Heat Health Risks in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Loughnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periods of extreme heat pose a risk to the health of individuals, especially the elderly, the very young, and the chronically ill. Risk factors include housing characteristics, and socioeconomic factors, or environmental risk factors such as urban heat islands. This study developed an index of population vulnerability in an urban setting using known environmental, demographic, and health-related risk factors for heat stress. The spatial variations in risk factors were correlated with spatial variation in heat-related health outcomes in urban Melbourne. The index was weighted using measured health outcomes during heatwave periods. The index was then mapped to produce a spatial representation of risk. The key risk factors were identified as areas with aged care facilities, higher proportions of older people living alone, living in suburban rather than inner city areas, and areas with larger proportions of people who spoke a language other than English at home. The maps of spatial vulnerability provide information to target heat-related health risks by aiding policy advisors, urban planners, healthcare professionals, and ancillary services to develop heatwave preparedness plans at a local scale.

  15. [Tuberculosis control of urban areas in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The rates of tuberculosis remain high in urban areas. The declining speed of tuberculosis incidence rate in urban areas has been slower than other areas. Efforts and resources to tuberculosis control must be concentrated on urban locations to eradicate tuberculosis in Japan. 1. Tuberculosis control in a public health center of urban area: Teru OGURA and Chiyo INOGUCHI (Toshima City, Ikebukuro Public Health Center, Tokyo Metropolitan) A wide range of TB control measures is implemented by public health centers, such as a patient registration, home-visit guidance, contact examination in urban areas. Directors of every health center have the direct responsibility for tuberculosis control measures in their jurisdiction. Ikebukuro is urban areas where there are many offices, shopping and amusement facilities. Urban people is often on the move looking for job, so public health centers are often not easy to carry out contact examinations as planned. In recent years, homelessness has been recognized as a growing urban social problem. Their incidence of tuberculosis is high. Special TB control program must be carried out in urban areas. 2. Tuberculosis Control in Tokyo Metropolitan: Kazumasa MATSUKI (Department of Infectious Diseases and Tuberculosis, Bureau of Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan) There has been a steady decline in the TB wards. The beds for TB patients are running short and even smear positive TB cases cannot be put in a hospital without waiting several days. Staffs of an urban emergency department must protect tuberculosis infection by environmental controls of emergency room. Tokyo Metropolitan government supports the engineering improvements of emergency room to hospitals. Directly observed therapy for tuberculosis patients at a district has been implemented to complete their therapy. On DOT, a trained health worker observes the patient take anti-TB medication. 3. Usefulness of Molecular Epidemiologic approach on Tuberculosis Control: Atsushi HASE (Osaka

  16. Parasitoids of the endangered leafcutter ant Atta robusta Borgmeier in urban and natural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego S. Gomes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasitoids of the endangered leafcutter ant Atta robusta Borgmeier in urban and natural areas. Hosts of parasitoids in urban areas may suffer from a double threat of habitat destruction by urbanization and parasitism pressure. Moreover, the parasitoids themselves might be at risk if they are specialists. Here, we studied whether Atta robusta (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, which is on the red list of Brazilian threatened species, suffers from higher parasitism pressure in an urban area compared to a natural one. In addition, we determined whether their specialist parasitoids, Eibesfeldtphora breviloba and Myrmosicarius exrobusta (Diptera, Phoridae, are in risk and evaluated whether they are influenced by habitat structure, temperature, humidity, ant traffic, and time of the day. The study was carried out in an urban park and in a natural protected area in the city of Rio de Janeiro. In each site we chose an open area and a closed area (forest and sampled nine nests in each area. We found that parasitism pressure was similar in urban and natural areas, with the same two parasitoid species present in both areas. The main difference was related to habitat structure, since M. exrobusta was mainly present in open areas while E. breviloba was almost exclusively found in closed areas. Myrmosicarius exrobusta was not present during the hottest midday times, and its abundance was negatively correlated to vapor pressure deficit. These results suggest that green areas can be an important component in efforts to conserve diversity in urban areas. However, the complexity of the habitats in those areas is a fundamental issue in designing urban parks.

  17. Post-Harbour Areas - New Urban Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacka-Rejzner, Urszula

    2015-12-01

    In the article on selected examples one illustrated the different solutions for shaping post-harbour areas. One highlighted the complexity and longevity of activities conducted in these areas, which include both: the modernization of building structures, shaping of new functional and spatial interactions, reproduction of natural resources, protection and sharing of preserved buildings and complexes of cultural heritage, but also well balanced management of transformed area. The basis for conducted deliberations constitute studies and field studies concerning the development of urban structures, conducted for many years by the author.

  18. Environmental conflicts in urban regeneration areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsborg, Christian; Sørensen, Michael Tophøj

    2006-01-01

    , they hold a substantial need for redevelopment and revitalization from an urban planning and management point of view as well as a considerable development potential, as the areas generally offer an attractive possibility for building new housing, offices and other white-collar workplaces. However...... with a viable industrial production and no interest in moving out of the area. In such cases potential environmental conflicts can be foreseen between the ongoing enterprises and new sensitive land uses on adjacent sites. The obvious problem is how to secure proper environmental conditions for the new users...

  19. Modelling population changes in small English urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Congdon, P; Shepherd, J.

    1986-01-01

    Research on urbanisation has been hampered by discrepancies between the administrative boundaries of towns and a meaningful spatial framework of urbanism that recognises both the true extent of the built-up areas of towns and the functional linkages between urban centres and their surrounding hinterland. An 'urban area' definition has been recently developed for British census statistics to present the physical reality of urban boundaries in terms of land that is urban in use, whereas the fun...

  20. Changes in observed climate extremes in global urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate extremes have profound implications for urban infrastructure and human society, but studies of observed changes in climate extremes over the global urban areas are few, even though more than half of the global population now resides in urban areas. Here, using observed station data for 217 urban areas across the globe, we show that these urban areas have experienced significant increases (p-value <0.05) in the number of heat waves during the period 1973–2012, while the frequency of cold waves has declined. Almost half of the urban areas experienced significant increases in the number of extreme hot days, while almost 2/3 showed significant increases in the frequency of extreme hot nights. Extreme windy days declined substantially during the last four decades with statistically significant declines in about 60% in the urban areas. Significant increases (p-value <0.05) in the frequency of daily precipitation extremes and in annual maximum precipitation occurred at smaller fractions (17 and 10% respectively) of the total urban areas, with about half as many urban areas showing statistically significant downtrends as uptrends. Changes in temperature and wind extremes, estimated as the result of a 40 year linear trend, differed for urban and non-urban pairs, while changes in indices of extreme precipitation showed no clear differentiation for urban and selected non-urban stations. (letter)

  1. Human bioclimatology analysis of Ankara urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Çalışkan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Physiological Equivalent Temperatures (PET of different land patterns in the Ankara urban area has been analyzed. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of the thermal perceptions and the grades of thermal stress caused by the thermal conditions have been determined for 00:00, 03:00, 06:00, 09:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 21:00 hours during the December and July of 2010. The effects of physiographic features such as elevation, aspect, slope, and especially land use, on the PETs have also been examined. According to the analysis which is carried out by using PET thermal perception index, in the research area the thermal comfort values varies around from -6 to -11°C in winter and from 13°C to 50°C in summer. In both periods the open spaces (grasslands of the city forests have the maximum PET values during the day. Either in December and in July the urban area (city center has and cool island during the day and has a heat island during the night.

  2. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. T...

  3. Wind Field Modifications in Habitable Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seemi Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses different criteria for the assessment of wind field environmentsin urban areas and how they relate to field observations. The importance of the inclusion of wind environment studies in the planning process is also discussed. The increasing influence of the built environment on wind speed and direction makes any forecast for heights below 50 meter very hazardous1. This increase in the areas with more built form where the roughness is extremely high. It is not always possible to make a quantitative forecast of wind speed and direction in urban environment. Examples are provided to illustrate how development controls can be designed to ensure that pedestrian amenity is not compromised by new development while at the same time not become a burden to innovative design approaches or good design practice due to wind modification. The paper concludes with a number of case studies that provide examples of how innovative techniques for mitigation of adverse wind environments can achieve the desired level of pedestrian amenity without having to compromise with the architectural design intent.

  4. Networks Versus Need: Drivers of Urban Out-Migration in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Heather F; VanWey, Leah K

    2014-12-01

    As urbanization rates rise globally, it becomes increasingly important to understand the factors associated with urban out-migration. In this paper, we examine the drivers of urban out-migration among young adults in two medium-sized cities in the Brazilian Amazon-Altamira and Santarém-focusing on the roles of social capital, human capital, and socioeconomic deprivation. Using household survey data from 1,293 individuals in the two cities, we employ an event history model to assess factors associated with migration and a binary logit model to understand factors associated with remitting behavior. We find that in Altamira, migration tends to be an individual-level opportunistic strategy fostered by extra-local family networks, while in Santarém, migration tends to be a household-level strategy driven by socioeconomic deprivation and accompanied by remittances. These results indicate that urban out-migration in Brazil is a diverse social process, and that the relative roles of extra-local networks versus economic need can function quite differently between geographically proximate but historically and socioeconomically distinct cities. PMID:25419021

  5. Regional Collaboration Among Urban Area Security Initiative Regions: Results of the Johns Hopkins Urban Area Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Errett, Nicole A.; Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J.; Resnick, Beth A.; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-01-01

    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration–related activities and assessment me...

  6. Expansion of the Urban Area: The Fertilizers as one of the Challenges in the Coexistence of Rural and Urban Spaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Schimanski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This paper is part of a study carried out by researchers from the group of studies on environmental, gender and poverty issues, which is linked to the Applied Social SciencesMasters and Doctorate Program at Ponta Grossa State University. This is a qualitativequantitative study with characteristics of exploratory research, which addresses the social consequences of the use of fertilizers/pesticides to poor families living in the periphery of the city of Ponta Grossa in the South of Brazil. Triangulated data, obtained through field trips, interviews and participant observation, demonstrated the seriousness of the population contact with fertilizers. Theoretical studies on the theme identified that one of the most remarkable phenomena in the current Brazilian society is the speed of the urbanization process. Historically, the expansion of cities has been marked by the logicscenter-periphery, and in the last decades the transfer of groups of people has been noticed from the most central areas (due to economical and estate interests to the most peripheral ones. It is important to consider the consequences of this phenomenon and how it is foreseen in the municipal planning, once it is in the rural-urban where the most significant natural resources are found, those which are vital to both the environmental balance and urban infra-structure systems. In the region of Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, South of Brazil, a process of strong junction between rural and urban has been observed. The evidence is that several areas and entire communities have developed very close to largeareas of soybean, corn, wheat and other crops and thus, are totally exposed to the fertilizers used in those areas. Data collected also shows that the families living in thoseareas experience a routine of severe environmental, social and health problems without really understanding how serious this problem is.Key words: urban expansion, urban-rural relationship, agricultural

  7. Airborne silica levels in an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the exposure levels of the general population we studied the concentrations of silica particles in the inhalable particulate fraction (PM10) in different meteorological-climate periods in an urban area of Rome. In order to determine the concentration and the granulometric spectrum of silica particles, PM10 sampled by a cascade impactor was analysed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy equipped with a thin-window system for X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX). Over the period September 2004-October 2005 the abundance of silica particles as evaluated by SEM/EDX ranged from 1.6 to 10.4% of the total PM10 particulate, with a weight concentration of free crystalline silica, evaluated by XRD, in the range 0.25-2.87 μg/m3. The mean diameter of silica particles ranged from 0.3 to 10.5 μm, with more than 87% of particles having a diameter of less than 2.5 μm. The correlations between SEM/EDX and XRD data seem to suggest that the airborne silica particles in the urban location studied were mainly in the form crystalline silica. A strong relationship was found between the meteorological-climate conditions and the concentration level of free crystalline silica. This result suggests that the Southern winds from the Sahara desert carry an important amount of silica particles into Mediterranean Europe

  8. Mapping commuter cycling risk in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Bennet, Scott A; Scott, Darren M

    2012-03-01

    Cycling is becoming an increasingly important transportation option for commuters. Cycling offers exercise opportunities and reduces the burden of motor vehicle travel on society. Mapping the risk of collision between cyclists and motor vehicles in urban areas is important to understanding safe cyclist route opportunities, making informed transportation planning decisions, and exploring patterns of injury epidemiology. To date, many geographic analyses and representations of cyclist risk have not taken the concept of exposure into account. Instead, risk is either expressed as a rate per capita, or as a count of events. Using data associated with the City of Hamilton, Canada, we illustrate a method for mapping commuter cyclist collision risk per distance travelled. This measure can be used to more realistically represent the underlying geography of cycling risk, and provide more geographically and empirically meaningful information to those interested in understanding how cycling safety varies over space. PMID:22269497

  9. Longitudinal assessment of mercury exposure in schoolchildren in an urban area of the Brazilian Amazon Avaliação longitudinal da exposição ao mercúrio em crianças de uma área urbana na Amazônia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Danieli Simões Dutra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was a longitudinal assessment of mercury exposure in schoolchildren in an urban area of the Brazilian Amazon. The study population consisted of 90 children whose exposure levels were assessed by testing mercury levels in the umbilical cord blood and mothers' blood samples in 2000-2001, and in the children's hair and blood samples. The study also used a questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic data, fish consumption, and self-reported disease history. Mean mercury level in hair in 2010 was approximately 1µg/g, ranging up to 8.22µg/g, similar to 2004 and 2006. These figures can be explained by low fish consumption. Mean blood mercury levels at birth exceeded 10µg/L, ranging up to nearly 60µg/L, which indicates mercury transfer across the placenta. There was a significant increase in blood mercury from 2004 to 2006 (p O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar avaliação longitudinal da exposição de crianças de uma área urbana da Amazônia brasileira ao mercúrio (Hg. A população foi composta por 90 crianças, cuja exposição foi avaliada desde o nascimento por meio das análises dos teores de Hg no sangue do cordão umbilical e no sangue das mães em 2000/2001, e em amostras de cabelo e sangue das crianças. Os procedimentos incluíram também um questionário com informações demográficas, socioeconômicas, sobre consumo de peixes e morbidade referida. A média dos teores de Hg no cabelo em 2010 foi próxima a 1µg/g e sua amplitude 8,22µg/g, semelhantes aos anos 2004 e 2006, podendo ser explicada pela baixa ingestão de peixes. A média dos teores de Hg no sangue das crianças ao nascer ultrapassou 10µg/L e sua amplitude atingiu quase 60µg/L, indicando transferência do Hg através da barreira placentária. Ocorreu aumento significativo dos teores de Hg no sangue entre 2004 e 2006 (p < 0,001, sugerindo a possibilidade de exposição atmosférica ao Hg. O principal período de exposição ao Hg ocorreu durante a gestação.

  10. Separating Citizenization and Land Requisition: New Urbanization in Beijing’s Rural-Urban Fringe Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui; Xianghua; Li; Min

    2015-01-01

    Through rapid urbanization, Beijing is entering into the advanced stage of industrialization and urbanization, while it, like many other cities, is faced with issues of low-quality urbanization and citizenization. Under the infl uences of both urbanization and suburbanization, the sprawling rural-urban fringe area becomes a tough issue to resolve. The reconstruction of 50 key villages in Beijing’s rural-urban fringe area that was started in 2010 has initially changed the citizenization-land requisition coupling model through recombining land use right, household registration, and social security to make farmers become new-type citizens with land use right. The practice in Beijing reveals that the fringe issues are caused by the new and old dual structures which are formed as a result of the urban-rural dual land system, and that the path to new urbanization in China is to separate citizenization from land requisition, so as to achieve the transformation towards a proactive urbanization.

  11. Development of Urban Agriculture in Xixian New Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinyan; LIU

    2013-01-01

    Short for Xi’an-Xianyang New Development area,Xixian New Area is a modern garden city and the development urban agriculture is its key and bright point.With the aid of SWOT method,this paper analyzes strength,weakness,opportunity and threat of urban agriculture in Xixian New Area.Combining actual conditions of developing urban agriculture in Xixian New Area,it discusses general and specific development modes of urban agriculture.It is concluded that urban agriculture in Xixian New Area should bring into play its strength and avoid its weakness,select suitable development mode and road.Besides,it should give into play multi-function of urban agriculture,so as to promote coordinated and sustainable development of economy,society,ecology and environment.

  12. The Brazilian research contribution to knowledge of the plant communities from Antarctic ice free areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Antonio B; Putzke, Jair

    2013-09-01

    This work aims to summarize the results of research carried out by Brazilian researchers on the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas during the last twenty five years. Since 1988 field work has been carried out in Elephant Island, King George Island, Nelson Island and Deception Island. During this period six papers were published on the chemistry of lichens, seven papers on plant taxonomy, five papers on plant biology, two studies on UVB photoprotection, three studies about the relationships between plant communities and bird colonies and eleven papers on plant communities from ice free areas. At the present, Brazilian botanists are researching the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas in order to understand their relationships to soil microbial communities, the biodiversity, the distribution of the plants populations and their relationship with birds colonies. In addition to these activities, a group of Brazilian researchers are undertaking studies related to Antarctic plant genetic diversity, plant chemistry and their biotechnological applications. PMID:24068084

  13. Carbonaceous aerosols in Norwegian urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known regarding levels and source strength of carbonaceous aerosols in Scandinavia. In the present study, ambient aerosol (PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations of elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, water-insoluble organic carbon (WINSOC, and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC are reported for a curbside site, an urban background site, and a suburban site in Norway in order to investigate their spatial and seasonal variations. Aerosol filter samples were collected using tandem filter sampling to correct for the positive sampling artefact introduced by volatile and semivolatile OC. Analyses were performed using the thermal optical transmission (TOT instrument from Sunset Lab Inc., which corrects for charring during analysis. Finally, we estimated the relative contribution of OC from wood burning based on the samples content of levoglucosan.

    Levels of EC varied by more than one order of magnitude between sites, likely due to the higher impact of vehicular traffic at the curbside and the urban background sites. In winter, the level of particulate organic carbon (OCp at the suburban site was equal to (for PM10 or even higher (for PM2.5 than the levels observed at the curbside and the urban background sites. This finding was attributed to the impact of residential wood burning at the suburban site in winter, which was confirmed by a high mean concentration of levoglucosan (407 ng m−3. This finding indicates that exposure to primary combustion derived OCp could be equally high in residential areas as in a city center. It is demonstrated that OCp from wood burning (OCwood accounted for almost all OCp at the suburban site in winter, allowing a new estimate of the ratio TCp/levoglucosan for both PM10 and PM2.5. Particulate carbonaceous material (PCM

  14. Different Pathways for Achieving Cleaner Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schippl, J.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard;

    2016-01-01

    . Achieve essentially CO2-free city logistics in major urban centres by 2030.'' With this paper we present and discuss a roadmap that deals with the question who needs to do what by when in order to reach the White Paper goal for urban transport. The ''stakeholder-driven'' roadmap was developed in the FP7...

  15. Innovation Steps towards Efficient Goods Distribution Systems for Urban Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Binsbergen, A.J.; Visser, J.G.S.N.

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of goods for urban areas is vital to the prosperity of these areas. Nevertheless, there are various environmental and accessibility problems related to the urban goods distribution process. Only a comprehensive set of policy actions, that addresses the problems at different geograph

  16. Are Streams in Agricultural and Urban Areas Contaminated by Pesticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    To answer this question, a study of pesticides in streams in a small agricultural area and a small urban area in Colorado was conducted in 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The results indicate that pesticides are present in streams, and both agricultural and urban areas are probable sources of the contamination. In the agricultural area, 30 pesticides were detected and in the urban area, 26 pesticides were detected at least once during the thirteen month study. In the agricultural area, the herbicides alachlor (two samples) and cyanazine (four samples) and the insecticide diazinon (one sample) were the only pesticides that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) or health advisory levels (HALs) for drinking water. No pesticides exceeded MCLs or HALs in the urban area.

  17. POISONOUS ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES FOR URBAN AREAS IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Florea, Adrian; PERTICAS Diana

    2012-01-01

    Living in an urban area today, supposed to accept beside benefits also a dose of pollution it is known that the incidence of many diseases in urban areas is at least double that of rural area. In addition to already existing population in the urban area, we can observe that cities continue to attract other people especially on economic grounds: better paid jobs in an ever-expanding industry and increasingly complex trading system, which to develop also needs labor. In this paper we study the ...

  18. Urban Modality: Modelling and evaluating the sustainable mobility of urban areas in the city-region

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis proposes a framework for evaluating the mobility potential and performance of urban areas in the city region, as an instrument to support urban development that contributes positively to regional sustainable mobility objectives. The research takes a quantitative approach, modelling and measuring the characteristics of a city-region and of its individual urban areas, in terms of travel patterns and socio- economic characteristics of the resident population, and in terms of built en...

  19. Understanding congested travel in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour...

  20. Mapping Heat Health Risks in Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Loughnan; Neville Nicholls; Tapper, Nigel J.

    2012-01-01

    Periods of extreme heat pose a risk to the health of individuals, especially the elderly, the very young, and the chronically ill. Risk factors include housing characteristics, and socioeconomic factors, or environmental risk factors such as urban heat islands. This study developed an index of population vulnerability in an urban setting using known environmental, demographic, and health-related risk factors for heat stress. The spatial variations in risk factors were correlated with spatial ...

  1. Fire in targeting urban/industrial areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study of the parameters pertinent to considerations of fire in urban targeting illustrated the dominance of some factors and the insensitivity to damage assessments of others. The factors considered, together with the simple assumptions and approximations used in this scoping study supported the assumption that fire may add significantly to the damage to urban/industrial targets. The influence of uncertainties and unknowns were evaluated, and the consequent implications for research were assessed

  2. COORDINATES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Maria IORDACHE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internationally, urban tourism began to develop gradually from the '80s, nowadays being a distinct form of tourism whose importance is increasing. Thus, there were concerns about specific facilities for different categories of visitors and their harmonization with the demands of caring for the smooth functioning of urban settlements. By adding tourism to the local economy inventory activities of an urban area, it can be considered a catalyst and a reviving factor for strengthening urban cities especially because it represents an important source of income and it is responsible for creating thousands of jobs. Given the need to adapt to the demands of tourists, this paper attempts to clarify some issues related to content, characteristics and influencing factors of urban tourism, but also the adoption of policies for exploitation through tourism of the specific elements of urban space and urban tourism prospects.

  3. Epidemiological surveillance of capybaras and ticks on warning area for Brazilian spotted fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Brites-Neto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The vulnerability of tropical developing countries to the emerging disease constitutes a critical phenomenon in which the invasion of wild niches by human hosts, contributes to expansion of zoonotic diseases, such as the Brazilian spotted fever (BSF. This study performed a diagnosis of species occurrence of their hosts (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and vectors (Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma dubitatum on the warning area for this reemerging disease in Brazil. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a warning area for BSF in the city of Americana, São Paulo state. The occurrence of capybaras was registered by use of binoculars and GPS equipment and 24 acarological researches were performed through 180 CO2 traps. Samples of adult ticks were dissected for salivary glands removal, DNA extraction, and evaluation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR being tested by initial gltA-PCR, ompA-PCR, and Rickettsia bellii-specific PCR, with the positive samples subjected to sequencing. Results: Eleven clusters of capybaras (total of 71 individuals, were observed along the riparian of Ribeirão Quilombo and 7,114 specimens of A. sculptum and 7,198 specimens of A. dubitatum were collected in this same area. About 568 samples of adult ticks were dissected for salivary glands removal, DNA extraction and evaluation by gltA-PCR, with results of 1.94% (11/568 of positive samples. Results for the initial gltA-PCR indicated none positive sample to Rickettsia species into A. sculptum and 11 positive samples to A. dubitatum. These samples were negative to the ompA-PCR and positive to the Rickettsia bellii-specific PCR protocol and subjected to DNA sequencing, whose result indicated 100% similarity to Rickettsia bellii. The distribution of tick species A. sculptum and A. dubitatum was configured regarding to the biotic potential of the riparian areas, measuring the risks for BSF in peri-urban areas of Americana. Conclusion: These results confirmed a status of

  4. Analysis on Residents’ Travel Activity Pattern in Historic Urban Areas: A Case Study of Historic Urban Area of Yangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Travel behaviors and activity patterns in the historic urban area of a city are expected to be different from the overall situations in the city area. The primary objective of this study is to analyze the residents’ travel activity patterns in historic urban area. Based on survey data conducted in the historic urban area of Yangzhou, the travel activities of local residents in a whole day were classified into five types of patterns. The multinomial logit (MNL model was developed to evaluate the impacts of explanatory variables on the choices of activity patterns. The results showed that the choice of activity pattern was significantly impacted by five contributing factors including the gender, age, occupation, car ownership, and number of electric bikes in household. The other variables, which were the family population, preschoolers, number of conventional bikes in household, motorcycle ownership, and income, were found to be not significantly related to the choice of activities. The results of this study from historic urban area were compared to findings of previous studies from overall urban area. The comparison showed that the impacts of factors on activity pattern in the historic urban area were different from those in the overall area. Findings of this study provide important suggestions for the policy makings to improve the traffic situations in historic urban areas of cities.

  5. Regional Collaboration Among Urban Area Security Initiative Regions: Results of the Johns Hopkins Urban Area Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J.; Resnick, Beth A.; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-01-01

    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration–related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments. PMID:25398073

  6. Does subsidized childcare help poor working women in urban areas?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruel, Marie T.; de la Briere, Benedicte; Hallman, Kelly; Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Coj, Nora

    2002-01-01

    High urbanization rates in Latin America are accompanied by an increase in women's participation in the labor force and the number of households headed by single mothers. Reliable and affordable childcare alternatives are thus becoming increasingly important in urban areas. The Hogares Comunitarios Program (HCP), established in Guatemala City in 1991, was a direct response to the increasing need of poor urban dwellers for substitute childcare. This government-sponsored pilot program was desig...

  7. Consumer Empowerment Profile in Rural and Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Megawati Simanjuntak; Siti Amanah; Herien Puspitawati; Pang. S. Asngari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze the profile of consumer empowerment and the influence of demographic characteristics, socio-economic status and cosmopoliteness on consumer empowerment in rural and urban area. The research finding indicated a low consumer empowerment in urban and rural area. In general, most respondents who were not categorized as empowered consumer were aged >37 years old, working in rural areas, included in income category ranged IDR 397,874.57/capita/month both ...

  8. A Flexible Urban Health Index for Small Area Disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Rothenberg, Richard; Weaver, Scott R.; Dai, Dajun; Stauber, Christine; Prasad, Amit; Kano, Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Available urban health metrics focus primarily on large area rankings. Less has been done to develop an index that provides information about level of health and health disparities for small geographic areas. Adopting a method used by the Human Development Index, we standardized indicators for small area units on a (0, 1) interval and combined them using their geometric mean to form an Urban Health Index (UHI). Disparities were assessed using the ratio of the highest to lowest decile and meas...

  9. Bullying among adolescents in a Brazilian urban center – “Health in Beagá” Study

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Ralil da Costa; César Coelho Xavier; Amanda Cristina de Souza Andrade; Fernando Augusto Proietti; Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of bullying and its associated factors in Brazilian adolescents.METHODS Data were used from a population-based household survey conducted by the Urban Health Observatory (OSUBH) utilizing probability sampling in three stages: census tracts, residences, and individuals. The survey included 598 adolescents (14-17 years old) who responded questions on bullying, sociodemographic characteristics, health-risk behaviors, educational well-being, family structure, p...

  10. Relative risk of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil: a spatial analysis in urban area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda de Araújo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a vector-borne disease whose factors involved in transmission are poorly understood, especially in more urban and densely populated counties. In Brazil, the VL urbanization is a challenge for the control program. The goals were to identify the greater risk areas for human VL and the risk factors involved in transmission. METHODOLOGY: This is an ecological study on the relative risk of human VL. Spatial units of analysis were the coverage areas of the Basic Health Units (146 small-areas of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Human VL cases, from 2007 to 2009 (n = 412, were obtained in the Brazilian Reportable Disease Information System. Bayesian approach was used to model the relative risk of VL including potential risk factors involved in transmission (canine infection, socioeconomic and environmental features and to identify the small-areas of greater risk to human VL. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The relative risk of VL was shown to be correlated with income, education, and the number of infected dogs per inhabitants. The estimates of relative risk of VL were higher than 1.0 in 54% of the areas (79/146. The spatial modeling highlighted 14 areas with the highest relative risk of VL and 12 of them are concentrated in the northern region of the city. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial analysis used in this study is useful for the identification of small-areas according to risk of human VL and presents operational applicability in control and surveillance program in an urban environment with an unequal spatial distribution of the disease. Thus the frequent monitoring of relative risk of human VL in small-areas is important to direct and prioritize the actions of the control program in urban environment, especially in big cities.

  11. Understanding congested travel in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C.

    2016-03-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings.

  12. Public acceptance of enforced speed adaptation in the urban area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katteler, H.A.; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a way to drastically cope with speeding in the urban area. Pilots with Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) in Europe applied in passenger cars support the perspective of creating an urban environment with a guaranteed maximum speed level for car drivers. Therefore, the perspectiv

  13. Prevalence and Treatment of Children's Asthma in Rural Areas Compared with Urban Areas in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jing Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of asthma in children was lower in rural areas compared with children in the urban area of Beijing. A considerable number of children were not diagnosed and inadequately treated in rural areas.

  14. URBANIZATION AND THE IMPACT OF ECO ECONOMIC MEASURES IN URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂDĂLINA DOCIU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and the impact of eco-economic measures in urban areas. Urban development has a powerfull global dimension. Cities interact and have a major impact on environment, overcoming their spatial barriers. They are acting just like real centers of progress, offering new and various opportunities reasons strong enough to generate an exponential increase on the population number in these areas.Global consumption of resources, consumption of energy and water have the biggest values in these areas resons to adopt and improve measures of control and sustainable development for these areas.

  15. Large eddy simulation of urban features for Copenhagen metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahura

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The large eddy simulations employing the SUBMESO model with the urban soil layer model SM2-U were performed for the model domain covering the Danish Island of Sealand and including the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Monthly and diurnal cycle variability were studied for the net radiation, sensible and storage heat fluxes, surface's temperatures, and others. These were evaluated for selected urban vs. non urban related types of covers/surfaces and urban districts such as city center, high buildings, industrial, and residential. Results showed strong effects of urban features on temporal and spatial variability. They are useful and applicable for verification of numerical weather prediction models and development of urban canopy parameterizations.

  16. Soft Mobility and Pedestrian Networks in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Galderisi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available By referring to the wider strategies set up, starting from the middle of the Nineties, by the European cities to promote a sustainable urban mobility and to the more recent concept of soft mobility, which generally includes pedestrian and cycling mobility, this contribution focuses on pedestrian mobility in urban areas, outlining criteria and methods for planning and designing networks of urban public open spaces, such as roads and squares, devoted to an exclusive or prevailing pedestrian use. First of all, the paper analyzes the multiple roles played by roads and squares within the cities: “axes” supporting different mobility flows, including the pedestrian ones, and in the meanwhile urban places in which different activities (commercial activities, meeting, and so on take place. Grounding on that, the main reasons driving toward an organization of such spaces as urban networks have been outlined. Then, some guidelines and methodological elements, both for planning pedestrian networks and designing their elements taking into account the correspondence between foreseen uses and spatial features of each element, have been provided. Furthermore, the links between the pedestrian networks and the main junctions of other urban mobility networks, as well as between the first ones and the urban contexts have been stressed. Suggested guidelines and methodological elements have been applied and tested both on historical and suburban areas of the city of Naples; nevertheless they represent only a first step towards the setting up of a method for pedestrian networks planning and design in urban areas.

  17. Residential Segregation and Social Differentiation in American Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, W. Clark; Van Valey, Thomas L.

    1972-01-01

    Reports research designed to resolve a methodological inconsistency in previous studies, by examining the interrelations among several indexes of residential segregation and measures of educational, occupational, and income differentiation in American urban areas as of 1960. (JM)

  18. Benefits of restoring ecosystem services in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Elmqvist, Thomas; Setälä , H; Handel, S.N.; van der Ploeg, S.; Aronson, J.; Blignaut, J.N.; Gomez-Baggethun, Erik; Nowak, D.J.; Kronenberg, J.; de Groot, R.

    2015-01-01

    Cities are a key nexus of the relationship between people and nature and are huge centers of demand for ecosystem services and also generate extremely large environmental impacts. Current projections of rapid expansion of urban areas present fundamental challenges and also opportunities to design more livable, healthy and resilient cities (e.g. adaptation to climate change effects). We present the results of an analysis of benefits of ecosystem services in urban areas. Empirical analyses incl...

  19. The factor analysis of sustainable development of the urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Murzin А. D.

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of improvement the scientific approach to the factors analysis of the urban areas sustainable development. Each element of public, natural and economic system of urban areas in aspect of social, ecological and economic approach is studied in detail. The sequence of the social, ecological and economic environment analysis, and also management system of city complex development is offered.

  20. Phlebotomine fauna in a rural area of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga-Miranda Lourdislene Costa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify among the phlebotomine fauna potential leishmaniasis vectors. The study was carried out in Corumbá county, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Mid-West Brazil (18º59'S, 56º39'W. Sand fly captures were undertaken fortnightly with automatic light traps at 11 sites in forested environments and anthropic areas from April 2001 to July 2003. A total of only 41 specimens were captured. Thirty-one percent of the specimens were captured in forests and 68.3% in anthropic areas. The predominance of non-anthropophilic groups and the low density of N. whitmani, a known cutaneous leishmaniasis vector, does not seem to indicate any actual risk of the transmission of this disease in the study area.

  1. Climate Change Projections for African Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Ingo; Engelbrecht, Francois; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Mercogliano, Paola; Naidoo, Mogesh

    2013-04-01

    Mainly driven by changes in the orbital characteristics of Earth around the sun, the planet's climate has been continuously changing over periods of tens of thousands of years. However, the warming that has been detected in the Earth's atmosphere over the last century is occurring at a rate that cannot be explained by any known natural cycle. Main-stream science has indeed reached consensus that the 'enhanced green house effect', caused by the interplay of incoming short-wave irradiation, outgoing long-wave radiation and the absorption of energy by enhanced levels of CO2 and water vapour in the troposphere, is the main forcing mechanism responsible for the phenomena of global warming. The enhanced greenhouse effect strengthens the 'natural green house effect' that results from the CO2 and water vapour occurring naturally in the atmosphere. The continuous burning of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution and the simultaneous degradation of large forests, are the main reasons for the increase in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The availability of climate change projection data varies considerably for different areas on Earth. Whereas the data centres storing climate change projections for Europe and North America now store petabytes of data, regionally downscaled projections for Africa are rarely available. In the context of the research project CLUVA, (Assessing vulnerability of urban systems, populations and goods in relation to natural and man-made disasters in Africa, co-funded by the European Commission under grant agreement no: 265137), the Council for Industrial and Scientific Research (CSIR) in South Africa and the Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) in Italy have produced a large set of projections of climate change over Africa, covering the time period 1950 to 2100. Through the collaboration between CMCC and CSIR, a multi-model ensemble of eight high-resolution simulations of climate change over parts of West and East

  2. Food Insecurity in Urban and Rural Areas in Central Brazil: Transition from Locally Produced Foods to Processed Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Livia Penna Firme; Carvalho, Raissa Costa; Maciel, Agatha; Otanasio, Polyanna Nunes; Garavello, Maria Elisa de Paula Eduardo; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the effect of diet and food consumption with regard to health, environment, and economy in light of nutrition ecology, we studied the dimensions of nutrition and food security in urban and rural settings in the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros, Central Brazil. We tracked diet and food consumption through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in fingernails of these inhabitants together with food intake data as a proxy for their diet patterns. We estimated household food insecurity by using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Nutrition and food insecurity was observed in both urban and rural areas, but was accentuated in rural settings. The diet pattern had high δ(13)C values in fingernails and low δ(15)N. Both urban and rural areas have diets with low diversity and relying on low-quality processed food staples at the same time that nutrition and food insecurity is quite high in the region.

  3. Food Insecurity in Urban and Rural Areas in Central Brazil: Transition from Locally Produced Foods to Processed Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Livia Penna Firme; Carvalho, Raissa Costa; Maciel, Agatha; Otanasio, Polyanna Nunes; Garavello, Maria Elisa de Paula Eduardo; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the effect of diet and food consumption with regard to health, environment, and economy in light of nutrition ecology, we studied the dimensions of nutrition and food security in urban and rural settings in the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros, Central Brazil. We tracked diet and food consumption through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in fingernails of these inhabitants together with food intake data as a proxy for their diet patterns. We estimated household food insecurity by using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Nutrition and food insecurity was observed in both urban and rural areas, but was accentuated in rural settings. The diet pattern had high δ(13)C values in fingernails and low δ(15)N. Both urban and rural areas have diets with low diversity and relying on low-quality processed food staples at the same time that nutrition and food insecurity is quite high in the region. PMID:27286412

  4. Planning of Low-rise Urban Housing Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, O.

    In many countries industrialization of house building has led to the building of large, monotonous housing areas with high-rise construction. In Denmark, however, smaller, varied housing areas with low-rise construction and urban features have become predominant. This report contains guidelines...... for the planning of such housing areas....

  5. Incorporating green-area user groups in urban ecosystem management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colding, Johan; Lundberg, Jakob; Folke, Carl

    2006-08-01

    We analyze the role of urban green areas managed by local user groups in their potential for supporting biodiversity and ecosystem services in growing city-regions, with focus on allotment areas, domestic gardens, and golf courses. Using Stockholm, Sweden, as an example cityregion, we compile GIS data of its spatial characteristics and relate these data to GIS data for protected areas and "green wedges" prioritized in biodiversity conservation. Results reveal that the three land uses cover 18% of the studied land area of metropolitan Stockholm, which corresponds to more than twice the land set aside as protected areas. We review the literature to identify ecosystem functions and services provided by the three green areas and discuss their potential in urban ecosystem management. We conclude that the incorporation of locally managed lands, and their stewards and institutions, into comanagement designs holds potential for improving conditions for urban biodiversity, reducing transaction costs in ecosystem management, and realizing local Agenda 21.

  6. Urban sprawl, polycentrism and commuting, a comparison of seven French urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    AGUILERA A.; MIGNOT, D

    2004-01-01

    In a context of growing suburbanization, does a polycentric urban structure lead to better job housing balance? The study of seven very different French urban areas emphasises the existence of employment subcenters which, in addition to the city center, are the main destination of the workers.

  7. Urban Modality: Modelling and evaluating the sustainable mobility of urban areas in the city-region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gil, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis proposes a framework for evaluating the mobility potential and performance of urban areas in the city region, as an instrument to support urban development that contributes positively to regional sustainable mobility objectives. The research takes a quantitative approach, modelling and m

  8. Higher smoking prevalence in urban compared to non-urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idris, Berlian I; Giskes, Katrina; Borrell, Carme;

    2007-01-01

    We investigated differences in smoking prevalence between urban and non-urban area of residence in six Western European countries (Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Germany, Italy and Spain), and smoking prevalence trends over the period 1985-2000. In most countries, smoking prevalence was highest in urb...

  9. Characterization of particulate air pollution in urban and non-urban areas in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.C.; Hoek, G.; Harssema, H.; Brunekreef, B.

    1998-01-01

    During the winters of 1992/1993, 1993/1994 and 1994/1995 a monitoring study was performed in three urban and three non-urban areas in the Netherlands. PM10, black smoke (BS), sulfate, nitrate, ammonium (non-organic secondary aerosols, ''NOSA'') and aerosol acidity were measured on a daily basis in b

  10. Plasmodium falciparum: limited genetic diversity of MSP-2 in isolates circulating in Brazilian endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenave-Sales, S; Ferreira-da-Cruz, M F; Faria, C P; Cerruti, C; Daniel-Ribeiro, C T; Zalis, M G

    2003-01-01

    The genetic polymorphism of the surface merozoite protein 2 (MSP-2) was evaluated in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from individuals with uncomplicated malaria living in a Brazilian endemic area of Peixoto de Azevedo. The frequency of MSP-2 alleles and the survival of genetically different populations clones in 104 isolates were verified by Southern blot and SSCP-PCR. Single and mixed infections were observed in similar frequencies and the rate of detection of FC27 and 3D7 allelic families was equivalent. Eight alleles were identified and among them, the sequence polymorphism was mainly attributed to variations in the repetitive region. Interestingly, in three alleles nucleotide polymorphism was identical to that detected in a previous study, conducted in 1992, in a near Brazilian endemic area. This finding demonstrated the genetic similarity between two isolate groups, besides the certain temporal stability in the allelic patterns. The implications of these data for studies on the genetic diversity are also discussed. PMID:12880589

  11. Water in Urban Areas in a Climate Change Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Climatic changes will influence the water cycle substantially. This will have an immediate impact on the performance of urban water infrastructure. A case study from Roskilde shows that assuming an increase in design intensities of 40 % over a 100 year horizon will lead to increased cost...... planning of adaptation to the anticipated climatic changes and research to identify optimal strategies. In other areas of the world droughts and/or water resource availability in general will also become increasingly important. As such the water cycle in urban areas will be controlled more extensively....... There is a need to forecast all the changes that can be foreseen within the technical lifetime of city infrastructure, notably the water system and the impacts on other aspects of urban liveability. Based on the projects in Partnership Water in Urban Areas (www.vandibyer.dk) these drivers will be discussed...

  12. Association between religiousness and blood donation among Brazilian postgraduate students from health-related areas

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Zangiacomi Martinez; Rodrigo Guimarães dos Santos Almeida; Ana Carolina Garcia Braz; Antonio Carlos Duarte de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between religiousness and blood donation among postgraduate students.METHODS: The Portuguese-language version of the Duke University Religion Index was administered to a sample of 226 Brazilian students with ages ranging from 22 to 55 years. All study participants had completed undergraduate courses in health-related areas.RESULTS: In the present study, 23.5% of the students were regular donors. Organizational religiousness was f...

  13. Governance regime and location influence avoided deforestation success of protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun; Silvius, Kirsten M; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2013-03-26

    Protected areas in tropical countries are managed under different governance regimes, the relative effectiveness of which in avoiding deforestation has been the subject of recent debates. Participants in these debates answer appeals for more strict protection with the argument that sustainable use areas and indigenous lands can balance deforestation pressures by leveraging local support to create and enforce protective regulations. Which protection strategy is more effective can also depend on (i) the level of deforestation pressures to which an area is exposed and (ii) the intensity of government enforcement. We examine this relationship empirically, using data from 292 protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that, for any given level of deforestation pressure, strictly protected areas consistently avoided more deforestation than sustainable use areas. Indigenous lands were particularly effective at avoiding deforestation in locations with high deforestation pressure. Findings were stable across two time periods featuring major shifts in the intensity of government enforcement. We also observed shifting trends in the location of protected areas, documenting that between 2000 and 2005 strictly protected areas were more likely to be established in high-pressure locations than in sustainable use areas and indigenous lands. Our findings confirm that all protection regimes helped reduce deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

  14. Acute pollution of recipients in urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, P.

    1997-01-01

    Oxygen and ammonia concentration are key parameters of acute water pollution in urban rivers. These two abiotic parameters are statistically assessed for a historical rain series by means of a simplified deterministic model of the integrated drainage system. Continuous simulation of the system...... performance indicates that acute water pollution is caused by intermittent discharges from both sewer system and wastewater treatment plant. Neglecting one of them in the evaluation of the environmental impact gives a wrong impression of total system behavior. Detention basins and alternative operational...... modes in the treatment plant under wet weather loading have a limited positive effect for minimizing acute water pollution. (C) 1997 IAWQ. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....

  15. Effects of land use on the cooling effect of green areas on surrounding urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, S.; Tanaka, T.

    2011-12-01

    The spatial distribution of the cooling effect of the green area on surrounding urban area in Nagoya, central Japan was examined by applying ASTER data. First, we clarified the correlation between surface temperature and land use in a green area. Second, we also examined the extent of the cooling effect of the green area on the surrounding urban area. Third, we extracted the land-use factors that significantly affect the extent of the cooling effect. Finally, we referred to new knowledge about the effect of terrain on the cooling effect. The surface temperature differed with land use in the green area. Surface temperatures for green areas were lower than those for other categories, except ponds. In green areas, the temperature in forest lands was lower than that in lawn and agricultural land, suggesting that the forest contributes strongly to the cooling effect of the green area. The surface temperature differences among the categories were small in October, compared to the other analysed days during summer. The extent of the cooling effect of the green area on the surrounding urban area averaged in all directions reached about 200m in the surrounding urban area from July to October. However, the surface temperature difference between the urban area and the green area decreased in October. This phenomenon indicated that the cooling effect of the green area was weaker during autumn than during summer. By examining the spatial distribution of the surface temperature, the cooling effect was shown to stretch in almost all directions of the urban area, and it appears unlikely that wind direction affected the extent of the cooling effect (Fig.1). The cooling effect of Heiwa Park was affected by the roads and buildings. Their effect on the cooling effect depended on their layout and size. It is desirable to have green areas scattered throughout an urban environment rather than concentrated at one spot because the cooling range of a single green area is limited to a few

  16. Decentralized Sensor Fusion for Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Ollero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites, a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted.

  17. Data Base for the Management of Green Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Parinello

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to studying the reading systems and identify opportunities for the analysis of complex equipment plants that live in urban areas. Analyzing census systems, generally used for the creation of databases and archives on virtual plant health of ornamental species that inhabit urban environments, we propose a system of interaction between the clouds, provided by the laser scanner, and banks virtual data, integrating quantitative understanding of digital archives, with descriptive data, creating useful tools for the management of urban space for the comprehensive interpretation of the various activities of knowledge on the green and the city.

  18. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Pu; Bayen, Alexandre M; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C; 10.1038/srep01001

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach.

  19. Report card on low level ozone in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onischak, M.

    1994-12-31

    It has been four years since the Clean Air Act was amended in November of 1990. Much work has been done in this time, and the country is beginning to see real air quality benefits. Although these changes have not completely licked the urban ozone problem yet, they have made a lot of progress. All of the urban areas which have been required to reduce their ozone levels have done a good job of lowering their emissions. While the urban areas have not all been able to meet every federal deadline, the areas have all been able to achieve the control milestones before the mandatory Clean Air Act sanctions have taken effect. Some areas are even ready to declare their ozone problems solved.

  20. Deposition and removal of radioactive substances in an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation doses received by the population of a contaminated urban area have been estimated. Possible dose reduction measures and their cost-effectiveness are investigated. Potentially important parameters influencing the doses have also been studied. They include distribution of contamination following both wet and dry deposition, run-off, weathering, shielding, resuspension, indoor deposition, the relative airborne concentrations indoors and outdors, and forced decontamination. It is shown that contamination of the green areas in an urban complex is generally a major contributor to dose. A study of the cost-effectiveness of different clean-up procedures indicates that decontamination of green areas and streets are relatively cost-effective and would rank highly in a list of priorities. Following a contamination due to a reactor accident, the dose rate to an individual will generally be less in an urban area than in a rural environment. (author) 89 refs

  1. Report card on low level ozone in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been four years since the Clean Air Act was amended in November of 1990. Much work has been done in this time, and the country is beginning to see real air quality benefits. Although these changes have not completely licked the urban ozone problem yet, they have made a lot of progress. All of the urban areas which have been required to reduce their ozone levels have done a good job of lowering their emissions. While the urban areas have not all been able to meet every federal deadline, the areas have all been able to achieve the control milestones before the mandatory Clean Air Act sanctions have taken effect. Some areas are even ready to declare their ozone problems solved

  2. Raising awareness of chronic kidney disease in a Brazilian urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazza Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease have been increasing in recent years in developing countries. The aim of this study was to report the results of a general chronic kidney disease awareness program applied to an urban population in a large Brazilian city. From January 2002 to January 2005 a total of 8883 individuals in the city of Curitiba (PR, Brazil were screened for hypertension, body mass index, hematuria, and proteinuria. A family history and previous medical diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM were also recorded. Of the 8883 individuals assessed, 56% were women, subject median age was 47 years (range: 17-93 years and more than 90% were Caucasian. Thirty percent had signs of hematuria, 6% had proteinuria, and 3% had hematuria and proteinuria. The median of mean arterial pressure values was 93 mmHg (range: 71-135 mmHg and 16% of the population screened had a history of hypertension. A significant positive family history of both hypertension or DM was present in 42% (P < 0.0001; chi-square = 83.18 and 7% (P < 0.0001; chi-square = 161.31 of the hypertensive group, respectively. Finally, the prevalence of hypertension and DM was significantly higher in older individuals with proteinuria. In the present study, a higher prevalence of hematuria and proteinuria was found in older individuals with hypertension and diabetes compared to the general population. These data confirm the need for public awareness of renal disease in high-risk individuals.

  3. The moss flora in the central urban area of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grdović Svetlana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In floristic research on mosses in the central urban area of Belgrade, the presence of 58 species classified into 23 genera and 12 families was verified. The mosses occur in different specific and extreme microhabitats. Diversity of the bryoflora in urban ecosystems can be explained in terms of the large number of different habitats found on large greens, old fortress ruins, and roofs, as well as in gardens in the center of the Old Town.

  4. Soil pollution in an urban area : a GIS approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yves Guermond; Daniel Delahaye; Pierrich Folligne; Jean-Pierre Vapaille; Renaud Zambeaux

    1998-01-01

    The southern bank of the river Seine, in the urban area of Rouen, was an important industrial suburb in the 19th century and during the first half of the 20th century up to the urban rehabilitation which began around the seventies. The main industries were foundries and mechanical engineering plants, and later, in the harbour districts, oil factories and naphtha refineries. During the "reconstruction" period, after the second world war, and at the time of the "rehabilitation" , a lot of resid...

  5. Vertical Pointing Weather Radar for Built-up Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

      A cost effective vertical pointing X-band weather radar (VPR) has been tested for measurement of precipitation in urban areas. Stationary tests indicate that the VPR performs well compared to horizontal weather radars, such as the local area weather radars (LAWR). The test illustrated...

  6. Prevalence and Treatment of Children's Asthma in Rural Areas Compared with Urban Areas in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Jing Zhu; Hai-Xia Ma; Hui-Ying Cui; Xu Lu; Ming-Jun Shao; Shuo Li; Yan-Qing Luo

    2015-01-01

    Background:The prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing in China.This study aimed to compare the prevalence,diagnosis,and treatment of asthmatic children from urban and rural areas in Beijing,China.Methods:Schools,communities,and kindergartens were randomly selected by cluster random sampling from urban and rural areas in Beijing.Parents were surveyed by the same screening questionnaires.On-the-spot inquiries,physical examinations,medical records,and previous test results were used to diagnose asthmatic children.Information on previous diagnoses,treatments,and control of symptoms was obtained.Results:From 7209 children in rural areas and 13,513 children in urban areas who completed screening questionnaires,587 children were diagnosed as asthma.The prevalence of asthma in rural areas was lower than in urban areas (1.25% vs.3.68%,x2 =100.80,P < 0.001).The diagnosis of asthma in rural areas was lower than in urban areas (48.9% vs.73.9%,x2 =34.6,P < 0.001).Compared with urban asthmatic children (56.5%),only 35.6% of rural asthmatic children received inhaled corticosteroids (P < 0.05).The use ofbronchodilators was also lower in rural areas than in urban areas (56.5% vs.66.4%,x2 =14.2,P < 0.01).Conclusion:The prevalence of asthma in children was lower in rural areas compared with children in the urban area of Beijing.A considerable number of children were not diagnosed and inadequately treated in rural areas.

  7. Carbon Storage in Urban Areas in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Brown, D.; Keoleian, G.

    2007-12-01

    It is widely accepted that human settlements occupy a small proportion of the landmass and therefore play a relatively small role in the dynamics of the global carbon cycle. Most modeling studies focusing on the land carbon cycle use models of varying complexity to estimate carbon fluxes through forests, grasses, and croplands, but completely omit urban areas from their scope. Here, we estimate carbon storage in urban areas within the United States, defined to encompass a range of observed settlement densities, and its changes from 1950 to 2000. We show that this storage is not negligible and has been continuously increasing. We include natural- and human-related components of urban areas in our estimates. The natural component includes carbon storage in urban soil and vegetation. The human related component encompasses carbon stored long term in buildings, furniture, cars, and waste. The study suggests that urban areas should receive continued attention in efforts to accurately account for carbon uptake and storage in terrestrial systems.

  8. Decongestion of urban areas with hotspot-pricing

    CERN Document Server

    Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Arenas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of population in urban areas is jeopardizing the mobility and air quality worldwide. One of the most notable problems arising is that of traffic congestion which in turn affects air pollution. With the advent of technologies able to sense real-time data about cities, and its public distribution for analysis, we are in place to forecast scenarios valuable to ameliorate and control congestion. Here, we propose a local congestion pricing scheme, hotspot-pricing, that surcharges vehicles traversing congested junctions. The proposed tax is computed from the estimation of the evolution of congestion at local level, and the expected response of users to the tax (elasticity). Results on cities' road networks, considering real-traffic data, show that the proposed hotspot-pricing scheme would be more effective than current mechanisms to decongest urban areas, and paves the way towards sustainable congestion in urban areas.

  9. Microplastic contamination in natural mussel beds from a Brazilian urbanized coastal region: Rapid evaluation through bioassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M F M; Ascer, L G; Custódio, M R; Moreira, F T; Turra, A

    2016-05-15

    Microplastic pollution (particles microplastic pollution on Santos estuary, the most urbanized area of the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. A simple and rapid assessment showed that 75% of sampled mussels had ingested microplastics, an issue of human and environmental concern. All sampling points had contaminated mussels and this contamination had no clear pattern of distribution along the estuary. This was the first time that microplastic bioavailability was assessed in nature for the southern hemisphere and that wild P. perna was found contaminated with this pollutant. This is an important issue that should be better assessed due to an increase in seafood consumption and culture in Brazil and worldwide. PMID:26980138

  10. Equine infectious anemia in carthorses from urban areas of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Henrique Perotta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Equine infectious anemia (EIA is an infectious viral disease caused by a Lentivirus, which affects equids worldwide. The disease has no currently treatment and euthanasia of infected animals is mandatory by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA as basis for disease control. Carthorses are used to move daily throughout the cities with their owners to collect recycling materials. Considering the socio-economic importance of this group of horses, the aim of this study was to determine the infection rate of EIA virus in carthorses from urban areas of Curitiba and surroundings. The detection of anti-EIA virus antibodies was performed by the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID. One out of 97 (1.03% horse was positive for EIA. Active surveillance programs are crucial for monitoring, prevention and control of infectious diseases, particularly in carthorses, which may act as disseminators of pathogens.

  11. Mapping urban climate zones and quantifying climate behaviors - An application on Toulouse urban area (France)

    OpenAIRE

    Houet, Thomas; Pigeon, Grégoire

    2011-01-01

    Facing the concern of the population to its environment and to climatic change, city planners are now considering the urban climate in their choices of planning. The use of climatic maps, such Urban Climate Zone--UCZ, is adapted for this kind of application. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the UCZ classification, integrated in the World Meteorological Organization guidelines, first can be automatically determined for sample areas and second is meaningful according to climat...

  12. Modelling atmospheric dry deposition in urban areas using an urban canopy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cherin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric dry deposition is typically modelled using an average roughness length, which depends on land use. This classical roughness-length approach cannot account for the spatial variability of dry deposition in complex settings such as urban areas. Urban canopy models have been developed to parametrise momentum and heat transfer. We extend this approach here to mass transfer, and a new dry deposition model based on the urban canyon concept is presented. It uses a local mixing-length parametrisation of turbulence within the canopy, and a description of the urban canopy via key parameters to provide spatially distributed dry deposition fluxes. Three different flow regimes are distinguished in the urban canyon depending on the height-to-width ratio of built areas: isolated roughness flow, wake interference flow and skimming flow. Differences between the classical roughness-length model and the model developed here are investigated. Sensitivity to key parameters are discussed. This approach provides spatially distributed dry deposition fluxes that depend on surfaces (streets, walls, roofs and flow regimes (recirculation and ventilation within the urban area.

  13. Modelling atmospheric dry deposition in urban areas using an urban canopy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cherin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric dry deposition is typically modelled using an average roughness length, which depends on land use. This classical roughness-length approach cannot account for the spatial variability of dry deposition in complex settings such as urban areas. Urban canopy models have been developed to parametrise momentum and heat transfer. We extend this approach here to mass transfer and a new dry deposition model based on the urban canyon concept is presented. It uses a local mixing length parametrisation of turbulence within the canopy, and a description of the urban canopy via key parameters to provide spatially-distributed dry deposition fluxes. Three different flow regimes are distinguished in the urban canyon depending on the height-to-width ratio of built areas: isolated roughness flow, wake interference flow and skimming flow. Differences between the classical roughness-length model and the model developed here are investigated. Sensitivity to key parameters are discussed. This approach provides spatially-distributed dry deposition fluxes that depend on surfaces (streets, walls, roofs and flow regimes (recirculation and ventilation within the urban area.

  14. Multi-scale atmospheric environment modelling for urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Baklanov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern supercomputers allow realising multi-scale systems for assessment and forecasting of urban meteorology, air pollution and emergency preparedness and considering nesting with obstacle-resolved models. A multi-scale modelling system with downscaling from regional to city-scale with the Environment – HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (Enviro-HIRLAM and to micro-scale with the obstacle-resolved Micro-scale Model for Urban Environment (M2UE is suggested and demonstrated. The M2UE validation results versus the Mock Urban Setting Trial (MUST experiment indicate satisfactory quality of the model. Necessary conditions for the choice of nested models, building descriptions, areas and resolutions of nested models are analysed. Two-way nesting (up- and down-scaling, when scale effects both directions (from the meso-scale on the micro-scale and from the micro-scale on the meso-scale, is also discussed.

  15. Urban Growth Areas, sphere of influence, truckee meadows service area, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Urban Growth Areas dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'sphere of influence, truckee...

  16. Industrial pollutions is an environmental issue of Karachi urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Industrial pollution is one of the serious Environmental issues of the Karachi urban area, categorized as air pollution and water pollution. The localization more the 6000 industries in Karachi urban area at four different sites of Sindh industrial trading estate, Landhi industrial trading estate, Korangi industrial area west Warf industrials, Port Qasim industrial. Area and Hub industrial are near Karachi city. The major iron and steel industries includes Pakistan steel mills and its allied industries at Bin Qasim more than 100 re-rolling industries are located at site area. Karachi ship yard engineering works, Peoples steel Mill, automobile industries and various manufacturing industries which requires metal and its alloy in manufacturing of product mostly located at Bin Qasim, Korangi, and Shershah site areas. None of the industrial sector contain the waster treatment or recycling plant. The ill planted growth of Karachi and its industries caused the environmental degradation of the city and its coastal areas complete with massive mangrove destruction, air water, fishing, and agriculture possessing a potential threat to the lives of more than 10 million citizens. The environmental issues of the metal related industries include the scrap, waste and pollution. Scrapes am waste of the metal industries can be reused in other manufacturing of engineering materials or recycled to produce the new material. However the pollution is the one of the major environmental issue related with the metal industries which need the considerable research and development work in order to over come the serve environmental issues of the urban areas. This article reviews and identifies the level of industrial pollution emphasized on metal related industries of the Karachi urban areas. (author)

  17. Prevalence and Treatment of Children's Asthma in Rural Areas Compared with Urban Areas in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Jing Zhu; Hai-Xia Ma; Hui-Ying Cui; Xu Lu; Ming-Jun Shao; Shuo Li; Yan-Qing Luo; Qiang Wang; Chun-Yu Xu; Dong-Qun Xu; Chuan-He Liu; Yu-Zhi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing in China. This study aimed to compare the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of asthmatic children from urban and rural areas in Beijing, China. Methods: Schools, communities, and kindergartens were randomly selected by cluster random sampling from urban and rural areas in Beijing. Parents were surveyed by the same screening questionnaires. On-the-spot inquiries, physical examinations, medical records, and previous test resu...

  18. PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE AUTOGENIC SUCCESSION IN MINED AREAS IN THE BRAZILIAN FEDERAL DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Studart Corrêa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 0.6% of the Brazilian Federal District´s territory have been degraded by mining. The evaluation of plantsuccession on such sites can be a useful tool to define strategies for reclamation. Thus, woody species of fifteen exploited sites,abandoned to succession for 20 - 47 years, were surveyed. All woody plants present on the sites were identified and counted for theevaluation of frequency, density and dominance of plant species naturally established on the mined spoils. Results show a plant densitybelow 5% and a species density below 15% compared to values measured in native areas. Ten out 98 species found on the mined areasaccounted for 52.9% of woody plants dominance. Capacity of re-growing from roots of some Savanna species is shaping thecommunities and the succession on exploited sites. About ¾ of native species found on the mined areas are able to re-grow from roots,and they made up to 89% of dominance and 96% of plant s density. Results point out to the need of boosting ecological successionthrough revegetation works on mined areas in the Brazilian Federal District.

  19. Inadvertent weather modification urban areas - lessons for global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large metropolitan areas in North America, home to 65% of the USA's population, have created major changes in their climates over the past 150 years. The rate and amount of the urban climate change approximate those being predicted globally using climate models. Knowledge of urban weather and climate modification holds lessons for the global climate change issue. First, adjustments to urban climate changes can provide guidance for adjusting to global change. A second lesson relates to the difficulty but underscores the necessity of providing scientifically credible proof of change within the noise of natural climatic variability. The evolution of understanding about how urban conditions influence weather reveals several unexpected outcomes, particularly relating to precipitation changes. These suggest that similar future surprises can be expected in a changed global climate, a third lesson. In-depth studies of how urban climate changes affected the hydrologic cycle, the regional economy, and human activities were difficult because of data problems, lack of impact methodology, and necessity for multidisciplinary investigations. Similar impact studies for global climate change will require diverse scientific talents and funding commitments adequate to measure the complexity of impacts and human adjustments. Understanding the processes whereby urban areas and other human activities have altered the atmosphere and changed clouds and precipitation regionally appears highly relevant to the global climate-change issue. Scientific and governmental policy development needs to recognize an old axiom that became evident in the studies of inadvertent urban and regional climate change and their behavioural implications: Think globally but act locally. Global climate change is an international issue, and the atmosphere must be treated globally. But the impacts and the will to act and adjust will occur regionally

  20. Public-private partnerships in urban regeneration areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Tophøj; Aunsborg, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The paper focuses formal as well as informal public-private partnerships (PPP) in Danish urban regeneration areas. The concept ‘urban regeneration areas’ was introduced in the 2003 Planning Act as old, remaining industrial areas within the city boundaries by now were recognized as an ressource for....../neighbour interests, e.g. exceeding what is directly permitted by written law) or supporting (encourage developers to re-develop an area, e.g. by subsidies). The purpose of the paper is to describe the range of possible partnerships between public and private partners, and to investigate their legal background as...... housing while neighbouring noisy industries go on. Beyond this, from a municipal point of view there are several public interests to manage when old, remaining industrial areas face re-development. The motive of the municipal council can either be regulative (safeguarding certain financial or other public...

  1. SOLUTIONS FOR INTEGRATED ADMINISTRATION OF URBAN GREEN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMTU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide an administrative model for green spaces in any geographical area, especially in urban areas. The organizational proposed model also concerns the possibilities to develop new areas with green spaces for both recreation and leisure. Current structures leave much to be desired and, unfortunately, they do not seek to manage the green spaces on types of activities and these activities are not integrated into a unit structure to ensure coordination of operations for maintenance and expansion of these spaces. In the study, for the administrative plan are proposed those necessary changes to create organizational structures needed to implement a coherent strategy and policy to support the development of green space. Given the necessity of an integrated management for urban space, the model proposes solutions to eliminate functional overlaps of the various decision-making bodies by creating a unit of action, together with arrangements for its effective support. Developing effective solutions to managing green spaces for recreation and leisure becomes an obligation for the next period under conditions of increasing green areas arranged as parks and other types of green spaces and hence an increase for the cost of their administration. On the other hand, the paper addresses the issue of integrated management for both, green areas and recreational and leisure facilities existing within the urban areas, by giving more importance and impact for these spaces within communities. In this framework of integrated administration, it is possible to ensure modern leisure amenities in these urban green areas, and on the other hand it is possible to provide a very important prospect of additional revenues for the general budget of the community and also for future budget of planning for new green areas.

  2. The Role of Open Government Data in Urban Areas Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The next step for our urban areas is to become friendly using open data. The focus of this paper is to highlight the necessity and the implementation of Open Government Data (OGD. It also presents the principles of Open Government Data. The paper aims to analyze the OGD solutions and the impact of these for urban development using a SWOT analysis. In our age OGD confers an important advantage in development economy. In this case everybody tries to implement efficient OGD.

  3. Soil pollution in an urban area : a GIS approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Guermond

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The southern bank of the river Seine, in the urban area of Rouen, was an important industrial suburb in the 19th century and during the first half of the 20th century up to the urban rehabilitation which began around the seventies. The main industries were foundries and mechanical engineering plants, and later, in the harbour districts, oil factories and naphtha refineries. During the "reconstruction" period, after the second world war, and at the time of the "rehabilitation" , a lot of resid...

  4. A new vertical axis wind turbine design for urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunzulica, Florin; Cismilianu, Alexandru; Boros, Alexandru; Dumitrache, Alexandru; Suatean, Bogdan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we aim at developing the model of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) with the short-term goal of physically realising this turbine to operate at a maximmum power of 5 kW. The turbine is designed for household users in the urban or rural areas and remote or isolated residential areas (hardly accsessible). The proposed model has a biplane configuration on each arm of the VAWT (3 × 2 = 6 blades), allowing for increased performance of the turbine at TSR between 2 and 2.5 (urban area operation) compared to the classic vertical axis turbines. Results that validate the proposed configuration as well as passive control methods to increase the performance of the classic VAWTs are presented.

  5. Seismic Noise Studies of Urbanized Areas at Puerto Vallarta Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara Huerta, K. C.; Escudero, C. R.; Gomez, A.; Madrigal, L.

    2014-12-01

    The application of seismic noise techniques in urbanized environment becomes a valuable tool to obtain information that is critical in areas exposed to earthquakes. Damage distribution during large earthquakes is frequently conditioned by site effects, in this way we determine site effect using ambient noise measurements in the area of Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. We focus our microtremor measurements to the estimation of a subsoil structure. To perform this we use three different techniques H/V spectral ratios, array measurements of microtremors applying the SPAC and F-k techniques. This work discusses the results that were obtained applying these techniques to the urbanized areas of Puerto Vallarta city. We present a series of maps showing the result as well as analyzed its application to risk assessment.

  6. The role of wildlife in the transmission of parasitic zoonoses in peri-urban and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Mackenstedt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last 100 years in many countries of the world, there have been dramatic changes in natural/rural landscapes due to urbanization. Since many wildlife species are unable to adapt to these alterations in their environment, urbanization is commonly responsible for a decline of biodiversity in areas of urban development. In contrast, some wild animal species are attracted to peri-urban and urban habitats due to the availability of an abundant food supply and the presence of structures in which to shelter. Urban foxes and/or raccoons are common sights in many peri-urban and urban areas of Europe where they can reach far higher population densities than in their natural habitats. The same is true for foxes and dingoes in some urban areas of Australia. Unfortunately, some of these highly adaptable species are also hosts for a number of parasites of public health and veterinary importance. Due to the complexity of many parasitic life cycles involving several host species, the interactions between wild animals, domestic animals and humans are not fully understood. The role of potential hosts for transmission of a zoonotic disease in urban or peri-urban areas cannot be extrapolated from data obtained in rural areas. Since more than 75% of human diseases are of zoonotic origin, it is important to understand the dynamics between wildlife, domestic animal species and humans in urbanized areas, and to conduct more focused research on transmission of zoonotic parasites including arthropod vectors under such conditions.

  7. Predictability of road traffic and congestion in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion. PMID:25849534

  8. Predictability of road traffic and congestion in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion.

  9. Carbon dioxide fluxes from an urban area in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tao; Wang, Yuesi

    2012-03-01

    A better understanding of urban carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions is important for quantifying urban contributions to the global carbon budget. From January to December 2008, CO 2 fluxes were measured, by eddy covariance at 47 m above ground on a meteorological tower in a high-density residential area in Beijing. The results showed that the urban surface was a net source of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Diurnal flux patterns were similar to those previously observed in other cities and were largely influenced by traffic volume. Carbon uptake by both urban vegetation during the growing season and the reduction of fuel consumption for domestic heating resulted in less-positive daily fluxes in the summer. The average daily flux measured in the summer was 0.48 mg m - 2 s - 1 , which was 82%, 35% and 36% lower than those in the winter, spring and autumn, respectively. The reduction of vehicles on the road during the 29th Olympic and Paralympic Games had a significant impact on CO 2 flux. The flux of 0.40 mg m - 2 s - 1 for September 2008 was approximately 0.17 mg m - 2 s - 1 lower than the flux for September 2007. Annual CO 2 emissions from the study site were estimated at 20.6 kg CO 2 m - 2 y - 1 , considerably higher than yearly emissions obtained from other urban and suburban landscapes.

  10. Predictability of road traffic and congestion in urban areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyuan Wang

    Full Text Available Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion.

  11. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Urban Heat Island and Urban Metabolism by Satellite Imagery over the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q.; Zhan, S.; Kuai, X.; Zhan, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this research is to combine DMSP-OLS nighttime light data with Landsat imagery and use spatio-temporal analysis methods to evaluate the relationships between urbanization processes and temperature variation in Phoenix metropolitan area. The urbanization process is a combination of both land use change within the existing urban environment as well as urban sprawl that enlarges the urban area through the transformation of rural areas to urban structures. These transformations modify the overall urban climate environment, resulting in higher nighttime temperatures in urban areas compared to the surrounding rural environment. This is a well-known and well-studied phenomenon referred to as the urban heat island effect (UHI). What is unknown is the direct relationship between the urbanization process and the mechanisms of the UHI. To better understand this interaction, this research focuses on using nighttime light satellite imagery to delineate and detect urban extent changes and utilizing existing land use/land cover map or newly classified imagery from Landsat to analyze the internal urban land use variations. These data are combined with summer and winter land surface temperature data extracted from Landsat. We developed a time series of these combined data for Phoenix, AZ from 1992 to 2013 to analyze the relationships among land use change, land surface temperature and urban growth.

  12. INTERFERENCES BETWEEN THE ECOLOGICAL NETWORK AND URBANIZED AREAS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IWONA ZWIERZCHOWSKA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents spatial relations between Polish urban areas and valuable habitats and links between them composing the country’s ecological network. The quantitative analysis for 891 towns and cities was conducted using GIS techniques based on cartographic vector data and statistical data. Valuable habitats and links between them, such as national parks, landscape parks, CORINE biotopes sites, wildlife corridors linking NATURA 2000 sites and ECONET areas, can be found in 72% of Polish towns and cities. The proportion of artificial surfaces in those areas is different depending on the size of a town or city and its location. Urban areas with the highest index of presence of valuable habitats and links between them are concentrated in the south of Poland, where settlement network is most dense. However, in the case of those areas the proportion of artificial surfaces interfering with the ecological network is lower than Poland’s average, being 16%. The pressure of anthropogenic land cover extending onto the country’s ecological network is most conspicuous in urban areas with a population of at least several dozen thousand residents where the average developed area is 20.8% of their total area. The danger for the continuity of the nature system is best seen in the north westernPoland, where artificial surfaces interference in towns and cities is largest. The analysis performed identified 82 towns and cities, in which the preservation of the continuity of the ecological networkshould be a priority in spatial management because of a higher than average index of the presence of valuable habitats and links between them and large proportion of artificial surfaces in those areas.

  13. The Urban Ecology Institute's field studies program: utilizing urban areas for experiential learning and ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starry, O.

    2005-05-01

    The Urban Ecology Institute (UEI) promotes the stewardship of healthy urban ecosystems by improving science and civic education for middle and high school youth and by working with urban communities to protect and transform natural resources. Established in 1999, UEI's field studies program engages over 1000 youth in the greater Boston area. A substantial component of this program involves water quality monitoring. We have recently adapted protocols from published leaf breakdown studies for incorporation into the UEI water quality curriculum. A 2004 pilot study of these leaf breakdown activities, conducted at four sites, compared rates of red maple breakdown to those of Norway maple, a potentially invasive urban street tree. Preliminary data from this successful pilot study suggest that leaf litter inputs from the two different tree species have varying effects on stream ecosystem function. We present this study as an example of how urban areas can be utilized for both ecological research and inclusive experiential learning through which science and mathematic knowledge can be effectively communicated.

  14. Topsoil investigation on two different urban areas in West Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Adrienn; Bidló, András

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metal contents of urban soils in two different urban areas have been investigated in Sopron town (169.01 km2) and in Szombathely town 97.50 km2) in Hungary. In a standard network 208 samples have been collected Sopron from 0 to 10 and from 10 to 20 cm depth. 164 samples have been taken on 88 points in the area of Szombathely. We analysed all of the soil samples with ICP equipment applying Lakanen-Erviö method (Ammonium Acetate - EDTA (pH 4.65)) and we focused on Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn during the evaluation. The soils of suburb are determined largely by the bedrock, but in the downtown the soil pH was alkaline in soils of Sopron. Therefore, the toxic elements are still accumulated in the topsoil. The lead content was very high (suggested pollution limit >25 mg Pb/kg) in both layers on the whole area of the town. Urban soils with high copper content (among 611 mg and 1221 mg Cu/kg) have been collected from garden and viticulture areas. According to our measurements we found the highest average values in the soils of parks. The pH of urban topsoils of Szombathely was mostly neutral and it was lower in soil of agricultural areas on the suburb, where the artificial fertiliser is still used. The Pb content was high (more than 25 mg Pb/kg) in case of 13 samples next to traffic roads of the town. The Co, Cu and Ni results were below the suggested Hungarian background limits. The Zn values were above the suggested Hungarian pollution (20 mg Zn/kg) and interventional limits (>40 mg Zn/kg) in most cases. According to the results we found the highest average values of heavy metals in the soil of traffic areas or next to the Gyöngyös creek, which could be originated from traffic contamination, binding in the soil of urban green spaces, thus possibly affects human health. The research is supported by the "Agroclimate-2" (VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034) joint EU-national research project. Keywords: anthropogenic effects, heavy metal content, lead pollution, polluted urban soils

  15. Genetic polymorphism in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Ivanildes Solange da Costa; Souza, Maria Aparecida; Pena, Janethe Deolinda de Oliveira; Machado, Gleyce Alves; Moura, Lísia Gomes Martins de; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate genetic polymorphisms in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographical areas and to relate them to antibody recognition in serum samples of neurocysticercosis (NC) patients. Metacestodes were obtained from the Distrito Federal (DF), Bahia, Minas Gerais (MG) and São Paulo (SP) regions of Brazil. Samples of human sera from 49 individuals with NC, 68 individuals with other helminthiasis and 40 healthy volunteers were analysed (157 individuals in total). Antigens were prepared and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting assays to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Genetic distances between metacestode populations were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Our results show that there was a higher frequency of reactivity in the DF region in the sera from NC patients (p solium metacestodes from different areas in Brazil and the differences in antibody detection in patients with NC were established.

  16. Building adaptive capacity for flood proofing in urban areas through synergistic interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, W.; Ashley, R.M.; Zevenbergen, C.; Rijke, J.S.; Gersonius, B.

    2010-01-01

    Few, if any urban areas are nowadays built in isolation from existing developments. Therefore, urban expansion and making existing urban areas more sustainable is a contemporary goal. There are major opportunities to do this through the ‘normal’ renewal of urban infrastructure and building stocks bo

  17. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    significant soil consolidation and the low-lying areas are prone to urban flooding. The simulation results are compared with measurements in the sewer network. References [1] Guus S. Stelling G.S., 2012. Quadtree flood simulations with subgrid digital elevation models. Water Management 165 (WM1):1329-1354. [2] Vincenzo Cassuli and Guus S. Stelling, 2013. A semi-implicit numerical model for urban drainage systems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids. Vol. 73:600-614. DOI: 10.1002/fld.3817

  18. Mapping urban climate zones and quantifying climate behaviors - An application on Toulouse urban area (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facing the concern of the population to its environment and to climatic change, city planners are now considering the urban climate in their choices of planning. The use of climatic maps, such Urban Climate Zone-UCZ, is adapted for this kind of application. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the UCZ classification, integrated in the World Meteorological Organization guidelines, first can be automatically determined for sample areas and second is meaningful according to climatic variables. The analysis presented is applied on Toulouse urban area (France). Results show first that UCZ differentiate according to air and surface temperature. It has been possible to determine the membership of sample areas to an UCZ using landscape descriptors automatically computed with GIS and remote sensed data. It also emphasizes that climate behavior and magnitude of UCZ may vary from winter to summer. Finally we discuss the influence of climate data and scale of observation on UCZ mapping and climate characterization. - Highlights: → We proposed a method to map Urban Climate Zones and quantify their climate behaviors. → UCZ is an expert-based classification and is integrated in the WMO guidelines. → We classified 26 sample areas and quantified climate behaviors in winter/summer. → Results enhance urban heat islands and outskirts are surprisingly hottest in summer. → Influence of scale and climate data on UCZ mapping and climate evaluation is discussed. - This paper presents an automated approach to classify sample areas in a UCZ using landscape descriptors and demonstrate that climate behaviors of UCZ differ.

  19. Air pollution analysis in urban areas; Analisis de la contaminacion atmosferica en areas urbanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massague Roch, G.

    1997-04-01

    The urban atmosphere is a chemical reactor in which pollutant gases such as volatile organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen react under the influence of sunlight to create a variety of products, including ozone and aerosols. An analytical methodology to assess the atmospheric impact in urban areas is described where local emission released by industries and transport sectors are influenced by the meteorological conditions and topography. Altogether they set up an atmospheric scenario with a daily and season motion. (Author) 10 refs.

  20. Using GIS to Record and Analyse Historical Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giannopoulou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A significant part of the cultural heritage of towns and cities worldwide is the built heritage. The historic centre of several European cities has been preserved as an important part of the urban landscape. New analytical tools and concepts are thus required, which would enrich and expand the conventional methods and achieve sustainability of cultural heritage in any urban context, among which are Geographical Information Systems (GIS, digital mapping systems that link spatial and non – spatial data of landscape features, and can contribute substantially in documenting different urban features and furthermore in modelling the urban process and its impact on heritage regions. This paper is part of a wider research still in progress and refers to the creation of a specialised GIS, which includes a great range of geometric and descriptive information that can be used for the interpretation, monitoring, visualisation and evaluation of urban heritage areas. The case study of the paper is the Old Town of Xanthi, one of the most important examples of the 19th century’s urban civilization in Northern Greece. The paper focuses on the elaboration of the data concerning the built environment and more precisely to its systematic retrieval and import to the GIS system; moreover it examines 17 chosen variables using a combination of Multivariable analysis methods (Correspondence and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. The analysis has shown the existence of four distinctive and very interesting groups which have their own specific characteristics. Ideas for further research include the collaboration with specialised sophisticated software which would facilitate the thorough examination, analysis and correlation of parameters involved, towards the principles of sustainable and smart city development. A significant part of the cultural heritage of towns and cities worldwide is the built heritage. The historic centre of several European cities has been preserved

  1. Urban fringe renewal with urban catalysts elements: connections in an unconnected area

    OpenAIRE

    Yanru, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Based on Santa Coloma as a main case,analyzing how can be update there in this crisis situation to do suitable interventions to achieve a great effect. After analyzing the Santa Coloma area,I pay attention to its urban marginality.It has the territorial marginality,the marginality of the relationship with Barcelona,the marginality of the people and life style and so on. Urban fringe is corresponding the city center, the city of mainstream.The socalled "fringe" can be underst...

  2. Studies on wind environment around high buildings in urban areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Huizhi; JIANG; Yujun; LIANG; Bin; ZHU; Fengrong; ZHAN

    2005-01-01

    High buildings or architectural complex in urban areas remarkably distort the urban surface wind fields. As the air flow approaches,local strong wind may appear around the buildings. The strong wind makes the pedestrians on sidewalks, entrances and terrace very uncomfortable and causes the pedestrian level wind environment problem. In this studies, hot-wire wind measurement, wind scouring in wind tunnel and numerical computation were carried out to evaluate the wind environment of tall buildings in the prevailing flow conditions in Beijing areas. The results obtained by three techniques were compared and mutually verified. The conclusions drawn from three approaches agree with each other. Also the advantages and limitations of each method were analyzed. It is suggested that the combination of different techniques may produce better assessment of wind environment around high buildings.

  3. Geological characterization of contaminated sites in urban areas (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Nissen, Randi Warncke; Poulsen, Søren Erbs;

    2015-01-01

    In Denmark, contaminations from industry and farming represent a significant threat to groundwater resources. Hence there is a focus on identifying and locating these contaminated places. Once located, contaminations are mapped and monitored and remediation efforts are undertaken. Remediation...... is often time consuming and expensive. Moreover, as cities expand, many contaminations are now located in urban areas where data compilation and remediation efforts are often challenged by logistics. The general lack of knowledge about theses contaminations introduces significant uncertainties...... in the projections on the fate of the contaminant. From two contaminated sites located around the city of Horsens, Denmark we carry out a geological characterization. The two sites are situated in urban areas. Existing data from the two field sites includes only lithological profiles from boreholes. In order...

  4. Prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in the five urban regions of Brazil-the Brazilian COPCORD study (BRAZCO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis-Neto, Edgard Torres; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi; Kowalski, Sérgio Candido; Pinheiro, Geraldo da Rocha Castelar; Sato, Emilia Inoue

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSK-S) in the five urban geographical regions of Brazil using the Portuguese version of the Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) core questionnaire (CQ)-BRAZCO study. From April to May 2013, a population-based survey was conducted by applying the CQ for 5000 individuals aged over 15 years in 16 capitals of the Brazilian regions. Trained teams assessed the MSK-S and socioeconomic status. The sample consisted of representative quotas of the Brazilian population, proportional to the capitals' population density. It respected the groups' quotas of gender and age and included all socioeconomic classes, educational levels, and occupations. There were 1342 (26.9 %) participants who presented MSK-S unrelated to trauma in 7 days preceding the interview. A higher prevalence of these complaints were in females (65.2 %), elderly people, in the north region of the country (30.7 %), and a lower prevalence was found in single individuals (41.7 %) and in the south (23.3 %). The most frequent pain sites were the spine (76.7 %) and knees (49.6 %), and the mean pain intensity was 6.8 (VAS). The BRAZCO study shows that Brazilian population presents a higher rate of MSK-S unrelated to trauma than many Asian countries. These results can be applied to guide the assessment of prevalence of rheumatic diseases. Additionally, it can help in the design of policies for health care workforce organization and its accessibility, as well as to reduce the risk of rheumatic diseases at the community level. PMID:25963999

  5. Biodiversity, Urban Areas, and Agriculture: Locating Priority Ecoregions for Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Imhoff; Taylor Ricketts

    2003-01-01

    Urbanization and agriculture are two of the most important threats to biodiversity worldwide. The intensities of these land-use phenomena, however, as well as levels of biodiversity itself, differ widely among regions. Thus, there is a need to develop a quick but rigorous method of identifying where high levels of human threats and biodiversity coincide. These areas are clear priorities for biodiversity conservation. In this study, we combine distribution data for eight major plant and animal...

  6. Autonomous navigation for low-altitude UAVs in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Castelli, Thomas; Sharghi, Aidean; Harper, Don; Tremeau, Alain; Shah, Mubarak

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, consumer Unmanned Aerial Vehicles have become very popular, everyone can buy and fly a drone without previous experience, which raises concern in regards to regulations and public safety. In this paper, we present a novel approach towards enabling safe operation of such vehicles in urban areas. Our method uses geodetically accurate dataset images with Geographical Information System (GIS) data of road networks and buildings provided by Google Maps, to compute a weighted A* sh...

  7. GROWTH AND DECLINE OF URBAN AREAS IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Antonescu, Daniela; POPA Florina

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation process in Romania followed a variable growth trajectory (that intensified), stagnation and, in the last period, a slightly decreasing trend. Thus, the years between the sixties to the nineties were characterised by marked development, concomitantly with population increase in small- and medium-sized towns. After the year 1990, the developments were different from one urban area to another: some succeeded in adjusting quicker to the new conditions; others were overwhelmed by ...

  8. Organic compounds in the urban dusts in Celje area

    OpenAIRE

    Gorazd Žibret

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the analysis of organic chemicals in different urban dusts. The aim of the researchis preliminary evaluation of the presence of organic contaminants in household dust, attic dust and streetsediment. Celje area has been chosen as a pilot study site due to availability of sampling materials from previoussampling campaigns. Samples have been tested to the presence of 120 organic compounds. Attic dust contains 98different organic compounds or 82 % of all measure...

  9. 77 FR 18651 - Qualifying Urban Areas for the 2010 Census

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... urban area criteria published in the Federal Register on August 24, 2011 (76 FR 53030).\\4\\ This Notice...,348 Bloomfield, IN 2,521 Bloomfield, NM 9,892 Blountstown, FL 4,751 Blue Earth, MN 3,257 Bluefield, WV... Irwin, CA 8,845 Fort Leonard Wood, MO 29,257 Fort Lupton, CO 9,055 Fort Madison, IA--IL 10,848...

  10. Processes of deagrarization and urbanization of Slovene rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Klemenčič

    2015-01-01

    The treatise deals with elements of the processes of differentiation of Slovene rural areas which have been differentiated during the last four decades under the condition of industrialization and the concept of polycentric regional development into regions of urbanization, regions of transition and regions of depopulation. This differentiation was accompanied by the growth of the number of the population which was employed in industries and consequently quick decline in the percentage of agr...

  11. Probabilistic assessment of seismic risk in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Armando; Pujades Beneit, Lluís; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Ordaz Schroder, Mario Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    A probabilistic approach to estimate the expected seismic physical damage of existing buildings in urban areas is presented. The main steps of the procedure are seismic hazard, vulnerability and structural response. These three steps are undertaken with a fully probabilistic point of view. Seismic hazard is assessed by means of the annual rate of exceedance of a parameter quantifying the expected seismic action. Buildings may be characterized by a class in a building typology matrix and/or by...

  12. Safety aspects of nuclear power plants nearby urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Environmental Experts Council smaller reactors would correspond best to the heat demand of the Federal Republic of Germany. The study discusses and investigates into the present safety concepts and site selection criteria, trends towards power plant sites nearby urban areas, site-dependent parameters and their influence on the extent of damage, protective aims, compatibility of the protective aims proposed, and the protective measures required. (DG)

  13. Traffic of Ljubljana and Münster urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Špela Verovšek

    2008-01-01

    The article presents an attempt to compare traffic indicators and the state of traffic in Ljubljana and Münster and their gravitational hinterland. The purpose is to present individual aspects of passenger traffic system of Ljubljana and Münster and to deal with their traffic connectedness with a wider urban space. The work defines also the analysis of inhabitants' travelling habits and the intensity of road traffic flows at the passage from a broader area to a city.

  14. GROWTH AND DECLINE OF URBAN AREAS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela ANTONESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The urbanisation process in Romania followed a variable growth trajectory (that intensified, stagnation and, in the last period, a slightly decreasing trend. Thus, the years between the sixties to the nineties were characterised by marked development, concomitantly with population increase in small- and medium-sized towns. After the year 1990, the developments were different from one urban area to another: some succeeded in adjusting quicker to the new conditions; others were overwhelmed by the new town status. Currently, they are facing a series of problems triggered both by internal factors (urban agglomeration, pollution, built-environment deterioration, decrease in living standards quality, etc., and external ones (EU integration, globalisation, financial crisis, etc..Currently, urban areas draw increasingly more attention due to their important potential and to the role played in the current integration and economicand social cohesion process. The present article intends to capture the urbanisation process evolution in Romania and to identify current difficulties and opportunities confronting these areas.

  15. Urban heat evolution in a tropical area utilizing Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanollahi, Jamil; Tzanis, Chris; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Abdullah, Ahmad Makmom

    2016-01-01

    Cloud cover is the main limitation of using remote sensing to study Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) change, and Land Surface Temperature (LST) in tropical area like Malaysia. In order to study LULC change and its effect on LST, the Landsat images were utilized within Geographical Information System (GIS) with the aim of removing the effect of cloud cover and image's gaps on the Digital Number (DN) of the pixels. 5356 points according to pixels coordinate which represent the 960 m to 960 m area were created in GIS environment and matched with thermal bands of the study area in remote sensing environment. The DNs of these points were processed to extract LST and imported in GIS environment to derive the temperature maps. Temperature was found to be generally higher in 2010 than in 2000. The comparison of the highest temperature area in the temperature maps with ground stations data showed that the topographical characteristics of the area, and the wind speed, and direction influence the occurrence of Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. This study concludes that integration of remote sensing data and GIS is a useful tool in urban LST detection in tropical area.

  16. A Theory on the Ventilation over Hypothetical Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Ho; Ng, Chi-To; Wong, Colman C. C.

    2013-04-01

    Urban roughness is one of the major factors affecting the flows and turbulence structures in the bottom of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Whereas, our understanding of their relation is limited. In this paper, we attempt to examine the interaction among aerodynamic resistance (friction factor f), ventilation (air exchange rate ACH), and pollutant removal (pollutant removal rate PCH). Using the method of characteristic, analytical solution shows that the turbulent ventilation of a hypothetical urban area is directly proportional to the square root of friction factor (ACH? f1-2) regardless of the building geometry. Next, a series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) sensitivity tests are performed to verify the theory. In addition to the commonly employed rectangular building models, seven types of urban roughness elements, in the form of idealized building models, are tested. As a pilot study, the building models are of the same height so a roof level is easily defined across the entire hypothetical urban areas. Two configurations of passive scalar sources, ground-level-only (vehicular emission) and all-solid-boundary (heat dissipation), are employed to contrast their transport behaviors. To look into the mechanism of ventilation and pollutant removal, the ACH and PCH are partitioned into their respective mean and turbulent components. The CFD results show that both the ventilation and pollutant removal are mainly attributed to their turbulent components (over 60%). Moreover, the ACH″ and f1-2 calculation from the CFD results agree very well with the analytical solution (correlation coefficient over 0.9). However, the pollutant and heat exhibit different removal behaviors so simple estimates using friction factor have not yet arrived. Because of the substantial aged air removal by ACH″ and its linear relation with f1-2, it is proposed to use friction factor, which can be determined by wind tunnel experiments or mathematical modeling, as a

  17. Association between religiousness and blood donation among Brazilian postgraduate students from health-related areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Zangiacomi Martinez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between religiousness and blood donation among postgraduate students.METHODS: The Portuguese-language version of the Duke University Religion Index was administered to a sample of 226 Brazilian students with ages ranging from 22 to 55 years. All study participants had completed undergraduate courses in health-related areas.RESULTS: In the present study, 23.5% of the students were regular donors. Organizational religiousness was found to be associated with attitudes related to blood donation. This study also shows evidence that regular blood donors have a higher intrinsic religiousness than subjects who donate only once and do not return.CONCLUSION: This study shows that the attitudes concerning blood donation may have some association with religiosity.

  18. [Characteristics of atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition in Beijing urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng-Wu; Ren, Yu-Fen; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Mao, Yu-Xiang

    2014-02-01

    With the ion-exchange resin method, the atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition in Beijing urban area within the Fifth Ring Road was investigated from June to October, 2012. The relationship between atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition and rainfall precipitation was investigated, the differences of nitrogen wet deposition in different months, different ring roads (the Fifth Ring Road, the Fourth Ring Road, the Third Ring Road and the Second Ring Road) and different functional areas (institutes and colleges district, ring-road, residential areas, railway station and public garden) were also investigated. The results showed that the average value and standard deviation of ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen were significantly different during different months in 2012. The atmospheric nitrite nitrogen deposition first decreased and then increased, the maximum value appeared in September. The positive relationships between ammonia nitrogen (nitrate nitrogen) and mean monthly precipitation and negative relationships between nitrite nitrogen and mean monthly precipitation were both significant (P depositions of ring-road and railway station were higher than other functional areas, but only the nitrite nitrogen deposition had obvious regional difference. The differences of the three nitrogen depositions among different ring roads were all not significant and it meant that the nitrogen wet deposition was equally distributed in Beijing urban area. PMID:24812938

  19. A theory of ventilation estimate over hypothetical urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Ho; Ng, Chi-To; Wong, Colman C C

    2015-10-15

    Urban roughness is a major factor governing the flows and scalar transport in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) but our understanding is rather limited. The ventilation and pollutant removal of hypothetical urban areas consisting of various types of street canyons are examined using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The aerodynamic resistance, ventilation efficiency, and pollutant removal are measured by the friction factor f, air exchange rate (ACH), and pollutant exchange rate (PCH), respectively. Two source configurations of passive tracer, ground-level-only (Tracer 0) and all-solid-boundary (Tracer 1) are employed to contrast their transport behavior. It is found that the ventilation and pollutant removal are largely attributed to their turbulent components (over 60%). Moreover, with a consistent support from analytical solution and CFD results, the turbulent ACH is a linear function of the square root of the friction factor (ACH'∝f(1/2)) regardless of building geometry. Tracer 0 and Tracer 1 exhibit diversified removal behavior as functions of friction factor so analytical parameterizations have not yet been developed. In view of the large portion of aged air removal by turbulence, it is proposed that the aerodynamic resistance can serve as an estimate to the minimum ventilation efficiency of urban areas.

  20. Conceptual study of superconducting urban area power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Mathias; Bach, Robert; Prusseit, Werner; Willén, Dag; Gold-acker, Wilfried; Poelchau, Juri; Linke, Christian

    2010-06-01

    Efficient transmission, distribution and usage of electricity are fundamental requirements for providing citizens, societies and economies with essential energy resources. It will be a major future challenge to integrate more sustainable generation resources, to meet growing electricity demand and to renew electricity networks. Research and development on superconducting equipment and components have an important role to play in addressing these challenges. Up to now, most studies on superconducting applications in power systems have been concentrated on the application of specific devices like for example cables and current limiters. In contrast to this, the main focus of our study is to show the consequence of a large scale integration of superconducting power equipment in distribution level urban power systems. Specific objectives are to summarize the state-of-the-art of superconducting power equipment including cooling systems and to compare the superconducting power system with respect to energy and economic efficiency with conventional solutions. Several scenarios were considered starting from the replacement of an existing distribution level sub-grid up to a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system. One major result is that a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system could be cost competitive with existing solutions in the future. In addition to that, superconducting power systems offer higher energy efficiency as well as a number of technical advantages like lower voltage drops and improved stability.

  1. Urban-area extraction from polarimetric SAR image using combination of target decomposition and orientation angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bin; Lu, Da; Wu, Zhilu; Qiao, Zhijun G.

    2016-05-01

    The results of model-based target decomposition are the main features used to discriminate urban and non-urban area in polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) application. Traditional urban-area extraction methods based on modelbased target decomposition usually misclassified ground-trunk structure as urban-area or misclassified rotated urbanarea as forest. This paper introduces another feature named orientation angle to improve urban-area extraction scheme for the accurate mapping in urban by PolSAR image. The proposed method takes randomness of orientation angle into account for restriction of urban area first and, subsequently, implements rotation angle to improve results that oriented urban areas are recognized as double-bounce objects from volume scattering. ESAR L-band PolSAR data of the Oberpfaffenhofen Test Site Area was used to validate the proposed algorithm.

  2. Transpiration of urban forests in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, Diane E; McCarthy, Heather R; Litvak, Elizaveta; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for urban planning, landscape management, and water management, there are very few in situ estimates of urban-forest transpiration. Because urban forests contain an unusual and diverse mix of species from many regions worldwide, we hypothesized that species composition would be a more important driver of spatial variability in urban-forest transpiration than meteorological variables in the Los Angeles (California, USA) region. We used constant-heat sap-flow sensors to monitor urban tree water use for 15 species at six locations throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. For many of these species no previous data on sap flux, water use, or water relations were available in the literature. To scale sap-flux measurements to whole trees we conducted a literature survey of radial trends in sap flux across multiple species and found consistent relationships for angiosperms vs. gymnosperms. We applied this relationship to our measurements and estimated whole-tree and plot-level transpiration at our sites. The results supported very large species differences in transpiration, with estimates ranging from 3.2 +/- 2.3 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in unirrigated Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine) to 176.9 +/- 75.2 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in Platanus hybrida (London planetree) in the month of August. Other species with high daily transpiration rates included Ficus microcarpa (laurel fig), Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust), and Platanus racemosa (California sycamore). Despite irrigation and relatively large tree size, Brachychiton populneas (kurrajong), B. discolor (lacebark), Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), and Eucalyptus grandis (grand Eucalyptus) showed relatively low rates of transpiration, with values < 45 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1). When scaled to the plot level, transpiration rates were as high as 2 mm/d for sites that contained both species with high transpiration rates and high densities of planted trees. Because plot-level transpiration is highly

  3. A New Approach for Vegetation Change Detection in Urban Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hui; JIA Yonghong

    2006-01-01

    Because of complex change in urban areas, modified CVA application based on mask techniques can minify the effect of non-vegetation changes and improve upon efficiency to a great extent. Moreover, drawing from methods in polar plots, the technique measures changes with absolute angular and total magnitude of PVI calculated on the basis of linear fit with least-square estimation and GVI calculated using 3D G-S transformation. Finally, this application is performed with Landsat ETM+ imageries of Wuhan in 2002 and 2005, and assessed by error matrix, in the way it could detect change pixels 94.91% correct, and the total consistent coefficient Kappa could reach to 0.85. The evaluation result demonstrates this new application trends as an efficient and effective alternative to urban vegetation change extraction.

  4. A global take on congestion in urban areas

    CERN Document Server

    Barthelemy, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the congestion data collected by a GPS device company (TomTom) for almost 300 urban areas in the world. Using simple scaling arguments and data fitting we show that congestion during peak hours in large cities grows essentially as the square root of the population density. This result, at odds with previous publications showing that gasoline consumption decreases with density, confirms that density is indeed an important determinant of congestion, but also that we need urgently a better theoretical understanding of this phenomena. This incomplete view at the urban level leads thus to the idea that thinking about density by itself could be very misleading in congestion studies, and that it is probably more useful to focus on the spatial redistribution of activities and residences.

  5. Evaluation of water quality parameters for monitoring natural, urban, and agricultural areas in the Brazilian Cerrado Avaliação de parâmetros de qualidade de água para monitoramento de áreas naturais, urbanas e agrícolas no Cerrado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Heloisa de Freitas Muniz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil's Federal District (FD has seen steep population growth in recent years, and this has increased demand for high-quality water. AIM: The present work aims to evaluate the quality of surface water from two water bodies in the FD at six sampling points, three of which are in the Sobradinho River (the receiving body of a sewage treatment plant effluent and three in the Jardim River (located in an agricultural region. METHODS: Analyses were carried out every thirty days, for twelve months, covering rainy and dry seasons. Parameters were analyzed such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, main ions, total and fecal coliforms (E. coli in water. Ecotoxicological evaluation was also performed, using the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTS: Data of physical and chemical determinations showed DO, conductivity, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2- and Na+ to be important in indicating contamination by urban effluents. On the subject of biological parameters - E. coli and ecotoxicological evaluation - the former was seen to be more effective in the urban area. However, in the countryside, the assay with C. dubia proved to be the most sensitive, although less than ideal, because the organism is very sensitive to low water hardness. CONCLUSIONS: The fecal coliform indicator (E. coli was the most effective one for comparing water quality in the two basins, mainly for the urbanized one, while ecotoxicity assays with C. dubia were harmed by the natural chemical composition of the water.INTRODUÇÃO: O Distrito Federal (DF tem apresentado grande crescimento populacional nos últimos anos, o que vem ocasionando aumento da necessidade por água de qualidade, tanto pelas cidades quanto pela área rural. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da água superficial de dois corpos hídricos no DF em seis pontos de amostragem, três localizados no Ribeirão Sobradinho (corpo receptor de

  6. A detailed study on Catchment delineation for Urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, B.; B M, A.; Lohani, B.; Jain, A.

    2015-12-01

    Urban flood modelling is carried out for predicting, analysing and planning of floods in urban areas. Catchment information is an important input for urban flood modelling. Automatic catchment delineation at gully gratings for urban areas using appropriate software packages/methods along with an appropriate set of input data and parameters is still a research challenge. Considering the above, the aim of this study is to (i) identify the best suitable software for automatic catchment delineation by considering gully grating as outlet (ii) understand the effect of resolution of DEM on catchments delineated (iii) understand whether to consider DEM or DSM for catchment delineation (iv) study the effect of grid based and TIN based DEM. In this study catchment delineation has been investigated considering IIT Kanpur as a study site. LiDAR data are used to generate DEM/DSM of the study area. A comparative study of catchment delineation has been carried out between ArcHydro 10.1, BASINS 4.1, ArcSWAT, WMS 7.1, and HEC-GeoHMS approaches. Catchments have been delineated for different drainage threshold areas using gully grating points as outlets and their effects have been compared for the aforementioned software. In order to understand the effect of resolution of data, DEMs of 1m and 5m resolution have been generated and compared against each other. Effects of building ridge lines and their contribution to catchment delineation has been studied by generating a DSM of 1m resolution, and comparing the results with catchments delineated using 1m DEM. In order to assess the effects of the types of DEM over catchment delineation, a grid based DEM and TIN based DEM are compared against each other using WMS 7.1 software. The results for the catchment delineation using various software illustrate that ArcHydro 10.1 performs better than any other aforementioned software. Also, it is noted that varied drainage threshold area parameters, resolutions of DEM, selection of DEM

  7. Biodiversity, Urban Areas, and Agriculture: Locating Priority Ecoregions for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Imhoff

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and agriculture are two of the most important threats to biodiversity worldwide. The intensities of these land-use phenomena, however, as well as levels of biodiversity itself, differ widely among regions. Thus, there is a need to develop a quick but rigorous method of identifying where high levels of human threats and biodiversity coincide. These areas are clear priorities for biodiversity conservation. In this study, we combine distribution data for eight major plant and animal taxa (comprising over 20,000 species with remotely sensed measures of urban and agricultural land use to assess conservation priorities among 76 terrestrial ecoregions in North America. We combine the species data into overall indices of richness and endemism. We then plot each of these indices against the percent cover of urban and agricultural land in each ecoregion, resulting in four separate comparisons. For each comparison, ecoregions that fall above the 66th quantile on both axes are identified as priorities for conservation. These analyses yield four “priority sets” of 6–16 ecoregions (8–21% of the total number where high levels of biodiversity and human land use coincide. These ecoregions tend to be concentrated in the southeastern United States, California, and, to a lesser extent, the Atlantic coast, southern Texas, and the U.S. Midwest. Importantly, several ecoregions are members of more than one priority set and two ecoregions are members of all four sets. Across all 76 ecoregions, urban cover is positively correlated with both species richness and endemism. Conservation efforts in densely populated areas therefore may be equally important (if not more so as preserving remote parks in relatively pristine regions.

  8. The Low Backscattering Targets Classification in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.

    2012-07-01

    The Polarimetric and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (POLINSAR) is widely used in urban area nowadays. Because of the physical and geometric sensitivity, the POLINSAR is suitable for the city classification, power-lines detection, building extraction, etc. As the new X-band POLINSAR radar, the china prototype airborne system, XSAR works with high spatial resolution in azimuth (0.1 m) and slant range (0.4 m). In land applications, SAR image classification is a useful tool to distinguish the interesting area and obtain the target information. The bare soil, the cement road, the water and the building shadow are common scenes in the urban area. As it always exists low backscattering sign objects (LBO) with the similar scattering mechanism (all odd bounce except for shadow) in the XSAR images, classes are usually confused in Wishart-H-Alpha and Freeman-Durden methods. It is very hard to distinguish those targets only using the general information. To overcome the shortage, this paper explores an improved algorithm for LBO refined classification based on the Pre-Classification in urban areas. Firstly, the Pre-Classification is applied in the polarimetric datum and the mixture class is marked which contains LBO. Then, the polarimetric covariance matrix C3 is re-estimated on the Pre-Classification results to get more reliable results. Finally, the occurrence space which combining the entropy and the phase-diff standard deviation between HH and VV channel is used to refine the Pre-Classification results. The XSAR airborne experiments show the improved method is potential to distinguish the mixture classes in the low backscattering objects.

  9. THE LOW BACKSCATTERING TARGETS CLASSIFICATION IN URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Polarimetric and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (POLINSAR is widely used in urban area nowadays. Because of the physical and geometric sensitivity, the POLINSAR is suitable for the city classification, power-lines detection, building extraction, etc. As the new X-band POLINSAR radar, the china prototype airborne system, XSAR works with high spatial resolution in azimuth (0.1 m and slant range (0.4 m. In land applications, SAR image classification is a useful tool to distinguish the interesting area and obtain the target information. The bare soil, the cement road, the water and the building shadow are common scenes in the urban area. As it always exists low backscattering sign objects (LBO with the similar scattering mechanism (all odd bounce except for shadow in the XSAR images, classes are usually confused in Wishart-H-Alpha and Freeman-Durden methods. It is very hard to distinguish those targets only using the general information. To overcome the shortage, this paper explores an improved algorithm for LBO refined classification based on the Pre-Classification in urban areas. Firstly, the Pre-Classification is applied in the polarimetric datum and the mixture class is marked which contains LBO. Then, the polarimetric covariance matrix C3 is re-estimated on the Pre-Classification results to get more reliable results. Finally, the occurrence space which combining the entropy and the phase-diff standard deviation between HH and VV channel is used to refine the Pre-Classification results. The XSAR airborne experiments show the improved method is potential to distinguish the mixture classes in the low backscattering objects.

  10. Urbanization and ambient quality: the prodution process of the brazilian coast space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Borelli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This text discuss about the question of the relations between urbanization and ambient quality in the coastal zone. The increasing degradation of coastal ecosystems is provoked by the disordered urban expansion, in function of the interests of the capital. Real estate speculation, irregular land divisions, predatory tourism, clandestine nestings, demographic growth with significant migratory movement, are elements that exemplifies the urbanization process that comes occurring of disordered form in the region. The picture of social ambient aggravates, given the negative consequences on the quality of life provoked by the pollution and beach degradation, rivers and streams, for the deforestation, the destruction of fens and the practice of predatory fishes, in way to the social exclusion of the native population. The analysis of the facts evidences a problematic aggravation of the urban throughout the time, with the deepening disequilibrium of the ambient and also bringing effects to the social economy of the region.

  11. Richness of Marchantiophyta and Bryophyta in a protected area of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Priscila Costa Macedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The bryophytes of Gurupi Biological Reserve represent an important component of the biodiversity of the Amazon in the Brazilian state of Maranhão. This study aimed to investigate the richness of bryophytes (Marchantiophyta and Bryophyta from Gurupi Biological Reserve and compare it with that found in other surveys conducted in Maranhão and in the northeastern part of the state of Pará, because the latter shows similarities with the study area in terms of vegetation, geography, demography, and history of occupation. We recorded 983 occurrences of bryophytes (549 Marchantiophyta and 434 Bryophyta corresponding to 62 species (43 liverworts and 19 mosses, 39 genera, and 12 families. Of those 62 species, 25 have previously been collected from all regions of Brazil, two are restricted to two regions, and four are restricted to the northern (Amazon region. The bryophyte species identified within the reserve correspond to 28.9% of the known bryophytes in Maranhão and 31.3% of the known bryophytes in northeastern Pará, the reserve therefore more closely resembling the latter area. The exclusively Amazonian elements found in the reserve underscore their affinity for this biome and their presence in the state of Maranhão. The importance of this conservation area to Maranhão and to the Amazon region of the state is confirmed by the high number of new records for the state (41 species, five of which are also new records for northeastern Brazil.

  12. Long-term landscape evolution of the southeast Brazilian highlands: comparison of two alkaline intrusions areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doranti Tiritan, Carolina; Hackspacher, Peter Christian; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton

    2016-04-01

    The southeast Brazilian highlands records a long history of tectonic and magmatic events that were consequence of the South Atlantic Ocean opening. After the rifting process has ceased, an epeirogenic uplift of the continental crust has started in response to the drifting of the South American Platform over a thermal anomaly that accompanied an intense alkaline and basaltic magmatism. Related Late Cretaceous alkaline intrusions are distributed from the southeast Brazilian coast to the interior of the South American Platform. The landscape evolution is associated with several distinct exhumation events at the South American passive continental margin (Hackspacher 2004; Doranti et al, 2014). The present study intent providing insights on the behaviour of the coupled magmatic tectonic-erosional system, comparing thermochronological data from two alkaline intrusions, Poços de Caldas Alkaline Massif (PCAM) and São Sebastião Island (SSI). The PCAM is the biggest alkaline structure located in the interior of the continent, 300km from the coastline (Rio de Janeiro). The structure is formed as a caldera, covering over 800km2, intruding Precambrian basement around 83Ma, nepheline syenites, phonolites and tinguaites intruded in a continuous and rapid sequence lasting between 1 to 2 Ma. Meanwhile, the SSI (236km²) is located at the coast, 200 km southeast of the city of São Paulo and is characterized by an intrusion in Precambrian granitic-gnaissic rocks affected by the Panafrican/Brazilian Orogen. This crystalline basement is intruded by Early Cretaceous subalkaline basic and acid dykes, as well as by Late Cretaceous alkaline stocks (syenites) and dykes (basanite to phonolite). The Apatite Fission-Track ages for PCAM range from 333.3±27.6 to 94.0±13.7 Ma at the surrounded metamorphic basement area, and 76.8±10.9 to 48.7±10.7 Ma in the alkaline Massif. The older ages, are concentrated on the lower topography region (700 until 1200m) in the north side alkaline massif

  13. [Human African trypanosomiasis in an urban area: an emerging problem?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, F J; Bilenge, C M; Simarro, P P; Meso, V Kande; Lucas, P; Jannin, J

    2003-08-01

    The human African trypanosomiasis is essentially a rural disease. The notification of cases in urban area has always been incidental; either a diagnosis made in town revealed a disease contracted in rural environment or it meant the preservation of a complete epidemiological cycle in a remaining urban micro-focus. In Kinshasa, in Democratic Republic of Congo, about forty cases have been notified each year. All of them came from the nearby foci of Bandundu, Lower Congo and Kasaï. In 1996 the number of cases reached suddenly 254 and today the average annual number comes up to 500 in spite of all the efforts undertaken to fight the disease. A study of cases in 1998 and 1999 shows that patients are essentially distributed in suburbs and that the most affected by the disease are the 15-49 year old ones whose job is related with agricultural or fishing activities. Two phenomena seem to explain this sudden increase: the massive inflow of refugees in outskirts of town coming from provinces where trypanosomiasis is endemic and a major economic crisis throwing out urban population in suburbs living on a subsistence micro-agriculture. These concomitant factors have contributed to the setting up of a trypanosomiasis belt around the capital. Today a strategy has to be reconsidered in order to fight against the disease in the capital itself and to make the medical staff aware of the diagnosis of a disease still unknown in their sanitary district.

  14. Congestion, air pollution, and road fatalities in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, D

    1994-08-01

    The continuous rapid growth in vehicle miles travelled coupled with the rapid increase in traffic congestion on highways of virtually every large urban area, explain a major portion of the observed deterioration of urban air quality. To halt this deterioration and to secure safe and healthy environments and improve the quality of life in our cities, it is useful to initiate and implement programs that treat jointly traffic congestion, air quality, and road safety. Market-based strategies, driven by price mechanisms, have been proposed as the best and most efficient way to decrease traffic congestion and to reduce vehicle emission. Congestion pricing, emission fees, reducing emissions of high-polluting vehicles, and introducing more efficient vehicle and/or fuel technologies are not mutually exclusive strategies and therefore they can be employed jointly within an overall strategy. In view of the conflicting objectives that may exist between improving urban air quality and reducing road fatalities and traffic congestion, it is of great importance to investigate thoroughly these functional relationships. The results of such studies will help decision makers identify the "socially optimal level of congestion" that will yield the highest net social benefit. PMID:7522455

  15. LCA of selective waste collection systems in dense urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents research concerning the environmental analysis of the selective collection management of municipal solid waste. The main goal of this study is to quantify and to compare, by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the potential environmental impacts of three selective collection systems modelled on densely populated urban areas. These systems are: the mobile pneumatic, the multi-container and the door-to-door. Impact assessment method based on CML 2 baseline 2000 is applied to the different systems. The study separates and analyzes the collection systems in substages: two urban substages and one inter-city substage. At the urban level, the multi-container system has the least environmental impact of all systems. The mobile pneumatic system has greater environmental impacts in terms of global warming, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification and eutrophication. In this system, the pipes and the pneumatic transport have the greatest impacts. The door-to-door system has a greatest environmental impact in terms of abiotic depletion, ozone layer depletion and human toxicity. An overall evaluation of the three substages, with a sensitivity analysis, indicates that the mobile pneumatic system at an inter-city distance of 20 km shows the greatest environmental impacts and the greatest energy demand. Inter-city transport is key; the results show that from an inter-city distance of 11 km onwards, this becomes the substage which most contributes to global warming impact and energy demand, in all the systems. PMID:18657964

  16. Applicability of three complementary relationship models for estimating actual evapotranspiration in urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamichi Takeshi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of evapotranspiration estimated by the complementary relationship actual evapotranspiration (CRAE, the advection-aridity (AA, and the modified advection-aridity (MAA models were investigated in six pairs of rural and urban areas of Japan in order to evaluate the applicability of the three models the urban area. The main results are as follows: 1 The MAA model could apply to estimating the actual evapotranspiration in the urban area. 2 The actual evapotranspirations estimated by the three models were much less in the urban area than in the rural. 3 The difference among the estimated values of evapotranspiration in the urban areas was significant, depending on each model, while the difference among the values in the rural areas was relatively small. 4 All three models underestimated the actual evapotranspiration in the urban areas from humid surfaces where water and green spaces exist. 5 Each model could take the effect of urbanization into account.

  17. Qualification of small wind turbines for urban areas; Qualificacao de turbinas eolicas de pequeno porte para areas urbanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, Xavier; Sabre, Maeva; Palier, Pierre [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment (France)

    2010-05-15

    The wind turbines manufacturers have proposed different types in the range of 1 to 20 k W, designed especially to urban environment. However, the urban wind energy needs to overcome many challenges to guarantee its efficiency. This article presents a procedure for qualification of the equipment used in urban areas, including factors associated to its aerodynamics, mechanics and power production.

  18. The Colombian side of the colombian-brazilian border. An approach using the category of lawless area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Trejos Rosero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the category of lawless areas as an approach to the complex security situation resulting from increasing ties between localized criminality and transnational organized crime networks on the Colombian side of the Colombian-Brazilian border. The permanent presence of illegal armed actors in this border area is largely caused by the absence and weak presence of the Colombian State at its margins. The methodology used is both bibliographic and descriptive.

  19. Modelling the force of infection for hepatitis A in an urban population-based survey: a comparison of transmission patterns in Brazilian macro-regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify the transmission pattern of hepatitis A (HA infection based on a primary dataset from the Brazilian National Hepatitis Survey in a pre-vaccination context. The national survey conducted in urban areas disclosed two epidemiological scenarios with low and intermediate HA endemicity. METHODS: A catalytic model of HA transmission was built based on a national seroprevalence survey (2005 to 2009. The seroprevalence data from 7,062 individuals aged 5-69 years from all the Brazilian macro-regions were included. We built up three models: fully homogeneous mixing model, with constant contact pattern; the highly assortative model and the highly assortative model with the additional component accounting for contacts with infected food/water. Curves of prevalence, force of infection (FOI and the number of new infections with 99% confidence intervals (CIs were compared between the intermediate (North, Northeast, Midwest and Federal District and low (South and Southeast endemicity areas. A contour plot was also constructed. RESULTS: The anti- HAV IgG seroprevalence was 68.8% (95% CI, 64.8%-72.5% and 33.7% (95% CI, 32.4%-35.1% for the intermediate and low endemicity areas, respectively, according to the field data analysis. The models showed that a higher force of infection was identified in the 10- to 19-year-old age cohort (∼9,000 infected individuals per year per 100,000 susceptible persons in the intermediate endemicity area, whereas a higher force of infection occurred in the 15- to 29-year-old age cohort (∼6,000 infected individuals per year per 100,000 susceptible persons for the other macro-regions. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the shift of Brazil toward intermediate and low endemicity levels with the shift of the risk of infection to older age groups. These estimates of HA force of infection stratified by age and endemicity levels are useful information to characterize the pre-vaccination scenario in

  20. BUDEM: An urban growth simulation model using CA for Beijing metropolitan area

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Ying; Shen, Zhenjiang; Du, Liqun; Mao, Qizhi; Gao, Zhanping

    2008-01-01

    It is in great need of identifying the future urban form of Beijing, which faces challenges of rapid growth in urban development projects implemented in Beijing. We develop Beijing Urban Developing Model (BUDEM in short) to support urban planning and corresponding policies evaluation. BUDEM is the spatio-temporal dynamic model for simulating urban growth in Beijing metropolitan area, using cellular automata (CA) and Multi-agent system (MAS) approaches. In this phase, the computer simulation u...

  1. Genetic polymorphism in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildes Solange da Costa Barcelos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate genetic polymorphisms in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographical areas and to relate them to antibody recognition in serum samples of neurocysticercosis (NC patients. Metacestodes were obtained from the Distrito Federal (DF, Bahia, Minas Gerais (MG and São Paulo (SP regions of Brazil. Samples of human sera from 49 individuals with NC, 68 individuals with other helminthiasis and 40 healthy volunteers were analysed (157 individuals in total. Antigens were prepared and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting assays to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Genetic distances between metacestode populations were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Our results show that there was a higher frequency of reactivity in the DF region in the sera from NC patients (p < 0.05, while discrimination between active and inactive NC was seen only in extracts from the MG and SP regions (p < 0.05. Using RAPD, the sample from the DF region presented a greater increase compared to the other regions. A relationship between genetic polymorphisms among T. solium metacestodes from different areas in Brazil and the differences in antibody detection in patients with NC were established.

  2. Assessment and statistics of Brazilian hydroelectric power plants: Dam areas versus installed and firm power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian relief, predominantly composed by small mountains and plateaus, contributed to formation of rivers with high amount of falls. With exception to North-eastern Brazil, the climate of this country are rainy, which contributes to maintain water flows high. These elements are essential to a high hydroelectric potential, contributing to the choice of hydroelectric power plants as the main technology of electricity generation in Brazil. Though this is a renewable source, whose utilized resource is free, dams must to be established which generates a high environmental and social impact. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact caused by these dams through the use of environmental indexes. These indexes are ratio formed by installed power with dam area of a hydro power plant, and ratio formed by firm power with this dam area. In this study, the greatest media values were found in South, Southeast, and Northeast regions respectively, and the smallest media values were found in North and Mid-West regions, respectively. The greatest encountered media indexes were also found in dams established in the 1950s. In the last six decades, the smallest indexes were registered by dams established in the 1980s. These indexes could be utilized as important instruments for environmental impact assessments, and could enable a dam to be established that depletes an ecosystem as less as possible. (author)

  3. A New Model for Simulating TSS Washoff in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Crobeddu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the formulation and validation of the conceptual Runoff Quality Simulation Model (RQSM that was developed to simulate the erosion and transport of solid particles in urban areas. The RQSM assumes that solid particle accumulation on pervious and impervious areas is infinite. The RQSM simulates soil erosion using rainfall kinetic energy and solid particle transport with linear system theory. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the RQSM to show the influence of each parameter on the simulated load. Total suspended solid (TSS loads monitored at the outlet of the borough of Verdun in Canada and at three catchment outlets of the City of Champaign in the United States were used to validate the RQSM. TSS loads simulated by the RQSM were compared to measured loads and to loads simulated by the Rating Curve model and the Exponential model of the SWMM software. The simulation performance of the RQSM was comparable to the Exponential and Rating Curve models.

  4. 75 FR 52173 - Proposed Urban Area Criteria for the 2010 Census

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... classifications. I. History Over the course of a century in defining urban areas, the Census Bureau has introduced... (GIS) and spatial data processing to classify urban and rural territory on a more consistent...

  5. Energy and other resource conservation within urbanizing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Peter G.

    1982-05-01

    The reported research seeks to answer several questions regarding energy conservation within urbanizing areas. As a practical matter, to what extent can dependence upon exhaustible resources be reduced? Can these reductions be achieved without severely impairing social well-being and environmental quality? And, what seem to be the prevailing institutional constraints limiting energy conservation within urbanizing areas? The study area was the proposed “downtown” of The Woodlands, a new town north of Houston, Texas. Two plans were developed for this area. In one, no particular attempt was made to conserve energy (conventional plan), while in the other, energy conservation was a primary consideration (conservation plan). For both plans, estimates were made of energy consumption within buildings, in the transportation sector, and in the actual production of building materials themselves (embodied energy). In addition, economic and environmental analyses were performed, including investigation of other resource issues such as water supply, solid waste disposal, stormwater management, and atmospheric emissions. Alternative on-site power systems were also investigated. Within the bounds of economic feasibility and development practicality, it was found that application of energy-conserving methods could yield annual energy savings of as much as 23%, and reduce dependence on prime fuels by 30%. Adverse economic effects on consumers were found to be minimal and environmental quality could be sustained. The major institutional constraints appeared to be those associated with traditional property ownership and with the use of common property resources. The resistance to change of everyday practices in land development and building industries also seemed to constrain potential applications.

  6. Urban areas of Carbonia (Sardinia, Italy): anthropogenic and natural sinkhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureddu, A.; Corda, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    This work aims to contribute to knowledge on the phenomena of sinkholes in the urban area of Carbonia, primed mostly as a result of mining in underground coal Sulcis, as well as natural causes, in the hills and valleys structurated on the bedrock of Cambrian area, in the localities of Cannas and Serbariu. During the exploitation of the coal deposits, (so called Lignitifero), mines of the Sulcis Area, in over a century of mining, have produced large underground excavations, which were extracted more than 50 million tons of coal and large quantities of tailings. On older crops of mineral minings centers of Serbariu, Cortoghiana and Bacu Abis, the mining operations reached the depth of 300 meters from the surface of the country, over 100 meters below sea level. In the late of 1960, following the closure of the mines, were manifested in the temporal effects of the disruptions caused by the collapse of underground voids, affecting a much wider area of the below mining cultivations. The first signs of instability are occurred with the sudden opening of large potholes and structural damage to buildings up area of Bacu Abis, in neighboring areas to the Mine of Serbariu, intended for production facilities ("Su Landiri Durci"), and along certain streets service. In the case of mine "Serbariu" located on the outskirts of the urban west Carbonia, exploited in the period between 1940 and 1964, the cultivation of the layers of coal left in place, at short depth from the surface level, consisting of empty mines, with more than 5 km of galleries. So, have been found important effects of instability of the soil in urban areas and in the recently built road infrastructure linking lots of settlements. The area affected by mining operations has an area of over 4 square kilometers, is covered in part by the built environment and road infrastructure of regional and state level. In the mining center, now converted to craft and commercial area, have continued various undergrounds mining

  7. STRATEGIC PLANNING OF INNOVATION GOAL-SETTING IN DEVELOPMENT OF URBAN AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Murzin

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on the development of the goal setting concept in the strategic urban development and the identification of innovative priorities for sustainable development of urban areas, acting as catalysts for reforming of municipalities’ management.The purpose of this research is to establish an effective system of milestones of innovative development of urban areas in the process of strategic urban development.Methodological basis of the research is the complex of abstract and hyp...

  8. Effect of Urban Green Spaces and Flooded Area Type on Flooding Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Hyomin Kim; Dong-Kun Lee; Sunyong Sung

    2016-01-01

    Countermeasures to urban flooding should consider long-term perspectives, because climate change impacts are unpredictable and complex. Urban green spaces have emerged as a potential option to reduce urban flood risks, and their effectiveness has been highlighted in notable urban water management studies. In this study, flooded areas in Seoul, Korea, were divided into four flooded area types by cluster analysis based on topographic and physical characteristics and verified using discriminant ...

  9. Building adaptive capacity for flood proofing in urban areas through synergistic interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Veerbeek, W.; Ashley, R.M.; Zevenbergen, C.; Rijke, J.S.; B. Gersonius

    2010-01-01

    Few, if any urban areas are nowadays built in isolation from existing developments. Therefore, urban expansion and making existing urban areas more sustainable is a contemporary goal. There are major opportunities to do this through the ‘normal’ renewal of urban infrastructure and building stocks both now and in the future. However, significant building renewal cycles occur every 30-50 years and major infrastructure renewal cycles at even longer timescales of more than 100 years. Despite this...

  10. Human-wildlife interactions in urban areas: a review of conflicts, benefits and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Soulsbury, Carl D; Piran C L White

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife has existed in urban areas since records began. However, the discipline of urban ecology is relatively new and one that is undergoing rapid growth. All wildlife in urban areas will interact with humans to some degree. With rates of urbanisation increasing globally, there is a pressing need to understand the type and nature of human-wildlife interactions within urban environments, to help manage, mitigate or even promote these interactions. Much research attention has focussed on th...

  11. Good practice examples for the management and logistics of organic urban waste: Urban waste for biomethane grid injection and transport in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Niklass, M.; Pubule, J.; Hahn, H.; Rutz, D.; Günert, D.; Surowiec, D.; Ribic, B.; Schinnerl, D.

    2012-01-01

    This report was elaborated in the framework of the UrbanBiogas project (Urban waste for biomethane grid injection and transport in urban areas). The objective of this report is to show in short factsheets 11 examples of the management and logistics of organic urban waste in different European countries. This should provide input to the UrbanBiogas target cities City of Zagreb (Croatia), Municipality of Abrantes (Portugal), City of Graz (Austria), City of Rzeszów (Poland), and North Vidzeme Re...

  12. Dry deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PCB dry deposition flux was measured in Chicago with a greased, Mylar-covered smooth plate with a sharp leading edge pointed into the wind. The dry deposition flux of PCBs in Chicago averaged 3.8 μg/m2·day between May and November 1989 and 6.0 μg/m2·day for May and June 1990. A comparison of the PCB flux measured in Chicago to an estimated nonurban PCB flux shows that the flux of PCBs is up to 3 orders of magnitude higher in urban areas than in nonurban areas, indicating that Chicago and other urban areas near the Great Lakes must be considered as major source terms for deposition of PCBs into the lakes. The distribution of atmospheric PCBs between the gas and particle phase and the size distribution of particle-phase PCBs were also measured. The airborne PCB concentration as measured by the Noll rotary impactor (NRI) A stage (particles with aerodynamic diameters of > 6.5 μm) was higher in Chicago (0.94 ng/m3) than in Los Angeles (0.52 ng/m3), as was the mean particle-phase PCB concentration (47 vs 21 μg/g). PCBs were found to be associated with all sizes of atmospheric particles; however, their particle mass normalized concentration decreased with increasing particle size. PCBs associated with particles, particularly coarse particles, represented a significant fraction of the total PCB dry deposition flux even though PCBs in the ambient air were present primarily in the gas phase

  13. Histoplasmosis in immunocompetent individuals living in an endemic area in the Brazilian Southeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivian Christina Lopes Faiolla

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The distribution of infection by Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil is heterogeneous, and the number of cases affecting immunocompetent individuals is relatively small. This study reports the epidemiological and clinical data regarding histoplasmosis in non-immunosuppressed individuals. Methods The study included only the immunocompetent patients with histoplasmosis who were diagnosed between 1970 and 2012 at a university hospital located in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected retrospectively from the patient records. Results Of the 123 patients analyzed, 95 had an active disease that manifested in the different clinical forms of histoplasmosis. Men were the predominant gender, and most patients resided in the Northeast of the State of São Paulo and in the nearby municipalities of the State of Minas Gerais. The risk factors for acquiring histoplasmosis and prolonged contact in a rural environment were recorded in 43.9% and 82.9% of cases, respectively. Smoking, alcoholism, and comorbidity rates were high among the patients with the chronic pulmonary and subacute/chronic disseminated forms of histoplasmosis. Many patients achieved clinical cure spontaneously, but 58.9% required antifungals; the disease lethality rate was 5.3%. Conclusions Immunocompetent individuals manifested the diverse clinical forms of histoplasmosis over a period of 4 decades, revealing an additional endemic area of this fungal disease in the Brazilian Southeast.

  14. A framework for probabilistic pluvial flood nowcasting for urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntegeka, Victor; Murla, Damian; Wang, Lipen; Foresti, Loris; Reyniers, Maarten; Delobbe, Laurent; Van Herk, Kristine; Van Ootegem, Luc; Willems, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Pluvial flood nowcasting is gaining ground not least because of the advancements in rainfall forecasting schemes. Short-term forecasts and applications have benefited from the availability of such forecasts with high resolution in space (~1km) and time (~5min). In this regard, it is vital to evaluate the potential of nowcasting products for urban inundation applications. One of the most advanced Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting (QPF) techniques is the Short-Term Ensemble Prediction System, which was originally co-developed by the UK Met Office and Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The scheme was further tuned to better estimate extreme and moderate events for the Belgian area (STEPS-BE). Against this backdrop, a probabilistic framework has been developed that consists of: (1) rainfall nowcasts; (2) sewer hydraulic model; (3) flood damage estimation; and (4) urban inundation risk mapping. STEPS-BE forecasts are provided at high resolution (1km/5min) with 20 ensemble members with a lead time of up to 2 hours using a 4 C-band radar composite as input. Forecasts' verification was performed over the cities of Leuven and Ghent and biases were found to be small. The hydraulic model consists of the 1D sewer network and an innovative 'nested' 2D surface model to model 2D urban surface inundations at high resolution. The surface components are categorized into three groups and each group is modelled using triangular meshes at different resolutions; these include streets (3.75 - 15 m2), high flood hazard areas (12.5 - 50 m2) and low flood hazard areas (75 - 300 m2). Functions describing urban flood damage and social consequences were empirically derived based on questionnaires to people in the region that were recently affected by sewer floods. Probabilistic urban flood risk maps were prepared based on spatial interpolation techniques of flood inundation. The method has been implemented and tested for the villages Oostakker and Sint-Amandsberg, which are part of the

  15. Surface ozone in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, R. A. F. D.; Costa, P. S.; Silva, C.; Godoi, R. M.; Martin, S. T.; Tota, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Pauliquevis, T.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Artaxo, P.; Manzi, A. O.; Wolf, S. A.; Cirino, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    When nitrogen oxides from vehicle and industrial emissions mix with volatile organic compounds from trees and plants with exposure to sunlight, a chemical reaction occurs contributing to ground-level ozone pollution. The preliminary results of the surface ozone study in urban area of Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, are presented for the first intensive operating period (IOP1) of the GoAmazon experiment (February/March 2014). Photochemical ozone production was found to be a regular process, with an afternoon maximum of the ozone mixing ratio of lower than 20 ppbv for cloudy days or clear sky weather. Typical ozone concentrations at mid-day were low (about 10 ppb). On the other hand, several high-value ozone episodes with surface ozone mixing ratios up to three times larger were registered during the dry season of 2013 (September/October). At the beginning of the wet season, the ozone concentration in Manaus decreased significantly, but diurnal variations can be found during the days with rainfall and other fast changes of meteorological conditions. Possible explanations of the nature of pulsations are discussed. Photochemical ozone production by local urban plumes of Manaus is named as a first possible source of the ozone concentration and biomass burning or power plant emissions are suggested as an alternative or an additional source.

  16. Bullying among adolescents in a Brazilian urban center – “Health in Beagá” Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ralil da Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of bullying and its associated factors in Brazilian adolescents.METHODS Data were used from a population-based household survey conducted by the Urban Health Observatory (OSUBH utilizing probability sampling in three stages: census tracts, residences, and individuals. The survey included 598 adolescents (14-17 years old who responded questions on bullying, sociodemographic characteristics, health-risk behaviors, educational well-being, family structure, physical activity, markers of nutritional habits, and subjective well-being (body image, personal satisfaction, and satisfaction with their present and future life. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done using robust Poisson regression.RESULTS The prevalence of bullying was 26.2% (28.0% among males, 24.0% among females. The location of most bullying cases was at or on route to school (70.5%, followed by on the streets (28.5%, at home (9.8%, while practicing sports (7.3%, at parties (4.6%, at work (1.7%, and at other locations (1.6%. Reports of bullying were associated with life dissatisfaction, difficulty relating to parents, involvement in fights with peers and insecurity in the neighborhood.CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of bullying among participating adolescents was found, and the school serves as the main bullying location, although other sites such as home, parties and workplace were also reported. Characteristics regarding self-perception and adolescent perceptions of their environment were also associated with bullying, thus advancing the knowledge of this type of violence, especially in urban centers of developing countries.

  17. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  18. Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands

  19. STRATEGIC PLANNING OF INNOVATION GOAL-SETTING IN DEVELOPMENT OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Murzin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the development of the goal setting concept in the strategic urban development and the identification of innovative priorities for sustainable development of urban areas, acting as catalysts for reforming of municipalities’ management.The purpose of this research is to establish an effective system of milestones of innovative development of urban areas in the process of strategic urban development.Methodological basis of the research is the complex of abstract and hypothetical and logical tools, as well as the axiomatic analysis of the problems and prospects of innovative development of urban areas.The research results include the study of terminological apparatus of urban innovations, formation of the main directions of innovation policy implementation in the process of urban development of urban areas, the development of a fundamental algorithm of strategic goal setting in the innovative development of urban areas.The scope of application of the research results is a system of planning of social and economic development of municipalities, as well as comprehensive programs of financing and investment support of social projects of the urban environment development.The main conclusion of this research is the statements of need for innovative orientation of plans for social and economic planning of the urban environment, revealing the negative effects of the inertial urban design, characteristic of most Russian cities, inattention to which can lead to a social and economic damage and even to a social, ecological and economic degradation of territories.

  20. Comparison between Two Decades of Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Diseases and Risk Factors in a Brazilian Urban Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves de Oliveira Serra, Maria Aparecida; Chaves, Cristina de Souza; Branco Coêlho, Zirlane Castelo; de Castro Rodrigues, Naya Lúcia; Martins Vale, Josias; Teixeira, Maria Jânia; de Oliveira, Francisco Josemar Alves; de Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura; Coelho, Ivo Castelo Branco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study's objective was to compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors in children in urban communities, in the Brazilian Northeast, between two decades. Methods. This quantitative transversal study consisted of a comparative analysis of two different samples: the first viewing the years 1992-1996 and the other through a coproepidemiological data survey undertaken in 2010-2011. Results. It was evidenced that there was a reduction of intestinal parasites and that there were improvements in the socioenvironmental conditions between the two decades evaluated. It was observed that, in the period 1992-1996, playing out in the streets was associated with a higher risk for acquiring intestinal parasites. Over the 2010-2011 period, the characteristics of more than five residents per household, houses with dirt floors, children who live in homes without piped water, and children who play out in the streets were associated with a higher risk of intestinal parasitic infection. Conclusion. The study showed a reduction of intestinal parasitic diseases to 23.8% in 2010-2011 from 81.3% in 1992-1996 and improvement of the social-sanitary conditions of the population between the decades analyzed. PMID:26692338

  1. Study on Planning Standards for Urban Renewal Areas in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper starts from the origin and evolution of city planning standards of Shenzhen before analyzing the new demands for the standards by the development of city renewal amid city transition,and establishes a primary framework for the planning standards and requirements.In addition,on the basis of comparing with the formulation of planning standards of Hong Kong,Shanghai,and Changsha,the paper carries out a discussion on the formulation ideas and main contents of the planning standards for the urban renewal areas in Shenzhen.Moreover,the paper also analyzes the standards for renewal objects,scope,mode,functions guidance,development control,and public facilities,all of which are quite heated issues and key elements in the process of formulation and approval of renewal planning,in order to improve the institutional structure of the City Planning Standards and Requirements of Shenzhen and meet the government’s demand in realizing a refined management.

  2. A framework for probabilistic pluvial flood nowcasting for urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntegeka, Victor; Murla, Damian; Wang, Lipen;

    2016-01-01

    for recent historical flood events. The rainfall nowcasting, hydraulic sewer and 2D inundation modelling and socio-economical flood risk results each could be partly evaluated: the rainfall nowcasting results based on radar data and rain gauges; the hydraulic sewer model results based on water level......Pluvial flood nowcasting is gaining ground not least because of the advancements in rainfall forecasting schemes. Short-term forecasts and applications have benefited from the availability of such forecasts with high resolution in space (1km) and time (5min). In this regard, it is vital to evaluate...... was further tuned to better estimate extreme and moderate events for the Belgian area (STEPS-BE). Against this backdrop, a probabilistic framework has been developed that consists of: (1) rainfall nowcasts; (2) sewer hydraulic model; (3) flood damage estimation; and (4) urban inundation risk mapping. STEPS...

  3. Texture mapping based on multiple aerial imageries in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Ye, Siqi; Wang, Yuefeng; Han, Caiyun; Wang, Chenxi

    2015-12-01

    In the realistic 3D model reconstruction, the requirement of the texture is very high. Texture is one of the key factors that affecting realistic of the model and using texture mapping technology to realize. In this paper we present a practical approach of texture mapping based on photogrammetry theory from multiple aerial imageries in urban areas. By collinearity equation to matching the model and imageries, and in order to improving the quality of texture, we describe an automatic approach for select the optimal texture to realized 3D building from the aerial imageries of many strip. The texture of buildings can be automatically matching by the algorithm. The experimental results show that the platform of texture mapping process has a high degree of automation and improve the efficiency of the 3D modeling reconstruction.

  4. The Communication in Public Administration in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ţicu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to underline the role of communication in the public institutions byidentifying the characteristics and peculiarities of the process of public administration, starting from thecharacteristics of administrative process and from those of organizational behavior in urban areas identifiableat the level of each public institution. The study of the dimensions such as the actors and the stakeholdersinvolved in the administrative process, the goals and the objectives of the administrative evaluation, thecriteria and the techniques of communication and all interpersonal hierarchies established, all of these can beconsidered variables that can offer distinction to the communication process in public administration, whetherwe speak about inter-institutional communication or intra-institution alone or about that one from the publicadministration to citizens. This article aims to underlie the characteristics of the communication process inpublic administration based on a quantitative study which appeals to the variables previously set and that canbecome models or labels for subsequent specialized studies.

  5. Processes of deagrarization and urbanization of Slovene rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Klemenčič

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatise deals with elements of the processes of differentiation of Slovene rural areas which have been differentiated during the last four decades under the condition of industrialization and the concept of polycentric regional development into regions of urbanization, regions of transition and regions of depopulation. This differentiation was accompanied by the growth of the number of the population which was employed in industries and consequently quick decline in the percentage of agrarian population. The numeric decline of agrarian population as well as decline in its percentage however opened numerous new problems (i.e. abandoning of the farm land, growing of the forests, growing of the greenlands which cause great problems with maintenance of cultural landscape especially at the regions of depopulation.

  6. Characterization of Leishmania infantum species in dogs from the urban area of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca De Santis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis presents urban behavior in some Brazilian cities, with domestic dogs as the main infection source. In Cuiabá, MT, canine visceral leishmaniasis was diagnosed and characterized as recommended by the Ministry of Health. METHODS: Biological samples from suspected canine carriers were analyzed by the isoenzyme electrophoresis technique. The 6PGDH enzyme and reference strain IOC/L0566 (MHOM/BR/1975/M2903 of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum was used as one of the controls. RESULTS: Electrophoresis analysis revealed that the canine isolates belonged to the species L. (L. infantum. CONCLUSIONS: The authors emphasize the importance of species characterization, particularly in areas of mixed infection like Cuiabá.

  7. Ozone weekend effect analysis in three European Urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Jose Carlos M. [LEPAE, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2012-08-15

    This paper aims to apply statistical procedures to analyse the ozone weekend effect (OWE) in three European urban areas: Lisbon, Oporto and London. Seasonal variations of surface ozone (O{sub 3}) and total oxidant species (O{sub x}) concentrations are presented. The studied period was from January 2007 to December 2009. The O{sub 3} annual average profile in London was significantly different from the ones achieved for Lisbon and Oporto, due to the high emissions of nitrogen oxides and low temperatures (associated with low solar radiations). The influence of nitrogen oxides in atmospheric chemistry of London was analysed by linear correlations between O{sub 3} concentrations and NO{sub 2}/NO ratio. High values during almost all period showed that O{sub 3} concentrations are mainly influenced by NO-NO{sub 2}-O{sub 3} chemical reaction. On the other hand, the linear correlations between O{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} concentrations only presented positive values in Lisbon and Oporto. This behaviour is associated with photo-dissociation of NO{sub 2}, producing O{sub 3} during the spring and summer periods. Additionally, cluster analysis was applied to group the days of week according the correspondent O{sub 3} behaviour. The weekend and some weekdays (immediately after or before) were grouped in the same cluster, showing that OWE occurs in all urban areas selected in this study. These findings suggest that the applied statistical procedures should be used to analyse the OWE and that the causes for the different O{sub 3} behaviours during the week may be influenced by meteorological variables. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Comprehensive Evaluation Method of Urban Remnant Natural Area:A Case study of Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Sheng-quan; WANG Yun; GONG Bin

    2008-01-01

    Urban remnant natural area (URNA), located in the urban or suburb area, less disturbed by dwellers in the process of urbanization, is an important part of complex urban ecosystem and provides significant opportunity for urban sustainable development. Despite that there is a considerable amount of scientific researches on the urban nature in urban and suburb area, the comprehensive research of URNA is still rare. After analyzing the concept and value of URNA, this paper presented a methodology for comprehensive evaluation of URNA by adopting methods of document analysis, prior-selection process, analytic hierarchy process and vector resemblance-degree. As a result, the comprehensive evaluation index of URNA includes target level A, rule level B(ecological environment value, ecological recreation value, social culture value, scientific research value), index level C( diversity, singularity, nature, area, stability, recreation, landscape element, aesthetics, history, scientific), and index level D(20 items). Each index weight of comprehensive evaluation system of URNA of Shanghai was confirmed finally.

  9. Expansion of urban area and wastewater irrigated rice area in Hyderabad, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumma, K.M.; van, Rooijen D.; Nelson, A.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Aakuraju, R.V.; Amerasinghe, P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate land use changes in urban and peri-urban Hyderabad and their influence on wastewater irrigated rice using Landsat ETM + data and spectral matching techniques. The main source of irrigation water is the Musi River, which collects a large volume of wastewater and stormwater while running through the city. From 1989 to 2002, the wastewater irrigated area along the Musi River increased from 5,213 to 8,939 ha with concurrent expansion of the city boundaries from 22,690 to 42,813 ha and also decreased barren lands and range lands from 86,899 to 66,616 ha. Opportunistic shifts in land use, especially related to wastewater irrigated agriculture, were seen as a response to the demand for fresh vegetables and easy access to markets, exploited mainly by migrant populations. While wastewater irrigated agriculture contributes to income security of marginal groups, it also supplements the food basket of many city dwellers. Landsat ETM + data and advanced methods such as spectral matching techniques are ideal for quantifying urban expansion and associated land use changes, and are useful for urban planners and decision makers alike. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Influence of Urbanization on Growth of Rural Residents’ Consumption in Western Ethnic Minority Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofang; ZOU

    2015-01-01

    To make clear the relation between urbanization and growth of rural resident consumption in western ethnic minority areas of China,this paper selected cross-sectional area of 12 provinces( cities) in western ethnic minority areas in 2005- 2013 and made an empirical analysis through building panel data of influence of urbanization on rural resident consumption. Results indicate that there is positive correlation between urbanization and rural resident consumption growth in western ethnic minority areas. Urbanization increases income level of rural residents,strengthens demonstration effect of urban residents on rural resident consumption,and accordingly promotes rural resident consumption growth in western ethnic minority areas. Therefore,it is required to accelerate urbanization development,expand channels of increasing farmers’ income,improve resident consumption environment,and bring into play promotion function of counties,to drive rural resident consumption growth in western ethnic minority areas.

  11. SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF OLD AGE PEOPLE LIVING IN URBAN & URBAN SLUM AREAS IN MAHARASHTRA, KARAD: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Rahul Salunkhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Aging refers to normal, progressive and irreversible biological changes that occur over an individual’s life span. The advancement of medical science and increased awareness among the people has brought about a sharp decline in mortality and a steady decline in fertility. This has resulted in a worldwide shift in the demographic profile and has led to significant increase in the aged population. About two thirds of all older people are concentrated in the developing world. OBJECTIVES: to study & compare socio - demographic variables of old age people living in Urban & Urban slum areas. MATERIAL & METHODS: all the old age people living in urb a n slum area & rando mly selected one urban area of K arad town were interviewed by using pre structured proforma about socio - demographic variable & compared with each other. OBSERVATIONS: Total 153 from urban & 135 from urban slum were enrolled for the study. Nearly 2/3 rd subjects were above age 65yrs in both areas with more female proportions in slum area than urban area. Significant difference was found with education, occupation & socio - economic status in both areas. CONCLUSION: Ageing is a universal phenomenon, with advanced fertility control, improvement in health and social services life expectancy has increased. Ageing has profound effect on the individual status in the family, the work force, goals and organization of health, social services, policies and practices of the government

  12. Consequences of suppressing natural vegetation in drainage areas for freshwater ecosystem conservation: considerations on the new "Brazilian forest code"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Ongaro Pinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The input of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM and DOM, respectively from terrestrial ecosystem drainage basins is an important energy and nutrient source in limnic food chains. Studies indicated that semi-deciduous seasonal forests located in drainage areas in Brazil have the potential to produce 7.5 - 10.3 Mg ha−1/year of POM. The global increase in vegetation destruction, such as forests, threatens this allochthonous resource and can have significant impacts on river and lake communities and food chains. Therefore, it is critical that exploitation and occupation protocols are updated to protect the transition areas between terrestrial and limnic ecosystems. This review highlights the existing knowledge of these ecosystem interactions and proposes responsible sustainable methods for converting the vegetation in drainage basins. This was based on Brazilian ecosystem data and the new "Brazilian Forest Code." This study also considers the importance of including flood tracks in permanently protected areas to improve Brazilian legislation and protect hydric resources.

  13. Delineating Urban Fringe Area by Land Cover Information Entropy—An Empirical Study of Guangzhou-Foshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has caused many environmental problems, such as the heat island effect, intensifying air pollution, pollution from runoff, loss of wildlife habitat, etc. Accurate evaluations of these problems demand an accurate delineation of the spatial extent of the urban fringe. Conceptual and analytical ambiguity of the urban fringe and a general lack of consensus among researchers have made its measurement very difficult. This study reports a compound and reliable method to delineate the urban fringe area using a case study. Based on the 'fringe effect' theory in landscape ecology, the existing land cover information entropy model for defining the urban fringe is renewed by incorporating scale theory, cartography and urban geography theory. Results show that the urban fringe area of Guangzhou and Foshan metropolitan area covers an area of 2031 km2, and it occupies over 31% of the total study area. Result evaluation by industry structure data shows satisfactory correspondence with different land cover types. This paper reports the method and outcome of an attempt to provide an objective, repeatable and generally applicable method for mapping its spatial extent from remote sensing imageries, and could be beneficial to relevant urban studies and urban fringe management projects.

  14. Baltimore WATERS Test Bed -- Quantifying Groundwater in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.; Ryan, R. J.; Crook, N.; Kerchkof, T.; Larson, P.; Smith, J.; Baeck, M. L.; Kaushal, S.; Belt, K.; McGuire, M.; Scanlon, T.; Warner, J.; Shedlock, R.; Band, L.; Groffman, P.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to quantify the urban water cycle, with an emphasis on urban groundwater, using investigations at multiple spatial scales. The overall study focuses on the 171 sq km Gwynns Falls watershed, which spans an urban to rural gradient of land cover and is part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER. Within the Gwynns Falls, finer-scale studies focus on the 14.3 sq km Dead Run and its subwatersheds. A coarse-grid MODFLOW model has been set up to quantify groundwater flow magnitude and direction at the larger watershed scale. Existing wells in this urban area are sparse, but are being located through mining of USGS NWIS and local well data bases. Wet and dry season water level synoptics, stream seepage transects, and existing permeability data are being used in model calibration. In collaboration with CUAHSI HMF Geophysics, a regional-scale microgravity survey was conducted over the watershed in July 2007 and will be repeated in spring 2008. This will enable calculation of the change in groundwater levels for use in model calibration. At the smaller spatial scale (Dead Run catchment), three types of data have been collected to refine our understanding of the groundwater system. (1) Multiple bromide tracer tests were conducted along a 4 km reach of Dead Run under low-flow conditions to examine groundwater- surface water exchange as a function of land cover type and stream position in the watershed. The tests will be repeated under higher base flow conditions in early spring 2008. Tracer test data will be interpreted using the USGS OTIS model and results will be incorporated into the MODFLOW model. (2) Riparian zone geophysical surveys were carried out with support from CUAHSI HMF Geophysics to delineate depth to bedrock and the water table topography as a function of distance from the stream channel. Resistivity, ground penetrating radar, and seismic refraction surveys were run in ten transects across and around the stream channels. (3) A finer

  15. Improving the urban green system and green network through the rehabilitation of railway rust areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hutter Dóra; Szilágyi Kinga

    2014-01-01

    The Industrial Revolution had a negative impact on both the city and the environment. By the second half of the 19th century, the urban erosion of industrial cities cried for direct intervention and curing. The methods developed either along an urban or an anti-urban philosophy: they resulted in the new models of green belt systems aimed at solving all the main urban problems with restructuring the urban fabric, controlling the urban spread into the rural landscape, the lack of green areas an...

  16. How peri-urban areas can strengthen animal populations within cities: a modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snep, R.P.H.; Opdam, P.F.M.; Baveco, J.M.; Wallis de Vries, M.F.; Timmermans, W.; Kwak, R.G.M.; Kuypers, V.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the extent to which inner-city fauna can be enhanced by source areas in peri-urban zones as a response to a decreasing quality and size of green habitats within cities. The objectives were to get a better understanding of the interaction between animal populations of urban and peri-urban

  17. Association of Moderate Coffee Intake with Self-Reported Diabetes among Urban Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo F. Da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Coffee has been associated with reductions in the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCD, including diabetes mellitus. Because differences in food habits are recognizable modifying factors in the epidemiology of diabetes, we studied the association of coffee consumption with type-2 diabetes in a sample of the adult population of the Federal District, Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted by telephone interview (n = 1,440. A multivariate analysis was run controlling for socio-behavioural variables, obesity and family antecedents of NCCD. A hierarchical linear regression model and a Poisson regression were used to verify association of type-2 diabetes and coffee intake. The independent variables which remained in the final model, following the hierarchical inclusion levels, were: first level—age and marital status; second level—diabetes and dyslipidaemias in antecedents; third level—cigarette smoking, supplement intake, body mass index; and fourth level—coffee intake (£100 mL/d, 101 to 400 mL/day, and >400 mL/day. After adjusting hierarchically for the confounding variables, consumers of 100 to 400 mL of coffee/day had a 2.7% higher (p = 0.04 prevalence of not having diabetes than those who drank less than 100 mL of coffee/day. Compared to coffee intake of £100 mL/day, adults consuming >400 mL of coffee/day showed no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of diabetes. Thus, moderate coffee intake is favourably associated with self-reported type-2 diabetes in the studied population. This is the first study to show a relationship between coffee drinking and diabetes in a Brazilian population.

  18. Ecological Impacts of Replacing Traditional Roofs with Green Roofs in Two Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Carter; Colleen Butler

    2008-01-01

    Urban land cover is dominated by impervious surface that degrades both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems relative to predevelopment conditions. There are significant opportunities for designers of urban landscapes to use alternative land covers that have multiple functions, benefiting both human and nonhuman components of the urban ecosystem. Vegetated (green) roofs are one form of alternative land cover that has shown the potential to provide a variety of ecological benefits in urban areas....

  19. Determination of Tree Mortality Rate in Public Urban Areas at Early Stages After Planting

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Measuring urban tree mortality rates during the first several years after planting is a growing field of study for urban forestry practitioners. Mortality rates for timber species in forest stands have been measured extensively over time, but stand level mortality research in urban forests has remained localized and isolated until the 1990’s. By concentrating research in this area, practitioners will be in a better position to understand the best practices for urban forest mana...

  20. Collective human mobility pattern from taxi trips in urban area

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2012-04-18

    We analyze the passengers\\' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously. 2012 Peng et al.

  1. Collective human mobility pattern from taxi trips in urban area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbin Peng

    Full Text Available We analyze the passengers' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously.

  2. Urban area structuring mapping using an airborne polarimetric SAR image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetto, Elisabeth; Malak, Charbel

    2009-09-01

    For several years, image classification and pattern recognition algorithms have been developed for the land coverage mapping using radar and multispectral imagery with medium to large pixel size. As several satellites now distribute submetric-pixel and metric-pixel images (for example QUICKBIRD,TERRASAR-X), the research turns to the study of the structure of cities: building structuring, grassy areas, road networks, etc, and the physical description of the urban surfaces. In that context, we propose to underline new potentialities of submetric-pixel polarimetric SAR images. We deal with the characterization of roofs and the mapping of trees. For that purpose, a first analysis based on photo-interpretation and the assessement of several polarimetric descriptors is carried out. Then, an image classification scheme is built using the polarimetric H/alpha-Wishart algorithm, followed by a decision tree. This one is based on the most pertinent polarimetric descriptors and aims at reducing the classification errors. The result proves the potential of such data. Our work relies on an image of a suburban area, acquired by the airborne RAMSES SAR sensor of ONERA.

  3. Temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas during rapid urbanization in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junying; Da, Liangjun; Song, Kun; Li, Bai-Lian

    2008-03-01

    As the economic and financial center of China, Shanghai has experienced an extensive urban expansion since the early 1980s, with an attendant cost in environmental degradation. We use an integrated pollution index to study the temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas between 1982 and 2005. Data on monitored cross-sections were collected from the Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of surface water quality was determined by the level of urbanization. Surface water qualities in urban and suburban areas were improved by strengthening the environmental policies and management, but were worsening in rural areas. The relationship between economic growth and surface water quality in Shanghai showed an inversed-U-shaped curve, which reflected a similar pattern in most developed countries. This research suggests that decision makers and city officials should be more aware of the recent pollution increases in Shanghai.

  4. Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: Area Burned and Committed Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Ver-Diaz, M. Del. C.

    2004-01-01

    "Understory fires" that burn the floor of standing forests are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, we are aware of no estimates of the areal extent of these fires for the Brazilian Amazon and, hence, of their contribution to Amazon carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. We calculated the area of forest understory fires for the Brazilian Amazon region during an El Nino (1998) and a non El Nino (1995) year based on forest fire scars mapped with satellite images for three locations in eastern and southern Amazon, where deforestation is concentrated. The three study sites represented a gradient of both forest types and dry season severity. The burning scar maps were used to determine how the percentage of forest that burned varied with distance from agricultural clearings. These spatial functions were then applied to similar forest/climate combinations outside of the study sites to derive an initial estimate for the Brazilian Amazon. Ninety-one percent of the forest area that burned in the study sites was within the first kilometer of a clearing for the non ENSO year and within the first four kilometers for the ENSO year. The area of forest burned by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (3.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the area burned during the average rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the area of annual deforestation rate. Dense forest was, proportionally, the forest area most affected by understory fires during the El Nino year, while understory fires were concentrated in transitional forests during the year of average rainfall. Our estimate of aboveground tree biomass killed by fire ranged from 0.06 Pg to 0.38 Pg during the ENSO and from 0,004 Pg to 0,024 Pg during the non ENSO.

  5. Improving the urban green system and green network through the rehabilitation of railway rust areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutter Dóra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Industrial Revolution had a negative impact on both the city and the environment. By the second half of the 19th century, the urban erosion of industrial cities cried for direct intervention and curing. The methods developed either along an urban or an anti-urban philosophy: they resulted in the new models of green belt systems aimed at solving all the main urban problems with restructuring the urban fabric, controlling the urban spread into the rural landscape, the lack of green areas and open spaces for recreation and social life, and the lack of green spaces for ventilation. Nowadays, the major cities and capitals around the globe are competing for titles such as healthier, more liveable or even greener city. Given the unfortunate attributes of the urban structure in the historical cities, the development of new transportation sites or green areas is an extremely difficult issue. On the other hand, in the big cities, the brownfield sites are considered as reserve areas for sustainable urban development. Reusing the brownfields and rust areas is already a land saving urban development approach and in case of a complex and ecological urban rehabilitation it can underlie the development of an efficient urban green system and green network.

  6. AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN URBAN AREAS: EFFECTS OF INTRODUCING HYBRID CARS IN MADRID AND BARCELONA METROPOLITAN AREAS (SPAIN)

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Maria; Guerrero, Pedro Jiménez; Baldasano, José M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: On-road traffic represents the largest source of pollutants’ emissions in urban areas. In southern Mediterranean countries exceedances of the NO2 and PM10 European air quality targets are observed in urban environments. Moreover the budget of urban emissions contributes to the emissions of O3 precursors (mainly NOx) in a region where the concentration of photochemical pollutants still remains a problem especially during summertime. Air quality modeling, used as a management...

  7. Climate change in urban areas. Part 1: Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuttler, Wilhelm [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Campus Essen, Fakultaet fuer Biologie, Angewandte Klimatologie und Landschaftsoekologie, Essen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The objective of this article, which is being published in two parts, is to investigate the effects of global climate change on a conurbation (the Ruhr area) and to discuss local counter-measures. Part 1 deals with the origins of the natural and anthropogenic greenhouse effects, presents the contributions of the two effects to global warming and discusses recent examples of climate development from the Ruhr metropolis. The climate changes projected by various numeric and statistical models include an increase in thermal stress for city-dwellers and a rise in convective precipitation with corresponding run-off peaks in summer. As regard air pollutants (e.g. O{sub 3}, PM{sub 10}), it will mainly be the concentration of the near-surface trace gas ozone which will be clearly increased with rising temperatures. In contrast, a close correlation between atmospheric fine dust concentrations ({<=} PM{sub 10}) and temperature changes has not yet been established. Part 2 of the publication indicates how global climate change can be effectively combated at the local level using a number of application-oriented examples. These include measures affecting both individual properties and whole areas with a view to reducing urban overheating and CO{sub 2} emissions. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieses Beitrags, der in zwei Teilen erfolgt, ist es, die Wirkungen des globalen Klimawandels auf einen Ballungsraum (Ruhrgebiet) zu untersuchen und Gegenma{beta}nahmen auf lokaler Ebene zu diskutieren. Im ersten Teil wird auf die Entstehung des natuerlichen und anthropogenen Treibhauseffektes eingegangen und deren jeweilige Beitraege an der globalen Ueberwaermung herausgestellt. Exemplarisch wird auf die juengere Klimaentwicklung in der Metropolregion Ruhr eingegangen. Zu den durch verschiedene numerische und statistische Modelle projizierten Klimaveraenderungen zaehlen auch die Zunahme thermischer Belastungen fuer die Stadtbevoelkerung sowie die Verstaerkung sommerlicher konvektiver Niederschlaege

  8. Modern urban waterfront park scenic area planning study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董智领

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, along with the progress of the society, the devel-opment of economy and the improvement of people's cultural cultivation. Peo-ple began to the natural ecology, communication, recreation and other envi-ronmental quality more and more attention and concern. Based on this premise, can cause most urban residents of appeal will vest in the environ-mental construction of urban waterfront landscape zone. Now more and more urban overall planning urban waterfront construction design and city image shaping.

  9. Effect of urbanization on the winter precipitation distribution in Beijing area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XiQuan; WANG ZiFa; QI YanBin; GUO Hu

    2009-01-01

    According to the urbanization extent of Beijing area, and with 1980 as a turning point, the duration from 1961 to 2000 is divided into two periods: one is defined as the slow urbanization period from 1961 to 1980, and other one as the fast urbanization period from 1981 to 2000. Based on the 40-year's precipi-tation data of 14 standard weather stations in Beijing area, the effect of urbanization on precipitation distribution is studied. It is found that there has been a noticeable and systematic change of winter precipitation distribution pattern between these two periods in Beijing area: in the slow urbanization period, the precipitation in the southern part of Beijing is more than that in the northern part; but in the fast urbanization period, the precipitation distribution pattern is reverse, i.e. the precipitation in the southern part is less than that in the northern part; But in other seasons, the precipitation distribution pattern did not change remarkably in general. The possible cause resulting in the change of winter precipitation distribution pattern, might be that with urban area extension, the effects of "urban heat island" and "urban dry island" become more and more intensified, and increase hydrometeors evapo-ration below precipitable cloud, and then cause less precipitation received on the ground surface in the downtown and the southern part. It is also noteworthy to further research why the precipitation distri-bution pattern does not change systematically in other seasons except winter after intense urbaniza-tion in Beijing area.

  10. Social and environmental malaria risk factors in urban areas of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Ouedraogo Herman; Assi Serge; Henry Marie-Claire; Fournet Florence; Baragatti Meili; Rogier Christophe; Salem Gérard

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite low endemicity, malaria remains a major health problem in urban areas where a high proportion of fevers are presumptively treated using anti-malarial drugs. Low acquired malaria immunity, behaviour of city-dwellers, access to health care and preventive interventions, and heterogenic suitability of urban ecosystems for malaria transmission contribute to the complexity of the malaria epidemiology in urban areas. Methods The study was designed to identify the determin...

  11. Contrasting characteristics of the surface energy balance between the urban and rural areas of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu; Miao, Shiguang; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Li, Dan

    2015-04-01

    A direct comparison of urban and rural surface energy balances, as well as a variety of other variables including incoming shortwave/longwave radiation and aerosol optical depth, is conducted for the Beijing metropolitan area. The results indicate that, overall, the urban area receives a smaller amount of incoming shortwave radiation but a larger amount of incoming longwave radiation. However, comparisons in the aerosol optical depth and cloud fraction at the two locations suggest that neither aerosol optical depth nor cloud fraction alone can explain the difference in the incoming shortwave radiation. The urban-rural differences in the incoming longwave radiation are unlikely to be caused by the presence of more abundant greenhouse gases over the urban area, as suggested by some previous studies, given that water vapor is the most dominant greenhouse gas and precipitable water is found to be less in urban areas. The higher incoming longwave radiation observed over the urban area is mostly likely due to the higher temperatures of the ambient air. The urban area is also found to always produce higher sensible heat fluxes and lower latent heat fluxes in the growing season. Furthermore, the urban area is associated with a larger amount of available energy (the sum of sensible and latent heat fluxes) than the rural area, except in May and October when evapotranspiration in the rural area significantly exceeds that in the urban area. This study provides observational evidence of urban-rural contrasts in relevant energy-balance components that plausibly arise from urban-rural differences in atmospheric and land-surface conditions.

  12. Food insecurity and socioeconomic, food and nutrition profile of schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas of Picos, Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailane de Souza Aquino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of food insecurity among schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas of Picos, Piauí associated with the socioeconomic profile of families and their food intake and nutritional status. Methods: Study participants were families with children aged 7-10 years enrolled in municipal schools, totaling 342 families/schoolchildren. The study was conducted at school facilities through interviews with mothers - or guardians - using a questionnaire based on the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale and socioeconomic variables and food frequency questionnaire. The nutritional status of children was assessed using the following indexes: weight/age, height/age and body mass index/age. Results: The prevalence of food insecurity was high and similar for rural and urban areas, 84.3% and 83.3%, respectively. In general, lower income and consumption of untreated water was associated with greater frequency of food insecurity (p≤0.01. In urban areas, higher percentage of food insecurity was associated to lower educational levels (p≤0.05. Dietary intake and nutritional status of schoolchildren were not associated with food insecurity condition of families. Conclusion: The percentage of families at food insecurity, as well as the food consumption and nutritional status of schoolchildren were similar between urban and rural areas, characterized as a homogeneous population in terms of socioeconomic conditions.

  13. Accidental release of chlorine and its impact on urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sheikh, H.A.; Badr, O.A.; El Kadi, H.M.; Hamoda, M.F. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Among the possible scenarios of accidental releases of chlorine from high pressure cylinders, this paper considers a typical one for the analysis. The calculated transient mass flow rate of chlorine released from a one-tonne cylinder showed that such an accident takes about 10 minutes to evacuate the cylinder. However, the toxic effect in the surrounding atmosphere continues for a longer period (about 20 minutes). The size and location of the toxic cloud at ground level were predicted as functions of time using an EPA-based dispersion model. The results showed a growth of the toxic cloud for some time beyond which it started to decay. For the typical scenario considered in this study, the most dangerous situation generated a toxic cloud with dimensions of 4000 m and 600 m in the downwind and crosswind directions, respectively. A study of the effects of some meteorological parameters on the size and location of the toxic cloud at ground level was also conducted. In general, it was observed that enhancing atmospheric mixing produced larger toxic zones during the early stages of the release and caused an opposite effect during the later ones. This dynamic data was linked to a GIS environment and the time variant was represented using an animation technique for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates. Data base information related to physical urban characteristics and population was immediately obtained for the affected areas.

  14. Vision-Based Georeferencing of GPR in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Barzaghi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR surveying is widely used to gather accurate knowledge about the geometry and position of underground utilities. The sensor arrays need to be coupled to an accurate positioning system, like a geodetic-grade Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS device. However, in urban areas this approach is not always feasible because GNSS accuracy can be substantially degraded due to the presence of buildings, trees, tunnels, etc. In this work, a photogrammetric (vision-based method for GPR georeferencing is presented. The method can be summarized in three main steps: tie point extraction from the images acquired during the survey, computation of approximate camera extrinsic parameters and finally a refinement of the parameter estimation using a rigorous implementation of the collinearity equations. A test under operational conditions is described, where accuracy of a few centimeters has been achieved. The results demonstrate that the solution was robust enough for recovering vehicle trajectories even in critical situations, such as poorly textured framed surfaces, short baselines, and low intersection angles.

  15. Vision-Based Georeferencing of GPR in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzaghi, Riccardo; Cazzaniga, Noemi Emanuela; Pagliari, Diana; Pinto, Livio

    2016-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveying is widely used to gather accurate knowledge about the geometry and position of underground utilities. The sensor arrays need to be coupled to an accurate positioning system, like a geodetic-grade Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) device. However, in urban areas this approach is not always feasible because GNSS accuracy can be substantially degraded due to the presence of buildings, trees, tunnels, etc. In this work, a photogrammetric (vision-based) method for GPR georeferencing is presented. The method can be summarized in three main steps: tie point extraction from the images acquired during the survey, computation of approximate camera extrinsic parameters and finally a refinement of the parameter estimation using a rigorous implementation of the collinearity equations. A test under operational conditions is described, where accuracy of a few centimeters has been achieved. The results demonstrate that the solution was robust enough for recovering vehicle trajectories even in critical situations, such as poorly textured framed surfaces, short baselines, and low intersection angles. PMID:26805842

  16. Quantitative risk analysis of urban flooding in lowland areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Urban flood risk analyses suffer from a lack of quantitative historical data on flooding incidents. Data collection takes place on an ad hoc basis and is usually restricted to severe events. The resulting data deficiency renders quantitative assessment of urban flood risks uncertain. The study repor

  17. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale Urban Areas of the United States 201504 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes urban areas in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data were derived from the 2010 TIGER/Line Urban Areas data...

  18. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy farms in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahmsén, Markus; Persson, Ylva; Kanyima, Benon Mbabazi; Båge, Renée

    2013-01-01

    It is widely recognized that subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an extensive problem in the dairy industry worldwide. It is of particular concern in developing countries. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of SCM in dairy cattle in the urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda and to gain information about pathogens and antibiotic resistance patterns. The study was conducted as a field study in 18 smallholder dairy farms in peri-urban Kampala, Uganda. All cows at the farms w...

  19. Optimized groundwater drawdown in a subsiding urban mining area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Peter; Duran, Emre; Baumann, Rainer; Finkel, Michael

    2009-02-01

    SummaryThis study establishes the first real-world application of evolution strategies for solving a groundwater management problem. In an urban coal mining area in the Emscher and Rhine Basin of Northwestern Germany the groundwater table rises relative to subsiding ground and threatens local infrastructure and basements of buildings. The active extraction system, which consists of one highly productive horizontal and twelve vertical wells that pump more than 500 m 3/h, is revised by combining groundwater model and algorithmic optimization procedure. By capitalizing on the robustness and self-adaptivity of evolution strategies, both fixed and moving well formulations are solved. It is shown that well layout can be improved by automatic optimization even though it has been previously soundly configured by experts. The total pumping effort can be noticeably reduced while complying with the drawdown targets given at 24 different locations in the study area. Savings increase if new well positions are considered. For example, one additional well yields a 9% reduction of the total extraction rate. We also investigate the relevance of the spatially variable drawdown targets and demonstrate how those targets that mainly control the optimized well layouts can be identified by varying the penalty function. It is revealed that there is huge potential for additionally reducing the extraction rate if one or more of these individual targets could be resigned, for example as a result of technical construction or land use changes. A reduction of more than 25% has been estimated for giving up the most notable constraining target. This way, by testing the significance of given constraints, algorithmic optimization may guide the re-formulation of the original optimization problem in order to conceive new groundwater management scenarios that ultimately lead to an increased efficiency of the well field. This procedure is similar to a chance-constraint approach, efficient with CMA

  20. Active Fault Characterization in the Urban Area of Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kurt; Grupe, Sabine; Hintersberger, Esther

    2016-04-01

    The identification of active faults that lie beneath a city is of key importance for seismic hazard assessment. Fault mapping and characterization in built-up areas with strong anthropogenic overprint is, however, a challenging task. Our study of Quaternary faults in the city of Vienna starts from the re-assessment of a borehole database of the municipality containing several tens of thousands of shallow boreholes. Data provide tight constraints on the geometry of Quaternary deposits and highlight several locations with fault-delimited Middle to Late Pleistocene terrace sediments of the Danube River. Additional information is obtained from geological descriptions of historical outcrops which partly date back to about 1900. The latter were found to be particularly valuable by providing unprejudiced descriptions of Quaternary faults, sometimes with stunning detail. The along-strike continuations of some of the identified faults are further imaged by industrial 2D/3D seismic acquired outside the city limits. The interpretation and the assessment of faults identified within the city benefit from a very well constrained tectonic model of the active Vienna Basin fault system which derived from data obtained outside the city limits. This data suggests that the urban faults are part of a system of normal faults compensating fault-normal extension at a releasing bend of the sinistral Vienna Basin Transfer Fault. Slip rates estimated for the faults in the city are in the range of several hundredths of millimetres per year and match the slip rates of normal faults that were trenched outside the city. The lengths/areas of individual faults estimated from maps and seismic reach up to almost 700 km² suggesting that all of the identified faults are capable of producing earthquakes with magnitudes M>6, some with magnitudes up to M~6.7.

  1. Mitigation of urban heat stress – a modelling case study for the area of Stuttgart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallmann, Joachim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2050 the fraction of urban global population will increase to over 69%, which means that around 6.3 billion people are expected to live in urban areas (UN 2011. Cities are the predominant habitation places for humans to live and are vulnerable to extreme weather events aggravating phenomena like heat stress. Finding mitigation strategies to sustain future development is of great importance, given expected influences on human health. In this study, the mesoscale numerical model WRF is used on a regional scale for the urban area of Stuttgart, to simulate the effect of urban planning strategies on dynamical processes affecting urban climate. After comparing two urban parameterisation schemes, a sensitivity study for different scenarios is performed; it shows that a change of the reflective properties of surfaces has the highest impact on near-surface temperatures compared to an increase of urban green areas or a decrease of building density. The Urban Heat Island (UHI describes the temperature difference between urban and rural temperatures; it characterises regional urban climate and is responsible for urban-rural circulation patterns. Applying urban planning measures may decrease the intensity of the UHI in the study area by up to 2 °C by using heat-reflective roof paints or by 1 °C through replacing impervious surfaces by natural vegetation in the urban vicinity – compared to a value of 2.5 °C for the base case. Because of its topographical location in a valley and the overall high temperatures in this region, the area of Stuttgart suffers from heat stress to a comparatively large extent.

  2. SUSTAINABLE URBAN-RURAL RELATION IN RAPID URBANIZATION AREAS --Case of Transformation of "Urban Village" in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Li-hua; YAN Xiao-pei

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have been made concerning the problems, characteristics, formation, transformation measures, etc. of urban village from sociology, urban planning and geography, etc., which have made insightful analysis. However, most of these studies started mainly from the standpoint of the city government, drumming for the landscape-oriented urbanization, namely pulling-down the urban village and constructing the splendid residence or business buildings. The article maintains that the most important thing the city government should do is to pay much attention to the sustainable living of urban villagers, who would lose their main income source, namely, the collective dividend and the family housing rent. The single method of compensation has been proved to be harmful to the villagers′ community,in which some young villagers relying on rent were no longer to do anything but stay at home. On the other hand, considering the floating population has become the main stream of renters in urban villages, the emergence of urban villages was inevitable and would continue to exist in a long time under the socio-economic transition in urban China and globalization. Based on the analysis above, the transformation of urban village should take more concerns on the housing demands of floating population besides compensation for local villagers. Meanwhile, it is necessary to avoid the "landscape-oriented urbanization" without the "peasant-to-citizen" transformation.

  3. The main goal of engineering geology for designing and construction complex structures in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Drago Ocepek; Jasna Jerman

    2007-01-01

    Work for designing complex structures in urban areas consists of geological-geotechnical investigations and analysis of the quality of rocks, soft rocks and hard soils in the construction area. Urban areas limited the space for designing cutting slopes in stable inclination without reinforcement. In this paper will be presented designing and excavation works with different reinforcement of two different areas in Slovenia built of heterogeneous mixed hard to soft rock masses (Triassic dolomite...

  4. Phenotypic shifts in urban areas in the tropical lizard Anolis cristatellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Kristin M; Reynolds, R Graham; Prado-Irwin, Sofia R; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R; Revell, Liam J

    2016-05-01

    Urbanization is an increasingly important dimension of global change, and urban areas likely impose significant natural selection on the species that reside within them. Although many species of plants and animals can survive in urban areas, so far relatively little research has investigated whether such populations have adapted (in an evolutionary sense) to their newfound milieu. Even less of this work has taken place in tropical regions, many of which have experienced dramatic growth and intensification of urbanization in recent decades. In the present study, we focus on the neotropical lizard, Anolis cristatellus. We tested whether lizard ecology and morphology differ between urban and natural areas in three of the most populous municipalities on the island of Puerto Rico. We found that environmental conditions including temperature, humidity, and substrate availability differ dramatically between neighboring urban and natural areas. We also found that lizards in urban areas use artificial substrates a large proportion of the time, and that these substrates tend to be broader than substrates in natural forest. Finally, our morphological data showed that lizards in urban areas have longer limbs relative to their body size, as well as more subdigital scales called lamellae, when compared to lizards from nearby forested habitats. This shift in phenotype is exactly in the direction predicted based on habitat differences between our urban and natural study sites, combined with our results on how substrates are being used by lizards in these areas. Findings from a common-garden rearing experiment using individuals from one of our three pairs of populations provide evidence that trait differences between urban and natural sites may be genetically based. Taken together, our data suggest that anoles in urban areas are under significant differential natural selection and may be evolutionarily adapting to their human-modified environments.

  5. Phenotypic shifts in urban areas in the tropical lizard Anolis cristatellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Kristin M; Reynolds, R Graham; Prado-Irwin, Sofia R; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R; Revell, Liam J

    2016-05-01

    Urbanization is an increasingly important dimension of global change, and urban areas likely impose significant natural selection on the species that reside within them. Although many species of plants and animals can survive in urban areas, so far relatively little research has investigated whether such populations have adapted (in an evolutionary sense) to their newfound milieu. Even less of this work has taken place in tropical regions, many of which have experienced dramatic growth and intensification of urbanization in recent decades. In the present study, we focus on the neotropical lizard, Anolis cristatellus. We tested whether lizard ecology and morphology differ between urban and natural areas in three of the most populous municipalities on the island of Puerto Rico. We found that environmental conditions including temperature, humidity, and substrate availability differ dramatically between neighboring urban and natural areas. We also found that lizards in urban areas use artificial substrates a large proportion of the time, and that these substrates tend to be broader than substrates in natural forest. Finally, our morphological data showed that lizards in urban areas have longer limbs relative to their body size, as well as more subdigital scales called lamellae, when compared to lizards from nearby forested habitats. This shift in phenotype is exactly in the direction predicted based on habitat differences between our urban and natural study sites, combined with our results on how substrates are being used by lizards in these areas. Findings from a common-garden rearing experiment using individuals from one of our three pairs of populations provide evidence that trait differences between urban and natural sites may be genetically based. Taken together, our data suggest that anoles in urban areas are under significant differential natural selection and may be evolutionarily adapting to their human-modified environments. PMID:27074746

  6. Promoting community based approaches to social infrastructure provision in urban areas in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uduku, N O

    1994-10-01

    Inadequate social infrastructure provision--in terms of education, health care facilities, and water and sanitation--has become a critical issue in Nigeria's urban areas. The decline of the Nigerian economy and the introduction of economic structural adjustment have curtailed drastically government spending on these services. Recommended is a return to the regional community-based approaches that prevailed in earlier periods. In precolonial Nigeria, the community help ethic ensured that all societies had adequate social infrastructure. With colonization and the emergence of an urban cash economy, the government took control of service provision in urban areas; in rural areas, neglected by government, self-help efforts continued to flourish. The trend in recent decades has been toward the privatization of urban services, deregulation, and growing inequities between affluent urban dwellers and the urban and rural poor. The recommended localization strategy would involve the creation of regional bodies to provide public utilities and regulate social infrastructure provision. Responsibility for the organization and provision of these services would rest with democratically elected community associations in rural areas and municipal councils in urban areas. The needs of poor communities could be funded by cross-subsidizing utility costs among affluent communities. Such a strategy, although unlikely to be supported by government and urban elites, would revitalize the community responsibility ethos that was lost in the urbanization process.

  7. A Cluster-based Method to Map Urban Area from DMSP/OLS Nightlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Smith, Steven J.; Elvidge, Christopher; Zhao, Kaiguang; Thomson, Allison M.; Imhoff, Marc L.

    2014-05-05

    Accurate information of urban areas at regional and global scales is important for both the science and policy-making communities. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime stable light data (NTL) provide a potential way to map urban area and its dynamics economically and timely. In this study, we developed a cluster-based method to estimate the optimal thresholds and map urban extents from the DMSP/OLS NTL data in five major steps, including data preprocessing, urban cluster segmentation, logistic model development, threshold estimation, and urban extent delineation. Different from previous fixed threshold method with over- and under-estimation issues, in our method the optimal thresholds are estimated based on cluster size and overall nightlight magnitude in the cluster, and they vary with clusters. Two large countries of United States and China with different urbanization patterns were selected to map urban extents using the proposed method. The result indicates that the urbanized area occupies about 2% of total land area in the US ranging from lower than 0.5% to higher than 10% at the state level, and less than 1% in China, ranging from lower than 0.1% to about 5% at the province level with some municipalities as high as 10%. The derived thresholds and urban extents were evaluated using high-resolution land cover data at the cluster and regional levels. It was found that our method can map urban area in both countries efficiently and accurately. Compared to previous threshold techniques, our method reduces the over- and under-estimation issues, when mapping urban extent over a large area. More important, our method shows its potential to map global urban extents and temporal dynamics using the DMSP/OLS NTL data in a timely, cost-effective way.

  8. Expansion of (U)rümqi urban area and its spatial differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Wen; ZHANG XiaoLei; WANG Bin; DUAN ZuLiang

    2007-01-01

    The expanded area and structure of urban lands and landscape features in (U)rümqi City are analyzed using RS and GIS means based on the MSS image in 1975 and the TM images in 1990, 1999 and 2002,as well as other related maps. On which the scale, intensity and spatial differentiation of the expansion of the (U)rümqi urban area during different periods are lucubrated. The results reveal that urban expansion was rapid during the periods of 1949-1965 and 1975-1990, and that it was stable after the 1990s.The urban expansion pattern was significantly different during different time periods: the urban area was expanded outwards based on old districts in a spanned development pattern during the period of 1949-1965; development was stagnant during the period of 1965-1975; urban expansion developed mainly in old districts in a grouped way during the period of 1975-1990. The trend of urban expansion along the traffic lines was obvious, and the direction of urban expansion was dominated by the south-north zonal expansion and supplemented by east-west axial expansion; urban expansion reached the development stage of "multiple centers and multiple districts" after the 1990s, and urban networks were developed more precisely after this time. The sources for urban expansion were mainly cultivated lands, grasslands and unused lands; during urban expansion, the land area devoted to traffic lines, residential areas, dispersive industrial and mineral areas, and garden plots was rapidly enlarged.

  9. A Dynamic Method for Quantifying Natural Warming in Urban Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yu-Ting; JIA Gen-Suo

    2012-01-01

    In the study of global warming, one of the main issues is the quantification of the urbanization effect in climate records. Previous studies have contributed much to removing the impact of urbanization from surface air temperature by carefully selecting reference sta- tions. However, due to the insufficient number of stations free from the influence of urbanization and the different criteria used to select reference stations, there are still significant controversies about the intensity of the impact of urbanization on temperature records. This study proposes a dynamic method for quantifying natural warming using information on urbanization from every station acquired from remote sensing (RS) data instead of selecting reference stations. Two different spatial scales were ap- plied to examine the impact of urbanization, but little difference was found, indicating the stability of this method. The results showed a significant difference in original temperature data and the homogenized data--urban warming accounted for approximately 64% in the original temperature warming but only approximately 20% in the homogenized temperature records.

  10. Geochemistry of urban sediments from small urban areas and potential impact on surface waters: a case study in Northern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Anabela; Oliveira, Ana Isabel; Pinto, João; Parker, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Urban sediments are an important source of contaminants in urban catchments with impact on river ecosystems. Surface runoff from impermeable surfaces transfers sediments and associated contaminants to water bodies affecting the quality of both water and sediment compartments. This study aims to evaluate the metal contents in urban sediments (road deposited sediments) in a small sized urban area, located in a rural mountainous region with no significant industrial units, or mining activities in the vicinity, and subsequently have an insight on the potential contribution to the metal loads transported by fluvial sediments in the streams from the surrounding drainage network. The area under investigation locates in the northeast Portugal, in the Trás-os-Montes region (NE Portugal). Vila Real is a rural city, with 52781 inhabitants, and in the urban area there are dispersed parks with forest and gardens; locally and in the surroundings of the city there are agricultural terrains. The industry is concentrated, in general, in the industry park. Major pollutant activities can be considered the agriculture (pollution by sediments, metals and use of fertilizers) and urban activities such as atmospheric deposition, vehicular traffic, residential activities, soil erosion and industrial activities. According to the aim of the study, road deposited sediment samples were collected in urban and periurban areas as well as in public playgrounds and in the industrial area. The samples were decomposed with aqua regia, and the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V were obtained by ICP-AES. The total concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V, in road-deposited sediments, indicate relative enrichments in samples collected in the main streets and roads, showing spatial variability. The association of Cu, Pb and Zn is observed in samples collected in the streets with high traffic density and industrial activity; in general, higher relative contents

  11. Heavy Metals Pollution of Ground Water in Urban and Sub-Urban Areas of Makurdi Metropolis – Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *I. I. Mile

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines heavy metals pollution of ground water in the residential sector of Makurdi urban area and Yaikyô settlement – a peri-urban area of Makurdi metropolis. Water samples from fifteen (15 wells in Makurdi urban area and fifteen (15 wells in Yaikyô settlement were analysed for chromium (Cr, Cadmium (cd, Iron (Fe, and Copper (Cu. Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS method was used for water sample analysis. This was done in the peak of rainy season, in the month of September, 2012. The results of the analysis show that 100% of wells in Makurdi urban area had chromium levels above WHO guide limit for drinking water, while Yaikyô, a sub-urban area of Makurdi, had only 35.5% of wells with chromium levels above WHO standards. Ten out of fifteen wells representing 67% displayed cadmium levels above WHO limits in Makurdi urban area, while eleven out of fifteen wells (85% displayed cadmium levels above WHO limits in Yaikyô. Twelve out of fifteen wells representing 80% displayed iron levels above WHO guide limits in Makurdi, while thirteen out of fifteen wells representing 90%, showed iron levels above WHO guide limit in Yaikyô. All wells representing 100% displayed copper levels below WHO guide limit in both areas. High concentrations of heavy metals in drinking water are undesirable, toxic, hazardous, and affects portability of water. Source of metals in these wells is attributed to soil mineralogy, use of agro- chemicals on farms and other land use activities. All land use activities capable of polluting water should be properly controlled. Water from these wells may be used for other domestic purposes other than drinking. Boiling of water from these wells should be encouraged to reduce the risk of contracting illness.

  12. Tuberculosis in an urban area in China: differences between urban migrants and local residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increase in urban migrants is one of major challenges for tuberculosis control in China. The different characteristics of tuberculosis cases between urban migrants and local residents in China have not been investigated before. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a retrospective study of all pulmonary tuberculosis patients reported in Songjiang district, Shanghai, to determine the demographic, clinical and microbiological characteristics of tuberculosis cases between urban migrants and local residents. We calculated the odds ratios (OR and performed multivariate logistic regression to identify the characteristics that were independently associated with tuberculosis among urban migrants. A total of 1,348 pulmonary tuberculosis cases were reported during 2006-2008, among whom 440 (32.6% were local residents and 908 (67.4% were urban migrants. Urban migrant (38.9/100,000 population had higher tuberculosis rates than local residents (27.8/100,000 population, and the rates among persons younger than age 35 years were 3 times higher among urban migrants than among local residents. Younger age (adjusted OR per additional year at risk = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.91-0.94, p<0.001, poor treatment outcome (adjusted OR = 4.12, 95% CI: 2.65-5.72, p<0.001, and lower frequency of any comorbidity at diagnosis (adjusted OR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.13-0.26, p = 0.013 were significantly associated with tuberculosis patients among urban migrants. There were poor treatment outcomes among urban migrants, mainly from transfers to another jurisdiction (19.3% of all tuberculosis patients among urban migrants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A considerable proportion of tuberculosis cases in Songjiang district, China, during 2006-2008 occurred among urban migrants. Our findings highlight the need to develop and implement specific tuberculosis control strategies for urban migrants, such as more exhaustive case finding, improved case management and follow-up, and use of

  13. The Exploration to the Historical Origin of Differences between Urban and Rural Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the historical origins of encircling the cities from the rural areas implemented by the Communist Party of China and the current dual structures of urban and rural development, urban-rural differences are analyzed from the four aspects of production mode, management mode, culture and social division of labor. Industrial development in modern times has promoted the modernization of urban production in China. But the rural areas still maintain their traditional self-sufficient natural economy. After the Opium War, the process of modernization of city politics is promoted by more economic elements of capitalism and the formation of Chinese bourgeoisie. During the management of urban modernization, rural areas still adopt the traditional self-management mode. In the aspect of culture, city is the center of development, having large population, developed traffic, and prosperous culture. But the village is lack of information and its culture is relatively backward. In modern times, affected by the foreign capitalist, urban area has become the center of modern productivity. After separating from agriculture, handicraft industry has transferred into urban areas and the social division of labor in both urban and rural areas has shown great changes. Thus, a new pattern of "Urban Industry, Rural Agriculture" has formed.

  14. HEALTH HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH NOISE IN URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreejata Biswas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Noise or unwanted sound is an environmental stressor. At the international level studies are based on the auditory and non-auditory effects of aircraft noise mostly. The present survey was conducted among people exposed to loud noise in Kolkata, a metropolitan city in India. The study area includes railway stations of Sealdah and Dumdum and music shops in Chandni Chowk. The study was conducted among the working class people among whom the adverse health effects may lead to productivity loss with corresponding economic losses. A detailed social survey was carried out to investigate the ill effects of noise on exposed male individuals. The ages of interviewed persons were ranging from 26-35 years (18.3 %, 36- 45 years (26.7% , 46-55 years (13.3% , 56-65 years (18.3% and 23.3% were below the age of 25 years. The average time of exposure to noise was 68.25 hours per week. Among the sixty persons interviewed the effects were found as moderate to severe fatigue (87% suffered, loss of concentration (81.5% suffered, irritation (81% suffered, headache (80% suffered and hypertension (76.8%. 74.1% complained of suffering from dizziness, more than 60% reported other psychological discomforts like depression (65.5 %, indecisiveness (64.9 %, withdrawal ((64.9 % and loss of appetite (64.3 %. 52.7 % faced problems like memory disorder, however, only 41.5 % suffered from lack of sleep or insomnia. Noise pollution is an obvious result of urbanization whereas in the music industry, noise is the desired product. But there is little awareness on chronic exposure to noise, its health impact and management. An extensive survey with awareness generation is necessary to check the health impact of noise in our country.

  15. Assessment of environmental quality of Bucharest urban area by multisensor satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Zoran, Liviu Florin V.

    2004-10-01

    Urban environmental quality is an important part of efficient urban environment planning and management. A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic, dynamics processes, and climatic change effects. Synergetic use of quasi-simultaneously acquired multi-sensor data may therefore allow for a better approach of change detection and environmental impact classification and assessment in urban area. As is difficult to quantify the environmental impacts of human and industrial activities in urban areas , often many different indicators can conflict with each other. The spatial and temporal distribution of land cover is a fundamental dataset for urban ecological research. Based on Landsat TM, ETM, SPOT and SAR data for Bucharest metropolitan area in Romania, it was performed a land cover classification based on spectral signatures of different terrain features used to separate surface units of urban and sub-urban area . A complete set of criteria to evaluate and examine the urban environmental quality, including the air pollution condition indicators, water pollution indicators, solid waste treated indicators, noise pollution indicators, urban green space have been widely used .

  16. Router deployment of Streetside Parking Sensor Networks in Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Trista; Rivano, Hervé; Le Mouël, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    International audience The deployment of urban infrastructure is very important for urban sensor applications. In this paper, we studied and introduced the deployment strategy of wireless on-street parking sensor networks. We defined a multiple-objective problem with four objectives, and solved them with real street parking map. The results show two sets of Pareto Front with the minimum energy consumption, sensing information delay and the amount of deployed routers and gateways. The resul...

  17. Generating private co-investments in area-based urban regeneration: Lessons from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Larsen, Jacob Norvig; Storgaard, Kresten

    In recent years, public-private collaboration as well as private co-investments has been intensely promoted in Danish area-based urban regeneration policy and programmes. The paper will discuss to which extent these ambitions have been full-filled, and what has actually attracted private investme......In recent years, public-private collaboration as well as private co-investments has been intensely promoted in Danish area-based urban regeneration policy and programmes. The paper will discuss to which extent these ambitions have been full-filled, and what has actually attracted private...... investments to the urban regeneration areas. The paper is based on evaluations of the Danish area-based regeneration programmes, as well as research on private investments in selected urban regeneration areas. Our research shows that area-based urban regeneration in average generates private investments...... a factor 5 times higher than the public investments in the areas, in terms of urban regeneration subsidies. Private investments, however, might cover different property investment strategies: ‘Passive management’, ‘active management’ and ‘development’. We suggest that for the urban regeneration areas...

  18. Performance evaluation of the conventional Brazilian industries radiation protection in the small industrial gauges and industrial radiography areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This works evaluates by punctuation the performance in conventional Brazilian industries radiation protection area which make use of small industrial gauges and industrial radiography. It proposes, procedures for industry self-evaluation, besides a new radiation protection plans pattern for the small industrial gauges area. The data source where inspection reports of Dosimetry Radiation Protection Institute/Nuclear Energy Commission conventional Brazilian industries' radiation protection plans, beyond visitation to the inspection place. The performance evaluation has been realized both in the administrative and operational aspects of the industries. About of 60% of the industries have a satisfactory register control which does not happen to the operational control. The performance evaluation advantage is that industries may self-evaluate, foreseeing Dosimetry Radiation Protection Institute's regulation inspections, correcting its irregularities, automatically improving its services. The number of industries which have obtained satisfactory performance in both areas is below 70%, both in administrative and operational aspects. Such number can be considered a low one as it is radiation protection. The procedures propose in this work aim to improve such a situation. (author)

  19. Impacts of urban life on water quality and fish larvae communities in two creeks of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claíde Lorena Reis de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of anthropogenic activities in Belém City, Brazilian Amazon, by comparing water quality and fish larvae communities in two creeks that flow into the Guamá River. One creek crossed a poor and crowded suburb of Belém while the other was located in an island section that was declared an Environmental Protected Area in 1997. Two sampling points were set in each creek and monitored over eight hours once every three months over a one–year period. Strong variations of water quality were registered all year long and at all tides in Belém’s mainland creek, along with, among other things, a very high number of thermotolerant coliforms. Few larvae were found. The water was considered unsuitable for human use and activities as well as for aquatic life. The island creek presented early signs of bacterial and nutrient contaminations during the rainy season, probably partly related to non-point source pollution. In both creeks, larvae communities were almost exclusively composed of clupeiforms. All larval development stages were encountered. Higher densities and proportion of newly hatched larvae were registered during the dry season and associated with the presence of nitrate. The results of the study show that adequate sewage and drainage systems must be developed in the city and suggest that it would be useful to conduct an integrated ambient monitoring study in Combú Creek.

  20. Numerical Study of Winter Urban Boundary Layer Structure over Beijing Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoli; BI Baogui; LI Zechun

    2005-01-01

    Based on the successful simulation of a typical winter urban boundarylayer (UBL) process over Beijing area during the Beijing City Air Pollution Experiment (BECAPEX) in 2001 by the use of MM5 coupled with urban canopy parameterization, a series of simulation experiments are performed to investigate the effects of urban influence, surrounding terrain, and different extent of urbanization on urban boundary layer structures over Beijing area. The results of factor separation experiments of urban influence indicate that the total effect of urban influence, which is the synthetic effect of urban infrastructure on thermal and dynamic structures of atmosphere, is responsible for the formation of main UBL features over Beijing area. Meanwhile, the relative importance of thermal and mechanical factors of urban infrastructure and interaction between thermal and mechanical factors for the formation and evolution of UBL over the Beijing area are also explored. The results show that, during nighttime, mechanical factors are responsible for main characteristics of nocturnal urban boundary layer such as elevated inversion layer over downtown area,smaller wind speed and stronger turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and its behavior with peak at the top of canopy layer, whereas in the daytime, thermal factors play dominant role in the structure of UBL, such as the intensity of mixed layer and temperature in the lower atmosphere in urban area. The interaction between mechanical and thermal factors plays an important role in the formation and evolution of UBL, but its specific characteristics of mechanisms are complex. The results of surrounding terrain experiment show that terrain surrounding Beijing area not only determines the characteristic of prevailing airflow over Beijing area, but also has obvious effect on thermal structure of UBL, such as the distribution of elevated inversion and urban heat island, and makes them with special localization feature. The results of different extent

  1. Overall Planning of Development of Urban-Rural Areas:A Policy Mechanism for Urban-Rural Coordinated Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jin

    2004-01-01

    While analyzing overall planning and coordinated development of urban-rural areas, this paper shows that overall planning for the development of urban-rural areas is a requirement for the best use of productive forces. It means the setting up of a policy mechanism for coordinated growth.Recognizing this, the government should set up a way to lead and manage a unified program to increase service and decrease controlling administration power,while safeguarding and fulfilling the farmers' ownership to the means of production.

  2. Ways of Increasing Property Values in Degraded Urban Areas: Projects Implemented in Pécs, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Szabó

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Property prices are extremely low in extensive degraded urban areas. Enhancing property values in these areas is a foremost concern for both property owners and for the town as a whole. The aim is to transform isolated, disadvantaged urban areas; to increase property prices so that they reach the level of average property prices in the town, thus giving way to the development and revitalization of these deprived neighborhoods. The paper will describe the urban areas in question (housing estates, industrial areas, underused urban areas and the methods used by the local government. They include strategically located important public buildings, renewing public spaces and parks, regenerating derelict industrial sites. Most of these projects have been implemented within the Pécs 2010 European Capital of Culture programs.

  3. Longitudinal study of urbanisation processes in peri-urban areas of Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Anne Gravsholt; Fertner, Christian; Kristensen, Lone Søderkvist;

    property prices because of the attractiveness of land. This raises questions of the desired future of the peri-urban area of Greater Copenhagen, and about the effectiveness of the existing planning systems and its ability to protect agriculture land, which has been a main objective since the beginning......Urbanisation processes increasingly influence the use of land and properties in rural areas. In peri-urban areas population composition changes as the areas offer attractive possibilities of other gainful activities than agriculture (OGA), and residential and recreational alternatives to both urban...... areas and more remote locations. However, although land use changes follow changes in socio-economic composition, agriculture is often still the dominating land use. The dynamic processes leave peri-urban areas in a transition situation, as neither city nor countryside. This presentation investigates...

  4. Adaptation to climate change in urban areas: climate-greening London, Rotterdam, and Toronto

    OpenAIRE

    Mees, H.L.P.; Driessen, P.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to gain insight into the governance capacity of cities to adapt to climate change through urban green planning, which we will refer to as climate-greening. The use of green space is considered a no-regrets adaptation strategy, since it not only absorbs rainfall and moderates temperature, but simultaneously can contribute to the sustainable development of urban areas. However, green space competes with other socio-economic interests that also require space. Urban planning can...

  5. Spatio-temporal changes of urban fringe in tokyo metropolitan area

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Toshio; Obara, Norihiro

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we made a point of urban fringe movement as the reflection of urbanisation in Tokyo metropolitan area, and discussed about driving forces on such movement. According to spatio-temporal distribution of agricultural and urban land uses, we could identify urban fringe movement and its sectorial differences, and revealed ten factors of them: land conditions and their improvement, transportation network, the importance of rice farming, accessibility to the metropolitan centre and off...

  6. The Effect of Trees and Grass on the Thermal and Hydrological Performance of an Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Armson, David

    2012-01-01

    The process of urbanization dramatically alters the landscape which can have negative effects on the environment, and thereby, places the inhabitants and the city itself at risk. The development of an urban heat island can have severe health implications for city inhabitants during prolonged heat waves. Urbanisation also alters hydrological processes, which can place urban areas at a greater threat of surface flooding during heavy rainfall. As cities are continuing to expand, and as climate c...

  7. A Study on Availability of Basic Civic Facilities in Urban Slum Area of Bhuj, Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bipin Prajapati, Kavita Benker, K N Sonalia, Nitiben Talsania, Siddharth Mukherjee, K N Trivedi

    2011-01-01

    Background: In cites of India, There is around 50-60% of the population of the urban areas that lives in urban slums where basic facilities such as water, sanitation, health, electricity etc are poor. Disease morbidity and mortality is high due to poverty, poor nutrition and poor education and children living on payments slum are more exposed to drug abuse, child labour and sexual exploitation. Objective: To study the availability of basic civic facilities in urban slums in bhuj city. Materia...

  8. Planning of Green Space Ecological Network in Urban Areas: An Example of Nanchang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Haifeng Li; Wenbo Chen; Wei He

    2015-01-01

    Green space plays an important role in sustainable urban development and ecology by virtue of multiple environmental, recreational, and economic benefits. Constructing an effective and harmonious urban ecological network and maintaining a sustainable living environment in response to rapid urbanization are the key issues required to be resolved by landscape planners. In this paper, Nanchang City, China was selected as a study area. Based on a series of landscape metrics, the landscape pattern...

  9. Assessing the hydrologic restoration of an urbanized area via integrated distributed hydrological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Trinh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Green structures (e.g. green roof and bio-retention systems are adopted to mitigate the hydrological impacts of urbanization. However, our current understanding of the urbanization impacts are often process-specific (e.g. peak flow or storm recession, and our characterizations of green structures are often on a local scale. This study uses an integrated distributed hydrological model, Mike SHE, to evaluate the urbanization impacts on both overall water balance and water regime, and also the effectiveness of green structures at a catchment level. Three simulations are carried out for a highly urbanized catchment in the tropics, representing pre-urbanized, urbanized and restored conditions. Urbanization transforms vegetated areas into impervious surfaces, resulting in 20 and 66% reductions in infiltration and base flow respectively, and 60 to 100% increase in peak outlet discharge. Green roofs delay the peak outlet discharge by 2 h and reduce the magnitude by 50%. Bio-retention systems mitigate the peak discharge by 50% and also enhance infiltration by 30%. The combination of green roofs and bio-retention systems even reduces the peak discharge to the pre-urbanized level. The simulation results obtained are independent of field data, enabling a generic model for understanding hydrological changes during the different phases of urbanization. This will benefit catchment level planning of green structures in other urban areas.

  10. Assessing the hydrologic restoration of an urbanized area via an integrated distributed hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, D. H.; Chui, T. F. M.

    2013-12-01

    Green structures (e.g. green roof and bio-retention systems) are adopted to mitigate the hydrological impacts of urbanization. However, our current understanding of urbanization impacts are often process-specific (e.g. peak flow or storm recession), and our characterizations of green structures are often on a local scale. This study uses an integrated distributed hydrological model, Mike SHE, to evaluate the urbanization impacts on both overall water balance and water regime, and also the effectiveness of green structures at a catchment level. Three simulations are carried out for a highly urbanized catchment in the tropics, representing pre-urbanized, urbanized and restored conditions. Urbanization transforms vegetated areas into impervious surfaces, resulting in 20 and 66% reductions in infiltration and base flow respectively, and 60 to 100% increase in peak outlet discharge. Green roofs delay the peak outlet discharge by 2 h and reduce the magnitude by 50%. Bio-retention systems mitigate the peak discharge by 50% and also enhance infiltration by 30%. The combination of green roofs and bio-retention systems even reduces the peak discharge to the pre-urbanized level. The simulation results obtained are independent of field data, enabling a generic model for understanding hydrological changes during the different phases of urbanization. This will benefit catchment-level planning of green structures in other urban areas.

  11. Assessing the hydrologic restoration of an urbanized area via integrated distributed hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, D. H.; Chui, T. F. M.

    2013-04-01

    Green structures (e.g. green roof and bio-retention systems) are adopted to mitigate the hydrological impacts of urbanization. However, our current understanding of the urbanization impacts are often process-specific (e.g. peak flow or storm recession), and our characterizations of green structures are often on a local scale. This study uses an integrated distributed hydrological model, Mike SHE, to evaluate the urbanization impacts on both overall water balance and water regime, and also the effectiveness of green structures at a catchment level. Three simulations are carried out for a highly urbanized catchment in the tropics, representing pre-urbanized, urbanized and restored conditions. Urbanization transforms vegetated areas into impervious surfaces, resulting in 20 and 66% reductions in infiltration and base flow respectively, and 60 to 100% increase in peak outlet discharge. Green roofs delay the peak outlet discharge by 2 h and reduce the magnitude by 50%. Bio-retention systems mitigate the peak discharge by 50% and also enhance infiltration by 30%. The combination of green roofs and bio-retention systems even reduces the peak discharge to the pre-urbanized level. The simulation results obtained are independent of field data, enabling a generic model for understanding hydrological changes during the different phases of urbanization. This will benefit catchment level planning of green structures in other urban areas.

  12. Atmospheric deposition in an urban area: Implications for assessing the effects of hazardous air pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Bouzonville, Adrien; Elsass, Philippe; Elsass, Francoise; Atkins, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Pollutants emitted to the atmosphere in urban areas have indirect effects through deposition onto the ground, which, over time, could negatively affect the quality of soil, plants, water and groundwater. In this baseline study, evaluation of topsoil contamination in an urban area of France has been carried out to correlate concentrations observed in the soil with the local air emission sources. The analytical program is an extensive study carried out over a 200 km2 area and the results confir...

  13. Prevalence of tobacco use in urban, semi urban and rural areas in and around Chennai City, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolappan Chockalingam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco use leads to many health complications and is a risk factor for the occurrence of cardio vascular diseases, lung and oral cancers, chronic bronchitis etc. Almost 6 million people die from tobacco-related causes every year. This study was conducted to measure the prevalence of tobacco use in three different areas around Chennai city, south India. METHODS: A survey of 7510 individuals aged > = 15 years was undertaken covering Chennai city (urban, Ambattur (semi-urban and Sriperumbudur (rural taluk. Details on tobacco use were collected using a questionnaire adapted from both Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Global Adults Tobacco Survey. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of tobacco use was significantly higher in the rural (23.7% compared to semi-urban (20.9% and urban (19.4% areas (P value <0.001 Tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.3%, 13.9% and 12.4% in rural, semi-urban and urban areas respectively. The corresponding values for smokeless tobacco use were 9.5%, 7.0% and 7.0% respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of using tobacco (with smoke or smokeless forms was significantly higher among males, older individuals, alcoholics, in rural areas and slum localities. Behavioural pattern analysis of current tobacco users led to three groups (1 those who were not reached by family or friends to advice on harmful effects (2 those who were well aware of harmful effects of tobacco and even want to quit and (3 those are exposed to second hand/passive smoking at home and outside. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco use prevalence was significantly higher in rural areas, slum dwellers, males and older age groups in this region of south India. Women used mainly smokeless tobacco. Tobacco control programmes need to develop strategies to address the different subgroups among tobacco users. Public health facilities need to expand smoking cessation counseling services as well as provide pharmacotherapy where necessary.

  14. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Xiao

    Full Text Available The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  15. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  16. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas. PMID:26690056

  17. Neighbourhood environments and obesity among adults: A multilevel analysis of an urban Brazilian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido; Gomes, Crizian Saar; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; Mendes, Larissa Loures; Pessoa, Milene Cristine; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study identified environmental variables associated with obesity in the adult population of a city in Brazil. Methods. It was conducted using the Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey from 2008 to 2010. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated from the participants' self-reported weight and height. Obesity was defined as a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. The food establishments, georeferenced areas conducive to physical activity, total income of the neighbourhood, homicide rate and population density were used to characterise the environment. In addition, individual variables were considered. A multilevel logistic regression was performed. Results. A total of 5273 individuals were evaluated. The odds of obesity was found to be significantly decreased with increases in the number of establishments that sell healthy food, number of restaurants, number of places for physical activity and total income - in different models. In addition, these associations remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, education and consumption of meat with visible fat. Conclusions. This study contributes to a better understanding of the complex interaction between environmental and individual determinants of obesity and may aid in the development of effective interventions, such as the expansion of obesity control programmes. PMID:26844089

  18. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, Jesús A; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S A; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics.

  19. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A Panti-May

    Full Text Available The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014 from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics.

  20. Citizen Science Program Shows Urban Areas Have Lower Occurrence of Frog Species, but Not Accelerated Declines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Westgate

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of landscape change on animal populations is critical to inform biodiversity conservation efforts. A particularly important goal is to understand how urban density affects the persistence of animal populations through time, and how these impacts can be mediated by habitat provision; but data on this question are limited for some taxa. Here, we use data from a citizen science monitoring program to investigate the effect of urbanization on patterns of frog species richness and occurrence over 13 years. Sites surrounded by a high proportion of bare ground (a proxy for urbanization had consistently lower frog occurrence, but we found no evidence that declines were restricted to urban areas. Instead, several frog species showed declines in rural wetlands with low-quality habitat. Our analysis shows that urban wetlands had low but stable species richness; but also that population trajectories are strongly influenced by vegetation provision in both the riparian zone and the wider landscape. Future increases in the extent of urban environments in our study area are likely to negatively impact populations of several frog species. However, existing urban areas are unlikely to lose further frog species in the medium term. We recommend that landscape planning and management focus on the conservation and restoration of rural wetlands to arrest current declines, and the revegetation of urban wetlands to facilitate the re-expansion of urban-sensitive species.

  1. Urban land use in Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius Region, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Urban development is one of the major causes of land degradation and pressure on protected areas. (Hansen and DeFries, 2007; Salvati and Sabbi, 2011). The urban areas in the fringe of the protected areas are a source of pollutants considered a negative disturbance to the ecosystems services and biodiversity within the protected areas. The distance between urban and protected areas is decreasing and in the future it is estimated that 88% of the world protected areas will be affected by urban growth (McDonald et al., 2008). The surrounding or buffer areas, are lands adjacent to the Natura 2000 territories, which aim to reduce the human influence within the protected areas. Presently there is no common definition of buffer area it is not clear among stakeholders (Van Dasselaar, 2013). The objective of this work is to identify the urban land use in the Natura 2000 areas in Vilnius region, Lithuania. Data from Natura 2000 areas and urban land use (Corine Land Cover 2006) in Vilnius region were collected in the European Environmental Agency website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/). In the surroundings of each Natura 2000 site, we identified the urban land use at the distances of 500, 1000 and 1500 m. The Natura 2000 sites and the urban areas occupied a total of 13.2% and 3.4% of Vilnius region, respectively. However, the urban areas are very dispersed in the territory, especially in the surroundings of Vilnius, which since the end of the XX century is growing (Pereira et al., 2014). This can represent a major threat to Natura 2000 areas ecosystem services quality and biodiversity. Overall, urban areas occupied approximately 50 km2, in the buffer area of 500 m, 95 km2 in buffer area of 1000 m and 131 km2 in the buffer area of 1500 km2. This shows that Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius region are subjected to a high urban pressure. This is especially evident in the Vilnius city and is a consequence of the uncontrolled urban development. The lack of a clear legislation

  2. Results of the round table "Impact of natural and man-made hazards on urban areas"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru-Dan, Maria; Olga Gociman, Cristina; Hostiuc, Constantin; Mihaila, Marina; Gheorghe (Popovici), Diana Alexandra; Anghelache, Mirela Adriana; Dutu, Andreea; Tascu-Stavre, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    On Thursday the 6th of November a round table was organised at the Centre of Architectural and Urban Studies of the "Ion Mincu" University of Architecture and Urban Planning on the topic of this session. It included a review of the previous editions, and an outlook to the edition this year. We shared publications, and a publication is in work from the round table itself. The series of round tables at the Centre of Architectural and Urban Studies is an innitiative of Constantin Hostiuc, the secretary general of the centre. This round table was organised by Maria Bostenaru Dan, and moderated by Cristina Olga Gociman, who currently runs a project on a related topic. From the various ways to approach the effects of hazards, up to the disatrous ones, on urban areas, we consider the most suitable the approach to the impact. From the point of view of natural sciences and of the engineering ones this was approached a number of times, and newly social sciences are included as well. The role of planning and design for a better prevention, and even post-disaster intervention is ignored many times though. The goal of the round table was to bring together multidisciplinary approaches (architecture, urban planning, seismology, geography, structural engineering, ecology, communication sciences, art history) on a problem set from this point of view. Discussed topics were: 1. Assessment and mapping methods of the impact of natural hazards on urban areas (preventive, postdisaster) 2. Visualisation and communication techniques of the assessed impact, including GIS, internet, 3D 3. Strategies for the reduction of the impact of natural hazards on urban areas 4. Suitable methods of urban design for the mitigation of the effects of disasters in multihazard case 5. Partnership models among the involved actors in the decision process for disaster mitigaton 6. Urban planning instruments for risc management strategies (ex. master plan) 7. Lessons learned from the relationship between hazard

  3. Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotso Jean-Christophe

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. Methods The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are used. The selection criteria were set to ensure that the number of countries, their geographical spread across Western/Central and Eastern/Southern Africa, and their socioeconomic diversities, constitute a good yardstick for the region and allow us to draw some generalizations. A household wealth index is constructed in each country and area (urban, rural, and the odds ratio between its uppermost and lowermost category, derived from multilevel logistic models, is used as a measure of socioeconomic inequalities. Control variables include mother's and father's education, community socioeconomic status (SES designed to represent the broad socio-economic ecology of the neighborhoods in which families live, and relevant mother- and child-level covariates. Results Across countries in SSA, though socioeconomic inequalities in stunting do exist in both urban and rural areas, they are significantly larger in urban areas. Intra-urban differences in child malnutrition are larger than overall urban-rural differentials in child malnutrition, and there seem to be no visible relationships between within-urban inequities in child health on the one hand, and urban population growth, urban malnutrition, or overall rural-urban differentials in malnutrition, on the other. Finally, maternal and father's education, community SES and other measurable covariates at the mother and child levels only explain a slight part of the within-urban differences in child malnutrition. Conclusion The urban advantage in health masks enormous disparities

  4. Study on Control Strategy of Sulfur Dioxide Concentration in the Urban Area of Shijiazhuang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光军; 于立军; 范丽; 王宇新; 赵根喜

    2003-01-01

    Two Gaussian air quality dispersion models, the industrial source complex short-term model (ISCST3) with and without modification have been used to simulate the pollutant concentration distribution in urban areas based on the meteorological data and the emissions distribution of sulfur dioxide. The verified data show that the modified model is more accurate in the urban area of Shijiazhuang. Using the modified model predictions, the control strategies of sulfur dioxide in the urban area have been studied, and the result show that the second long-term (to 2010) strategy can mitigate air pollution significantly and maintain pollution levels within permissible limits.

  5. Patterns of Distribution of Macro-fauna in Different Types of Estuarine, Soft Sediment Habitats Adjacent to Urban and Non-urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindegarth, M.; Hoskin, M.

    2001-02-01

    Urban development typically creates a large number of potentially interacting disturbances that may cause impacts on assemblages of animals and plans in estuarine habitats. We tested predictions from the general model that intertidal areas exposed to different types of disturbances have different types of assemblages of benthic macrofauna. Different parts of the Port Hacking Estuary (New South Wales, Australia) are exposed to varying degrees of disturbance by human activities. We predicted that the average structure of assemblages of intertidal animals, and patterns of variability would differ between urban and non-urban areas of Port Hacking. Consistent with previous observations from the literature, there were differences in average structure between urban and non-urban sandy areas. Qualitative differences between abundances of individual taxa in urban and non-urban areas were generally not consistent with previous observations. Differences between assemblages in urban and non-urban areas were not observed in muddy sediments, nor in sediments among mangroves and seagrass. No significant differences in variability was observed between urban and non-urban areas. Two general models may be proposed to explain the observed differences in response to urbanization in different habitats: (1) animals are exposed to different levels or combinations of disturbances in different habitats; or (2) assemblages of animals differ in sensitivity to disturbances among habitats.

  6. [Seasonal variation and function-area difference of PAHs in road dust from Shanghai urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shu-bo; Liu, Min; Ou, Dong-ni; Gao, Lei; Wang, Li-li; Xu, Shi-yuan

    2007-12-01

    Seasonal variation and function-area difference of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in road dust from Shanghai centre area were studied, and the probable reasons were also discussed. The result showed that the accumulation level of PAHs varied significantly from winter to summer, namely, and the concentrations of total PAHs and the homologues in winter were higher than that in summer. Total PAH concentrations (t-PAH) in winter samples ranged from 9176 to 32,573 ng x g(-1), with a mean value of 20,648 ng x g(-1), whereas they varied from 6875 to 27,766 ng x g(-1) in summer, with an average of 14098 ng x g(-1). The individual PAHs composition ranged from 50 (acenaphthylene) to 3162 (indeno (1,2,3,-cd) pyrene) ng x g(-1) in winter, and 3 (acenaphthene) to 1485 (indeno(1,2,3,-cd) pyrene) ng x g(-1) in summer. The results exhibited that the levels showed a great rise from summer to winter. The difference of PAHs concentrations in road dust from functional areas were also obvious, that is, in winter, PAHs concentrations in road dust at industrial area (ID), commercial area (CO) and traffic area (TR) were much higher than those in other areas, with t-PAH mean concentration of 31 163, 24 932 and 18 815 ng x g(-1) resepectively, while city park (CP) and public lawn (PL) had the lowest level (7885, 8036 ng x g(-1)). In summer, the lowest concentration (7942 ng x g(-1)) appeared in CP, however, TR, ID and CO were the most polluted areas, with t-PAH mean concentration of 14,528, 14,247 and 11,523 ng x g(-1), respectively. The concentration of PAH homologues raised gradually with the ring number or molecular weight. Seasonal variation and function-area difference of PAHs in road dust from urban area correlated with both their sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. PMID:18290438

  7. Simulation of Old Urban Residential Area Evolution Based on Complex Adaptive System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Fan; WANG Xiao-ming; HUA Hong

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of complex adaptive system theory,this paper proposed an agent-based model of old urban residential area,in which,residents and providers are the two adaptive agents.The behaviors of residents and providers in this model are trained with back propagation and simulated with Swarm software based on environment-rules-agents interaction.This model simulates the evolution of old urban residential area and analyzes the relations between the evolution and urban management with the background of Chaozhou city.As a result,the following are obtained:(1) Simulation without government intervention indicates the trend of housing ageing,environmental deterioration,economic depression,and social filtering-down in old urban residential area.If the development of old urban residential area is under control of developers in market,whose desire is profit maximization,and factors such as social justice,historic and culture value will be ignored.(2) If the government carries out some policies and measures which will perfectly serve their original aims,simulation reveals that old urban residential area could be adapted to environment and keep sustainable development.This conclusion emphasizes that government must act as initiator and program maker for guiding residents and other providers directly in the development of old urban residential area.

  8. Governance and Community Responses to Floods in Poor Peri-urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaer, Caroline

    In recent years, urban flooding has become an increasingly severe and frequent problem for the poor in many West African urban centres. In diverse metropoles of the region, including Lagos, Cotonou, Accra, Abidjan and Dakar, low-income populations who typically live undesirable flood-prone areas...

  9. Enhancement of trace-element content of cabbages grown in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D.; MacKenzie, E.J.

    1970-01-01

    Significantly higher contents of boron, molybdenum and zinc were observed in cabbages in urban than in rural areas. The levels of extractable boron, copper, lead, nickel and zinc were markedly enhanced in the urban soils but there was no corresponding enhancement of the levels of copper, lead and nickel in the cabbages. 10 references, 2 tables.

  10. An Integrated Method for Mapping Impervious and Pervious Areas in Urban Environments Using Hyperspectral and LiDAR Data

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi Beni, L.; McArdle, S; Khayer, Y.

    2014-01-01

    As urbanization continues to increase and extreme climatic events become more prevalent, urban planners and engineers are actively implementing adaptive measures to protect urban assets and communities. To support the urban planning adaptation process, mapping of impervious and pervious areas is essential to understanding the hydrodynamic environment within urban areas for flood risk planning. The application of advance geospatial data and analytical techniques using remote sensing a...

  11. The urban land area Change in China from 1820 to 1999

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to the length of city perimeter and the administration systems recorded in thehistorical literatures of the Qing Dynasty, a set of methods is developed to convert the historicalrecords into the area of urban land use, by which a set of preliminary estimated urban land use dataof the 18 provinces during the Emperor Jiaqing (1820AD) in the Qing Dynasty, is achieved. Basedon the above achievements, the regional differences of urban land use are analyzed, and the compari-son in urban land use between the Qing Dynasty and present (1999) is made.

  12. Bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera of an urban park in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E.L. Esbérard

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some bat species are able to adapt to urban areas, where they find food and roosts. Despite the high number of parks in Brazilian cities, they did not yet raise the interest of most zoologists, except for some surveys of birds and butterflies. The objectives of the present study were: (i to inventory the bat species of Quinta da Boa Vista (QBV, a large (25 ha urban park centrally located in densely populated Rio de Janeiro, which is Brazil's second largest metropolis; (ii to compare the species richness observed in roosts with the richness recorded through mist netting in flight routes and near fruiting fig trees; and (iii to analyze recaptures of bats marked in this park and recaptured in other sites and vice-versa. Sampling totaled 104 sampling nights resulting in 3,256 captures (including 133 recaptures between April 1989 and December 2004. We also sampled roosts and received some specimens from park visitors and city workers. We documented 21 bat species, predominantly large frugivores. The number of expected species for this park was 24.0 ± 4.6, and the total sampled represented 87.5% of the expected. The recapture of bats marked in surrounding forest fragments and in QBV shows the importance of urban parks for the maintenance of bat diversity. Inspection of roosts produced two species that had not been captured with other methods. Sampling near fruiting fig trees did not differ in terms of richness from sampling carried out far from these trees or during their non-fruiting periods.

  13. Lung deposited surface area size distributions of particulate matter in different urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuuluvainen, Heino; Rönkkö, Topi; Järvinen, Anssi; Saari, Sampo; Karjalainen, Panu; Lähde, Tero; Pirjola, Liisa; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Hillamo, Risto; Keskinen, Jorma

    2016-07-01

    Lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration is considered as a relevant metric for the negative health effects of aerosol particles. We report for the first time the size distributions of the LDSA measured in urban air. The measurements were carried out in the metropolitan area of Helsinki, including mobile laboratory and stationary measurements in different outdoor environments, such as traffic sites, a park area, the city center and residential areas. The main instrument in this study was an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI), which was calibrated in the field to measure the LDSA concentration. The calibration factor was determined to be 60 μm2/(cm3 pA). In the experiments, the LDSA size distributions were found to form two modes at the traffic sites and in the city center. Both of these traffic related particle modes, the nucleation mode and the soot mode, had a clear contribution to the total LDSA concentration. The average total concentrations varied from 12 to 94 μm2/cm3, measured in the park area and at the traffic site next to a major road, respectively. The LDSA concentration was found to correlate with the mass of fine particles (PM2.5), but the relation of these two metrics varied between different environments, emphasizing the influence of traffic on the LDSA. The results of this study provide valuable information on the total concentrations and size distributions of the LDSA for epidemiological studies. The size distributions are especially important in estimating the contribution of outdoor concentrations on the concentrations inside buildings and vehicles through size-dependent penetration factors.

  14. Poor nutritional status of schoolchildren in urban and peri-urban areas of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delisle Hélène F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is still highly prevalent in developing countries. Schoolchildren may also be at high nutritional risk, not only under-five children. However, their nutritional status is poorly documented, particularly in urban areas. The paucity of information hinders the development of relevant nutrition programs for schoolchildren. The aim of this study carried out in Ouagadougou was to assess the nutritional status of schoolchildren attending public and private schools. Methods The study was carried out to provide baseline data for the implementation and evaluation of the Nutrition Friendly School Initiative of WHO. Six intervention schools and six matched control schools were selected and a sample of 649 schoolchildren (48% boys aged 7-14 years old from 8 public and 4 private schools were studied. Anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements, along with thyroid palpation, were performed. Serum retinol was measured in a random sub-sample of children (N = 173. WHO criteria were used to assess nutritional status. Chi square and independent t-test were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Mean age of the children (48% boys was 11.5 ± 1.2 years. Micronutrient malnutrition was highly prevalent, with 38.7% low serum retinol and 40.4% anaemia. The prevalence of stunting was 8.8% and that of thinness, 13.7%. The prevalence of anaemia (p = 0.001 and vitamin A deficiency (p Conclusion This study shows that malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are also widely prevalent in schoolchildren in cities, and it underlines the need for nutrition interventions to target them.

  15. Public Participation in Urban Environmental Management: A Model for Promoting Community-Based Environmental Management in Peri-Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoob, May; Brantly, Eugene; Whiteford, Linda

    In October 1992, the Water and Sanitation for Health (WASH) Project held a workshop to explore how the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) could incorporate community participation as a core element in projects to improve water supply, sanitation, and other environmental conditions of peri-urban areas in developing countries. The…

  16. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage

  17. Area-based urban regeneration comparing Denmark and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harada, Yoko; Jørgensen, Gertrud

    2016-01-01

    and Japan, representing each one approach. The paper aims to clarify results of the two approaches in terms of five aspects of urban regeneration, relevant to the process and results: (1) strategic spatial improvement, (2) influence of the legal system and transparency of the processes, (3) empowerment...

  18. First Flush Effects in an Urban Catchment Area in Aalborg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Brpch, Kirsten; Andersen, Margit Riis

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the results of measurements from a 2 year period on a 95 hectare urban catchment in Aalborg, Denmark. The results of the rain/discharge measurements include 160 storm events corresponding to an accumulated rain depth of totally 753 mm. The water quality measurements include 15...

  19. Urban-rural migration and cultural transformation of rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    loss but also due to in-migration. This paper addresses how rural communities change due to urban-rural migration by investigating reasons and motivations that influence migration decisions, studying relations between newcomers and local residents and exploring social relations and sense of belonging...

  20. [Spatiotemporal distribution of negative air ion concentration in urban area and related affecting factors: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang-Hua; Wang, Jian; Zeng, Hong-Da; Chen, Guang-Shui; Zhong, Xian-Fang

    2013-06-01

    Negative air ion (NAI) concentration is an important indicator comprehensively reflecting air quality, and has significance to human beings living environment. This paper summarized the spatiotemporal distribution features of urban NAI concentration, and discussed the causes of these features based on the characteristics of the environmental factors in urban area and their effects on the physical and chemical processes of NAI. The temporal distribution of NAI concentration is mainly controlled by the periodic variation of solar radiation, while the spatial distribution of NAI concentration along the urban-rural gradient is mainly affected by the urban aerosol distribution, underlying surface characters, and urban heat island effect. The high NAI concentration in urban green area is related to the vegetation life activities and soil radiation, while the higher NAI concentration near the water environment is attributed to the water molecules that participate in the generation of NAI through a variety of ways. The other environmental factors can also affect the generation, life span, component, translocation, and distribution of NAI to some extent. To increase the urban green space and atmospheric humidity and to maintain the soil natural attributes of underlying surface could be the effective ways to increase the urban NAI concentration and improve the urban air quality.

  1. Effect of urbanization on the winter precipitation distribution in Beijing area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    According to the urbanization extent of Beijing area, and with 1980 as a turning point, the duration from 1961 to 2000 is divided into two periods: one is defined as the slow urbanization period from 1961 to 1980, and other one as the fast urbanization period from 1981 to 2000. Based on the 40-year’s precipi-tation data of 14 standard weather stations in Beijing area, the effect of urbanization on precipitation distribution is studied. It is found that there has been a noticeable and systematic change of winter precipitation distribution pattern between these two periods in Beijing area: in the slow urbanization period, the precipitation in the southern part of Beijing is more than that in the northern part; but in the fast urbanization period, the precipitation distribution pattern is reverse, i.e. the precipitation in the southern part is less than that in the northern part; But in other seasons, the precipitation distribution pattern did not change remarkably in general. The possible cause resulting in the change of winter precipitation distribution pattern, might be that with urban area extension, the effects of "urban heat island" and "urban dry island" become more and more intensified, and increase hydrometeors evapo-ration below precipitable cloud, and then cause less precipitation received on the ground surface in the downtown and the southern part. It is also noteworthy to further research why the precipitation distri-bution pattern does not change systematically in other seasons except winter after intense urbaniza-tion in Beijing area.

  2. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Urban Areas: An Overview of Techniques and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Z.M. Shafri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, hyperspectral remote sensing from airborne and satellite systems has been used as a data source for numerous applications. Hyperspectral imaging is quickly moving into the mainstream of remote sensing and is being applied to remote sensing research studies. Hyperspectral remote sensing has great potential for analysing complex urban scenes. However, operational applications within urban environments are still limited, despite several studies that have explored the capabilities of hyperspectral data to map urban areas. In this paper, we review the methods for urban classification using hyperspectral remote sensing data and their applications. The general trends indicate that combined spatial-spectral and sensor fusion approaches are the most optimal for hyperspectral urban analysis. It is also clear that urban hyperspectral mapping is currently limited to airborne data, despite the availability of spaceborne hyperspectral systems. Possible future research directions are also discussed.

  3. Exploring Urbanization Patterns for Counties in Underdeveloped Mountainous Areas: A Case Study of Hubei, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin; Xiaoru

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, features of urbanization of 24 underdeveloped mountainous counties(UMCs) in Hubei Province are analyzed and summarized, which includes low rates of urbanization, signifi cant nonlocal urbanization, undeveloped three industries, and a homogeneous spatial layout of underdeveloped towns. Moreover, our analysis reveals that driving forces originating from favorable macro policies, medium economy, and micro elements are needed to speed up the urbanization in such areas. Based on the case study, we proposes a new path pattern for urbanization of these UMCs in western & central China. In principle, this pattern mainly consists of two important strategies which are driven by a simultaneous development of industry and trade and the exploitation of local characteristics in both economics and culture. In addition, the practice of such a new urbanization path should be carried out through incremental development together with the construction of node-centralizing towns.

  4. Effect of Urban Green Spaces and Flooded Area Type on Flooding Probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyomin Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Countermeasures to urban flooding should consider long-term perspectives, because climate change impacts are unpredictable and complex. Urban green spaces have emerged as a potential option to reduce urban flood risks, and their effectiveness has been highlighted in notable urban water management studies. In this study, flooded areas in Seoul, Korea, were divided into four flooded area types by cluster analysis based on topographic and physical characteristics and verified using discriminant analysis. After division by flooded area type, logistic regression analysis was performed to determine how the flooding probability changes with variations in green space area. Type 1 included regions where flooding occurred in a drainage basin that had a flood risk management infrastructure (FRMI. In Type 2, the slope was steep; the TWI (Topographic Wetness Index was relatively low; and soil drainage was favorable. Type 3 represented the gentlest sloping areas, and these were associated with the highest TWI values. In addition, these areas had the worst soil drainage. Type 4 had moderate slopes, imperfect soil drainage and lower than average TWI values. We found that green spaces exerted a considerable influence on urban flooding probabilities in Seoul, and flooding probabilities could be reduced by over 50% depending on the green space area and the locations where green spaces were introduced. Increasing the area of green spaces was the most effective method of decreasing flooding probability in Type 3 areas. In Type 2 areas, the maximum hourly precipitation affected the flooding probability significantly, and the flooding probability in these areas was high despite the extensive green space area. These findings can contribute towards establishing guidelines for urban spatial planning to respond to urban flooding.

  5. Phytoremediative urban design: Transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, M.; Theuws, P.; Duchhart, I.

    2013-01-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation

  6. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Urban area resolution, Published in 2009, Central College.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2009. It is described as 'Urban area...

  7. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_TargetUrbanAreaCorridor

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County, Targeted Urban Area Corridors. This coverage was created for the Office of Community & Economic Development (OCED)...

  8. Residential Segregation by Occupation and Race in Ten Urbanized Areas, 1950-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkus, Albert A.

    1978-01-01

    This study is directed at measuring the changes in residential segregation in ten United States urbanized areas during the 1950s and 1960s. Changes in the relationship between racial and occupational residential segregation are also examined. (Author/EB)

  9. SCREENING TO IDENTIFY AND PREVENT URBAN STORM WATER PROBLEMS: ESTIMATING IMPERVIOUS AREA ACCURATELY AND INEXPENSIVELY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete identification and eventual prevention of urban water quality problems pose significant monitoring, "smart growth" and water quality management challenges. Uncontrolled increase of impervious surface area (roads, buildings, and parking lots) causes detrimental hydrologi...

  10. Environmental Modelling of Remediation of Urban Contaminated Areas. Report of the Urban Remediation Working Group of EMRAS Theme 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety) programme was concerned with remediation assessment for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. Types of events that could result in dispersal or deposition of radionuclides in an urban situation include both intentional and unintentional events, and releases could range from major events involving a nuclear facility to small events such as a transportation accident. The primary objective of the Urban Remediation Working Group was (1) to test and improve the prediction of dose rates and cumulative doses to humans for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides, including prediction of changes in radionuclide concentrations or dose rates as a function of location and time; (2) to identify the most important pathways for human exposure; and (3) to predict the reduction in radionuclide concentrations, dose rates, or doses expected to result from various countermeasures or remediation efforts. Specific objectives of the Working Group have included (1) the identification of realistic scenarios for a wide variety of situations, (2) comparison and testing of approaches and models for assessing the significance of a given contamination event and for guiding decisions about countermeasures or remediation measures implemented to reduce doses to humans or to clean up the contaminated area, and (3) improving the understanding of processes and situations that affect the spread of contamination to aid in the development of appropriate models and parameter values for use in assessment of these situations. The major activities of the Working Group have included three areas. The first of these was a review of the available modelling approaches and computer models for use in assessing urban contamination and potential countermeasures or remediation activities. The second area of work was a modelling exercise based on data

  11. Availability of food stores and consumption of fruit, legumes and vegetables in a Brazilian urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristine Pessoa, Milene; Loures Mendes, Larissa; Teixeira Caiaffa, Waleska; Carvalho Malta, Deborah; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo

    2014-12-17

    Antecedentes: El ambiente alimentar puede tener una influencia importante en la disponibilidad y el acceso a ellos, éste desempeña un papel importante en la salud de las poblaciones. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el consumo de frutas, legumbres y hortalizas (FLV) de adultos y la disponibilidad de las tiendas de alimentos en el contexto del espacio socioeconómico y geográfico en el territorio de las unidades básicas de salud en una capital brasileña. Métodos: El estudio se desarrolló a partir de la información obtenida a través de la Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo para Enfermedades no Transmisibles Prevención de Encuesta Telefónica (VIGITEL), utilizando muestras de la ciudad de Belo Horizonte en los años de 2008 a 2010. Un total de 5.611 registros fueron geo-codificados usando el código postal. Una puntuación fue creada en base a la frecuencia semanal y diario del consumo de FLV . El área de las unidades básicas de salud se utilizó como unidad vecinal. Se utilizaron los datos geo-referenciados de los comercios de venta de comida en la ciudad y el barrio. Resultados: A medida que aumentaba la renta del barrio, hubo un aumento en la distribución de los establecimientos de comida e bebidas para todas las categorías estudiadas. Se observaron las puntuaciones más altas de consumo FLV en zonas con niveles de ingresos más altos. Conclusión: La mayor concentración de tiendas de alimentos e bebidas e mayor puntuación de consumo, independientemente da calidad de los productos ofrecidos, fue observado en las áreas geográficas con mayor poder adquisitivo.

  12. Mutual Conversion of Land Use between Urban and Rural Area in the Process of Urbanization: A Case Study of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hong

    2007-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the driving forces for the land use change in type and structure, and its prominent effect is to convert rural land to urban land. This paper takes Shandong Province as an example to analyze the current situation of the mutual conversion between the urban and rural areas from the aspects of the structure of land use, the decreasing tendency of the cultivated land, the changes of land use in urban and rural residential areas. It points out that cultivated land is converted to residential area land, industrial and/or mining area land. The relationship between the urban area land and the cultivated land is more direct; meanwhile, the changes of rural residential area lag behind obviously. The decrease of the cultivated land and the decline of soil quality will be the two difficult problems in the process of urbanization.

  13. Influence of new town development on the urban heat island - The case of the Bundang area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Young-bae

    2005-01-01

    Five new towns have been developed around the Seoul metropolitan area since 1996. However, these new towns generate lots of traffic and related problems in the areas including those new towns and Seoul as a result of increases in population and a lack of ecological-self-sufficiency. Currently, construction of another new town is under deliberation, and what should be a major consider is the notion that the new town be located within a wide, green zone. Many studies have revealed that green space can play an important role in improving urban eco-meteorological capability and air quality. In order to analyze the urban heat island which will be created by the new urban development, and to investigate the local thermal environment and its negative effects caused by a change of land use type and urbanization, Landsat TM images were used for extraction of urban surface temperature according to changes of land use over the last 15 years. These data are analyzed together with digital land use and topographic information. As a study result, it was found the urban heat island of the study area from 1985 to 1999 rapidly developed which showed a difference of mean temperature above + 2.0. Before the Bundang new town construction the temperature of the residential area was the same as a forest, but during the new town construction in 1991 analysis revealed the creation of an urban heat island. The temperature of a forest whose size is over 50% of the investigation area was lowest, and thus the presence of a forest is believed to have a direct cooling effect on the urban environment and its surroundings.The mean temperature of the residential and commercial areas in the study was found to be + 4.5 higher than the forest, and therefore this part of land use is believed to be the main factor causing the temperature increase of the urban heat island.

  14. A Study on the Factors Influencing the Income Gap between Urban and Rural Areas Based on State-space Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofang; ZOU; Xueqin; JIANG

    2014-01-01

    The increasingly widening income gap between urban and rural areas is affected by many factors. Using the stepwise regression analysis,we find that urbanization level,socio-economic development,education level,financial development scale and financial development efficiency have the greatest impact on the income gap between urban and rural areas. By cointegration test,it is found that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between these five variables and the income gap between urban and rural areas. We build the state-space model to research the dynamic impact of these factors on the income gap between urban and rural areas. The results show that by improving the level of urbanization,we can effectively narrow the income gap between urban and rural areas,while socio-economic development,the improvement of education level,expansion of financial development scale and financial development efficiency all significantly expand the income gap between urban and rural areas.

  15. Influences of land cover types, meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat and urban area on surface urban heat island in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongyu; Wang, Duoduo; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xiaolei; Qin, Fei; Jiang, Hong; Cai, Yongli

    2016-11-15

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) reflect the localized impact of human activities on thermal fields. In this study, we assessed the surface UHI and its relationship with types of land, meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat sources and urban areas in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration (YRDUA) with the aid of remote sensing data, statistical data and meteorological data. The results showed that the UHI intensity in YRDUA was the strongest (0.84°C) in summer, followed by 0.81°C in autumn, 0.78°C in spring and 0.53°C in winter. The daytime UHI intensity is 0.98°C, which is higher than the nighttime UHI intensity of 0.50°C. Then, the relationship between the UHI intensity and several factors such as meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat sources and the urban area were analysed. The results indicated that there was an insignificant correlation between population density and the UHI intensity. Energy consumption, average temperature and urban area had a significant positive correlation with UHI intensity. However, the average wind speed and average precipitation were significantly negatively correlated with UHI intensity. This study provides insight into the regional climate characteristics and a scientific basis for city layout. PMID:27424113

  16. Sustainability Challenges from Climate Change and Air Conditioning Use in Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Lundgren; Tord Kjellstrom

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change increases heat loads in urban areas causing health and productivity risks for millions of people. Inhabitants in tropical and subtropical urban areas are at especial risk due to high population density, already high temperatures, and temperature increases due to climate change. Air conditioning is growing rapidly, especially in South and South-East Asia due to income growth and the need to protect from high heat exposures. Studies have linked increased total hourly elect...

  17. Urban Coyotes: Preparing residents of the Greater Washington Metropolitan Area for potential conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Pederson, Shannon Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Coyotes, Canis latrans, are members of the Family Canidae that have expanded their range and now encompass the entire continental United States. While expanding their distribution, they have adapted to an urban lifestyle. Because of their adaptable behavior and opportunistic diet, they have prospered in many major cities, with real consequences for people and their pets. The most recent urban area coyotes have inhabited is the Greater Washington Metropolitan Area. Preparing residents of t...

  18. Study on distribution of aerosol optical depth in Chongqing urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shiqi; Liu, Can; Gao, Yanghua

    2015-12-01

    This paper selected 6S (second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum) model with dark pixel method to inversion aerosol optical depth by MODIS data, and got the spatial distribution and the temporal distribution of Chongqing urban area. By comparing with the sun photometer and API data, the result showed that the inversion method can be used in aerosol optical thickness monitoring in Chongqing urban area.

  19. Soil quality and sustainable land use in urban rural marginal area: a case study of Kaifeng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By using the basic theories of physical geography, land resourcesand ecology, this article analyzes the soil quality of the rural-urban marginal area in Kaifeng. Computer techniques, based on soil samples analysis, are used to study soil quality changes in the Kaifeng's rural-urban marginal area. While focusing on nutrient circle key links of input and output in soil, relying on numerous practical survey data, this article reveals clearly the impact of land use change on soil quality.

  20. New urban area flood model: a comparison with MIKE11-quasi2d

    OpenAIRE

    Sole, A.; Zuccaro, G.

    2005-01-01

    Recent hydrogeological events have increased both public interest and that of the Scientific Community in a more accurate study of flooding in urban areas. The present project proposes a new model which offers an optimal integration of two models, one for flood wave propagation in riverbeds and the other for flooding in urban areas. We consider it necessary to not only treat the modelling of the outflow in riverbeds and outside riverbeds.together but to integrate them thoroughly. We simulate...

  1. Upstream structural management measures for an urban area flooding in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Akyurek, Z.; Bozoğlu, B.; Sürer, S.; Mumcu, H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, flooding has become an increasing concern across many parts of the world of both the general public and their governments. The climate change inducing more intense rainfall events occurring in short period of time lead flooding in rural and urban areas. In this study the flood modelling in an urbanized area, namely Samsun-Terme in Blacksea region of Turkey is performed. MIKE21 with flexible grid is used in 2-dimensional shallow water flow modelling. 1 × 1000...

  2. Temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas during rapid urbanization in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the economic and financial center of China, Shanghai has experienced an extensive urban expansion since the early 1980s, with an attendant cost in environmental degradation. We use an integrated pollution index to study the temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas between 1982 and 2005. Data on monitored cross-sections were collected from the Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of surface water quality was determined by the level of urbanization. Surface water qualities in urban and suburban areas were improved by strengthening the environmental policies and management, but were worsening in rural areas. The relationship between economic growth and surface water quality in Shanghai showed an inversed-U-shaped curve, which reflected a similar pattern in most developed countries. This research suggests that decision makers and city officials should be more aware of the recent pollution increases in Shanghai. - An integrated pollution index documents the deterioration of water quality in greater Shanghai, recently most serious in rural sections

  3. Demographic profile and health conditions of the elderly in a community in an urban area of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telarolli Junior Rodolpho

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Some specific characteristics of the aging of the Brazilian population in different areas, states and communities all over the country, have shown significant variations. Historical series of demographic and health indicators for the population in their sixties and over in Brazil, state of S. Paulo and in the municipal district of Araraquara are listed as follows: level of education and urban population growth rate, income distribution, mortality rates and main causes of death. In 1991 the aged constituled were 7,8% of the Brazilian population and 9,7% in Araraquara community. The elderly population (of 70 years of aged and above as a proportion of the whole, has increased and already stands for 40%. The same trend holds good for both the proportion of aged within the urban population and their level of education wich increased to 90% in 1991. The main causes of death are chronic degenerative diseases which have replaced the infectious illness: firts, the diseases of the circulatory sistem (which account for more than 40% of all deaths and the neoplasms (which let to 15% of the deaths. On the basis of these health and demographic data relating to people of 60 years of age and over, this study suggests some procedures for the improvement of the quality of the assistance given to the target population: a the assistance give to the aged should be improved by providing gerontological training for general physicians and nurses, both of public and private clinics; b the already exixting educational activities for the aged, for health workers and for teachers of secundary education should be further developed; c the number of day-hospitals should be increased for the purpose of avoiding unnecessary confinement so as maintain the low rate of institutionalization in homes for the elderly (0,7% in Araraquara. It is reported that at least 35% of the aged population in this area is entitled to private health assistance, wich brings out the importance of

  4. Evaluation on the Efficiency and Fairness of Coordinating Public Goods Supply in Urban and Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan; YU; Zhongmin; DING

    2015-01-01

    By setting the urban-rural public goods supply model,this paper evaluates the effects of coordinating supply public goods on resource allocation and welfare from efficiency and fairness,and examines the necessity and possibility of coordinating public goods supply in urban and rural areas. The model assumes that the population size of urban and rural areas is different,and the population can not flow freely between urban and rural areas; there are different degrees of spillover in the public goods supply. Model results show that coordinating public goods supply in urban and rural areas is the result of optimizing resource allocation efficiency,but the residents’ individual utility level will not necessarily improve,so residents’ willingness to support coordinated urban-rural supply is different,and public goods spillover and different tax systems are the factors that affect the residents’ utility level. Finally,this paper uses the practice of coordinating urban and rural compulsory education in Chengdu City to confirm the above conclusions.

  5. Design of passive solar buildings in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tombazis, A.N.; Preuss, S.A. [Meletitiki-Alexandros N. Tombazis and Associates Architects Ltd., Athens (Greece)

    2001-07-01

    This paper is about designing solar buildings within given urban contexts and the resulting restrictions rather than about town planning with the freedom to arrange buildings freely so as to maximise access to natural resources. A comprehensive bioclimatic design in such a given urban environment must carefully investigate and assess the building's access to natural resources while taking into account the negative influences that might prevail around the site. The associated constraints can be a challenging but very interesting and rewarding starting point for architectural design. If understood and considered from the beginning these constraints can lead to creative, innovative and beautiful architectural solutions, in other words, to real architecture. (Author)

  6. D Object Classification Based on Thermal and Visible Imagery in Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, H.; Samadzadegan, F.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial distribution of land cover in the urban area especially 3D objects (buildings and trees) is a fundamental dataset for urban planning, ecological research, disaster management, etc. According to recent advances in sensor technologies, several types of remotely sensed data are available from the same area. Data fusion has been widely investigated for integrating different source of data in classification of urban area. Thermal infrared imagery (TIR) contains information on emitted radiation and has unique radiometric properties. However, due to coarse spatial resolution of thermal data, its application has been restricted in urban areas. On the other hand, visible image (VIS) has high spatial resolution and information in visible spectrum. Consequently, there is a complementary relation between thermal and visible imagery in classification of urban area. This paper evaluates the potential of aerial thermal hyperspectral and visible imagery fusion in classification of urban area. In the pre-processing step, thermal imagery is resampled to the spatial resolution of visible image. Then feature level fusion is applied to construct hybrid feature space include visible bands, thermal hyperspectral bands, spatial and texture features and moreover Principle Component Analysis (PCA) transformation is applied to extract PCs. Due to high dimensionality of feature space, dimension reduction method is performed. Finally, Support Vector Machines (SVMs) classify the reduced hybrid feature space. The obtained results show using thermal imagery along with visible imagery, improved the classification accuracy up to 8% respect to visible image classification.

  7. The Evolution of Urban Green Areas in Romania during 2002-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian Şorcaru

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The small size of green areas in Romanian urban settlements remains a problem of current urbanization, having a negative impact on the healthy lifestyle of the population. Nowadays, the green areas from most of the Romanian cities are under the WHO standard of 50 m2/inhabitant, under the E.U. standard of 26 m2/inhabitant, and also under the national standard (94 urban settlements-29.4% have less than 10 m2/inhabitant of green area in 2013. Furthermore, the evolution of green areas after 2002, shows that almost a quarter of Romanian urban settlements (24.5% recorded significant declines, some towns having less than one square meter per inhabitant. This study presents a detailed analysis of Romanian urban green areas, their evolution over the period 2002-2013, based on the latest data provided by INS (National Institute of Statistics, identifying in the same time the causes and effects that led to the current situation. Mapping the results and identifying regional disparities, along with proposing measures to increase urban green areas are also objectives achieved in this study.

  8. Urban agriculture in the metropolitan area of Mexico city

    OpenAIRE

    H. Losada; Rivera, J.; Cortes, J; Vieyra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Mexico City and the rest of the country do not escape from the social and economic inequalities of the present economic model applied worldwide.  Agriculture is a traditional activity in Mexico. This urban productive process has particular features: the predominance of smallholding, the restricted use of physical space, and the use of recycled materials and organic wastes. The population engaged in agriculture is heterogeneous, and includes women and children. There are a couple of production...

  9. Overcoming PV grid issues in the urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehara, T.

    2009-10-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at grid issues in urban photovoltaic electricity and how to overcome them. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy as a significant and sustainable renewable energy option. The objective of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The paper discusses the goal of mainstreaming PV systems in the urban environment. In this report, PV grid interconnection issues and countermeasures based on the latest studies are identified and summarised. Appropriate and understandable information is provided for all possible stakeholders. Possible impacts and benefits of PV grid interconnection are identified, technical measures designed to eliminate negative impacts and enhance possible benefits are presented. The status of research and demonstration projects is introduced and the latest outcomes are summarised. Recommendations and conclusions based on the review process are summarised and presented.

  10. Effects of road safety measures in urban areas in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    1985-01-01

    In two urban areas in the netherlands, each covering a surface of about a hundred hectares, a demonstration project of traffic measures was carried out; these areas were redivided and redesigned with the aims: (a) of better separating traffic zones and residential areas; (b) within the residential

  11. Empirical analysis on impact of FDI on the level of urbanization in costal areas

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    Cao Can-Ming

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is a close relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization. the objective of this research is to analyze the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in Jiangsu and Guangdong provinces in costal areas.Design/methodology/approach: The author uses the modern econometric methods by panel unit root test, cointegration test, random effects models and fixed effects models, and the data of FDI (2000-2012, urbanization rate, industrial structure and regional GDP of Nanjing, Xuzhou, Suzhou, Wuxi and other 13 cities in Jiangsu Province, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and other 19 cities in Guangdong province, researches the relationship between FDI and urbanization rate.Findings: Models show, FDI was closely correlated with urbanization rate in Jiangsu province and Guangdong province, the highly correlated with industrial structure, while it negatively correlated with the growth of GDP, and the degree of correlation is not high in Jiangsu province, but the high negative correlation in Guangdong province. The results shows the industrial structure and the urbanization rate mainly cause FDI growth.Research limitations/implications: There are many provinces in costal areas of China, this paper just research the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in Jiangsu province and Guangdong province, there are some limitations in the study areas and results.Originality/value: The study was the first to successfully apply on random effects model and fixed effects model to study the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in coastal areas by competitive analysis. Guangdong and Jiangsu province are the most developed regions, they are the most representative provinces in costal areas of China. Taking these two province as an example, we can analyze the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in central and western regions.

  12. Cancer mortality inequalities in urban areas: a Bayesian small area analysis in Spanish cities

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    Martos Carmen M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intra-urban inequalities in mortality have been infrequently analysed in European contexts. The aim of the present study was to analyse patterns of cancer mortality and their relationship with socioeconomic deprivation in small areas in 11 Spanish cities. Methods It is a cross-sectional ecological design using mortality data (years 1996-2003. Units of analysis were the census tracts. A deprivation index was calculated for each census tract. In order to control the variability in estimating the risk of dying we used Bayesian models. We present the RR of the census tract with the highest deprivation vs. the census tract with the lowest deprivation. Results In the case of men, socioeconomic inequalities are observed in total cancer mortality in all cities, except in Castellon, Cordoba and Vigo, while Barcelona (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.42-1.67, Madrid (RR = 1.57 95%CI 1.49-1.65 and Seville (RR = 1.53 95%CI 1.36-1.74 present the greatest inequalities. In general Barcelona and Madrid, present inequalities for most types of cancer. Among women for total cancer mortality, inequalities have only been found in Barcelona and Zaragoza. The excess number of cancer deaths due to socioeconomic deprivation was 16,413 for men and 1,142 for women. Conclusion This study has analysed inequalities in cancer mortality in small areas of cities in Spain, not only relating this mortality with socioeconomic deprivation, but also calculating the excess mortality which may be attributed to such deprivation. This knowledge is particularly useful to determine which geographical areas in each city need intersectorial policies in order to promote a healthy environment.

  13. Floristic diversity in urban forest area of NEERI Campus, Nagpur, Maharashtra (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakhi B; Chaudhari, P R; Wate, S R

    2008-01-01

    This study has been carried out to assess the diverse floristic wealth in urban forest area of NEERI campus at Nagpur, Maharashtra (India). This urban forest is ecologically important to maintain the atmospheric temperature around 2 degrees C below and higher relative humidity as compared to other urban areas. The water table is also observed to be shallower in this area as compared to other areas. Therefore, the biological diversity of this urban forest was studied, as it is directly related to ecology of the area. Floristic survey of NEERI premises recorded 135 vascular plants including 16 monocots and 119 dicots, belonging to 115 genera and 53 families. The taxa included 4 types of grasses, 55 herbs, 30 shrubs and 46 trees. The large number of species within very small area (43 ha) indicates rich biodiversity in this forest area. It is also observed that this forest patch has tall trees, with good density and rich cover of shrubs and herbs on forest floor indicating well knit plant community. These characteristics have given immense ecological importance to this urban forest area. Detailed vegetation study revealed that positive co-operation in the plant communities can significantly maintain species diversity in the environment.

  14. Identifying Potential Areas for Future Urban Development Using Gis-Based Multi Criteria Evaluation Technique

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    Mohammed Khalid Sabbar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia likes other Asian countries has experienced rapid urbanization due to economic development, industrialization, massive migrations as well as natural population growth. This expansion particularly the unplanned has impacted negatively on farming activities and creates huge pressure arable agriculture areas. Thus, identification of potential sites for future urban development should become important issues in ensuring sustainable development. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to use GIS based multi criteria evaluation technique to identify potential areas for urban development at Balik Pulau, Penang. The study quantified spatial and temporal dynamics of land use/cover changes and identified potential areas for future development. The results indicated that large proportions of agriculture areas had been converted to built-up areas.. Urban areas increased from 1793.2 ha in 1992 to 3235.4 ha in 2002 and became 3987.8 ha in 2010. On the other hand agricultural land decreased from 6171.3ha (53.8% in 1992 to 3883 ha (35. % in 2010. The study, then, produced map showing potential sites for future urban development. The findings also indicated built-up areas would continue to encroach into flat available agricultural land which will be diminished if no restriction imposed. Thus, the information obtained from this study is useful for planners and decision makers in controlling agriculture areas and guiding new development properly.

  15. Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardel, F.; Wuyts, K. [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Babanezhad, M. [Department of statistics, Faculty of Science, Golestan University, Gorgan, Golestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vitharana, U.W.A. [Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Wuytack, T.; Potters, G. [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Samson, R., E-mail: Roeland.Samson@ua.ac.b [Department of Bioscience Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2010-03-15

    This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

  16. Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

  17. SOCIO-ECONOMICAL AND AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THE URBAN AREAS PROXIMITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dumitrascu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Sociological investigations regarding urbanization processes show an irreversible tendency: the number of urban residents will double in the next 35 years. Big cities rather than villages and provincial boroughs become our common habitat. Agriculture practiced in the proximity of big urban areas (intra- and peri-urban agriculture is one of the powerful and positive activities that the municipal residents can carry out in their effort to take control of their food security, aberrant social behavior and environment degradation in the urban communities. This paper approaches the central themes of the researches carried out in the field of urban agriculture: magnitude and dynamics of agricultural practices in the proximity of big urban areas, types of agriculture practiced, benefits and hazards associated to these practices, social implications and economical results of agricultural initiatives in urban sites, environmental impact of the mutual influence urban environment – agricultural sites, accessibility, cropping suitability, and ecological conversion of land in the proximity of urban areas. Socio-economical impact is analyzed, referring to the agricultural used land, its legal status, and crop structure in Bucharest municipality, social and economical motivation of agricultural producers, incomes from agricultural activities, identified constraints in the development of agricultural activities and perspectives, information sources, connection degree with the specific institutions and to the demands of ecological agriculture practice. Environment impact assessment was carried out by processing some fertility and contamination/pollution macro-indicators, which refer to the soil and ground water loading and pollution with nitrates, organochlorines, polychlorinated byphenyls (PCB, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and heavy metals.

  18. Towards the quantification of rockfall risk assessment for urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrouli, Olga; Corominas, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    In many mountainous inhabited areas rockfalls are a major threat for structures and population. The quantification of the risk gives an estimate of the potential consequences that allows the analysis of different scenarios, minimizing the subjectivity and the uncertainties that derive from judgmental and qualitative approaches. The four main phases of the rockfall phenomenon have to be determined including: a. the calculation of the frequency of the rock block volumes falling down the slope, b. the calculation of the probability of the rock blocks reaching a reference section with a certain level of kinetic energy; c. the calculation of the spatio-temporal probability of the exposed elements; and d. the calculation of the probability that an exposed element will suffer a certain degree of damage. Here, a step-by-step methodology for the quantification of risk is presented. The methodology focuses on steps (b) to (d). An example of an urban area that is situated at the toe of a talus cone below of a rocky slope is considered. Three different rock diameters are considered with their respective frequencies (step a). For the calculation of the spatial probability of a given rock size reaching a location, a probabilistic 3D trajectory analysis is performed using the software ROTOMAP. The inputs are the topographic relief, the rockfall source and velocity and the soil parameters (restitution coefficient and friction coefficients). The latter are evaluated by back analysis using historical events. The probability of a given rock magnitude reaching a critical section of the talus cone with a certain level of kinetic energy is evaluated. For the step (c), the spatio-temporal probability of the element at risk is calculated taking into account both the trajectographic analysis of the rock blocks and the location of the elements at risk on the talus cone. For the step (d), the probability of a certain degree of structural damage in the buildings is calculated. To this purpose

  19. These lit areas are undeveloped: Delimiting China's urban extents from thresholded nighttime light imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Delahunty, Tina; Zhao, Naizhuo; Cao, Guofeng

    2016-08-01

    Nighttime light imagery is a powerful tool to study urbanization because it can provide a uniform metric, lit area, to delimit urban extents. However, lit area is much larger than actual urban area, so thresholds of digital number (DN) values are usually needed to reduce the lit area. The threshold varies greatly among different regions, but at present it is still not very clear what factors impact the changes of the threshold. In this study, urban extent by province for China is mapped using official statistical data and four intercalibrated and geometrically corrected nighttime light images between 2004 and 2010. Lit area in the imagery for most provinces is at least 94% greater than the official amount of urban area. Regression analyses show a significant correlation between optimal thresholds and GDP per capita, and larger thresholds more commonly indicate higher economic level. Size and environmental condition may explain a province's threshold that is disproportionate to GDP. Findings indicate one threshold DN is not appropriate for multiple (adjacent) province urban extent mapping, and optimal thresholds for one year may be notably different than the next. Province-level derived thresholds are not appropriate for other geographic levels. Brightness of nighttime lights is an advantage over imagery that relies on daylight reflection, and decreases in brightness indicate faster growth in the horizontal direction than the vertical. A province's optimal threshold does not always maintain an increase with population and economic growth. In the economically developed eastern provinces, urban population densities decreased (and this is seen in the brightness data), while urban population increased.

  20. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MATERNAL CARE PRACTICES IN TRIBAL AREA AND URBAN SLUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolli Sree Karuna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mothers and children constitute the major proportion of our population. At the same time these two groups are very vulnerable and require sp ecial attention in health care. 1 In spite of progress in health care delivery, there are variations in utilization of the health services in urban slums, rural and tribal areas. Therefore in this context, an attempt was made to compare the health care practices of mothers in tribal area and urban slums. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study is a community based cross sectional study conducted among mothers with living infants residing in tribal area and urban slums. After the survey and collection, from 606 mothers, comprising 305 from tribal a rea and 301 from urban slums through self administered questionnaire which covered socio - demographic profile, antenatal care, postnatal care and family planning methods, the data was analyzed using SPSS, 12. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In urban slums 42% of wo men are approaching private practitioners for antenatal care whereas 87% of tribal women are depending on government health centers for antenatal care. With regards to intranatal care, 70% of women in tribal areas delivered at their homes where as 80% of d eliveries in urban slums were also home deliveries. Spacing is less than a year in 61% of tribal and 37% of urban population. The antenatal care is being provided mainly by private institutions and government hospitals in urban areas. In tribal areas women are approaching health centers for antenatal care. Most of the deliveries in the study population are home deliveries . Utilization of family planning services is very low in both the groups.

  1. Approach to defining the urban development borders of an area on the example of Kuzbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samoylova Nadezhda Aleksandrovna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ON THE EXAMPLE OF KUZBASS The contemporary urban planning problems are of multifaceted character and are directly relevant to fundamental aspects of the development of the society - social sphere, economy, land and property relations, material environment and its safety, preservation of historical and cultural heritage, ecology. In spacial planning aspect urban planning is, first of all, planning and design, including scientifically justified legal regulation, spatial organization of territorial objects (of a country and its regions, settlements, components of planning structure: planning centers, axes, zones, etc., separate land plots, i.d. forecast of their future state - use, development or reconstruction. All these should be included into town planning documentation. The author specified the range of problematic urban planning issues, which refer to urban border areas. The methods, mechanisms and measures to define urban border areas including several interdependent urban and rural settlements situated in different city regions are offered using the example of Kuzbass. The backgrounds for the creation of BIM system for planning, design, construction and further management and operation of infrastructure objects are created within the formed urban border areas of coal mining.

  2. Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bonhomme, Céline; Rocher, Vincent; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP₁EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale.

  3. Relationships between burned area, forest cover loss, and land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon based on satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanin, T.; van der Werf, G. R.

    2015-10-01

    Fires are used as a tool in the deforestation process. Yet, the relationship between fire and deforestation may vary temporally and spatially depending on the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal dynamics of deforestation and fire represented by burned area over the 2002-2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. As a first step, we compared newly available Landsat-based maps of gross forest cover loss from the Global Forest Change (GFC) project with maps of deforestation extent from the Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Project (PRODES) produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). As a second step, we rescaled the Landsat-based data to the 500 m resolution of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area data (MCD64A1) and stratified this using MODIS land cover data to study the role of burned area in forest cover loss and deforestation. We found that while GFC forest cover loss and PRODES deforestation generally agreed on spatial and temporal dynamics, there were several key differences between the data sets. Both showed a decrease in the extent of forest cover loss or deforestation after 2004, but the drop was larger and more continuous in PRODES than in GFC. The observed decrease in forest cover loss or deforestation rates over our study period was mainly due to lower clearing rates in the evergreen broadleaf forests in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia. GFC indicated anomalously high forest cover loss in the years 2007 and 2010, which was not reported by PRODES. The burned area data indicated that this was predominantly related to increased burned area occurring outside of the tropical forest area during these dry years, mainly in Pará. This indicated that fire and forest loss dynamics in woodlands or secondary forests may be equally important as deforestation in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In addition to the decrease in forest cover

  4. Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Ryu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban–rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality during a high ozone (O3 episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ. Under fair weather conditions, the temperature excess (urban heat island significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deep urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the reduced O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection of O3 but also the chemical production of O3 under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural emissions play important roles in O3 formation. As the air masses that are characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length are advected over the urban area from the surroundings, the ozone production efficiency increases in the urban area. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the

  5. A new framework for modeling urban land expansion in peri-urban area by combining multi-source datasets and data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Xiao, R.; Li, X.

    2015-12-01

    Peri-urban area is a new type region under the impacts of both rural Industrialization and the radiation of metropolitan during rapid urbanization. Due to its complex natural and social characteristics and unique development patterns, many problems such as environmental pollution and land use waste emerged, which became an urgent issue to be addressed. Study area in this paper covers three typical peri-urban districts (Pudong, Fengxian and Jinshan), which around the Shanghai inner city. By coupling cellular automata and multi-agent system model as the basic tools, this research focus on modelling the urban land expansion and driving mechanism in peri-urban area. The big data is aslo combined with the Bayesian maximum entropy method (BME) for spatiotemporal prediction of multi-source data, which expand the dataset of urban expansion models. Data assimilation method is used to optimize the parameters of the coupling model and minimize the uncertainty of observations, improving the precision of future simulation in peri-urban area. By setting quantitative parameters, the coupling model can effectively improve the simulation of the process of urban land expansion under different policies and management schemes, in order to provide scientificimplications for new urbanization strategy. In this research, we precise the urban land expansion simulation and prediction for peri-urban area, expand the scopes and selections of data acquisition measurements and methods, develop the new applications of the data assimilation method in geographical science, provide a new idea for understanding the inherent rules of urban land expansion, and give theoretical and practical support for the peri-urban area in urban planning and decision making.

  6. Rural-urban Migration, Rural Household Income and Sustainable Development in Rural Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Qi; Yang Chunyue; Li Juan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the rela-tionships among rural-urban migration, rural household income and sustainable development in rural areas of China. The typical case study is done and 288 questionnaires are collected from five villages in Hebei and Guangxi provinces, China. The migration and remittance status, household income and sustainable devel-opment of rural areas are analyzed on the basis of questionnaires. Rural-urban migration is becoming a part of routine life in rural areas. And remittance is an important component in rural house-hold income. Rural-urban migration increases the arable land area per labor, which releases the tight human-land relationship in villages. In total, the migration increases the rural household in-come and accelerates the sustainable development of rural areas.

  7. Immunization Coverage - A Comparison Between Tribal, Non-Tirbal and Urban Areas Of Udaipur District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Afifa

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What influences the accessibility and utilization of immunization services? Objective: To study immunization coverage in Urban, Non-tribal and Tribal areas. Study Design: Cross-sectional Participants: Mother and children Sample Size: 420 mothers and 421 children. Setting: Urban, Rural & Tribal Statistical Analysis: Simple proportions Results: Level of Coverage was higher in urban area (67.29% and low in non-tribal (39.68% and tribal areas (21.42% respectively. Low level of coverage in tribal areas is a cause of concern for accessibility of health services in general and immunization services in particular. The study makes a strong case for improvement of services in tribal areas.

  8. Effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Bell, Amanda H.; Brown, Larry R.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Woodside, Michael D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Bryant, Wade L.; Cappiella, Karen; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Stack, William P.

    2012-01-01

    Urban development is an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The urban footprint on the American landscape has expanded during a century and a half of almost continuous development. Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas, and the advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic species. Every stream is connected downstream to larger water bodies, including rivers, reservoirs, and ultimately coastal waters. Inputs of chemical contaminants or sediments at any point along the stream can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism.

  9. Agriculture Environment Influence on Urban and Rural Areas Teachers Balanced Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available External agricultural environment is playing an important role in the balanced development of urban and rural teachers, including comprehensive effects of multiple factors, such agricultural environment, agricultural policy, agricultural system, etc. We have conducted a random questionnaire survey on urban and rural compulsory teachers in Chongqing City, issued 2400 questionnaires and received 1700 effective questionnaires. We employed SPSS statistical software to analyze the influence of external agricultural environment on dualized social security system, training system, personnel system reform and management system, etc, investigate the cause of an unbalanced allocation of urban and rural teachers from the perspective of external agricultural environment. Establish dualized social security system form the external agricultural environment, in order to solve the problem of the balanced development of urban and rural teachers and guarantee a balanced development of school education in urban and rural areas.

  10. O controle de pragas urbanas na qualidade do alimento sob a visão da legislação federal Urban plague control in food quality according to brazilian federal legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Soares Matias

    2007-08-01

    Ordinance Law 209 that establishes the Brazilian Code of Foods. The Brazilian Governmental Decree 1428 of 26 November, 1993 from the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MS innovates the relationship of the contributory factors for food contamination presenting in the guidelines the establishment of good manufacturing practices and services rendered in the area of foods, the de-infestation that includes the sanitization plan used by an establishment. A new vision of the decisive factors of food contamination has been created, which is the control of mice and insects. This procedure integrates all the legal documents that were produced by the MS and Brazilian Ministry for Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA concerning the control of food. Even the publication of the Brazilian Governmental Decree 275/2002-MS, the control of urban plagues could be done by trained teams of establishments that carried out: production / industrialization, division, storage and transporting of industrialized food, handling, preparation, storage, distribution, transport, sale display and the delivery of food prepared for consumption, such as restaurants, buffets, sweet shops, industrial kitchens, institutional kitchens, delicatessens, snack bars, bakeries, pastry shops, restaurants, among others. Regarding its publication, the chemical control is only carried out by the PCO in accordance with the Brazilian Governmental Decree 18/2000-MS. However, this does not mean the legal responsibility of food companies has been taken away that should include in the SOP (Standardized Operational Procedure the control of pests, whether it be physical and/or chemical.

  11. Relationships between burned area, forest cover loss and land use change in the Brazilian Amazon based on satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanin, T.; van der Werf, G. R.

    2015-06-01

    Fires are used as a tool in the deforestation process. Yet, the relationship between fire and deforestation may vary temporally and spatially depending on the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal dynamics of deforestation and fire represented by burned area over the 2002-2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. As a first step, we compared newly available Landsat-based maps of gross forest cover loss from the Global Forest Change (GFC) project with maps of deforestation extent from the Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Project (PRODES) produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). As a second step, we rescaled the Landsat-based data to the 500 m resolution of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area data (MCD64A1) and stratified this using MODIS land cover data to study the role of burned area in forest cover loss and deforestation. We found that while GFC forest cover loss and PRODES deforestation generally agreed on spatial and temporal dynamics, there were several key differences between the datasets. Both showed a decrease in the extent of forest cover loss or deforestation after 2004, but the drop was larger and more continuous in PRODES than in GFC. The observed decrease in forest cover loss or deforestation rates over our study period was mainly due to lower clearing rates in the evergreen broadleaf forests in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará and Rondônia. GFC indicated anomalous high forest cover loss in the years 2007 and 2010 not reported by PRODES. The burned area data showed that this was predominantly related to increased fire activity occurring outside of the tropical forest area during these dry years, mainly in Pará. This indicates that fire and forest loss dynamics in woodlands or secondary forests may be equally important as deforestation in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In addition to the decrease in forest cover loss rates, we also

  12. Rainfall interception by two arboreal species in urban green area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Ferreira da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall interception by the two most usual species in forest urban spaces was analysed by measuring of interception (I or interception losses, through fall (Th, stem flow (St and gross precipitation (Pg. The chosen species were Caesalpinia pluviosa DC. (Fabaceae: Caesalpinoideae or sibipiruna, and Tipuana tipu O. Kuntze (Fabaceae: Faboideae or tipuana. The individuals analysed were more than 50 years old, with three separate individuals and three individuals in each studied group of species at the campus of ”Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture (University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba. The experiments were carried out from January to February 2007. Water was collected using seven-litre pails, in the edges and in the centre of the canopies. A high correlation of Th with Pg was observed on the centre of the crow of tipuana and by the edges of sibipiruna. St and I had low correlation with Pg for both species. The average of rain interception was greater in the edges of the crow of sibipiruna individuals, 60.6%, and in the centre of tipuana crow, 59.40%. Thus, both species intercepted up to 60% of the water rainfall, which indicates a great potential of both species for arborisation in urban environments.

  13. Phenology in central Europe--differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roetzer, T; Wittenzeller, M; Haeckel, H; Nekovar, J

    2000-08-01

    In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.

  14. Phenology in central Europe - differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roetzer, T.; Wittenzeller, Markus; Haeckel, Hans; Nekovar, Jiri

    In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.

  15. Plant Biodiversity in Urbanized Areas Plant Functional Traits in Space and Time, Plant Rarity and Phylogenetic Diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Knapp, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the main drivers of global change. It often takes place in areas with high biodiversity, threatening species worldwide. To protect biodiversity not only outside but also right within urban areas, knowledge about the effects of urban land use on species assemblages is essential. Sonja Knapp compares several aspects of plant biodiversity between urban and rural areas in Germany. Using extensive databases and modern statistical methods, she goes beyond species richness: Urban areas are rich in species but plant species in urban areas are closer related to each other than plant species in rural areas, respectively. The urban environment, characterized by high temperatures and frequent disturbances, changes the functional composition of the flora. It promotes e.g. short-lived species with leaves adapted to drought but threatens insect-pollinated or wind-dispersed species. The author claims that the protection of biodiversity should not only focus on species richness but also on functional an...

  16. Geochemical provenance of soils in Kerman urban areas, Iran: Implications for the influx of aeolian dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehbandi, Reza; Aftabi, Alijan

    2016-06-01

    The investigation of the interaction of aeolian dust with residual soils has not been fully explored in the Kerman urban areas, Iran. To assess the geochemical influence of aeolian dust on the residual soils of the Kerman urban areas of Iran, 27 samples were studied petrogeochemically. The arid-semi-arid climate of the area together with the southwest-northeast prevailing wind, have deposited aeolian sands over the residual soils. Residual soils reflect similar mineral compositions to that of the underlying bedrock and include mostly calcite and quartz. However, the minor occurrences of pyroxene, amphibole, olivine, plagioclase and volcanic clasts in urban soils and aeolian dust are attributed to volcanogenic inputs transported by aeolian dust. Urban soils and aeolian dust show different geochemical signatures from the local carbonate rocks. All samples contain trace element concentrations that are higher than the carbonate bedrock. Discrimination diagrams indicate that immobile trace elements have geochemical affinity to the detrital ferromagnesian dust inputs and are different from the local carbonate bedrock. Based on the elemental bivariate and ternary diagrams, the soils and aeolian dust are derived from the interaction of carbonate and volcanic rocks. This highlights that the urban soils in the Kerman urban areas have been formed by interactions of the aeolian dust with the primitive residual soils.

  17. The long-term effect of increasing the albedo of urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar reflective urban surfaces (white rooftops and light-colored pavements) can increase the albedo of an urban area by about 0.1. Increasing the albedo of urban and human settlement areas can in turn decrease atmospheric temperature and could potentially offset some of the anticipated temperature increase caused by global warming. We have simulated the long-term (decadal to centennial) effect of increasing urban surface albedos using a spatially explicit global climate model of intermediate complexity. We first carried out two sets of simulations in which we increased the albedo of all land areas between ±20° and ±45° latitude respectively. The results of these simulations indicate a long-term global cooling effect of 3 × 10−15 K for each 1 m2 of a surface with an albedo increase of 0.01. This temperature reduction corresponds to an equivalent CO2 emission reduction of about 7 kg, based on recent estimates of the amount of global warming per unit CO2 emission. In a series of additional simulations, we increased the albedo of urban locations only, on the basis of two independent estimates of the spatial extent of urban areas. In these simulations, global cooling ranged from 0.01 to 0.07 K, which corresponds to a CO2 equivalent emission reduction of 25–150 billion tonnes of CO2. (letter)

  18. Modelling the long-term consequences of a hypothetical dispersal of radioactivity in an urban area including remediation alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Batandjieva, B.;

    2009-01-01

    The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) program was organized to address issues of remediation assessment modelling for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. The present paper describes t...

  19. School Children's Knowledge and Perceptions of Jaguars, Pumas, and Smaller Cats around a Mosaic of Protected Areas in the Western Brazilian Pantanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfirio, Grasiela; Sarmento, Pedro; Fonseca, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Surveys to assess environmental knowledge are elementary tools to ensure successful environmental education. Felines are considered key components of the environment, acting as flagships for conservation. Nevertheless, they are threatened by loss of habitat, prey reductions, and poaching. In the mosaic of protected areas in the Brazilian Pantanal,…

  20. On Financing of Urban Transition Viewed from the Oresund Area: When the Political Agenda of Urban Transition Meets the Market

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Haldrup; David Snällfot

    2014-01-01

    The “urban transition†agenda is as a conglomerate of ambitions derived from international policy documents and as applied in the Oresund area. Encompassing locally set goals for (i) climate change mitigation; (ii) energy efficiency; and (iii) human wellbeing in the built environment. Its implementation is largely dependent on private sector joining in, since transitioning the building stock is to be financed by the market. This paper explores strategies to meet this agenda in the Oresund ...

  1. Discussion on Sustainable Water Technologies for Peri-Urban Areas of Mexico City: Balancing Urbanization and Environmental Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Essl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Often centralized water supply, sanitation and solid waste services struggle to keep up with the rapid expansion of urban areas. The peri-urban areas are at the forefront of this expansion and it is here where decentralized technologies are increasingly being implemented. The introduction of decentralized technologies allows for the development of new opportunities that enable the recovery and reuse of resources in the form of water, nutrients and energy. This resource-oriented management of water, nutrients and energy requires a sustainable system aimed at low resource use and high recovery and reuse rates. Instead of investigating each sector separately, as has been traditionally done, this article proposes and discusses a concept that seeks to combine the in- and outflows of the different sectors, reusing water and other liberated resources where possible. This paper shows and demonstrates examples of different types of sustainable technologies that can be implemented in the peri-urban areas of Mexico City [rainwater harvesting, EcoSan and biofiltros (small constructed wetlands, and (vermi-composting]. An innovative participatory planning method, combining scenario development with a participatory planning workshop with key stakeholders, was applied and resulted in three concept scenarios. Specific technologies were then selected for each concept scenario that the technical feasibility and applicability was assessed. Following this, the resulting resource flows (nutrients, water and energy were determined and analyzed. The results show that decentralized technologies not only have the potential to deliver adequate water supply, sanitation and solid waste services in peri-urban areas and lessen environmental pollution, but also can recover significant amounts of resources thereby saving costs and providing valuable inputs in, for instance, the agricultural sector. Social acceptance of the technologies and institutional cooperation, however, is

  2. Discussion on Sustainable Water Technologies for Peri-Urban Areas of Mexico City: Balancing Urbanization and Environmental Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiemen A. Nanninga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Often centralized water supply, sanitation and solid waste services struggle to keep up with the rapid expansion of urban areas. The peri-urban areas are at the forefront of this expansion and it is here where decentralized technologies are increasingly being implemented. The introduction of decentralized technologies allows for the development of new opportunities that enable the recovery and reuse of resources in the form of water, nutrients and energy. This resource-oriented management of water, nutrients and energy requires a sustainable system aimed at low resource use and high recovery and reuse rates. Instead of investigating each sector separately, as has been traditionally done, this article proposes and discusses a concept that seeks to combine the in- and outflows of the different sectors, reusing water and other liberated resources where possible. This paper shows and demonstrates examples of different types of sustainable technologies that can be implemented in the peri-urban areas of Mexico City [rainwater harvesting, EcoSan and biofiltros (small constructed wetlands, and (vermi-composting]. An innovative participatory planning method, combining scenario development with a participatory planning workshop with key stakeholders, was applied and resulted in three concept scenarios. Specific technologies were then selected for each concept scenario that the technical feasibility and applicability was assessed. Following this, the resulting resource flows (nutrients, water and energy were determined and analyzed. The results show that decentralized technologies not only have the potential to deliver adequate water supply, sanitation and solid waste services in peri-urban areas and lessen environmental pollution, but also can recover significant amounts of resources thereby saving costs and providing valuable inputs in, for instance, the agricultural sector. Social acceptance of the technologies and institutional cooperation

  3. Probabilistic modelling of sea surges in coastal urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Stylianos; Jomo Danielsen Sørup, Hjalte; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2016-04-01

    Urban floods are a major issue for coastal cities with severe impacts on economy, society and environment. A main cause for floods are sea surges stemming from extreme weather conditions. In the context of urban flooding, certain standards have to be met by critical infrastructures in order to protect them from floods. These standards can be so strict that no empirical data is available. For instance, protection plans for sub-surface railways against floods are established with 10,000 years return levels. Furthermore, the long technical lifetime of such infrastructures is a critical issue that should be considered, along with the associated climate change effects in this lifetime. We present a case study of Copenhagen where the metro system is being expanded at present with several stations close to the sea. The current critical sea levels for the metro have never been exceeded and Copenhagen has only been severely flooded from pluvial events in the time where measurements have been conducted. However, due to the very high return period that the metro has to be able to withstand and due to the expectations to sea-level rise due to climate change, reliable estimates of the occurrence rate and magnitude of sea surges have to be established as the current protection is expected to be insufficient at some point within the technical lifetime of the metro. The objective of this study is to probabilistically model sea level in Copenhagen as opposed to extrapolating the extreme statistics as is the practice often used. A better understanding and more realistic description of the phenomena leading to sea surges can then be given. The application of hidden Markov models to high-resolution data of sea level for different meteorological stations in and around Copenhagen is an effective tool to address uncertainty. For sea surge studies, the hidden states of the model may reflect the hydrological processes that contribute to coastal floods. Also, the states of the hidden Markov

  4. Analysis of Amblyomma sculptum haplotypes in an area endemic for Brazilian spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitencourth, K; Voloch, C M; Serra-Freire, N M; Machado-Ferreira, E; Amorim, M; Gazêta, G S

    2016-09-01

    Amblyomma sculptum (Ixodida: Ixodidae) Berlese, 1888, a member of the Amblyomma cajennense complex, is the major vector of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) in southeastern Brazil. In this study, the genetic diversity of A. sculptum populations in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil, was investigated because genetic variability in tick populations may be related to vector competence. Samples of A. sculptum from 19 municipalities in 7 regions of RJ were subjected to DNA extraction, amplification and sequencing of D-loop, cytochrome oxidase II and 12S rDNA mitochondrial genes. These sequences were used to map the genetic diversity of this tick. Amblyomma sculptum populations are genetically diverse in RJ, especially in the South Centre and Highland regions. Few unique haplotypes were observed in all populations, and the majority of genetic variation found was among ticks within each population. Phylogenetic reconstruction reinforced the assumption that all the haplotypes identified in RJ belong to A. sculptum. However, some RJ haplotypes are closer to A. sculptum from Argentina than to A. sculptum from elsewhere in Brazil. In RJ, A. sculptum has high genetic diversity, although little genetic differentiation. Observations also indicated a high level of gene flow among the studied populations and no evidence of population structure according to region in RJ. PMID:27120044

  5. [Hepatitis A virus infection in Amerindian area in the east Brazilian Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Heloisa Marceliano; Soares, Manoel do Carmo Pereira; Silva, Helena Maria Ribeiro

    2004-01-01

    The hepatitis A virus infection represents an important problem of public health all over the world, being related to the socioeconomic and hygienic conditions of the population. In Brazilian Amazon, seroepidemiological studies in amerindians populations have been demonstrating high endemicity related to the infection. With the objective of evaluate the prevalence of the hepatitis virus A infection in xicrin village, in the municipality district of Altamira-Pará-Brazil, whose investigation was unchained by indigenous child's obit, that clinical developed in nine days with a picture icterus-hemorrhagic, without confirmation by serologic exams, 352 samples of blood were analyzed by serologic tests of the markers of the hepatitis A, B, C and D virus, for immunoenzymatic technic, that indicated a prevalence of 98% of antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, which 30.5% with recent infection, characterizing in laboratorial basis, the outbreak of infection for the virus of the hepatitis A and raising the possibility to be associated with the obit happened in the village. PMID:15586897

  6. [Ecological environmental quality assessment of Hangzhou urban area based on RS and GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengwei; Zhao, Duo

    2006-06-01

    In allusion to the shortage of traditional ecological environmental quality assessment, this paper studied the spatial distribution of assessing factors at a mid-small scale, and the conversion of integer character to girding assessing cells. The main assessing factors including natural environmental condition, environmental quality, natural landscape and urbanization pressure, which were classified into four types with about eleven assessing factors, were selected from RS images and GIS-spatial analyzing environmental quality vector graph. Based on GIS, a comprehensive assessment model for the ecological environmental quality in Hangzhou urban area was established. In comparison with observed urban heat island effects, the assessment results were in good agreement with the ecological environmental quality in the urban area of Hangzhou.

  7. Earthquake Disaster Simulation for an Urban Area, with GIS, CAD,FEA, and VR Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Feng; CHEN Xuping; REN Aizhu; LU Xinzheng

    2008-01-01

    For a disaster whose scale includes an urban area, it is difficult to be studied with physical ex-periments. Numerical simulation is found a very efficient tool for such problem. This paper aims at developing an integrated urban earthquake simulation system (UESS) that uses GIS as the model source, CAD as the model generating tools, FEA as damage prediction, and virtual reality (VR) as the post-process platform. Anautomatic procedure was developed to buildup the 3D structural model of buildings in an urban area, as well as to simulate their earthquake performances, from the digital map of GIS. And the simulation results were presented in an integrated interface with a GIS view-port for position finding, a CAD view-port for 3D struc-tural damage identification, and a VR view-port for 3D dynamic structural vibration display. An urban example with more than 7000 buildings was select to demonstrate the feasibility of proposed system.

  8. A heat island model for large urban areas and its application to Milan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the urban heat island has been carried out through two enhanced versions of the UCLM (urban canopy layer model) model, Landsat/Thematic Mapper data sets and meteorological data collected over a square area 30 km of side including Milan and its hinterland (Italy). The urban climate can be describe in different summer and winter radiative settings. The input data are divided into two classes: 1, parameters related to urban and rural properties; 2, meteorological data related to the general synoptic conditions. The bulk system of the model is made up of four independent equations expressed in terms of four unknowns, i.e., the temperature values at ground level, canopy level and reference level (100 m) and relative humidity within the urban structure. The study area is divided by a regular square mesh of variable dimension; both the input and output data are average cell values. UCLM30 and UCLM60 calculate the temperature excess as well as the turbulent heat exchanges and the heat storage in the urban canopy as a function of the radiative and dynamic forcing. As can be observed in reality, the model shows that in summer the highest urban heating occurs in early morning and after sunset and that, in extreme conditions, the temperature can be up to 80 C warmer in town than in the nearby rural lands

  9. Nitrogen and carbon export from urban areas through removal and export of litterfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We found that up to 52 ± 17% of residential litterfall carbon (C) and nitrogen (N; 390.6 kg C and 6.5 kg N ha−1 yr−1) is exported through yard waste removed from the City of Boston, which is equivalent to more than half of annual N outputs as gas loss (i.e. denitrification) or leaching. Our results show that removing yard waste results in a substantial decrease in N inputs to urban areas, which may offset excess N inputs from atmospheric deposition, fertilizer application and pet waste. However, export of C and N via yard waste removal may create nutrient limitation for some vegetation due to diminished recycling of nutrients. Removal of leaf litter from residential areas disrupts nutrient cycling and residential yard management practices are an important modification to urban biogeochemical cycling, which could contribute to spatial heterogeneity of ecosystems that are either N limited or saturated within urban ecosystems. - Highlights: • We monitored yard waste bags for one complete fall yard waste collection season. • 52% of residential litterfall C and N is exported annually from the City of Boston. • Litterfall export may create nutrient limitation hotspots in urban ecosystems. • C and N export through litterfall collection modifies urban biogeochemical cycling. - Litterfall removal leads to C and N export from urban ecosystems and disrupts nutrient cycling, showing that this activity is an important modification to urban biogeochemical cycling

  10. Evaluating the performance of urban management in community sustainable: Case Study in area of Narmak - Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Habibi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled urban development that was coincided with the Industrial Revolution, make living in a city faced with new problems that were completely antithetical to sustainable development. To solve this problem, administrators, planners, and urban management in general, have prepared plans for development. Because of their unresponsive to urban neighborhoods, development plans and because of their upward to downward processes, these development projects were incapable of solving problems, and many of them have failed. On the other hand, for better urban governance, participation of all actors in both public and private sector and civil society were essential. In addition, on this level of cooperation, leading to ready all actors for culture governance of democratic were realized. This study investigated the role of community-based management in achieving sustainable urban development deals and has analyzed social stability in four dimensions including cultural, economic, physical and environmental. Study area, was a neighborhood of Tehran, in the area of eight, Narmak. The research was a descriptive - analytical study and collecting information and data were performed in the form of documents and survey. The results suggest that the effects of urban management on stabilizing neighborhoods, in physical and environmental aspects, are quite tangible. However, with regard to social and economic dimensions, this effect was more diminished. Certainly, the role and power of urban management in social and economic dimensions could be obtained more sustainability for Narmak neighborhood.

  11. Protected areas in the city,urban wetlands of Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela Sandoval Rincón

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the environmental ideologies on how to manage protected areas, specifically what ideologies may be applied when protected areas are within a city. Analysing the conservationist and preservationist discourses and the different types of community participation will give a wide view on possibilities of management for protected areas. Its main interest is to understand which ideologies were applied for protected areas in Bogota according to the Spatial Development Plan, and how it affected environmental management strategies of wetlands in the city. The case study of Córdoba Wetland will be analysed according to its policies and participation opportunities in order to guaranty sustainability.

  12. Life cycle energy and GHG emission within the Turin metropolitan area urban water cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Zappone, Mariantonia; Fiore, Silvia; Genon, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the urban water cycle in the Turin Metropolitan Area (Northwestern Italy), with a focus on quantifying the annual life cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The study made use Material Flow Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment methods for a defined urban water cycle system (ATO3) operated by one water utility (SMAT S.p.A.), and examines all main sub-systems of the entire urban water cycle. The study quantified the annual direct and indirect e...

  13. Methods for Sustainable Management of Contamination Sources in Urban Coastal Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Sparrevik, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Managing contaminated urban coastal areas is an important issue in today’s society. Harbor areas are transformed from industrial sites and shipyards, to housing areas with high environmental requirements. The use of coastal areas for aquaculture and fishing activities increases the need for cleanup of previous contamination sources. High environmental standards when handling dredged material from harbors and industrial activities are also required in our society today.Many countries including...

  14. Effects of road safety measures in urban areas in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    1985-01-01

    In two urban areas in the netherlands, each covering a surface of about a hundred hectares, a demonstration project of traffic measures was carried out; these areas were redivided and redesigned with the aims: (a) of better separating traffic zones and residential areas; (b) within the residential areas, of diverting through-traffic (countermeasure type 1), reducing the speed of the remaining traffic (type 2), and increasing environmental amenity (type 3, "woonerf"); (c) within the traffic ar...

  15. Assessing Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Observed and Predicted Ozone in Multiple Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Heather; Wells, Benjamin; Baker, Kirk R.; Hubbell, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ambient monitoring data show spatial gradients in ozone (O3) across urban areas. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reductions will likely alter these gradients. Epidemiological studies often use exposure surrogates that may not fully account for the impacts of spatially and temporally changing concentrations on population exposure. Objectives: We examined the impact of large NOx decreases on spatial and temporal O3 patterns and the implications on exposure. Methods: We used a photochemical model to estimate O3 response to large NOx reductions. We derived time series of 2006–2008 O3 concentrations consistent with 50% and 75% NOx emissions reduction scenarios in three urban areas (Atlanta, Philadelphia, and Chicago) at each monitor location and spatially interpolated O3 to census-tract centroids. Results: We predicted that low O3 concentrations would increase and high O3 concentrations would decrease in response to NOx reductions within an urban area. O3 increases occurred across larger areas for the seasonal mean metric than for the regulatory metric (annual 4th highest daily 8-hr maximum) and were located only in urban core areas. O3 always decreased outside the urban core (e.g., at locations of maximum local ozone concentration) for both metrics and decreased within the urban core in some instances. NOx reductions led to more uniform spatial gradients and diurnal and seasonal patterns and caused seasonal peaks in midrange O3 concentrations to shift from midsummer to earlier in the year. Conclusions: These changes have implications for how O3 exposure may change in response to NOx reductions and are informative for the design of future epidemiology studies and risk assessments. Citation: Simon H, Wells B, Baker KR, Hubbell B. 2016. Assessing temporal and spatial patterns of observed and predicted ozone in multiple urban areas. Environ Health Perspect 124:1443–1452; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP190 PMID:27153213

  16. Tows Matrix Analysis on Developing Urban Agriculture in the Pearl River Delta Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the profile of Pearl River Delta area, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of developing urban agricultural in Pearl River Delta area are analyzed by using the SWOT analysis. The strengths are analyzed from three aspects, covering natural resources, geographic advantages and technological advantages; the weaknesses are analyzed from the terms of land resources, labor cost, industrial scale and quality of personnel involved; opportunities are analyzed from the aspects of potential clients, favorable policies and markets; the threats are analyzed from two aspects, including concept factor and income gap between urban and rural areas. on the basis of the above analyses, the countermeasures and suggestions on the development of urban agriculture in the Pearl River Delta area are put forward.

  17. PIXE analysis of tree leaves as a possible comparative integral monitor of particulates in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of obtaing integral comparative data for particulate distribution in urban areas from PIXE analysis of tree leaves is discussed in relation to the leaf gross anatomy, to the diffusion of selected tree species in such areas and to the implementation of experimental techniques necessary to make PIXE analysis effective. Multielemental scans were performed on a small set samples; results are compared to PIXE analysis of typical urban aerosols. The validity of the method and the criteria for yearly relative comparisons of different areas are discissed

  18. Behavioral ecology of bats in urban and suburban areas: an eco-ethological approach to conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Maltagliati

    2012-01-01

    Human tolerant species of bats are an important constituent of the biodiversity, albeit-low, in urban and suburban ecosystems. They usually survive by taking refuge inside human artefacts and sometimes using urban green spaces as foraging areas, where they assist in regulating insect density thus providing an important ecosystem service to citizens. Their conservation is therefore particularly important also because of their status which is threatened throughout Europe. I studied the ecolo...

  19. METHODS TO DETECT ATMOSPHERIC AND SURFACE HEAT ISLANDS IN URBAN AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    I. HERBEL; A. E. CROITORU; A. M. IMBROANE; D. PETREA

    2015-01-01

    Intensification of the urbanization process and its associated climatic effects is nowadays a major problem of large cities worldwide. One of these climatic effects is the urban heat island (UHI), that implies increased air and surface temperature values in the city when compared to the nearby rural areas. This phenomenon threatens the health of the population, especially during heat waves, affects the quality of the environment and the quality of life, and also generates significant costs to...

  20. Urban regeneration through the (remodeling of mobility, in Carol Park Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Hermina Negulescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study outlines a concept of urban regeneration for an area with a valuable urban and architectural heritage, based on an integrated policy of reshaping mobility aiming at harmonization of accessibility and quality of living objectives, rehabilitation of public spaces - streets and squares, stimulation of building use conversions which, at their turn, generate financial resources for the renovation of the historic buildings.

  1. Toward low energy cities : A case study of the urban area of Liège

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Sigrid; Marique, Anne-Françoise

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of sustainable development, it is important to take into account environmental aspects of urban areas related to their energy use. In this article, a methodology is proposed for assessing residential energy uses for buildings and transport at the city scale. This method is based on the use of GIS tools combined with a statistical treatment of urban and transport criteria. The methodology allows to model buildings and transport energy use at the city scale, as well as to ...

  2. A diagnostic of the strategy employed for communicating nuclear related information to Brazilian communities around uranium mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a diagnostic of the strategy used by the Brazilian uranium mining industry to communicate nuclear related information to communities around a mining area. The uranium mining industry in Brazil, which is run by the government, has been concerned with communication issues for quite some time. The need to communicate became more apparent after new mining operations started in the Northern region of Brazil. The fact that the government does not have a clear communication guideline made the operators of the uranium mining industry aware of the increasing demand for establishment of a good relationship with several types of Stake holders as well as employment of personnel with experience in dealing with them. A diagnostic of the current communication situation in Brazil and an analysis of the approaches over the past years was done through interviews with employees of the mining industry and review of institutional communication materials. The results were discussed during a Consultant's Meeting organized by the IAEA 's Seibersdorf Laboratory in October 2007. The output of the meeting included an overview of modern communication strategies used by different countries and a suggestion for new uranium mining operations in developing or under developed countries. The strategy for communicating nuclear related information to Brazilian communities varied according to the influence of different Stake holder groups. One initiative worth mentioning was the creation of a Mobile Nuclear Information Thematic Room, which was installed in several locations. This project was seen as one of the main tools to relate to community. Many Stake holders were identified during the diagnostic phase in preparation for the IAEA 's meeting on communication strategy: children, NGOs (Non Government Organizations), local churches, media and internal Stake holders, among others. An initial evaluation showed that the perception of a neighbouring community regarding an uranium

  3. Contribution of directly connected and isolated impervious areas to urban drainage network hydrographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Seo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the mass balance error observed in runoff hydrographs in urban watersheds by introducing assumptions regarding the contribution of infiltrated rainfall from pervious areas and isolated impervious area (IIA to the runoff hydrograph. Rainfall infiltrating into pervious areas has been assumed not to contribute to the runoff hydrograph until Hortonian excess rainfall occurs. However, mass balance analysis in an urban watershed indicates that rainfall infiltrated to pervious areas can contribute to direct runoff hydrograph, thereby offering an explanation for the long hydrograph tail commonly observed in runoff from urban storm sewers. In this study, a hydrologic analysis based on the width function is introduced, with two types of width functions obtained from both pervious and impervious areas, respectively. The width function can be regarded as the direct interpretation of the network response. These two width functions are derived to obtain distinct response functions for directly connected impervious areas (DCIA, IIA, and pervious areas. The results show significant improvement in the estimation of runoff hydrographs and suggest the need to consider the flow contribution from pervious areas to the runoff hydrograph. It also implies that additional contribution from flow paths through joints and cracks in sewer pipes needs to be taken into account to improve the estimation of runoff hydrographs in urban catchments.

  4. Conserving Biodiversity in Urbanizing Areas: Nontraditional Views from a Bird’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. Rodewald

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We review common population and community-level responses of wildlife to urbanization, and discuss how: (1 the amount and configuration of land cover and land use, and (2 the alteration of resources (e.g., type of vegetation, presence of food and water and processes (e.g., natural disturbance regimes, species interactions, intensity of human recreation within built environments influence animals, with special emphasis on birds. Although each landscape presents unique opportunities and constraints, we suggest that all urban areas have the potential to contribute to the conservation of biodiversity. The ecological value of urban areas may be promoted if planners, managers, and homeowners consider ways to (1 encourage retention and protection of natural habitats within urbanizing landscapes, (2 plan explicitly for open spaces and natural habitats within new subdivisions, (3 use a variety of arrangements of built and open space within developments, (4 enhance and restore habitat within open spaces, (5 improve quality of developed lands (i.e., the urban matrix rather than directing management efforts only towards parks, reserves, and open areas, and (6 celebrate urban biological diversity to foster connections between people and their natural heritage.

  5. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cilliers, S.S.; Van Wyk, E; G.J. Bredenkamp

    1999-01-01

    This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN) as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in...

  6. Air Quality Deterioration of Urban Areas Caused by Wildfires in a Natural Reservoir Forest of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Carbajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of the world suffer loss of vegetation and reduced air quality due to wildfires. Studies on aerosol emissions by wildfires often discuss the negative effects of atmospheric contaminants from a regional or mesoscale perspective. The occurrence of wildfires reveals that a high percentage takes place close to large urban areas. Very high concentration of pollutants and PM10 particulate matter reach urban zones and millions of inhabitants. These events of high pollutant concentrations are seasonally recurrent. There are many large urban areas in the world that often undergo severe air deterioration due to wildfires smoke. We document the extreme impact of wildfire that occurs in the Protected Area of Flora and Fauna La Primavera located in neighborhood of Guadalajara, a large urban zone in Mexico. The simultaneous emissions of aerosols by 60 wildfires were simulated and compared with observed data. The plume generated by the wildfires reached large areas of the central part of Mexico. The principal characteristics of smog emissions (CO, NO2, and PM10 over the urban area were acceptably reproduced. Observed and modeled CO, PM10, and NO2 data indicated that aerosol plumes generated by the wildfires increased notably the concentrations over the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara.

  7. Assessment of lead pollution in topsoils of a southern Italy area: Analysis of urban and peri-urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Cicchella, Domenico; De Rosa, Rosanna; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) may affect adversely human health. Mapping soil Pb contents is essential to obtain a quantitative estimate of potential risk of Pb contamination. The main aim of this paper was to determine the soil Pb concentrations in the urban and peri-urban area of Cosenza-Rende to map their spatial distribution and assess the probability that soil Pb concentration exceeds a critical threshold that might cause concern for human health. Samples were collected at 149 locations from residual and non-residual topsoil in gardens, parks, flower-beds, and agricultural fields. Fine earth fraction of soil samples was analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry. Stochastic images generated by the sequential Gaussian simulation were jointly combined to calculate the probability of exceeding the critical threshold that could be used to delineate the potentially risky areas. Results showed areas in which Pb concentration values were higher to the Italian regulatory values. These polluted areas were quite large and likely, they could create a significant health risk for human beings and vegetation in the near future. The results demonstrated that the proposed approach can be used to study soil contamination to produce geochemical maps, and identify hot-spot areas for soil Pb concentration.

  8. Cluster analysis of Landslide Vulnerable region on an urban Area in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yonghee; Lee, Sangeun; Kim, Myoungsoo; Baek, Jongrak

    2016-04-01

    Mountain areas occupy about 65% of the territory in South Korea. Due to the rapid population growth and urbanization, many cities suffer from the limitation in space, and hence the commercial buildings, educational facilities, and housing settlement areas continue to stretch until the bottom of the mountain. In result, residents become more and more vulnerable to landslides and debris flow. This led to the central government to perceiving the need for strengthening regulations relevant to urban planning. In order to consider risks due to landslides and debris flow in the stage of urban planning, present authors suggested the strategies, including: first, selecting priority areas necessary to manage landslide-related disasters strictly; second, establishing the integrated management system useful to offer technical assistances to persons in charge of urban planning in the areas; third, promoting disaster awareness programs with those persons along with the central government. As the first attempt, this study mainly discusses the GIS-application procedures in which authors selected the priority areas, which are summarized: 1. Collect the landslide historical data for the period 1999 - 2012 when the disasters particularly threatened the whole country. 2. Define the areas with the one-kilometer radius around the landslide occurrence places. 3. Exclude the areas where population is less than 100 persons per 1 km2. 4. Exclude the areas where mountains with Grade I or II of landslide risk (announced by the Korea Forest Service) go below a certain portion of the area. 5. Carry out the cluster analysis with the remaining areas 6. Classify the types at the standpoint of landslide disaster risk management. Through the procedures, this study obtained a total of 86 priority areas, which were also classified into 24 areas - Type A (high population exposure and mid landslide occurrence likelihood) -, 25 areas - Type B (mid population exposure and high landslide occurrence

  9. Development of a smart flood warning system in urban areas: A case study of Huwei area in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Chi; Hsu, Hao-Ming; Kao, Hong-Ming

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we developed a smart flood warning system to clearly understand flood propagations in urban areas. The science and technology park of Huwei, located in the southwest of Taiwan, was selected as a study area. It was designated to be an important urban area of optoelectronics and biotechnology. The region has an area about 1 km2 with approximately 1 km in both length and width. The discrepancy between the highest and lowest elevations is 6.3 m and its elevation decreases along the northeast to the southwest. It is an isolated urban drainage area due to its urban construction plan. The storm sewer system in this region includes three major networks that collect the runoff and drain to the detention pond where is located in the southwest corner of the region. The proposed smart flood warning system combines three important parts, i.e. the physical world, the cyber-physical interface, and the cyber space, to identify how the flood affects urban areas from now until the next three hours. In the physical world, when a rainfall event occurs, monitoring sensors (e.g. rainfall gauges and water level gauges built in the sewer system and ground surface), which are established in several essential locations of the study area, collect in situ hydrological data and then these data being transported to the cyber-physical interface. The cyber-physical interface is a data preprocess space that includes data analysis, quality control and assurance, and data integration and standardization to produce the validated data. In the cyber space, it has missions to receive the validated data from the cyber-physical interface and to run the time machine that has flood analyses of data mining, inundation scenarios simulation, risk and economic assessments, and so on, based on the validated data. After running the time machine, it offers the analyzed results related to flooding planning, mitigation, response, and recovery. According to the analyzed results, the decision supporting

  10. The impact of built-up surfaces on land surface temperatures in Italian urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Marco; Crisci, Alfonso; Messeri, Alessandro; Orlandini, Simone; Raschi, Antonio; Maracchi, Giampiero; Munafò, Michele

    2016-05-01

    Urban areas are characterized by the very high degree of soil sealing and continuous built-up areas: Italy is one of the European countries with the highest artificial land cover rate, which causes a substantial spatial variation in the land surface temperature (LST), modifying the urban microclimate and contributing to the urban heat island effect. Nevertheless, quantitative data regarding the contribution of different densities of built-up surfaces in determining urban spatial LST changes is currently lacking in Italy. This study, which aimed to provide clear and quantitative city-specific information on annual and seasonal spatial LST modifications resulting from increased urban built-up coverage, was conducted generally throughout the whole year, and specifically in two different periods (cool/cold and warm/hot periods). Four cities (Milan, Rome, Bologna and Florence) were included in the study. The LST layer and the built-up-surface indicator were obtained via use of MODIS remote sensing data products (1km) and a very high-resolution map (5m) of built-up surfaces recently developed by the Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research. The relationships between the dependent (mean daily, daytime and nighttime LST values) and independent (built-up surfaces) variables were investigated through linear regression analyses, and comprehensive built-up-surface-related LST maps were also developed. Statistically significant linear relationships (purban morphology. If implemented in the existing city plan, the urban maps of built-up-surface-related LST developed in this study might be able to support more sustainable urban land management practices by identifying the critical areas (Hot-Spots) that would benefit most from mitigation actions by local authorities, land-use decision makers, and urban planners.

  11. Urbanization and its impacts on founded areas of big cities in pakistan: case studies of ichra and sanda areas in lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanization put immense pressure on urban infrastructure and services. Burdened with unrelenting pressure, the founded areas of Lahore have now been converted into slums. Poor services, urban infrastructure and dilapidated building have made lives of the resident miserable. A significant proportion of the people is living in dangerous buildings which could be declared unfit for habitation under section 34 of Punjab Local Government Ordinance 2001 (PLGO 2001). The paper attempts to highlight situations of two founded areas of Lahore namely, Icchra and Sanda in comparison with slums areas to grade living standards of the people. Actions under PLGO 2001 and urban renewal programs are suggested to revitalize such areas. (author)

  12. [Prediction and simulation of urban area expansion in Pearl River Delta Region under the RCPs climate scenarios].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Oun-ou; Deng, Xiang-zheng; Ke, Xin-li; Zhao, Chun-hong; Zhang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The sizes and number of cities in China are increasing rapidly and complicated changes of urban land use system have occurred as the social economy develops rapidly. This study took the urban agglomeration of Pearl River Delta Region as the study area to explore the driving mechanism of dynamic changes of urban area in the urbanization process under the joint influence of natural environment and social economic conditions. Then the CA (cellular automata) model was used to predict and simulate the urban area changes until 2030 under the designed scenarios of planning and RCPs (representative concentration pathways). The results indicated that urbanization was mainly driven by the non-agricultural population growth and social-economic development, and the transportation had played a fundamental role in the whole process, while the areas with high elevation or steep slope restricted the urbanization. Besides, the urban area would keep an expanding trend regardless of the scenarios, however, the expanding speed would slow down with different inflection points under different scenarios. The urban expansion speed increased in the sequence of the planning scenario, MESSAGE scenario and AIM scenario, and that under the MESSAGE climate scenario was more consistent with the current urban development trend. In addition, the urban expansion would mainly concentrate in regions with the relatively high urbanization level, e.g., Guangzhou, Dongguan, Foshan, Shenzhen, Zhanjiang and Chaoshan. PMID:25876417

  13. Detecting Traffic Anomalies in Urban Areas Using Taxi GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiming Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale GPS data contain hidden information and provide us with the opportunity to discover knowledge that may be useful for transportation systems using advanced data mining techniques. In major metropolitan cities, many taxicabs are equipped with GPS devices. Because taxies operate continuously for nearly 24 hours per day, they can be used as reliable sensors for the perceived traffic state. In this paper, the entire city was divided into subregions by roads, and taxi GPS data were transformed into traffic flow data to build a traffic flow matrix. In addition, a highly efficient anomaly detection method was proposed based on wavelet transform and PCA (principal component analysis for detecting anomalous traffic events in urban regions. The traffic anomaly is considered to occur in a subregion when the values of the corresponding indicators deviate significantly from the expected values. This method was evaluated using a GPS dataset that was generated by more than 15,000 taxies over a period of half a year in Harbin, China. The results show that this detection method is effective and efficient.

  14. MULTI-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF LANDSCAPES AND URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nocerino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a 4D modelling approach that employs multi-temporal and historical aerial images to derive spatio-temporal information for scenes and landscapes. Such imagery represent a unique data source, which combined with photo interpretation and reality-based 3D reconstruction techniques, can offer a more complete modelling procedure because it adds the fourth dimension of time to 3D geometrical representation and thus, allows urban planners, historians, and others to identify, describe, and analyse changes in individual scenes and buildings as well as across landscapes. Particularly important to this approach are historical aerial photos, which provide data about the past that can be collected, processed, and then integrated as a database. The proposed methodology employs both historical (1945 and more recent (1973 and 2000s aerial images from the Trentino region in North-eastern Italy in order to create a multi-temporal database of information to assist researchers in many disciplines such as topographic mapping, geology, geography, architecture, and archaeology as they work to reconstruct building phases and to understand landscape transformations (Fig. 1.

  15. Integrated urban water management for residential areas: a reuse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, A B; Argue, J R

    2009-01-01

    Global concern over growing urban water demand in the face of limited water resources has focussed attention on the need for better management of available water resources. This paper takes the "fit for purpose" concept and applies it in the development of a model aimed at changing current practices with respect to residential planning by integrating reuse systems into the design layout. This residential reuse model provides an approach to the design of residential developments seeking to maximise water reuse. Water balance modelling is used to assess the extent to which local water resources can satisfy residential demands with conditions based on the city of Adelaide, Australia. Physical conditions include a relatively flat topography and a temperate climate, with annual rainfall being around 500 mm. The level of water-self-sufficiency that may be achieved within a reuse development in this environment is estimated at around 60%. A case study is also presented in which a conventional development is re-designed on the basis of the reuse model. Costing of the two developments indicates the reuse scenario is only marginally more expensive. Such costings however do not include the benefit to upstream and downstream environments resulting from reduced demand and discharges. As governments look to developers to recover system augmentation and environmental costs the economics of such approaches will increase.

  16. Glomalin Production and Microbial Activity in Soils Impacted by Gypsum Mining in a Brazilian Semiarid Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalia C.E.S. Mergulhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mining activities involve the removal of the vegetal cover and the soil organic layer, causing a severe environmental impact. In Northeast Brazil, 40% of the worlds crude gypsum is found in a semiarid area, making this region responsible for 95% of the gypsum demand in the national market. Although economically important, this activity is harmful to the environment. Studies of soil microbiological and biochemical attributes can help in the identification of the limitations of impacted ecosystems, providing data to define strategies for sustainability of such environments. Approach: To evaluate and compare the biological state of preserved and mining degraded semiarid soils, a native preserved area and areas impacted by gypsum mining were selected at the Araripina Experimental Station, located in the semiarid region of Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil. The four sampling areas included: (1 A native, preserved �caatinga� area with spine bearing trees and shrubs and some characteristic xerophytic plants (AN; (2 An area surrounding the mine, presenting the same type of vegetation although already degraded (AM; (3 A waste deposit area (AR; (4 Interface area between the waste deposit and a mining degraded area (AI. Samples were taken in each area (1000 m2 during two periods: wet (December/2003, Rainfall = 28.7 mm and dry (September/2004, Rainfall = 1.3 mm. Results: Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis values, microbial biomass C and basal respiration were higher in the preserved caatinga than in the impacted areas. The gypsum mining activity reduced the concentration of easily extractable glomalin in relation to the native caatinga area in both sampling periods. Higher deposits of total glomalin also occurred in the native area, however, mainly during the wet period. Conclusion: The mining activity produced a negative impact on the soil microbiota, reducing the total enzymatic activity. The microbial

  17. Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajah LO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1,2 Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 Peter Onubiwe Nkwo,1 Boniface Nwakoby,3 Paul Ezeonu2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria Background: The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods: This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results: A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001. In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05. In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03. Conclusion: The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural

  18. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation. PMID:27527202

  19. Towards Sustainable Tourism Development in Urban Areas: Case Study on Bucharest as Tourist Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Zamfir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The issues of tourism sustainability and urban development have become major priorities for public policy makers across the globe. Today, maybe more than ever, there is a need for managing sustainable tourism development, and this cannot be attained without taking into account environmental problems and their global dimension. Various problems and requirements of society and of the development of urban areas may be solved by transforming the cities into attractive tourist destinations. Therefore, this study explores how sustainable tourism development in urban areas can be basically achieved and managed. The paper discloses some success factors for managing sustainable tourism development in urban areas and emphasizes a case study regarding Bucharest, the capital of Romania, as a tourist destination. The originality and value of this study consist of identifying the main ways of developing sustainable tourism in Bucharest based upon empirical research conducted with the aid of a survey. The findings of this study may be helpful for upcoming research in the area of managing sustainable urban tourism development.

  20. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation. PMID:27527202

  1. Addressing Contextual and Location Biases in the Assessment of Protected Areas Effectiveness on Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazônia

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Nazindigouba KERE; Choumert, Johanna; Combes Motel, Pascale; Combes, Jean-Louis; Santoni, Olivier; Schwartz, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Using a remotely sensed pixel data set, we develop a multilevel model and propensity score weighting with multilevel data to assess the impact of protected areas on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. These techniques allow taking into account location bias, contextual bias and the dependence of spatial units. The results suggest that protected areas have slowed down deforestation between 2005 and 2009, whatever the type of governance. The results also evidence that protected and unprotect...

  2. IMPACT OF URBANIZATION OF SUBURBAN AREA ON WATER RELATION IN THE SMALL CATCHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Kanclerz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of analysis focused on impact of urbanization of Poznań suburban area on water relation for Doływ spod Lusówka and Przeźmierki catchments during 1936–2011. Both catchments are located in municipalities which recently showing sharp growth in urban area. Analysis of changes in land use for studied catchments showed almost 5-fold increase in urban area for Dopływ spod Lusówka and 10-fold for Przeźmierka. As a consequence of land sealing increase in amounts of effective precipitation was observed that led to fast runoff of rain waters and almost double flow in watercourses.

  3. Automatic Classification of coarse density LiDAR data in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, H. M.; Moussa, A.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2014-06-01

    The classification of different objects in the urban area using airborne LIDAR point clouds is a challenging problem especially with low density data. This problem is even more complicated if RGB information is not available with the point clouds. The aim of this paper is to present a framework for the classification of the low density LIDAR data in urban area with the objective to identify buildings, vehicles, trees and roads, without the use of RGB information. The approach is based on several steps, from the extraction of above the ground objects, classification using PCA, computing the NDSM and intensity analysis, for which a correction strategy was developed. The airborne LIDAR data used to test the research framework are of low density (1.41 pts/m2) and were taken over an urban area in San Diego, California, USA. The results showed that the proposed framework is efficient and robust for the classification of objects.

  4. Domestic Wastewater Quality and Pollutant Loadings from Urban Housing Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Y Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are important spawning and nursery ground for fish and prawns. However, wetlands have been reported to be polluted in different parts of the world. One of the pollution sources is domestic wastewater. Therefore, in this study, domestic wastewater quality was studied at three major housing areas. Samplings were conducted in three trips. Results showed that pH ranged from 6.64 to 7.31 and temperature ranged from 23.5 to 31.7 oC. DO values were low, that is, below 3.5 mg/L for all trips at all areas studied indicating that it was not suitable for aquatic life. Nutrients such as ammoniacal nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus of the housing areas ranged from 11.1 to 17.2 mg/L and 1.05 to 2.43 mg/L respectively. Biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids concentrations at all the housing areas exceeded the Standard B maximum permitted values of Effluent Discharge Standard of Environmental Quality Act 1974. Loadings of pollutants from housing areas in Kuching were computed. This study shows that domestic wastewater was low in DO, high in oxygen demand, high in solids and nutrients thus loading the rivers with pollutants. Therefore, domestic wastewater must be treated before being channeled to the adjacent water bodies to avoid eutrophication in the receiving water and to recover nutrients.

  5. Regional urban area extraction using DMSP-OLS data and MODIS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable night lights data from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Line-scan System (OLS) provide a unique proxy for anthropogenic development. This paper proposed two new methods of extracting regional urban extents using DMSP-OLS data, MODIS NDVI data and Land Surface Temperature (LST) data. MODIS NDVI data were used to reduce the over-glow effect, since urban areas generally have lower vegetation index values than the surrounding areas (e.g. agricultural and forest areas). On the other hand, urban areas generally show higher surface temperatures than the surrounding areas. Since urban area is the only class of interest, a one-class classifier, the One-Class Support Vector Machine (OCSVM), was selected as the classifier. The first method is classification of different data combinations for mapping: (1) OLS data and NDVI data, (2) OLS data and LST data, and (3) OLS data, NDVI data and LST data combined. The second one is a morphological reconstruction based method which combines classification results from OLS plus NDVI data and from OLS plus LST data. In the morphological reconstruction based method, the classification result using OLS and NDVI data was used as a mask image, while the classification result using OLS and LST data was used as a marker image. The north China area covering 14 provinces was selected as study area. Classification results from Landsat TM/ETM+ data from selected areas with different development levels were used as reference data to validate the proposed methods. The results show that the proposed methods effectively reduced the over-glow effect caused by DSMP-OLS data and achieved better results compared to the results from the traditional thresholding technique. The combination of all three datasets produces more accurate results than those of using any two datasets. The proposed morphological reconstruction based method achieves the best result in urban extent mapping

  6. Regional urban area extraction using DMSP-OLS data and MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Cai, C.; Li, P. J.

    2014-03-01

    Stable night lights data from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Line-scan System (OLS) provide a unique proxy for anthropogenic development. This paper proposed two new methods of extracting regional urban extents using DMSP-OLS data, MODIS NDVI data and Land Surface Temperature (LST) data. MODIS NDVI data were used to reduce the over-glow effect, since urban areas generally have lower vegetation index values than the surrounding areas (e.g. agricultural and forest areas). On the other hand, urban areas generally show higher surface temperatures than the surrounding areas. Since urban area is the only class of interest, a one-class classifier, the One-Class Support Vector Machine (OCSVM), was selected as the classifier. The first method is classification of different data combinations for mapping: (1) OLS data and NDVI data, (2) OLS data and LST data, and (3) OLS data, NDVI data and LST data combined. The second one is a morphological reconstruction based method which combines classification results from OLS plus NDVI data and from OLS plus LST data. In the morphological reconstruction based method, the classification result using OLS and NDVI data was used as a mask image, while the classification result using OLS and LST data was used as a marker image. The north China area covering 14 provinces was selected as study area. Classification results from Landsat TM/ETM+ data from selected areas with different development levels were used as reference data to validate the proposed methods. The results show that the proposed methods effectively reduced the over-glow effect caused by DSMP-OLS data and achieved better results compared to the results from the traditional thresholding technique. The combination of all three datasets produces more accurate results than those of using any two datasets. The proposed morphological reconstruction based method achieves the best result in urban extent mapping.

  7. Soil respiration contributes substantially to urban carbon fluxes in the greater Boston area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decina, Stephen M; Hutyra, Lucy R; Gately, Conor K; Getson, Jackie M; Reinmann, Andrew B; Short Gianotti, Anne G; Templer, Pamela H

    2016-05-01

    Urban areas are the dominant source of U.S. fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions. In the absence of binding international treaties or decisive U.S. federal policy for greenhouse gas regulation, cities have also become leaders in greenhouse gas reduction efforts through climate action plans. These plans focus on anthropogenic carbon flows only, however, ignoring a potentially substantial contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations from biological respiration. Our aim was to measure the contribution of CO2 efflux from soil respiration to atmospheric CO2 fluxes using an automated CO2 efflux system and to use these measurements to model urban soil CO2 efflux across an urban area. We find that growing season soil respiration is dramatically enhanced in urban areas and represents levels of CO2 efflux of up to 72% of FFCO2 within greater Boston's residential areas, and that soils in urban forests, lawns, and landscaped cover types emit 2.62 ± 0.15, 4.49 ± 0.14, and 6.73 ± 0.26 μmolCO2 m(-2) s(-1), respectively, during the growing season. These rates represent up to 2.2 times greater soil respiration than rates found in nearby rural ecosystems in central Massachusetts (MA), a potential consequence of imported carbon amendments, such as mulch, within a general regime of landowner management. As the scientific community moves rapidly towards monitoring, reporting, and verification of CO2 emissions using ground based approaches and remotely-sensed observations to measure CO2 concentrations, our results show that measurement and modeling of biogenic urban CO2 fluxes will be a critical component for verification of urban climate action plans. PMID:26914093

  8. Impact of future urban growth on regional climate changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsu; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Song, Sang-Keun; Lee, Hwa Woon

    2016-11-15

    The influence of changes in future urban growth (e.g., land use changes) on the future climate variability in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), Korea was evaluated using the WRF model and an urban growth model (SLEUTH). The land use changes in the study area were simulated using the SLEUTH model under three different urban growth scenarios: (1) current development trends scenario (SC 1), (2) managed development scenario (SC 2) and (3) ecological development scenario (SC 3). The maximum difference in the ratio of urban growth between SC 1 and SC 3 (SC 1 - SC 3) for 50years (2000-2050) was approximately 6.72%, leading to the largest differences (0.01°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively) in the mean air temperature at 2m (T2) and wind speed at 10m (WS10). From WRF-SLEUTH modeling, the effects of future urban growth (or future land use changes) in the SMA are expected to result in increases in the spatial mean T2 and WS10 of up to 1.15°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively, possibly due to thermal circulation caused by the thermal differences between urban and rural regions.

  9. Debris Flow Vulnerability Assessment in Urban Area Associated with Landslide Hazard Map : Application to Busan, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okjeong, Lee; Yoonkyung, Park; Mookwang, Sung; Sangdan, Kim

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation, an urban debris flow disaster vulnerability assessment methodology is suggested with major focus on urban social and economic aspect. The proposed methodology is developed based on the landslide hazard maps that Korean Forest Service has utilized to identify landslide source areas. Frist, debris flows are propagated to urban areas from such source areas by Flow-R model, and then urban vulnerability is evaluated by two categories; physical and socio-economic aspect. The physical vulnerability is associated to buildings that can be broken down by a landslide event directly. This study considers two popular building structure types, reinforced concrete frame and non-reinforced concretes frame, to evaluate the physically-based vulnerability. The socio-economic vulnerability is measured as a function of the resistant levels of the exposed people, the intensity and magnitude of indirect or intangible losses, and preparedness level of the local government. An indicator-based model is established to evaluate the life and indirect loss under urban debris flow disasters as well as the resilience ability against disasters. To illuminate the validity of the suggested methodology, physical and socio-economic vulnerability levels are investigated for Daejeon, Korea using the proposed approach. The results reveal that the higher population density areas under a weaker fiscal condition that are located at the downstream of mountainous areas are more vulnerable than the areas in opposite conditions. Key words: Debris flow disasters, Physical vulnerability, Socio-economic Vulnerability, Urban Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant(13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport(MOLIT) of Korea government and Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement(KAIA).

  10. Injury morbidity in an urban and a rural area in Tanzania: an epidemiological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setel Philip

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries are becoming a major health problem in developing countries. Few population based studies have been carried out in African countries. We examined the pattern of nonfatal injuries and associated risk factors in an urban and rural setting of Tanzania. Methods A population-based household survey was conducted in 2002. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. A total of 8,188 urban and 7,035 rural residents of all ages participated in the survey. All injuries reported among all household members in the year preceding the interview and resulting in one or more days of restricted activity were included in the analyis. Results A total of 206 (2.5% and 303 (4.3% persons reported to have been injured in the urban and rural area respectively. Although the overall incidence was higher in the rural area, the incidence of major injuries (≥ 30 disability days was similar in both areas. Males were at a higher risk of having an injury than females. Rural residents were more likely to experience injuries due to falls (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1 – 2.3 and cuts (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 3.0 – 6.2 but had a lower risk of transport injuries. The most common causes of injury in the urban area were transport injuries and falls. In the rural area, cuts and stabs, of which two thirds were related to agriculture, formed the most common cause. Age was an important risk factor for certain types of injuries. Poverty levels were not significantly associated with experiencing a nonfatal injury. Conclusion The patterns of injury differ in urban and rural areas partly as a reflection of livelihoods and infrastructure. Rural residents are at a higher overall injury risk than urban residents. This may be important in the development of injury prevention strategies.

  11. The Urban Heat Island Behavior of a Large Northern Latitude Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hertel, W.; Mykleby, P.

    2012-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in vegetation cover, buildings and other development, and infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. Temperatures in the urban center can be 2-5°C warmer during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. Urban warming is responsible for excessive energy consumption, heat-related health effects, an increase in urban pollution, degradation of urban ecosystems, changes in the local meteorology, and an increase in thermal pollution into urban water bodies. One mitigation strategy involves manipulating the surface energy budget to either reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface or offset absorbed energy through latent cooling. Options include using building materials with different properties of reflectivity and emissivity, increasing the reflectivity of parking lots, covering roofs with vegetation, and increasing the amount of vegetation overall through tree planting or increasing green space. The goal of the Islands in the Sun project is to understand the formation and behavior of urban heat islands and to mitigate their effects through sensible city engineering and design practices. As part of this project, we have been characterizing the UHI of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), a 16,000 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, and evaluating mitigation strategies for reducing urban warming. Annually, the TCMA has a modest 2-3°C UHI that is especially apparent in winter when the urban core can be up to 5-6°C warmer than the surrounding countryside. We present an analysis of regional temperature variations from a dense network of sensors located throughout the TCMA. We focus on the diurnal and seasonal

  12. Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given

  13. Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

    1982-06-01

    The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given.

  14. On Financing of Urban Transition viewed from the Oresund Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Karin; Snällfot, David

    2014-01-01

    implementation is largely dependent on private sector joining in, since transitioning the building stock is to be financed by the market. This paper explores strategies to meet this agenda in the Oresund area. A particular focus is on the refurbishment of multi-family housing relative to these set goals...

  15. Avifauna in a section of the urban area of Uberlândia, MG

    OpenAIRE

    Oswaldo Marçal Júnior; Alexandre Gabriel Franchin; Khelma Torga

    2007-01-01

    Birds are intensely researched in urban areas. In this study, richness, composition and frequency of contact of bird species were registered in a section of the urban area of Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais. The avifauna was sampled between October 2003 and August 2004. Observation points were disposed in three avenues of the city and the observations were made in the morning in sessions of eight minutes each. The species were registered by visual and/or acoustic contacts. We sampled 1,080 ...

  16. Urban road area recognition in ITS based on mean shift method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoxue Chen(陈兆学); Pengfei Shi(施鹏飞)

    2003-01-01

    A color-based visual technique is described based on the mean shift image segmentation method providingrelevant information for robust localization of the visible road area in Urban Intelligent TransportationSystem (U-ITS). The traffic image sequences are firstly trained to extract the background and thensegmented into separated parts by the mean shift method as initialization, regions with the number ofpixels not less than a threshold and with more uniform surfaces with the "same" color compared to theirenvironment are filtered as recognized road area. The algorithm given in this paper can present road arearecognition with arbitrary shapes, which is fit for unstructured road applications in urban cities very well.

  17. Agricultural management in peri-urban areas. The experience of an international workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Marraccini, Élisa

    2010-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of an International Workshop on "Agricultural management in peri-urban areas" organised by the UMR Métafort of Clermont-Ferrand (France) and the Land Lab of the Scuola Superiore S. Anna of Pisa (Italy) which was held on the 11th and 12th of June 2009 in Pisa. The main goal of the workshop was to provide an opportunity to compare the research carried out by French and Italian teams on the role of agriculture in the planning of peri-urban areas, along with t...

  18. A comparative study on the extracurricularreading environment of urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaozhao; DENG; Haiyan; YAO; Shubei; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: So far, there have been few studies that discussed children’s reading environment in China’s poverty-stricken areas, this study aims to explore differences existed in extracurricular reading environment between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area with empirical evidence.Design/methodology/approach: Using a questionnaire survey, empirical data was collected from 105 participants. Then proposed hypotheses and the reliability of the observation variables were respectively examined with ANOVA and factor analysis. The statistical analysis software SPSS19.0 was used to analyze the data.Findings: Our results showed that 1) differences did exist in school and social reading environment between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area; 2) differences in family reading environment between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area were not obviously observed.Research limitations: The empirical data were collected from only one county of Chongqing Reservoir Area, which may have partially affected the generalization of our conclusions. In addition, the response rate of questionnaires was comparatively low due to a relatively limited research period. Practical implications: This study would provide some reference for governments, libraries, schools and families to consider how to jointly narrow the gap in the extracurricular reading circumstance between urban and rural children in Chongqing Reservoir Area.Originality value: This is one of the first studies to explore similarities and differences in extracurricular reading environment between urban and rural children in Chinese povertystricken areas, which will help research communities to gain a deeper understanding of children’s reading environment in Chinese Reservoir Area.

  19. Brazilian environmental legislation and scenarios for carbon balance in Areas of Permanent Preservation (APP) in dairy livestock regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hott, M. C.; Fonseca, L. D.; Andrade, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed at mapping some categories of Areas of Permanent Preservation (APP) for natural regeneration of semideciduous forests in the regions of Zona da Mata and Campo das Vertentes, Minas Gerais State (Figure 1), and from this to establish what impact the deployment of APP over area of pastures and subsequently milk production and carbon sequestration, considering areas of pasture as one of major factors for the dairy farming in the regions concerned. From the altimetric information from MDE, it was possible to extract morphological and morphometrical data to estimate the areas of APP. We used imagery of MODIS/Terra for extraction of the pastures areas from the vegetation index data NDVI to intersect with the estimated area of APP. In a linear or deterministic scenario of deployment of APPs over in the pasture areas considering that wich are proportionately responsible for sizing the herd, and thus for the milk production in extensive livestock, despite the existence of numerous other factors, there would be an impact 12% in the production of Campo das Vertentes region and 21.5% for the Zona da Mata. In this scenario, according to the carbon balance of forests and livestock, there would be a positive balance with the deployment of areas of permanent preservation and, subsequent promotion of natural regeneration. Considering the current grazing area of the Zona da Mata and Campo das Vertentes, 1.6 million hectares, with the carbon balance estimated at 1 ton/hectare/year, 300,000 hectares would have a balance of 5 ton/hectare/year in whole cycle of 40 years, totaling 200 tons carbon by hectare, or additional 48 million tons fixed, considering 4 tons more than pastures in the case of semideciduous forest. At the end of the cycle or forest climax, there would still be positive carbon balance, estimated as a balance of 2 ton/hectare/year. However, despite the higher carbon balance for the semideciduous forest, compared to livestock, it is important to

  20. The multicompetent practitioner: a needs analysis in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, G; Weisbord, A

    1987-02-01

    This study examined the concept of the multicompetent practitioner - the health care worker trained in more than one specialty - as one way of meeting the changing needs of the health care system. Seventy-four hospital administrators, 74 directors of nursing, 14 directors of community health organizations, and 12 private physicians from the Philadelphia metropolitan area were surveyed to explore the feasibility of developing and using multicompetent practitioners at their participating institutions. The results indicated that multicompetent practitioners are already working in some institutions and that there is a willingness to hire this new type of health care worker. How the multicompetent practitioner fits into the institution, the level of education required beyond the original area of skill, and the question of salary were included in the survey. Findings also indicate positive support for the development of multicompetent practitioner training within allied health educational programs.

  1. São Paulo urban heat islands have a higher incidence of dengue than other urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vieira Araujo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban heat islands are characterized by high land surface temperature, low humidity, and poor vegetation, and considered to favor the transmission of the mosquito-borne dengue fever that is transmitted by the Aedes aegyptimosquito. We analyzed the recorded dengue incidence in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, in 2010-2011, in terms of multiple environmental and socioeconomic variables. Geographical information systems, thermal remote sensing images, and census data were used to classify city areas according to land surface temper- ature, vegetation cover, population density, socioeconomic status, and housing standards. Of the 7415 dengue cases, a majority (93.1% mapped to areas with land surface temperature >28 ◦ C. The dengue incidence rate (cases per 100,000 inhabitants was low (3.2 cases in high vegetation cover areas, but high (72.3 cases in low vegetation cover areas where the land surface temperature was 29 ± 2 ◦ C. Interestingly, a multiple cluster analysis phenogram showed more dengue cases clustered in areas of land surface temperature >32 ◦ C, than in areas characterized as low socioeconomic zones, high population density areas, or slum-like areas. In laboratory experiments, A. aegyptimosquito larval development, blood feeding, and oviposition associated positively with temperatures of 28-32 ◦ C, indicating these temperatures to be favorable for dengue transmission. Thus, among all the variables studied, dengue incidence was most affected by the temperature.

  2. Forced decontamination of fission products deposited on urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-lived fission products may be deposited in the environment following a serious reactor accident. Areas of special concern are cities where the collective dose might be high because of the population. An extensive literature list is presented here. Only a few of the references deal with the problem as a whole. Some references deal with non-radiaoctive materials but give us useful information about the behaviour of particles on outdoor surfaces. (author)

  3. HEALTH HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH NOISE IN URBAN AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Sreejata Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Noise or unwanted sound is an environmental stressor. At the international level studies are based on the auditory and non-auditory effects of aircraft noise mostly. The present survey was conducted among people exposed to loud noise in Kolkata, a metropolitan city in India. The study area includes railway stations of Sealdah and Dumdum and music shops in Chandni Chowk. The study was conducted among the working class people among whom the adverse health effects may lead to productivity loss w...

  4. Governance regime and location influence avoided deforestation success of protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun; Silvius, Kirsten M.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2013-01-01

    Protected areas in tropical countries are managed under different governance regimes, the relative effectiveness of which in avoiding deforestation has been the subject of recent debates. Participants in these debates answer appeals for more strict protection with the argument that sustainable use areas and indigenous lands can balance deforestation pressures by leveraging local support to create and enforce protective regulations. Which protection strategy is more effective can also depend o...

  5. A study of ultraviolet solar radiation at Cairo urban area, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robaa, S.M. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Dept. of Astronomy and Meterology

    2004-07-01

    The monthly mean values of global, G, and ultraviolet, UV, solar radiation incident on a horizontal surface at Cairo urban area during the two different periods (1969-1973) and (1993-1997) are presented, analyzed and compared. The effect of urbanization processes on the solar radiation components is investigated and discussed. It was found that the total radiation of the two components, G and UV received at the urban area of Cairo during the period (1969-1973) highly exceeds the radiation received during the period (1993-1997) for all months of the year. The mean relative reduction of G and UV reached 17.4% and 27.4% respectively. A significant correlation between G and UV radiation has been established and the recommended correlation equation has been stated to estimate the values of UV radiation that are difficult to measure at any site in the zone of Lower Egypt. Also, a comparative study of the two radiation components, G and UV, at urban (Cairo) and rural (Bahtim) areas during the period (1993-1997) revealed that the urban area always has values of G and UV radiation distinctly lower than that found in rural area for all months of the year. Urban-rural mean reduction of G and UV reached 7.0% and 17.9% respectively. The ratio of the ultraviolet to global radiation (UV/G) are calculated and compared with other sites in the Arabian Peninsula. The effect of atmospheric dust on the measured solar radiation components is also investigated and discussed. (author)

  6. Soil-water interactions: implications for the sustainability of urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, António J. D.; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.

    2015-04-01

    Cities have become recently the home for more than half of the world's population. Cities are often seen as ecological systems just a short step away from collapse [Newman 2006]. Being a human construction, cities disrupt the natural cycles and the patterns of temporal and spatial distribution of environmental and ecological processes. Urbanization produces ruptures in biota, water, energy and nutrients connectivity that can lead to an enhanced exposure to disruptive events that hamper the wellbeing and the resilience of urban communities in a global change context. And yet, mankind can't give up of these structures one step away from collapse. In this paper we visit the ongoing research at the Ribeira dos Covões peri-urban catchment, as the basis to discuss several important processes and relations in the water-soil interface: A] the impact of the build environment and consequently the increase of the impervious area on the generation and magnitude of hydrological processes at different scales, the impact on flash flood risk and the mitigation approaches. B] the pollutant sources transport and fade in urban areas, with particular emphasis in the role of vegetation and soils in the transmission of pollutants from the atmosphere to the soil and to the water processes. C] the use and the environmental services of the urban ecosystems (where the relations of water, soil and vegetation have a dominate role) to promote a better risk and resources governance. D] the special issue of urban agriculture, where all the promises of sustainability and threats to wellbeing interact, and where the soil and water relations in urban areas are more significant and have the widest and deepest implications.

  7. Effects of urban green areas on air temperature in a medium-sized Argentinian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra S. Coronel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban climate is the result of both atmospheric and geographic factors affecting a region, as well as the morphology, structures and human activities in a city. Urban vegetation in particular affects this climate at a local scale and provides many other social, economic and ecological benefits. Thus, it is important to explore the effects of different green areas used for urban and periurban agriculture and forestry activities (UPAF on daily atmospheric temperature and the required degrees of cooling or refrigerating temperature. Comfort temperatures were defined using a range 18-24°C and analyzed using actual measured as well as forecasted temperatures using a future scenario. Actual temperatures were recorded from September 2013 to August 2014 using digital sensors across eight sites in Rosario, Argentina: three in the central core with no vegetation, one in the central core with street trees, one in an urban agriculture site, one in a public park and two in periurban agricultural areas. Results show that air temperature in the central core with no vegetation were higher than those in other sites with vegetation during day and night, with the exception of the temperatures measured at the central core site with street trees. Findings also show that temperature effects in urban agricultural gardens of approximately 0.2 ha were similar to those of gardens and public parks 2-3 ha in size. Three UPAF types were classified according to cooling degree days, which decreased in order from (1 central core with no trees; (2 central core with street trees and public parks; and (3 urban and periurban agriculture areas. Conversely, the opposite trends for heating degree days were found. Results from this study can be used for integrating UPAF measures into climate change mitigation and urban planning policies in medium-sized cities in the developing world.

  8. Organic aerosols in a Brazilian agro-industrial area: Speciation and impact of biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, R. C.; Alves, C. A.; Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    2016-03-01

    This work presents the first comprehensive organic characterization of atmospheric aerosols from an agro-industrial region (São Paulo State, Brazil) highly impacted by biomass burning. The organic speciation was performed using different solvents of increasing polarity, enabling the identification and quantification of 172 different organic species by GC-MS. The mass of organic compounds reached 123 μg m- 3 in an aerosol sample collected during the sugar cane harvest period compared with 0.82 μg m- 3 in the non-harvest period. The samples most impacted by biomass burning were those with the highest percentages of non-polar compounds (n-alkanes; up to 96%). However, in absolute terms, the total mass of polar compounds in such samples was greater than for samples less impacted by this activity. Retene (a marker for biomass combustion) was the most abundant of the 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons quantified, corresponding to 14%-84%. This work shows that biomass burning was responsible for a benzo(a)pyrene equivalent index value that exceeded the recommendation of the World Health Organization. Principal component analysis indicated that agricultural biomass burning and emissions from crop processing facilities explained 42% of the variance of the data, while 37% was explained by urban emissions, 10% by vehicle emissions, and 10% by biogenic sources. This study provides insights into the emissions of a suite of organic compounds that could participate in anthropic alteration of regional cloud formation and precipitation patterns.

  9. A knowledge discovery approach to urban analysis: Beyoglu Preservation Area as a data mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Sokmenoglu Sohtorik

    2016-05-01

    to the potentially ‘useful’ and/or ‘valuable’ information patterns and relationships that can be discovered in urban databases by applying data mining algorithms. A knowledge discovery approach to urban analysis through data mining can help us to understand site-specific characteristics of urban environments in a more profound and useful way.On a more specific level, the thesis aims towards ‘knowledge discovery’ in traditional thematic maps published in 2008 by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality as a basis of the Master Plan for the Beyoğlu Preservation Area. These thematic maps, which represent urban components, namely buildings, streets, neighbourhoods and their various attributes such as floor space use of the buildings, land price, population density or historical importance, do not really extend our knowledge of Beyoğlu Preservation Area beyond documenting its current state and do not contribute to the interventions presented in the master plan. However it is likely that ‘useful’ and ‘valuable’ information patterns discoverable using data mining algorithms are hidden in them.In accordance with the stated aims, three research questions of the thesis concerns (1 the development of a general process model to adapt the generic process of knowledge discovery using data mining for urban data analysis, (2 the investigation of information patterns and relationships that can be extracted from the traditional thematic maps of the Beyoğlu Preservation Area by further developing and implementing this model and (3 the investigation of how could this ‘relational urban knowledge’ support architects, urban designers or urban planners whilst developing intervention proposals for urban regeneration.A Knowledge Discovery Process Model (KDPM for urban analysis was developed, as an answer to the the first research question. The KDPM for urban analysis is a domain-specific adaptation of the widely accepted process of knowledge discovery in databases

  10. Work motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujičić Maja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Motivated and job satisfied health professionals represent a basis of success of modern health institutions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in work motivation and job satisfaction between health workers in urban and rural areas in the region of Central Serbia. Methods. The study included 396 health professionals from urban setting, and 436 from a rural area, employed in four randomly selected health facilities. An anonymous questionnaire was used for data gathering. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2, Student t-test, Spearman's correlation coefficient, and logistic regression analysis. Results. Urban health professionals were significantly more motivated and job satisfied than respondents from rural area. In relation to work motivation factors and job satisfaction of health professionals in urban and rural areas, there were no significant differences in working conditions and current equipment, and in terms of job satisfaction there were no significant differences in relation to income either. Conclusion. In order to increase the level of work motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in rural areas, apart from better income, they should get more assistance and support from their supervisors, and awards for good job performance; interpersonal relationships, promotion and advancement opportunities, managerial performance and cooperation at work should be improved; employment security should be provided, as well as more independence at work, with professional supervision of health workers.

  11. Epidemiological Features of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in Beijing Urban and Suburb Areas in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To describe the epidemiologic features of an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in urban and suburb areas in Beijing and to explore their differences between these two areas. Methods Data of SARS cases were collected from daily notification of China Ministry of Health and a database of infectious diseases was established by the Beijing Municipal Center for Disease Prevention and Control (BCDC). All the data were put into dataset files by Microsoft Excel-2000 and analyzed with SPSS version 10.0 software. Results The respective urban incidence and mortality rate were 29.06 and 2.21 per 100 000, while the case fatality rate was 7.62%. In contrast, the respective suburb incidence and mortality rate were 10.61 and 0.78 per 100 000, and the case fatality rate was 7.32%. No significant differences were found in demographic characteristics between the urban and suburb areas. Conclusion Beijing urban area suffered a more serious SARS epidemic than the suburb area in 2003.

  12. Housing, Urban Renewal and Socio-Spatial Integration. A Study on Rehabilitating the Former Socialistic Public Housing Areas in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxi Hui

    2013-01-01

    The initiative of this study derived from my concern of two critical urban issues in China today: housing and urban renewal. In the recent two decades, the Chinese urban housing stock underwent a significant, if not extreme, transformation. From 1949 to 1998, the urban housing stock in China largely depended on the public sector, and a large amount of public housing areas were developed under the socialistic public housing system in Beijing and other Chinese cities. Yet in 1998, a radical hou...

  13. Monitoring urban growth and detecting land-cover changes on the Istanbul metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geymen, Abdurrahman; Baz, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Istanbul is the most populated city of Turkey with a population of around 10.58 M (2000) living on around 5,750 km2. In 1980, the population was only 4.7 M and then it has been more than doubled in only two decades. The population has been increasing as a result of mass immigration. An urbanization process continues and it causes serious increases in urban areas while decreasing the amount of green areas. This rapid, uncontrolled, and illegal urbanization accompanied by insufficient infrastructure has caused degradation of forest and barren lands in the metropolitan area, especially through the last two decades. The watershed basins inside the metropolitan area and the transportation network have accelerated the land-cover changes, which have negative impacts on water quality of the basins. Monitoring urban growth and land cover change will enable better management of this complex urban area by the Greater Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (GIMM). A temporal assessment of land-cover changes of Istanbul has been documented in this study. The study mainly focuses on the acquisition and analysis of Landsat TM and Landsat GeoCover LC satellite images reflecting the significant land-cover changes between the years of 1990 and 2005. Raster data were converted to vector data and used in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A database was created for Istanbul metropolitan area to plan, manage, and utilize statistical attribute data covering population, water, forest, industry, and topographic position. Consequently an overlay analysis was carried out and land use/cover changes through years have been detected for the case study area. The capability of Landsat images in determining the alterations in the macro form of the city are also discussed. PMID:17380412

  14. Monitoring urban growth and detecting land-cover changes on the Istanbul metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geymen, Abdurrahman; Baz, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Istanbul is the most populated city of Turkey with a population of around 10.58 M (2000) living on around 5,750 km2. In 1980, the population was only 4.7 M and then it has been more than doubled in only two decades. The population has been increasing as a result of mass immigration. An urbanization process continues and it causes serious increases in urban areas while decreasing the amount of green areas. This rapid, uncontrolled, and illegal urbanization accompanied by insufficient infrastructure has caused degradation of forest and barren lands in the metropolitan area, especially through the last two decades. The watershed basins inside the metropolitan area and the transportation network have accelerated the land-cover changes, which have negative impacts on water quality of the basins. Monitoring urban growth and land cover change will enable better management of this complex urban area by the Greater Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (GIMM). A temporal assessment of land-cover changes of Istanbul has been documented in this study. The study mainly focuses on the acquisition and analysis of Landsat TM and Landsat GeoCover LC satellite images reflecting the significant land-cover changes between the years of 1990 and 2005. Raster data were converted to vector data and used in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A database was created for Istanbul metropolitan area to plan, manage, and utilize statistical attribute data covering population, water, forest, industry, and topographic position. Consequently an overlay analysis was carried out and land use/cover changes through years have been detected for the case study area. The capability of Landsat images in determining the alterations in the macro form of the city are also discussed.

  15. Phenomenological study of aerosol dry deposition in urban area: surface properties, turbulence and local meteorology influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosol dry deposition is not much known for urban areas due to the lack of data. Knowledge on this phenomenon is necessary to understand pollutant fluxes in cities and to estimate inhabitant exposition to ionizing radiation of radioactive aerosols. A data providing could enable to enhance dry deposition models for these areas. An original experimental approach is performed to study submicron aerosol dry deposition on urban surfaces. Wind tunnel coupled to in situ experiments give results to study different physical phenomenon governing dry deposition. Dry deposition velocities are measured using aerosol tracers. These data are associated to turbulent and meteorological measured conditions. This database permits to classify the principal physical phenomenon for each experiment type. Finally, different phenomenon must be considered for chronic and acute exposition of urban surfaces to atmospheric particles. (author)

  16. Protected Areas' Impacts on Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: Examining Conservation-Development Interactions to Inform Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Herrera, Diego; Sandoval, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are the leading forest conservation policy for species and ecoservices goals and they may feature in climate policy if countries with tropical forest rely on familiar tools. For Brazil's Legal Amazon, we estimate the average impact of protection upon deforestation and show how protected areas' forest impacts vary significantly with development pressure. We use matching, i.e., comparisons that are apples-to-apples in observed land characteristics, to address the fact that protected areas (PAs) tend to be located on lands facing less pressure. Correcting for that location bias lowers our estimates of PAs' forest impacts by roughly half. Further, it reveals significant variation in PA impacts along development-related dimensions: for example, the PAs that are closer to roads and the PAs closer to cities have higher impact. Planners have multiple conservation and development goals, and are constrained by cost, yet still conservation planning should reflect what our results imply about future impacts of PAs. PMID:26225922

  17. Cartographic Generalization (Selection For 2D Map of Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Lal Raheja

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In cartographic generalization process essential characteristics and behaviour of objects are to bepreserved. When a map is represented graphically, if the represented scale is reduced, then some areafeatures will become too insignificant to be represented, i.e. they will be too small to be viewed andcluttering the whole map making it illegible to view even according to the map’s theme. Theseunimportant small area spatial objects are to be eliminated. This elimination procedure is part ofgeneralization process called Selection. This paper presents a new approach to selection process ofcartographic generalization. This technique includes three steps. These involve a process to calculatearea of the spatial object i.e. polygon, drawing a virtual square, elimination of the spatial object afterprocessing. Generally selection process doesn’t consider the spatial density and eliminates all areas lessthan the threshold value. In virtual square method according to spatial density objects are eliminated. Avirtual square is drawn around a spatial object and total number of spatial objects inside it is counted. Ifthe count is greater than threshold then it is eliminated. This technique described in the paper has beentested using many examples and deployed in an application which is developed using Microsoft VisualC++, a robust platform for application development.

  18. Analytical Method for Estimating Energy Output of Small Wind Turbines Integrated in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovac M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of the analytical approach for estimating the wind energy potential at locations around buildings in urban areas that are suitable for installing Small Wind Turbines (SWT. This development is performed in three steps. In order to analyze the flow pattern in a typical urban geometry, the first step consisted of a series of numerical simulations, where an assumed urban configuration (specified building size and respective distances between the buildings was varied with an incremental value, and for each analyzed configuration different incoming wind conditions (different reference wind velocity were incrementally imposed. In the second step the velocity profiles in the characteristic cutlines around the central building under investigation were extracted from the respective realizations of urban flow numerical solutions, and an analytical expression was derived approximating all extracted velocity profiles to fit the best an assumed flow pattern. The derived analytical expression was cross-plotted with the results of a fully three-dimensional realistic urban flow numerical solution, and the obtained matching level was satisfactory. Finally, using the derived expression, in the third step the estimation of SWT energy output was defined based on the average wind velocity information at given location and the related urban configuration characteristics.

  19. Reacting to poverty: A comparative analysis of schools in Brazilian deprived areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Tarabini; X. Bonal; O. Valiente

    2014-01-01

    Schools in the most deprived areas in Brazil are marked by extreme poverty, a situation that has obvious consequences for the everyday life in schools and for efforts to develop a supportive culture of schooling. Nevertheless, schools’ responses to poverty are far from uniform. Although the context

  20. Reacting to Poverty: A Comparative Analysis of Schools in Brazilian Deprived Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabini, Aina; Bonal, Xavier; Valiente, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Schools in the most deprived areas in Brazil are marked by extreme poverty, a situation that has obvious consequences for the everyday life in schools and for efforts to develop a supportive culture of schooling. Nevertheless, schools' responses to poverty are far from uniform. Although the context of poverty generally determines what is…

  1. Areas of climate stability of species ranges in the Brazilian Cerrado

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terribile, Levi Carina; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus Souza; Bastos Araujo, Miguel;

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the location of climatically stable areas in the future is subjected to uncertainties from ecological niche models, climatic models, variation in species ranges responses, and from the climatic variation through time. Here, we proposed an approach based on hierarchical ANOVA to reduce...

  2. An Intelligent Parking Management System for Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Gómez, Juan A; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; García, Carmelo R; Suárez Moreno, Raúl; Guerra Hernández, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe a low-cost, minimally-intrusive system for the efficient management of parking spaces on both public roads and controlled zones. This system is based on wireless networks of photoelectric sensors that are deployed on the access roads into and out of these areas. The sensors detect the passage of vehicles on these roads and communicate this information to a data centre, thus making it possible to know the number of vehicles in the controlled zone and the occupancy levels in real-time. This information may be communicated to drivers to facilitate their search for a parking space and to authorities so that they may take steps to control traffic when congestion is detected. PMID:27338397

  3. Chemical and radiological vulnerability assessment in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities and towns are faced with various types of threat from the extraordinary events involving chemical and radiological materials as exemplified by major chemical accidents, radiological incidents, fires, explosions, traffic accidents, terrorist attacks, etc. On the other hand, many sensitive or vulnerable assets exist within cities, such as: settlements, infrastructures, hospitals, schools, churches, businesses, government, and others. Besides emergency planning, the land use planning also represents an important tool for prevention or reduction of damages on people and other assets due to unwanted events. This paper considers development of method for inclusion vulnerability assessment in land use planning with objective to assess and limit the consequences in cities of likely accidents involving hazardous materials. We made preliminary assessment of criticality and vulnerability of the assets within Belgrade city area in respect to chemical sites and transportation roads that can be exposed to chemical accidents, or terrorist attacks.

  4. Spatial correlations between urbanization and river water pollution in the heavily polluted area of Taihu Lake Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Haixia; DUAN Xuejun; Becky STEWART; YOU Bensheng; JIANG Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Water pollution in the Taihu Lake Basin has been the focus of attention in China and abroad for a long time,due to its position in the forefront of urban development in China.Based on data gathering and processing from 84 monitoring sections in this heavily polluted area,this study first analyzes spatial patterns of urbanization and the distribution of river water pollution,and then uses the GeoDa bivariate spatial autocorrelation model to investigate the spatial correlation between urbanization and river water pollution at the scale of township units.The results show that urbanization has adverse impacts on water pollution,and the influence varies in different levels of development areas.The urban township units have the highest level of urbanization and highest pollution,but the best water quality; the suburban units have lower level of urbanization,but higher pollution and worse water quality;however the rural units have the lowest level of urbanization and lowest pollution,mainly affected by upstream pollution,but worst water quality.Lastly,urban and rural planning committees,while actively promoting the process of development in the region,should gradually resolve the issue of pollution control lagging behind urban life and urban development,giving priority to construction of centralized sewage treatment facilities and associated pipeline network coverage in the rural areas and suburban areas.

  5. Integrating Infrastructure and Institutions for Water Security in Large Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padowski, J.; Jawitz, J. W.; Carrera, L.

    2015-12-01

    Urban growth has forced cities to procure more freshwater to meet demands; however the relationship between urban water security, water availability and water management is not well understood. This work quantifies the urban water security of 108 large cities in the United States (n=50) and Africa (n=58) based on their hydrologic, hydraulic and institutional settings. Using publicly available data, urban water availability was estimated as the volume of water available from local water resources and those captured via hydraulic infrastructure (e.g. reservoirs, wellfields, aqueducts) while urban water institutions were assessed according to their ability to deliver, supply and regulate water resources to cities. When assessing availability, cities relying on local water resources comprised a minority (37%) of those assessed. The majority of cities (55%) instead rely on captured water to meet urban demands, with African cities reaching farther and accessing a greater number and variety of sources for water supply than US cities. Cities using captured water generally had poorer access to local water resources and maintained significantly more complex strategies for water delivery, supply and regulatory management. Eight cities, all African, are identified in this work as having water insecurity issues. These cities lack sufficient infrastructure and institutional complexity to capture and deliver adequate amounts of water for urban use. Together, these findings highlight the important interconnection between infrastructure investments and management techniques for urban areas with a limited or dwindling natural abundance of water. Addressing water security challenges in the future will require that more attention be placed not only on increasing water availability, but on developing the institutional support to manage captured water supplies.

  6. Interpolating a consumption variable for scaling and generalizing potential population pressure on urbanizing natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia; Jiang, Bin; Yao, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    Measures of population pressure, referring in general to the stress upon the environment by human consumption of resources, are imperative for environmental sustainability studies and management. Development based on resource consumption is the predominant factor of population pressure. This paper presents a spatial model of population pressure by linking consumption associated with regional urbanism and ecosystem services. Maps representing relative geographic degree and extent of natural resource consumption and degree and extent of impacts on surrounding areas are new, and this research represents the theoretical research toward this goal. With development, such maps offer a visualization tool for planners of various services, amenities for people, and conservation planning for ecologist. Urbanization is commonly generalized by census numbers or impervious surface area. The potential geographical extent of urbanism encompasses the environmental resources of the surrounding region that sustain cities. This extent is interpolated using kriging of a variable based on population wealth data from the U.S. Census Bureau. When overlayed with land-use/land-cover data, the results indicate that the greatest estimates of population pressure fall within mixed forest areas. Mixed forest areas result from the spread of cedar woods in previously disturbed areas where further disturbance is then suppressed. Low density areas, such as suburbanization and abandoned farmland are characteristic of mixed forest areas.

  7. Differences in Employee Motivation at Slovak Primary Schools in Rural and Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitka, Miloš; Stachová, Katarína; Balážová, Žaneta; Stacho, Zdenko

    2015-01-01

    In spite of turbulent urbanisation in Slovakia we assume that the 21st century is also a period of differences in value criteria of people living in rural and urban areas. The level of urbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from the countryside to towns and the level of suburbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from towns to the countryside, are…

  8. Service Areas of Local Urban Green Spaces: AN Explorative Approach in Arroios, Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, R.; Gonçalves, A. B.; Ramos, I. L.

    2016-09-01

    The identification of service areas of urban green spaces and areas with lack of these is increasingly necessary within city planning and management, as it translates into important indicators for the assessment of quality of life. In this setting, it is important to evaluate the attractiveness and accessibility dynamics through a set of attributes, taking into account the local reality of the territory under study. This work presents an operational methodology associated with these dynamics in local urban green spaces, assisting in the planning and management of this type of facilities. The methodology is supported firstly on questionnaire surveys and then on network analysis, processing spatial data in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. In the case study, two local green spaces in Lisbon were selected, on a local perspective explorative approach. Through field data, it was possible to identify service areas for both spaces, and compare the results with references in the literature. It was also possible to recognise areas with lack of these spaces. The difficulty to evaluate the dynamics of real individuals in their choices of urban green spaces and the respective route is a major challenge to the application of the methodology. In this sense it becomes imperative to develop different instruments and adapt them to other types of urban green spaces.

  9. Urban floods: a case study in the Savigliano area (North-Western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Audisio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood processes and effects are examined, concerning two rivers in an urbanized area in North-Western Italy (Piedmont – Cuneo Plain. In May 2008, some areas in Northern Italy were struck by intense and persistent rainfall. In the Cuneo province (Southern Piedmont, floodplain with some urban areas was inundated over ca. ten square kilometres, and the city of Savigliano (about 21 000 inhabitants was particularly hit by flood. A purposely-made historical research has evidenced approximately fifty flood events as having occurred since 1350 in the Savigliano area. Based upon historical data, both documents and maps, GIS (Geographical Information System technique and field surveys were used to quantitatively assess the growing urbanization of the city and to describe flood processes and effects over years. This work aims to describe the dynamic behaviour of the 2008 flood, also comparing it to past events, in particular those that occurred in 1896. It is emphasized how the knowledge of past events can be helpful in reducing urban flooding.

  10. LWIR hyperspectral change detection for target acquisition and situation awareness in urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.J.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Benoist, K.W.; Pignatti, S.; Santini, F.; Friman, O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies change detection of LWIR (Long Wave Infrared) hyperspectral imagery. Goal is to improve target acquisition and situation awareness in urban areas with respect to conventional techniques. Hyperspectral and conventional broadband high-spatial-resolution data were collected during th

  11. Resistance to anticoagulants in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in sewers in an urban area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodal, Jens

    2007-01-01

    . Therefore a project for studying resistance levels in sewer rats was undertaken in an urban area of a municipality in southern Zealand from where surface rats had been tested during the foregoing years. Rats resistant to difenacoum represented the highest level of resistance in the municipality. Rats were...

  12. Optimization of the rainfall-runoff response in urban areas by using controllable drains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteagudo, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    In the last times, infiltration facilities to reduce the load on the drainage systems have been introduced in many urban areas. These facilities allow water to infiltrate or to drain depending of the level it reaches in the ground. It results easy to conclude that this infiltrating and draining proc

  13. Monitoring of traffic noise in an urban area using a wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Graafland, F.

    2014-01-01

    Developments in systems for monitoring environmental noise have made it possible to monitor the acoustic situation within large urban areas. The developments in hardware size and costs, combined with the developments in wireless communication allow to deploy networks with many acoustic sensors witho

  14. 75 FR 16229 - Urbanized Area Formula Program: Notice of Final Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Planning F. Chapter VI--Program Management and Administrative Requirements G. Chapter VII--Other Provisions... definition of Mobility Management that included employer-oriented Transportation Management Organizations... grantees in implementing the Urbanized Area Formula Program (Section 5307) for capital, planning, and...

  15. Wastewater Use in Informal Irrigation in Urban and Periurban Areas of Kumasi, Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keraita, B.; Drechsel, P.; Huibers, F.P.; Raschid-Sally, L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents findings from studies done in the urban and periurban areas of Kumasi, Ghana. Different methods and methodologies were used which included more than 500 interviews mostly with farmers, personal observations, water-quality monitoring and literature reviews. Water from domestic use

  16. Monitoring the effect of urban green areas on the heat island in Athens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoulia, I; Santamouris, M; Dimoudi, A

    2009-09-01

    The role of urban green areas in the microclimatic conditions of cities, during summer, is investigated in this paper through monitoring campaigns carried out at the National garden, at the city centre of Athens. Two types of investigations were carried out: i) a microscopic one that investigated the thermal conditions inside the Garden and the immediate surrounding urban area and ii) a macroscopic one that compared the temperature profile of the Garden with that of the greater city centre area. It was concluded that in microscopic level, the temperature profile inside the National Garden and the immediate surrounding urban area did not showed a clear evidence of the influence of the Garden and it was dependent on the characteristics of each location. In a macroscopic scale, the Garden was found cooler than the other monitored urban locations and temperature differences were mainly greater during the night, especially in streets with high building height to street width (H/W) ratio and low traffic, while in streets with high anthropogenic heat during the day, the biggest temperature differences were recorded during the day.

  17. “Population Invasion” versus Urban Exclusion in the Tibetan Areas of Western China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the confluence of local population transitions (demographic transition and urbanization) with non-local in-migration in the Tibetan areas of western China. The objective is to assess the validity of Tibetan perceptions of "population invasion" by Han Chinese and Chi

  18. Method for predicting future developments of traffic noise in urban areas in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.; Hout, D. van den; Janssen, S.; Kugler, U.; MacA, V.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic noise in urban areas in Europe is a major environmental stressor. In this study we present a method for predicting how environmental noise can be expected to develop in the future. In the project HEIMTSA scenarios were developed for all relevant environmental stressors to health, for all sou

  19. Estimation of water flux in urban area using eddy covariance measurements in Riverside, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micrometeorological methods can direct measure the sensible and latent heat flux in specific sites and provide robust estimates of the evaporative fraction (EF), which is the fraction of available surface energy contained in latent heat. Across a vegetation coverage gradient in urban area, an empir...

  20. Homeless Students and Academic Achievement: Evidence from a Large Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Kerri J.

    2016-01-01

    Child homelessness has recently reached levels unprecedented in the United States since the Great Depression. Contemporary research has attempted to isolate the effects of homelessness on education, with mixed results. This study reports results from a study in one large urban area and finds that there is no meaningful difference in achievement…

  1. A review of pesticide policies and regulations for urban amenity areas in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristoffersen, P.; Rask, A.M.; Grundy, A.; Franzen, I.; Kempenaar, C.; Raisio, J.; Schroeder, H.; Spijker, J.H.; Verschwele, A.; Zarina, L.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of the regulations of herbicide use for weed control in non-agricultural/urban amenity areas, including actual pesticide use, was carried out as a joint survey of seven European countries: Denmark, Finland, Germany, Latvia, the Netherlands, Sweden and United Kingdom. Herbicides constitut

  2. Investment in Fixed Assets in Urban Areas up31.1% from January to July

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

      According to the monthly report from State Statistics Bureau, from January to July, over RMB500, 000 investment projects in fixed assets in urban areas have reached RMB2.7116 billion, up 31.1% compared with the same period of last year, and the growth rate was almost the same as that of January to June.……

  3. Investment in Fixed Assets in Urban Areas up31.1% from January to July

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ According to the monthly report from State Statistics Bureau, from January to July, over RMB500, 000 investment projects in fixed assets in urban areas have reached RMB2.7116 billion, up 31.1% compared with the same period of last year, and the growth rate was almost the same as that of January to June.

  4. Ecological Impacts of Replacing Traditional Roofs with Green Roofs in Two Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Carter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban land cover is dominated by impervious surface that degrades both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems relative to predevelopment conditions. There are significant opportunities for designers of urban landscapes to use alternative land covers that have multiple functions, benefiting both human and nonhuman components of the urban ecosystem. Vegetated (green roofs are one form of alternative land cover that has shown the potential to provide a variety of ecological benefits in urban areas. We evaluated how stormwater retention, building energy and temperature, and rooftop habitat are influenced by the use of green roofs using test plots in Georgia and Massachusetts. Green roofs were shown to recreate part of the predevelopment hydrology through increasing interception, stormwater storage, evaporation, and transpiration on the rooftop and worked extremely well for small storm events. Temperature reductions were found on the green rooftop as compared to an asphalt surface, although other roof technologies that minimize temperatures, such as lighter colored membranes, provide similar benefits. Novel habitat was created on the rooftop, although the extent of this habitat was limited in part by plant survivability and the need for additional water inputs for diverse plant communities to survive. Despite the challenges, the green roof benefits reported here suggest that green roofs can be used effectively as a multifunctional land cover in urban areas.

  5. Objects Grouping for Segmentation of Roads Network in High Resolution Images of Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboudi, M.; Amini, J.; Hahn, M.

    2016-06-01

    Updated road databases are required for many purposes such as urban planning, disaster management, car navigation, route planning, traffic management and emergency handling. In the last decade, the improvement in spatial resolution of VHR civilian satellite sensors - as the main source of large scale mapping applications - was so considerable that GSD has become finer than size of common urban objects of interest such as building, trees and road parts. This technological advancement pushed the development of "Object-based Image Analysis (OBIA)" as an alternative to pixel-based image analysis methods. Segmentation as one of the main stages of OBIA provides the image objects on which most of the following processes will be applied. Therefore, the success of an OBIA approach is strongly affected by the segmentation quality. In this paper, we propose a purpose-dependent refinement strategy in order to group road segments in urban areas using maximal similarity based region merging. For investigations with the proposed method, we use high resolution images of some urban sites. The promising results suggest that the proposed approach is applicable in grouping of road segments in urban areas.

  6. Detection of flooded urban areas in high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar images using double scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, D. C.; Giustarini, L.; Garcia-Pintado, J.; Cloke, H. L.

    2014-05-01

    Flooding is a particular hazard in urban areas worldwide due to the increased risks to life and property in these regions. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors are often used to image flooding because of their all-weather day-night capability, and now possess sufficient resolution to image urban flooding. The flood extents extracted from the images may be used for flood relief management and improved urban flood inundation modelling. A difficulty with using SAR for urban flood detection is that, due to its side-looking nature, substantial areas of urban ground surface may not be visible to the SAR due to radar layover and shadow caused by buildings and taller vegetation. This paper investigates whether urban flooding can be detected in layover regions (where flooding may not normally be apparent) using double scattering between the (possibly flooded) ground surface and the walls of adjacent buildings. The method estimates double scattering strengths using a SAR image in conjunction with a high resolution LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) height map of the urban area. A SAR simulator is applied to the LiDAR data to generate maps of layover and shadow, and estimate the positions of double scattering curves in the SAR image. Observations of double scattering strengths were compared to the predictions from an electromagnetic scattering model, for both the case of a single image containing flooding, and a change detection case in which the flooded image was compared to an un-flooded image of the same area acquired with the same radar parameters. The method proved successful in detecting double scattering due to flooding in the single-image case, for which flooded double scattering curves were detected with 100% classification accuracy (albeit using a small sample set) and un-flooded curves with 91% classification accuracy. The same measures of success were achieved using change detection between flooded and un-flooded images. Depending on the particular flooding

  7. [Brazilian technological output in the area of nursing: advances and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerich, Micheline Henrique Araujo da Luz; Vieira, Raquel Heloisa Guedes; Silva, Daniela Eda; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Meirelles, Betina Horner Shlindwein

    2011-12-01

    This article aims to analyze the patents registered in the nursing area, since these patents may be used as an indicator of the technological development in the area. It presents and discusses national technological productions, tracked through the "nursing" keyword, patented in the period from 1990-2009. This is a retrospective documental research, using, as a source, data from the National Industrial Property Institute (INPI). The information gathered is discussed in relation to the appropriation of the technologies, the incentive to develop them and register them as a source of knowledge in the nursing field, aiming the practice of care. Light and light hard technology productions are increasing in the nursing field. However, these are not registered and patented. The technological advance in the nursing field is emergent and needs policies for its development.

  8. Linguistic repertoires of interdisciplinarity in brazilian journals in the area of psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane Paris Spink

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about manners in which linguistic repertoires of interdisciplinarity for dissemination of scientific knowledge are coordinated. It starts with a contextualization about interdisciplinarity and ways in which disciplines are organized for administrative purposes in Brazil. It seeks to answer the question: how these forms of ordering, controlling and coordinating interdisciplinary operate in the dissemination of scientific knowledge? The analysis of the ways of coordinating interdisciplinarity in scientific dissemination was based on the editorial proposals of journals classified as A1, A2 and B1 in the Qualis of the area of Psychology. The conclusion of this analysis is that scientific journals enact interdisciplinarity in different manners because they use various forms of association based on themes, related areas, and theories or theoretical frameworks. We conclude the analysis with a discussion of the implications of the various manners of coordinating knowledge for the dissemination of information for the public at large.

  9. Open Street Map Data as Source for Built-Up and Urban Areas on Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkhoff, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Many types of applications require information about built-up areas and urban areas. Thus, there is a need for a global, vector-based, up-to-date, and free dataset of high resolution and accuracy. The OpenStreetMap (OSM) dataset fulfills those demands in principle. However, its focus is not land use or land cover. These observations lead to following questions: (1) Which OSM features can be used for computing built-up areas on global scale? (2) How can we derive built-up and urban areas on global scale in sufficient accuracy and performance by using standard software and hardware? (3) Is the quality of the result sufficient on global scale? In this paper, we investigate the first two questions in detail and give some insights into the third question.

  10. Rule Based Selection of 2D Urban Area Map Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Lal Raheja

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of cartographic generalization is to represent a particular situation adapted to the needs of its users, with adequate legibility of the representation and perceptional congruity with the real situation. In this paper, a simple approach is presented for the selection process of building ground plans that are represented as 2D line, square and polygon segments. It is based on simple selection process from the field of computer graphics. It is important to preserve the overall characteristics of the buildings; the lines are simplified with regard to geometric relations. These characteristics allow for an easy recognition of buildings even on small displays of mobile devices. Such equipment has become a tool for our everyday life in the form of mobile phones, personal digital assistants and GPS assisted navigation systems. Although the computing performance and network bandwidth will increase further, such devices will always be limited by the rather small display area available for communicating the spatial information. This means that an appropriate transformation and visualization of building data as presented in this paper is essential.

  11. Protected Areas' Impacts on Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: Examining Conservation-Development Interactions to Inform Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pfaff

    Full Text Available Protected areas are the leading forest conservation policy for species and ecoservices goals and they may feature in climate policy if countries with tropical forest rely on familiar tools. For Brazil's Legal Amazon, we estimate the average impact of protection upon deforestation and show how protected areas' forest impacts vary significantly with development pressure. We use matching, i.e., comparisons that are apples-to-apples in observed land characteristics, to address the fact that protected areas (PAs tend to be located on lands facing less pressure. Correcting for that location bias lowers our estimates of PAs' forest impacts by roughly half. Further, it reveals significant variation in PA impacts along development-related dimensions: for example, the PAs that are closer to roads and the PAs closer to cities have higher impact. Planners have multiple conservation and development goals, and are constrained by cost, yet still conservation planning should reflect what our results imply about future impacts of PAs.

  12. The impact of built-up surfaces on land surface temperatures in Italian urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Marco; Crisci, Alfonso; Messeri, Alessandro; Orlandini, Simone; Raschi, Antonio; Maracchi, Giampiero; Munafò, Michele

    2016-05-01

    Urban areas are characterized by the very high degree of soil sealing and continuous built-up areas: Italy is one of the European countries with the highest artificial land cover rate, which causes a substantial spatial variation in the land surface temperature (LST), modifying the urban microclimate and contributing to the urban heat island effect. Nevertheless, quantitative data regarding the contribution of different densities of built-up surfaces in determining urban spatial LST changes is currently lacking in Italy. This study, which aimed to provide clear and quantitative city-specific information on annual and seasonal spatial LST modifications resulting from increased urban built-up coverage, was conducted generally throughout the whole year, and specifically in two different periods (cool/cold and warm/hot periods). Four cities (Milan, Rome, Bologna and Florence) were included in the study. The LST layer and the built-up-surface indicator were obtained via use of MODIS remote sensing data products (1km) and a very high-resolution map (5m) of built-up surfaces recently developed by the Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research. The relationships between the dependent (mean daily, daytime and nighttime LST values) and independent (built-up surfaces) variables were investigated through linear regression analyses, and comprehensive built-up-surface-related LST maps were also developed. Statistically significant linear relationships (p<0.001) between built-up surfaces and spatial LST variations were observed in all the cities studied, with a higher impact during the warm/hot period than in the cool/cold ones. Daytime and nighttime LST slope patterns depend on the city size and relative urban morphology. If implemented in the existing city plan, the urban maps of built-up-surface-related LST developed in this study might be able to support more sustainable urban land management practices by identifying the critical areas (Hot

  13. METHODS OF BIOMONITORING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: LEAF AREA AND FRACTAL DIMENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta IANOVICI; Mihajel VEREȘ; Raluca Georgiana CATRINA; Ana-Maria PÎRVULESCU; Roxana Mădălina TĂNASE; Daniela Adina DATCU

    2015-01-01

    In urban conditions, we investigated several leaf traits (leaf area, specific leaf area, fractal dimension and specific leaf weight) on Taraxacum officinale, Tilia tomentosa, Aesculus hippocastanum and Ambrosia artemisiifolia. The analyzed organs were mature leaves, on the first indications of senescence. This study used an exact, inexpensive and efficient in terms of costs alternative methods for determining the leaf parameters. On the other hand, this paper presents an application of the le...

  14. Employment subcenters and land values in a polycentric urban area: the case of Chicago

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, J F; D P McMillen

    1990-01-01

    In some previous empirical research metropolitan Chicago has been considered as a polycentric urban area. This prior research is reviewed and new results are presented on the identification of employment subcenters and the effects of such subcenters on residential land values. The empirical tests confirm that the O'Hare Airport area has emerged as a significant employment subcenter. Several other employment subcenters exist or have existed in the past, and one subcenter had a positive impact ...

  15. The Spatial Dimension of Segregation: A Case Study in Four French Urban Areas, 1990-1999

    OpenAIRE

    Frédéric GASCHET (IERSO, IFReDE-GRES); Gallo, Julie Le

    2005-01-01

    Over the post-war period, urban growth has exhibited complex spatial patterns including both population spread and employment suburbanization from the central city towards the suburbs, both in US and European metropolitan areas. An important literature, based on North-American metropolitan areas, has also highlighted the strong link existing between this process of suburbanization and the reinforcement of socio-spatial segregation against poor populations living in the central cities (Kain, 1...

  16. [Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti L. and associated culicidae fauna in a urban area of southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, J; da Silva, M A; Borsato, A M; de Oliveira, V D; Oliveira, F J

    1993-10-01

    Some aspects of the ecology of eleven species of Culicidae that were found breeding in recipients in an urban area of Southern Brazil are presented. A great variety of recipients were listed as efficient breeding sites. Apparently Aedes aegypti has been recently introduced into the region and was limited to two areas of the city. Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. coronator, Ae. aegypti, Ae. fluviatilis e Limatus durhamii were the predominant species.

  17. Application of vehicular communications for improving the efficiency of traffic in Urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Katsaros K.; Kernchen R.; Dianati M.; Rieck D.; Zinoviou C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the impacts of vehicular communications on efficiency of traffic in urban areas. We consider a Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory application implementation in a typical reference area and present the results of its performance analysis using an integrated cooperative intelligent transportation systems simulation platform. In addition, we study route alternation using vehicle-to-infrastructure and vehicle-to-vehicle communications. Our interest was to monitor the impacts ...

  18. New urban area flood model: a comparison with MIKE11-quasi2d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sole

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent hydrogeological events have increased both public interest and that of the Scientific Community in a more accurate study of flooding in urban areas. The present project proposes a new model which offers an optimal integration of two models, one for flood wave propagation in riverbeds and the other for flooding in urban areas. We consider it necessary to not only treat the modelling of the outflow in riverbeds and outside riverbeds.together but to integrate them thoroughly. We simulate the propagation in riverbed of the flood event with a model solving the equations of De Saint Venant with the explicit scheme at the finite differences by McCormack. The propagation outside the riverbed is simulated using an algorithm proposed by Braschi et al. (1990. This algorithm is based on a local discretization of the urban territory, divided in a series of "tanks" and "channels". Each tank is associated with an area of an extension related to the position of the other tanks and the quantity of buildings, modelled as insurmountable obstacles. The model facilitates the simultaneous performance of the two simulations: at each instant, the quantitiy of water overflow, depending on the piezometric level in every section, is calculated as a function of the dimensions of the weirs (the banks, assuming it passes through the critical state. Then, it is transferred to the tanks placed in the surroundings of the overflow points. Those points are the starting nodes for the propagation of the flood because they are connected to the network of tanks in which the surrounding land has been schematised. In this paper, we present a comparison of one of the most powerful models of inundation simulation in urban and no-urban areas. The field area is the city of Albenga (SV, Italy and the simulated event is the inundation of the 1994 (return period of about 25 years.

  19. Numerical Study on the Impacts of Heterogeneous Reactions on Ozone Formation in the Beijing Urban Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The air quality model CMAQ-MADRID (Community Multiscale Air Quality-Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution) was employed to simulate summer O3 formation in Beijing China, in order to explore the impacts of four heterogeneous reactions on O3 formation in an urban area.The results showed that the impacts were obvious and exhibited the characteristics of a typical response of a VOC-limited regime in the urban area. For the four heterogeneous reactions considered, the NO2 and HO2 heterogeneous reactions have the most severe impacts on O3 formation. During the O3 formation period, the NO2 heterogeneous reaction increased new radical creation by 30%, raising the atmospheric activity as more NO→NO2 conversion occurred, thus causing the O3 to rise. The increase of O3 peak concentration reached a maximum value of 67 ppb in the urban area. In the morning hours, high NO titration reduced the effect of the photolysis of HONO, which was produced heterogeneously at night in the surface layer. The NO2 heterogeneous reaction in the daytime is likely one of the major reasons causing the O3 increase in the Beijing urban area. The HO2 heterogeneous reaction accelerated radical termination,resulting in a decrease of the radical concentration by 44% at the most. O3 peak concentration decreased by a maximum amount of 24 ppb in the urban area. The simulation results were improved when the heterogeneous reactions were included, with the O3 and HONO model results close to the observations.

  20. Technical and institutional innovation in agroforestry for protected areas management in the Brazilian Amazon: opportunities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S

    2013-08-01

    Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them. PMID:23636205

  1. Technical and Institutional Innovation in Agroforestry for Protected Areas Management in the Brazilian Amazon: Opportunities and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S.

    2013-08-01

    Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them.

  2. Groundwater contamination in coastal urban areas: Anthropogenic pressure and natural attenuation processes. Example of Recife (PE State, NE Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, G.; Hirata, R.; Pauwels, H.; Cary, L.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Chatton, E.; Aquilina, L.; Labasque, T.; Martins, V.; Montenegro, S.; Batista, J.; Aurouet, A.; Santos, J.; Bertolo, R.; Picot, G.; Franzen, M.; Hochreutener, R.; Braibant, G.

    2016-09-01

    In a context of increasing land use pressure (over-exploitation, surface-water contamination) and repeated droughts, identifying the processes affecting groundwater quality in coastal megacities of the tropical and arid countries will condition their long-term social and environmental sustainability. The present study focuses on the Brazilian Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR), which is a highly urbanized area (3,743,854 inhabitants in 2010) on the Atlantic coast located next to an estuarial zone and overlying a multi-layered sedimentary system featured by a variable sediment texture and organic content. It investigates the contamination and redox status patterns conditioning potential attenuation within the shallow aquifers that constitute the interface between the city and the strategic deeper semi-confined aquifers. These latter are increasingly exploited, leading to high drawdown in potenciometric levels of 20-30 m and up to 70 m in some high well density places, and potentially connected to the surface through leakage. From a multi-tracer approach (major ions, major gases, δ11B, δ18O-SO4, δ34S-SO4) carried out during two field campaigns in September 2012 and March 2013 (sampling of 19 wells and 3 surface waters), it has been possible to assess the contamination sources and the redox processes. The increasing trend for mineralization from inland to coastal and estuarial wells (from 119 to around 10,000 μS/cm) is at first attributed to water-rock interactions combined with natural and human-induced potentiometric gradients. Secondly, along with this trend, one finds an environmental pressure gradient related to sewage and/or surface-channel network impacts (typically depleted δ11B within the range of 10-15‰) that are purveyors of chloride, nitrate, ammonium and sulfate. Nitrate, ammonium and sulfate (ranging from 0 to 1.70 mmol/L, from 0 to 0,65 mmol/L, from 0.03 to 3.91 mmol/L respectively are also potentially produced or consumed through various redox

  3. Groundwater contamination in coastal urban areas: Anthropogenic pressure and natural attenuation processes. Example of Recife (PE State, NE Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, G; Hirata, R; Pauwels, H; Cary, L; Petelet-Giraud, E; Chatton, E; Aquilina, L; Labasque, T; Martins, V; Montenegro, S; Batista, J; Aurouet, A; Santos, J; Bertolo, R; Picot, G; Franzen, M; Hochreutener, R; Braibant, G

    2016-09-01

    In a context of increasing land use pressure (over-exploitation, surface-water contamination) and repeated droughts, identifying the processes affecting groundwater quality in coastal megacities of the tropical and arid countries will condition their long-term social and environmental sustainability. The present study focuses on the Brazilian Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR), which is a highly urbanized area (3,743,854 inhabitants in 2010) on the Atlantic coast located next to an estuarial zone and overlying a multi-layered sedimentary system featured by a variable sediment texture and organic content. It investigates the contamination and redox status patterns conditioning potential attenuation within the shallow aquifers that constitute the interface between the city and the strategic deeper semi-confined aquifers. These latter are increasingly exploited, leading to high drawdown in potenciometric levels of 20-30m and up to 70m in some high well density places, and potentially connected to the surface through leakage. From a multi-tracer approach (major ions, major gases, δ(11)B, δ(18)O-SO4, δ(34)S-SO4) carried out during two field campaigns in September 2012 and March 2013 (sampling of 19 wells and 3 surface waters), it has been possible to assess the contamination sources and the redox processes. The increasing trend for mineralization from inland to coastal and estuarial wells (from 119 to around 10,000μS/cm) is at first attributed to water-rock interactions combined with natural and human-induced potentiometric gradients. Secondly, along with this trend, one finds an environmental pressure gradient related to sewage and/or surface-channel network impacts (typically depleted δ(11)B within the range of 10-15‰) that are purveyors of chloride, nitrate, ammonium and sulfate. Nitrate, ammonium and sulfate (ranging from 0 to 1.70mmol/L, from 0 to 0,65mmol/L, from 0.03 to 3.91mmol/L respectively are also potentially produced or consumed through various redox

  4. Distribution of physical activity facilities in Scotland by small area measures of deprivation and urbanicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogilvie David

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of physical activity facilities by area-level deprivation in Scotland, adjusting for differences in urbanicity, and exploring differences between and within the four largest Scottish cities. Methods We obtained a list of all recreational physical activity facilities in Scotland. These were mapped and assigned to datazones. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used to investigate associations between the number of physical activity facilities relative to population size and quintile of area-level deprivation. Results The results showed that prior to adjustment for urbanicity, the density of all facilities lessened with increasing deprivation from quintiles 2 to 5. After adjustment for urbanicity and local authority, the effect of deprivation remained significant but the pattern altered, with datazones in quintile 3 having the highest estimated mean density of facilities. Within-city associations were identified between the number of physical activity facilities and area-level deprivation in Aberdeen and Dundee, but not in Edinburgh or Glasgow. Conclusions In conclusion, area-level deprivation appears to have a significant association with the density of physical activity facilities and although overall no clear pattern was observed, affluent areas had fewer publicly owned facilities than more deprived areas but a greater number of privately owned facilities.

  5. THE GREEN AREAS MANAGEMENT AND THEIR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMTU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The situation that exists at the level of the urban areas from Romania testifies a natural environment with a high risk for the health of the inhabitants as a consequence of the low level of the ecological development resulted from the lack of an integrated management of the green areas and spaces in comparison with the other components of the sustainable development. In the strategic management of the green areas and spaces having as purpose the improvement of the quality of air the priority role is held by the obtainment of necessary information in the view of adopting decision. In this context, monitoring the existent green areas represents a fundamental element that has to provide the necessary information. In correlation with this monitoring it is necessary the realization of the operative informational system for supervising the air quality constituted automatically from fix monitoring points and in a real time of the main air pollutants. The domains of sustainable development at the level of urban areas are considered to be: urban planning, the management of green areas and air quality, the management and the reduction of the sweepings, water quality, energy efficiency, clean and efficient transportation, etc.

  6. METHODS OF BIOMONITORING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: LEAF AREA AND FRACTAL DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In urban conditions, we investigated several leaf traits (leaf area, specific leaf area, fractal dimension and specific leaf weight on Taraxacum officinale, Tilia tomentosa, Aesculus hippocastanum and Ambrosia artemisiifolia. The analyzed organs were mature leaves, on the first indications of senescence. This study used an exact, inexpensive and efficient in terms of costs alternative methods for determining the leaf parameters. On the other hand, this paper presents an application of the leaf area and fractal dimension in the analysis of leaf shape. Our results show that leaf area and fractal dimension are sensitive parameters that can be effectively used in biomonitoring.

  7. Health Profile Of Aged Persons In Urban & Rural Field Practice Areas Of Medical College, Amrisar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padda A.S

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the health status of aged persons in urban and rural area? Objectives: 1. To study the socio-demographic profile. 2. To study the health status of aged persons in urban and rural areas and factors associated with it. Study design: Cross-sectional Participants: Persons aged 60 years and above. Sample size: 698 (423 males and 275 females Study variables: Age, Sex, marital status, occupation, literacy status, addition, morbidity pattern and disability. Results: Among 698 aged persons, 423(60.60% were males and 275(39.40% were females, 393(56.3% were in the age group of 60-65 years while only 34(4.8% were more than 80 years. Majority (58.45% belonged to Sikh community followed by Hindus (39.9%. 61.37% aged persons were literate and 38.63% were illiterate. 73.74% of all aged were living in joint families. 68.39% aged persons were engaged in one or other works while 31.61% were dependent on other family members. It was observed that 46.08% of rural aged and 32.97% of urban aged persons were going for morning/evening walk. 33.69% of urban aged and 20.69% of rural aged were reading newspapers or books. Out of total 423 males, 363(85.81% were addicted to one or the other intoxicants. 374(53.58% were feeling satisfactory at this age while 324(46.42% were not feeling so. Majority of them were ill at the time of survey. Arthritis (60.60% being the commonest cause of illness followed by cataract or visual impairment (54.01%. 16.62% of the aged were hypertensive, it was more (19.35% in urban aged as compared to rural aged (13.79%. Diabetes mellitus was observed in 5.3% aged persons and it was more commonly seen in urban area (6.81% than in rural area (2.51%. Prevalence of peptic ulcers/chromic gastritis was found to be 5.87% (6.09% in urban area (6.27% in rural area aged. The problems due to socio-psychology causes were minimal, probably because majority (73.74% of them were residing with their families

  8. Evaluation of procedures to delimit services lines of urban transport areas with GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Moreno

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the evaluation of several procedures for delimiting service areas of urban transport facilities and computing the served population. To this end, detailed data of a local case study and a geographical information system are used. Adopting two different georeferencing methods and two spatial metrics, the tested approaches reveal disparate results and errors, which allow to appreciate the advantages and limitations of each one. It is expected that the conclusions will contribute to increase the accuracy of analysis focused to urban public transport planning and decision taking.

  9. Farmland acquisition and livelihood choices of households in Hanoi’s peri-urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Tuyen; Lim, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The relation between land and rural livelihood has been a topic of interest for many researchers and development practitioners. In the context of rising farmland loss due to the escalated urbanization and industrialization in Vietnam’s developed provinces, several researchers have tried to address how farm households respond to farmland loss in peri-urban areas (e.g., Do, 2006 ;Ngo, 2009 ;S.V.Nguyen, 2009 ;Phong, 2007 ;Vo, 2006).However, no studies have quantified the impacts of farmland loss...

  10. Is it easier to escape from low pay in urban areas? Evidence from the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Euan Phimister; Ioannis Theodossiou; Richard Upward

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we compare periods of low-paid employment between urban and rural areas in the United Kingdom. Using the British household panel survey, we estimate the probability that a period of low-paid employment will end, followed by a number of possible outcomes, namely a higher-paid job, self-employment, unemployment, and leaving the labour force. The results show that there are statistically significant differences in the dynamics of low pay across urban and rural labour markets, parti...

  11. Impact of Climate Change on Air Quality and Public Health in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Noor Artika; Hashim, Zailina; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2016-03-01

    This review discusses how climate undergo changes and the effect of climate change on air quality as well as public health. It also covers the inter relationship between climate and air quality. The air quality discussed here are in relation to the 5 criteria pollutants; ozone (O3), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM). Urban air pollution is the main concern due to higher anthropogenic activities in urban areas. The implications on health are also discussed. Mitigating measures are presented with the final conclusion.

  12. Capability of a Portable Chromatic Unit for Monitoring Airborne Particles over Wide Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Aceves-Fernandez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations are described into the use of a compact, portable unit, using polychromatic scattered light, for the preliminary monitoring airborne PM 2–10 particulates over widespread urban areas subjected to vehicular traffic. The monitoring unit has been used at a city centre bus terminus, at sites along an urban bus corridor and outside a local school adjacent to an air quality monitoring station. Holistic results are presented which demonstrate the use of the unit for the preliminary identification of locations and conditions with elevated levels of PM 2–10 particles which can be investigated in greater detail with particle-specific, high-precision instruments.

  13. An inventory of wetland non-passerine birds along a southeastern Brazilian coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Tavares

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the list of non-passerine birds of coastal environments of the Quissama municipality, northern Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. The surveys were conducted monthly between June 2011 and May 2012. Additional ad libitum observations were made between February 2008 and July 2012. We recorded 76 waterbird species of 15 families, of which Scolopacidae was the most representative, with 15 species. The high Nearctic shorebird species richness observed in coastal lagoons in Quissama (17 species is an evidence of the important role of the region as staging site for migratory birds at national level. Also, nine of the species recorded are threatened at regional and one is threatened at national level. It should be emphasized that three species considered locally extinct in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, the most extensively surveyed area in the State, were recorded in the present study. Additionally, we present a high number of previously unrecorded species in northern Rio de Janeiro, and report the first documented record of Stercorarius pomarinus in Rio de Janeiro State. The region has a notorious Waterbird richness including endangered and migratory species, when compared to other coastal areas of the state.

  14. Use of intertidal areas by shrimps (Decapoda in a brazilian Amazon estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEBERT A. SAMPAIO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the occupation and the correlation of the shrimp abundance in relation to environmental variables in different habitats (mangroves, salt marshes and rocky outcrops in an Amazon estuary. The collections were made in August and November 2009, at low syzygy tide on Areuá Beach, situated in the Extractive Reserve of Mãe Grande de Curuçá, Pará, Brazil totaling 20 pools. In each environment, we recorded the physical-chemical factors (pH, salinity, and temperature and measured the area (m2 and volume (m3 of every pool through bathymetry. The average pH, salinity, temperature, area and volume of tide pools were 8.75 (± 0.8 standard deviation, 35.45 (± 3, 29.49 °C (± 2.32, 27.41 m2 (± 41.18, and 5.19 m3 (± 8.01, respectively. We caught a total of 4,871 shrimps, distributed in three families and four species: Farfantepenaeus subtilis (98.36% (marine followed by Alpheus pontederiae (0.76% (estuarine, Macrobrachium surinamicum (0.45% and Macrobrachium amazonicum (0.43% predominantly freshwater. The species F. subtilis and A. pontederiae occurred in the three habitats, whereas M. surinamicum occurred in salt marsh and rocky outcrop and M. amazonicum only in marisma. Temperature and pH were the most important environmental descriptors that significantly affected the density and biomass of shrimps.

  15. Use of intertidal areas by shrimps (Decapoda) in a Brazilian Amazon estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Hebert A; Martinelli-Lemos, Jussara M

    2014-03-01

    The present work investigated the occupation and the correlation of the shrimp abundance in relation to environmental variables in different habitats (mangroves, salt marshes and rocky outcrops) in an Amazon estuary. The collections were made in August and November 2009, at low syzygy tide on Areuá Beach, situated in the Extractive Reserve of Mãe Grande de Curuçá, Pará, Brazil totaling 20 pools. In each environment, we recorded the physical-chemical factors (pH, salinity, and temperature) and measured the area (m2) and volume (m3) of every pool through bathymetry. The average pH, salinity, temperature, area and volume of tide pools were 8.75 (± 0.8 standard deviation), 35.45 (± 3), 29.49 °C (± 2.32), 27.41 m2 (± 41.18), and 5.19 m3 (± 8.01), respectively. We caught a total of 4,871 shrimps, distributed in three families and four species: Farfantepenaeus subtilis (98.36%) (marine) followed by Alpheus pontederiae (0.76%) (estuarine), Macrobrachium surinamicum (0.45%) and Macrobrachium amazonicum (0.43%) predominantly freshwater. The species F. subtilis and A. pontederiae occurred in the three habitats, whereas M. surinamicum occurred in salt marsh and rocky outcrop and M. amazonicum only in marisma. Temperature and pH were the most important environmental descriptors that significantly affected the density and biomass of shrimps.

  16. Birds of two protected areas in the southern range of the Brazilian Araucaria forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Franz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 70% of threatened birds in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil, inhabit forest environments. The creation and maintenance of protected areas is one of the most important measures aiming to mitigate these problems. However, the knowledge of the local biodiversity is essential so that these areas can effectively preserve the natural resources. Between 2004 and 2009 we sampled the avifauna in two conservation units in Rio Grande do Sul: Floresta Nacional de Canela (FNC and Parque Natural Municipal da Ronda (PMR, both representative of the Mixed Humid Forest (Araucaria Forest. A total of 224 species was recorded, 116 at FNC and 201 at PMR, ten of which threatened regionally: Pseudastur polionotus, Odontophorus capueira, Patagioenas cayennensis, Amazona pretrei, A. vinacea, Triclaria malachitacea, Campephilus robustus, Grallaria varia, Procnias nudicollis and Sporophila melanogaster. Richness and species composition seem to be related to different stages of forest conservation, to size and connectivity, as well as to the diversity of environments. The better conservation of PMR compared to FNC, allied to its geographic position, results in a richer avifauna, with a larger amount of rare and endangered species, as well as species sensitive to disturbance and endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest. We suggest management actions aiming the conservation and the long-term recovery of natural environments at these sites.

  17. Increased atmospheric deposition of mercury in reference lakes near major urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of Hg is the predominant pathway for Hg to reach sensitive ecosystems, but the importance of emissions on near-field deposition remains unclear. To better understand spatial variability in Hg deposition, mercury concentrations were analyzed in sediment cores from 12 lakes with undeveloped watersheds near to (150 km) several major urban areas in the United States. Background and focusing corrected Hg fluxes and flux ratios (modern to background) in the near-urban lakes (68 ?? 6.9 ??g m -2 yr -1 and 9.8 ?? 4.8, respectively) greatly exceed those in the remote lakes (14 ?? 9.3 ??g m -2 yr -1 and 3.5 ?? 1.0) and the fluxes are strongly related to distance from the nearest major urban area (r 2 = 0.87) and to population and Hg emissions within 50-100 km of the lakes. Comparison to monitored wet deposition suggests that dry deposition is a major contributor of Hg to lakes near major urban areas. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ground-high altitude joint detection of ozone and nitrogen oxides in urban areas of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengfei Chen; Qiang Zhang; Jiannong Quan; Yang Gao; Delong Zhao; Junwang Meng

    2013-01-01

    Based on observational data of ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) mixing ratios on the ground and at high altitude in urban areas of Beijing during a period of six days in November 2011,the temporal and spatial characteristics of mixing ratios were analyzed.The major findings include:urban O3 mixing ratios are low and NOx mixing ratios are always high near the road in November.Vertical variations of the gases are significantly different in and above the planetary boundary layer.The mixing ratio of O3 is negatively correlated with that of NOx and they are positively correlated with air temperature,which is the main factor directly causing vertical variation of O3 and NOx mixing ratios at 600-2100 m altitude.The NOx mixing ratios elevated during the heating period,while the O3 mixing ratios decreased:these phenomena are more significant at high altitudes compared to lower altitudes.During November,air masses in the urban areas of Beijing are brought bynorthwesterly winds,which transport O3 and NOx at low mixing ratios.Due to Beijing's natural geographical location,northwest air currents are beneficial to the dilution and dispersion of pollutants,which can result in lower O3 and NOx background values in the Beijing urban area.

  19. Ground-high altitude joint detection of ozone and nitrogen oxides in urban areas of Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengfei; Zhang, Qiang; Quan, Jiannong; Gao, Yang; Zhao, Delong; Meng, Junwang

    2013-04-01

    Based on observational data of ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) mixing ratios on the ground and at high altitude in urban areas of Beijing during a period of six days in November 2011, the temporal and spatial characteristics of mixing ratios were analyzed. The major findings include: urban O3 mixing ratios are low and NO(x) mixing ratios are always high near the road in November. Vertical variations of the gases are significantly different in and above the planetary boundary layer. The mixing ratio of O3 is negatively correlated with that of NO(x) and they are positively correlated with air temperature, which is the main factor directly causing vertical variation of O3 and NO(x) mixing ratios at 600-2100 m altitude. The NO(x) mixing ratios elevated during the heating period, while the O3 mixing ratios decreased: these phenomena are more significant at high altitudes compared to lower altitudes. During November, air masses in the urban areas of Beijing are brought by northwesterly winds, which transport O3 and NO(x) at low mixing ratios. Due to Beijing's natural geographical location, northwest air currents are beneficial to the dilution and dispersion of pollutants, which can result in lower O3 and NO(x) background values in the Beijing urban area.

  20. Variability of atmospheric pesticide concentrations between urban and rural areas during intensive pesticide application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

    Intensive pesticide use leads to the contamination of water, soil and atmosphere. Atmospheric transport is responsible for pesticide dispersal over long distances. In this study, we evaluate the local dispersal of pesticides from agricultural to urban areas. For this purpose, three high-volume samplers, each equipped with a glass fiber filter and XAD-2 resin for the sampling of particulate and gas phase have been placed in a south-west transect (predominant wind direction) characteristic of rural and urban areas. The urban site (Strasbourg centre) is situated in the middle of two rural sites. Samples were taken simultaneously at three sites during pesticide treatments in autumn and spring 2002-2003. Sampling took place for 24 h at a flow rate of 10-15 m 3 h -1. The pesticides studied were those commonly used in the Alsace region for all crops (maize, cereal, vines …). Many of the pesticides analysed in atmospheric samples were not detected or observed very episodically at very low concentrations. For metolachlor, alachlor, trifluralin, atrazine and diflufenican, higher concentrations were observed, essentially during the application of these compounds. Moreover, some "spraying peaks" were observed for alachlor in the south rural site (near crops) at a level of 31 ng m -3 on 16-17 May 2003. These results show site and time dependence of atmospheric contamination by pesticides. A limited dispersal was also observed especially in the urban area during the application periods of pesticides.