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Sample records for brazilian union actions

  1. Brazilian union actions for workers' health protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repullo Junior, Rodolpho; Gomes, Jorge da Rocha

    2005-01-02

    Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. Qualitative study. Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saúde Publica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights guarantees and amplifies the improvement of health and working conditions.

  2. Brazilian union actions for workers' health protection

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    Rodolpho Repullo Junior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. OBJECTIVE: To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. TYPE OF STUDY: Qualitative study. SETTING: Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. DISCUSSION: Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. CONCLUSIONS: The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights

  3. Do Brazilian Credit Unions Adopt International Performance Monitoring?

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    Paulo Henrique Magalhães Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study examined if the Brazilian credit unions use the 'PEARLS' performance monitoring methodology proposed by the World Council of Credit Unions, and the perception of the analysts of the cooperative system on the relevance of the indicators of this system.Methods: We used qualitative research with a sample selected through accessibility. Data were obtained from structured interviews conducted with five analysts of Brazil's Central Bank and two managers of central credit cooperatives, in addition to response, via questionnaire, of seventeen managers of credit unions located in the northern, northeast, south and southeast regions of Brazil.Results: Most of the individual cooperatives and the two central credit unions analyzed were unaware of the PEARLS methodology. This monitoring system is known only by the analysts of the Central Bank of Brazil, indicating that only the supervisory agent of cooperatives in Brazil knows the internationally proposed system and the adapted version proposed to Brazilian reality.Limitations: The survey via questionnaires obtained only 1,4% of population response rate, and the results can not be generalized.Practical implications: It can be said that there is room for improving performance monitoring techniques, as the PEARLS is used in 97 countries and unknown both by individual cooperatives and credit central cooperatives surveyed in this study.Originality: It is noteworthy that studies of this problem applied to the Brazilian reality were not found to date.

  4. Trade unions and the economic performance of brazilian establishments

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    Naércio Aquino Menezes-Filho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines, for the first time in the literature, the impact of trade unions on various performance indicators of Brazilian establishments. A unionism retrospective survey was carried out among 1,000 establishments in the manufacturing sector and its results were matched to performance indicators available from the Brazilian Industrial Surveys between 1990 and 2000. The results using the pooled data indicate that the relationship between unionism and some performance indicators, such as average wages, employment and productivity is non-linear (concave, so that a rise in unionism from low levels is associated with higher performance, but at a decreasing rate. Unions also reduce profitability. Establishments that introduced profit-sharing schemes increased their productivity and profitability overall and paid higher wages in more unionized plants.Este artigo analisa, pela primeira vez na literatura, o impacto dos sindicatos de trabalhadores em vários indicadores de desempenho econômico de firmas industriais brasileiras. Realizou-se uma pesquisa retrospectiva sobre a densidade sindical de 1000 estabelecimentos industriais brasileiros e seus resultados foram combinados aos indicadores de desempenho econômico da Pesquisa Industrial Anual (PIA de 1990 a 2000. Os resultados indicam que a relação entre a densidade sindical na firma e seus salários, emprego e produtividade, é não-linear, ou seja, um aumento no grau de sindicalização leva a um melhor desempenho, porém a taxas decrescentes. Observou-se, também, uma relação negativa entre sindicalização e rentabilidade. Finalmente, estabelecimentos que introduziram mecanismos de 'participação nos lucros' aumentaram sua produtividade e rentabilidade no período e pagaram maiores salários nas firmas onde o grau de sindicalização era maior.

  5. Union Autonomy and the Principle of the "Purity": Reflections from an Interlocution between the Brazilian and Venezuelan Labor Laws

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    Konrad Saraiva Mota

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is to make a dialogue between the Brazilian and Venezuelan labor laws, analyzing the possibility of application in Brazil of the principle of the union "purity" from legal system of Venezuela. It is quite common in the Brazilian reality the practice of conducts against the union autonomy. However, the labor law in Brazil, unlike Venezuela, does not have an efficient model of protection against anti-union attitudes and economic interferences in labor unions. The principle of union "purity" brought from the Venezuelan legislation gathers several standards related to the protection of the organization against actions that want to impair union freedom and autonomy. In Venezuela, the containment of anti-union attitudes goes beyond the temporary stability of the union leaders, reaching all workers who, in some way, have violated its union rights, both by the employer and by third parties. The Venezuelan legislation also prohibits the combination of professional and economic interests within the same union. Although Brazil and Venezuela have their legislation stained by the mark of contradiction related to union freedom and autonomy, there is no doubt that the Venezuelan legislation is much more prepared than the Brazilian one about union purity. On the other hand, the labor law in Brazil expressly allows the use of the comparative law as a source of normative integration, opening the door to the application of Venezuelan institutes to preserve the union independence. Brazil and Venezuela are members of MERCOSUR and countries with political, social and economic areas are similar, reinforcing the possibility of dialogue between their laws. The article has four parts; both first and second will address the characteristics of labor unionism in Brazil and Venezuela. In the third, will be analyzed the principle of union purity brought from the Venezuela legislation. In the last part, will be showed the possibility of its

  6. Workers' attitudes toward unions and collective action in Argentina

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    Verónica Maceira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available After the transformations in social and political conditions of Argentine workers in the '90, the organized fractions of the working class have recovered their prominence since 2003, because of the economic reactivation. In this study, we explore some aspects of the subjective reconstruction of this collective actor: representations and attitudes regarding unions and collective action. Research is based on a group of in-depth interviews with unionized workers who work either in the manufacture industry or in the construction sector, in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires. We describe the main tendencies, the profiles of different generations and the relations between trade-unionist consciousness and peronist identity.

  7. Brazilian Credit Union Member Groups: Borrower-dominated, Saver-dominated or Neutral Behavior?

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    Valéria Gama Fully Bressan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical models concerning Credit Unions (CUs suggest that the type of CU domination determines the way it allocates the monetary value it generates. A borrower- (saver- dominated CU benefits borrower (saver members at the expenses of saver (borrower members, and a neutral CU equally benefits its member groups.This paper applies direct measure of monetary benefits to each member group (Patin & McNiel, 1991a to testfor the existence of dominated behavior in Brazilian CUs, and is the first to apply panel data regressions to identify the determinants of CUs behavior. We use a unique panel data with 40,664 observations taken from 533 CUs affiliated with the largest Brazilian cooperative network. Results indicate Brazilian CUs are dominated by borrowers, but behave close to neutrality. Panel regression estimates show that common or multiple bond type,size and overdue loans of a CU have no effect on its behavior, the greater the total amount of loans over social capital and adjusted equity over total assets are the more likely a CU is borrower dominated, and the greater the age and current operational expenses over total asset of a CU are the more likely a CU is saver dominated.

  8. Laxative effects and mechanism of action of Brazilian green propolis

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    Kakino Mamoru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazilian green propolis is reported to have wide range of biological properties including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-influenza, and antioxidant activities. In the digestive system, a protective effect of propolis on gastric ulcer has been reported, but a laxative effect has not yet been reported. We investigated the effect and the mechanism of action of water and ethanol extracts of Brazilian green propolis. Methods We examined the laxative effect of propolis on stool frequency by administering orally an ethanol extract of propolis (EEP or a water extract of propolis (WEP at 10, 50, 100, or 500 mg/kg to normal mice. We then investigated the effects of propolis using constipation model mice induced by two types of drugs, loperamide (a μ opioid receptor agonist and clonidine (an α-2 adrenergic receptor agonist. We also investigated the effects of WEP on gastrointestinal transit and contractional tension of the ileum to uncover the mechanism of action of WEP. Results Treatment with WEP, but not with EEP, significantly increased the weight of stools (p Conclusion These findings indicate that WEP has laxative effects both in normal mice and in clonidine-induced constipation model mice. The laxative effects of WEP might be mediated by increased contractional tension of the ileum exerted at least in part via activation of an acetylcholine receptor.

  9. Methods and Techniques: An Action Learning Approach to Financial Management Training for Union Officers.

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    Maunders, Keith

    1988-01-01

    The author reports on his experience in organizing and running a two-week workshop for finance officers of African trade unions. A notable aspect of this was an attempt to use action learning methodology. He illustrates the advantages and the barriers to applying the action learning philosophy in a relatively short-period, off-site training…

  10. The European Union action in the field of rare diseases

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    Antoni Montserrat Moliner

    2009-12-01

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    Background: Rare diseases, including those of genetic origin, are defined by the European Union as lifethreatening or chronically debilitating diseases which are of such low prevalence (less than 5 per 10 000. The specificities of rare diseases - limited number of patients and scarcity of relevant knowledge and expertise - single them out as a unique domain of very high European added-value.

    Methods: The legal instruments at the disposal of the European Union, in terms of the Article 152 of the Treaties, are very limited. However a combination of instruments using the research and the pharmaceutical legal basis and an intensive and creative use of funding from the Second Health Programme has permitted to create a solid basis that Member States have considered enough to put rare diseases in a privileged position in the health agenda.

    Results: The adoption of the Commission Communication, in November 2008, and of the Council Recommendation, in June 2009, and the future adoption of the Directive on Cross-border healthcare, end 2009 or mid 2010, have created an operational framework to act in the field of rare disease with European coordination in several areas (classification and codification, European Reference Networks, orphan drugs, European Committee of Experts, etc..

    Conclusions: Rare diseases is an area with enormous and practical potentialities for European cooperation.

  11. Trade Unions, immigration and immigrants in Europe revisited: Unions’ attitudes and actions under new conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, S.; Penninx, R.; Roosblad, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the comparative approach used by Penninx and Roosblad (Trade Unions, Immigration and Immigrants in Europe, 1960-1993. New York: Berghahn Books) to study trade unions’ attitudes and actions in relation to immigrant workers in seven Western European countries. It reassesses that

  12. Organic food-related educational actions developed by dieticians in Brazilian municipal schools

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    Tayse Valdira Vieira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study describes educational actions concerning organic foods conducted in Brazilian public schools and investigates how these actions are associated with the weekly workload and duration of employment of the dietician responsible for school meals. METHODS: In 2012 this cross-sectional, census-type study used an electronic questionnaire to collect data from dieticians or others responsible for school meals in all 5,565 Brazilian municipalities. The software Stata 11.0 was used for the statistical analyses. RESULTS: Although all Brazilian municipalities were contacted, 93.1% (n=5,184 replied. Of these, 94.2% had dieticians in charge of the school meals. Organic food-related educational actions were provided in the schools of 37.9% of the municipalities. The main actions were school gardening (67.1% and development of educational material (50.7%. Having a dietician responsible for school meals was not associated with the existence of educational actions at school (p=0.372. However, municipalities with dieticians in charge of school meals for at least twelve months were 22.0% and 20.0%, respectively, more likely to provide educational actions at school and include the subject 'organic foods' in the municipal school curriculum (p<0.05 for both. Dieticians' weekly work hours was directly related to the performance of school gardening-related activities (p=0.016. CONCLUSION: The percentage of Brazilian municipalities that provide organic food-related educational actions at school is low. Additionally, the availability of such actions relates to the dietician's duration of employment and weekly work hours.

  13. No Call for Action? Why There Is No Union (Yet in Philippine Call Centers

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    Niklas Reese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents findings from a qualitative study which focused on young urban professionals in the Philippines who work(ed in international call centers – workplaces usually characterized by job insecurity and other forms of precarity, factory-like working conditions, and disembeddedness. Nevertheless, trade unions in these centers have not come into existence. Why collective action is not chosen by call center agents as an option to tackle the above mentioned problems – this is what the research project this article is based on tried to understand. After outlining some workrelated problems identified by Filipino call center agents, the article will focus on the strategies the agents employ to counter these problems (mainly accommodation and everyday resistance. By highlighting five objective and five subjective reasons (or reasons by circumstances and reasons by framing, we conclude that it is not repressive regulation policies, but rather the formative power and the internalization of discourses of rule within individual life strategies that are preventing the establishment of unions and other collective action structures.

  14. Positional demands of international rugby union: evaluation of player actions and movements.

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    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Hopkins, Will G; Anthony, Mike J; Gill, Nicholas D

    2013-07-01

    In rugby union, published analyses of actions and movements of players during matches have been limited to small samples of games at regional or national level. To analyse movements and activities of players in international rugby union matches with a sample size sufficient to clearly delineate positional roles. Observational study. Actions of 763 players were coded from video recordings of 90 international matches played by the New Zealand national team (the All Blacks) from 2004 to 2010. Movements of players were coded for 27 of these matches via a semi-automated player-tracking system. Movements and activities of all players from both teams were coded. Cluster analysis of activities and time-motion variables produced five subgroups of forwards (props, hookers, locks, flankers, Number 8 forwards) and five subgroups of backs (scrum-half, fly-half, midfield backs, wings and fullbacks). Forwards sustained much higher contact loads per match than backs, via scrums, rucks, tackles and mauls. Mean distance covered per match ranged from 5400 to 6300m, with backs generally running further than forwards. There were marked differences between positional groups in the amount of distance covered at various speeds. The amount of play per match varies by position due to differences in rates at which players are substituted. The distance covered by players at relatively fast running speeds (in excess of 5ms(-1)) appears to be higher during international matches than when competing at lower levels of the professional game. The specific match demands for positional groups need to be considered when managing player workloads. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Developing a National Tiger Action Plan for the Union of Myanmar

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    Lynam, Antony J.; Khaing, Saw Tun; Zaw, Khin Maung

    2006-01-01

    A century ago, tigers were considered pests in Myanmar. Hunters claimed thousands, yet populations persisted. In the past century, because of habitat loss and prey depletion, coupled with the recent demand for traditional medicines, tiger populations have been reduced to a few hundred individuals. As a first step toward long-term planning for tigers, and to guide efforts to increase protected area coverage, the Myanmar government in 1998 initiated a project to develop a revised National Tiger Action Plan. Extensive surveys confirmed tigers in only 4 of 17 survey locations. Significant populations are thought to persist in the far North and far South of the country, where large, intact forests offer the potential for tiger recovery. With partnerships and collaborations, tiger populations can be protected in the short term (tigers and prey, and amending existing wildlife legislation in accordance with international laws. Over the long term (5-20 years), recovery of Myanmar’s tiger populations will depend on increasing support from local people, zoning tiger areas to reduce habitat loss and disturbance, and maintaining connectivity of existing national and transboundary forests. This article reviews the development of a new National Tiger Action Plan for the Union of Myanmar and discusses a blueprint for conservation measures aimed at saving tigers from extinction.

  16. The contribution of action research in the construction of scientific knowledge in Brazilian Production Engineering

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    Daniela Gibertoni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main subject of this article is the action research and it has as general objective to describe the construction of knowledge in this field from the uses that Brazilian Production Engineering makes of it, aiming to recognize its contributions, potentials and limits. To achieve this goal, a literature review was carried out for a subsequent contrast with the national academic researches that use action research and show its uses. Identified these similarities, a documentary research was carried out in academic papers published in the National Meeting of Production Engineering (ENEGEP – from 1996 to 2010. The content analysis was the strategy used for data analysis and NVivo® software was used for its treatment. As a conclusion of the research, it can be stated that the use of action research in the Brazilian Production Engineering distances itself from epistemic precepts associated with it. The results of the action are more highlighted than the reflection on the mechanisms that produced it

  17. A COMPARISON OF THE CLASS ACTION FOR DAMAGES IN THE AMERICAN JUDICIAL SYSTEM TO THE BRAZILIAN CLASS ACTION: THE REQUIREMENTS OF ADMISSIBILITY

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    A. P. Grinover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After describing the class action for damages in the American judicial system, with the requisites of ‘prevalence’ and ‘superiority,’ the study passes to the examiner of the requirements of the admissibility of the Brazilian class action for damages, concluding on the existence of the same requisites, even in a civil law system.

  18. Research and development actions to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions within the European Union; Actions de recherche et developpement visant a reduire les emissions de CO{sub 2} dans l'Union europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechamps, P.; Pilavachi, P.A. [European Commission, DG-Research, Brussels (Belgium)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the research actions put in place by the Directorate General of Research of the European Commission (EC) in the field of the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions. Global policy for climate change mitigation and the associated energy policy considerations are presented. The use of renewable and fossil fuels within the overall energy mix are discussed, leading to European Union research policy for fossil fuel carbon management options. The European Union's (EU) current and proposed RTD project portfolio for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration is then given. An overview of the involvement by the EC in complementary international cooperation and coordination activities is also presented. (authors)

  19. Covert Action? Education, Social Policy, and Law in the European Union.

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    Murphy, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Explores the legitimacy of the partial control over education matters gained by the European Union since the 1970s, examining in particular the role of the European Court of Justice and the European Commission, in reshaping and altering definitions of legal compensation in the fields of education and training. Discusses implications for democratic…

  20. Obama Calls for More Action on Climate Change During State of the Union Address

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    Showstack, Randy

    2013-02-01

    President Barack Obama called for "meaningful progress" on climate change during his State of the Union address on 12 February, saying that "for the sake of our children and our future, we must do more to combat climate change." Noting that "the 12 hottest years on record have all come in the last 15," he said that there could be meaningful progress on the issue while also driving economic growth.

  1. Industrial action involving teachers’ unions in Norway and Denmark: comparing bargaining trends and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Elstad, Eyvind

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to an improved understanding of (1) changes in bargaining models between employer and employees, and (2) differences in these changes in Norway and Denmark. The aim is to explain divergent outcomes of collective bargaining regarding teachers’ working hours in Norway and Denmark. Social media is assumed to reinforce grass-roots rebellion level as well as the internal decision-making structure within the unions. The theoretical framework draws on sit...

  2. Main pathways of action of Brazilian red propolis on the modulation of neutrophils migration in the inflammatory process.

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    Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Franchin, Marcelo; Alves, Claudiney de Freitas; Denny, Carina; Colón, David Fernando; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; Alencar, Severino Matias; Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2016-12-01

    Brazilian propolis is popularly used as treatment for different diseases including the ones with inflammatory origin. Brazilian red propolis chemical profile and its anti-inflammatory properties were recently described however, its mechanism of action has not been investigated yet. Elucidate Brazilian red propolis major pathways of action on the modulation of neutrophil migration during the inflammatory process. The ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) activity was investigated for neutrophil migration into the peritoneal cavity, intravital microscopy (rolling and adhesion of leukocytes), quantification of cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and chemokines CXCL1/KC, CXCL2/MIP-2, neutrophil chemotaxis induced by CXCL2/MIP-2, calcium influx and CXCR2 expression on neutrophils. EEP at 10mg/kg prevented neutrophil migration into peritoneal cavity (p  0.05).EEP at 1µg/ml decreased the calcium influx induced by CXCL2/MIP-2 (p0.05). Brazilian red propolis appears as a promising anti-inflammatory natural product which mechanism seems to be by reducing leukocyte rolling and adhesion; TNF-α, IL-1β, CXCL1/KC and CXCL2/MIP-2 release; CXCL2/MIP-2-induced chemotaxis and calcium influx. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Informing Tobacco Cessation Benefit Use Interventions for Unionized Blue-Collar Workers: A Mixed-Methods Reasoned Action Approach.

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    Yzer, Marco; Weisman, Susan; Mejia, Nicole; Hennrikus, Deborah; Choi, Kelvin; DeSimone, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Blue-collar workers typically have high rates of tobacco use but low rates of using tobacco cessation resources available through their health benefits. Interventions to motivate blue-collar tobacco users to use effective cessation support are needed. Reasoned action theory is useful in this regard as it can identify the beliefs that shape tobacco cessation benefit use intentions. However, conventional reasoned action research cannot speak to how those beliefs can best be translated into intervention messages. In the present work, we expand the reasoned action approach by adding additional qualitative inquiry to better understand blue-collar smokers' beliefs about cessation benefit use. Across three samples of unionized blue-collar tobacco users, we identified (1) the 35 attitudinal, normative, and control beliefs that represented tobacco users' belief structure about cessation benefit use; (2) instrumental attitude as most important in explaining cessation intention; (3) attitudinal beliefs about treatment options' efficacy, health effects, and monetary implications of using benefits as candidates for message design; (4) multiple interpretations of cessation beliefs (e.g., short and long-term health effects); and (5) clear implications of these interpretations for creative message design. Taken together, the findings demonstrate how a mixed-method reasoned action approach can inform interventions that promote the use of tobacco cessation health benefits.

  4. Elderly health and implementation of the Brazilian National Health Policy for Elderly Persons on the performed actions in basic healthcare

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    SCHMINSKI VIEIRA, Roseli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian National Health Policy for Elderly Persons (PNSPI – in Portuguese was formulated by the Ministry of Health through Ordinance No. 2.528/2006 in line with the 1988 Brazilian Constitution. The study investigated whether municipalities from the South region of the State of Santa Catarina had knowledge and applied the PNSPI, on the performed actions in basic healthcare, especially on the Units of Family Healthcare Services based on what the Constitution and the Statute of the Elderly comprise. A deductive method with a qualitative approach and a descriptive research were used. As a result, some difficulties experienced by the research subjects related to two important points of policies and strategies of PNSPI were identified: the lack of a planned policy and of a continuous health education for the elderly; and the lack of a stimulating exercise of social control, whether in the health sector, or in the Municipal Council of Elderly People.

  5. Race and Affirmative Action: The implementation of quotas for “black” students in a Brazilian University

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    André Cicalo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2003, some Brazilian public universities began to reserve a percentage of their posts (quotas to "black" students, allowing them to be accepted with lower scores at the admission exam. These type of policies became common during the last decade as a way to fight against social inequalities, but have also become the object of public disagreement due to its potentially "racializing" character. The present article engages with the racial-quota debate, using some ethnographic data collected at the University of the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2007 and 2008. The author defends these measures as a way to diversify what have been traditionally-elite university spaces and as a way to increase chances of social mobility for lower-class students. These facts should be considered within a debate on affirmative action, without necessarily implying that racial quotas should be the best and only solution to address racial inequalities in Brazilian education.

  6. Social quotas, affirmative actions, and dropout in the Business field: empirical analysis in a Brazilian federal university

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    Larissa Couto Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rawls' Justice Theory establishes that a fair society must allow less advantaged people to have access to the benefits of social cooperation. In this line of thought, the affirmative actions established by Law 12,711/2012 aim at promoting inclusive education in Higher Education. Evaluating the performance of affirmative actions, specifically their impact on the dropout level, has been a theme of debate in scientific literature. Besides representing a personal frustration, dropout is associated with significant academic, social, and economic losses. In this context, this research aims at analyzing whether the adoption of affirmative actions, as established by Law 12,711/2012, affects the dropout rates of students in Accounting Sciences and other courses in the Business field. The study was conducted through documentary research in a Brazilian public Higher Education institution (HEI. The results of binomial analysis showed that out of the 2,418 students who entered in the first semester of 2013, 520 (22% dropped out from university until the end of the first semester of 2014. It was found that the dropout rate among entrants in the Business field, either through broad competition or using the system of quotas, was 29%. In the course of Accounting Sciences, the dropout rate among entrants admitted through broad competition was 25% and using the system of quotas it was 23%. Contrary to other investigations, this study found that there is no statistical difference between the dropout rates among entrants in the Business and Accounting Sciences fields through broad competition and quotas, suggesting that affirmative actions do not affect significantly the dropout rates.

  7. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

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    Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  8. Analysis of the evolution of after sales and post-consumption reverse logistics actions by the brazilian electricity sector in 2009 to 2011

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    Jessica Oliveira Sousa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the evolution of of post-consumer reverse logistics actions by the Brazilian electric power sector in 2009 to 2011. The approach includes literature review, exploratory, descriptive, quantitative and qualitative research. In this study, a sample of 15 companies in the Brazilian energy sector were selected, based on content analysis of sustainability reports extracted from the company websites in 2009 to 2011. After collecting the data, 48 indicators were analyzed in the reports. Based on the scores, a comparative analysis between levels of disclosure of reverse logistics was performed. The 15 companies analyzed revealed the presence of reverse logistics actions in 2011, showing an overall result in the course of three years. Among the sectors presented, distribution achieved greater prominence in 2011, with an increase in the presence of post-consumption indicators, showing a great result.

  9. Modelo sindical y acción política: Las experiencias diferenciales de dos sindicatos del sector eléctrico Union strategy and political action: The different experiences of two Argentine unions of the electrical sector

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    M. Ana Drolas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende aportar herramientas de interpretación de los modelos sindicales y de explicación de sus estrategias y formas de acción. Para ello compara la actitud y el comportamiento de dos sindicatos del sector eléctrico tuvieron frente a un mismo acontecimiento que es la embestida privatizadora que llevó adelante el gobierno en la década del 90. La hipótesis es que la tradición política, la relación con el poder político y el Estado y los mecanismos internos de participación constituyen características distintivas que obturan o permiten, según sea el caso particular, el accionar arbitrario de las dirigencias. En este sentido, las características que asuman cada una de estas dimensiones darán vida a sindicatos tendencialmente más representativos o, por el contrario, a sindicatos tendencialmente burocráticos. Este artículo es parte y producto de un trabajo de investigación más amplio que indagaba acerca de la construcción de representación en los espacios de trabajo y sus impactos sobre la construcción de estrategias de acción.This article tries to contribute to the interpretation of the union models and the explanation of its strategies and actions. For it compares the attitude and the behavior of two unions of the electrical sector had against a same event that is the privatizadora attack that ahead took the government in the decade of the 90. The hypothesis is that the political tradition, the relation with the political power and the State and the internal mechanisms of participation, obturate or allow arbitrary driving of the leaderships. In this sense, the characteristics that assume each of these dimensions will give life to tendentially more representative unions or, on the contrary, to tendentially bureaucratic ones. This article is part of an ampler investigation than investigates about the construction of representation in the spaces of work and their impacts on the construction of action strategies.

  10. Integrating surveillance data on water-related diseases and drinking-water quality; action-research in a Brazilian municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Ana Carolina Lanza; Cardoso, Laís Santos de Magalhães; Heller, Léo; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-12-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Health proposed a research study involving municipal professional staff conducting both epidemiological and water quality surveillance to facilitate the integration of the data which they collected. It aimed to improve the intersectoral collaboration and health promotion activities in the municipalities, especially regarding drinking-water quality. We then conducted a study using the action-research approach. At its evaluation phase, a technique which we called 'the tree analogy' was applied in order to identify both possibilities and challenges related to the proposed interlinkage. Results showed that integrating the two data collection systems cannot be attained without prior institutional adjustments. It suggests therefore the necessity to unravel issues that go beyond the selection and the interrelation of indicators and compatibility of software, to include political, administrative and personal matters. The evaluation process led those involved to re-think their practice by sharing experiences encountered in everyday practice, and formulating constructive criticisms. All this inevitably unleashes a process of empowerment. From this perspective, we have certainly gathered some fruit from the Tree, but not necessarily the most visible.

  11. Solidarity and humanitarian intervention: a brazilian action in Haiti as a new legal paradigm of international solidarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovane Machado Alves

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, considering the exponential growth of the human knowledge, undeniably due to the proliferation of academic disciplines, any deeper analysis of society becomes more and more impossible, viewing it only from an individualist look and distant from the other branches and dimensions of knowledge. Therefore, the present study aims to formulate new concepts and perspectives, able, in turn, to foster the development of new theoretical nuances and models of observation of reality, and having, as an essential assumption, the examination of the elements necessary for the construction of a new legal paradigm of humanitarian intervention. At first, we will analyze the elements that are part of the concept of solidarity so that, afterwards, we can propose their application to the humanitarian international law, considering, at this point, the specificities surrounding the Brazilian action in Haiti. Thus, this approach on the issue of international humanitarian aid aims at proposing the inauguration of a new kind of international solidarity, which will conceive the international humanitarian intervention not as a mere sending of troops or supplies, but as the necessary moment for the formulation of transnational public policies. Key-words: Solidarity; Humanitarian intervention; Solidarism; Public policy; Haiti

  12. Indicators of technical actions and intensity according to players’ positions in official matches of the brazilian basketball league

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze indicators of technical actions (ITA and intensity according to the players positions in six official matches of the Brazilian Basketball League. Ten elite basketball male players participated in this study (27.60±5.54years. The total frequency of matches’ indicators (∑MI - sum of all matches indicators of each athlete included in the stats and the efficiency ratio (ER from matches’ official stats were the ITA considered. To check the intensity, athletes played with HR transmitter. Were produced descriptive measures; and the magnitude of difference (Δ% between ∑MI and ER second player [Δ%=(1-(ER÷∑MI*100] was calculated. It was observed that when players were classified by Δ% they were automatically classified by their respective positions in 80% of cases. Players’ positions 4 and 5 work closer to the basket and perform the safest and most efficient team play; players’ position 1 plays facing to the basket, organizes the collective game, has the largest ball possession volume which can also enable a safer game. Players' position 5 had higher Δ% between ∑MI and ER, representing safer and efficient game; older players had lower intensity; and the basketball game was developed on average slightly above the lactate threshold HR.

  13. Pouteria torta: a native species of the Brazilian Cerrado as a bioindicator of glyphosate action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Batista

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Brazil, the expansion of agricultural activity and the associated indiscriminate use of herbicides such as glyphosate is directly related to the loss of biodiversity in the Cerrado. The identification of plant species as bioindicators of herbicide action, especially species native to the area, can help in monitoring the impacts of xenobiotics in the remaining Cerrado. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the possible use of the native Cerrado species Pouteria torta as a bioindicator of glyphosate action via changes in physiological performance. At 16 months after sowing, the effect of glyphosate was evaluated by applying the following doses: 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 g a.e. ha-1. In response to glyphosate, P. torta exhibited reductions in photosynthesis and chloroplastid pigment content, as well as accumulation of shikimic acid and the occurrence of chlorosis and necrosis. These changes demonstrate the high sensitivity of P. torta to glyphosate and its potential for use as a bioindicator of this herbicide.

  14. Green Brazilian Propolis Action on Macrophages and Lymphoid Organs of Chronically Stressed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Missima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a generic term that summarizes how psychosocial and environmental factors influence physical and mental well-being. The interaction between stress and immunity has been widely investigated, involving the neuroendocrine system and several organs. Assays using natural products in stress models deserve further investigation. Propolis immunomodulatory action has been mentioned and it has been the subject of scientific investigation in our laboratory. The aim of this study was to evaluate if and how propolis activated macrophages in BALB/c mice submitted to immobilization stress, as well as the histopathological analysis of the thymus, bone marrow, spleen and adrenal glands. Stressed mice showed a higher hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 generation by peritoneal macrophages, and propolis treatment potentiated H2O2 generation and inhibited nitric oxide (NO production by these cells. Histopathological analysis showed no alterations in the thymus, bone marrow and adrenal glands, but increased germinal centers in the spleen. Propolis treatment counteracted the alterations found in the spleen of stressed mice. New research is being carried out in order to elucidate propolis immunomodulatory action during stress.

  15. FROM THE MULTI-PARTY PROCESS OF CLASS ACTIONS TO THE COLLECTIVE PROCESS OF REPETITIVE CASES: MODELS OF COLLECTIVE TUTELAGE IN BRAZILIAN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Argenta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the models of multi-party litigation established in Brazilian law, considering the class action model and the model systematized by the Civil Procedure Code of 2015 consisting of repetitive case judgments. It exposes the evolution, influences and consolidation of multi-party litigation in the Brazilian legal system, identifies the collective actions microsystem and deals with its relationship with the Civil Procedure Codes of 1973 and 2015, under a constitutional perspective. It presents characteristics of the incident of resolution of repetitive demands and the repetitive extraordinary and special appeals, with comparisons with the model of class actions. It discusses, from a comparative law perspective, the three great models of collective tutelage (American, European, and Brazilian in their relationship with the holders of individual rights. Finally, it brings forward considerations about the due process of law, presenting a doctrinal vision based on the need to evaluate the conflict and the complexity of the litigation to adapt the forms of multi-party conflicts resolution.

  16. Trabalho e movimento sindical nos novos pólos automotivos no Brasil Work and union movement in the new brazilian car industry centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Ribeiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A indústria automotiva cresceu nos anos 90, quando as montadoras criaram unidades fora da Grande São Paulo em busca de trabalhadores sem tradição na negociação sindical, dentre outros motivos. Destaca-se aqui a criação da Mitsubishi em Catalão (GO e da Volkswagen em Resende (RJ. A organização do trabalho, o perfi socioeconômico dos trabalhadores e o movimento sindical nessas plantas são analisados neste artigo. Embora na MMC o processo de trabalho seja tido como arcaico, a organização da produção de ambas é híbrida. A maioria dos trabalhadores é da própria cidade e inclui jovens com escolaridade alta, mas sem a cultura industrial do setor automotivo e a tradição sindical. A falta de tradição sindical, porém, começa a se erodir: em Resende, o sindicato se mostra comprometido com seus representados: participa de acordo coletivo e mantém comissão de fábrica; em Catalão, ao final de 2004, foi criado um sindicato dos trabalhadores metalúrgicos, que também iniciou uma trajetória de luta pelos interesses de sua base. Palavras-chave: Indústria automotiva. Trabalhadores. Sindicatos. Catalão. Resende. Motor industry in Brazil has increased in the 90s, when companies set up plants outside of São Paulo in search for workers with no experience in trade union negotiations, among others motives. In this article we focus on the cases of Mitsubishi in Catalão (state of Goiás and Volkswagen in Resende (Rio de Janeiro, by analyzing the organization of work, workers’ socioeconomic profiles and union movement in these plants. Although working conditions at MMC are seen as outmoded, both plants maintain a hybrid organization. A good deal of workers comes from Catalão and includes young highly educated males lacking, however, the industrial culture peculiar to the automotive sector as well as tradition in union trading. The lack of labor union tradition, however, starts to erode. In Resende the union seems to be committed

  17. The state of occupational health in community Europe: from top-down reform to a renewal of trade union action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    Working conditions in Europe are getting worse, due to changes in work organization, including intensification and increasing insecurity. A critical assessment of the state of prevention in Europe remains essential. Trade union organizations on the Luxembourg Advisory Committee on Safety, Hygiene and Health Protection at Work drafted a document on what Community occupational health policy should seek to achieve. In June 2001, the ETUC Executive Committee adopted a resolution based on the document. This article discusses the trade union strategy. The first step is to critique the few existing indicators. To a considerable extent, they actually conceal the health problems of work. The statistics on occupational disease reflect, above all, characteristics of the various national systems of benefits but say little about the real state of workers' health. "Traditional" risks still cause tens of thousands of deaths and injuries every year. Risks associated with work organization are increasing steadily. The intensification of work is an important aspect of the reorganization of production processes and is associated with major changes in work management and organization. At the same time, the spread of Taylorized work procedures in certain sectors (probably correlating strongly with work performed by women in both services and some branches of industry) and the introduction of management methods may be summarized in the phrase "controlled autonomy." It involves shifting some of the supervisory burden to the level of the team, which destroys collective solidarity and detracts from the conditions under which work can contribute to mental health. Labor insecurity has been facilitated by the reappearance of mass unemployment and technological changes. Work has become increasingly less "sustainable" and companies are swamping society with the real social costs of their appetite for profit. In seeking harmonization, we must ensure consistent legislation based on the

  18. Supportive environments for physical activity, community action, and policy in 8 European Union Member States: comparative analysis and specificities of context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetten, Alfred; Frahsa, Annika; Engbers, Luuk; Gusi, Narcis; Mota, Jorge; Pacenka, Rimantas; Troelsen, Jens; Vasickova, Jana; Vuillemin, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A multilevel theoretical framework of physical activity (PA) promotion that addresses supportive environments, PA behavior, community action, and PA promoting policies is related to research and development in an international comparative study. Most-different and most-similar case selection was applied to data from 8 European Union Member States. Data from semistructured key informant qualitative interviews, focus group interviews with experts and policy-makers, as well as document analysis were linked to corresponding Eurobarometer data. The framework on the interplay of environment, PA behavior, community action and policies appears to be working across most different countries. Comprehensive systems of PA infrastructures are interlinked with relatively high levels of PA prevalence. These countries implement comprehensive national policies on PA promotion and show a positive perception of related local governments' engagement. Less comprehensive systems of infrastructures interplay with lower levels of PA prevalence, less community action and fewer policies. Differences between similar cases are linked to country-specific contexts. Framework application and comparative analysis indicates how to relate theory to empirical research and complex data sets. In-depth analysis of country-specific contexts and longitudinal observation on changes within and between countries might advise on how to integrate the framework into intervention research.

  19. Multiple safety net regulators and agency problems in the European Union: Is prompt corrective action partly the solution?

    OpenAIRE

    David G. Mayes; María J. Nieto; Larry D. Wall

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the institutional changes needed in Europe if prompt corrective action (PCA) is to be effective in supervising and resolving cross-border banking groups. The paper identifies these changes starting with enhancements in the availability of information on banking groups’ financial condition to prudential supervisors. Next, the paper considers the collective decision making by prudential supervisors with authority to make discretionary decisions within the PCA framework as s...

  20. L'union fait la force : Étudier les répercussions des groupes d'action ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La recherche mettra en lumière le rôle des groupes d'action féminine comme catalyseurs de changement social et économique. Le but est de fournir ... Les données comprendront des variables se rapportant aux résultats sur le marché du travail, à l'inégalité des sexes et à la sensibilisation à l'existence des programmes.

  1. 78 FR 2449 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Notice of Funding Opportunity. SUMMARY: The National Credit...

  2. 75 FR 17083 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 701, 708a, and 708b Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions; Correction AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration. ACTION: Notice...

  3. 12 CFR 702.307 - Incentives for new credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentives for new credit unions. 702.307 Section 702.307 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Alternative Prompt Corrective Action for New Credit Unions § 702.307 Incentives...

  4. The metaphor in the grammaticalization process of the verb DANAR to express inceptive aspect with extension of the action in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Franco de Paula

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present how a metaphor acts in the grammaticalization process of the verb DANAR, from Brazilian Portuguese, ranging from the full lexical verb to the grammatical, auxiliary verb in constructions like: "The kid danou(-se to cry", hereby referred to as V1DANAR + (pron + (prep + V2infinitive. We support that this new usage of DANAR, perceived as a marker of an inceptive aspect with an extension of action, is a consequence of a metaphorical cognitive process that involves imagetic schemes of motion and force, which already existed within the concrete form of DANAR, which justifies that this verb, although not the archetypal aspect marker, may have updated this grammatical category.

  5. Labor unions

    OpenAIRE

    Streeck, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    "Labor unions are interest associations of workers in waged employment. They are formed to improve the market situation and the life chances of their members, by representing them in the labor market, at the workplace, and in the polity, and in particular by collectively regulating their members' terms of employment. Unions emerged in the transition to industrial society in the nineteenth century, together with the de-fedualization of work, the rise of free labor markets, and the commodificat...

  6. Scales of Political Action and Social Movements in Education: The Case of the Brazilian Black Movement and Law 10.639

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Renato Emerson Nascimento; Soeterik, Inti Maya

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines social coordination by the Brazilian Black Movement in the area of Brazilian education. It explains how these developments relate to the construction of race-based public education policies in the country. Focus goes to the process of creation and implementation of law 10.639 in Brazilian Basic education. Using the concept…

  7. Prioritization strategies for pandemic influenza vaccine in 27 countries of the European Union and the Global Health Security Action Group: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas Walter

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is rapid progress in vaccine research regarding influenza pandemic vaccines it is expected that pandemic influenza vaccine production can only start once the pandemic virus has been recognized. Therefore, pandemic vaccine capacity will be limited at least during the first phase of an influenza pandemic, requiring vaccine prioritization strategies. WHO recommends developing preliminary priorities for pandemic vaccine use. The goal of this review is to provide a thorough overview of pandemic vaccine prioritization concepts in the 27 European Union (EU member states and the four non-EU countries of the Global Health Security Action Group. Methods Between September and December 2006 data was collected for each country through two data sources: (i the national influenza pandemic plan; (ii contacting key persons involved in pandemic planning by email and/or phone and/or fax Results Twenty-six (84% countries had established at least one vaccine priority group. Most common reported vaccine priority groups were health care workers (HCW (100%, essential service providers (ESP (92% and high risk individuals (HRI (92%. Ranking of at least one vaccine priority group was done by 17 (65% of 26 countries. Fifteen (88% of these 17 countries including a ranking strategy, decided that HCW with close contact to influenza patients should be vaccinated first; in most countries followed and/or ranked equally by ESP and subsequently HRI. Rationales for prioritization were provided by 22 (85% of 26 countries that established vaccine priority groups. There was large variation in the phrasing and level of detailed specification of rationales. Seven (32% of 22 countries providing rationales clearly associated each vaccine priority group with the specific rationale. Ten (32% of the 31 countries studied countries have consulted and involved ethical experts to guide decisions related to vaccine prioritization. Conclusion In the majority of

  8. The outcomes of the Brazilian Olympiad of Astronomy and Astronautics as an opportunity to develop successful outreach actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiró Spinelli, Patrícia; de Oliveira Costa, Cristiane; Requeijo, Flávia; do Amaral Ferreira, Marcelo Augusto; Torres Perillo, Augusto; Batista Garcia Canalle, João; Reis Neto, Eugênio; Nascimento, Josina

    2015-08-01

    Every year, hundreds of thousands of students and teachers from all over the country take part in the Brazilian Olympiad of Astronomy and Astronautics (OBA). This has the aim of both spreading astronomy and astronautics-related concepts and training teachers about these topics. After being marked some of the exams are sent by participant schools to the Organizing Committee to select candidates for the international competition. The OBA exam archive thereby offers an unique opportunity to evaluate the teaching of astronomy in Brazil in relation to school level and content, as well as over time. Understanding the misconceptions unraveled by the exams is of utmost importance to planning successful outreach activities. In this talk I will present how the analysis of the 2013 OBA event helped the Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences to develop an astronomy education kit aimed at teachers and how this cooperation between an academic institution and schools is helping educators in their pedagogical practice to teach astronomy in the classroom.

  9. Scales of political action and social movements in education: the case of the Brazilian Black Movement and Law 10.639

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nascimento dos Santos, R.E.; Soeterik, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines social coordination by the Brazilian Black Movement in the area of Brazilian education. It explains how these developments relate to the construction of race-based public education policies in the country. Focus goes to the process of creation and implementation of law 10.639 in

  10. The actions to incentive the use of thermal-solar systems in brazilian residences of social interest; As acoes para o incentivo ao uso de sistemas termossolares na habitacao brasileira de interesse social

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantinelli, Jane Tassinari [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos]. E-mail: janetassinari@terra.com.br; Pereira, Jose Tomaz Vieira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: tomaz@unicamp.br; Pereira, Elizabeth Marques Duarte [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais (PUC-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Coordenadora do Centro Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento da Energia Solar e Termica (GREEN Solar)]. E-mail: elizabeth.pereira@green.pucminas.br

    2006-07-01

    This work presents an inquiry of the actions and promotions developed for the public power, since the first program of considered solar energy in 1987, Pro-Solar, and the successive plans and action that excessively the agents had developed for the stimulation to the substitution of the electric shower of water heating for solar collectors among classes of low-cost houses brazilian. The carried through boarding was historical, so that the period of training could be verified that if finds the public plans for the adoption of mechanisms that come to stimulate the diffusion of the solar technology in the housing of social interest. (author)

  11. New roles for the trade unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peer Hull; Rocha, Robson Silva Sø

    2012-01-01

    This article builds on lessons from Denmark and the Nordic area to offer a novel and comprehensive logic of action within the emerging political economy that may be used to assess the possible new roles that unions can take on. The authors argue that unions are capable of “civilizing” globalizati...

  12. Physical and rehabilitation medicine section and board of the European Union of Medical Specialists. Community context; history of European medical organizations; actions under way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Korvin, G; Delarque, A

    2009-01-01

    The European Community is based on a series of treaties and legal decisions, which result from preliminary documents prepared long before by different organizations and lobbies. The European union of medical specialists (Union européenne des médecins specialists [UEMS]) came into being in order to address the questions raised by European directives (e.g., free circulation of people and services, reciprocal recognition of diplomas, medical training, quality improvements). The specialty sections of the UEMS contribute actively to this work. The physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) section is composed of three committees: the PRM board is devoted to initial and continuing education and has published a harmonized teaching programme and organized a certification procedure, which can be considered as a European seal of quality; the Clinical Affairs Committee is concerned with the quality of PRM care, and it has set up a European accreditation system for PRM programs of care, which will help to describe PRM clinical activity more concretely; and the Professional Practice Committee works on the fields of competence in our specialty. This third committee has already published a White Book, and further documents are being prepared, based on both the International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and reference texts developed by the French Federation of PRM.

  13. The public control of credit unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto García Müller

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Public control is the activity of investigation or review by the government takes over a company, to verify the conformity of its actions to law. This paper analyzes the control over credit unions.

  14. 75 FR 80678 - Conversions of Insured Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 708a and 708b RIN 3133-AD84; 3133-AD85 Conversions of Insured Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Interim final rule with request for comments. SUMMARY...

  15. 76 FR 13504 - Conversions of Insured Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 708a and 708b RIN 3133-AD84; 3133-AD85 Conversions of Insured Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NCUA is confirming as final a...

  16. 78 FR 77608 - Requirements for Contacts with Federal Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AE34 Requirements for Contacts with Federal Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The NCUA Board (Board...

  17. Union Membership and Political Participation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrissey, Jasmine; Schofer, Evan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the effect of union membership on civic and political participation in the late 20th century in the United States. We discuss why and how unions seek to mobilize their members and where mobilization is channeled. We argue that union membership affects electoral and collective action outcomes and will be larger for low…

  18. The European Union's Normative Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    this period it became increasingly clear that the study of the EU in world politics needed to engage with both critical social theory and normative international theory. This chapter represents a return to critical social theory - a holistic research programme that works within a cosmopolitical understanding......What is the international identity of the European Union? The end of the cold war, the Treaty on European Union, and wars in Kuwait and the former Yugoslavia all raised methodological, theoretical and empirical questions over the study of the European Union's (EU) ‘international identity'. During...... of normative theory; that seeks to work ‘within categories of existing thought' regarding EU external actions, radicalise them and show ‘in varying degrees both their problems and their unrecognised possibilities' (Calhoun 1995: 23)....

  19. Supportive environments for physical activity, community action, and policy in 8 European Union Member States: Comparative analysis and specificities of context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruetten, A.; Frahsa, A.; Engbers, L.; Gusi, N.; Mota, J.; Pacenka, R.; Troelsen, J.; Vasickova, J.; Vuillemin, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A multilevel theoretical framework of physical activity (PA) promotion that addresses supportive environments, PA behavior, community action, and PA promoting policies is related to research and development in an international comparative study. Methods: Most-different and most-similar

  20. Unions, Vitamins, Exercise: Unionized Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, David R.

    2005-01-01

    After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions…

  1. EUROPEAN UNION POLICIES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Canter

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most important challenges that humanity faces in the 21st century, and for the European Union, combating this phenomenon represents an important element, which is reflected both in the actions carried out in recent years, domestically and internationally, as well as in the EU policy on climate change. Within the EU, regulations were adopted, that demonstrate the importance that the Union confers to the limitation of this phenomenon, stressing at the same time the ...

  2. Trade union revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Tapia, Maite

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review and assess research on the role of trade unions in labour markets and society, the current decline of unions and union revitalisation. The review shows three main trends. First, trade unions are converging into similar strategies of revitalisation. The ‘organising model...... their traditional strongholds of collective bargaining and corporatist policy-making. Second, research has shown that used strategies are not a panacea for success for unions in countries that pearheaded revitalisation. This finding points to the importance of supportive institutional frameworks if unions...... are to regain power. Third, especially in Anglo-Saxon countries, unions are building external coalitions with other social movements, including across borders, to compensate for the loss of power resources that were tied to national collective bargaining and policy-making. Research has shown that unions, even...

  3. Credit Union Headquarters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) is the independent federal agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. NCUA, backed of the full faith...

  4. Notas para pensar la acción gremial de base y la precariedad laboral en el sector industrial argentino Reflexions on de unions action-based and job insecurity in the Argentina industrial sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Wyczykier

    2011-12-01

    in Argentina. In a scenario characterized by the revitalization of the actors union and union-based conflicts especially since 2004 in the country, we intent to assess in which ways, with what attributes, capabilities and limitations, there have been demands and conflicting actions around the job insecurity stimulated by delegates and based workers. With this encouragement, we are concerned to observe how class solidarity links are recreated within the working groups. Under this goal, we present an analysis of three cases of based working groups that have faced demands and actions around this problem: two in the food industry and one in the metallurgical sector. In the industry sector, and in these three cases in particular, the demands around job insecurity have been directed primarily to deal with contractual diversification that was installed in workplaces since the 90's to today. In essence, workers with temporary contracts and to a lesser extent the companies outsourced workers.

  5. Brazilian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Lima Crisóstomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work makes an analysis of the determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of Brazilian firms, as proxied by firm membership of the ISE Index of BM&FBOVESPA. Besides other proposed determinants of CSR present in the literature (firm size, profitability, growth opportunities, the work examines ownership concentration and the persistence on CSR status. Logit regression estimates have been run for a sample of 1649 firm-year observations in the period 2006-2011. The findings show that CSR of Brazilian firms is inversely correlated to its ownership concentration indicating that controlling voting shareholders may not see social concerns as a priority. Besides, firms tend to maintain their present CSR status. The results also indicate that leading CSR firms are larger, face more growth opportunities, and are persistent in their superior CSR situation.

  6. Brazilian energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil`s natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  7. EUROPEAN UNION POLICIES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Canter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the most important challenges that humanity faces in the 21st century, and for the European Union, combating this phenomenon represents an important element, which is reflected both in the actions carried out in recent years, domestically and internationally, as well as in the EU policy on climate change. Within the EU, regulations were adopted, that demonstrate the importance that the Union confers to the limitation of this phenomenon, stressing at the same time the need for an integrated policy framework to ensure the security for potential investors and a coordinated approach between Member States. This paper will present recent developments for the most important policies to combat and mitigate climate change in the European Union, starting with "20-20-20" objectives, which are to be met through the package "Energy-Climate Change", continuing with 2030 and 2050 timeframes, and finally presenting the main lines of action to combat climate change.

  8. Chemopreventive Action by Ethanol-extracted Brazilian Green Propolis on Post-initiation Phase of Inflammation-associated Rat Colon Tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Kenichiro; Fujioka, Masaki; Sokuza, Yui; Ohnishi, Mariko; Gi, Min; Takeshita, Masanori; Kumada, Kenji; Kakehashi, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Propolis has since long been utilized in numerous folk medicines with a variety of medicinal properties. In this study, the effects of ethanol-extracted (EEP) and water-extracted (WEP) Brazilian green propolis on the post-initiation phase of inflammation-associated rat colon tumorigenesis were directly compared. Male F344 rats at 6 weeks of age were subcutaneously injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at 40 mg/kg body weight twice during the first week, followed by 1% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for one week. After a 1-week no-treatment period, animals were administered either basal Oriental MF powdered diet, or 1% EEP or 1% WEP in the basal diet until week 32. Post-initiation treatment with EEP significantly reduced the multiplicity of colorectal carcinomas compared to the control (0.40±0.13/rat vs. 2.29±0.84/rat, respectively, p<0.05), and EEP also reduced the tumor volume. Immunohistochemically, expression of inflammation-associated proteins inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrotic factor alpha, nuclear factor kappa B and glutathione peroxidase-2 were significantly diminished in colorectal tumors from EEP-treated rats. Suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress, which had been triggered by DMH and promoted by DSS, was a primary mechanism by which EEP suppressed carcinogenesis. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Core competences of brazilian beef exporters to Europe: a multi-case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Stamato Neto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research was the analysis of the core competences of some of the most important Brazilian beef processors and exporters to European Union. These core competencies are sources of competitive advantage and could allow Brazilian beef processors increasing their competitiveness. The research was structured as a multi-case study. The research mapped 19 core competences which support beef exports to the European Union. The most important core competences which leverage Brazilian beef exports to European Union and impact the structuring of marketing channels in the European market are core competences based on intangible resources, such as market knowledge, tradition and reputation. These core competencies can allow Brazilian beef processors to gradually establish long term relationships in the marketing channels with their clients.

  10. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  11. A constitutional analysis of the right of action in the brazilian civil suit Uma análise constitucional do direito de ação no processo civil brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Pitta Lopes Aquino

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the right of action in the Brazilian Civil Suit according to the Federal Constitution. This research highlights the crisis that the State, the Law and the Juridical Science have gone through go mainly after World War II. Proceduralism and substantialism are addressed in regard to their fundamental aspects as well as the existent dilemma between juridical positivism and jusnaturalism. Based on the theories that encompass the “third way”, this work attempts to show the importance of certain procedures for realizing values of constitutional principles that permeate the whole juridical order. It is concluded that the process is not only an instrument but also a dimension of law itself. The right of action as expressed in art. 5, Chapter XXXV of the Federal Constitution is eminently procedural and should be undertood as a right to process.O estudo objetiva a análise do direito de ação no processo civil brasileiro a partir da Constituição Federal. Aponta a crise por que passam Estado, Direito e Ciência Jurídica ,especialmente após a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Procedimentalismo e substancialismo, bem como jusnaturalismo e positivismo jurídico são apresentados em seus pontos fundamentais. Com fundamento em teorias que compõem uma “terceira via”, busca demonstrar a importância dos procedimentos na realização dos valores consubstanciados em princípios constitucionais que se irradiam por todo o ordenamento jurídico. Conclui que o processo não é apenas um instrumento, mas uma dimensão do direito. O direito de ação expresso no artigo 5º , XXXV da Constituição Federal é eminentemente processual e deve ser entendido como direito ao processo.

  12. European Union Energy Saving Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Y. Kaveshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses methods of energy efficiency stimulation in the European Union. The author investigates basic areas of the EU activity; in particular, the author estimates results of implementation of the Energy Star program, new provisions of labeling of energy-using products, measures to increase energy efficiency in buildings. The paper also analyzes the provisions of the Directive 2012/27 that is the first EU document, providing for a comprehensive approach to energy saving at all stages: production, transformation and consumption. Today EU policy includes: 7 a general political and regulatory framework laid down by the European action plan on energy efficiency and Directive 2012/27; 2 national action plans on energy efficiency, which should be in line with indicative targets set at the EU level; 3 special EU documents in key areas of energy efficiency (buildings, energy-consuming equipment etc.; 4 accompanying instruments, such as target funding, information dissemination, support of specialized networks. The paper gives a comprehensive analysis of the key methods of implementation of EU policy in the area of energy saving. The author concludes that EU operates within the framework of the open method of coordination. The system of mandatory/voluntary technical standards has allowed to achieve significant success, but indicative planning and monitoring of national actions are not completely effective. In the long term EU policy in the area of energy efficiency is restrained by member states unwillingness to delegate to the European Union a more detailed powers in this field and to give the EU bodies facilities to execute more strict control. In the short term - in conditions of economic crisis, the EU countries are not ready to invest significant budget funds in projects with long payback period.

  13. Salgado Lagoon and the anthropic action in its Protected Coastal Zone, Northern Region of the Brazilian State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cabral Tudesco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is about Salgado Lagoon, the anthropic action in its Protected Coastal Zone over the years and the possible impacts arising from urbanization occurred in the Açu Superport and in future enterprises in its region, by making a comparative analysis with the case of the Vigário Lagoon in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes, which suffers problems caused by an uncontrolled growth and lack of planning. The occurrence of recent stromatolites, only found in South America, included the Salgado Lagoon as a geo-paleontological site in UNESCO World Heritage list, which makes the problem even more relevant. Consequently, urgent and drastic measures must be taken to protect this geological-paleontological site.

  14. Socioeconomic and cultural features of consensual unions in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Covre-Sussai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Consensual unions are a well-known practice among the lower social strata in Latin America. However, this type of union is increasing in the region, among higher educated groups and in countries where they were never widespread, such as in Brazil. This study uses couples' data from the demographic census available at IPUMS (N=193,689 to identify the socioeconomic and cultural features of consensual unions in Brazil. The effects of women's education, couples' income, children, and religion on nuptial behavior are analyzed. Utilizing logistic multilevel analysis, special attention is paid to the effect of differences in the cultural environment of states in the five major regions in which these unions occur. Results indicate that socioeconomic factors affect the incidence of consensual unions in Brazil. Consensual unions are more common among lower income couples and less educated women, but are also found among the upper classes. Cultural diversity between Brazilian states is also reflected in nuptial behavior. Significant variance at the state level is partially explained by the ethnic composition of each state.

  15. Ports modernization and its influence on trade unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Regina Heloisa; Lopes, Taise Araújo; Gonçalves, Rosemary Cavalcante

    2012-01-01

    The restructuring of production resulting from the Port Modernization Law (Law 8.630/90) caused significant changes in work organization of Brazilian Ports. In the case of Mucuripe (Fortaleza, Ceará), in particular, the changes were very intense as Mucuripe is an old port that, before the Law, had labor regulation being governed by Trade Unions. This paper aims to present the perceptions of Union Representatives on the changes brought about by the Law on work organization in the port of Fortaleza, its influence in the organization and in the way the Unions deal with this new reality. Open and exploratory interviews were conducted with representatives of occasional labor workers registered in the Port of Fortaleza OGMO (Orgão Gestor de Mão de Obra, Labor Regulation Management). The analysis of the collected material in the interviews was based on the technique of content analysis proposed by Bardin (1979). Trade Unions have undergone a great loss of power and it has reflected in a relative inability to perform its function and to fight for the rights of the workers. The obvious Trade Unions weakness - a reduction of strikes and less unionized workers - reflects the dominating ideology of capital.

  16. Union banking a step towards achieving fiscal Union in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Marius Croitoru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Union policy needs in addition to the official language of four major components: a monetary union, a fiscal union, a union diplomatic and military union A stage in the Union is the Union banking tax. Materials and Methods: Union Bank has three pillars: a single banking supervisor (single supervisory mechanism, the only mechanism of bank resolution and a single scheme of bank guarantees. Results and conclusions: Union Bank, strengthen supervision is an inevitable process, and Romania will have to enroll in it. Option Romania is to be part of Romania deaorece bank Union can not remain outside the structures of decision as long as banks operating in Romania are predominantly Eurozone.

  17. The issue of the arrangement of new environments for science education through collaborative actions between schools, museums and science centres in the Brazilian context of teacher training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Bruno Andrade Pinto; Martins, Isabel; de Souza Janerine, Aline; de Carvalho, Fabiana Cristina

    2016-06-01

    We present, in this article, an investigation about the potential of the relationship between formal and non-formal educational environments. Therefore it is not an empirical research, but an essay on the topic. This paper demonstrates the concept that science education and science outreach can be privileged by actions that are developed by closer relations between formal and non-formal places. Currently, non-formal environments such as museums and science and technology centres are considered potential educational resources within the reach of schools. Educators from museums have conducted studies which demonstrate a predominant model of the utilization of these institutions by teachers, which consists of illustrative visits during the exhibitions, but does not feature a collaborative relationship or partnership between schools and these institutions. In Brazil, the main examples of approaches to collaboration between these places and schools have been taking place through the initiatives of teachers or through projects developed by the educational sector, aiming to broaden the dialogue between their institutions and the school community. Another approach mechanism relates to research and extension projects developed by university researchers, sponsored by state and federal funding agencies. In this case, the universities and university museums appear as new social actors that stand in the way of the schools and the cultural environments, complicating the relationship and, at the same time, bringing new questions to the field of educational research. We believe that the discourse in this paper should bring about further discussions in the initial teacher training courses to contribute to the understanding of practices related to the extension of the field of activity of the school.

  18. Trade Union Channels for Influencing European Union Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Larsson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes what channels trade unions in Europe use when trying to influence European Union (EU policies. It compares and contrasts trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the degree to which they cooperate with different actors to influence EU policies, while also touching on the importance of sector differences and organizational resources. The study is based on survey data collected in 2010–2011 from unions affiliated with the European Trade Union Confederation and from below peak unions in 14 European countries. Results of the survey show that the ‘national route’ is generally the most important for trade unions in influencing EU policies in the sense that this channel is, on average, used to the highest degree. In addition, the survey delineates some important differences between trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the balance between the national route and different access points in the ‘Brussels route’.

  19. Perspectives and expectations of union member and non- union member teachers on teacher unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer FİDAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unions, which can be regarded as one of the constitutive elements of democracy, are the pressure groups in political and social fields. Unions were born out of industrial confrontations and expanded into the field of public services over time, and thus teachers – who are also public employees-, also obtained the right to establish and affiliate to unions. In this research the views of union member and non-union member teachers on the most important functions and operational effectiveness of unions, teachers’ expectations from unions and teachers’ evaluation of the solidarity, competition and cooperation between unions were determined and the perspectives of teachers on unionization were revealed. qualitative research design was used. The data needed were collected through semi-structured interviews from volunteering union member and non-union member teachers who were working in the primary and secondary schools in Ankara province and who were selected through “maximum variation sampling approach”. The data were then analyzed by using the content analysis technique. In conclusion, it was found that political ideology was the most important reason for membership of teachers’ unions. Protection and development of personal rights was found to be the most important function of teacher unions and unions were thought to be insufficient in performing those functions.

  20. Trade Union Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Heribert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Excerpts addresses from an international symposium regarding workers' education, human rights, labor standards and law, socioeconomic factors, trade unions, workers' rights, professionalism, and globalization. Includes a background paper, "Participation of Workers and Their Organizations in the Field of International Labour Standards and the…

  1. Factors Favoring Military Unions in the United States Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-19

    threat to national security that a public law is required to make that action illegal and punishable by fine or imprisonment. Europea Militar Unions ...I AD-A116 753 ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA F/G51 IACTORS FAVORING ML TARY UNIONS IN THE UNITED STATES ARMED FOR--ETC(U) UNCLASSIFIED N...Military Unions in the US Armed Forces 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(&) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(o) LTC. Thomas P. Easum, Jr. 9

  2. Union Members Are Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  3. Exit and Failure of Credit Unions in Brazil: A Risk Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Leonel de Carvalho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the factors that affect the market exit of Brazilian singular credit unions from 1995 to 2009; it also identifies and lists the determinants of various types of market exits and analyzes whether profitability is a significant factor for credit union survival. This study was conducted with accounting data provided by the Central Bank of Brazil, which derives only from individual cooperatives, i.e. singular credit unions. Quarterly financial statements from these credit unions that were active from 1995 to the second quarter of 2009 were employed, totaling 71,325 observations for 1,929 credit unions. Based on survival and the model of competing risks (such as the Cox, Exponential, Weibull, Gompertz, and Competing Risk models, the results show that there is no statistical evidence to ensure a correlation between profitability and credit union survival. The results also suggest that the size of credit unions plays a key role in their survival and longevity and that their funding and investment management are related to their survival and risk of market exit. In conclusion, the results confirm the initial idea that the duality inherent to credit unions - cooperative principles versus economic efficiency - might influence the stability, survival, and longevity of these institutions. Such results may also imply that a credit union embracing the rationale of a private bank will become more estranged from its members, something which will hinder its future operations and increase the likelihood of its exit from the market.

  4. European Banking Union

    OpenAIRE

    Breuss, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing Euro crisis and the worse economic development in Europe than in the USA are grounded, not the least in the delayed implementation of reforms of the banking sector. Whereas the leaks in economic governance of EMU have been fixed the banking sector is still not stabilised, even five years after Lehman Brothers. From the grand solution of a "European Banking Union" (EBU) only the first pillar, the European Bank Supervision with the single supervisory mechanism (SSM) will come into e...

  5. The African Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Mandrup, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    The African Union (AU) is a young international organisation, founded in 2002, which is still in the process of setting up its various institutions, while constantly having to face up to new challenges, such as civil wars breaking out and military coups being undertaken in its member states...... or individual donor countries, thus to a large extent determines whether initiatives will actually be implemented and whether institutions will actually be established or remain empty shells....

  6. FACTORING PERSPECTIVE: CROATIA VS EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ivanovic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper points out the problems of liquidity, disposal and obtaining funds, inability to collect receivables, delayed payments in times of economic and financial instability and dynamic business upheavals and uncertainty. As a contribution to resolve these issues new alternative methods of financing for business are imposing, one of them is factoring. Although most countries don’t have adequate legal framework, factoring has emerged as the dominant form of financing, whose current status and development points to the prospects of development in the future. In terms of measures and actions which are taken to combat these issues, as well as legislation, many efforts are made at international level in European Union and in Croatia. Overview and description of the factoring development, and indications for further development are presented in relation to the world, the European Union and the Republic of Croatia. This paper also describes factoring comparison among European countries.

  7. Union members at the polls in diverse trade union landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph; Rennwald, Line

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates to what extent social democratic parties still benefit from the support of union members at the polls. Not only are social democratic parties confronted with new competitors in the party systems, but also the union confederations of the socialist labour movement...... are in some countries losing their dominant position due to the rise of separate professional confederations. It is argued in the article that the effect of union membership on voting choice is conditioned by the structure of the trade union movement. The support of union members for social democracy...... still enjoy important support from trade union members, but at the same time are under fierce competition from bourgeois and green parties among members of white-collar confederations. This reinforces the challenges for social democracy to build new voters’ coalitions in post-industrial societies....

  8. Chapters of a Story: the STF ruling about same-sex unions in the light of law as integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Moreira Maués

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available this work analyses the STF rulingthat recognized same-sex unions, based on lawas integrity theory of R. Dworkin and on documentary research about the subject. It criticizesthe use of legislative intent as a ground to con-clude that the Constitution prohibits same-sexunions and argues that the construction of theright to equality in the field of sexual orienta-tion in Brazilian law authorizes the judiciary torecognize these unions.

  9. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... them an excellent tool for studying and measuring policy change in the EU. In this article, I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data for the main categories of expenditure and how they have changed over the last three decades (1979–2013). Using time-series analysis, I find that the ability...

  10. Union Density and Hospital Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koys, Daniel J; Martin, Wm Marty; LaVan, Helen; Katz, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    The authors address the hospital outcomes of patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income per bed. They define union density as the percentage of a hospital's employees who are in unions, healthcare quality as its 30-day acute myocardial infraction (AMI; heart attack) mortality rate, and patient satisfaction as its overall Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems score. Using a random sample of 84 union and 84 nonunion hospitals from across the United States, multiple regression analyses show that union density is negatively related to patient satisfaction. Union density is not related to healthcare quality as measured by the AMI mortality rate or to net income per bed. This implies that unions per se are not good or bad for hospitals. The authors suggest that it is better for hospital administrators to take a Balanced Scorecard approach and be concerned about employee satisfaction, patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income.

  11. Financial Restructuring and Credit Unions

    OpenAIRE

    Greinke, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    The nature of credit unions as mutual financial institutions is examined and the economic implications of mutuality explored. While manager-shareholder agency costs are likely to be exacerbated within credit unions, shareholder-debtholder agency costs are likely to be eliminated. In this context, the implications for credit unions of the Campbell Report, the Financial Institutions scheme, and the Wallis Inquiry are discussed. While the imposition of risk-weighted capital adequacy requirements...

  12. A Union Catalog for ETD's

    OpenAIRE

    Chachra, Vinod

    2003-01-01

    Two years ago the NDLTD steering Committee requested that VTLS Inc. build a union catalog for NDLTD. Such a catalog has now been built and can be accessed at www.vtls.com/NDLTD. This presentation will discuss the nature of the NDLTD Union Catalog for ETDs and why it was important to build such a catalog. The present status of this multilingual union catalog will be discussed followed by a brief demonstration of the system. The presentation will finish with a discussion on how the union ...

  13. Developing services in student union

    OpenAIRE

    Säilä, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    The thesis was made for the student union of Häme University of Applied Sciences. Student unions have quite bad situations with the funding they receive. Universities of Applied Sciences are making losses, cuts are made to higher education and the funding for the student unions are getting cut as well. It is time for student unions to look for other means to finance their operations. This can be achieved by increasing rate of self-financing. Basically it means getting new members to pay the m...

  14. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metri, Paulo, E-mail: pmetri@terra.com.br [Clube de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  15. Agreements between Labour Unions and Employers' Associations as a Strategy for the Prevention of Repetitive Strain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Hansen, Nanette Juhler; Møller, Niels

    2004-01-01

    An assessment of the action plan against repetitive work and a discuss of such agreements between labour unions and employers' associations as strategies for for improving the work environment.......An assessment of the action plan against repetitive work and a discuss of such agreements between labour unions and employers' associations as strategies for for improving the work environment....

  16. Brazilian antidoping public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Claudio Bispo de; Rodrigues, Deyvis Nascimento

    2014-07-01

    Doping, used to improve sports performance, is legally prohibited. This paper describes Brazilian regulations, resolutions, and Federal laws addressing the issue of doping and antidoping which were collected in 2012 from official websites. We conclude that Brazilian laws have constrained doping, and have been updated over the years to conform to worldwide legal guidelines. Study limitations are noted.

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP EUROPEAN UNION - BLACK SEA REGION FOLLOWING THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Livia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to the possible interaction between the European Union and the Black Sea region, following the consequences the international and financial crisis placed upon the Eastern neighbourhood of the Union. It provides a comprehensive picture on the economic situation in the Black Sea area, correlating the economic realities from the field with the required domains of policy actions. \\r\

  18. The European Union and Turkey: Who Defines Environmental Progress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Adaman (Fikret); M. Arsel (Murat)

    2008-01-01

    textabstract[European Union] EU environment policy aims to promote sustainable development and to protect the environment for present and future generations. It is based on preventive action, the polluter pays principle, fighting environmental damage at source, shared responsibility and the

  19. Conference on EU Capital Markets Union: Contents and Discontents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Dorn (Nicholas)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In February 2015 the Commission published its Green Paper on Capital Markets Union (CMU) and an Action Plan will follow later in 2015. The consultation period ends in May, so June/July is a good time to take stock. In terms of its intentions for market structure, CMU

  20. Schubert unions in Grassman varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    , their number of Fq -rational points. Moreover, we study a geometric duality of such unions, and give a combinatorial interpretation of this duality. We discuss the maximum number of Fq -rational points for Schubert unions of a given spanning dimension, and as an application to coding theory, we study...

  1. Grassmann codes and Schubert unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties over a field , such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study such sets in detail, and give applications to coding theory, in particular for Grassmann codes. For much is known about such Schubert unions with a ...

  2. International trade and currency unions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bun, M.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    This short article critically reviews the existing empirical literature on the potential trade benefi ts of currency unions and, more in particular, the EMU. Joining a currency union decreases transaction and information costs associated with international trade. From the existing literature two

  3. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  4. Unionization: The Viewpoint of Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Theodore Lewis

    A study was made to isolate factors which have systematic and repetitive effects on the unionization of librarians, particularly the professional librarian in the public library. The historical patterns of library unionism are summarized, and an analysis is made of the personal characteristics of librarians, their economic position, and employment…

  5. Union Roles in Workplace Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Stephen Michael

    1993-01-01

    Discusses roles for labor unions in resolving workforce deficiencies, suggesting that labor, management, and government must work together to develop cooperative training initiatives. Describes labor's historic role in basic and workplace literacy training, lists skills workers need in the "new" workplace, describes exemplary union-management…

  6. Thinking about the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkovich, George

    In the United States, educators have had difficulty teaching about the Soviet Union. Students are often ignorant of the historical circumstances that have affected the U.S./Soviet relationship, and they are often miseducated by stereotypes they encounter in popular culture. This curriculum explores the government and economy of the Soviet Union,…

  7. Unions: Bread, Butter & Basic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…

  8. European Union Financing of the Climate Change Mitigation Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Calanter

    2014-01-01

    The following paper aims at analyzing the financing by the European Union of the climate change limitation and mitigation activities. The general objectives of the activities directed towards reducing and combating climate change, analyzed on the two directions of action, namely the mitigation of the phenomenon, and the adaptation to climate change, are exposed. The financing action by the EU in order to combat climate change at the international level, both the fast start financing, and medi...

  9. Rationalities in trade union work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Andersen, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    as ‘customers’ tend to transform the role of the trade unions from the position of ‘political actors’ to ‘service providers’ in the advanced liberal societies. In closing, the paper will gesture to possible contestations, points of resistance and alternative discourses that are silenced in the strategy...... and exclusion, the territoriality of the unions, political ambitions, etc. By destabilizing the predominant neo-liberal discourses of the trade unions, the paper thus aims to point to alternative discursive resources and practices for strategy development....... papers. Using discourse analytic methods the paper will analyze, discuss and compare the current strategy papers of the three unions in order to investigate how they problematize their roles and objectives. This investigation will clarify the discursive premises of the unions and it will be shown how...

  10. Ciudadania digital y sociedad de la informacion en la Union Europea: Un analisis critico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisco Sierra Caballero

    2012-01-01

    .... The European Union (EU) is planning, to follow this trend, new ways of governing built on participation and on the positive outcome deriving from the action of information and communication technologies (ICTs...

  11. Solidarity Action in Global Labor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter

    2014-01-01

    the weaknesses of the counterpart’s global corporate network in order to achieve prolabor outcomes. The most efficient solidarity action was leveraged by a cross-border alliance of workplace collectives, national industrial unions, and a global union federation using global framework agreements (GFAs) with key...

  12. PAR as a way of organising a social workers labour union in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Arnfjord, Steven

    Abstract, ALARA2015012:PAR as a way of organising a social workers labour union in Greenland for consideration and inclusion in the programme for the ALARA 9th Action Learning Action Research and 13th Participatory Action Research World Congress to be held at St. George Hotel and Conference Centre...

  13. From forest to waste: Assessment of the Brazilian soybean chain, using nitrogen as a marker.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smaling, E.M.A.; Roscoe, R.; Lesschen, J.P.; Bouwman, A.F.; Comunello, E.

    2008-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is a booming crop in Brazil. In 2004, the export value was equivalent to 10 billion US $, covering over 10% of total Brazilian exports. Three-quarters of total production leaves the country, mainly to China and the European Union (EU). Soybean cultivation in Brazil is expected

  14. Brazilian public controllership institutions theory versus practice

    OpenAIRE

    Suzart, Janilson Antonio da Silva; Marcelino, Carolina Venturini; Rocha, Joseilton Silveira da

    2012-01-01

    The creation of a General Controllership (CGU) in the executive branch of the Brazilian federal government in 2003 brought in its wake the creation or transformation of a variety of institutions in public controllership at the state level. We have assumed that this development resulted from the needs of public managers for institutions that can not only monitor the actions taken by the public administration but also provide information useful to government managers, but this a...

  15. The European Fiscal Union creation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Sharov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents evolution of the European Union fiscal system creation process as well as outlines problems in functioning thereof that have arisen during recent years and the main reforming (modification trends. The analysis is primarily focused on creation of the fiscal union within the EU. In this regard, the idea of two different groups of countries moving to the common goal at different paces is becoming ever increasingly much-talked-about in the EU. The first group comprises donor countries that adhere to all treaties and fiscal discipline, while demonstrating respective positive macroeconomic indicators. The second group implies countries of Euro-periphery, where the above processes take place along with significant complications or do not occur at all. In these countries Eurosceptic positions are also quite strong, which often leads to taking measures contrary to the jointly adopted decisions. Currently, there is no clear understanding within the EU as to which way out of the crisis should be taken. However, profound understanding of the crisis causes and active work on preparation and implementation of measures to overcome the negative effects of this crisis suggest availability of sufficiently favorable prospects for further development of the EU fiscal system (including formal creation of the Fiscal Union. Based on the conducted analysis conclusions have been made as to potential vectors of action aimed at improving EU fiscal system, while specific recommendations on actions to be taken by Ukraine have been developed (particularly, as regards budget forecasting and planning with the purpose of harmonizing Ukrainian financial institutions and mechanisms with the EU fiscal system.

  16. Labor unions in medicine: the intersection of patient advocacy and self-advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthous, Constantine A

    2014-05-01

    Labor unions have been a weak force in the medical marketplace. To briefly review the history of physicians' and nurses' labor unions, explore the ethics of unions in medicine, and offer a solution that simultaneously serves patients and professionals. A selective review of the literature. Labor unions of medical professionals pose an ethical quandary, that is a tension between selfless patient advocacy versus self-advocacy. The primary role of labor unions has been to extract from management benefits for employees. The threat of work actions is the primary tool that labor unions can apply to encourage management to negotiate mutually acceptable conditions of employment. Work actions-namely slow-downs and strikes-may harm patients and may therefore run afoul of professionals' primary duty to the primacy of patients' welfare. An alternative model is offered wherein medical unions align self-centered and patient-centered interests and leverage the Public Good, in the form of public opinion, to encourage good-faith bargaining with management. As medicine becomes increasingly corporatized, physicians will join nurses in "at-will employment" arrangements whereby self-advocacy and patient advocacy may be impacted. Although labor unions have been a means of counterbalancing unchecked discretion of corporate management, conventional labor unions may run afoul of medical ethical principles. Reconsideration and innovation, to address this ethical dilemma, could provide a solution that aligns both clinicians' and patients' welfare.

  17. Multinationals and Unionism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riani Rachmawati

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical analysis of the factors shaping the interaction between multinationals and trade unions in Indonesia, focusing on the recent period of democratization following the downfall of the Suharto regime. It has been suggested that union growth risks undermining Indonesia’s competitive advantages (cheap labour and could encourage the exit of multinationals to cheaper competitors. In order to test this proposition, two case studies were conducted: one in the automotive industry and the other in the banking industry. The paper first provides an overview of multinational activity and FDI in Indonesia, and their interaction with a nascent union movement. This is followed by presenting the findings of interviews conducted at the multinational enterprises with managers and union officials; to provide empirical insights into the bargaining process. The final part of the paper provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of union behaviour on MNC profitability and competitiveness in Indonesia. In contrast to traditional views of unions as impeding MNC profitability and “encouraging” exit, the paper finds that unions and MNCs can engage in constructive partnerships, but that pressures and contradictions in the relationship remain.

  18. The depletion of narrative resources in the kenyan trade union movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Ogutu Miruka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss in this study the problems of mobilization and effectiveness faced by Kenyan trade unions. In a country with high levels of unemployment and weak labour legislation, it is imperative that the labour movement devise ways of remaining relevant and effective. We combine in-depth interviews with a qualitative assessment of secondary documents on trade unions in Kenya. We do this by looking at topics addressed, characterizations of unions as well as major actors such as union leaders, workers, and political leaders. We argue that labour leaders need to enrich their vocabularies of persuasion in order to neutralize the current discourses around trade unionism in Kenya. Such an approach would enable the union leadership to acquire new repertoires of action to enhance their capacity to mobilize.

  19. 12 CFR 704.10 - Investment action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment action plan. 704.10 Section 704.10... CREDIT UNIONS § 704.10 Investment action plan. (a) Any corporate credit union in possession of an investment, including a derivative, that fails to meet a requirement of this part must, within 30 calendar...

  20. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  1. Public Sector Unions and Privatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Søren Kjær; Aaskoven, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Privatization varies considerably among local governments. One of the oft-listed explanations is the ability of public employees to block privatization. However, many studies on the influence of public employees on privatization do not use very precise measures of the influence of public employees...... Danish municipalities in 2012, we are able to measure the strength of the public eldercare union as well as the number of the public eldercare workers relative to the number of local voters. We find that the increased union strength measured in terms of union density at the municipal level leads...... to substantially and significantly less privatization through the voucher market. By comparison, the estimated relationship between the relative number of public workers and privatization does not reach statistical significance. Features of the voucher market and qualitative evidence suggest that the union...

  2. Union Organization in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Bryson; P Willman

    2007-01-01

    Union membership and density in Britain has experienced substantial decline since 1979. The fall in private sector membership and density has been much greater than in the public sector. The size of the union sector, measured by employer recognition, has shrunk. Membership decline has been accompanied by financial decline. Much of the decline occurred before 1997, under Conservative governments. Since 1997 and the return of a Labour government, the position has in some respects stabilized. Cu...

  3. IDENTIFYING KEY TRENDS OF DIRECT SALES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂDĂLINA BRUTU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Selling is the most representative marketing action; without customers there is no organization, and without sales there is no customer. Selling does not mean only to conclude a business (giving an economical good and receiving an amount of money, but also to obtain satisfied, loyal customers. An alternative to the traditional sale is the direct sale. The main objective of this paper is to present briefly the opinions of some renowned researchers regarding selling in general, and direct selling in particular; the righteous dimensioning of direct selling within the European Union and Romania, detecting Romania’s deviations towards the European Union in relation with the characteristics of direct selling, achieving researches, through the SPSS program, which can detect the main trends of direct selling within the European Union.

  4. 76 FR 79531 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 704 RIN 3133-AD95 Corporate Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration... credit unions (corporates). The final amendments make technical corrections to and clarify certain...

  5. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to any...

  6. 75 FR 75648 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 701, 704, and 741 RIN 3133-AD74 Corporate Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union... Board issued a proposed rule amending its corporate credit union rule. 75 FR 73000 (November 29, 2010...

  7. Consulting in Union-Mangement Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, James W.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the development of unions in libraries, measures the impact of unionism on library administration, examines the sources of assistance in union-management relations available to library administrators, and cnsiders questions pertaining to the role of library consultants in union matters. (FM)

  8. The Impact of Police Unions: Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juris, Hervey A.; Feuille, Peter

    To assess the impact of police unionism on the operation and administration of police departments, in-depth field surveys of active police unions were conducted in the summer and fall of 1971 in 22 cities where police unions were active. In the summary report the development of police unions is discussed, and the sources and dimensions of union…

  9. Flexibilidade e crise do emprego industrial - sindicatos, regiões e novas ações empresariais Flexibility and the industrial employment crisis - unions, regions and new business actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Ramalho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexibilidade é uma palavra chave que sintetiza as mudanças decorrentes da reestruturação pelas quais passou a indústria nas últimas décadas. A redução do emprego industrial e suas consequências sociais e econômicas, são o foco da crítica social dirigida aos projetos baseados no padrão flexível, exigindo cada vez mais das empresas a elaboração de argumentos e ações para justificar e legitimar essa nova faceta do processo produtivo. O projeto AutoVision da montadora multinacional de veículos Volkswagen, aplicado em duas regiões - Wolfsburg, na Alemanha e ABC paulista, no Brasil, chama a atenção pelas características de uma intervenção social que veio acompanhada de um discurso mais elaborado de justificação. A hipótese a ser testada é a de que as iniciativas mais recentes das empresas globalizadas com base na flexibilidade, apontam para um protagonismo político na formulação de propostas com o objetivo de minorar os efeitos da redução do emprego na indústria e para a construção de uma retórica que naturaliza o emprego flexível. Teoricamente, esse caso permite também discutir os diferentes arranjos sociais com base na flexibilidade, que são criados regionalmente pelas empresas multinacionais e os modos como estas justificam suas ações¹.Flexibility is a key word that summarizes the changes that resulted from the restructuring of the industry in the recent decades. The decrease in industrial employment, as well as its social and economic consequences, is the focus of the social criticism directed at projects based on the flexible pattern, which require more and more actions from the part of the companies to justify and legitimize this new facet of the production process. The AutoVision project of the multinational automobile manufacturer Volkswagen - implemented in two regions: Wolfsburg, in Germany, and the ABC Region in the state of São Paulo, Brazil - presents the characteristics of a social

  10. Resources and the environment: Development trends in the European Union; Ressourcen und Umwelt - Entwicklungstendenzen in der Europaeischen Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaechter, N. [Wirtschaftsvereinigung Bergbau e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    The 6th Environmental Programme of the European Union focuses on ecology, while economic and social aspects are largely neglected. Four priority fieds of action are defined: Climate; Nature and biological diversity; Environment, health and quality of life; Natural resources and waste. The contribution presents examples to show the effects on the German raw materials industry. [German] Die umweltpolitischen Zielsetzungen und Massnahmen, welche die Europaeische Union innerhalb der naechsten zehn Jahre verwirklichen will, werden in dem 6. Umweltaktionsprogramm konkretisiert. Die Ziele und Massnahmen sind fast ausschliesslich auf die oekologische Ebene ausgerichtet, ohne die gleichrangigen oekonomischen und sozialen Belange angemessen zu beruecksichtigen. Das Programm konzentriert sich auf 4 prioritaere Aktionsbereiche - Klimaaenderungen. Natur und biologische Vielfalt, Umwelt, Gesundheit und Lebensqualitaet und Natuerliche Ressourcen und Abfaelle. An wenigen, ausgewaehlten Beispielen soll verdeutlicht werden, welche Auswirkungen diese Entwicklungstendenzen der Europaeischen Union auf die deutsche Rohstoffwirtschaft haben koennten. (orig.)

  11. Highlights of the Customs Union formation within the EurAsEC framework and primary targets for 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yur'evich Glaz'ev

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the results of the creation of the Customs Union within EurAsEC, which was conducted in accordance with the Plan of Action for the Customs Union, approved by the decision of the EurAsEC Interstate Council (the supreme body of the Customs Union on October 6, 2007, №1. The author reviews measures to form the legal basis of the Customs Union, common customs tariff, a unified system of foreign trade and customs regulations, sanitary, veterinary and phytosanitary control, the institutional structure of the Customs Union, work on the unification of trade regimes and protective measures, gradual transfer of agreed types of state control to the customs border of the Customs Union as well as improvement of the work of the Secretariat of the Customs Union Commission are considered.

  12. Indigenous Brazilian Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandra Balbinot

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research seeks to understand to what extent companies in emerging countries, specifically, Brazilian, adopt dominant management practices, the so-called Euro-American practices, possess their one, or show a syncretism between the two. Methods: Mixed research. One phase was to collect data using a survey about cultural dimensions adopted from GLOBE (House 1998 management practices and also from Brazilian academy. Another was to collect data through interviews, which were analyzed in parallel. Results: Of the seven dominant cultural dimensions, indigenous practices influenced two. Another three were influenced by dominant management practices. Two of the local dimensions, even with internationalization, merged practices with Brazilian cultural traits. Even so, the practices derived from Jeitinho diminished relative to the international relations and experience of managers. Conclusions: The paper shows the existence of powerful Brazilian Indigenous Managerial Practices such as personalism and formalism. These practices have great influence on international business negotiations. On the other hand, it also shows that there are still dominant managerial practices specially in the case of more internationalized Brazilian managers

  13. Is European Union at the Heart of Citizens' Identity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela CĂRĂUŞAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The departure point of many discussions on European identity is the idea that a political community needs a common set of values and references to ensure its coherence, to guide his actions and to endow these with legitimacy and meaning. The motto “unity in diversity” is generally seen as best describing the aims of the European Union; opinions differ widely as to ho understood. That is why we will try to identify those values which brought the European countries together almost 60 years ago. And we will continue to see, based on the Eurobarometers results, which are the European citizens’ values and what European Union represents for them, in terms of values. For that we will put together the items obtained in the last five years and we will see in the end to which value European Union should pay more attention in the future. Even the surveys show that European Union citizens continue to identify first of all with their own countries and we consider it important to find an answer to the following question: Is European Union a community of shared values?

  14. European Union Climate Change Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewiner, C.

    2007-08-15

    In March 2007, the European Union Ministers asked Member States to commit to energy consumption and Greenhouse Gases (GHG), mainly CO2 emissions, reductions of 20%, as well as a portion of 20% of renewable energies in their energy production. The horizon of this 'three times 20% objective' is 2020. The underlying assumption is of course an improved security of energy (and electricity) supplies as well as a growing European economy with sustained tertiary and industrial employment. These objectives were articulated to respond to the present Climate Change issues by avoiding an increase of our Planet's temperature beyond 2 to 3 degrees. In the US, the current government has recognized that CO2 is an issue and has begun to take action, issuing a number of executive orders to reduce emissions. This follows a ruling by the US Supreme Court on CO2. It may be that what is happening in Europe will be a model that the US will follow. These different objectives are interlinked and each European country is in a different situation. Moreover, 2020 is a relatively short time horizon compared to the lead time for construction of large plants such as nuclear plants. It is also a short time frame for the industrialization, at reasonable costs, of carbon sequestration equipment, for the renovation of a significant portion of the existing buildings and houses, and for the switch of the present car fleet to electrical cars. More than 20% of the cars bought in 2007 will still be on the road in 2020. More than 80% of the refrigerators bought in 2007 will still be in operation in 2020, and less than 1/3 of the industrial and utility infrastructures in place today will be renewed by 2020. It is even shorter at the Research and Development time scale to find and industrialize new energy savings devices or low energy consumption and low carbon emitting equipment. One important question is also the net cost linked to these objectives that has not been evaluated today. The

  15. The European Union's Eastward Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanns-D. Jacobsen

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 1997 the Commission of the European Union presented its Agenda 2000. This document not only suggested to start accession talks with some East and Central European countries (CEEC in early 1998 but it also provided proposals for a restructuring of EU expenditures. On this background this contribution discusses the state of readiness of the Central and East European countries to become EU members over the next few years and the Union's capacity to absorb up to ten CEEC over the next decade or so. This study concludes that the European Union has become an anchor of stability to the CEEC that guarantees both democracy and economic security--much more than could be expected only a couple of years ago. The Union's readiness to accept the membership of CEEC has, in a decisive way, contributed to their societal, political and economic stabilization. There is almost a contest among the CEEC on which one is going to meet the accession criteria first and best. The enlargement process, however, is connected to problems the resolution of which realistically postpone its successful conclusion at least into the year 2005. The main reasons are (1 the welfare gap between the EU area and the CEEC, (2 the need for more institutional and economic changes in the CEEC to make them ready for acces-sion, and, most importantly, (3 the necessity for the European Union to prepare herself for accession by a comprehensive financial reform and fundamental institutional changes.

  16. Highlights of the Customs Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vladimirovich Kharlov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors summarize the main results of two years of the operation of the Customs Union in Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, which is hardly impressive in the aftermath of the global financial crisis and economic instability in Belarus. However, the authors stressed that it is too early to jump to conclusions about the effectiveness of the Customs Union. In addition, the structure of trade, working arrangements and the list of goods are changed. Separately it is analyzed the changing economic situation in Kazakhstan, where the increased influx of Russian investments are after joining the Customs Union fully operational. In different sectors of the domestic economy are active joint Kazakh-Russian companies because Kazakhstan has more attractive business environment, compared to Russia. Russian companies are interested in Kazakhstan and produce this product to sell back to Russia or Belarus. For Kazakhstan benefit is job creation, expansion of production base, increasing tax revenues, new investments.

  17. Social Attitudes, Labor Law, and Union Organizing: Toward A New Economics of Union Density

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas I. Palley

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written about union wage bargaining. Much less has been written about union density, which has been viewed as simply the employment outcome under the wage bargain. This paper presents a new dynamic model of union density that exhibits multiple equilibria and path-dependency. The model builds upon Freeman (1998) who identified the importance of union spending on organizing and business spending on opposing unions. It emphasizes the demand for union representation which depends on...

  18. INDUSTRIAL POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Nica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The differences registered in the early 90s between the economy of the European Union as compared to the economies of the United States and Japan, in regards of growth rates, investment rates, R&D and innovation, international trade, etc., as well as the fast changes of the world economy determined the European Commission to issue the white paper on “Growth, Competitiveness and Employment”, underlining the meaning of the European economy’s competitiveness in the new conditions, and the legal frame for EU’s industrial policy was settled through the Treaty of Maastricht. The document was setting theobjectives, priorities and the six basic principles of the European industrial policy, in a unitary concept. In the spring of 2000, the European Council from Lisbon sets the objective of transforming the European Union in the most dynamic and competitive economy of the world, and, therefore, foresees a working agenda with specific actions going until the horizon of 2009. In December 2002, after EUs enlargement, the Commission forwards to the Council the document titled “Industrial Policy in an Enlarged Europe”, in which theindustrial development at the moment of new member states integration is analyzed, as well as the effects of EU’s enlargement over the industry, and it suggests actions for the future development of the sector. The industrial policy of the EU must offer solutions for industrial development, by answering the challenges concerning globalization, the technological and organizational changes, the increasing role of innovation and entrepreneurship, and the sustainable development taking into consideration the new socialrequirements. The development objectives set at European level cannot be reached without a tight interconnection of the industrial policy measures with those of some complementary policies, such as thecommercial policy, the single market policy, transport and energy policies, research and development policies

  19. Trade unions and social movements: methods and forms of interaction

    OpenAIRE

    O. L. Tupytsia

    2017-01-01

    The development of trade unions in the public and political dimension associated with maintaining by them socio-political movements, which in different periods of political history had the status of social movements. Among these movements are a social democratic and labor movements in Europe, which later acquired the status of parties. In addition, social movements are informal and very broad associations that need support group of values, or focused on single-step action, such as changing th...

  20. Why do people join trade unions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas; Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    In this study the reasons for joining a trade union are analyzed statistically using high quality data from Statistics Denmark comprising the entire Danish workforce combined with European Social Survey data from rounds 1-3. These data enables measuring the effect of union density at the workplace...... level on union recruitment, which is not done before. Workplace union density is taken to measure the strength of the workplace’s custom of being union member creating an instrumental incentive to join the union. Self-placement on a political left-right scale measures political attitude taken...

  1. Revitalizing the Malaysian Trade Union Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The article takes an historic perspective on contemporary issues of trade union revival in Malaysia, focusing on the challenge of raising union density and analysing the process of organizing employees in the strategically important electronics industry. It concludes that the political support...... trade unions been included in the larger politics of development strategies. Unions must be part of a larger socio-political movement and regime change in order to overcome the restrictive labour laws as well as the anti-union practices of transnational corporations. Yet the majority of the peak union...... a more developed market economy....

  2. Relative Wage Effects of German Unions

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Christoph M

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to the United States or the United Kingdom where union status is generally tied to the job, the typical unionized worker in Germany is a member of an industry union and there is no direct institutional link between union membership and the worker's wage. Using micro data from the period 1978--88, this paper demonstrates the absence of relative union wage effects in the traditional sense. Union membership is an indicator for the labour force attachment of female workers, however. T...

  3. The Global Challenge of Human Rights and Solidarity to Nordic Global Companies and Trade Unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt Schiller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The idea that corporations, besides making profit, have a social responsibility to society is not new in history. Nor is it new that unions besides representing material interests stand for a universal ambition as defenders of the oppressed in the world. The article argues that corporations’ social responsibility and trade union solidarity, to the extent both are based on universal principles of human rights, ought to open for cooperation concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR, where trade unions should be recognized as important stakeholders in corporations. This idea is new, even if examples exist, and it challenges traditional concepts of the role of management and unions in the company. However, trade unions have taken a critical attitude to CSR, the implementation of which they have mainly been excluded from. Instead, they have tried to get global agreements, Global Framework Agreements (GFAs, with the MNCs.1 In the article the development of the attitudes of the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC and of the Nordic national centers is investigated. A long-term historical perspective, in addition to a general theory of collective action will be used to draft the hypothesis that, when unions as interest organizations, through the process of national integration, have achieved a strong position in the domestic labor market, they lack reasons to take transnational action and seek international trade union solidarity. This hypothesis is valid today for the well-established unions in the Nordic countries. But in questions concerning social responsibility and human rights, the article presents the possibility that GFAs might become a platform from which to extend the Nordic model of national partnership to the global level, while at the same time global competition will increasingly make it difficult for the unions to show international solidarity in interest questions of capital investments and outsourcing.

  4. A sociological analysis of labour unions and labour union elites in Developing countries: Turkish labour union elites

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Arslan

    2016-01-01

    This study will concern itself with Turkish labour unions and social portrait of contemporary Turkish labour union elites: firstly, brief information on theoretical and historical background of labour (trade) unions is given, then major findings about contemporary Turkish labour union elites are presented. Multiple methodological approaches were used to define the research subject, to outline the research universe. Extensive field researches comprise the major data sources of the study. V...

  5. GEOMORPHOLOGY AND SEDIMENTOLOGY OF UNION GLACIER AREA, ELLSWORTH MOUNTAINS, OCCIDENTAL ANTARCTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa do Couto Silva Costa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to investigate the geomorphological and sedimentological aspects of Union Glacier area (79°45’00’’S; 82°30’00’’W, southern sector of Ellsworth Mountains. Geomorphological cartography based on 15 m ASTER (2010 satellite imagery and field works were carried out during the Brazilian expedition (2011/2012 enabled the identification of morainic formations: ice-cored hummock moraines, supraglacial moraines, and recession moraines in the interior of the valleys. With the exception of the latter one, all types of moraines have been developed on the blue-ice areas. The evidence for paleo wet-based glacial conditions is reconstructed from a range of geomorphological record, including exposed abrasion marks, striations and glaciotectonic deformation. This type of deformation is represented by lee sides of oversteepening bedrock promontories which follow the tributaries of glaciers ice flow. Glacial sediments were collected from the moraines for granulometric and morphometric analyses. They show the prevalence of sandy gravel and sand texture, low quantity of fine fractions, and absence of attributes such as striated and faceted clasts, which indicate, on the other side, low-sediment transport capacity from the ice sheet bottom. It is inferred that the moraine debris are originated from local sources. Weathering action and constant katabatic winds are possibly the major agents of transport and alteration of the exposed sediments. The geomorphological features reveal an ancient thicker ice sheet, and sedimentary characteristics of the morainic formations reveal a latter thinner ice sheet in this sector of Ellsworth Mountains.

  6. Manual de uniones atornilladas laterales

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Herrera, Jesús; Hernando García, José Ignacio; Cervera Bravo, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    El manual presenta de manera detallada y extensa los criterios y procedimientos de análisis, de comprobación y de puesta en obra de uniones atornilladas laterales, con inclusión de ejemplos y herramientas informáticas para su mejor comprensión y manejo.

  7. TOWARDS THE CAPITAL MARKET UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian PANAIT

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the main characteristics of the proposed Capital Markets Union in Europe, as they are introduced by the European Commission and various authors, and emphasises some important advantages and disadvantages of this project for the developing and frontier markets in UE, especially for Romania.

  8. If Your Graduate Students Unionize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Edward T., II

    2001-01-01

    Describes the effects of and universities' response to a recent National Labor Relations Board decision which defined graduate assistants at private institutions as employees, giving them the right to organize, collectively bargain, and strike. Includes a sidebar on the effects of the graduate student union at the University of Iowa. (EV)

  9. Highlights of the Customs Union formation within the EurAsEC framework and primary targets for 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Yur'evich Glaz'ev

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the results of the creation of the Customs Union within EurAsEC, which was conducted in accordance with the Plan of Action for the Customs Union, approved by the decision of the EurAsEC Interstate Council (the supreme body of the Customs Union) on October 6, 2007, №1. The author reviews measures to form the legal basis of the Customs Union, common customs tariff, a unified system of foreign trade and customs regulations, sanitary, veterinary and phytosanitary control, the ...

  10. Union considers drastic action over wages / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule

    2007-01-01

    Läti ühinenud ametiühingud teatasid piketikavatsusest parlamendihoone ees 11. oktoobril, mil valitsus arutab järgmise aasta eelarvet. Ametiühingud nõuavad kõrgemat palka meditsiinitöötajatele ja õpetajatele

  11. INSPIRE Harmonisation of existing Energy Performance Certificate datasets: European Union Location Framework Energy Pilot

    OpenAIRE

    MARTIRANO GIACOMO; Pignatelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The European Union is giving more and more emphasis to its energy policies, whose strategy and actions are included in the Energy Union Package and the 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy. Buildings in which people live and work are responsible for an important portion of the energy consumption in Europe (approximately 40% of the primary energy consumption) and there are several policies and initiatives that are aiming at improving their energy performance. In particular, the Energy Perf...

  12. Collective Action Situated in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, Bridget M.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time in the history of collective action, the offline world has experienced a virtually organized and enacted union strike. While this was the first publicly noticed political action in a virtual world, others have been going on for several years now. As virtual worlds continue to grow in popularity, this type of protest of action…

  13. Wage Setting in Democratic Labour Unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the wage setting of a democratic labour union. The union members differ with respect to their employment probabilities. The union wage only changes if the parameters of the median member change. An exogenous shock to revenue may increase the wage, even if labour demand...

  14. European Union: Gender and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Political representation is the central issue in contemporary debates on the level of democracy in political institutions and processes in the European Union. Underrepresentation of particular groups in political institutions, decision-making and policy-making processes is perceived as the problem of justice, legitimacy and effectiveness in democratic societies. In this paper, the author analyzes the gender aspects of democratic decision-making processes and political representation of women in the EU member states. The social, historical and political dimension of women's efforts to obtain and promote their civil status and political rights have been the framework for developing the principle of gender equality as one of the founding EU principles. In the past hundred years, one of the most significant trends in politics has been the expansion of formal political representation of women. Yet, even though it has been more than a hundered years since women won their political rights in the 19th and the 20th century (the right to vote and the right to be voted, gender differences in political rights are still a substantial part of debate. Today, women's political representation is still inadequate and their political capacity and power have not been exercised to a sufficient extent (or proportionally through their actual representation in parliament. In March 2012, the European Commisision published a report on gender equality in different areas of social life; the Eurobarometer survey shows that women are generally underrepresented in politics. In national parliaments, only one out of four MPs is a woman. In the European Parliament, three out of ten parliamentarians are women. The statistics shows a huge discrepancy among the EU Member States in terms of women's representation in parliament (44.7% in Sweden as contrasted to 13.3% in Romania. The prevailing view in many studies is that post-industrial democracies are deficient as they have failed

  15. Unionism, the Decision-Making Process and Social Security Reform in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Jard da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the vast literature on social security reform there are relatively few studies that analyze the participation of representatives coming from the union movement in the decision-making process. This article aims to fill part of that gap in Brazilian academic production on unionism and public policy. In situations in which unionist representatives support the ruling party, does the union bloc tend to defend the specific interests of their base of social representation or to follow the guidance of the party coalition of which they are part? The study addresses this research problemby analyzing the participation of the union bloc in the decision-making process of a social security reform, Proposal of Amendment to the Constitution, Article 40 (PEC 40, during the first term of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's government. The main findings of the study confirm the thesis of party predominance. In an institutional political scenario in which party discipline prevails, unionist representatives and senators tend to follow the guidance of the party coalition even under contrary pressures from their electoral base. The research sheds light on the relations involved between the Executive and Legislative branches, in the process of changing public policy, in which a government considered to be allied imposes losses for specific sectors of the union base, notably the active and inactive public servants of the federal government, states and municipalities.

  16. The International Labour Standards Debate in the Brazilian Labour Movement: Engagement with Mercosur and Opposition to the Free Trade Area of the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Marieke Riethof

    2017-01-01

    The social dimensions of economic integration have become an increasingly significant feature of trade agreements, particularly those between developing countries. In the Brazilian case trade-related labour standards have not become a major feature outside of the regional organization Mercosur (Common Market of the South), yet we know relatively little about the reasons for this discrepancy. Paradoxically one of the main stakeholders in this debate, Brazilian trade unions, has broadly support...

  17. Saved by the Union: Romanians’ Attitudes toward the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Chiciudean

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we show that, in the aftermath of the economic crisis, Romanians remain among the most enthusiastic citizens of the European Union, in what concerns trust in the European institutions, projections for the future, the image of the EU and general attitudes toward the union. Relying on data provided by eurobarometers since the Romanian integration, we argue that the reasons for this peculiar position of Romanians within the EU is largely due to how people evaluate the economic and political performance of their own country: from evaluations of the economy to trust in national institutions, Romanians are very pessimistic about how their country handles the present situation and about perspectives for the future. In this context, they turn to the European Union as to a Savior, who represents their hope and promise for a better future, for economic prosperity and security. This is the reason why, more than five years after the beginning of the financial crisis, Romanians are still among the most optimistic citizens of Europe.

  18. The Brazilian School Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Ricardo de Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the policy nature of school principal, considering the thoughts of many authors about school administration and the debate about politics, power and burocracy. The study still presents a profile of Brazilian school principals with the data of Basic Education Evaluation System – SAEB, of 2003, specially comparing elements about gender, experience and formation of school principals, and aspects linked with methodology to provide/indicate the school principal and its possible democratic vocation.

  19. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Paprocki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp., followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp. and Polycentropodidae (97 spp., are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region.

  20. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  1. The economic effects of labor unions revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedder, R.; Gallaway, L. [Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States)

    2002-12-31

    Using a variety of statistical techniques, it is concluded that labor unions have reduced U.S. output by significant amounts - trillions of dollars over time. Additionally, the employment-population ratio and the unemployment rate have been adversely affected by the presence of unions. From the very beginning, unionization materially lowered employment in the auto and steel industries, and union militancy in coal mining has contributed importantly to largely eliminating employment in this once large industry. While some individual workers have profited from unions, the aggregate economic impact is strongly negative.

  2. Osteoporosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svedbom, A; Hernlund, E; Ivergård, M

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: This report describes epidemiology, burden, and treatment of osteoporosis in each of the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). INTRODUCTION: In 2010, 22 million women and 5.5 million men were estimated to have osteoporosis in the EU; and 3.5 million new fragility fractures were...... years lost during 2010. The costs are expected to increase by 25 % in 2025. The majority of individuals who have sustained an osteoporosis-related fracture or who are at high risk of fracture are untreated and the number of patients on treatment is declining. The aim of this report was to characterize...... the burden of osteoporosis in each of the EU27 countries in 2010 and beyond. METHODS: The data on fracture incidence and costs of fractures in the EU27 were taken from a concurrent publication in this journal (Osteoporosis in the European Union: Medical Management, Epidemiology and Economic Burden...

  3. Labor Unions and Asset Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Addessi, William

    The paper investigates the nexus between labor and financial markets, focusing on the interaction between labor union behavior in setting wages, firms' investment strategy and asset prices. The way unions set wage claims after observing firm's financial performance increases the volatility of firms......' returns and the riskiness of corporate ownership. To remunerate this higher volatility and stronger risk, firms' equities have to grant high return. This mechanism is able to offer an explanation of for the "equity puzzle", that is it can explain the difference between equity returns and the risk free...... rate. It is a welcome result that the simulated excess return is about the empirical estimate and this result is obtained with a logarithmic specification of the shareholders preferences....

  4. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years, there has been an international debate on whether and to what extent small member states can influence the common external policies of the European Union. Recent research on the role of small EU states concludes that these states are neither per se political dwarfs nor powe...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  5. union publique HR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Chers Collègues,Je me permets de vous rappeler qu'une réunion publique organisée par le Département HR se tiendra aujourd'hui:Vendredi 30 avril 2010 à 9h30 dans l'Amphithéâtre principal (café offert dès 9h00).Durant cette réunion, des informations générales seront données sur:le CERN Admin e-guide, qui est un nouveau guide des procédures administratives du CERN ayant pour but de faciliter la recherche d'informations pratiques et d'offrir un format de lecture convivial;le régime d'Assurance Maladie de l'Organisation (présentation effectuée par Philippe Charpentier, Président du CHIS Board) et;la Caisse de Pensions (présentation effectuée par Théodore Economou, Administrateur de la Caisse de Pensions du CERN).Une transmission simultanée de cette réunion sera assur...

  6. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  7. Tonic, fortifier and aphrodisiac: adaptogens in the Brazilian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fúlvio R. Mendes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, many plants are used as tonic, fortifier, aphrodisiac, anti-stress, among other uses that are similar to the indications of an adaptogen. In general, such plants are used unspecifically, in situations of stress and fatigue, in the recovery after a previous pathological or debilitating state, or simply aiming at the maintenance of a healthy state. This article discusses the popular terms employed in the Brazilian folk medicine for the plants with this profile, their particularities and limitations. The article also discusses the possible mechanisms of action of an adaptogen and compares the main Brazilian plants used for that purpose: guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, family Sapindaceae, muirapuama (Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, catuaba (Anemopaegma arvense (Vell. Stellfeld & J.F. Souza, Bignoniaceae, and Trichilia catigua A. Juss., Meliaceae, nó-decachorro (Heteropterys aphrodisiaca O. Mach, Malpighiaceae, damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae and pfaffia or Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia sp, Amaranthaceae.

  8. 2 nd Brazilian Consensus on Chagas Disease, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, João Carlos Pinto; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Gontijo, Eliane Dias; Luquetti, Alejandro; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria Aparecida; Coura, José Rodrigues; Torres, Rosália Morais; Melo, José Renan da Cunha; Almeida, Eros Antonio de; Oliveira, Wilson de; Silveira, Antônio Carlos; Rezende, Joffre Marcondes de; Pinto, Fabiane Scalabrini; Ferreira, Antonio Walter; Rassi, Anis; Fragata, Abílio Augusto; Sousa, Andréa Silvestre de; Correia, Dalmo; Jansen, Ana Maria; Andrade, Glaucia Manzan Queiroz; Britto, Constança Felícia De Paoli de Carvalho; Pinto, Ana Yecê das Neves; Rassi, Anis; Campos, Dayse Elisabeth; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Santos, Silvana Eloi; Chiari, Egler; Hasslocher-Moreno, Alejandro Marcel; Moreira, Eliane Furtado; Marques, Divina Seila de Oliveira; Silva, Eliane Lages; Marin-Neto, José Antonio; Galvão, Lúcia Maria da Cunha; Xavier, Sergio Salles; Valente, Sebastião Aldo da Silva; Carvalho, Noêmia Barbosa; Cardoso, Alessandra Viana; Silva, Rafaella Albuquerque E; Costa, Veruska Maia da; Vivaldini, Simone Monzani; Oliveira, Suelene Mamede; Valente, Vera da Costa; Lima, Mayara Maia; Alves, Renato Vieira

    2016-12-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected chronic condition with a high burden of morbidity and mortality. It has considerable psychological, social, and economic impacts. The disease represents a significant public health issue in Brazil, with different regional patterns. This document presents the evidence that resulted in the Brazilian Consensus on Chagas Disease. The objective was to review and standardize strategies for diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control of Chagas disease in the country, based on the available scientific evidence. The consensus is based on the articulation and strategic contribution of renowned Brazilian experts with knowledge and experience on various aspects of the disease. It is the result of a close collaboration between the Brazilian Society of Tropical Medicine and the Ministry of Health. It is hoped that this document will strengthen the development of integrated actions against Chagas disease in the country, focusing on epidemiology, management, comprehensive care (including families and communities), communication, information, education, and research .

  9. Religion and the rainbow struggle: does religion factor into attitudes toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    The provision of civil liberties to LGBT persons has become part of a global movement in societies across the world. In Brazil, a recent judicial ruling for the first time established the right for homosexual couples to enter into civil unions, despite the presence of widespread disapproval of homosexuality among the population and opposition from prominent religious groups. Picking up on this issue, the following study examines whether religion may factor into the attitudes Brazilians hold toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions. Using data from the Brazilian Social Research Survey, we find that the most restrictive views toward homosexuality and the strongest opposition to same-sex civil unions are most prevalent among devoted followers of historical Protestant, Pentecostal, and Catholic faith traditions, whereas adherents of Afro-Brazilian and spiritist religions, as well as those with no religious commitment, are inclined to assume a more tolerant moral posture toward such issues. The findings point to religion as a potential influence in future public policy initiatives and social movements involving LGBT issues in Brazil.

  10. The Brazilian education system. Students with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dainese

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian education system provides a specific form of organization for the inclusive education of students with disabilities. Law No. 9394 dated December 20, 1996, “Lei de diretrizes e bases da educação nacional”, presents in Chapter V the “educação especial" as a form of organization offered to students "portadores de Necessidades especiais”. Admission of students with disabilities in the Brazilian schools was characterized by several phases: the welfarist phase, the integration phase and the inclusion phase, which is the most recent one and now being debated. The presence of a special device fosters the differences, even when everybody enters the classbecause a separation perspective damps down all the procedural and design efforts towards a true integration, holding back collaboration and action sharing among teachers. We consider however effective an action that accompanies the gradual learning evolution mediating between the student with disabilities and peers, between him and the teachers, between him and the learning tools designed.

  11. Regulatory Issues Associated with Preharvest Food Safety: European Union Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Lis

    2016-10-01

    Free movement of safe and wholesome food is an essential aspect of any society. This article contains an updated description of the regulatory issues associated with preharvest food safety within the European Union. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Trichinella, antimicrobial resistance, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy are dealt with in detail. Moreover, Cysticercus bovis/Taenia saginata, Toxoplasma, Yersinia, verotoxigenic/shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria, and foodborne viruses are briefly covered. The article describes how the focus in the European Union is changing to involve a supply chain view with a focus on cost-effectiveness. The precautionary principle-as well as the use of private standards as an instrument to ensure compliance-is dealt with. In addition, actions in the pipeline are presented and discussed.

  12. Ações de vigilância sanitária no município de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, entre 2008 e 2013 / Actions of health surveillance in southeast brazilian city from 2008 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Garcia Oliveira da Fonseca

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Os municípios brasileiros apresentam modalidades distintas de organização e gestão pública em virtude das diferentes realidades regionais, o que constitui uma importante estratégia para o planejamento dos serviços de vigilância sanitária. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever e analisar os procedimentos realizados pela Vigilância Sanitária do município de Divinópolis inserido no Sistema de Informações Ambulatoriais (SIA-SUS entre 2008 e 2013. Trata-se de um estudo transversal que utilizou informações do banco de dados eletrônico SIA-SUS e disponibilizado de forma pública através do site DATA/SUS. A partir do Tabnet/Datasus foram acessados os dados da produção ambulatorial do SUS por local de atendimento e forma de organização referente à vigilância sanitária. As informações foram exportadas e organizadas por tipo de atividade para o programa computacional Windows Excel® (versão 2007 para análise descritiva dos dados. De um total de 49 tipos de procedimentos executados pela vigilância sanitária de Divinópolis, 6 (12,24% são relativos a processo administrativo sanitário, 4 (8,16% às atividades educativas, 5 (10,20% são relativos à análise/investigação de surtos e 10 (20,41% à inspeção sanitária. O SIA-SUS é uma ferramenta útil para o desenvolvimento de mecanismos de avaliação do serviço de vigilância sanitária. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Brazilian municipalities have distinct modes of organization and public administration owing to differing regional realities, which is an important strategy for the planning of he-alth surveillance services. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse the procedures performed by the Health Surveillance service of Divinópolis inserted into the Ambulatory Information System (SIA-SUS from 2008 to 2013. This was a cross-sectional study that used information from the electronic database SIA-SUS and publicly

  13. Further notes on Brazilian Conidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, van J.-J.; Tursch, B.; Kempf, M.

    1971-01-01

    Since the publication of a survey of brazilian Conidae (Van Moll et al., 1967) new extensive dredgings effected by one of us (M.K.) along considerable portions of the Brazilian coast have brought a rich material allowing us to add to the previous work and to correct certain opinions therein

  14. Brazilian Political Issues: Informed Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    interest groups? 6. The Ministry of Labor estimates that nearly 11,000 labor unions operate in Brazil. Although unions are independent of political...parties, a number of labor leaders are 4 prominent members of political parties. Additionally, labor unions have been known to form alliances with...social movements and political parties when advocating individual issues. (Department of State, Humans Rights Report.) How influential are labor

  15. A condução das políticas hídricas para o Semiárido Brasileiro: a ação do Estado e as lutas sociais (The conduct of water policies for the Brazilian Semiarid region: State action and social struggles Doi: 10.5212/Emancipacao.v.14i2.0006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Batista Silveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Neste artigo pretendemos contribuir com o debate sobre a condução das políticas hídricas voltadas ao Semiárido brasileiro, especialmente, nas ações voltadas à universalização do acesso à água para as famílias que vivem em condições de extrema pobreza na região. Nossas considerações partem da premissa de que a água, como elemento condicionante fundamental da vida humana no planeta, é um direito humano, e portanto, deve ser garantido a partir de políticas públicas universais, que garantam o acesso às populações rurais. Nosso principal argumento é que a questão ambiental no Brasil, e de modo específico, a questão do acesso e uso da água pelas populações do Semiárido Brasileiro, está intrinsecamente ligada ao aprofundamento das relações capitalistas de produção na condução de uma política hídrica que prioriza a privatização da água e legitima o valor econômico de um elemento natural indispensável à vida.Palavras-chave: Políticas Hídricas. Direitos. Semiárido.Abstract: This paper aims to contribute to the debate on the conduct of water policies aimed at the Brazilian semiarid region, especially, in actions aimed at universal access to water for families living in extreme poverty in the region. Our considerations are based on the premise that water, as a fundamental determinant element of human life on the planet, is a human right, and therefore must be ensured from universal public policies that ensure access to rural populations. Our main argument is that the environmental question in Brazil, and specifically, the question of access and use of water by the population of the Brazilian semiarid region, is intrinsically linked to the deepening of capitalist relations of production in conducting a water policy that prioritizes the water privatization and legitimizes the economic value of a natural element essential to life.Keywords: Water policies. Rights. Semiarid.

  16. The role of food standards on international trade: assessing the Brazilian beef chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challengesfacing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

  17. Brazilian nursing history on the shoulders of giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguisso, T; de Freitas, G F

    2015-03-01

    This study describes the route followed by nursing in Brazil, through the foundation of nursing organizations and the emergence of nursing leaders and pioneers. To present the origins of modern nursing in Brazil, identifying the main nurse-leaders and analysing their performance for the creation and consolidation of the nursing organizations. It is a historical and social study with descriptive approach, to describe the process of Brazilian nursing professionalization and leadership through a literature review. The oldest nursing organization is the Brazilian Nursing Association that holds scientific and cultural activities. There are also nurses' unions and nursing specialty associations, such as the Brazilian Academy for the History of Nursing, and the Federal Nursing Council. The latter has compulsory membership for controlling nursing services according to the qualifications of the personnel. The very first school for nurses in the Nightingale system was created in São Paulo, 1894, at the Samaritan Hospital, and by the government in 1923, in Rio de Janeiro, for which American nurses, led by Ethel Parsons, sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation, were essential for the creation of the Anna Nery Nursing School, still in operation within a federal university. Some nurses pioneered these works such as Edith Fraenkel, Maria Rosa Pinheiro, Amalia Carvalho and others. The work done by nursing leaders has brought to the profession a better status and made it more recognized by the society. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  18. European Union a New Babylon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesch, F.

    2010-07-01

    The growing European Union faces growing problems in personal communication. These problems cannot be overcome only by more language courses in school. As important is a better mutual knowledge of the culture of other countries, a knowledge that can be gained only by a personal, professional stay in foreign countries. On university level, such stays are best organized by networks connecting European universities. In the broad field of measurement, this IMEKO symposium might offer a unique forum to thoroughly discuss structure and realization of such a network with all interested colleagues.

  19. Intersectionality in European Union policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    is particularly apt to deal with equality and diversity in policymaking. By analysing a selection of European Union policy documents on gender-based violence in the period 2000–2014, we attend to the question of what intersectionality can bring to policymaking in terms of strengthening inclusiveness and address......Inclusiveness of different social groups and responsiveness to the needs of increasingly diverse societies are key criteria for policy analysts to assess the quality of public policies. We argue that an intersectional approach attentive to the interaction of gender with other inequalities...

  20. The relationship between labor unions and safety in US airlines: Is there a "union effect?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapf, Renee Catherine

    Every airline union claims to work for safety and presents anecdotes where greater airline safety has been achieved through union efforts. The effect unionization has on safety outcomes in U.S. commercial airlines, however, wasn't found to be previously tested. Studies have shown that in industries such as coal mining, retail, and construction, unionization does lead to an increase in safety. This study evaluated the safety rates of 15 major US commercial airlines to compare the difference between unionized and non-unionized airlines. These safety rates were compared based on if and how long each airline's pilots and flight attendants have been unionized, to determine if unionization had an effect on safety outcomes. The 15 airlines included in the study identified as operating most of the years between 1990 and 2013, with annual departures averaging over 130,000, available through the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Accident and Incident information was acquired through the National Transportation Safety Board database. The number of accident and incidents divided by the total departures at each airline was used as the safety rate. Union websites provided information on unionization at the airlines. Due to the complex nature of the aviation industry, a number of confounding factors could have affected the tests, including mergers, route structures, and legislation. To help control for these confounding factors, this study was limited to airlines with a stable presence in the industry over time, which limited the number of airlines included. No significant difference was found between unionized and non-unionized airlines in this study, though the mean safety rate of unionized airlines was found be better than non-unionized airlines. This study did not take into account safety improvements that were union-backed and eventually required at all airlines, regardless of unionization. Due to the large sample size of the small population the difference in safety rate

  1. Job satisfaction and employee’s unionization decision: the mediating effect of perceived union instrumentality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, H.; Hu, E.; Zhi, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: Given the current lack of literature in the background of China labor force, this study aims to investigate the relationships among job satisfaction, perceived union instrumentality, and unionization from a reference-frame-based perspective and explore the referred relationships in the context of Chinese labor market. Design/methodology/approach: The study introduces perceived union instrumentality as a mediator to the relationship between job satisfaction and unionization. The applicability of western theories was tested in the Chinese context by a questionnaire survey on 390 employees who were working in private sectors of Jiangsu Province in China. Four hypothesis were proposed and tested by data analysis to verify the model. Findings: The study found that most aspects of job satisfaction were negatively correlated with unionization and perceived union instrumentality, while perceived union instrumentality had a positive relationship with unionization. Perceived union instrumentality was also found to have a mediating effect on the relationship between job satisfaction and unionization. Originality/value: The paper adapted and tested a number of western industrial relation theories in the backdrop of China, contributing to the gap in Chinese-context research by examining the relationships between job satisfaction, unionization and union instrumentality of Chinese employees. It pays a regular contribution to labor union studies both inside and outside China. (Author)

  2. Job satisfaction and employee’s unionization decision: The mediating effect of perceived union instrumentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Shan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Given the current lack of literature in the background of China labor force, this study aims to investigate the relationships among job satisfaction, perceived union instrumentality, and unionization from a reference-frame-based perspective and explore the referred relationships in the context of Chinese labor market. Design/methodology/approach: The study introduces perceived union instrumentality as a mediator to the relationship between job satisfaction and unionization. The applicability of western theories was tested in the Chinese context by a questionnaire survey on 390 employees who were working in private sectors of Jiangsu Province in China. Four hypothesis were proposed and tested by data analysis to verify the model. Findings and Originality/value: The study found that most aspects of job satisfaction were negatively correlated with unionization and perceived union instrumentality, while perceived union instrumentality had a positive relationship with unionization. Perceived union instrumentality was also found to have a mediating effect on the relationship between job satisfaction and unionization. Originality/value: The paper adapted and tested a number of western industrial relation theories in the backdrop of China, contributing to the gap in Chinese-context research by examining the relationships between job satisfaction, unionization and union instrumentality of Chinese employees. It pays a regular contribution to labor union studies both inside and outside China.

  3. Framing the debate over teacher unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Smith

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The power of teacher unions in the U.S. has waned since the 2010 mid-term elections.  The convergence of business conservatism and teacher accountability ideologies has led to an intense targeting of public teacher unions as a problem, both economically and educationally.  Using the target audience framework of Schneider and Ingram (1993, I break down the framing used in the present anti-union movement and explore a local example of anti-union legislation in Pennsylvania.  The analysis reveals a socially constructed dichotomy in which victimized children are pitted against greedy teachers.  To stem this wave of anti-unionism, teacher unions must recognize their position as public contenders and rearticulate their message using child-first rhetoric.

  4. Farmers, workers: thirty years of new rural labor unionism in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arilson Favareto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the dependencies and conditionings net that supports the origin, evolution, and the current configuration of the new Brazilian rural syndicalism. The study rebuilds the characteristics of the social basis of the movement, the leaders profile, agenda, and behavior privileged in each of the three moments of the adopted time line. The research covers from the genesis, in middle seventies; through the constitution of the CUT, the crisis in the late eighties; up to the union with Contag, in the beginning of current decade. The study highlights the growing dissemination of specific organizations representing family based agriculture.

  5. Greece and the Missing Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The Greek Crisis is a crisis rather than a problem due to the vulnerability of Greek banks. While the banks have deep problems, this column argues that these would have been mitigated if a fully operational banking union were in place. A full banking union requires joint banking supervision, joint...... bank resolution, and joint deposit insurance. The EZ only has the first so far. Completing the banking union must be part of any long-term solution....

  6. Theory and reform in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Chryssochoou, Dimitris N.; Tsinisizelis, Michael J.; Stavridis, Stelios; Ifantis, Kostas

    2003-01-01

    This substantially updated and revised edition offers a comprehensive overview of the challenges confronting the political system as well as the international politics of the European Union. It draws from a rich spectrum of regional integration theories to determine what the Union actually is and how it is developing. The book examines constitutional politics of the European Union, from the Single European Act to the Treaty of Nice and beyond. The ongoing debate on the future of Europe links ...

  7. Fiscal Convergence in an Enlarged European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta VINTILĂ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxation convergence in the European Union has always been a heatedly debated issue, and it has constantly resurfaced to the limelight as more and more fiscal directive proposals are being discussed. The current study is an analysis of the evolution of taxation convergence tendencies within the European Union in recent years, using sigma-convergence and cluster analysis. Our goal is to analyze the fiscal convergence trends in the context of European Union enlargement over the last two decades.

  8. Trade union organization in employment relations

    OpenAIRE

    Čeledová, Jaroslava

    2012-01-01

    Trade unions organizations in employment relations The thesis deals with trade union organization as the most important representative of employees in collective employment relations. The purpose of this thesis is to describe a task of trade union organization as a legal subject from the view of legal theory, as well as from the view of contemporary legal regulation which has recently been substantially changed due to the recodification of private law. These contemporary amendments change a s...

  9. Trade Unions, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michele Ford

    2015-01-01

    .... The International Labour Organization and elements of the international trade union movement have succeeded in getting forced labour on the policy agenda globally and within many national settings...

  10. Wage and Labor Union in Manufacturing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pipit Pitriyan; Adiatma Y.M Siregar

    2012-01-01

    The presence of Labor Unions is expected to provide a higher bargaining power for its members so that the rights of workers can be better acknowledged. In Indonesia, presently, the role of unions is more highlighted in the determination of the minimum wage. This study aims to estimate the the role of labor union on wage determination of Indonesia’s labor intensive manufacturing sector and whether wage differentials occurs among labor union member/non-member of Indonesia’s labor intensive manu...

  11. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  12. Nuclear power. A key contributor to a decarbonised European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-12-15

    The European energy sector is currently facing a new set of challenges in the light of the COP21 Paris agreement, the Energy Union initiative and new market design projections. Nuclear energy sector understands the post COP21 constellation as a unique opportunity for all low carbon technologies which will be basic for transition towards COP21 commitments. A new policy outlook for Europe is needed in order to provide low carbon capacity, lead to the modernisation of technical processes and contribute to the prosperity of Europeans. The benefits of nuclear are highlighted for a low carbon future and for the security of supply and recommend actions for supporting new investments.

  13. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  14. 75 FR 15573 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Part III National Credit Union Administration 12 CFR Parts 701, 708a, and 708b Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 59...

  15. Brazilian Space Weather Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Antonio; Takahashi, Hisao; de Paula, Eurico; Sawant, Hanumant; de Campos Velho, Haroldo; Vitorello, Icaro; Costa, Joaquim; Souza, Jonas; Cecatto, José; Mendes, Odim; Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter Demétrio

    A space weather program is being initiated at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) to study events from their initiation on the sun to their impacts on the earth, including their effects on space-based and ground-based technological systems. The program is built on existing capabilities at INPE, which include scientists with a long tradition and excellence in the observation, analysis and modeling of solar and solar-terrestrial phenomena and an array of geophysical instruments that spans all over the Brazilian territory from the north to south of the magnetic dip equator. Available sensors include solar radio frequency receivers and telescopes, optical instruments and solar imagers, GNSS receivers, ionosondes, radars, allsky imagers, magnetometers and cosmic ray detectors. In the equatorial region, ionosphere and thermosphere constitute a coupled system with electrodynamical and plasma physical processes being responsible for a variety of peculiar phenomena. The most important of them are the equatorial electrojet current system and its instabilities, the equatorial ionization anomaly, and the plasma instabilities/irregularities of the night-time ionosphere (associated with the plasma bubble events). In addition, space weather events modify the equatorial ionosphere in a complex and up to now unpredictable manner. Consequently, a main focus of the program will be on monitoring the low, middle and upper atmosphere phenomena and developing a predictive model of the equatorial ionosphere through data assimilation, that could help to mitigate against the deleterious effects on radio communications and navigation systems. The technological, economic and social importance of such activities was recognized by the Brazilian government and a proposal for funding was approved for the period 2008-2011. New ground instruments will be installed during this period allowing us to extend our current capability to provide space weather observations, accurate

  16. Ethnic Identity and Power: Quilombos in Brazilian Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Peres Calheiros

    2010-06-01

    Extension Assistance (Pnater, this article examines the relation of power between public policies and ethnic identities. It discusses how the reformulated concept of development influences government activity in rural contexts and the adoption of compensatory actions for excluded portions of the population. It briefly presents the social, legal and conceptual trajectory of the quilombos, localizing the dynamics of power in the construction of quilombola identity, a project in constant re-elaboration by Brazilian society.

  17. Medical interpreting and the law in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Mary

    2012-09-01

    In 2011, the Danish government announced that from June that year it would no longer cover the costs of medical interpreters for patients who had been living in Denmark for more than seven years. The Dutch Ministry of Health followed with an even more draconian approach; from 1 January 2012, the cost of translation and interpreting would no longer be covered by the state. These two announcements led to widespread concern about whether or not there is a legal foundation for interpreter provision in healthcare. This article considers United Nations treaties, conventions from the Council of Europe and European Union law. European Union member states have been slow to sign up to international agreements to protect the rights of migrant workers. The European Union itself has only recently moved into the area of discrimination and it is unclear if the Race Directive covers language. As a result, access to interpreters in healthcare, where it exists, is dependent on national anti-discrimination legislation or on positive action taken at national or local level rather than on European or international law.

  18. brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Mendes Borini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of corporate social responsibility (CSR has not been widely examined in the context of multinationals. This dearth is even greater with respect to subsidiaries, particularly the subject of reverse transfer of practices, that is, the transfer of practices developed in subsidiaries back to the parent company. Because of this theoretical gap, the present article investigates the factors involved on reverse transfer of CSR practices. The research hypotheses test the importance of developing nonlocation-bound capabilities, of integration between subsidiaries and parent and of institutional distance. The data were obtained by a survey of the main foreign subsidiaries in Brazil. All told, we analyzed 150 Brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals, by applying multiple linear regression. The results indicate that the reverse transfer of CSR depends on the development of nonlocation-bound capabilities of the subsidiaries and integration between the parent company and its foreign subsidiaries.

  19. Update on European Union and United Kingdom legislation for Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Hunter

    2006-01-01

    Legislative action at both the European Union (E.U.) and United Kingdom (U.K.) national level has been taken in response to outbreaks of Phytophthora ramorum and, more recently, Phytophthora kernoviae. Measures are aimed at identifying and preventing the movement of infected nursery stock and the containment and eradication of...

  20. The management of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    TARTIU Valentina Elena

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, WEEE constitutes one of the fastest growing waste fractions generated, accounting for 8% of all municipal waste. This trend increases the environmental burdens consequently action on WEEE is an urgent need in nowadays. The paper outline the current status of the management of the WEEE across the European Union.

  1. 77 FR 11171 - License Renewal Application for Callaway Plant, Unit 1, Union Electric Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Intent to prepare environmental impact statement and conduct scoping process. SUMMARY: Union Electric Company, a subsidiary of Ameren Corporation and doing business as Ameren Missouri... environmental impact statement (EIS) related to the review of the license renewal application and to provide the...

  2. The Dependency Theory of Trade Unionism and the Role of the Industrial Registrar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Gerard; Scarcebrook, Victor

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the argument that Australian trade unions, because they are created by the state, are dependent on state for membership, authority, power, and the provision of industrial conditions. Subjects the explanation of the origins of the movement to empirical analysis and focuses on the key role ascribed to the actions of the early Industrial…

  3. Denmark and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan, K...... of this book, two of Kelstrup’s most important intellectual contributions come from his work on Denmark’s relations with the European Union, and his use of systems theory to understand the EU.......Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan...

  4. INNOVATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR-CODRIN IONESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary knowledge-based society, innovation, as a vector used for the application and promotion of inventions and innovations, is one of the main sources used for obtaining a sustainable competitive advantage. The present paper points out the main directions which the European Commission aims to develop in the sphere of innovation, within the context of the Initiative: “A Union of Innovation”, which is part of the Europe 2020 Strategy. The paper analyses the performances accomplished by the EU states in the area of innovation while developing an international perspective that may represent the starting point in identifying solutions whereby the EU could reduce the gaps that exist in relation to the main international competitors, i.e. South Korea, USA and Japan.

  5. Should the 'Outs' Join the Banking Union?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Hüttl (Pia); D. Schoenmaker (Dirk)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe Single Market stimulates cross-border banking throughout the European Union. This paper documents the banking linkages between the 9 ‘outs’ and 19 ‘ins’ of the Banking Union. We find that some of the major banks, based in Sweden and Denmark, have substantial banking claims across the

  6. Union-Find with Constant Time Deletions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Thorup, Mikkel; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    modification of the classical union-find data structure that supports delete, as well as makeset and union operations, in constant worst-case time, while still supporting find operations in O(log n) worst-case time and O(α_M/N_(n)) amortized time. Our analysis supplies, in particular, a very concise potential...

  7. Banking Union- Present Stage and its Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Prisecaru

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking Union is very important for financial stability of EU, for preventing any future crisis, for improving corporate governance in the banking sector, for completing the single market for financial services and for the strengthening of monetary union, for opening the way to fiscal union and to political union. There is not enough theoretical research in the field of banking union, but there are many recent contributions on behalf of foreign and Romanian experts and analysts, which refer mainly to the three components/pillars of EU banking union: a Single Supervision Mechanism (SSM, a Single Resolution Mechanism (SRM and an harmonized system of deposit guarantee schemes. Some micro studies and surveys carried out by prestigious institutions, like Deutsche Bank, Brookings Institution, CEPS have been run over and analyzed together with the positions and opinions of different European officials, and also with the content of EU secondary legislation. An empirical research was made with the aim to identify all essential aspects relating to EU banking union, which may concern the academics, researchers and business community. The paper is based on a previous research study coordinated by author and contains his own conclusions focused on the main arguments in favour of banking union.

  8. Environment in the European Union 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission......The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission...

  9. THE CAUSAL TEXTURE OF TRADE UNION ENVIRONMENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    This paper is an attempt to fill an important gap in the existing literature on trade unions by providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, ...

  10. THE CAUSAL TEXTURE OF TRADE UNION ENVIRONMENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, complexity, instability and turbulence that of trade unions needs to be understood in terms of ...

  11. Cyclicality of Wages and Union Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Annaïg

    This paper examines how trade unions shape the volatility of wages over the business cycle. I present a dynamic stochastic model of the labor market that integrates two main features: search frictions and trade unions. Because of search frictions, each job match yields an economic surplus that is...

  12. Labor Unions and Political Parties in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorwin, Val R.

    1975-01-01

    The balance of power inside the dominant socialist and Catholic blocs in Belgium, which were once incontestably led by the political elites, has been shifting toward the trade unions. Regionalism has fragmented the political system far more than the industrial relations system; the unions' political influence will continue in importance. (Author)

  13. The Defense of Teachers' Trade Union Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Luce

    1990-01-01

    The author sees cause for concern in the number of complaints to the International Labour Organisation alleging violations of teachers' union rights. She examines the right of public employees to organize and strike and government interference, concluding that greater protection for teachers' unions may be needed. (SK)

  14. Trade Unions and the Humanisation of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchobanian, R.

    1975-01-01

    After pointing out possible prejudicial consequences of job restructuring both for occupational and economic interests of workers and for the structure and activities of the trade union movement, various trade union reactions and attitudes to work humanization are analyzed. Available from: ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211,…

  15. Why Union Activists Write Good Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, Helena H.

    2013-01-01

    The representative structure of a union is a maze which, when travelled as a narrative, has drama at every turn. It sets up expectations, pits good against evil, involves many characters with different interests, keeps the clock ticking, and offers opportunities for happy endings (and disappointments) at every level. Union members who are not…

  16. INNOVATION IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the interfaces and boundaries of innovation orientation of Brazilian MSEs because despite the importance of innovation for Brazilian MSEs, a thorough analysis of such initiatives in Brazil still has not actually happened. The search was developed from a quantitative approach, of applied nature and descriptive. For that a structured questionnaire was used where were interviewed 700 MSEs using a probabilistic sampling. The study offers two important conclusions. The challenges for innovation can be perceived along three dimensions: design innovation, the implementation of innovation and functional area of innovation. And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations. The study offers two important conclusions. The challenges for innovation can be perceived along three dimensions: design innovation, the implementation of innovation and functional area of innovation. And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations.

  17. The european union as subjects of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fila R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At the international level it is recognized that development and progress of the new and unique international organization – European Union – is one of the appropriate form of the international organization’s integration. Although European Union was establish as international economic organization, it has gradually integrated the various “best practices” ideas from different governmental systems. Encouragement and motives for cooperation of Member states indicate that member states give more competences of government to the international organization’s institutes. Wherewith, it is observed that the economic and political internationalization has led to disappearance of integrity of territory of member states. The above mentioned opinion is not based on research of the European Union as international organization from standpoint of international law, but from standpoint of theory law – could give juridical estimate regarding executive power in European Union and who could define particular source and entity of administrative law of European Union.

  18. CFC legislation in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with freedoms guaranteed by the primary law of the European Union, i.e. with Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Cadbury Schweppes case.

  19. Trade Unions, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Ford

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the dilemmas facing trade unions seeking to engage on questions of forced labour and human trafficking. The International Labour Organization and elements of the international trade union movement have succeeded in getting forced labour on the policy agenda globally and within many national settings. However, trade unions have limited capacity to effect real change in relation to these issues because of limitations on their influence, determined largely by membership density and the limited number of sectors in which they are present, but also internal assessments of what constitutes ‘core business’. As a consequence, while trade unions may advocate for legislative or policy change, partner with non-governmental organisations to deal with particular cases, or even engage directly with vulnerable populations, the integration of those populations into the day to day concerns of trade unions necessarily remains elusive—particularly in the global south, where forced labour is most prevalent.

  20. Innovation in brazilian small companies

    OpenAIRE

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues; Átila de Melo Lira; Irenilza Alencar Naas

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the interfaces and boundaries of innovation orientation of Brazilian MSEs because despite the importance of innovation for Brazilian MSEs, a thorough analysis of such initiatives in Brazil still has not actually happened. The search was developed from a quantitative approach, of applied nature and descriptive. For that a structured questionnaire was used where were interviewed 700 MSEs using a probabilistic sampling. The study offers two important conclusions. The ...

  1. Vocational Training in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet BALCI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union requires some standards in all areas. Today, the importance of training qualified individuals which holds an important place in the development of countries increases and certain standards are adopted creating common European Union tools in the field of vocational and technical education. In this study, vocational education and training policies system and the standards adopted by the European Union are discussed. Furthermore, this study was accepted as a European Union project in 2010 and the results obtained from the Leonardo Da Vinci Life Learning European Union project called “Web Based Basic Vocational Training” between the years 2010-2012 were presented. Since the partners of these projects are Turkey, Spain and Germany, the structure of vocational education, institutions of public and private vocational education and the diplomas and certificates entitled after these educations are included. As Turkey is on its way to become a European Union member, a number of advices are presented for Turkey to reach its destination about vocational education standards that European Union has aimed. The purpose of the study is not only to be a guide for the young who want to get professional training in the countries that are European Union members or candidates about how and where to have education opportunities but also to give a chance for trainers and training managers, participating in vocational training, so as to glimpse different practices from different countries and compare these practices between the countries of European Union and their countries. The study is also very important as it has the opportunities for training managers to see if their countries' vocational education is close enough to vocational education in European Union.

  2. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  3. Construindo a legitimidade: reflexões sobre as transformações das práticas de militância no movimento sindical Building legitimacy: reflections on the changes in political militancy practices in the union movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimi Tomizaki

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O eixo central deste estudo reside na tentativa de responder a questões sobre as mediações existentes no estabelecimento dos vínculos de engajamento de trabalhadores no movimento sindical, bem como sobre as formas assumidas por processos de legitimação política no interior de distintas esferas do campo sindical brasileiro. Para tanto, parte-se dos casos de dois sindicatos, ambos do Estado de São Paulo: o Sindicato dos Metalúrgicos do ABC e o Sindicato de Telecomunicações. Entre as semelhanças existentes entre esses sindicatos, sobressai o fato de que durante a década de 1990 ambos passaram por processos de reestruturação produtiva em seus setores; a concomitante renovação de quadros sindicais - em que se destacam sucessões geracionais; e, por fim, a semelhança de origem social de trabalhadores e sindicalistas entre os setores - em grande parte de migrantes nordestinos com baixa escolaridade e ausência de qualificação profissional. Sobre as diferenças, observa-se que a constituição dos processos de legitimação sindical assume distintas composições, o que resulta em diversas reações aos processos de transformação vivenciados nos dois setores. Ainda que atravessando transformações sociais homólogas, os sindicatos permitem observar dinâmicas próprias na construção de diferentes legitimidades militantes e no destino de sindicalistas.This study is focused on the attempt to answer questions about the mechanisms for the commitment of workers to political union activity, as well as about the way the political legitimacy process occurs in different spheres of the Brazilian trade union field. In order to answer such questions, two unions from the state of São Paulo were studied: the steelworkers' union, from the ABC region, and the telecommunications workers' union. There are some similarities between these unions, especially the fact that during the 90s, both of them went through the processes of economic

  4. [Brazilian guidelines for marketing baby food: history, limitations and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Renata

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to present and discuss Brazilian policy concerning actions to protect breastfeeding, especially the history, international and national background, limitations, and perspectives of the Brazilian Guidelines for the Marketing of Baby Food, Pacifiers and Bottles. The Brazilian Guidelines, which play a crucial role in protecting breastfeeding against industry marketing strategies, were based on the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, proposed by the World Health Organization in 1981. The first version of the Brazilian Guidelines was released in 1988, and there were subsequent revisions in 1992 and 2001/2002. In 2006, the Guidelines became national law. However, the strides made over this period in terms of regulation have been few because the law is not always observed. Thus, it is essential that all actors involved, including government officials, manufacturers and sellers of baby food and other baby products, teaching and health professionals and their associations, international bodies, and non-governmental organizations make a commitment to enforce the current law.

  5. A new approach to quantifying physical demand in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacome, Mathieu; Piscione, Julien; Hager, Jean-Philippe; Bourdin, Muriel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe an original approach to assessing individual workload during international rugby union competitions. The difference between positional groups and between the two halves was explored. Sixty-seven files from 30 French international rugby union players were assessed on a computerised player-tracking system (Amisco Pro(®), Sport Universal Process, Nice, France) during five international games. Each player's action was split up into exercise and recovery periods according to his individual velocity threshold. Exercise-to-recovery (E:R) period ratios and acceleration were calculated. Results indicated that about 65% of exercise periods lasted less than 4 s; half of the E:Rs were less than 1:4, and about one-third ranged between 1 and 1:4 and about 40% of exercise periods were classified as medium intensity. Most acceleration values were less than 3 m·s(-2) and started from standing or walking activity. Back row players showed the highest mean acceleration values over the game (P < 0.05). No significant decrease in physical performance was seen between the first and second halves of the games except for back rows, who showed a significant decrease in mean acceleration (P < 0.05). The analysis of results emphasised the specific activity of back rows and tended to suggest that the players' combinations of action and recovery times were optimal for preventing large decrease in the physical performance.

  6. Update IENE and other new European actions

    OpenAIRE

    Bekker, Hans

    2005-01-01

    The following contains general information about some important issues concerning habitat fragmentation due to linear infrastructure and measures taken to counteract this phenomenon. COST 341 At the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation (ICOET) 2003, I presented an overview of COST 341. This European action, ordered by the European Union (EU), was initiated by the Infra Eco Network of Europe (IENE). The action concluded in November 2003 with a well-attended international conf...

  7. Pesquisa-ação participante no processo de empowerment de mulheres brasileiras no contexto da migração internacional La investigación-acción participativa en el proceso de empowerment de las mujeres brasileñas en el contexto de la migración internacional Participatory action research in the empowering process of brazilian women in the context of international migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcione Leite da Silva

    2008-12-01

    desarrollo de seminarios y la creación de una asociación. En este estudio, la investigación-acción participativa fue un proceso para activar lo empowerment de las participantes, a través de la pertenencia a grupos, vínculos comunitarios y la acción colectiva.This study aimed to create a personal and political space for the empowerment of a group of Brazilian immigrant women living in Melbourne, Australia, to reflect upon their lives, the causes and solutions for their problems, and to estimulate a collective action in changing with quality. Based on a participating action research, a group of 18 Brazilian women elected three major problems as a focus of the cycle of reflection-action: the lack of social interaction within the Brazilian community and integration into Australian society, the lack of social support to cope with health problems, and barriers to healthcare. Group reflections provided an opportunity for women to plan, act and evaluate their own intervention strategies. Some women group's accomplishments included the development of seminars and the creation of an Association. In this study, the participatory action research was a process to trigger participants' empowerment through group affiliation, community bonding, and collective action.

  8. Acquired Credit Unions: Drivers of Takeover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raymond Sant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study acquired credit unions and analyze their financial performance up to six years prior to merger, on a quarterly basis. The primary focus is on balance sheet (asset liability management and profitability variables (return on assets. We find that acquired credit unions during the period 2008 (third quarter to 2014 (first quarter experienced negative return on assets for several quarters prior to their takeover. This was the result of a declining loan portfolio and increasing charge offs. In spite of decreasing lending activity, such credit unions continued to increase their deposits, i.e., adding to their cost base. Due to declining loans, their net interest margin as a proportion of deposits was also in decline. We argue that this is an indicator of poor management ability. Furthermore, our analysis finds that operating expenses were increasing over time, something that has been documented in previous literature also for smaller credit unions and is attributable to lack of economies of scale. The average asset size of the acquired credit unions in our sample is about $22 million just before acquisition. We attribute our findings to poor business strategy followed by such credit unions. We also conclude that signs of trouble are evident up to two years before merger on average and regulatory policy may have to become more proactive to manage the consolidation challenge faced by the credit union industry in general.

  9. Church unions and their consequences in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mironowicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orthodox Christians in Poland have faced numerous attempts to be forced into union with the Roman Catholic Church, ranging from the thirteenth to the twentieth century. The first attempt at a union between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church took place as early as the mid-thirteenth century. Another attempt at forcing the Orthodox Church into union with Rome took place during the reign of Ladislaŭ II Yagiello. The problem of church union returned in the reign of Alexander the Yagiellonian. When Ivan III rejected all projects for bringing the Florence such a union into practice, discussion on church union disappeared until the end of the sixteenth century. The mission of the papal legate, Father Antonio Possevino, to Ivan IV, had been intended to draw Moscow into the union, and its failure caused the papacy to concentrate its efforts on the Orthodox Church in Poland. The Ruthenian bishops’ obedience to the Pope was officially announced on the 8 October 1596. The decisions of the Uniate-Catholic synod were met with numerous protests from the Orthodox clergy and nobility. The larger part of the clergy and the faithful, together with bishops remained in the Orthodox camp. Despite the failure of the Brest Synod in fully uniting Orthodox and Roman churches, new union projects concerning the Orthodox Church in Poland continued to arise prior to the end of 18th century. The Vatican’s interest in the Orthodox Church in Central Europe was renewed at the end of the First World War. On April 1st, 1917, the Pope created the Congregation for the Oriental Churches which was responsibile for all issues relating to the activities of all the Eastern denominations. Despite aims at unification, attempts at church union have had a negative influence on the relations between the Roman Catholic and Polish Orthodox Church in contemporary Poland. The result of centuries of attempts at unification under the Pope has been fragmentation and division.

  10. The professional system brazilian librarian: its capacity to answer to the changes of the environment economic and politician in the beginning of century XXI; a boarding under the perspective of the communicative action.O sistema profissional bibliotecário brasileiro: sua capacidade de responder às mudanças do ambiente político e econômico no início do século XXI; uma abordagem sob a perspectiva da ação comunicativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco das Chagas de Souza

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical discussion, based on sociological principles which constitute the structural composition of the profession of librarian, from a systemic perspective of world organisation, according to Habermas’ theory of communicative action and the professional typology proposed by Freidson in his Sociology of Professions. Focusing on the structural characterisation of the daily tasks performed by the Brazilian Librarian, the article concludes that the capacity of librarians to respond to the political and economic changes of the beginning of the XXIst century depends on a clear and transparent description of the responsibilities of the information professional and how the Brazilian Library Professional System is structured. If the theoretical principles discussed are used for the educational purposes of the librarians and for their strategic national action, these same principles may prepare the librarian to respond to the new political and economic environment of the new century. Brazilian librarian, Brazilian society, Brazilian librarian education, Librarianship and professional systems, Librarianship and communicative action.Trata-se de artigo que resulta de pesquisa teórica, de caráter sociológico, que constrói uma caracterização da composição estrutural da profissão bibliotecária a partir da perspectiva sistêmica e da concepção de mundo vivido originária da Teoria da Ação Comunicativa de Habermas e da tipologia profissional oriunda da Sociologia das Profissões de Freidson. Adotando esta caracterização estrutural para analisar o cotidiano vivido pela categoria bibliotecária brasileira, conclui que a capacidade da categoria bibliotecária de responder às mudanças do ambiente político e econômico no início do século XXI depende de que seja tornado transparente e objetivo qual é e como está estruturado o Sistema Profissional Bibliotecário brasileiro. A sua explicitação e o seu uso como marco te

  11. A Federal Constitution for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    that the federal government loses legitimacy. It appears vital tohave trade policy at the European Union level; for euro countries, monetary policy is alreadyfederalized. It is not clear that common foreign and defense policies are needed; insisting oncommon foreign and defense policies may lead to conflicts...... that helps drain the reservoir of goodwill that the European Union will need fordealing with other conflicts amongst member states....... within and across member statesthat severely weaken the Union, conceivably contributing to eventual collapse. Insisting onharmonization of commercial codes does not have the destructive potential of attemptingcompletely to harmonize defense and foreign policies; it may, however, lead to needlessconflict...

  12. CFC legislation in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with ...

  13. The level of influence of trust, commitment, cooperation, and power in the interorganizational relationships of Brazilian credit cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Denise Maria; Faria, Ana Cristina de; Prearo, Leandro Campi; Arruda, Alessandro Gustavo Souza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article aims to analyze the level of influence of trust, commitment, cooperation, and power in the interrelationships of individual credit cooperatives and their central organization in Brazil. The quantitative and descriptive research was developed in unique credit unions linked to the Central Bank of Brazil and the Organization of Brazilian Cooperatives. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, with the estimation through partial least squares. The results ob...

  14. Amazon, priority for Brazilian National Defense Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pereira, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    .... The Brazilian national defense policy, issued in 1996, the first in the history of the country, established directives to orient the Brazilian military strategic planning as well as diplomatic...

  15. Trade Union Cooperation in the EU: Views Among Swedish Trade Unions and Their Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Furåker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article compares views among Swedish trade unions with those of their members regarding cross-national union cooperation in Europe or the EU. Data are derived from two different surveys, one among trade unions in 2010–2011 and the other among employees in 2006. It turns out that trade unions are generally more affirmative than their members to transnational union cooperation. In the employee survey, differences appear between members of the three peak-level organizations—the LO (manual workers, the TCO (white-collar workers, and Saco (professionals. However, controlling for education, these differences cannot be verified statistically. Higher education—which above all Saco members have—is linked to more positive attitudes toward transnational union cooperation. The gap between the organizations and their affiliates concerning engagement in European issues appears to be larger in the LO than in Saco, with the TCO somewhere in the middle.

  16. 76 FR 10209 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... an infringement on the name of any corporation in its trade area. This responsibility also includes researching any service marks or trademarks used by any other corporation (including credit unions) in its...

  17. Shop stewards' learning and union strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    2007-01-01

    paid to the learning processes involved in shop stewards' daily practice in their workplaces. In the paper I will discuss results from a research and development project involving shop stewards from four different unions, all part of LO (the Danish Confederation of Trade Unions, an umbrella...... different theoretical traditions: Shop steward's learning is situational, relational and cross-contextual. Shop stewards' learning is lifelong and life wide. And shop stewards' learning is closely connected to the development of the labour market and not least the unions' priorities, interpretation...... and reaction to this development. In the first part of the paper I shortly discuss challenges of unions today following the decline in number of members. In the second part I present results from the research project. Thirdly, I discuss how different theoretical approaches to learning are relevant for studies...

  18. Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge: Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for the administration of hunting activity and for the development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Union...

  19. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Union County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  20. Non-union in forearm fractures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayakumar, P; Jupiter, J B

    2014-01-01

    Non-union in forearm fractures is an uncommon but complex problem. This is especially given the unique anatomical structure and function of the forearm, making treatment distinctly different to that of other long bone fractures...

  1. Former Soviet Union (FSU) Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded gravity anomaly data for the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Eastern Europe has been received by the National Geophysical Data Center(NGDC). The data file...

  2. The virtual union catalog: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Coyle

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A Virtual union catalog is a possible alternative to the centralized database of distributed resources found in many library systems. Such a catalog would not be maintained in a single location but would be created in real time by searching each local campus or affiliate library’s catalog through the Z39.50 protocol. This would eliminate the redundancy of record storage as well as the expense of loading and maintaining access to the central catalog. This article describes a test implementation of a virtual union catalog for the University of California system. It describes some of the differences between the virtual catalog and the existing, centralized union catalog (MELVYL. The research described in the paper suggests enhancements that must be made if the virtual union catalog is to become a reasonable service alternative to the MELVYL® catalog.

  3. Bank Decapitalization and Credit Union Capitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Klinedinst

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the theory and empirical findings of excessive compensation on the recent financial implosion across institutional forms in banking. Compensation levels have gone up dramatically over the last 30 years as deregulation and concentration have grown. Some banks and quite a few credit unions avoided closure by prudent portfolio selection and keeping reserves up by maintaining compensation levels closer to the median level. Empirical findings here are based on a unique panel data set on U.S. commercial banks, thrifts, and credit unions from 1994 through 2010 (more than 300,000 observations that provide evidence that the firms with the highest net worth typically are smaller institutions, are credit unions, have smaller insider loans as a percentage of assets, and have lower average pay levels. The favorable results here for credit unions, financial cooperatives, should help guide policy when deciding which type of financial institutions should be encouraged.

  4. Cyclicality of Wages and Union Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Annaïg

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how trade unions shape the volatility of wages over the business cycle. I present a dynamic stochastic model of the labor market that integrates two main features: search frictions and trade unions. Because of search frictions, each job match yields an economic surplus...... that is shared between the worker and the firm. Therefore, I can decompose the volatility of wages into two components: the volatility of the match surplus and the volatility of the worker share of the surplus. Starting from the unions' objective function, I show that under collective wage bargaining, the worker......: the union wage premium fluctuates counter-cyclically, and employment is more cyclical but less persistent when wages are collectively bargained....

  5. Labour market asymmetries in a monetary union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seneca, Martin; Andersen, Torben M.

    This paper takes a first step in analysing how a monetary union performs in the presence of labour market asymmetries. Differences in wage flexibility, market power and country sizes are allowed for in a setting with both countryspecific and aggregate shocks. The implications of asymmetries...... for both the overall performance of the monetary union and the country-specific situation are analysed. It is shown that asymmetries are not only critical for countryspecific performance but also for the overall performance of the monetary union. A striking finding is that aggregate output volatility...... this is not necessarily the case for aggregate shocks. There may thus be a tension between the degree of flexibility considered optimal at the country level and at the aggregate level within the monetary union....

  6. US student assistants win union rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The US National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) has ruled that graduate students in private universities and colleges who work as teaching or research assistants are statutory employees of their institutions who have the right to join unions.

  7. The Negotiated Curriculum in Trade Union Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Mel

    1993-01-01

    Examines how participants in trade union courses can effectively influence their learning experience through discussion, consultation, and negotiation with the instructor while the training activity is in progress. (JOW)

  8. College Education and Attitudes Toward Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muczyk, Jan P.; Gannon, Martin J.

    1974-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that labor unions have not grown in the white-collar sector due to biases projected by professors in classrooms. In the research using 437 undergraduate subjects, support was found for this hypothesis. (EK)

  9. Labor unions: a public health institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Beth; Minkler, Meredith; Stock, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Using a social-ecological framework, we drew on a targeted literature review and historical and contemporary cases from the US labor movement to illustrate how unions address physical and psychosocial conditions of work and the underlying inequalities and social determinants of health. We reviewed labor involvement in tobacco cessation, hypertension control, and asthma, limiting articles to those in English published in peer-reviewed public health or medical journals from 1970 to 2013. More rigorous research is needed on potential pathways from union membership to health outcomes and the facilitators of and barriers to union-public health collaboration. Despite occasional challenges, public health professionals should increase their efforts to engage with unions as critical partners.

  10. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-10

    obliging the Ukrainian Helsinki Union people—can you have forgotten the artistic Ukrainian films "The High Pass," "The White Bird with the Black Mark...34 and a multitude of documentary films debunking nationalism? With respect to V. Kuznetsov (script writer for the films "The Mentality, Honor, and...Helsinki Union conducted its congress over the two-day period prior to the First of May holiday at the House of Cinematography . The Ukrainian Helsinki

  11. Taxation of credit unions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оксана Георгіївна Волкова

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of income taxation of credit unions in Ukraine by the tax on profits of enterprises and tax of revenues of their members accrued on the interest of contributions (deposits on deposit accounts and mutual funds the tax to incomes of physical persons. The consequences of the influence of tax rules on capitalization of unions and the level of their financial support is defined

  12. GOVERNING EUROPEAN UNION TO FINANCIAL STABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ion-Lucian CATRINA

    2012-01-01

    In the last four years, a significant part of the European Union members has recorded a real decline in the sustainability of their public debt. The failure of Greece, Italy, Belgium or Spain to easily find funding at previous interest rates has induced the fear that the European Monetary Union would disintegrate. Such as scenario is not realistic because does not take into account the economic interdependencies that have been created between the countries participating at the monetary zone. ...

  13. Innovation Policy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The innovation policies aim to analyze priority factors shaping innovative performance and to reflect the increasing appreciation of the economic and social importance of innovation. This paper is commissioned to examine topics of current interest or concern to innovation policy-makers in Europe. Based on literature and the framework of the European Action Plan for Innovation, this paper investigates different levels and fields of European innovational systems and practices.

  14. 78 FR 4875 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Loan Program Access for Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... equipment, including branch facilities, ATMs, and electronic banking facilities; and (v) Operational... credit union's marketing strategy to reach members and the community; and include financial projections...

  15. Labor unions and safety climate: perceived union safety values and retail employee safety outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Robert R; Martin, James E; Sears, Lindsay E

    2010-09-01

    Although trade unions have long been recognized as a critical advocate for employee safety and health, safety climate research has not paid much attention to the role unions play in workplace safety. We proposed a multiple constituency model of workplace safety which focused on three central safety stakeholders: top management, ones' immediate supervisor, and the labor union. Safety climate research focuses on management and supervisors as key stakeholders, but has not considered whether employee perceptions about the priority their union places on safety contributes contribute to safety outcomes. We addressed this gap in the literature by investigating unionized retail employee (N=535) perceptions about the extent to which their top management, immediate supervisors, and union valued safety. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that perceived union safety values could be distinguished from measures of safety training, workplace hazards, top management safety values, and supervisor values. Structural equation analyses indicated that union safety values influenced safety outcomes through its association with higher safety motivation, showing a similar effect as that of supervisor safety values. These findings highlight the need for further attention to union-focused measures related to workplace safety as well as further study of retail employees in general. We discuss the practical implications of our findings and identify several directions for future safety research. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. European Union security policy through strategic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriša Hatidža

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we shall pay attention to the security policy of the European Union, through the strategic culture, starting from the existing various options for cooperation in the field of security and defense. Our goal is to look at the implementation of the Strategic Culture of the European Union (EU SK, research ways to improve the international position of the Union and its impact on policy cooperation and trust with other collectives. Analysis of flexible cooperation between the European Union, as well as access to special procedures in the field of security and defense policy, we will follow the ambition and capacity in implementing the same. Paper aims to introduce the idea of the European Union, which allows its members to rationally consider and check the box of options available to decision makers. In this regard, the EU seeks to build its own armed forces to protect the association of interests-investment terms. Reviewing and understanding the strategic culture of the EU by countries that are not its members can be seen as reasons for strengthening the capacity of the Union for the realization of the impact of the global security as well as predicting its future steps.

  17. Complementary Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person. Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i to simulate another person’s movements, (ii to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  18. Brazilian medical publications: citation patterns for Brazilian-edited and non-Brazilian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Cunha-Melo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, the quality of a scientific article depends on the periodical in which it is published and on the number of times the article is cited in the literature. In Brazil, the criteria for the evaluation of this scientific production are improving. However, there is still some resistance, with authors arguing that Brazilian publications must be preferentially addressed to the national readers and, therefore, they should ideally be written in Portuguese. In order to determine the kind of scientific journals cited in the reference lists of articles published in medical periodicals edited in Brazil, in the present study we determine the rate of Portuguese/English citations. Three issues of 43 periodicals (19 indexed in SciELO, 10 in PubMed, 10 in LILACS, and 4 in the ISI-Thompson base of different medical specialties were analyzed, and the number of both Portuguese and English citations in the reference list of each article was recorded. The results showed that in Brazilian-edited journals the mean number of citations/article was 20.9 ± 6.9 and the percentage of citations of international non-Brazilian periodicals was 86.0 ± 11.2%. Of the latter, 94.4 ± 7.0 are indexed by ISI-Thompson. Therefore, we conclude that Brazilian medical scientists cite the international non-Brazilian periodicals more than the national journals, and most of the cited papers are indexed by ISI-Thompson.

  19. Legalization of consensual unions in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, N; Pebley, A R

    1981-01-01

    In Latin America, socially sanctioned conjugal unions take 2 forms: legal marriage and consensual unions. While legal marriage is more prestigious, consensual unions offer practical advantages. An examination of the legalization of consensual unions in rural areas in Colombia, Peru, Costa Rica, and Mexico is undertaken using data from the 1969 Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia's (CELADE) comparative survey of fertility. The survey in each country is based on a self weighted sample of 2000-3000 women aged 15-49 living in areas with fewer than 20,000 inhabitants. The union histories addressed types of unions, duration, and age and date of onset and of termination. The samples consisted of 881 unions in Colombia, 646 in Costa Rica, 865 in Mexico, and 1009 in Peru. The risk of legalization was measured by life table procedures, using only single decrement values for comparisons among subgroups. Between 32-41% of the unions are consensual in the rural areas of these countries. With the exception of Peru, consensual unions are higher among 2nd and later unions than among 1st unions. As expected from previous studies, they are more prevalent among younger women, those without education and among non-Catholics or non-practicing Catholics. About 30% of the consensual unions become legalized in Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, and in Peru the rate of conversion is about 50%. Less than 20% in Colombia and Peru remain intact for more than 25 years; about 25% are terminated within the 1st 2 years. The single decrement values suggest that in the absence of separation or death of a partner, almost 50% of the unions would eventually be legalized in Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, about 65% in Peru. The probability of conversion is highest among women in their 1st union and in the 1st year. Only 2-8% of the women legalize higher order unions. Of the factors related to the probability of legalization, age is an important differential in Costa Rica, education in Mexico, and

  20. Trade Union Mergers: A Survey of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Grant

    2000-01-01

    Examines trade union mergers highlighting merger forms, merger motivation, role played by union officers, and merger waves. Discusses the consequences of mergers on members and union performance and concludes that union merger activity has had little impact. (Contains 74 references.) (JOW)

  1. Exploring Novice Teachers' Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Teacher Unionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogodzinski, Ben; Jones, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The distinct needs and interests of novice teachers are not always reflected in the priorities of teacher unions, which may impact novice teachers' attachment to teacher unionism. Using survey data from teachers, we examined novice teachers' involvement in their unions and their desire for union involvement in their work lives compared to their…

  2. Rendering peacekeeping instrumental? The Brazilian approach to United Nations peacekeeping during the Lula da Silva years (2003-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cavalcante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses how Brazilian state actions and policies regarding peace operations during the Presidency of Lula da Silva relate to the country's positions and attitudes towards United Nations peacekeeping. It argues that the inconsistencies identified on the Brazilian positions reflect the lack of a clear strategic horizon guiding the country's participation in UN peacekeeping, which consequentially hinders the country emergence as a great power.

  3. The effects of union mergers and internal restructuring:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Larsen, Trine Pernille

    2016-01-01

    Trade union mergers and restructuring are often seen as strategy for union revitalisation and renewal and have been ongoing in the majority of European trade unions. This paper explores how recent union mergers and internal restructuring has affected unions service provision, union democracy...... and interest representation. This is analysed drawing on longitudinal data from two Danish shop steward surveys conducted in 1998 and 2010, comparing shop stewards in merged and non-merged unions respectively. The main results are that although it could be expected that union mergers and internal restructuring......, where union size and less so the union’s recent merger and restructuring history appears to affect shop stewards’ relations with their unions....

  4. THE TAX POLICY WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION: CONCEPTS, INSTITUTIONS, TRENDS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA COJOCARU (BOROVINA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At the basis of conceiving the tax policy of an European Union member state, one must consider, on the one hand, fulfilling the government's own requirements, and on the other hand, achieving the objectives set by the EC Treaty. At present, the European Union has a quite harmonized and coordinated tax policy in the indirect taxes field, and partially in the direct taxes field, based on the free movement principle of goods, services, capital and labour; thus, although the member states have the freedom to set operation rules of their own national tax systems, this freedom is conditioned by the compliance with the priority objectives of the founding treaties of the European Union. The member states should avoid adopting discriminating tax measures (which could lead to a disadvantageous treatment for the persons, goods and services or capitals coming from other member states. Sometimes, the restrictions regarding free movement on the internal market are generated by the differences between the national tax systems, so that a certain degree of tax harmonization at the European Union level is necessary. The tax harmonization can be achieved either spontaneously (by means of the forces of the market, by means of active actions at the level of the European Union (the implementation of common policies, the coordination of the policies, the harmonization of the legislation, etc. or by means of the passive actions of the European Court of Justice (the interdiction of certain types of conduct of the member states that do not comply with the norms of the European Union. In the absence of the tax harmonization, negative effects can occur, such as: the erosion of the national tax bases, provision of public services and goods at a sub-optimal level, unwanted changes in the structure of the taxes which are levied in the member states, and distortions in assigning resources at the level of the single market.

  5. Left-wing, democracy, and trade union insurgency in Mexico: nuclear, mining, and metallurgical workers, 1972-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Necoechea Gracia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the history of trade union insurgency in Mexico during the 1970s and the relationship established between the left and the labor class. To do this, experiences of the Mexican National Nuclear Energy Trade Union and those of sections 11 and 147 of the mining-metallurgical trade union are analyzed. In the first case, its relationship with the democratic movement of electrical workers and the current of revolutionary nationalism are observed and in the second its links with the political organization Línea Proletaria, which has a Maoist affiliation. Both currents proposed various strategies that revived the tension existing in the Mexican labor movement in the early century, between those who thought that trade unions should not ally to political parties and instead exert direct action at work and those who advocated for political alliances, which they called multiple action. Both movements converged in the trade union movement of that period, which demanded trade union democracy and demonstrated against the austerity policy imposed by the government, as well as for the defense of natural resources. On the other hand, labor activism was manifested in an environment of greater rebelliousness combined with other social groups, a situation that ascertains advances in the struggles of workers from the industry and services, and its impact on the political, social, and cultural life in the country.

  6. Do Unions Matter? An Examination of the Historical and Contemporary Role of Labor Unions in the Social Work Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Jessica; Rosenberg, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    The attitudes among social workers toward labor unions are a topic of significance. Historically, social workers have had an ambivalent relationship with unions. This article analyzes the extent to which unions matter to social workers and whether unions represent the interests of professional social workers. The relationship between social work…

  7. History and Status of the CIS Customs Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, T.M.; Erickson, S.A.

    1999-08-31

    This report explores the history of the CIS Customs Union and the major obstacles the Union faces in its implementation. Investigation of the Customs Union is necessary as its implementation could effect the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Program. Russian Customs contends that radiation detectors should not be installed along the Customs Union members borders of as the borders will be dissolved when the Union is implemented.

  8. Regional Utilization of the Union Catalog of Medical Periodicals System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, Michael D.

    1969-01-01

    This paper describes regional utilization of the Union Catalog of Medical Periodicals system and data base in producing union lists outside Metropolitan New York, the area served by the Union Catalog. A basic introduction to the Medical Library Center of New York's UCMP system is set forth, demonstrating the system's value in the production of such medical and paramedical union lists throughout the country. Several applications are then described, showing how these union lists were produced. PMID:5789816

  9. Trade Union Membership and Earnings in Kenyan Manufacturing Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Manda , Damiano Kulundu; Bigsten, Arne; Mwabu , Germano

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of trade unions on earnings in Kenyan manufacturing using a switching regression model, which takes into account endogeneity of union status of workers. In contrast to earlier studies of the Kenyan labour market, which indicate that the union effect on wages is negative, our results show a strong positive trade union effect. We also show that it is workers with relatively weak position in the labour market that joins the union.

  10. Is Industry-University Interaction Promoting Innovation in the Brazilian Pharmaceutical Industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranhos, Julia; Hasenclever, Lia

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses industry-university interaction and its characteristics in the Brazilian pharmaceutical system of innovation, taking account of the relevance of company strategies, the approach of the universities and the actions of government. By analysing primary and secondary data the authors show that, for as long as corporate investment…

  11. The role of interpretation in the internationalization of smaller brazilian firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Seifert; J. Child (John); S.B. Rodrigues (Suzana)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This study considers how decision-makers in smaller firms interpret the means and conditions of internationalization, and how different modes of interpretation are likely to inform action choices in this process. Drawing on 58 qualitative interviews with the leaders of Brazilian

  12. Comparison of frailty among Japanese, Brazilian Japanese descendants and Brazilian community-dwelling older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Priscila Yukari Sewo; Sampaio, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho; Yamada, Minoru; Ogita, Mihoko; Arai, Hidenori

    2015-06-01

    To investigate frailty in Japanese, Brazilian Japanese descendants and Brazilian older women. The collected data included sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, and the frailty index Kihon Checklist. We analyzed the differences between the mean scores of Kihon Checklist domains (using ancova) and the percentage of frail women (using χ(2)-test). We carried out a binary logistic regression with Kihon Checklist domains. A total of 211 participants (Japanese n = 84, Brazilian Japanese descendants n = 55, Brazilian n = 72) participated in this research. The Brazilian participants had the highest total Kihon Checklist scores (more frail), whereas the Brazilian Japanese descendants had the lowest scores (P Brazilian group had more participants with oral dysfunction (P Brazilian women were likely to be more frail than the participants in other groups. More than the environment itself, the lifestyle and sociodemographic conditions could affect the frailty of older Brazilian women. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. 75 FR 81378 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... NCUA's neutrality in the final rule and has made this change. A commenter also suggested including this..., where the net worth ratio of the merging credit union exceeds the net worth ratio of the continuing... are entitled to the net worth of a merging credit union. The NCUA Board disagrees. As discussed in the...

  14. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE OF FOREIGN TRADE UNIONS TO AMERICAN TRADE UNIONS SUSTEM EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Александрович Шиленко

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Trade union as a social institution in charge of monitoring the social and labor rights was first formed in the west, and later became the basis for the organization of a similar structure in pre-revolutionary Russia. This organizational structure, having undergone a transformation during the first half of the XX century, was formed in the Soviet trade unions. However, there has been a tendency to reduce the popularity of the trade unions in the countries in which originated the concept of trade unions. Therefore there are some reasons, both economic and political. To analyze this issue, consider examples of typical cases of foreign trade unions. These cases can be seen in the media, as well as in the analysis of studies on the characteristics of modern trade unions, both in our country and abroad. As a results-based on facts and stereotypes to define the place of trade unions in the modern economic system and a comparative analysis of the structure of our country and the United States ' Trade Union.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-99

  15. The influence of criminal offending on union formation and union dissolution for disadvantaged individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoutewelle-Terovan, M.; van der Geest, V.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Bijleveld, C.

    2016-01-01

    Using a sample of 248 males and females from The Netherlands, we study the effect of criminal offending on union formation and union dissolution. Criminal and relational careers of high-risk respondents are analyzed using a long observation period (age 12 to age 36). Findings for men support the

  16. INNOVATION IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodrigues, Tonny Kerley de Alencar; Lira, Átila De Melo; Naas, Irenilza De Alencar

    2015-01-01

    .... And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations. Keywords: innovation, small enterprises, patents. 1. INTRODUCTION Companies worldwide are looking to technological innovation as feasible for your market expansion (BURNS; STALKER, 1961; NELSON, 1993) alternative. In Brazil, the change an...

  17. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  18. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  19. Geoscience international: the role of scientific unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, Alik

    2016-11-01

    International geoscientific unions (geounions) have been coordinating and promoting international efforts in Earth and space sciences since the beginning of the 20th century. Thousands of scientists from many nations and specific scientific disciplines have developed ways of cooperation through international unions and learned how to work together to promote basic geosciences. The unions have been initiating, developing, and implementing international cooperative programmes, setting scientific standards, developing research tools, educating and building capacity, and contributing to science for policy. This paper analyses the role of geounions in and their added value to the promotion of geoscience internationally in the arena of the existing and emerging professional societies of geoscientists. The history of the geounions and the development of international cooperation in geosciences are reviewed in the paper in the context of scientific and political changes over the last century. History is considered here to be a key element in understanding and shaping the future of geounions. Scientific and organisational aspects of their activities, including cooperation with international and intergovernmental institutions, are analysed using the example of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG). The geounions' activities are compared to those of professional societies. Future development of scientific unions and their role in the changing global landscape of geosciences are discussed.

  20. The new architecture of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty has brought significant changes into the architecture of the European Union. The most important novelty, however, is the establishment of a full unity of the Union structure achieved by creating new and strengthening the existing elements. The new elements of this unity are the disappearance of the European Community, the 'independence' of the European Atomic Energy Community, constituting the European Union as a single entity and the introduction of EU values. At the same time, the Lisbon Treaty has strengthened the existing elements of the common institutional mechanisms, rules on amending the founding treaties and EU membership. However, constituting the Union as a single entity which has replaced and succeeded the European Communities has not abolished the EU elements of diversity. In the areas that differed, even before the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty, from the community pillar, there remain significant differences in the nature and the scope of competences of the Union institutions. This mainly regards the common foreign and security policy, which now includes the defense policy, where the existing model of inter-state cooperation has been only slightly interfered with. In contrast, in the field of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, which has become part of a larger Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, the inter-state model of cooperation has been abandoned in some of its most important elements. However, the implementation of some of the important elements of the supranational model has been postponed.

  1. Non-Union Current Treatment Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Moghaddam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: This article wants to give a current concept for the challenging decision for conservative or operative treatment strategies of non-unions according to the principles of ‘diamond concept’ and aspects that have to be attended. Evidence Acquisition: Between February 2010 and March 2014, 424 patients with non-unions were treated at Heidelberg university hospital. This database has been analyzed at least one year after the treatment. The analysis and the experience in surgery and treatment of non-unions as well as present literature were prepared for this review as a current concept. Results: If an atrophic non-union is suggested, reosteosynthesis and biological stimulation is required. A revision surgery of autologous transplantation of cancellous bone from the iliac crest is often enough. Alternatively, reamer-irrigator-aspirator (RIA can be taken out of the femur with lower complications and pain in the extraction area and be combined with growth factors like bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, if consolidation after cancellous bone is still absent. In complex cases, consequential and radical removal of the infection often improved circulation through interventional angiography and use of the two-step procedure (the Masquelet technique as well as a tissue covering are required. Conclusions: By using the ‘diamond concept’ as a complex concept, non-unions can be treated in different stages in a targeted manner.

  2. BANKING SUPERVISION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUȚU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for prudential supervision imposed to banks by law arises from the action that banking market’s basic factors have. Therefore, it is about banks’ role in economy. The normal functioning of banks in all their important duties maintains the stability of banking system. Further, the stability of the entire economy depends on the stability of the banking system. Under conditions of imbalance regarding treasury or liquidity, banks are faced with unmanageable crisis and the consequences can be fatal. To ensure long-term stability of the banking system, supervisory regulations were constituted in order to prevent banks focusing on achieving rapidly high profits and protect the interests of depositors. Starting from this point, this paper will carry out a study on existing models of supervision in the European Union’s Member States. A comparison between them will support identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.

  3. Linking Public Administration and Law Studies within European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela V. Cărăuşan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 1987 represented for us, scholars, the turning point for the Europeanization of highdegree studies. The European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS isa European Union student exchange program which has proved its utility in the last two decade. The publicadministration and law studies are two of the fields of studies which have benefited from the ERASMUSProgramme. In this respect we will try to learn the lesson of internationalization from the European contactthrough ERASMUS programme. The ‘win win’ for students is not just in the increase of knowledge in thearea of administrative sciences and law, but also in the share of cultures. The ERASMUS gives students abetter sense of what it means to be a European citizen. In addition, many employers highly value such aperiod abroad, which increases the students’ employability and job prospects.

  4. Polish Accession to the European Union: Participating Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewski Waldemar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In May 2014 it was aready ten years since Poland’s accession to the European Union. The accession was preceded by a long period of political action and negotiations between the Polish and the EU institutions. The process of integration was extremely complex. It covered almost all areas of economic, legal and civil aspects of the aspiring country’s economy, in which all necessary requirements had to be met. The aim of the article was to present the institutional framework created for efficient implementation of the process of accession. The considerations involved especially an institutional method. The research resulted in poining out both the actually efficient and less efficient bodies participating in the process of integration.

  5. Health law and policy in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Hervey, Tamara K; Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2013-03-30

    From its origins as six western European countries coming together to reduce trade barriers, the European Union (EU) has expanded, both geographically and in the scope of its actions, to become an important supranational body whose policies affect almost all aspects of the lives of its citizens. This influence extends to health and health services. The EU's formal responsibilities in health and health services are limited in scope, but, it has substantial indirect influence on them. In this paper, we describe the institutions of the EU, its legislative process, and the nature of European law as it affects free movement of the goods, people, and services that affect health or are necessary to deliver health care. We show how the influence of the EU goes far beyond the activities that are most visible to health professionals, such as research funding and public health programmes, and involves an extensive body of legislation that affects almost every aspect of health and health care.

  6. Nonmarital Fertility, Union History, and Women's Wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Matthew; Frech, Adrianne; Williams, Kristi

    2015-02-01

    We use more than 20 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to examine wealth trajectories among mothers following a nonmarital first birth. We compare wealth according to union type and union stability, and we distinguish partners by biological parentage of the firstborn child. Net of controls for education, race/ethnicity, and family background, single mothers who enter into stable marriages with either a biological father or stepfather experience significant wealth advantages over time (more than $2,500 per year) relative to those who marry and divorce, cohabit, or remain unpartnered. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for unequal selection into marriage support these findings and demonstrate that race (but not ethnicity) and age at first birth structure mothers' access to later marriage. We conclude that not all single mothers have equal access to marriage; however, marriage, union stability, and paternity have distinct roles for wealth accumulation following a nonmarital birth.

  7. Strong trade unions meet EEC workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Kaj; Hansen, Jens Arnholtz

    2008-01-01

    Although Denmark has not experienced an increase in the number of migrant workers from Eastern Europe to same degree as the UK or Ireland, Danish unions in the construction sector are concerned that the collective bargaining system could be undermined by the presence of Eastern European Country...... (EEC) workers. The argument is that migrant and, in particular, posted workers' conditions of employment often are characterised by evasions of collective agreements, whether in the form of underpayment or other violations of terms and conditions specified in the agreements. However, the trade union...... with distrust on behalf of the migrants. Or should they focus first and foremost on the workplace and aim to organise the EEC workers? Or might they be able to do both? In this article we describe problems and challenges trade unions have faced due to the presence of EEC workers in the Danish construction...

  8. Labor Unions and the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Milkman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the impact of the Great Recession on the U.S. labor movement. After reviewing the classic industrial relations literature on the relationship between unionization rates and business cycles, we analyze historical union density trends. After documenting the relentless downward trend in the private sector from the early 1980s, with no apparent relationship to the business cycle, we analyze the negative impact of the political dynamic that unfolded in the wake of the Great Recession on public-sector unionism in sharp contrast to what took place during the Great Depression. We also explore the new forms of labor organizing that have emerged in the private sector, which have capitalized on the growing public concern about rising inequality sparked by Occupy Wall Street.

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-02

    refining, as well as the manufacture of a number of petrochemical products. Brazilian technol- ogy in the use of biomass to obtain alcohol, as well as...Islands of Guadeloupe " No 10 VI. Reznichenko, "Life Near the Cemetery Wall (Fea- tures of an Urban Landscape)" No 9 VI. Reznichenko, "Crime Without

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-12

    34 to quotations from academicians Bestuzhev-Lada, Sam- sonov and Likhachev, cinema director Zinkevich and In addition to students, the auditorium’s...NOVOSTI which in partic- wonderful physician and scientist, that the UN Brazilian ular expressed doubts about the extent of radiation con- delegation

  11. THE ROLE OF THE EUROPEAN EXTERNAL ACTION SERVICE IN THE EU’S INSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN VATAMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available European External Action Service (EEAS is a new institution of the European Union, whose foundation was laid by the Treaty of Lisbon with the role to support the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy in fulfilling his mandate and, also to assist the President of the European Council, European Commission, President and other Commissioners to exercise their powers in international relations. Since the establishment of the European External Action Service (EEAS is relatively recent, this article tries to highlight the crucial role of the European External Action Service (EEAS in the European Union's institutional system and its contribution to strengthening the coherence and increasing impact and visibility of European Union action at international level and thus the one of the Member States.

  12. Transfer Pricing in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MATEI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The transfer pricing mechanism is a tool commonly used to transfer the tax base from countries with high taxation in countries with low taxation. In the European Union, this financial operations generate significant tax revenue losses. In an attempt to limit the handling of corporate tax systems, many public authorities have introduced regulations on transfer pricing, but the effectiveness of these rules has proved limited, and they contributed to the increasing complexity of tax laws and to the appearance of additional costs for companies. A solution to the solving of the transfer pricing problem in the European Union is represented by the introduction of the common consolidated corporate tax base.

  13. Standard Of Living In The European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Wawrzyniak Dorota

    2016-01-01

    The European Union countries are diversified in terms of the standard of living of the population. The reduction of disparities in the standard of living, along with the elimination of the negative phenomena related to social exclusion form an EU policy priority. In this context, the aim of this article is to compare the standard of living in the various European Union countries and to determine Poland’s position in the ranking. In the study, countries with a similar standard of living of the...

  14. From Single Market to Economic Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2014-01-01

    Book review of: From Single Market to Economic Union: Essays in Memory of John A. Usher / edited by N.N. Shuibhne and L.W. Gormley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, ISBN 9780199695706); viii + 431pp., £75.00 hb.......Book review of: From Single Market to Economic Union: Essays in Memory of John A. Usher / edited by N.N. Shuibhne and L.W. Gormley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, ISBN 9780199695706); viii + 431pp., £75.00 hb....

  15. The role of trade unions in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of matched employer–employee data from 2007 to 2009, this paper examines the union wage gap among small and medium non-state manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam. Controlling for both worker and firm characteristics, the results provide evidence that union members earn higher wages...... than non-members, and are more likely to receive social benefits.Within unionised firms, a substantial wage premium is revealed for workers employed in Southern firms, a finding which among other factors may be attributed to historical differences between the North and South of Vietnam....

  16. EURASIAN CUSTOMS UNION – ANALYSES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindusa-Nicoleta PINCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the era of Globalization the process of integration is speeded and taken to a different level. After the EU model, we are facing now with different entities trying to copy this model and adjusting it to their needs. Such a project is the Eurasian Customs Union, a project which has only recently come into being. The present paper will analyze the driven forces behind this and its capacity to fully function as a customs union before the year 2020- the time limit set by the Russian President Vladimir Putin.

  17. [Advances in the Brazilian norm for commercialization of infant foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fátima Moura de Araújo, Maria; Rea, Marina Ferreira; Pinheiro, Karina Aragão; de Abreu Soares Schmitz, Bethsáida

    2006-06-01

    To assess the advances in the Brazilian norm for commercialization of infant foods from 1988 to 2002, comparing the different texts with each other and with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes. This was a descriptive study based on data collected from documents, reports, ordinances and resolutions from the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The versions utilized in the comparison were from 1992 and 2002. Comparative analysis made it possible to identify important advances in the legislation. In 1992, liquid and powdered milk were included in the scope, along with teats and dummies (pacifiers), and also warning phrases in advertising and on product labeling. In 2002, regulations for products were published by the National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance, thereby strengthening supervisory actions and including regulations for baby foods, nutrient formulae for high-risk newborns, and nipple protectors. The phrases used in commercial advertising and on product labeling, including dummies, teats and bottles, became Ministry of Health warnings. The labeling was defined according to product types, on the basis of more restrictive rules. Significant modifications in the control over the marketing of products aimed at mothers during the lactation period. However, there are still some legislative questions that would make it possible to improve the Brazilian norm, in order to protect breastfeeding. There is also a need for the government to implement systematic monitoring routines to supervise this legislation.

  18. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Marcio dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in order to make possible selection of all interveners involved in the chain. The study using the Social Network Analysis (SNA showed that the densest relationships in the network are from exporters to importers and from orange growers to the orange processing industry. No difference was found in the values of the network geodesic distance or the clustering coefficients from 2005 to 2009. The degree of centrality increased steadily throughout the years indicating that the processing industry attempts to minimize the risks by centralizing the actions. A decrease in export of orange juice from 2007 (2.07 10(6 t to 2008 (2.05 10(6 t was found, probably due to the world's financial crisis with recovery in 2009. Since 2004, there has been an increase of nearly 10% per year in the market preference of concentrate juice (OFCJ when compared to the "not from concentrated" juice (NFC. Nowadays the NFC market represents nearly 50% of all Brazilian export which impacted in the logistic distribution and transportation issues.

  19. New approaches for improving energy efficiency in the Brazilian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique de Mello Santana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian government has been promoting energy efficiency measures for industry since the eighties but with very limited returns, as shown in this paper. The governments of some other countries dedicated much more effort and funds for this area and reached excellent results. The institutional arrangements and types of programmes adopted in these countries are briefly evaluated in the paper and provide valuable insights for several proposals put forward here to make more effective the Brazilian government actions directed to overcome market barriers and improve energy efficiency in the local industry. The proposed measures include the creation of Industrial Assessment Centres and an executive agency charged with the coordination of all energy efficiency programmes run by the Federal government. A large share of the Brazilian industry energy consumption comes from energy-intensive industrial branches. According to a recent survey, most of them have substantial energy conservation potentials. To materialize a fair amount of them, voluntary targets concerning energy efficiency gains should start to be negotiated between the Government and associations representing these industrial branches. Credit facilities and tax exemptions for energy-efficient equipment’s should be provided to stimulate the interest of the entrepreneurs and the setting-up of bolder targets.

  20. State of the art on hydrogen passive auto-catalytic recombiner (european union Parsoar project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, F.; Bachellerie, E. [Technicatome, 13 - Aix en Provence (France); Auglaire, M. [Tractebel Energy Engineering, Brussels (Belgium); Boeck, B. de [Association Vincotte Nuclear, Brussels (Belgium); Braillard, O. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Eckardt, B. [Siemens AG, Offenbach am Main (Germany); Ferroni, F. [Electrowatt Engineering Limited, Zurich (Switzerland); Moffett, R. [Atomic Energy Canada Limited, Pinawa (Canada); Van Goethem, G. [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the European Union PARSOAR project, which consists in carrying out a state of the art on hydrogen passive auto-catalytic recombiner (PAR) and a handbook guide for implementing these devices in nuclear power plants. This work is performed in the area ''Operational Safety of Existing Installations'' of the key action ''Nuclear Fission'' of the fifth Euratom Framework Programme (1998-2002). (author)

  1. Court in a trap? Legal mobilisation by trade unions in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Colling, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the idea of 'legal mobilisation', focusing particularly on the use of individual employment rights by unions to pressurise employers and to galvanise support amongst members for action on key workplace issues. Literature from north America suggests that the law can provide inspirational effects, crystallising a sense of injustice and highlighting the availability of redress, and radiating effects, where positive outcomes are diffused with a view to changing employer behavi...

  2. Radicalism in the Ethnic Market- The Jewish Bakers Union of Los Angeles in the 1920s

    OpenAIRE

    Luce, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I will instead show how the Jewish bakers of Los Angeles used their position in the ethnic enclave economy as a source of strength, harnessing the power of their community through consumer-oriented strategies and tactics. Two strategies in particular cultivated connections between the politics of labor and the politics of consumption within the immigrant working-class: union labels and the Cooperative bakery. Both strategies employed food as a medium of social action, “buying u...

  3. Road Safety Conditions in Poland Against a Background of Selected European Union Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlewska, Grazyna; Gidlewski, Mirosław; Jemioł, Leszek

    2012-02-01

    Road safety conditions in Poland and five European Union countries bigger than Poland were described with the use of evaluation indexes usually applied in such studies. Values of these indexes were calculated for the period of 2002-2008, i.e. for a seven-year period. Thanks to this, they show quite stable direction of changes. Thus, they may be used to make predictions and to indicate actions aimed to improve road safety in next years.

  4. The Local Politics of Education Governance: Power and Influence among School Boards, Superintendents, and Teachers' Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeehandelaar, Dara B.

    2012-01-01

    School districts have two general courses of action to maintain fiscal solvency and raise student achievement in the face of drastic funding cuts. They can reduce spending on teachers, a strategy opposed by many teachers' unions because it threatens teacher job security. They can also cut expenditures in other areas such as instructional…

  5. Introduction to the special issue on experiences with the impact and prevention of subsoil compaction in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, van den J.J.H.; Arvidsson, J.; Horn, R.

    2003-01-01

    The papers in this special issue present results of the European Union (EU) concerted action ¿Experiences with the impact of subsoil compaction on soil crop growth and environment and ways to prevent subsoil compaction¿. The results and conclusions of earlier research on subsoil compaction are

  6. Passages on Brazilian scientific cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Jane; da Silva, Cicero Inacio; Suppia, Alfredo; Stalbaum, Brett

    2017-07-01

    The article examines the conditions of production and recognition of scientific cinema in Brazil by comparing three distinct moments and contexts: the first moment takes place in the nineteenth century, and it is related to the contribution of a Brazilian astronomer otherwise little known to Brazilian film scholars, the second addresses Benedito Junqueira Duarte's voluminous mid-twentieth-century filmography, and the third moment documents recent scientific film experiences within ultra high resolution movies transmitted over photonic networks. Future trajectories for aesthetic concerns and practical issues such as the archiving of ultra high definition cinema are usefully informed by these histories of scientific cinema, even as a current generation of multidisciplinary teams including scientists, filmmakers, computer scientists, and network engineers reinvent, rediscover, and necessarily expand the scientific cinema toward concerns of real time collaboration and teaching.

  7. Brands Repositioning: Brazilian case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Serralvo, Francisco Antonio; Furrier, Márcio Tadeu

    2008-01-01

    Based on the assumption of the increasing relevance of both brand positioning and equity in the context of marketing management in competitive environments, the objective of this work was to deepen the existing knowledge on the brand repositioning process. Four theoretical models of reference obtained after literature review supported the empiric verification represented by content analysis of six reports (cases) of Brazilian brands repositioning experiences awarded with the “Top of Marketing...

  8. Brazilian Participation in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-15

    internal rebellions and secessionist movements such as the Canudos rebellion in 1897 and 1898 in Bahia province. As a 2 result, the Brazilian Army...Brazilian Army would play an important role in ending this dictatorship. Brazil had accepted large numbers of Italian and German immigrants for more than...including the Brazilian Armed Forces. They had a significant influence on decision makers. In the 1930s, German immigrants numbered more than 900,000 and

  9. Action perception predicts action performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Heather R; Kurby, Christopher A; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Current Options for Determining Fracture Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saam Morshed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining whether a bone fracture is healed is one of the most important and fundamental clinical determinations made in orthopaedics. However, there are currently no standardized methods of assessing fracture union, which in turn has created significant disagreement among orthopaedic surgeons in both clinical and research settings. An extensive amount of research has been dedicated to finding novel and reliable ways of determining healing with some promising results. Recent advancements in imaging techniques and introduction of new radiographic scores have helped decrease the amount of disagreement on this topic among physicians. The knowledge gained from biomechanical studies of bone healing has helped us refine our tools and create more efficient and practical research instruments. Additionally, a deeper understanding of the molecular pathways involved in the bone healing process has led to emergence of serologic markers as possible candidates in assessment of fracture union. In addition to our current physician centered methods, patient-centered approaches assessing quality of life and function are gaining popularity in assessment of fracture union. Despite these advances, assessment of union remains an imperfect practice in the clinical setting. Therefore, clinicians need to draw on multiple modalities that directly and indirectly measure or correlate with bone healing when counseling patients.

  11. The geography of civil unions in Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulmont, Baptiste

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, Vermont established "civil unions" meant for same-sex couples. This form of marriage relies on the existence of a local gay and lesbian community, while contributing to the development of "gay and lesbian tourism" and pushing certain churches to revisit their treatment of same-sex couples. Gay and lesbian rights and rural communities are not mutually exclusive.

  12. Legal Liability: When Is the Union Responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Margaret J.

    1986-01-01

    Issues concerning legal liability for college student unions are examined, and guidelines are presented to reduce the risk of liability claims exposure for both the individual and the institution. General information is provided on: tort liability, civil rights liability, criminal liability, and contractual liability. In determining the potential…

  13. Union Contracts and Teacher Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul V. Bredeson

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I report the results of an investigation that examined the impact of teacher union contracts on the development of professional learning communities in schools. There are three primary sources of data used in the study: 1 100 written teacher union contract documents; 2 structured interview data from 21 educators (school superintendents, principals, directors of staff development, and teacher union representatives; and 3 focus group interview data from educational leaders in schools. The analysis and discussion focus on five areas related to teacher professional development with implications for policy and practice: explicit language covering opportunities for teaching learning in their work; governance and decision making structures, that is, specific provisions covering wages, hours, and conditions of employment; the description of legitimate and sponsored activities for the professional development of teachers; and the resources supporting the on-going professional growth of teachers. The findings indicate that rethinking, restructuring, and organizational re-culturing in schools are initial expressions of a new unionism that has the potential to lead to the development of more powerful professional learning communities in schools.

  14. Manual de uniones atornilladas frontales pretensadas

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Herrera, Jesús; Hernando García, José Ignacio; Cervera Bravo, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    El manual presenta de manera detallada y extensa los criterios y procedimientos de análisis, de comprobación y de puesta en obra de uniones atornilladas frontales pretensadas, con inclusión de ejemplos y herramientas informáticas para su mejor comprensión y manejo.

  15. Consumer Sales guarantees in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiewiorowska, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    The thesis pursues three main aims. The first aim is to present the current legislative situation in the European Union and the process that led to accepting the assumptions concerning guarantees that laid foundations for the rules on the guarantee contained in the Consumer Sales Directive. The

  16. The European Union: Stability Despite Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolle Michael

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has remained stable despite all its past and current challenges. This essay explores the reasons for that. We argue that the secret behind its stability lies in its system of negotiation. Against this backdrop, we analyse two recent challenges of the European Union. First, we show how domestically bound European governments were able to bring about a stable internationally negotiated solution for what became known as euro crisis. By means of game theory we boil down why the European Union remained stable even after havoc struck. Second, we analyze the dynamics behind the failed negotiations with Ukraine that have led to the current conflict. Thereby, the role of vested interest in negotiations for stability is emphasized. We prognosticate that due to the very same vested interests that led to the failure of the negotiations, Ukraine will remain united and return to stability in the mid-term. Finally, we conclude that, despite challenges like these, the European Union never experienced a crisis in terms of system theory since it never fell short to fulfil its purpose which is to allow for peaceful cooperative solutions.

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-31

    Collar Trade Unions is a legal person, manned only from Kazakhs , whose territory contains and it possesses its own seal and bank accounts. most of them...defense shops is being defense complex together with their functions. carried on in a kind of semi- handicraft fashion. Talk is cheap, but our opponents do

  18. Trade Unionism, Collective Bargaining and Nation Building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    It is a well known fact that the growth and development of any .... which in addition to promoting the economic well being of the ..... Thus a good working condition and welfare package can influence the level of productivity in any country's economy. It is the collective effort of the members of these trade unions and the ...

  19. Framing Gender Intersections in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which the emergence of an antidiscrimination policy in the European Union (EU) implies a shift in EU gender equality policies towards an intersectional approach. The frame analysis of EU gender equality policy documents shows that intersectional dimensions...

  20. Sustainability Begets Unsustainability?: The European Union's Drive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mandatory target for the European Union (EU) for the use of renewable energy in transport by the year 2020 has created a situation where the African continent has witnessed a number of European agricultural firms gaining access to large tracts of land in order to grow crops for the production of agrofuels. This article ...

  1. The European Union: a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Fransen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has developed policies and instruments that address – both directly and indirectly – sexual violence in conflict and beyond. Policy areas that are important in this respect include human rights, gender equality, development cooperation, humanitarian aid and conflict prevention.

  2. Regulatory pathways in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    In principle, there are three defined procedures to obtain approval for a medicinal product in the European Union. As discussed in this overview of the procedures, the decision on which regulatory pathway to use will depend on the nature of the active substance, the target indication(s), the history of product and/or the marketing strategy.

  3. The Economic and Monetary Union's Institutional Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    2002-01-01

    The chapters emphasise is on the EMU's institutions. The chapter contains i.a. a short review of the contents, objectives, developments from 1990-2002 of the EMU, the ESCB (structure & tasks) as well as interaction with other institutions incuding the Council of Ministers. An underlying issue is ...... is the coordination of the Union's economic and monetary policies....

  4. Union Oil Center - Los Angeles (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira y Luckman, Arquitectos

    1959-05-01

    Full Text Available Un nuevo acento vertical, en la más horizontal de las ciudades del mundo —Los Angeles—, se ha acabado recientemente: el "Union Oil Center", conjunto arquitectónico que expresa un estilo lleno de utilidad, fuerza y belleza.

  5. ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN UNION LEGISLATION ON TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIBINCEA Lilia;

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On June 27, 2014 there was signed an Association Agreement between the Republic of Moldova, on one hand and the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and its Member States, on the other hand (hereinafter - the Association Agreement. The Association Agreement entered into force on 1 July 2016. The signing of the Association Agreement was as a result of the close ties between the parties established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, on the one hand, and the Republic of Moldova on the other hand, which develops within the European Neighborhood policy and the Eastern Partnership, as well as recognition of the shared desire of the parties to further develop, strengthen and expand their relationships. The Association Agreement contributes to the development of trade and economic relations between the parties. The Republic of Moldova is obliged to take necessary measures to ensure compliance with the objectives of Union's regulations and to follow the principles and practices set out in the relevant acquis of the Union. The Republic of Moldova will also gradually include relevant acquis of the Union in its legislation, in accordance with the provisions of the Association Agreement. The legislative background regulatory EU trade is subject studies only a small circle of researchers, approaches and sequential episodic in character, without being integrated into a systemic study, complex, integrated. The objectives of the research are to analyze the most important EU regulations on trade.

  6. HUELGA, A MILESTONE IN FARM UNIONISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    COHEN, IRVING J.

    EARLY ATTEMPTS DURING THE 20TH CENTURY TO ORGANIZE FARM WORKERS, TO GAIN WAGE INCREASES, AND TO SECURE EMPLOYER RECOGNITION OF A UNION AS THE WORKERS' AGENT FOR COLLECTIVE BARGAINING FAILED. AN ESTIMATED 380 AGRICULTURAL STRIKES INVOLVED OVER 200,000 WORKERS IN 33 STATES BETWEEN 1930 AND 1948. THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT, ENACTED AS A RESULT…

  7. 78 FR 72537 - Credit Union Service Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... disadvantage to their non-CUSO competitors. Commenters also expressed concern that certain requirements under... technology (IT), and custody, safekeeping, and investment management services for credit unions. C. What are... 4--A student lending CUSO sold participations of purchased student loans to six FICUs. Related loan...

  8. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-27

    royal jelly, bee glue, and especially bee venom . The union is taking measures to organize the wide production of these products, and to create centers...centers in the republic; there is an agreement that they will help us as well. Apiary products are useful to the radiation victims: honey , pollen

  9. Retrenchment Clauses in Faculty Union Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Gary

    1993-01-01

    Examination of retrenchment clauses in the faculty union contracts at 42 colleges and universities focused on implications for tenure rights and the roles prescribed for faculty and administrators. Concepts of financial exigency and shared governance are highlighted. Contracts were found to provide faculty with a limited and reactive role during…

  10. European Union Financial Crisis: A Marxist Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrus Kanisius Farneubun, P.

    European financial crisis poses a serious challenge to the fundamental structure of the European Union, political and financial institutions, as well as the values that bind European together. Different factors have been suggested as the causes of the crisis notably the failure of national

  11. The Organizational Impact of University Labor Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christine M.

    2008-01-01

    The current review presents both postulated and empirically tested consequences of university unionization and labor strikes on the North American institution's administration, faculty, and students. The review explores the impact of collective bargaining on employee working conditions including job security, academic freedom, university…

  12. The Educational Role of Soviet Trade Unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Beatrice Beach

    1983-01-01

    How to increase the productivity of the labor force is of extreme importance in Russia today because of the declining birthrate. What trade unions are doing to educate their currently employed workers and youth is the focus of the articles in this issue. (RM)

  13. Special Issue: Women's Participation in Trade Unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Shirley; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This special issue explores women's participation in trade unions through the following topics: empowerment; strategies to increase women's participation; the effect of women on the world of work; the need for self-analysis, gender sensitization, educational programs, and mentors; and regional reports from Southeast Asia, Africa, and Latin…

  14. A comparative approach to European Union citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.N.J. Goudappel (Flora)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAfter a short description of the theoretical and philosophical background of the notions of citizenship and nationality, the contents of European Union citizenship will be described. This notion of European Citizenship will then be compared to the notions of citizenship and nationality

  15. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  16. Third-party support for strike action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelloway, E Kevin; Francis, Lori; Catano, Victor M; Dupré, Kathryne E

    2008-07-01

    Labor strikes are often seen as battles for public support. Members of the public are asked to show respect for a strike by refusing to cross the picket line or by joining strikers on the picket line. Such public support may affect the morale of strikers and influence the strike's duration. Despite the perceived importance of the public in labor disputes, members of third parties have not been considered in previous strike research. In 2 studies, the authors show that a new measure of third-party strike support is unidimensional and highly reliable. In both cases, union attitudes and perceptions of distributive justice were significant predictors of support for strike action. Those who are more supportive of unions in general and believe that the contract offered to the strikers was unfair were more likely to support the strike by engaging in such actions as conversing with strikers, writing letters, and refusing to cross the picket line.

  17. The joint action on healthy life years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robine, Jean-Marie; Cambois, Emmanuelle; Nusselder, Wilma

    2013-01-01

    on HLY in the national languages is available. The JA: EHLEIS is developing statistical attribution and decomposition tools which will be helpful to determine the impact of specific diseases, life styles or other determinants on differences in HLY. Through a set of international workshops the JA: EHLEIS......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Life expectancy has been increasing during the last century within the European Union (EU). To measure progress in population health it is no longer sufficient to focus on the duration of life but quality of life should be considered. Healthy Life Years (HLY) allow estimating...... the quality of the remaining years that a person is expected to live, in terms of being free of long-standing activity limitation. The Joint Action on Healthy Life Years (JA: EHLEIS) is a joint action of European Member States (MS) and the European Union aiming at analysing trends, patterns and differences...

  18. LABOUR TAXATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau-Popa Liviu Mihai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis, which we consider extremely useful in the current economic context, of the evolution of labour income fiscality, more precisely, the effect of the public debt growth on the tax wedge for the labour income. The share of fiscal revenues from direct taxes, indirect taxes and social contributions is relatively close in the old member states of the European Union in comparison with the new member states, which register a lower level of income from direct taxes. The low level of income from direct taxes is compensated by more significant shares of the social contributions or indirect taxes. The main motivations of cross-border migration are: a successful career in a multinational corporation, high variations of the tax rate, of the salary income between states and, last but not least, the level of the net salary. To this day, there are no plans to harmonize across the European Union the legislation regarding the taxes wages and the social security contributions. Still, the European Union had in view the coordination of the national tax systems to make sure that the employees and the employers do not pay several times the social contributions in their movement across the community space. Despite the fact that some states tax the labour income at a low level, the labour fiscality remains high in the European Union in comparison with other industrialized economies, probably also due to the fact that the majority of the member states have social market economies. The increase of the fiscality level for the labour income determines the decrease of the employment rate and the raise of the unemployement rate. The solution to guarantee a higher employment rate, which is a target of the European Union Strategy Europe 2020 could be the relaxation of the labour income fiscality by transferring the tax wedge on the labour income towards property or energy taxation.

  19. Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys, 1966-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys are based on observations made by personnel at 1,345 sites throughout the Former Soviet Union between 1966 and...

  20. Slaves, Contrabands, and Freedmen: Union Policy in the Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howard, Michelle

    1998-01-01

    This study examines Union slave policy in the Civil War. Prior to the initiation of hostilities, President Abraham Lincoln stated that the conflict between the states was over the preservation of the Union, and not over...

  1. Unions, the rule of law, and political rent seeking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thieblot, Armand

    2010-01-01

    .... The first section of this article covers the relationship between unions, the rule of law, and economic rents from the origin of the union movement through the changing patterns of the three phases...

  2. Wage determination in the union and nonunion sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, F E; Kuskin, M S

    1978-01-01

    This study contains estimates of wage equations for white male union and nonunion employees. The authors find that nonunion wages are generally more responsive than union wages to individuals' education and experience and to regional price-level variation. Despite those differences, however, estimates of union-nonunion wage differentials based on these separate equations do not differ greatly from a differential obtained from a union dummy variable in an equation based on combined union and nonunion observations. Union-nonunion differentials vary widely across occupational groups and are generally larger in the lower skilled and more highly unionized occupations. The results for manufacturing, for which additional industry data are available, indicate a negative impact of high concentration ratios on the wages of all workers and a greater impact of establishment size on nonunion than on union wages. Data were drawn from the May 1973 Current Population Survey.

  3. 75 FR 57820 - National Credit Union Administration Restoration Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... foreclosed real estate in federally insured credit unions remains elevated. The credit union CAMEL ratings... to present a challenge for the financial services sector. Housing remains a risk as foreclosures...

  4. Applications of Soft Union Sets in the Ring Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Yang

    2013-01-01

    through discussing quotient soft subsets, an approach for constructing quotient soft union rings is made. Finally, isomorphism theorems of λ,μ-soft union rings related to invariant soft sets are discussed.

  5. 32 CFR 231.7 - Procedures-domestic credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intrastation telephone service, credit unions shall be required to pay for all communication services to include telephone lines, long distance data services and Internet connections. Credit unions also shall...

  6. Academic and Diversity Consequences of Affirmative Action in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Porsha; Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2001, Brazilian universities have been implementing affirmative-action policies to correct the racial, social and ethnic disparities in university admissions. An examination of the social-inclusion policies at three public universities in Brazil--the University of Brasilia, the Federal University of Bahia and the State University of…

  7. Educational Democracy in Graduate Education: Public Policies and Affirmative Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos Medeiros, Hugo Augusto; Mello Neto, Ruy de Deus e; Mendes Catani, Afrânio

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a discussion on the possibilities of educational democracy in Brazilian Graduate Education, with a focus on the current Graduate Education Field regulations and the recent affirmative actions and public policies of access. We analyzed laws, decrees, government plans and selections edicts, through categories derived from historical…

  8. Early Revision Surgery for Tibial Plateau Non-union and Mal-union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nielen, Dominic L; Smith, Christopher S; Helfet, David L; Kloen, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Although relatively rare, non-unions and mal-unions of tibial plateau fractures present significant challenges for the orthopedic surgeon. With careful pre-operative planning, tibial plateau mal-union or non-union revision surgery with intra-articular and varus opening osteotomies can provides good functional results when performed early (within 1 year) after primary surgical procedure. We present our treatment algorithm for approaching and treating non-union or mal-union of tibial plateau fractures. Our aim is to give surgeons treating these difficult injuries an overview of the pertinent literature as well as describe the challenges and pitfalls we have experienced when treating non-union or mal-union of tibial plateau fractures. Using two case examples from our institution, one for mal-union and one for mal-reduction, we describe our treatment algorithm and surgical technique for managing these difficult injuries. We also provide a brief literature review outlining relevant studies and summarizing outcomes for similar injuries. A systematic literature review was conducted with the aim of determining the methods and outcomes commonly reported in the literature regarding revision surgery following tibial plateau non-union or mal-union. Due to the nature of revision surgery, there are no long-term randomized trials dealing with outcomes, but rather several smaller case series exist from which larger conclusions have to be drawn. To date, we have successfully treated approximately 35 patients with this technique, and clinical follow-up continues to show good functional outcomes with reduced pain and little radiographic evidence of arthritic changes. Restoring long leg alignment, anatomic reduction of the articular surface, and achieving stable internal fixation are paramount in achieving the best long-term outcome. Due to the shallow soft tissue envelope around the proximal tibia, and the tendency for these fractures to fall into progressive valgus collapse, these

  9. German and British Trade Unions: Problems and opportunities after enlargement

    OpenAIRE

    Zahn, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines and compares German and British trade union responses in a European context following the recent European enlargements in 2004 and 2007, enlargements that are unprecedented in the history of the European Union. In particular, the paper undertakes a contextualized comparison of trade union behaviour in responding to the changing regulatory and opportunity structures which present themselves following the enlargements. Account is taken of the role that trade unions adopt wit...

  10. Brazilian Propolis Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Santos da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antileishmanial and immunomodulatory effects of propolis collected in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated in Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis experimental infection. The antileishmanial effect of propolis on promastigote forms was verified by reducing growth and by promoting morphologic alterations observed by scanning electron microscopy. In in vitro immunomodulatory assays, macrophages were pretreated with propolis and then infected with L. (V. braziliensis. In vivo, supernatants from liver cells and peritoneal exudate of BALB/c mice pretreated with propolis and infected with Leishmania (107/mL promastigotes were collected, and TNF-α and IL-12 were measured by ELISA. Macrophages incubated with propolis showed a significant increase in interiorization and further killing of parasites. An increased TNF-α production was seen in mice pretreated with propolis, whereas IL-12 was downregulated during the infection. In conclusion, Brazilian propolis showed a direct action on the parasite and displayed immunomodulatory effects on murine macrophages, even though the parasite has been reported to affect the activation pathways of the cell. The observed effects could be associated with the presence of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, aromatic acids, and benzopyranes, di- and triterpenes, and essential oils found in our propolis sample.

  11. Improving Indicators in a Brazilian Hospital Through Quality-Improvement Programs Based on STS Database Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro Gabriel Melo de Barros e; Baruzzi, Antônio Claudio do Amaral; Ramos, Denise Louzada; Okada, Mariana Yumi; Garcia, José Carlos Teixeira; Cardoso, Fernanda de Andrade; Rodrigues, Marcelo Jamus; Furlan, Valter

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To report the initial changes after quality-improvement programs based on STS-database in a Brazilian hospital. METHODS Since 2011 a Brazilian hospital has joined STS-Database and in 2012 multifaceted actions based on STS reports were implemented aiming reductions in the time of mechanical ventilation and in the intensive care stay and also improvements in evidence-based perioperative therapies among patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgeries. RESULTS All the 947 patients submitted to coronary artery bypass graft surgeries from July 2011 to June 2014 were analyzed and there was an improvement in all the three target endpoints after the implementation of the quality-improvement program but the reduction in time on mechanical ventilation was not statistically significant after adjusting for prognostic characteristics. CONCLUSION The initial experience with STS registry in a Brazilian hospital was associated with improvement in most of targeted quality-indicators. PMID:26934408

  12. The Brazilian policy for reduction of accidents and violence aligns with international perspectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Namie Sakata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed The Brazilian Policy for Reduction of Morbidity and Mortality from Accidents and Violence, in the socio-political perspective. We used as a base the chapter “Violence: a global public health problem” from the World Report on Violence and Health. The analysis revealed convergent and divergent elements of the Brazilian Policy in comparison with the international perspectives. We verified that the Brazilian Policy tried to converge to the international policies, however: it emphasizes the health promotion actions, but are limited to the context and behavior of individuals and individual communities; the performance of health professionals is expected without providing more structural investments, as the improvement in work conditions, the increase of financial and material resources; there are few clear definitions of the government and economical sector responsibilities.

  13. The Brazilian policy for reduction of accidents and violence aligns with international perspectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Karen Namie; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; Narchi, Nádia Zanon

    2014-12-01

    The study analyzed The Brazilian Policy for Reduction of Morbidity and Mortality from Accidents and Violence, in the socio-political perspective. We used as a base the chapter "Violence: a global public health problem" from the World Report on Violence and Health. The analysis revealed convergent and divergent elements of the Brazilian Policy in comparison with the international perspectives. We verified that the Brazilian Policy tried to converge to the international policies, however: it emphasizes the health promotion actions, but are limited to the context and behavior of individuals and individual communities; the performance of health professionals is expected without providing more structural investments, as the improvement in work conditions, the increase of financial and material resources; there are few clear definitions of the government and economical sector responsibilities.

  14. BUILDING A BANKING UNION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION – A SOLUTION TO THE FINANCIAL CRISIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica (ŞAGUNA FIGHIROAE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis of 2008 highlighted the need for a deeper integration of the banking system, as a warranty to support long-term financial stability. It was argued that the grounds of the crisis lie also in an uncoordinated national response to the failure of banks, in a fragmentation of the Single Market in lending and funding and, therefore, a better regulation and supervision of the financial sector can ensure financial stability and growth in the European Union. In order to restore the proper functioning of the internal market and to avoid future crisis, the European Commission launched a set of initiatives, in order to assure a safer and sounder financial sector for the single market; are included here: stronger prudential requirements for banks, improved depositor protection and rules for managing failing banks and a single rulebook for all the 28 Member States of the European Union. The single rule book is the step towards the Banking Union sits. The banking union consists of three pillars: a Single Supervisory Mechanism, a Single Resolution Mechanism and a joint deposit-insurance scheme. As on 4 November 2014 the European Central Bank assumed responsibility for euro area banking supervision, the Banking Union is still under construction. In this framework, the purpose of my paper is to analyse the process of building a Banking Union in Europe. Therefore, the objectives of my paper are to explore the steps to fulfilling a real integration of the European banking system, as a solution to the financial crisis.

  15. Prospector: A Multivendor, Multitype, and Multistate Western Union Catalog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel Bush

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Prospector project represents a unique union catalog. The origin, goals, and design of the union catalog that uses the INN-Reach system are presented. Challenges of the union catalog include the integration of records from libraries that do not use the Innovative Interfaces system and the development of best practices for participating libraries.

  16. The African Union Peace and Security Council's engagement in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Union has adopted a stance that can be defined as 'interventionist' as far as peace and security issues in Africa are .... the Arab Maghreb Union (AMU). The ASF will be comprised of five brigades, ... Article 4(h) of the AU Constitutive Act affirms the right of the Union to intervene in a member state with respect to crisis ...

  17. On the Relation of Monetary and Political Union

    OpenAIRE

    Issing, Otmar

    2016-01-01

    When EMU took effect in 1999, no progress in the direction of political union had been achieved — indeed, it had not even been attempted. Therefore, from the beginning the euro was confronted with a kind of sword of Damocles: can monetary union survive without political union?

  18. The Labour Relations Act, majoritarianism and union structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which have been established via mergers between large unions, rather than the more usual process of a merger between a large union and one or more smaller unions. But the underlying ..... is not defined in the LRA, but in the case of disputes about the acquisition of organisational rights, the directives provided to the ...

  19. 29 CFR 452.77 - Permissible use of union funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subordinate union may be contributed to a committee formed to challenge the results of a national union... their pre-election status; it does not place any candidate into office.” 39 39 Retail Clerks Union, Local 648 v. Retail Clerks International Association, 299 F.Supp. 1012, 1024 (D.D.C. 1969). ...

  20. The Impact of Teacher Unions on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    The overall impact of unions and collective bargaining agreements on student achievement has produced a literature with decidedly mixed results. Unions are seen to have both positive and negative influences on a teachers' ability to perform the teaching act. This study researches the impact of unions on state level student achievement, controlling…

  1. Learning, Labour and Union Learning Representatives: Promoting Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    The initiative by the Trades Union Congress (TUC) and affiliated trade unions in the UK to appoint trade union learning representatives (ULRs), to promote learning among their members, is a significant development in adult learning. Understandably, the initiative has attracted the attention of academic researchers, but primarily from the…

  2. The Structure of Firm-Specific Labour Unions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Upmann (Thorsten); J. Müller (Julia)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate trade union formation. To this end we apply a model with two types of labour where both groups decide on whether they prefer to be represented by either two independent craft-specific (professional) labour unions or by a joint (encompassing) labour union.

  3. New "Right to Work" Laws Could Hobble Faculty Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Faculty unions outside Michigan have reason to be concerned with its passage of legislation barring unions from collecting fees from workers who do not join them. But the experiences of faculty unions in states that adopted such laws years ago suggest that while the measures can be a major hindrance to their work, they are not a death blow.…

  4. What Can Trade Unions Do To Combat Child Labour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrstad, Geir

    1999-01-01

    Examines mainly practical activities of trade unions to fight child labor. Argues that trade unions can give the most significant contribution to the struggle against child labor by focusing on methods that are typical for, or even exclusive to, the trade union movement, in particular negotiations and collective bargaining. (Author)

  5. Union Type and Depressive Symptoms among Mexican Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K.; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.

    2011-01-01

    Diversity in union type is increasing around the world as cohabitation and higher order unions become more prevalent in developing and developed countries. This necessitates a more nuanced understanding of how different union types relate to individual well-being across social settings. In this study, the authors analyze nationally-representative…

  6. The First Decade of Lithuania in the European Union: between Meta-Political Values and “Pragmatic” Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavilionis Žygimantas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, the accommodative and technocratic policy of Europe, dominant in Lithuania (as well as in the European Union, is pushing Lithuania (and the European Union to the margins of global politics, and it reflects the inability to fight for Lithuania’s meta-political interests in the European Union and the region. With a decade of its membership in the European Union at hand, Lithuania has not yet formulated a strategic vision of its presence in the European Union; all the previous attempts to develop such a strategy have been exhausted or failed; meanwhile the strategic capabilities of Lithuania are consistently weakening. The main objective of this article is to enrich the current technocratic policy with a meta-political, values-based, strategic dimension. Seeking the best feasible alternatives for the horizontal and fragmented level of Lithuania’s studies on Europe, the researcher has consciously chosen the European policy of the Holy See which stands out as to its verticality, capability to maintain the continuity of its principles and essential goals and its impact on the formation of Europe itself. It is an attempt to find the most general attitude to the European Union perspective which is lacking in the current discussions on European policy in Lithuania and in the policy itself. Christian meta-politics provides Lithuania with a possibility to consciously choose a positive rather than negative freedom in Europe. A positive freedom in the European Union would enable Lithuania to maintain its political and cultural identity, and would grant it a weighty role in the region, the European Union and the world. In its own turn, in the social and economic areas a Christian metapolitics would strengthen societal integrity, solidarity, personal and communal responsibility, and would enhance humanity-an action in short supply in Lithuanian policy. *

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-08

    and other oil-producing giants in the Middle East. This was also related to the fact that Mexican President Jose Lopez Portillo made an abrupt...DEBATES Century of Independence" 139 "The Nonaligned Movement—A New Stage of Develop- Jose Mi8uel Varas> "A Communist and Comrade" .144 ment...taking shape in the course of the centers’ competition. This trend was reaffirmed by Brazilian President Jose Sarney’s visit to Argentina on 15

  8. CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE REVOCATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE ACTS WHICH ARE CONTRARY TO EUROPEAN UNION LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTA MATUSESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the process of adopting administrative acts, public authorities are obliged to respect both the national provisions legally superior and European Union law with superior legal force and also the general principles of law, including those imposed by the constant practice of the Court of Justice of the European Union. Implementation and maintenance at the level of the Member States of inconsistent acts with EU law affect the obligation of community loyalty and ensure the full effectiveness of EU law which rests on their failure could result in an action of breaching community obligations. Revocation is the legal transaction that the issuer has withdrawn its own body act on its own initiative or pursuant to the provisions of the superior authority. The disappearance of the illegal administrative act of domestic law doesn’t necessarily involve restoring legality community as for this may be necessary the adoption of a new act. While acknowledging the procedural autonomy of the member states, the European Union law requires that national administrative rules concerning the acts revoking to respect two of its general principles - the principle of legal certainty and legitimate expectations principle, which can cause a number of complications, constraints on public administrations. The present contribution aims at examining the various influences on which the Union right performs towards this matter.

  9. [E-health developments in the system of health services in Hungary and the European Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradi, Ágnes

    2014-05-25

    The question of electronic solutions in public health care has become a contemporary issue at the European Union level since the action plan of the Commission on the e-health developments of the period between 2012 and 2020 has been published. In Hungary this issue has been placed into the centre of attention after a draft on modifications of regulations in health-care has been released for public discourse, which - if accepted - would lay down the basics of an electronic heath-service system. The aim of this paper is to review the basic features of e-health solutions in Hungary and the European Union with the help of the most important pieces of legislation, documents of the European Union institutions and sources from secondary literature. When examining the definition of the basic goals and instruments of the development, differences between the European Union and national approaches can be detected. Examination of recent developmental programs and existing models seem to reveal difficulties in creating interoperability and financing such projects. Finally, the review is completed by the aspects of jurisdiction and fundamental rights. It is concluded that these issues are mandatory to delineate the legislative, economic and technological framework for the development of the e-health systems.

  10. The role of union democracy in the struggle for workers' health in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, A C

    1989-01-01

    In this article, the author analyzes the struggle for workers' health in Mexico, emphasizing the importance of the general and specific political context. In an overview of the legislation on industrial health and safety, the state institutions involved in the issue, and the characteristics of union organization in Mexico, the author shows that the limited activities related to workers' health have more to do with the relative political weakness of the Mexican working class than with the formal structures of legislation, state institutions, and unions. The second part of the article deals with the four most important struggles for health and safety in Mexico during the last ten years, which show some similarities. These struggles are consistently linked to processes of union democratization and tend to decline when union democracy is lost. The strategies of the companies show a common pattern: removing health issues from collective bargaining and putting them in the hands of state institutions. When workers have opposed this solution, management has used selective repression to solve the conflict. The state institutions subordinate their position to the companies' by postponing action or by doing a technically poor job. Changing the existing situation involves the social legitimation of the workers' health issue, since this would have an impact on the political processes involved, i.e., corporate control over workers, authoritarian labor relations and professionalism, and resources of the state institutions.

  11. The International Labour Standards Debate in the Brazilian Labour Movement: Engagement with Mercosur and Opposition to the Free Trade Area of the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Riethof

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The social dimensions of economic integration have become an increasingly significant feature of trade agreements, particularly those between developing countries. In the Brazilian case trade-related labour standards have not become a major feature outside of the regional organization Mercosur (Common Market of the South, yet we know relatively little about the reasons for this discrepancy. Paradoxically one of the main stakeholders in this debate, Brazilian trade unions, has broadly supported social and labour clauses in the regional context but union activists have opposed labour provisions in trade negotiations between asymmetric partners. A comparative analysis of the labour campaigns in Mercosur and the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA negotiations explains this ambiguity in terms of Brazilian labour strategies towards free trade negotiations and explores their implications for evaluations of labour attitudes to trade-related labour standards in developing countries. The labour movement’s own conflicting perspectives on the trade–labour connection are a key explanation of these outcomes, reinforcing the need for a greater appreciation of the complexity of trade union views in the debate on labour standards.

  12. The Cultural Challenges of Managing Global Project Teams: A Study of Brazilian Multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization of Brazilian companies brings a new reality: the need for implementation of global projects that bring, in turn, the challenge of managing multicultural teams. Since this is a recent phenomenon with little theoretical development, this study sought to understand the relationships between cultural characteristics and management teams of global projects in Brazilian multinationals. To carry this discussion forward, we studied six cases of Brazilian multinational companies, with the aim of deepening the understanding of the management of global teams, involving the planning, deployment, development and management of human resources. Among the projects studied, it was found that there is very little concern with the specific issue of multiculturalism and little inter-cultural incentive to the development of team members, which ends up hindering the construction of a global mindset, important for the Brazilian multinational companies to perform successfully abroad. Faced with this situation, each of the managerial processes mentioned were presented with a number of actions to be undertaken by the project manager in three different dimensions: the project itself, the organization and the global environment. The work contributes, thus, to enable Brazilian multinational companies to manage their global teams in order to maximize the advantages of global teams, such as increased creativity and innovative capacity, but avoid the problems that multiculturalism can bring, ranging from conflicts between people to project failure.

  13. Employees Who Refuse to Pay Union Dues: First and Fourteenth Amendment Issues in Nonassociation Union Security Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews court decisions relevant to the conflict between union contract provisions requiring financial contributions from employees who choose not to be union members and the constitutional rights of employees whose religious beliefs prevent them from joining or financially supporting a union. (JG)

  14. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  15. The new Brazilian national forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joberto V. de Freitas; Yeda M. M. de Oliveira; Doadi A. Brena; Guilherme L.A. Gomide; Jose Arimatea Silva; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The new Brazilian national forest inventory (NFI) is being planned to be carried out through five components: (1) general coordination, led by the Brazilian Forest Service; (2) vegetation mapping, which will serve as the basis for sample plot location; (3) field data collection; (4) landscape data collection of 10 x 10-km sample plots, based on high-resolution...

  16. Brazilian Studies and Brazilianists: Conceptual remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Mariano de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of Brazilian Studies. It does not intend to outline a defence for a new discipline, or to propose paradigms for that elusive field called ‘area studies’. It will, bring some reflections on epistemological and methodological issues realted to what it is been called Brazilian Studies.

  17. Types and myths in Brazilian thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Ianni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available "Ideal types" elaborated by different authors and that have become emblematic, notorious or even definitive, sometimes representing myths are quite frequent in Brazilian thought. That is the case of the bandeirantes (colonial crusaders, the gaúcho, Jeca Tatu, Macunaíma, cordial man and others. It is worth contemplating this aspect of Brazilian culture and thought.

  18. Sociocultural Influences on Brazilian Children's Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Reports on insights about sociocultural influences on Brazilian children's drawings, using visual anthropology to examine children's drawings that depicted what they like to do. Discusses visual anthropology, provides information on Brazilian educational influences, and presents the context and findings of the study. (CMK)

  19. Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend; Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.; Smolka, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a comprehensive overview of the research results in the field of action refinement during the past 12 years. The different approaches that have been followed are outlined in detail and contrasted to each other in a uniform framework. We use two running examples to discuss

  20. THE EUROPEAN UNION AS A GLOBAL PLAYER: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Comanescu

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening the external action of the Union has emerged as a powerful expectation shared both by a large majority of members of the Convention on the future of Europe, and more significantly by public opinion when it has been consulted on this issue. Although there is a consensual desire for Europe to speak with a stronger voice in global affairs, the ways and means to achieve this objective still divide those called to clarify the path to be followed. The European Union is already a significant presence in world politics by its considerable share in the international trade, or its dominant contribution to development aid. Many criticise on the other hand the lack of consistency in the more classical dimensions of foreign policy, or the lack of credibility in the capacity to act attributed to the absence of defence capabilities. Such concerns are currently addressed in the larger debate on the future of Europe, either within the dedicated framework, the European Convention convened to design the future of the EU, or outside the Convention, both among politicians and academics. It is generally considered and accepted that Europe will gain in political influence once the unification of the continent is completed, i.e. the current enlargement objectives are achieved. It goes without saying that devising and making operational appropriate instruments and capacities to act coherently outside its borders are a necessity as well. Institutional guarantees that Europe could in the future continue to influence the course of events in world affairs are becoming imperative. This article will explore some of the proposals in that sense. It will also address the place for Romania as a future EU member state in the new architecture of Europe and its possible contribution to the Common Foreign and Security Policy.

  1. Local labor unions' positions on worksite tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, G; Stoddard, A M; Youngstrom, R; Emmons, K; Barbeau, E; Khorasanizadeh, F; Levenstein, C

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This report describes local unions' positions on tobacco control initiatives and factors related to these positions. METHODS: A national random sample of local union leaders was surveyed by telephone. RESULTS: Forty-eight percent of local unions supported worksite smoking bans or restrictions, and only 8% opposed both a ban and a restriction. CONCLUSIONS: Support for tobacco control initiatives among local unions was higher than might be expected on the basis of previous evidence. Engaging unions in smoking policy formation is likely to contribute to the larger public health goal of reducing smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke among workers. PMID:10754979

  2. Turkish Students’ Metaphors about the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürbüz Ocak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this qualitative study was to examine and compare the metaphors of Primary School Secondary Level Students related to the European Union. A total of 399 Primary School Secondary Level students were involved in this study. In the form given to students for data collection, the students were asked to express their opinions about European Union. According to the data gathered, the metaphors of the participants were categorized into 8 groups. According to the analysis and the results of the study, the students tried to explain the EU with positive concepts such as development of future, democracy, freedom, success. However, they also produced negative metaphors like dead end, abyss, colonist, difficulty, utilitarian, blankness. This study used a phenomenological design. The data was collected through a semi-structured Interview Form. The data were analysed with content analysis.

  3. Policy-making in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Mark A; Young, Alasadair R

    2015-01-01

    Constantly evolving, and with far-reaching implications, European Union policy-making is of central importance to the politics of the European Union. From defining the processes, institutions and modes through which policy-making operates, the text moves on to situate individual policies within these modes, detail their content, and analyse how they are implemented, navigating policy in all its complexities. The first part of the text examines processes, institutions, and the theoretical and analytical underpinnings of policy-making, while the second part considers a wide range of policy areas, from economics to the environment, and security to the single market. Throughout the text, theoretical approaches sit side by side with the reality of key events in the EU, including enlargement, the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, and the financial crisis and resulting euro area crisis, exploring what determines how policies are made and implemented. In the final part, the editors consider trends in EU policy-makin...

  4. RENEWABLE ENERGY STRATEGIES: WHERE EUROPEAN UNION HEADED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The states from European Union must take advantage from renewable energy sources in order to revive the economy. Climate change creates new jobs and could reduce energy imports which would stimulate the economy of those states. The European Union should support research in the field, apply more efficient policies in energy, and create economies of scale to get an integrated European energy market in which the main actors can reduce the cost of production of renewable energy. In addition, it is possible to use the comparative advantages of the Member States and not only, like Greece, through solar energy, Southern Mediterranean, through distribution networks interconnections with EU, Russia and Ukraine, through biomass and the North Sea, through wind energy. This paper refers to the evolution and trends of the renewable energy sources and presents some scenarios of it.

  5. The making of a European healthcare union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; van de Bovenkamp, Hester M.; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2016-01-01

    that federalism offers the most fruitful way to do so because of its sensitivity to the EU’s institutional settings and to the territorial dimension of politics. The division of competences and national diversity of healthcare systems have been major obstacles for the formation of a healthcare union. However......, the EU obtained a role in healthcare through the impact of non-healthcare legislation, voluntary co-operation, court rulings, governments’ joint-decision traps, and fiscal stress of member states. The emerging European healthcare union is a system of cooperative federalism without much cost......-sharing. The healthcare union’s robustness is limited, also because it does not generate much loyalty towards the EU....

  6. Political Budget Cycles in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides research on the theme of the political budget cycles. The goal is to find out whether or not the government tries to manipulate the state budget and its components for the purpose of re-election across the countries of the European Union. In order to verify this theory a dynamic panel data model was used. The results were significant, but only if predetermined elections were not counted into the estimations. In that case, the theory of the political budget cycles could be accepted as valid for the EU countries. The main driving force of the political budget cycles across the countries of the European Union is fluctuation of the government expenditures. During the election year, the government expenditures are higher, and a year after the election, government expenditures are lower. This is reflected into the state budget balance.

  7. [European Union funds and clinical toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiszniewiecka, Monika; Cejrowski, Daniel; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Since 2014 we are heading the third programming period of help from European Union (EU). The new budget will run until 2020. From common resources of EU, 106 billion euro will reach Poland, of which about 82.3 billion to cohesion policy, levelling differences of regional development. Clinical toxicology centres will be able to apply for funding under the allocation for the health service. Polish health service very actively benefited from EU funds in previous programming periods, between 2004-2006, and 2007-2013. Thanks to grants from the EU, a large number of health centres were built or renovated. Unfortunately the needs of hospitals, which were underinvested for many years, exceeded available funds according to UE programmes. Except investment projects, also projects training of health professionals were executed. In the current programming period European Union will still support projects aimed at health service. Clinical toxicology centres should have a try of using this period to fulfil their plans.

  8. Intersections and Unions of Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşku Acay

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Prior work has extended the deep, logical connection between the linear sequent calculus and session-typed message-passing concurrent computation with equi-recursive types and a natural notion of subtyping. In this paper, we extend this further by intersection and union types in order to express multiple behavioral properties of processes in a single type. We prove session fidelity and absence of deadlock and illustrate the expressive power of our system with some simple examples. We observe that we can represent internal and external choice by intersection and union, respectively, which was previously suggested by Padovani for a different language of session types motivated by operational rather than logical concerns.

  9. Epidemiological Review of Injuries in Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Kaux

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rugby is a sport that is growing in popularity. A contact sport par excellence, it causes a significant number of injuries. In Rugby Union, there are 30 to 91 injuries per 1000 match hours. This epidemiological review of injuries incurred by rugby players mentions the position and type of injuries, the causes, time during the match and season in which they occur and the players’ positions as well as the length of players’ absences following the injury.

  10. Body Image Amongst Elite Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Claire; Hindle, Chloe; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca; Slater, Joanne; Brown, Rachel; Smith, Brett; Baker, Dane; Healey, Philip; Black, Katherine

    2017-11-16

    There is limited information on the risk of eating disorders and body image of elite male athletes. However, research suggests there are some athletes who have poor body image and they may be at increased risk of developing eating disorders. Therefore, the current study investigated risk of eating disorders, body image, and the relationship with age, in elite rugby union players during their pre-season training period.This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the start of the pre-season amongst elite rugby union players in New Zealand. Twenty-six professional rugby union players completed a 49-item questionnaire on body image and disordered eating. A 'body image score' was calculated from questionnaire subscales including 'drive for thinness', 'bulimia' and 'body dissatisfaction', with total scores above twenty indicative of poor body image.Body image scores varied from 8-39 out of a possible 0-100. Disordered eating behaviours were reported, including binge eating at least once a week (15%, n=4/26), pathogenic weight control use (4%, n=1/26) and avoidance of certain foods (77%, n=20/26). There was a statistically significant inverse association between the bulimia subscale and age (P = 0.034).At the start of the pre-season training period, many elite rugby union players experience disturbances in body image. The prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is of concern, and needs to be minimised due to the negative impact on health and performance. A focus on assessment and education of younger male rugby players may be required in order to reduce disordered eating patterns.

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-15

    into place after the official publica - tion of the Birlik program: I think that people with nationalistic tendencies will be disappointed in us...8217 Union? Russian readers are not the only ones surprised by the consistently antiRussian politica of the journal. After all, it was OKTYABR that...55 on the board. What is the evidence against the journal? In the first place, publica - tion of a story by V. Grossman "Everything Passes;" in the

  12. GOVERNING EUROPEAN UNION TO FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion-Lucian CATRINA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last four years, a significant part of the European Union members has recorded a real decline in the sustainability of their public debt. The failure of Greece, Italy, Belgium or Spain to easily find funding at previous interest rates has induced the fear that the European Monetary Union would disintegrate. Such as scenario is not realistic because does not take into account the economic interdependencies that have been created between the countries participating at the monetary zone. Nevertheless, we can say that the Stability and Growth Pact which aimed towards the coordination of national fiscal policies for ensuring the stability and prudence of the budgetary climate, has failed. This failure was primarily due to the lack of specific sanctions for those members that have not fought against the fiscal imbalances and secondly to the stopping the steps forward towards a common fiscal policy. Thus, we can say that the European Monetary Union is driven now by the wrong rule of “no taxation with representation”. For these reasons, this paper aims at showing that the European fiscal federalism is still far away from becoming reality and that the new instruments chosen for the new stability of the European Monetary Union will be the task of the Member States themselves. This paper will also review the main rules that are projected to be the source for the future European financial stability and growth: the balanced budgets and the deficits built only on the “Golden Rule” premises, for which other amendments on European Treaties are expected.

  13. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  14. European Union Financial Crisis: a Marxist Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Farneubun, Petrus K.

    2016-01-01

    European financial crisis poses a serious challenge to the fundamental structure of the European Union, political and financial institutions, as well as the values that bind European together. Different factors have been suggested as the causes of the crisis notably the failure of national government and economic policies. Responding to the crisis, numerous attemps have been proposed to accelerate the recovery, but the crisis still hit Eurozone and brought serious consequences politically and...

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-27

    artificially on captured territory in the Ukraine and Byelorussia, had become outdated. Throughout its history believers saw this unnatural union as...we had encountered a kind of mythological octopus with its single center, which for a long time had carefully prepared to overthrow the Soviet...supporting the revival of its glorious traditions and the preservation of its residents’ habitat , the sooner long-awaited changes for the better will

  16. JPRS Report Soviet Union, Economic Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-16

    enterprise activity and the assurance of a degree course of economic reform was sounded both at the of social protection for all members of society ...of the activity of the All-Union Economic Society . the commission. The Academy of the National Economy of the USSR [Aleksandrov] What are the means of...TRADE 16 October 1989 FOOD PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION [State Committee for Statistics] data, moonshine pro- duction is not growing. It is even dropping

  17. The virtual union catalog: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, Karen

    2000-01-01

    A Virtual union catalog is a possible alternative to the centralized database of distributed resources found in many library systems. Such a catalog would not be maintained in a single location but would be created in real time by searching each local campus or affiliate library's catalog through the Z39.50 protocol. This would eliminate the redundancy of record storage as well as the expense of loading and maintaining access to the central catalog. This article describes a test implementatio...

  18. The Defense Policy of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    military power. This buildup has succeeded in establishing the Soviet Union as a coequal with the United States in this critical dimension of power and...may have relied too much on the military dimension of their foreign policy. In the current climate of glasnost (candor or openness) and "new...Volkogonov, a former deputy chief of the Main Political Administration, " vegetarian pacifists" with little interest in the "martial traditions and

  19. Climate change in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Anda Veronica Dan

    2007-01-01

    It is now universally accepted that climate change is happening and that is caused by man’s behaviour. Global warming is accelerating and the average temperature is likely to rise up to 4 degrees by the end of this century if nothing is done. The European Union has risen the occasion by putting in place the world’s most famous ambitions global strategy for combating climate change.

  20. The Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, P F

    2005-01-01

    The Brazilian Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory has been operating the only light source in the southern hemisphere since July 1997. Over this 7 year period, approximately 22000 hours of beam time were delivered to users from all over Brazil as well as from 10 other countries. In this article, we report on the present configuration of the 1.37 GeV electron storage ring and associated instrumentation, describe recent improvements to the light source and analyze future prespectives including the installation of insertion devices and additional beamlines.

  1. Elementary education in brazilian legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Veronese, Josiane Rose Petry; Vieira, Cleverton Elias

    2003-01-01

    The education was a present subject, directly or indirectly, in every Brazilian Constitutions. In the Federal Constitution of 1988, two aspects about education can be detached: the participation of the civil society in the elaboration of devices that regulate the national education and the treatment given to basic education, raised to the category of subjective public right. Child and Adolescent Statute practically repeats the devices of the&n...

  2. The energy and climate policy of the European Union. Review and perspectives; Die Energie- und Klimapolitik der Europaeischen Union. Bestandsaufnahme und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geden, O.; Fischer, S.

    2008-07-01

    This study was compiled and published in the context of the research project ''Ein Europa der Buerger - Verfassung und effiziente Politik'', carried out between 2005 and 2007 as a cooperative project of the Institute of European Policy and ASKO EUROPA-STIFTUNG. It is the first study to present a systematic introduction to the emerging energy and climate policy of the European Union. Central fields of action and instruments are analyzed, taking account not only of the interests and positions of the main groups of actors but also of the institutional boundary conditions of European policy making. (orig.)

  3. Physician unionization in the United States: fad or phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, T J

    2000-01-01

    This article explores the current trends and issues surrounding physician unionization in the United States, using data from secondary sources and nine interviews with leaders of organizations at the forefront of physician unionizing efforts. Several key points are supported by these data and prior unionization research. First, unions should become a viable organizing alternative for the almost 50% of doctors who are salaried employees because of fewer legal barriers to collective representation, the involvement of national labor unions with resources to spend on organizing, more physicians belonging to demographic groups less hostile to organized labor. and work-related pressures faced by physician-employee under managed care. A second key point is that unions will find it difficult to represent self-employed physicians because of the influence of organized medicine and legal barriers to gaining collective bargaining rights for this group. This discussion is intended to raise awareness of the physician union issue among health care policy-makers and researchers.

  4. Towards a Circular Economy in the European Union - A Solution For the Economic Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Câmpeanu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the resource efficiency agenda set by the Europe 2020 Strategy, the European Union is on its way of transition from the linear economy to a circular economy model. A first step was achieved in 2014 by the European Commission Communication “Towards a circular economy: a zero waste programme for Europe”, recently followed by the Circular economy package, which includes an Action Plan for the Circular economy and a time-bound implementation of the initiatives. In this research paper, we analyze the reasons for the paradigm shift from the linear model to the circular economy model, and the European Union Strategy for the circular economy, with the benefits and risks involved. As the European Union Member States and regions have a direct participation in the achievement of the circular economy, our work summarizes the concrete programme of action, with measures covering the whole cycle: from production and consumption to waste management and the market for secondary raw materials.

  5. The Brazilian Air Force Uniform Distribution Process: Using Lean Thinking, Statistical Process Control and Theory of Constraints to Address Improvement Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    elaborated by the Time online magazine of the 25 most influential business management books of all times (Rawlings, 2011). Even though it is recognized...of Master of Science in Logistics and Supply Chain Management Luciano Antonio Araujo dos Santos Major, Brazilian Air Force March 2015...the process, in order to drive management actions towards quality and performance enhancement. Background In the Brazilian Air Force, all

  6. The World Trade Organization and the new opportunities in the international market for Brazilian sugar and alcohol sector; A Organizacao Mundial do Comercio e as novas oportunidades do mercado internacional para o setor sucroalcooleiro brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotoni, Marili Arruda [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE); Faculdade Municipal Prof. Franco Montoro, Mogi Guacu SP (Brazil); Furtado, Andre Tosi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2004-07-01

    This main objective of this work is to present the obstacles to the Brazilian participation in the international ethanol and sugar market, specially in the European Union. Therefore it is emphasized the main reasons which conduct Brazil to discuss in the International Trade Organization the production quota system impositions and the heavy subsidy exportation used in the European Union. In despite of improving the negotiation arguments, it has been felt at the most recent International Trade Organization meeting that the Brazilian interests has got to confront international barriers to punish the Brazilian sugar with an high tax importation as in the European Union. Due to those difficulties, the possibility of opening a larger ethanol market, mainly in those countries which wish to reduce pollution emission, mixing anhydrous alcohol to gasoline appeared as a good alternative. Actually the European Community members have strategic reasons to maintain the sugar production subsidies. Brazil and most of the European Community members have been discussing an agreement to reduce the subsidies. The Brazilian victory on the appeal made in the International Trade Organization, on August the 4th; against the subsidies to the sugar conceded by EU, provoked rejection of many. (author)

  7. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  8. At the Early Brazilian Republic, Bulhoes Carvalho legalizes the statistical activity and put it into the State’s order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson de Castro Senra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recreated in the early days of the Brazilian Republic (jan./1890 as a central agency, the General Directory of Statistics (DGE faced difficulties in consolidating the Brazilian statistical activity. A new time only was achieved when José Luiz Sayão de Bulhões Carvalho (1866-1940, a medical doctor specialist in public health dedicated to demographic studies and researches, took its direction (in two times for almost 17 years. His performance applied to facilitate the interaction of DGE with its similar agencies in the federation. He idealized agreements with provincial statistical agencies; imagined counsels (or committees for making collective decisions; imagined a national statistical conference based on the experience he has accumulated in two conferences of the International Statistical Institute (ISI; applied attention to the formation of a statistical professional community; encouraged and sponsored the translation of books, among other measures. The Census of 1920, he had made, the only major census at the Early Brazilian Republic, was guided by friendly relations with the federal and provincial statistical organizations and with the society (Catholic Church, media, unions, clubs etc.. It was, we can say, a modern census, using processing machines, and concluded in a timely fashion. The printed volumes of results were illustrated by pictorial graphics, also used at the Pavilion of Statistics, called (by the press the Pavilion of Precisely Science, which fixed the presence of DGE in the International Exhibit of the Brazilian Independence Centennial (1822-1922. With his experience, anticipated the basis of Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE, created in 1936 as the new Brazilian Statistical central agency (still working with growing success, that can be see, in sum, as a measure of his success in a long term vision.

  9. Actionable Nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  10. Environmental Education in Action in Secondary Teacher Training in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jenny

    and participatory action research which are believed by the authors to guide the programme. ... stakeholders, notably some International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) .... relevant environmental education issues, while the same subjects, together with Business ..... Y.S. (Eds),Handbook of Qualitative Research.

  11. The phylogeography of African Brazilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Carvalho, Cláudia M B; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Bydlowski, Sérgio P; Pena, Sérgio D J

    2008-01-01

    Approximately four million Africans were taken as slaves to Brazil, where they interbred extensively with Amerindians and Europeans. We have previously shown that while most White Brazilians carry Y chromosomes of European origin, they display high proportions of African and Amerindian mtDNA lineages, because of sex-biased genetic admixture. We studied the Y chromosome and mtDNA haplogroup structure of 120 Black males from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Only 48% of the Y chromosomes, but 85% of the mtDNA haplogroups were characteristic of sub-Saharan Africa, confirming our previous observation of sexually biased mating. We mined literature data for mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroup frequencies for African native populations from regions involved in Atlantic Slave Trade. Principal Components Analysis and Bayesian analysis of population structure revealed no genetic differentiation of Y chromosome marker frequencies between the African regions. However, mtDNA examination unraveled considerable genetic structure, with three clusters at Central-West Africa, West Africa and Southeast Africa. A hypothesis is proposed to explain this structure. Using these mtDNA data we could obtain for the first time an estimate of the relative ancestral contribution of Central-West (0.445), West (0.431) and Southeast Africa (0.123) to African Brazilians from Sao Paulo. These estimates are consistent with historical information. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. L'azione collettiva dei lavoratori precari: elaborazione simbolica, identità collettive, rapporto con i sindacati e con la dimensione politica. Una comparazione tra Italia e Spagna (The collective action of precarious workers: symbolic production, collective identities, the relationship with trade unions and politics. A comparison between Italy and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Giorgi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Negli ultimi anni la crisi economica ha colpito con forza l’intero Sud Europa, esasperando dinamiche di impoverimento e precarizzazione di lungo periodo. In Italia e in Spagna, tra gli altri, si è assistito a mobilitazioni contro la precarietà lavorativa e esistenziale. In questo contributo vengono presi in esame i movimenti contro la precarietà in Italia e in Spagna, allo scopo di analizzarne la genesi, gli sviluppi e le prospettive future. In particolare, il paper si concentra sulle rivendicazioni dei movimenti, l’autorappresentazione, la struttura delle alleanze e le strategie di azione, mettendo in luce i risultati delle proteste e i repertori discorsivi e di azione. | In the last years, the economic crisis heavily hit all the Southern European States, exacerbating well rooted dynamics of impoverishment and precarization. In Italy and Spain, among others, social movements against labour and existential precarity developed and took the streets, receiving a high degree of media attention. In this paper we focus on the movements against precarity in Italy and Spain, in order to analyse their genesis, developments, and future opportunities. In particular, the paper focuses on the movements’ claims, their self-representation, the structure of alliances and their strategies of action, highlighting the results of the protests and the repertories of discourse and action.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF THE MINING UNIONS OVER THE EMPLOYEES’ SOCIO-ECONOMICAL CONDITIONS IN THE JIU VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE CIOCODEICĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to capture several realities that are present in the Jiu Valley and also tried to have a deeper comprehension of them by analyzing the present reality through the premises set by the past actions. The first step was to present the general situation of the Romanian union world. After that, we used a historical perspective over the present situation of the mining unions in the Jiu Valley and their becoming. We ended the paper with some conclusions drew from a research on a representative sample of miners from the Jiu Valley mines. We statistically analyzed their perceptions regarding the way they feel about the unions and came up with some pretty interesting conclusions.

  14. Brazilian scientific production on herbal medicines used in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    R.D. Castro; J.A. Oliveira; Vasconcelos,L.C.; Maciel,P.P.; Brasil,V.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to critically analyze the scientific production published in specialized Brazilian journals concerning the use of medicinal plants in dentistry. A literature review was carried out using an indirect documentation technique by means of a bibliographical study. Four examiners performed independent searches in Brazilian journals of medicinal plants indexed in the database SciELO (Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy; Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants; Brazilian ...

  15. Technology for social inclusion: the case of electricity access in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. Gómez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the Social Technology concept and analyses how it can support the current Brazilian rural electrification initiative. It addresses the question: ‘can Social Technology principles serve to identify concrete tasks to overcome the challenges of universal access in the Amazon? If so, how can they be effectively incorporated into the current Brazilian rural electrification initiative?’ We conclude with the identification of two concrete actions to achieve universal access in isolated areas. First, the recognition, compilation and systematization of local knowledge are important tasks ahead. Second, effective communication channels and methods are needed to spread local knowledge and support the design, implementation, and operation of innovative solutions. Participatory activities are crucial to enable these concrete actions. We highlight the role of the government at central and local levels for the purpose of setting up the appropriate environment for these changes to happen.

  16. Brazilian municipalities and their own expenditures on health: some associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Carmem Emmanuely Leitão; Gonçalves, Guilherme Quaresma; Machado, José Angelo

    2017-03-01

    In a context that combines decentralization and underfunding of public health policy, Brazilian municipalities expressively extend their spending in this sector, allocating a proportion of their own revenues (direct taxation added to the mandatory intergovernmental transfers from the Union and the states) at levels above the ones that are constitutionally determined. However, there have been incipient studies investigating the expenditure composition on health in these federative units, in order to describe its main characteristics and explanations. In order to contribute to eliminating this gap, this article explores some associations between attributes of the municipalities (population size, region of the country, the proportion of older adults, child mortality, hiring private services and SUS transfer) and health expenditure implemented with the municipalities' own recipes. The study used descriptive statistics and multiple linear regressions in order to investigate such associations with data for 2010. The results point to tax inequities in the sector when comparing municipalities of different population groups and socioeconomic conditions, including the perception of important differences in terms of per capita spending on the analyzed expenditure items.

  17. Domestic coalitions in the FTAA negotiations: the Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Castelan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes an explanation to the domestic coalitions organised in Brazil around the FTAA negotiations, which stand as a hard case for the existing theories on political cleavages: industrialists and trade unions, albeit having shared common interests in the negotiations, did not adopt a joint strategy to foster their positions. The hypothesis to explain the political alignments in the FTAA is that the opening of the Brazilian market, which had advanced a lot in the years of negotiations, altered the priorities of workers and employers, as well as their preferences in foreign trade policy, hindering the reconciliation of class interests. Both agreed that the U.S. proposal for the FTAA was undesirable, but they completely disagreed on other issues that emerged in the political agenda during the reforms period, such as the role of the State in an open economy, the scope of labour and social rights and the social security system, the structure of taxation, etc. Some of the controversial issues were not new, but the international trade liberalisation intensified the dispute over them.

  18. When Citizenship demands Care: the inclusion of people with autism in the Brazilian labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Aydos; Helena Fietz

    2017-01-01

    In the late 2000s, a network of agents started to promote the inclusion of people with disabilities into the Brazilian labor market, through an Affirmative Action Law that requires private companies to include from 2 to 5 % of people with disabilities among their employees. In this context, the experiences of people with autism brought to light theoretical and practical discussions on both the autonomy of these people and the 'best ways' of managing their everyday work routines. Perceiving pu...

  19. Brazilian green propolis modulates inflammation, angiogenesis and fibrogenesis in intraperitoneal implant in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Luiza D. C.; Andrade, Silvia Passos de; Campos, Paula Peixoto; Barcelos, Lucíola da Silva; Soriani,Frederico Marianetti; de Moura, Sandra Aparecida Lima; Ferreira, Mônica Alves Neves Diniz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic inflammatory processes in the peritoneal cavity develop as a result of ischemia, foreign body reaction, and trauma. Brazilian green propolis, a beeswax product, has been shown to exhibit multiple actions on inflammation and tissue repair. Our aim was to investigate the effects of this natural product on the inflammatory, angiogenic, and fibrogenic components of the peritoneal fibroproliferative tissue induced by a synthetic matrix. Methods: Chronic inflammation was induced...

  20. THE ALL-RUSSIAN PEASANT UNION AND AUTHORITIES IN THE YEARS OF THE FIRST RUSSIAN REVOLUTION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiaczesław Magas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the first Peasant Unions in Ukraine confined within the limits of the current legislation – namely, the Decree on February 18, 1905, which started the judgement campaign, although the unions were established as unlawful societies. A short period of ARPU open legal activities began after the announcement of the Manifesto on October 17 that proclaimed various freedoms, including "meetings and organizations". The central authorities of the Peasant Union worked out the democratic reforms program and its centers implemented the tactics of "peaceful attack" on the landowners and local authorities, keeping the peasants from radical actions. This period ended with the widespread brutal repression against the ARPU leaders and members at the end of 1905 – at the beginning of 1906. The Decree on March 4, 1906 “On the Temporary Rules of Societies and Unions” at the legislative level made it impossible to continue the open Peasant Union organizations activities. In its turn, the peasant congresses of various levels in 1906-1907 showed revolutionary sentiment growth. The constant pursuit and the completion of the revolution caused the decline of the Union institutions. Thus, the authorities saw a huge threat in the breadth and scope of the activities supported by simple peasants and decided to use the repressive means, while the possibility of a dialogue with the peasants for the reform of the agrarian and political sphere was lost, and the beginnings of a civil society in the country were destroyed.

  1. "Obey", "disobey" or "tinker with" reforms to the system: a subject for French teacher trade unions to work on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau-Bareille, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents our work to support and train members of the teaching sectors of two trade unions. The aim was to encourage participants to discuss practices, the difficulties in their day-to-day work and impediments to taking action, given the current reforms to primary education, and thereby assess the reforms' impact on the teachers' activity. It was also intended to help trade unions build up a collective dynamic around their work and re-positioning the work activity at the heart of their preoccupations. This project consisted of one/two day workshops held at local trade union branches. They were led by an ergonomist and a trade union representative. The discussions revealed that the prescriptions received from the management increasingly contradict the values of the profession. Therefore, in the name of professional ethics, different strategies of resistance have emerged, from minor modifications to the prescriptions received, to disobedience. However, adopting such strategies is itself a cause of suffering for teaching staff, and leads to some leaving the profession prematurely. We will discuss the difficulty trade unions have in dealing with the issue of work, their strategic positioning as regards developments within the profession, and the role an ergonomist can play in this process.

  2. Ações de Vigilância Sanitária em laboratórios clínicos em relação ao cumprimento da RDC nº 302/2005/Anvisa no âmbito da SRS/Patos de Minas | Sanitary Surveillance Actions in clinical laboratories as to Compliance with Resolution nº 302/2015 of the Collegiate Board of Directors of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deusa Helena Gonçalves Machado

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Este estudo trata da efetividade das ações de Vigilância Sanitária (VISA municipal em relação ao cumprimento da Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada (RDC nº 302/2005 no contexto de laboratórios clínicos (LC jurisdicionados à Superintendência Regional de Saúde de Patos de Minas, Minas Gerais (SRS/PM/MG. Objetivos: Buscou-se verificar se a VISA, ao liberar o alvará sanitário, tem cumprido as exigências de onze itens da referida RDC. Método: Os dados foram obtidos de 181 relatórios anuais de inspeção sanitária realizados de 2006 a 2013. A análise se deu por meio de frequências simples e por cruzamento de dados. Resultados: As ações de VISA mostraram-se incipientes nos anos de 2006 e 2007. A partir do ano de 2008, constatou-se um aumento significativo dessas ações, que foram menos efetivas em relação ao cumprimento de itens que estão sobremaneira ligados à acurácia dos exames laboratoriais e à segurança dos funcionários e dos pacientes. Conclusão: Essa falta de efetividade das ações de VISA pode ser considerada grave e revela problemas vivenciados pela equipe de VISA que devem ser investigados a fim de que essa situação seja solucionada oferecendo, assim, mais qualidade na prestação de serviços dos LC à população. ======================================= Introduction: This study focused on the effectiveness of municipal Sanitary Surveillance actions carried out in the context of clinical laboratories under the jurisdiction of the Regional Health Superintendence of Patos de Minas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Objective: To verify if the Sanitary Surveillance followed eleven regulations set forth by Resolution No. 302/2015 of the Collegiate Board of Directors of the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency when issuing sanitary permits to such laboratories. Methods: Data were collected from 181 annual health inspection reports from 2006 to 2013. Simple frequency and cross-checking analyses were

  3. Injury Risk in International Rugby Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Isabel S.; Ranson, Craig; Mathema, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Within international Rugby Union, only injury rates during the Rugby World Cup have been reported. Therefore, injury rates and types during other international tournaments are unknown. Purpose: To assess the 3-year incidence, severity, nature, and causes of match and training injuries sustained during different international tournaments played by the Welsh national Rugby Union team. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Injury data for all players (n = 78) selected for 1 national Rugby Union team over a 3-year period were analyzed using the international consensus statement methods. Player height (cm) and mass (kg) were recorded. Tournaments were grouped for comparisons as: autumn tournaments (2012 and 2013), Rugby World Cup (RWC; 2011), Six Nations (2012, 2013, and 2014), and summer tournaments (2012, 2013, and 2014). Injury incidence (injuries/1000 hours), prevalence (% of players unavailable), and severity (days lost) were calculated for each tournament. Injury location, type, and cause of match and training injuries were analyzed. Results: Match injury incidence was highest during autumn tournaments (262.5/1000 match-hours) and lowest during the RWC (178.6/1000 match-hours). Summer tournaments had the highest training incidence (5.5 injuries/1000 training-hours). Mild injuries were most likely during the RWC (risk ratio [RR], 2.02; 95% CI, 1.26-3.24), while severe injuries were most likely during autumn tournaments (RR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.70-6.29). Quadriceps hematomas (18.8/1000 match-hours; 95% CI, 11.3-31.1) and concussions (13.8/1000 match-hours; 95% CI, 7.6-24.8) were the most common match injuries, with shoulder dislocations being the most severe (111 mean days lost per injury). Conclusion: Injury rates were considerably higher than those previously reported for multiple teams during RWC tournaments. Further investigation of injury rates and risk factors is recommended to accurately gauge their impact within international Rugby

  4. The Fiscal Framework in a Currency Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws out lessons from the euro area (EA) that are transferable to the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union (ECCU) and other Caribbean economies with fixed exchange rates. Based on observations from both the EA and the ECCU, we present a new policy framework which is capable of imposing...... fiscal discipline, with the aim of avoiding the risk of unsustainable fiscal policies reappearing and of preventing monetary policy from being undermined by undisciplined national governments. In the ECCU case, we find that fiscal deficits are more a result of financial and trade imbalances than fiscal...

  5. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  6. A Sustainable European Union Own Resources System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieslukowski Maciej

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available From 1992, after the UN “Earth Summit” in Rio de Janeiro, sustainable development has become a priority of many countries and international organizations, including the European Union. After the crisis of 2008+ and the strong criticism of traditional economics, it also became a fundamental element of economic development in the XXI century. This new model is based on a solid and integrated economic, socio-cultural and ecological order. Such a development should be supported by suitable budgetary systems at each level of public government. The paper presents a conception of the sustainable EU own resources system and proposes the methodology of its evaluation.

  7. Energy Cultures in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Rosicki, Remigiusz

    2016-01-01

    The main object of the analysis presented in the text was to point to and confirm the existence of special “energy cultures” in the European Union. In order to achieve this aim the use was made of research present in the literature, inter alia, in the publications containing statistical analyses by: (1) A. Pach-Gurgul, (2) P. Tapio and his research team – Banister, J. Luukkanen, J. Vehma i R. Willamo, also in a review, (3) Z. Łucki and W. Misiak. Compared with the invoked research, the timefr...

  8. Federal and European Union Policy Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    By using the policy cycle approach, this paper compares the policy-process in a number of Anglo-Saxon type federations with the policy-process in continental-European style federations from within the European Union (EU) area.  The comparison would reveal: a) distinct different styles of policy...... making in European style federations in relation with the Anglo-Saxon ones. b) that the policy-process in the EU resembles that of the European style federations, and c) the Constitutional Treaty (CT) or a possible CT-light would strengthen the federal policy-making characteristics already present...

  9. Putting strategy into action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The outcome of the Women's Workshop in Oaxaca, Mexico in February 1992 is presented. 76 participants discussed strategies for promoting women's health and development in Latin America and the Caribbean and reviewed progress on last year's Plan of Action. In Colombia many points in the Plan were adopted by government policy and the Council for Women, Youth and Family. The information, education and communication (IEC) materials were helpful to a Brazilian participant in producing IEC materials and another workshop would help her support training for community leaders. The flip charts on Women's Rights to Health with topics on maternal and child health, reproductive health, and family planning (FP) were highly evaluated. Other successful materials were a video promoting breast feeding and women's rights which was produced by the Guatemala FP Association (APROFAM) and an AIDS prevention video for women made by the Center for Mothers, Children, Infants and FP of Brazil. Not only did participants evaluate materials but they also had to participate in discussions and present their ideas for a film promoting women's health at the sub-regional level. A field trip was conducted to Integrated Project (IP) villages in Oaxaca, and participants observed field workers using "Now, a New Wind Blows," a photo made by the UNFPA and JOICFP, to mobilize women. This booklet reputedly helped to mobilize a group of 70 women in the village of San Lucas Cuilapan. A comparison was made to the 1st workshop which provided an overview of the status of women in the region and the 4th which manifested concrete results and active participation of all involved.

  10. Free riders: the rise of alternative unionism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Flemming; Høgedahl, Laust; Scheuer, Steen

    2013-01-01

    In this article we analyse some disturbing trends in the Danish labour market: while collective bargaining coverage is still relatively high, union density has been declining and—worse than that—there has been a substantial shift away from recognised and in favour of alternative unionism....... The alternative unions are not parties to collective agreements, and they offer membership much cheaper than the recognised unions, in effect taking a free ride on the institutional supports that used to be effective only for the recognised unions. The article explains this conundrum by pointing to the political...... and institutional backgrounds to this development, which threatens to erode the very basis for the Danish collective bargaining system. On the background of general statistics and of a general employee survey, we point out the reasons behind the challenges confronting the recognised unions, pointing out...

  11. Trade Union Responses to Labour Immigrants: Selective Solidarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolle Alho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Finnish service sector trade union Palvelualojen ammattiliitto or Service Union United has the largest amount of migrant members of all Finnish trade unions. It walks the narrow line between defending the perceived interests of its members from the ‘threat’ of labour immigration, and simultaneously trying to act as an immigrant-friendly force. This qualitative case study analyses the outcomes of the union’s strategies in questions related to immigration. The outcomes affect different immigrant groups in a different manner. Furthermore, the established quasi-state character of the Finnish trade union movement affects both the strengths and weaknesses of its strategies. The politicized anti-immigration views in the Finnish society indirectly to some degree impact trade union strategies. Results suggest that the lay distinction between ‘us’ and ‘them’ based on nationality still shapes trade union strategy in a way that can be labeled selective solidarity.

  12. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  13. Best Practices in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia dos Reis Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Competitive intelligence (CI is a systematic and ethical collection, analysis, dissemination and management of information about the external environment that may affect the plans, decisions and operations of the organization. Knowledge management (KM can be seen as a tool to promote organizational knowledge through the use of activities designed to identify, create, store, share and use knowledge. Companies face a challenge in the era of knowledge, it is the extraction and management of knowledge produced by people in the organization. CI and KM combined generates organizational intelligence. The exploratory study, based on literature and multicase study, we sought to identify best practices in processes of CI and KM in Brazilian companies. We identified practices related to the CI design process, the stages of the CI, the use of networks, and knowledge management. We also identified, points of attention on the internal/external organizational environment.

  14. An analysis of the possibility for health implications of joint actions and interactions between food additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groten, J.P.; Butler, W.; Feron, V.J.; Kozianowski, G.; Renwick, A.G.; Walker, R.

    2000-01-01

    The possibility that structurally unrelated food additives could show either joint actions or interactions has been assessed based on their potential to share common sites and mechanisms of action or common pathways of elimination. All food additives approved in the European Union and allocated

  15. A decade of African Union and European Union trans-national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first decade of the new millennium saw the European Union deploy nine security missions to the African continent, quoting the European Security and. Defence Policy. Unlike the numerous United Nations security missions that. European states had previously contributed to, these were part of a grand strategy designed ...

  16. Meeting and mating across borders: union formation in the European union single market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valk, H.A.G.; Díez Medrano, J.

    2014-01-01

    This editorial introduces a special issue and its different contributions. We provide an overarching background for the special issue by situating it in the context of the European Union integration process and through a general discussion of the role of intermarriage in establishing links across

  17. 78 FR 77721 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... providing basic financial services to their low-income members to stimulate economic activities in their...-income members. It also serves as a source of funding to help low-income designated credit unions (LICUs... Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) number issued by Dun and Bradstreet (D&B) in order to be...

  18. Union Learning Representatives: A Case Study of the Public and Commercial Services Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Alex; Davies, John Dwyfor; Lee, John

    2005-01-01

    Union Learning Representatives (ULRs) are a relatively recent phenomenon and are a new category of lay representation within the workplace in the United Kingdom. They are part of the present New Labour administration's drive to expand and improve lifelong learning and create the new "learning society"--in this case, particularly amongst…

  19. Action without frontiers. SADC meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klouda, T

    1997-02-01

    The factors which affect AIDS and the transmission of HIV transcend national, racial, cultural, religious, political, and programmatic boundaries. The European Union and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) jointly held a conference in Lilongwe, Malawi, during December 4-6 to bring together senior officials from a wide range of development sectors in the 12 countries of the SADC region to examine the potential for regional, comprehensive action on relevant issues. Conference outcomes will be reviewed and agreed upon at a future regional ministerial meeting. Origins of the conference, innovative aspects of the conference, and regional and sectoral involvement are discussed. Employment, mining, medical drugs, education, and tourism were discussed extensively at the conference as separate sectors.

  20. Attitudes towards protective headgear in UK rugby union players

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Andrew; Rumbold, James L; Olusoga, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background/aim Concussions in rugby union pose a major threat to player welfare. Research has found protective headgear offers no significant protection against concussions but suggests a large proportion of players perceive headgear to be effective in preventing concussions. This study aimed to explore UK rugby union players’ attitudes towards wearing protective headgear.\\ud \\ud \\ud Methods 545 rugby union players (85% male) from a range of playing standards completed an online survey. Quant...

  1. The Energy Union Pillars: Competitiveness, Security and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ligia Dumitrescu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the study of energy union, from the perspective of the three pillars: competitiveness, sustainability and security. The author uses descriptive research methodology to analyze the implementation of the main objectives of energy union. The article analyzes, based on the literature in the energy field, the weaknesses and the strengths of each pillar. The study findings show the opportunities, but also the challenges that hinder the development of energy union and identify the priorities for Romania.

  2. POSSIBLE TRADE EFFECTS OF THE NEXT EUROPEAN UNION ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelescu-Ionescu Daniela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union next enlargement will constitute a significant qualitative change in the structure of the current Union, as the accession of the Western Balkan countries and of Turkey in particular will bring a brand new set of economic problems. It is expected that this enlargement to have a considerable effect for the new entrants, as well as for the European Union as a whole.\\r\

  3. On the applicability of Ulrich Beck's theory to Brazilian reality: health situation and political action Sobre a aplicabilidade da teoria de Ulrich Bech à realidade brasileira: situação de saúde e ação política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea Maria Zöllner Ianni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses part of the results of our research on Ulrich Beck’s work, mainly focused on the Risk Society theory. Our essay discusses the relevance of the author’s theoretical propositions and their applicability to Brazilian studies. Based on the Brazilian Public Health fi eld, it indicates the health situation and the health system in the country as constitutive of social processes that reflect the theoretical questions posed by Beck. We discuss a new social inequality, the invisibility and imperceptibility of processes, the causal complexity of phenomena, the latent side effects and the (subpolitical issue. Keywords: Social theory. Risk society. Public health. Policies. Este artigo é parte dos resultados da pesquisa sobre a obra de Ulrich Beck, mais especifi camente sobre a teoria da sociedade de risco. Trata-se de um ensaio no qual se argumenta sobre a pertinência das proposições teóricas do autor e sua aplicabilidade aos estudos brasileiros. Toma-se o campo da Saúde Pública, no Brasil, como universo de análise, e mostra como a situação de saúde e o sistema de saúde, no país, refl etem as questões teóricas propostas por Beck. Abordam-se as novas desigualdades sociais, a invisibilidade e imperceptibilidade dos processos, a complexidade causal dos fenômenos, os efeitos colaterais latentes e a questão da (subpolítica, tendo sempre por referência o campo da Saúde Pública. Palavras-chave: Teoria social. Sociedade de risco. Saúde pública. Política.

  4. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: report of two Brazilian brothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M.C.; Zetola, V.F.; Teive, H.; Scola, R.H.; Trentin, A.P.; Zavala, J.A.; Pereira, E.R.; Raskin, S.; Werneck, L.C.; Sistermans, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a treatable rare autossomal recessive disease characterized by lipid storage secondary to a sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency in the formation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. We describe two Brazilian brothers with cognitive impairement and chronic diarrhea.

  5. Medicinal species with gastroprotective activity found in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, José L R; Rodrigues, Oscar R L; de Sousa, Fábio B; Fajemiroye, James O; Galdino, Pablinny M; Florentino, Iziara F; Costa, Elson A

    2015-06-01

    Peptic and/or duodenal ulcers are characterized by diverse acute and chronic ulcerative lesions that commonly arise in any portion of the gastric mucosa that is exposed to the aggressive action of gastric acid. The pathophysiology of peptic ulcers has been attributed to an imbalance between aggressive and protective factors. In Brazil, medicinal plants are commonly used to treat this ailment. A country with great biodiversity, Brazil is considered a rich source of therapeutic products. There have been popular and pharmacological reports on the medicinal relevance of the Brazilian cerrado plant species, including Ananas ananassoides, Celtis iguanaea, Encholirium spectabile, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Lafoensia pacari, Qualea grandiflora, Qualea parvifora, Mouriri pusa, Solanum lycocarpum, Solanum paniculatum, Serjania erecta, and Vochysia tucanorum, in the treatment of stomach disorders. The aim of the present review was to report on some of the Brazilian cerrado plants that are used in folk medicine because of their gastroprotective potential and to encourage novel studies in the search and preservation of plants with this therapeutic potential. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  6. [Construction of the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System: arguments to debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Seta, Marismary Horsth; Dain, Sulamis

    2010-11-01

    This paper analyzes the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System as an arrangement aimed at regulating and reducing health risks associated with consumption of products, use of health services and the environment. Historical, political and tax aspects were considered and their development compared with the National Health Surveillance System, which has received strong international cooperation. The comparison was based on the trajectory of their national systems and related federal agencies, as well as on criteria adopted for decentralization. The central category of analysis is federative coordination and was based on the framework of federalism and intergovernmental relations. The institutional context of health and sanitary surveillance presents strong political competition, instability in the project and probable reduction of the ability of federal coordination after the Pact for Health. The National Sanitary Surveillance System due to its nature of public good and high externality in its field of action requires federal coordination for increasing the regional and local cooperation, also because of the structural heterogeneity of Brazilian municipalities.

  7. Teratogens: a public health issue – a Brazilian overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Mazzu-Nascimento

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Congenital anomalies are already the second cause of infant mortality in Brazil, as in many other middle-income countries in Latin America. Birth defects are a result of both genetic and environmental factors, but a multifactorial etiology has been more frequently observed. Here, we address the environmental causes of birth defects – or teratogens – as a public health issue and present their mechanisms of action, categories and their respective maternal-fetal deleterious effects. We also present a survey from 2008 to 2013 of Brazilian cases involving congenital anomalies (annual average of 20,205, fetal deaths (annual average of 1,530, infant hospitalizations (annual average of 82,452, number of deaths of hospitalized infants (annual average of 2,175, and the average cost of hospitalizations (annual cost of $7,758. Moreover, we report on Brazilian cases of teratogenesis due to the recent Zika virus infection, and to the use of misoprostol, thalidomide, alcohol and illicit drugs. Special attention has been given to the Zika virus infection, now proven to be responsible for the microcephaly outbreak in Brazil, with 8,039 cases under investigation (from October 2015 to June 2016. From those cases, 1,616 were confirmed and 324 deaths occurred due to microcephaly complications or alterations on the central nervous system. Congenital anomalies impact life quality and raise costs in specialized care, justifying the classification of teratogens as a public health issue.

  8. The origins of the bioeconomy in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patermann, Christian; Aguilar, Alfredo

    2018-01-25

    This article outlines the context and circumstances that favoured the development of a Bioeconomy Strategy in the European Union (EU) and the role played by the different Framework programmes for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration. Particular attention is given to the biotechnology related programmes and more specifically to the "Cell Factory" Key Action in the 5th Framework Programme (1998-2002). This, together with the parallel development of a Strategy on Biotechnology in 2002, served as a solid foundation for the creation of the, at the time, so-called Knowledge-Based Bio-Economy (KBBE). The KBBE concept emerged in 2005, a couple of years before the launch of the 7th Framework Programme (2007-2013). The experience accumulated over the years and the new societal expectations triggered the EU to launch a Strategy on Bioeconomy in 2012. This article concludes with a brief analysis of the two most important impacts of the EU Strategy on Bioeconomy. One is the Bioeconomy dedicated activity within the Programme Horizon 2020 (2014-2020), and the other the creation of a public-private partnership of bio-based industries. Both the impact of Horizon 2020 on the EU Bioeconomy Strategy and the bio-based industries public-private partnership are analysed in depth in two articles elsewhere in this volume. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. European union mission for the rule of law in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Bejtush Gashi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we have studied the international circumstances that have affected the deployment of the EULEX Mission in Kosovo. The EULEX mission is the European Union Mission for the Rule of Law in Kosovo. Its main goal is to advise, assist and support the Kosovo authorities in issues of the rule of law, especially in the field of police, judiciary and customs performance. Also this mission has the responsibility to develop and further strengthen the independent multi-ethnic justice system in Kosovo, by ensuring that the rule of law institutions are not politically influenced and that they meet the known international standards and best European practices. This mission was foreseen to be deployed to Kosovo, based on the Ahtissari Comprehensive Status Proposal for Kosovo, but due to its non-approval by the UN Security Council, its full implementation was delayed until December 2008. EULEX acts within the framework of Resolution 1244 of the UN Security Council and under a single chain of command in Brussels. EULEX officials have supported Kosovo Police, the Judiciary system and Kosovo Customs, through MMA actions for achieving objectives and goals that are foreseen by the program strategy of EULEX. But in terms of efficiency, EULEX has only achieved modest results. In the northern part of Kosovo, EULEX has failed, as a result of its ambivalent mandate and incoherence of EU Foreign and Security Policy.

  10. Movement Demands of Elite U20 International Rugby Union Players

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Daniel; Shearer, David A; Drawer, Scott; Eager, Robin; Taylor, Neil; Cook, Christian; Kilduff, Liam P

    2016-01-01

    ...) rugby union players during competitive tournament match play. Forty elite professional players from an U20 international performance squad were monitored using 10 Hz global positioning systems (GPS...

  11. Emerging Administrations under European Union Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Berceanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of emergence is generally used to indicate the appearance of patterns, structures, orproperties that cannot be adequately explained by referring only to the system’s pre-existing componentsand their interactions. The term “emergence” has an interdisciplinary approach specific to administrativesciences, too. In this article, the concept of “emergence” signifies lato sensu a kind of change and it will beused to refer to countries that have a high volatility and that are in transition and to define the changes thatsuffer the public administrations of the countries which are part of the European construction. EuropeanUnion through its policies and legislation has a great impact on economic and social conditions in MemberStates. The aim of the paper is to present a theoretical approach on the dimension of emergingadministrations understood as changes and reforms that suffer the institutions from the EU member statesunder the pressure of the European Union rules. The study is using the concept of emergence to researchand to analyze the nature of the changes in the public administration starting from the approach of thesystems theory.

  12. Where do we go with Union Catalogues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Chamberlain

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The United Kingdom boasts union catalogues for its major research libraries, journal holdings, archives and, most recently, for its public library collections. For researchers wanting to locate material across the UK, such aggregations have long served as a first stop for researchers wanting to find the right material and also provided a showcase for our formidable research collections. In the global networked environment, search engines and social networks can fulfil much of the functionality of union catalogues and have become the natural places to which our users go for search and discovery, even in academic situations. Right now, there is a ‘disconnect’ between the data describing our collections and the places users first turn to start their searches. This can be fixed by exposing descriptive data to wider audiences beyond the silo of the local catalogue, but data publishing is a fast moving area with little obvious short-term institutional-level gain and some start-up barriers. Publishing library data to the open web at the level of a national aggregation would utilize existing skill sets and infrastructure, minimize risk and maximize impact.

  13. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  14. Phylodynamics of the Brazilian feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Ortiz, Lucía; Junqueira, Dennis Maletich; Comerlato, Juliana; Costa, Cristina Santos; Zani, André; Duda, Naila Blatt; Tochetto, Caroline; Dos Santos, Raissa Nunes; da Costa, Fernanda Vieira Amorim; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Cláudia

    2017-11-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), like other retroviruses, displays large genomic divergence when different isolates are compared. In this study, 31 FIV positive samples of domestic cats from Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil were used aiming at a detailed genomic characterization and a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of the virus in Brazil. The proviral env genes were partially amplified, sequenced and compared with another 237 sequences from different continents. We identified several Brazilian highly supported clades (A, B1, B2, C and D) that suggest independent events of introduction of FIV in Brazil. Forty six reference-sequences from the GenBank were used with our 31 sequences to infer the virus subtypes. Our sequences belong to the subtype B and three of them result from a recombination with the previously described subtype F. The other 28 Brazilian samples belonging to subtype B and another 46 Brazilian sequences from the GenBank were used to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor of each Brazilian clade, using a Bayesian approach and a relaxed molecular clock model. The analyses of Brazilian sequences suggest several different entries of the virus in the Brazilian cat population between 1981 and 1991. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  16. Towards a Circular Economy in the European Union - A Solution For the Economic Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Câmpeanu

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the resource efficiency agenda set by the Europe 2020 Strategy, the European Union is on its way of transition from the linear economy to a circular economy model. A first step was achieved in 2014 by the European Commission Communication “Towards a circular economy: a zero waste programme for Europe”, recently followed by the Circular economy package, which includes an Action Plan for the Circular economy and a time-bound implementation of the initiatives. In this researc...

  17. Physical and Physiological Profiles of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Athletes: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreato, Leonardo Vidal; Lara, Francisco Javier Díaz; Andrade, Alexandro; Branco, Braulio Henrique Magnani

    2017-12-01

    Brazilian jiu-jitsu is a grappling combat sport that has intermittency as its core element; in other words, actions of high, moderate and low intensity are interspersed during matches, requiring a high level of conditioning to support optimal levels of performance for the total match time. The athletes perform from four to six matches during a day of competition, and this number may increase if the open-class competition, which is held parallel to the competition by weight class, is considered. This systematic review examined the physical and physiological profiles of Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes. Only scientific researches dealing with the major fitness components of Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes (i.e. body composition and somatotype, aerobic and anaerobic profiles, muscular strength and power) and using accepted methods that provided relevant practical applications for a Brazilian jiu-jitsu athlete's fitness training and/or performance were included in the current review. A computer literature search was carried out of the PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, SportDiscus and Scopus databases (up to January 2016). The database research generated 205 articles. After the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 58 studies were included for the present systematic review. A total of 1496 subjects were involved in all the selected investigations. Body fat is generally low for these athletes and the mesomorphic component is predominant. The different studies showed VO2max values between 42 and 52 mL/kg/min, and it seems that aerobic fitness does not discriminate among Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes of different competitive levels. There is a lack of scientific studies that have investigated anaerobic responses both in lower and upper limbs. Maximal dynamic, isometric and endurance strength can be associated with sporting success in Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes. Although decisive actions during Brazilian jiu-jitsu matches are mainly dependent on muscular power, more

  18. Housing Policy. A Critical Analysis on the Brazilian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nascimento Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has revealed significant advancements on social housing in Brazil. Along with the implementation of the National Housing Policy (2004, the National Housing System (2005, and the National Housing Plan (2008, a consistent model to face the Brazilian housing deficiency was created. The prime period of the actions and resources taken by the various government levels and private agents took place during the implementation of Minha Casa Minha Vida [My Home My Life] program (PMCMV, whose goal was to build a million houses. Based on the outlined context, this paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between National Housing Policy and PMCMV, discussing its implications on housing outlook in the country. A bibliographical and documentary research showed theoretical and conceptual unbalance between these two policies, allowing speculation on the prevalence of the economic component over the social one.

  19. Cleaner Production: A Growing Movement in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner Production (CP is gaining emphasis in both world and Brazilian production sectors. Nature’s warnings indicating the exhaustion of any capacity to absorb and regenerate waste, stricter legislation regarding pollution emitters, market competitiveness associated with environmental and social responsibility cause concerns and lead to actions to reduce aggressions against the environment. This paper shows evidence of this concern and presents cases in which a large automotive industry, acting as a partner to suppliers, promotes changes in how it delivers its products, eliminating large cardboard, plastic and wood packaging. A small company had a similar initiative, reducing the use of cardboard and plastic packaging. More important is the revelation of a widely dispersed, yet growing and incremental movement of responsibilities among companies.The benefits of cleaner production implementation were evaluated by confronting environmental and financial assessment. For the ambient evaluation, it will be used methodology of Material Intensity (Wuppertal Institute, a.

  20. Leadership capacity in two Brazilian regional tourism organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Flavio Jose; Dredge, Dianne; Lohmann, Gui

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This paper examines the leadership practices of two Brazilian regional tourism organisations (RTOs) using an exploratory case study. Design/methodology/approach – The research adopts an embedded case study approach, permitting the comparison of the leadership phenomenon in the ‘‘Instituto...... at the speed required by the private sector. The IER is a market-led governance structure and its leadership practices effectively mobilised the private sector. However, it was found to operate in isolation from government and other key tourism stakeholders. Originality/value – This paper draws together....... Findings – Four leadership themes emerged: capacity to produce results, capacity to mobilise followers, articulation and communication of goals and actions, and articulation of roles and responsibilities. The findings are discussed in regards to the hierarchical and market governance structures of the two...

  1. THE COURSE OF TRANSLATION AND INTERPRETATION PUBLICATIONS OF BRAZILIAN SIGN LANGUAGE IN SOME BRAZILIAN TRANSLATION JOURNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aguiar dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes and analyses the course of publications about Translation and Interpretation of Brazilian sign language in some Brazilian Translation journals. Results show a sum of 36 works published, distributed over Translation journals of different regions of Brazil. The established subjects and the ones that emerged from 1990 to 2014 were also examined in these publications.

  2. Another driver of the Brazilian fuel ethanol supply chain: the consumers' preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Isabella

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors have been discussed in the literature as the causes for setbacks in the Brazilian ethanol supply chain, such as the low price of petroleum and the high price of sugar in the financial crisis in 2008. However, there is an important gap that was not explored yet, how do drivers choose to refuel their cars? Do the supply chain managers know their consumers? Based on that, this paper aims to demonstrate how the ethanol supply chain stakeholders perceive consumers' preferences and compare them to the factors that are taken into consideration by Brazilian flexible-fuel vehicles drivers when choosing types of fuel gasoline or ethanol. For that, we illustrated the case by using a sample of announcements collected from Brazilian news media featuring the supply chain managers' view and the survey taken by drivers to understand the consumer's actions. Our results indicate that there is a significant difference between the actual preferences of fuel consumers and the perceived consumers' preferences by the stakeholders. This disparity is probably the (or one of the main cause of the second setback in the Brazilian supply chain (2009–2012. Based on these results we point out the strategic implications in managing this supply chain and also the role of public policy in improving the diffusion of ethanol in Brazil.

  3. Structure and genetic diversity of natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvares-Carvalho, S V; Duarte, J F; Santos, T C; Santos, R M; Silva-Mann, R; Carvalho, D

    2016-06-17

    In the face of a possible loss of genetic diversity in plants due the environmental changes, actions to ensure the genetic variability are an urgent necessity. The extraction of Brazilian pepper fruits is a cause of concern because it results in the lack of seeds in soil, hindering its distribution in space and time. It is important to address this concern and explore the species, used by riparian communities and agro-factories without considering the need for keeping the seeds for natural seed banks and for species sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure and the genetic diversity in natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi). Twenty-two alleles in 223 individuals were identified from eight forest remnants located in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, and Sergipe. All populations presented loci in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviation. Four populations presented six combinations of loci in linkage disequilibrium. Six exclusive alleles were detected in four populations. Analysis of molecular variance showed the absence of diversity between regions and that between the populations (GST) was 41%. Genetic diversity was structured in seven clusters (ΔK7). Brazilian pepper populations were not structured in a pattern of isolation by distance and present genetic bottleneck. The populations São Mateus, Canastra, Barbacena, and Ilha das Flores were identified as management units and may support conservation projects, ecological restoration and in implementation of management plans for Brazilian pepper in the State of Sergipe.

  4. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; dos Santos, Debora França; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Tavares, Bruno Mendes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students). Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6). Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old) who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits.

  5. The Potential of Transnational Language Policy to Promote Social Inclusion of Immigrants: An Analysis and Evaluation of the European Union's INCLUDE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Cui

    2017-01-01

    Language issues and social inclusion consistently remain two major concerns for member countries of the European Union (EU). Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of language learning in migrants' social inclusion, and the promotion of language policies at European and national levels, there is still a lack of common actions at the…

  6. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU) has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010). This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA); action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames looking at investments and

  7. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toure Kadidiatou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010. This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA; action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames

  8. Political public relations in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the state of political public relations in the European Union by specifically focusing on reputation management and relationship management. Its arguments are based on a theoretical review of the literature of political public relations, reputation and relationship management......, and EU communication. The article suggests an in-depth examination of the nature of some of the EU’s major problems in political public relations, and contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the possibilities and limitations of applying reputation and relationship management constructs...... to a political context. The nature of the analysis is exploratory rather than definitive, and specific investigations are needed to thoroughly explore and better theorize political reputation and relationship management in various political contexts....

  9. International Astronomical Union Sympoisum No.50

    CERN Document Server

    Westerlund, B

    1973-01-01

    Dr J. Landi Dessy, Director of the Astronomical Observatory, Cordoba, Argentina, invited the International Astronomical Union to hold a Symposium in Cordoba in connection with the celebration of the Centennial of the Cordoba Observatory; the date of foundation is October 24, 1871. He proposed that the Symposium should deal with Spectral Classification and Multicolour Photometry as seven years had elapsed since the Symposium No. 24 in Saltsj6baden, and much development had occurred in the field. The invitation and the proposal were accepted by the IAU, and the Symposium was held in Villa Carlos Paz, near Cordoba, between October 18 and October 24, 1971. It was attended by about 50 scientists representing Argentina, Canada, Chile, Den­ mark, France, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Sweden, Switzerland, U.K., U.S.A., Vatican City State and Venezuela. The Symposium was divided into four sessions: 1. Classification of slit spectra, 2. Classification of objective-prism spectra, 3. Photometric classification, 4. Catalogues ...

  10. Redistributive Politics in a Political Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    One of the main functions of centralized budgets in federal and political unions is to act as an equalizing mechanism to support economic cohesion. This is also the case with the European Union’s budget, which operates as a redistributive mechanism that counteracts the cross-national and cross...... remarkably over the last decades. In this paper, we investigate how and why the net fiscal position of each member state towards the rest of the EU changes over time. Using a novel panel dataset (1979-2014), we study how some key national and EU-level political and economic variables affect the EU...... find that the political orientation of national governments does not per se influence redistributive politics with in the EU. However, when the unemployment rate is rising, right-wing governments are able to extract significantly larger budgetary benefits....

  11. DEBATE ON ROMANIA INTEGRATION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana M. SÎRBU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current state of Romanian integration into the European Union through the analysis of statistical data related to the absorption way of structural and cohesion funds available in 2007-2013 (absorption indicators and economic competitiveness indicators: Gross Domestic Product, employment rate, unemployment, population. In addition there are analyzed the structural and cohesion funds available for Romania in 2014-2020, for each category of available operational program and also the measures that must be implemented for Romania to adapt in a performance way to Europe 2020. The analysis results are considered as prerequisites for the development of an underlying model of investment decisions in the integrated sustainable development of Romania.

  12. FOREIGN POLICY OF EUROPEAN UNION: EURASIAN AGENDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksiy KANDYUK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available EU’s influence at so-called post-Soviet space gradually increases and becomes a significant factor of regional policy. Today we can already speak of the European Union as a full participant in the political processes occurring in the post-Soviet and broader – Eurasian area. Foreign policy of EU is evolving under impact of reasons stemming from both structural and political context and from external geopolitical trends. At the same time, challenges in the geopolitical environment in Europe today require the EU to develop new conceptual approaches helping to deal with the problems of relations with its eastern neighbours and the Russian impact. Only the development of a new Eurasian agenda could help to improve European eastern policy, consolidate the position of EU as a geopolitical actor in this region and foster Europeanization and integration of neighbour countries.

  13. The Rise of a European Healthcare Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare has only slowly appeared on the European Union’s (EU) policy agenda. EU involvement in policies concerning the organization, financing and the provision of diagnosis, care and cures to ill people developed along three fragmented tracks: (a) EU public health policies concerning the well......-being of all people; (b) the application of the free movement principle to national healthcare systems in particular by the EU’s Court of Justice (CJEU); and (c) the austerity packages and the stricter EU surveillance of national budgets since the debt crises. The key questions of this special issue...... are whether this fragmented EU involvement has now developed into a distinct European healthcare union, and if so what its driving forces have been. Thus, it explores how European integration in healthcare has moved forward despite widespread reluctance. It also examines the underexplored political dynamics...

  14. THE COMPETITION POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriţa Florea (Ionescu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of European unity dates back to antiquity, the time when the Roman Empire alsopursued such a goal. Attempts to unify European countries have appeared constantly in history, but theirsuccessful culmination crystallized only after the Second World War.Basically, the two wars have led to the downfall of Europe and the loss of its centenary political andmilitary position. The experience of these wars has led the states to initiate a defense mechanism of peace,security and international cooperation - resulted in creating an organization of universal jurisdiction -TheLeague of Nations. However, the successor of this organization, The United Nations - was one thatmanaged thorough its collective security system represented by the Security Council, to ensure andmaintain universal / global peace until now (Stelian Scăunaş, 2005.The creation of the European Union is based on four founding treaties: The Treaty establishingThe European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC - adopted in Paris on April 18, 1951, entered into forcein 1952 - treaty concluded for a period of 50 years and that has terminated in 2002, The Treatyestablishing the European Economic Community (EEC, The Treaty establishing the European AtomicEnergy Community (EAEC or EURATOM, both signed in Rome on March 25, 1947 and entered into forcein 1958 as the Treaties of Rome, and The Treaty on the European Union, which was adopted at Maastrichton 7th of February 1992 and entered into force in 1993. To these institution treaties we can add themodifying treaties of the founding treaties, including: The Merger Treaty - adopted in Brussels on 8 April1965, entered into force in 1967; The Single European Act - signed in Luxembourg and Hague in 1986,entered into force in 1987; The Amsterdam Treaty - signed on October 2, 1997, entered into force in 1999,The Treaty of Nice - signed on February 26, 2001, entered into force in 2003, The Lisbon Treaty signed in2007 and entered into force on December 1st

  15. Reforming Public School Systems through Sustained Union-Management Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Saul A.; McCarthy, John E.

    2011-01-01

    For most of the past decade the policy debate over improving U.S. public education has centered on teacher quality. In this debate, teachers and their unions have often been seen as the problem, not part of the solution. Further, current discourse often assumes that conflicting interests between teacher unions and administration is inevitable.…

  16. Unions in small and medium-sized enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten, Ann-Louise; Crouch, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Trade unions are commonly weak in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which constitute a majority of European firms and are often family-owned. We investigate the influence of family ownership on employee membership, perceptions and experience with unions in Danish and Italian firms in the textile...

  17. Physical fitness of elite female Rugby Union players | Hene | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rugby union is a contact sport in which players require high levels of physical fitness, which is a composite of aerobic and anaerobic endurance, muscle strength and power, speed, agility and body composition. The aim of this study was to assess the physical fitness characteristics of elite female rugby union players.

  18. IMPORTANCE OF THE EUROPEAN BANKING UNION NEW DIRECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available European Banking Union has set new rules on monetary market especially for credit institutions and for financial banking groups in general. Economic and monetary union requires accomplishment of political and monetary union and democratic control of the European institutions on a single financial market. In this respect through its management organisms, EU has designed a series of unique mechanisms of financial union and called for a fiscal union. Union of European financial market is possible through a new regulation of the markets. In this project, monetary union of the EU member countries is possible by implementing single mechanism of supervision (Single Supervisory Mechanism and single mechanism of resolution (Single Resolution Mechanism. European Banking Union may be made by monitoring of a single banking supervisor based on a common system for managing and resolving banking crises and a uniform system of protecting people's savings. Romania opted for these unique mechanisms of macro-prudential supervision of the financial system. And by performing the real convergence criteria of integration, Romania will have all conditions of integration in the ,,euro area,,.

  19. Children's Drawings from China and the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassler, David G.

    1986-01-01

    Illustrates the cultural differences (and similarities) of China and the Soviet Union as reflected in the drawings of each country's children. In China, children's drawings reflected friendship and warmth toward others. In the Soviet Union, children's reserved and cautious attitudes about drawing are consistent with the perspective of that…

  20. The Banking Union: An Overview and Open Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Schoenmaker (Dirk)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe move to European Banking Union involving the supervision and resolution of banks at euro-area level was stimulated by the sovereign debt crisis in the euro area in 2012. However, the long-term objective of Banking Union is dealing with intensified cross-border banking. The

  1. Monetary union without fiscal coordination may discipline policymakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    We show that, with benevolent policymakers and fiscal leadership, monetary unification reduces inflation, taxes and public spending. These disciplining effects of a monetary union, which rise with the number of fiscal players in the union, are likely to raise welfare. Joining an optimally designed

  2. Trade Union Participation in Organized Leather Industry in Kolkata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It further attempts to analyse the trend of trade union participation based on research hypothesis framed according to objectives. However, the research accepts its own limitations and encourages further studies based on the observation made through this paper. Keywords: Significant factors, trade union participation, three ...

  3. Labour Unionism and Its Effects on Organizational Productivity: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Productivity: A Case Study of Jos International. Breweries (JIB) PLC, Nigeria. Collins, Emma ... Labour unionism is one activity that most organizations today fail to recognize and to also understand its significant ... assumptions of legal existence through the enactment of Trade Union. Organization Act 1938 which permits ...

  4. Limiting organisational rights of minority unions: POPCRU v ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majoritarian model aims to minimise the proliferation of trade unions in a single workplace and to encourage the system of a representative trade union. ... In so doing, the Labour Court had to reconcile the fundamental principle of freedom of association and the right to fair labour practices (to organise and engage in ...

  5. Surveillance of injuries among Kenya Rugby Union (KRU) players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the incidence and characteristics of injury amongst Kenya rugby union players and associated factors. Design: A whole population prospective cohort study. Methods: 364 registered Kenya rugby union (KRU) players were studied throughout the 2010 season. Data on their demographics, injury ...

  6. Strength and energetics of elite rugby union players | Lombard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comprehensive assessments of the various physical and physiological demands of a rugby union match, can contribute towards scientific based conditioning to enhance performance. The study compared physical and physiological differences between elite and non-elite South African Rugby Union players. A comparison ...

  7. 20 CFR 633.319 - Lobbying, political activities and unionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lobbying, political activities and unionization. 633.319 Section 633.319 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Lobbying, political activities and unionization. No funds provided under the Act may be used in any way: (a...

  8. 20 CFR 638.814 - Lobbying; political activities; unionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lobbying; political activities; unionization. 638.814 Section 638.814 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 638.814 Lobbying; political activities; unionization. No funds provided under the Act may be used in...

  9. Intertrochanteric fracture non-unions with implant failure of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Failure of internal fixation of intertrochanteric fracture is associated with delayed union or malunion resulting in persistent pain and diminished function. We report a rare case of implant failure of the gamma nail with intertrochanteric fracture non union treated by DCS plate screw and bone graft. Pan African Medical Journal ...

  10. Communist Theory in the Nigerian Trade Union Movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Waterman (Peter)

    1973-01-01

    textabstractThe subject of this paper is the Nigerian Trade Union Congress (NTUC), the Communist trade union organisation in Nigeria. More specifically, it is about the central leadership of the NTUC, since the organisation is in origin and structure a central, national and Lagos-based federation of

  11. Trade Unions as Organisations: Key Issues and Problems of Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    regulating labour market and Managerial Relations with employees. Similarly, it is the opinion of this article that theoretically speaking and to some extent, Trade Unions adopt democratic constitutions by giving their members ultimate control over certain policy decisions and the organisation of their own union activities.

  12. Union Pacific Railroad Company - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Union Pacific Railroad Company (“Respondent” or “Union Pacific”) for alleged violations of Section 311(b)(3) of the CWA, 33 U.S.C. § 1321(b)(3), and regulations promulgated

  13. Beyond Linguistic Policy: The Soviet Union Versus Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannut, Mart

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the role of non-Russian languages in the Soviet Union (USSR) focuses on the history of ethnic group languages and language policy in Estonia since the collapse of totalitarianism. A historical overview of Soviet Union language policy is offered, with attention given to the ideological goals influencing policy, and their realization…

  14. Faculty Unions, Business Models, and the Academy's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author addresses questions about the future of faculty unions, business models, and the academy by providing some current and historical context regarding the causes of and conflicts about faculty unions. He also reviews trends in college and university management over the past three decades, using California, Ohio, and…

  15. The Arab Maghreb Union Marks 20th Anniversary

    OpenAIRE

    R V Salamova

    2010-01-01

    The Arab Maghreb Union was formed in 1989 in order to coordinate regional policies on military, economic, cultural and international issues. The reasons of lack of understanding among countries - participants of the Arab Maghreb Union and factors of organizational strengthening in future are examined.

  16. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  17. Politics and Policies of Promoting Multilingualism in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the politics of policies promoting multilingualism in the European Union (EU), specifically in light of the recently released European Union Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism. As the most far-reaching and ambitious policy document issued by the European Commission, the Platform warrants close scrutiny at a significant…

  18. Labour Unionism and Its Effects on Organizational Productivity: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Labour unionism is one activity that most organizations today fail to recognize and to also understand its significant contributions towards organizational productivity. This study attempts to find out whether or not labour unionism in organizations are partners in progress, that complement management's effort towards ...

  19. Students' Unions, Consumerism and the Neo-Liberal University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Rachel; Byford, Kate; Sela, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the economic relationships between individual students' unions and their wider institutions, and the ways in which they articulate with a pervasive consumerist agenda across the higher education sector. We draw on data from a UK-wide study to argue that students' unions have an ambivalent relationship with consumerist…

  20. Union Power, Cost of Job Loss, and Workers' Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Francis; McIntosh, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Data from 2,061 British companies in the Workplace Industrial Relations Survey supported the hypothesis that powerful unions reduce the external threat of job loss and therefore the pace of work in unionized firms is less responsive to such threats. (SK)