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Sample records for brazilian seed companies

  1. Use of molecular marker techniques in seed testing by Brazilian seed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Vecchia P.T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed market is becoming global and globalization is growing very fast. To compete favourably in this new global seed world, quality and cost are and will be certanly the key issues. High seed quality can only be obtained by a thorough control of the entire seed production process, step by step from planning to final delivery. That requires science, technology, expertise, experience, good management and certanly, the most important, an absolute and unconditional commitment with quality. Seed testing for quality assurance is one important step in the process of production of high quality seed. In the late years a considerable amount of research has been published, particularly on the use of some Polymerase Chain Reaction DNA based new technologies (RAPD, microsatelites, AFLP for genetic purity determinations in seed testing. As far as we know, no Brazilian seed company is using, on regular basis, RAPD or other molecular marker techniques in the determination of genetic purity in seed testing. Most of these are using morphological or physiological traits expressed by seed, seedling or mature plant and/or electrophoresis of seed or seedling proteins/isoenzymes for that purpose. Main reasons for that are: DNA molecular marker techniques are relatively new; lack of specialized personnel to run DNA molecular marker assays on routine basis; higher cost/sample when compared to proteins/isoenzymes electrophoresis.

  2. INNOVATION IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodrigues, Tonny Kerley de Alencar; Lira, Átila De Melo; Naas, Irenilza De Alencar

    2015-01-01

    .... And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations. Keywords: innovation, small enterprises, patents. 1. INTRODUCTION Companies worldwide are looking to technological innovation as feasible for your market expansion (BURNS; STALKER, 1961; NELSON, 1993) alternative. In Brazil, the change an...

  3. INNOVATION IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

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    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the interfaces and boundaries of innovation orientation of Brazilian MSEs because despite the importance of innovation for Brazilian MSEs, a thorough analysis of such initiatives in Brazil still has not actually happened. The search was developed from a quantitative approach, of applied nature and descriptive. For that a structured questionnaire was used where were interviewed 700 MSEs using a probabilistic sampling. The study offers two important conclusions. The challenges for innovation can be perceived along three dimensions: design innovation, the implementation of innovation and functional area of innovation. And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations. The study offers two important conclusions. The challenges for innovation can be perceived along three dimensions: design innovation, the implementation of innovation and functional area of innovation. And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations.

  4. Best Practices in Brazilian Companies

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    Catia dos Reis Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Competitive intelligence (CI is a systematic and ethical collection, analysis, dissemination and management of information about the external environment that may affect the plans, decisions and operations of the organization. Knowledge management (KM can be seen as a tool to promote organizational knowledge through the use of activities designed to identify, create, store, share and use knowledge. Companies face a challenge in the era of knowledge, it is the extraction and management of knowledge produced by people in the organization. CI and KM combined generates organizational intelligence. The exploratory study, based on literature and multicase study, we sought to identify best practices in processes of CI and KM in Brazilian companies. We identified practices related to the CI design process, the stages of the CI, the use of networks, and knowledge management. We also identified, points of attention on the internal/external organizational environment.

  5. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the analysis of human resource management practices for Brazilian companies. The country-specific context and organizational behavior peculiarities of Brazil define the companies’ approach for HRM practices. The example of “CCR Group” is considered as a case study example. Analysis from company structure, culture specific context, current situation of human resource management not only in this company, but also in Brazil, in order to give the recommendation about how to ...

  6. Innovation in brazilian small companies

    OpenAIRE

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues; Átila de Melo Lira; Irenilza Alencar Naas

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the interfaces and boundaries of innovation orientation of Brazilian MSEs because despite the importance of innovation for Brazilian MSEs, a thorough analysis of such initiatives in Brazil still has not actually happened. The search was developed from a quantitative approach, of applied nature and descriptive. For that a structured questionnaire was used where were interviewed 700 MSEs using a probabilistic sampling. The study offers two important conclusions. The ...

  7. INNOVATION PROCESS IN OPEN CAPITAL BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

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    Ricardo Floriani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the innovation process used by the open capital Brazilian companies and establish a ranking of the potentially innovative ones. For this, a questionnaire was sent to 484 companies with shares traded in Bovespa, receiving a response from 22. The innovation process is based on the model of Barrett and Sexton (2006. A summary of the results is presented below. (i Organizational Capabilities – 95.5% answered that they have incentives for innovation activities and 68.2% reported having procedures for all services. The leadership has a facilitator role encouraging the initiative (86.4% and promotes the maintenance of the group relationship (72.7%. Value risk taking, even through failures and prioritize the learning and experimenting new ideas. (ii Background of the innovation – reveals aspects of the capacity (internal or (external. Of the respondents, 59.1% developed internal activities of continuing P & D. Training to innovate is present in a continuous or occasional basis in 81.8% of the companies. The respondents characterize the economic environment as dynamic and the majority purchased software and equipments. In only 12 opportunities was a reference to obtaining patents as innovation protection measure. (iii Focus of innovation – the majority of the companies mentioned process or product innovation. Rewards are offered when the objectives are met and it is brought to attention when this does not occur. (iv Highlighted performance – the innovations achieved the expectations and created effects. The relevant benefits noticed were: improvement in quality of goods and services, increase of market share, increase of goods and services, and increase of productive capacity.

  8. Public Versus Private Water Utilities: Empirical Evidence for Brazilian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Tito Belchior Moreira; Geraldo da Silva Souza; Ricardo Coelho Faria

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares the technical efficiency of Brazilian public and private companies in water supply. To measure efficiency a stochastic production frontier model is estimated using two competitive distributions for the inefficiency error component: truncated normal and exponential. The exponential distribution showed a superior fit and was used to assess differences in technical efficiency between public and private companies. The statistical results show that private companies are only ma...

  9. Systematic risk variations (beta convertible debenture brazilian companies

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    Renata Drumond Pinto Coelho Antonino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available purpose of this article is to analyze the impact of issuing convertible debentures on the systematic risk of Brazilian companies. Some applied researches in the U.S. capital market (STEIN, 1992; LEWIS et al, 2002; RAI, 2005 indicate that convertible debentures may be used as an alternative financing source when adverse selection problem makes stock issuing unattractive financing source. The analysis of Brazilian companies that issued convertible debentures recorded in the period from 1998 to 2006 and that presented liquidity on the market indicated that variation in beta, on average, is positive. These results are coherent with the signaling hypothesis and with the absence of convertible debenture issuing in 2005 and 2006 on the Brazilian market. They also may be related to the precarious financial situation of issuing companies, observed by the analysis of some financial indicators in year of issue and in two pre- e post-issuing years.

  10. Brazilian physicians hold national strike against medical insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; da Silva, Pedro Guarise

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Health System has two different forms of access, public and private. The purpose of the public health system is to provide universal, complete access, free of charge, for the entire population. The private sector is composed by people who have private insurance. Nowadays, about 43 million Brazilians, or 26.3% of the population, have private health insurance. The main motivations of the physicians for the strike were the low payment for medical services and the constant interference of the private health insurance companies in medical autonomy. For this reason, Brazilian physicians held a 24-hour strike against the Medical Insurance Companies that did not accept to negotiate new fees in almost all Brazilian states. At least 120,000 physicians from all specialties stopped elective activities during that day, only providing urgent or emergency care. It is estimated that the strike affected 25 to 35 million Brazilians, about 76% of the total number of medical insurance users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural reform and environmental proactivity: the case of brazilian companies

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    Monica Cavalcanti Sá Abreu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 1990’s, Brazilian companies have faced a huge structural reform associated with trade liberalisation, deregulation and decrease of state intervention. In this context, they have been pressured to behave in a more socially and environmentally responsible manner. The objective of this paper is to identify whether environmental strategies were influenced by degree of internationalization, size and stakeholders’ pressures. It was used the strategy of case study with the technique of systematic interviews for primary data collection. The research was conducted in petrochemical, steel, textile and shoe industries, established in different Brazilian states, chosen by theoretical sampling. The empirical results demonstrate that modern preventive natural environmental approaches seem clear in large companies that have international investors and operate in global markets. It is markable in the steel and petrochemical companies. The study finds that the structural reform has caused a positive environmental effect on Brazilian companies because global ties increase self-regulation pressures and enforces the engagement of a new range of stakeholders.

  12. What if simulation for a Brazilian company regarding marketing budget

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    Diogo André PINTO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article research is a case study regarding how to design the marketing budget for a small Brazilian company that started the activity one year ago. Taking into account the data that we gather, we decided to use What-if simulation. The case study is a simplified model representation of a company, adjusted according to the data that is released as target for the following year. In practice, the formulation of a scenario allows the construction of a hypothetical world that the analyst can see and navigate.

  13. How a traditional company seeded new analytics capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gust, G. (Gunther); D. Neumann (Dirk); Flath, C.M. (Christoph M.); T. Brandt (Tobias); Ströhle, P. (Philipp)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractDeveloping state-of-the art data analytics capabilities is a challenge for traditional companies with long-established processes and legacy systems. We describe how one such company (a Swiss electricity utility) conducted a seed project-a bottom-up initiative to develop an analytics

  14. Fair Information Principles of Brazilian Companies online privacy policies

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    Patricia Zeni Marchiori

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to present the Fair Information Principles in the privacy policies of the websites of major Brazilian companies (according to the 2014 Forbes Magazine list. The check and analysis were supported by a checklist compiled from documents issued by the Federal Trade Commission and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and development. The study selected fourteen companies from a universe of twenty-five, considering the immediacy criterion of access to the privacy policy on their websites. The security (safeguards principle is the most widespread foundation at the privacy policies of the companies selected (existing in eight of the fourteen analyzed policies; and the principle of responsibility receives less adhesion due to the fact that it is not covered in any of the examined online privacy policies. The Sabesp Company presents the most complete privacy policy, considering the compliance with the Fair Information Principles when compared to the others perused, while WEG does not present any of the principles identified in the documental survey. As for e-commerce, the number of companies that assume some of the Principles is further reduced. For the selected universe the adherence to the Fair information Principles is still incipient, althought its use is not mandatory. An open discussion of the proposed Brazilian law about personal data protection should play an important role in creating further guidance on the subject. Additional studies in this subject should involve the perception of users, as well as a cutout of companies which target e-commerce, considering that an effective alignment with these principles and other guidelines are required in order to protect the user’s privacy and personal data in the web environment.

  15. Budgeting practices: a study on Brazilian hotel companies

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    Paula de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the budgeting practices in the hotel companies of Brazil’s main tourist centers. The justification is oriented by the number of foreign tourists received by the top ten Brazilian tourist destinations, which reaches 95% of the country. Another motivation is the lack of research on hotel companies in developing countries, and it should also be considered that Brazil will host the World Cup in 2014 and the Olympic Games in 2016, which requires a suitable hotel structure to receive a large number of athletes and tourists. Thus, in order to achieve the purpose of this study, surveys were sent to the hotels associated with the Brazilian Association of the Hotel Industry (ABIH, with replies by 40 hotel companies. Descriptive statistics were applied to the results, in order to improve the basis for discussions. The results indicate that most of the hotels adopt corporate budgeting with bottom-up as main budgeting process. Research shows that budgets are developed, more frequently, using the results from previous years and economic indicators. In the performance evaluation, the comparative analysis, the analysis of the causes of deviations and adequacy measures are often applied. The analysis of variance is primarily directed at controlling costs/expenses, identifying potential problems and providing feedback for the next period.

  16. Unconditional conservatism in Brazilian public companies and tax neutrality

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    Juliana Pinhata Sanches do Vale

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Law n. 11,638/2007 legitimized the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS adoption process in Brazil and introduced an accounting system detached from tax purposes in the country. This law aims to reduce the influence of tax law on accounting standards and improve the quality of financial reporting, as IFRS are considered to be higher quality standards. International literature shows a reduction in earnings quality in environments where accounting and tax rules are strongly linked. Moreover, the influence of tax legislation on financial accounting is seen to encourage unconditional conservatism, a bias with no advantages for financial market efficiency. Thus, tax neutrality is expected to provide a more favorable institutional environment for quality financial reporting by detaching corporate accounting from tax accounting. In light of the above, this study aims to verify whether the advent of tax neutrality influences unconditional conservatism in Brazilian public companies. The methodology used involves panel data regressions. The sample consists of non-financial publicly-traded companies with information published in Economática® covering 2002 to 2014. The results show differences in the relationship between taxation and financial reporting between firms that are subject to different levels of monitoring in the Brazilian stock market. Evidence of unconditional conservatism is only found in companies that are subject to greater market monitoring. In this group, it is observed that taxation does not induce unconditional conservatism in reported earnings, which is expected in a tax neutrality context.

  17. IFRS ADOPTION AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT IN BRAZILIAN PUBLICLY TRADED COMPANIES

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    Roberto Midoguti Joia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, Brazil adopted the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. Studies involving publicly traded companies in different countries around the world indicate that these new standards tend to improve the information quality and make it more comparable and transparent. This study was aimed at verifying any changes in the earnings management levels after 2010 and whether this happened in function of the full adoption of the IFRS by the Brazilian publicly traded companies (except for financial institutions. The data were extracted from the three-monthly financial statements of the databases from Economática and the Brazilian Securities Commission for the period from 2006 till 2011. To achieve the research objectives, two tests were applied. The first showed that the average discretionary accruals, calculated through the Modified Jones Model, were lower after 2010. Next, the regression analysis was elaborated, using panel data with Newey-West’s correction. The results did not confirm the hypothesis that the adoption of the IFRS affected the earnings management level in the period under analysis, but showed that the size and indebtedness significantly explain the discretionary accruals, independently of the adoption of the IFRS. The results suggest that larger companies with a large proportion of own capital tend to produce higher quality reports, independently of the adoption of the IFRS.

  18. The Effect of Brazilian convergence to IFRS on earnings managment by listed Brazilian nonfinancial companies

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Cristina Pelucio Grecco

    2013-01-01

    This article evaluates whether the changes in Brazilian accounting practices due to the convergence to international standards brought a reduction in earnings management by listed nonfinancial firms, causing an improvement in the quality of accounting information. We used the Jones model, as modified by Kothari, Leone & Wasley (2005), to measure earnings management by means of discretionary accruals using a sample of 361 companies between 2005 and 2011. The results indicate there was a change...

  19. Cleaner Production: A Growing Movement in Brazilian Companies

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    Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner Production (CP is gaining emphasis in both world and Brazilian production sectors. Nature’s warnings indicating the exhaustion of any capacity to absorb and regenerate waste, stricter legislation regarding pollution emitters, market competitiveness associated with environmental and social responsibility cause concerns and lead to actions to reduce aggressions against the environment. This paper shows evidence of this concern and presents cases in which a large automotive industry, acting as a partner to suppliers, promotes changes in how it delivers its products, eliminating large cardboard, plastic and wood packaging. A small company had a similar initiative, reducing the use of cardboard and plastic packaging. More important is the revelation of a widely dispersed, yet growing and incremental movement of responsibilities among companies.The benefits of cleaner production implementation were evaluated by confronting environmental and financial assessment. For the ambient evaluation, it will be used methodology of Material Intensity (Wuppertal Institute, a.

  20. Chemical composition of cold pressed Brazilian grape seed oil

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    Fernanda Branco SHINAGAWA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Grape seed oil (GSO is an important by-product of the wine-making industry which has received attention as an alternative source of vegetable oils; its chemical compounds can be influenced by agricultural practices and industrial processing. Knowledge of the composition of Brazilian GSO is scarce; thus, this study aimed to analyze the chemical characteristics, as well as the antioxidant activity of these oils. GSO samples were obtained from Brazilian markets and showed significantly high amounts of phenolic, γ-tocotrienol and phytosterols as well as, the presence of several volatile compounds. Based on these results, is possible to show that oils exhibited good antioxidant activity. Therefore, it can be inferred that Brazilian GSO had a considerable content of phytochemical compounds with biological activity, which allows its association with other vegetable oils.

  1. On the evalution of Brazilian landline telephone services companies

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    José Virgílio Guedes de Avellar

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate the relative efficiency of 34 Brazilian Landline Telephone Service companies using Data Envelopment Analysis with weight constraints in the input and output variables. We formulate two different models that take into account the performance of the companies with respect to the criteria defined by Brazilian National Agency of Telecommunications (ANATEL. We also illustrate the potential of efficiency improvement through the simulation of corporate Merger.Neste trabalho investigamos a eficiência relativa das 34 operadoras do Setor de Telefonia Fixa Comutada através da utilização de Análise de Envoltória de Dados com restrições nos pesos das variáveis de input e output. Formulamos dois modelos distintos que levam em consideração o desempenho das empresas quanto aos critérios definidos pela Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações (ANATEL. Também ilustramos o potencial de melhoria de eficiência através de simulações de fusões corporativas (Merger.

  2. Chemical composition of Brazilian chia seeds grown in different places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Bárbara Pereira; Anunciação, Pamella Cristine; Matyelka, Jessika Camila da Silva; Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2017-04-15

    This study investigated and compared the occurrence and concentration of macronutrients, moisture, ash, dietary fiber, fatty acids, minerals, carotenoids, vitamins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, phytate and tannin in Brazilian chia seeds grown in the states of Mato Grosso (MT) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS). High concentrations of lipids (31.2g.100g(-1), on average), proteins (18.9g.100g(-1), on average), dietary fiber (35.3g.100g(-1), on average), vitamin E (8,203.6μg.100g(-1), on average) were observed. Similar values for total phenolic compounds and phytic acid in chia seeds from both regions were observed. Chia grown in RS showed higher antioxidant activity than chia grown in MT, and the tannin concentrations were higher in chia seeds grown in Mato Grosso (19.08±1.08eq.catequina/gsample). In conclusion, Brazilian chia seeds showed high concentrations of lipids, proteins, total dietary fiber, minerals and vitamin E. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Competencies Needed by Seed Production and Distribution Company Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Charles Kendall

    To determine competencies needed by employees in the seed production and distribution industry, a questionnaire containing 49 competencies was compiled with the assistance of specialists and mailed to 100 company managers and 200 nonmanagerial employees. Returns from the 200 usable questionnaires indicate that the competencies needed most by…

  4. FUZZY CLUSTERING: APPLICATION ON ORGANIZATIONAL METAPHORS IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

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    Angel Cobo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Different theories of organization and management are based on implicit images or metaphors. Nevertheless, a quantitative approach is needed to minimize human subjectivity or bias on metaphors studies. Hence, this paper analyzed the presence of metaphors and clustered them using fuzzy data mining techniques in a sample of 61 Brazilian companies that operate in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. For this purpose the results of a questionnaire answered by 198 employees of companies in the sample were analyzed by R free software. The results show that it is difficult to find a clear image in most organizations. In most cases characteristics of different images or metaphors are observed, so soft computing techniques are particularly appropriate for this type of analysis. However, according to these results, it is noted that the most present image in the organizations studied is that of “organisms” and the least present image is that of a “political system” and of an “instrument of domination”

  5. Professional versus family management in Brazilian fashion retail companies: exploring value-investors' perceptions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarice Secches Kogut; Denise Fleck

    2017-01-01

    ... of management might have delivering longterm performance and value creation to shareholders. Six investors from top value investment funds were interviewed regarding the management of seven fashion retail Brazilian companies...

  6. Determining factors for the adoption of stock option plans in brazilian publicly traded companies

    OpenAIRE

    Geovanne Dias de Moura; Edilson Sidnei Padilha; Tarcísio Pedro da Silva

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to identify the determining factors for the adoption of stock option plans in Brazilian publicly traded companies. Therefore, a descriptive research was developed by means of document analysis and a quantitative approach, using logistic regression. The sample consists of 158 companies, using data for the period from 2009 till 2012. The results evidenced an increase in the number of companies with stock option plans during the period. Among the factors company size, liquidity...

  7. Lifestyle factors, direct and indirect costs for a Brazilian airline company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Rabacow (Fabiana Maluf); O. Do Carmo Luiz (Olinda); A.M. Malik (Ana Maria); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To analyze lifestyle risk factors related to direct healthcare costs and the indirect costs due to sick leave among workers of an airline company in Brazil. Methods: In this longitudinal 12-month study of 2,201 employees of a Brazilian airline company, the costs of sick leave

  8. DISCLOSURE OF DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF THE BRAZILIAN COMPANIES IN THE HEALTH MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Márcia; Lemmertz, Caroline; Raimundini, Simone Leticia; Vendruscolo,Maria Ivanice

    2014-01-01

    Derivative minimize the risks of companies operating with foreign currencies and future sales. The use of these financial instruments is increasing through many Brazilian companies that don´t evidence for the lack of effective regulation. The publicly traded companies must show in the notes the risks involved in the operations, the market value and the criteria and assumptions to determine this value of financial instruments and the policies of operation and control of operations. Therefore, ...

  9. Managing expatriates: analyzing the experience of an internationalized Brazilian Company

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernardo Meyer; Victor Meyer Jr; Kamila Vieira daSilva; Larissa Mallmann Fernandes Almeida Brandão

    2016-01-01

    .... Few studies focus on corporations from developing countries. The purpose of this study was to examine, in the cultural dimension, how expatriates were managed by a Brazilian multinational corporation...

  10. Internationalization strategy and foreign distribution channels: analysis of the brazilian cosmetics company Natura

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    Silvia Novaes Zilbe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the internationalization process of the Brazilian company Natura Cosméticos S.A., whose competitive differential is the development of products based on the biodiversity of Brazilian flora. We specifically focus on the company's different choices of distribution channels in foreign markets. The study is exploratory, relying on content analysis of secondary data. The results indicate that the company's internationalization process has followed the model of the Uppsala school (learning and that the company has maintained the same distribution strategy (direct sales in markets with similar cultures (Latin America, but for the European market (Paris it preferred to establish a physical store because of the cultural differences of that market. The change of the distribution channel model in the European market led the company to develop new organizational competencies.

  11. Fantasy Seed Company: A Role Playing Game for Plant Breeding Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, Steve S.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding plant breeding as well as procedures and issues of seed companies are skills students studying agronomy need to acquire. Simulation games can be effective teaching tools in developing higher-order thinking skills of students. The "Fantasy Seed Company" game was developed to create motivated learners by allowing students to run a mock…

  12. Brazilian demand for Iodine-125 seeds in cancer treatment after a decade of medical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Osvaldo L. da; Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, João A.; Souza, Carla D.; Oliveira, Henrique B. de; Peleiras Junior, Fernando S.; Zeituni, CArlos A.; Rostelaro, Maria E.C.M., E-mail: olcosta@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Iodine-125 and palladium-103 are radionuclides employed to made medical devices used in cancer treatment known as brachytherapy seeds. These radioactive sealed sources are applied in brain and ophthalmic cancer as a temporary implant to irradiate the tumor and in permanent implants to prostatic cancer. Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) has the monopoly in Brazil of iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds distribution which is executed for Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP). Along a decade of use in Brazil more than 240 thousand seeds were implanted in patients or used to treat cancer tumors. In this article the Brazilian demand for iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds is analyzed. The demand behavior along a decade of using loose, strand, ophthalmic and brain brachytherapy seeds are shown. The annual quantity of seeds demanded by Brazil has dropped since 2012. The loose seeds which represented until 30% from total brachytherapy seeds used in Brazil decreased to less than 3%. The brain brachytherapy seeds had low demand along the decade and presented zero demand in several years. Concurrent treatment techniques are listed and main trends are discussed. The influence of Brazilian economic crisis and the demand behavior of the main hospitals and clinics that use Iodine-125 brachytherapy are shown. (author)

  13. IMPACT OF ADOPTING IFRS STANDARD ON THE EQUITY COST OF BRAZILIAN OPEN CAPITAL COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    GATSIOS, RAFAEL CONFETTI; Silva, José Marcos da; AMBROZINI, MARCELO AUGUSTO; Assaf Neto,Alexandre; Lima, Fabiano Guasti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This study aims to assess the impact of adopting IFRS standard on the equity cost of Brazilian open capital companies in the period of 2004-2013. Originality/gap/relevance/implications: The adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards aims to increase the quality of accounting information. Studies performed in Europe suggest that, after the adoption of the IFRS standard, there was a reduction in the equity cost of companies due to the reduction of information as...

  14. The Strategist of Micro, Small and Medium Brazilian Private Company

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes Filho, Joaquim Rubens; Nunes, Geraldo Sant Anna

    2010-01-01

    The importance of micro, small and medium size companies (MSMC) to the economical development and job creation in the country hasn’t found parallel with respect to the production of theories in the strategy field, even considering the limited capacity of action of the MSMCs and the idiosyncrasies of their leaders. This article seeks to contribute to the understanding of the strategy formation processes in these companies by the nature of the strategic thinking of their strategists, having as ...

  15. THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF THE SOFTWARE MARKET: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

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    Oscar Roberto Burzynski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the potential for internationalization of the Brazilian software industry from the perspective of software developers and service providers. The purpose of the study conducted was to better understand the way Brazilian software companies relate to the international software market by comparing the perceptions of entrepreneurs and those of government agency officials responsible for increasing Brazil's participation in the international software market. Data collection took place by means of semi-structured interviews with entrepreneurs and government agency officials. The data gathered was subjected to content analysis. Results show that Brazilian software companies perform poorly with regard to levels of exporting their products and services for a number of reasons, among which the most outstanding is that they still think that the internal market offers enough challenges and opportunities.

  16. TAX TREATMENT OF CARBON CREDIT OPERATIONS IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES WITH CDM PROJECTS

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    Vanderlei dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this study is to identify the tax treatment applied to carbon credit operations in Brazilian companies that are developing projects in the context of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM. Therefore, an exploratory research with a qualitative approach was developed. Data were collected with the help of questionnaire, forwarded to all Brazilian companies with CDM projects that received approval from the Inter-Ministerial Commission on Global Climate Change (CIMGC without safeguards, according to the list of the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology. Out of 117 companies listed, only five answered the research instrument, which represents an accessibility sample. The results show that, as for the tax treatment applied in the companies under analysis, IRPJ and CSLL should be charged on carbon credit operations. Regarding PIS, COFINS, ISS, some companies considered that these taxes are due and others that they are not. There is a consensus, though, about the fact that ICMS and IOF should not be charged. In conclusion, no uniform understanding exists as of yet about due taxes in the research sample, as no specific fiscal legislation exists yet on carbon credits in Brazil.

  17. The internationalization of Brazilian companies: developing managers as an essential business strategy factor

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    HILARIO DE MACEDO OLIVEIRA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The globalization phenomenon has given rise to a new and virtually limitless dimension for companies to gain access to new markets beyond their country borders. This has proven to be an opportunity for growth and expansion. Given the transformations that this phenomenon has driven in the international business environment, one is struck by the fact that the presence of Brazilian companies abroad is still low, as Brazilian business is continues to be shy of expanding via internationalization. One concludes that the leaders of Brazilian firms are better prepared to operate in the domestic market and with processes and businesses that focus on exports; few executives are required to run operations abroad. However, the reality of internationalization calls for a new type of manager, the “global executive,” who is expected to be cosmopolitan, a negotiator and a cross-culture communicator that is able to generate synergy and lead changes. Brazilian companies that want to grow beyond cultural and ethnic frontiers are facing the challenge of forming theses “citizens of the world,” capable not only of making room in the international market, but also of leading the processes of transformation and change within corporate environments. The aim of this article is to discuss how to develop people for the strategic management of internationalization processes, as well as to identify current gaps and to provide recommendations both for the development of the competences that a global mindset requires among our managers, and for the management of the international mobility of Brazilian executives.Key words: Company internationalization. Expatriation. People management. Leadership.

  18. Work for sustainability: Case studies of Brazilian companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolis, Ivan; Brunoro, Claudio M; Sznelwar, Laerte I

    2016-11-01

    The introduction of strategic corporate sustainability policies is expected to result in the improvement of several issues in companies. One of these issues is work, which should involve greater well-being for workers. Within the context of production engineering, this research connects sustainability and work-related issues, the latter seen in light of the discipline of ergonomics. Based on case studies conducted at four companies considered sustainability benchmarks, we examined how the introduction of the theme of sustainability has influenced work-related issues. The elements analyzed here were the corporate sustainability strategy, organizational practices for deploying the strategy, and the work design phase. The last element is the moment in which work is prescribed in the organization. The results show that, despite the announcement of the inclusion of changes in work, there is not any explicit evidence confirming that such changes are considered as a requirement for corporate sustainability projects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Brazilian Seed Law and its impacts on agrobiodiversity and on local and traditional agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Santilli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article makes a critical analysis of the impacts of the Brazilian Seed Law (10.711/2003 on agricultural biodiversity and on traditional and local agriculture. The above-mentioned law caters to the needs and interests of 'formal' seed systems, and does not consider the important role played by local and traditional seed systems (frequently called 'informal', in which the production, exchange, breeding and conservation of seeds are carried out by the farmers themselves, through their social networks and according to local rules. 'Formal' seed systems tend to focus mainly on crops of commercial value, and widely used in homogeneous environments. Therefore, they are not interested in producing seeds that are adapted to specific local conditions and uses, nor in attending the needs of local and traditional farmers, which have limited resources and live in regions that are culturally and environmentally heterogeneous.

  20. PETROBRAS, an energy company and the Brazilian biofuel program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Fernando; Diehl Filho, Rubin P.; Fernandes Valle, Luiz Alberto

    2010-09-15

    Ever since the launches of Proalcool (ETHANOL PROGRAM) and PNPB (BIODIESEL PROGRAM), PETROBRAS (as an energy company) has been actively participating in these national projects and investing in tankage collection and storage, shipment and marine terminals, distribution infrastructure, biodiesel and ethanol plants and second-generation biofuels. It has also been the pioneer in offering these products at its service stations to final consumers. PETROBRAS in its 2008-2012 Business Plan intends to invest US$ 1.5 billion in biofuel business and act globally in biofuel commercialization and logistics, leading national biodiesel production and expanding its presence in the ethanol business.

  1. Relationship between determinant factors of disclosure of information on environmental impacts of Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Vogt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing the relationship between determinant factors of disclosure of information on environmental impacts of Brazilian companies. A descriptive, documental and quantitative research was conducted through a sample of 97 Brazilian companies. In the Sustainability Reports and in the Annual Reports information, five environmental aspects were collected: emissions, effluents, wastes, products and services; and transport, which were used to measure the degree of environmental disclosure. This concludes that there is a relationship between the variables investigated in all analyzed years. The size, audit and Global Reporting Initiative (GRI are associated with disclosure and the Corporate Sustainability Index (CSI, Pollution Potential (POTEN, governance, stocks, Return on Assets (ROA and Return on Equity (ROE are not.

  2. THE DIMENSIONS OF IT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT (ITPM: AN ANALYSIS INVOLVING IT MANAGERS IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Cunha Dolci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore and validate the dimensions of IT Portfolio Management (ITPM in Brazilian companies, based on three different models. Five case studies were carried out in Brazilian companies that invest more than nine million reals per year in IT. Eight top IT executives from those organizations who had knowledge of the dimensions of ITPM were interviewed. Items were modified and new items included within the dimensions, while examples of equipment or systems applicable to each of the four dimensions were also identified. Research that helps managers to better understand and structure their IT investments by using the dimensions of ITPM is important to assist in the management of such resources. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. The authors wish to thank CNPq and CAPES for their financial support during the development of this research.

  3. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN THE INTEGRATED REPORTING FRAMEWORK: DISCLOSURE OF BRAZILIAN COMPANIES PARTICIPANTS IN THE PILOT PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Silva Abreu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes how Brazilian companies adhered the IIRC’s framework for integrated reporting, regarding the content element of corporate governance. The 2013 annual reporting of each company were analyzed consonants to the IIRC's framework using qualitative analysis. Categories were created for adherence of information provided by companies and applied content analysis for this purpose. Results suggest that the framework, although not being adopted integrally by the companies, was used as guide for their disclosure practices. Among other observed results for each of framework topics, BRF S.A, CPFL Energia and Itaú Unibanco disclosure practices featured as examples of adherence for the IIRC model and the inherent principles integrated in the report.

  4. Pressurized liquid extraction of vitamin E from Brazilian grape seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Freitas, Lisiane; Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Richter, Marc François; Silva, Andréia Loviane da; Caramão, Elina Bastos

    2008-07-18

    The goal of this paper is to optimize the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of vitamin E from grape seed oil from residues of the wine industry. For this purpose an experimental planning to optimize the extraction of Brazilian grape seed oil by means of PLE with hexane as solvent was applied and the results are compared with conventional methods (Soxhlet and mechanical press extraction). Vitamin E was separated and analyzed using HPLC with UV detection. This study demonstrates the ability of the PLE in extracting grape seed oil rich in vitamin E.

  5. Lifestyle factors, direct and indirect costs for a Brazilian airline company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Malik, Ana Maria; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze lifestyle risk factors related to direct healthcare costs and the indirect costs due to sick leave among workers of an airline company in Brazil. METHODS In this longitudinal 12-month study of 2,201 employees of a Brazilian airline company, the costs of sick leave and healthcare were the primary outcomes of interest. Information on the independent variables, such as gender, age, educational level, type of work, stress, and lifestyle-related factors (body mass index, physical activity, and smoking), was collected using a questionnaire on enrolment in the study. Data on sick leave days were available from the company register, and data on healthcare costs were obtained from insurance records. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between direct and indirect healthcare costs with sociodemographic, work, and lifestyle-related factors. RESULTS Over the 12-month study period, the average direct healthcare expenditure per worker was US$505.00 and the average indirect cost because of sick leave was US$249.00 per worker. Direct costs were more than twice the indirect costs and both were higher in women. Body mass index was a determinant of direct costs and smoking was a determinant of indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS Obesity and smoking among workers in a Brazilian airline company were associated with increased health costs. Therefore, promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and anti-tobacco campaigns are important targets for health promotion in this study population. PMID:26039398

  6. Lifestyle factors, direct and indirect costs for a Brazilian airline company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Malik, Ana Maria; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze lifestyle risk factors related to direct healthcare costs and the indirect costs due to sick leave among workers of an airline company in Brazil. METHODS In this longitudinal 12-month study of 2,201 employees of a Brazilian airline company, the costs of sick leave and healthcare were the primary outcomes of interest. Information on the independent variables, such as gender, age, educational level, type of work, stress, and lifestyle-related factors (body mass index, physical activity, and smoking), was collected using a questionnaire on enrolment in the study. Data on sick leave days were available from the company register, and data on healthcare costs were obtained from insurance records. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between direct and indirect healthcare costs with sociodemographic, work, and lifestyle-related factors. RESULTS Over the 12-month study period, the average direct healthcare expenditure per worker was US$505.00 and the average indirect cost because of sick leave was US$249.00 per worker. Direct costs were more than twice the indirect costs and both were higher in women. Body mass index was a determinant of direct costs and smoking was a determinant of indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS Obesity and smoking among workers in a Brazilian airline company were associated with increased health costs. Therefore, promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and anti-tobacco campaigns are important targets for health promotion in this study population.

  7. Country of Origin Image and Foreign Markets Strategy: Analysis of the Brazilian Cosmetics Company Natura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bassi Sutter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of country of origin image (COI by an emerging market multinational (EMMN on their internationalization process. To this end, we integrate COI literature with the attributes that make up Brazil’s image abroad. This study conducts a qualitative and descriptive approach using the single case study on the case of the Brazilian company Natura Cosméticos S.A. Case analysis, relying on discourse analysis, allowed us to find out that the company uses COI as part of its international strategy; COI attributes can be used positively by an EMMN and might contribute to their image abroad. About the first finding, the study also points out ways Natura integrates Brazilianness attributes into its international marketing strategy, since Natura’s competitive differential is sustained on product development based on the biodiversity of Brazilian fauna and flora. Our study shows ways how an EMMN might use COI concept into their international marketing strategy in order to build their image abroad and differentiate itself positively.

  8. INTERNATIONALIZATION STRATEGIES OF EMERGING COMPANIES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BRAZILIAN CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Maria Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, interest has picked up as to emerging economies and their companies. This recent movement does not imply that previous theories and models are no longer applicable, however, one must analyze, in a broader comprehensive manner, a series of specific context factors and those concerning the management of this kind of company. Therefore, this paper analyzed the internationalization strategies adopted by six Brazilian companies before a set of internationalization models. A qualitative research approach was employed and in-depth interviews were conducted with corporate management level professionals. Companies were divided into three groups according to internationalization times (Group I – over ten years, Group II - between five and ten years, and Group III – under five years. Observations indicated that for Groups I and III companies the product lifecycle (Vernon, 1966 and 1979 and the eclectic paradigm (Dunning, 1980, 1988 and 2000 economic models support justifying internationalization motivations for companies’ internalization whilst the Uppsala model (Johanson and VAHLNE, 1979, 2009, at least in part explains, choice decisions concerning a few countries. As to Group II companies, the product lifecycle model is not the underlying motivation for internationalization, choices being more closely related to sector opportunities and the characteristics of both products and services.

  9. Dual Class Firms: A Study on the Impact Value of Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Grando

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available From the ‘Agency Theory' and the conflict of interest assumption the aim of this study is verify the impact of the use of two classes of shares (dual class on the value in brazilian companies. The sample consisted of non-financial traded companies, with concentrated ownership structure, data are available in Economática®, totaling 354 companies and 1,915 observations. The data refer to the period 2005 to 2012. It terms of methodology, to research the hypothesis of the study it was used a regression by ordinary least squares, with panel data. The results indicate that companies using two classes of shares, such as separation mechanism between the cash flow and the equity control, have lower value then the ones not using such a mechanism. Additionally, it can be inferred that the governance levels and the higher dividend payment policy in the preferred shares are not able to mitigate the higher level of conflicts of interest and agency costs in dual class companies.

  10. Developing and Managing Cross-Functional Teams: A Multi-Case Study of Brazilian Manufacturing Companies

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    Márcio Lopes Pimenta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth of industries and the strong economic base in Brazil require improvements and adaptations in business processes. Cross-functional teams (CFT may help to companies achieve these improvements. This research looks at characterizing CFT according to application processes, structures, objectives and impacts, considering the context of demand planning and related processes. In-depth interviews with 22 managers were performed in three Brazilian manufacturing companies. A framework to characterize CFT and respective impacts is proposed, including elements such as: procedures, context and goals, power distribution, impacts on cross-functional integration, impacts on teams' performance and on organization's performance. One significant managerial finding is that effective and efficient CFTs need balanced distribution of power among members by effectively establishing and structuring the team. By doing this, managers may observe positive impacts on inter-functional integration and in firm's results. Moreover, teams should permanently perform joint planning to predict unfavorable situations, improve communication and mutual understanding.

  11. Worker evaluation of a macroergonomic intervention in a Brazilian footwear company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, L B de M; Ribeiro, J L D; Renner, J S; de Oliveira, P A B

    2014-07-01

    This article presents a macroergonomic intervention in a Brazilian footwear company and its evaluation by the workers. Using participatory ergonomics, the traditional Taylor/Ford production system was transformed into a socio-technical one and tested by 100 volunteers working during 3.5 years in a pilot production line. Multiskilling and teamwork were the major changes promoted to enlarge and enrich work and make it more flexible. The workers' evaluation pre- and post-intervention showed an increase in overall satisfaction with the work and more commitment to the results and company targets. This study showed that problems and solutions can be identified through participatory ergonomics, that it is easier to involve workers than the managerial staff, and that a macroergonomic intervention, mainly focusing on work organization, led to positive personnel, health and production outcomes, despite management's resistance to changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Barriers to the adoption of green operational practices at Brazilian companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, Charbel José Chiappetta; De Sousa Jabbour, Ana Beatriz Lopes; Govindan, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to verify to what degree the internal and external barriers (I/EBs) to environmental management affect the adoption of green operational practices (GOPs) and to determine whether they influence the firms operational and green performance in a sample of Brazilian...... companies. A conceptual framework with 8 hypotheses is proposed and tested at 75 companies using Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) with WarpPLS 4.0. The main results show that (a) the proposed framework obtained an adequate statistical adjustment, (b) the internal barriers (IBs......) are more significant than the EBs when adopting GOPs, (c) GOPs relate directly to the firms green and operational performance (OP), (d) the IBs also indirectly influence the firms green and OP and (e) the firm size does not significantly influence its green and OP. This work contributes to the literature...

  13. THE USE OF CATEGORIES AS INDICATORS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Souza Dutra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze employees’ perception of the work environment, companies with a well-established people management structure periodically conduct organizational climate surveys. These surveys are meant to offer an understanding of how employees view the quality of the relationships they experience in the company. One of the characteristics of this type of survey, identified both in the relevant literature and empirically in practice, is the use of categories or indicators to direct development of the research instrument, data analysis, and later intervention as needed according to the results of the survey. This article seeks to propose a categorization of organizational climate dimensions directed at the Brazilian corporate reality, analysing its internal consistency and its construct validity. To that end, we used the results of a wide-ranging data sample collected from 123,445 respondents of 491 organizations in various regions of Brazil. The proposed analysis categories – identity, satisfaction and motivation, learning and development, and leadership – were reviewed based on theories of organizational behavior and then submitted to a focus group composed of human resources professionals employed by prominent Brazilian corporations.

  14. IT MANAGEMENT DESIGN AT THE TOP 100 BRAZILIAN COMPANIES, ACCORDING TO THEIR CIOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Cezar Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify the design of IT management atn the top 100 Brazilian companies. The research method was a quantitative approach, using the descriptive-statistical method to describe the data collected through a questionnaire with 77 questions, based on the rationale of the IT management, proposed by Lutchen (2003. The main results indicate that: a IT aligns with the basic processes of business, although not fully synchronized; b IT management adheres to conformity systems (ITIL, COBIT, but does not show optimization of business processes; c IT delivers the basic demands, but does not impose or use the best automated practices; and d IT quality is based on documented processes, but lacks indicators to control and orient business improvement. One may infer that IT management, at the top 100 Brazilian companies is essentially based on standard IT conformity systems, under the rationale of solution providers, and not as a business innovator or rule breaker. Thus, in spite of aligning and responding to business basic demand, IT management still does not show clear signs of alignment with the evolving nature of business models, needed to sustain business performance.

  15. IT MANAGEMENT DESIGN AT THE TOP 100 BRAZILIAN COMPANIES, ACCORDING TO THEIR CIOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Cezar Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify the design of IT management atn the top 100 Brazilian companies. The research method was a quantitative approach, using the descriptive-statistical method to describe the data collected through a questionnaire with 77 questions, based on the rationale of the IT management, proposed by Lutchen (2003. The main results indicate that: a IT aligns with the basic processes of business, although not fully synchronized; b IT management adheres to conformity systems (ITIL, COBIT, but does not show optimization of business processes; c IT delivers the basic demands, but does not impose or use the best automated practices; and d IT quality is based on documented processes, but lacks indicators to control and orient business improvement. One may infer that IT management, at the top 100 Brazilian companies is essentially based on standard IT conformity systems, under the rationale of solution providers, and not as a business innovator or rule breaker. Thus, in spite of aligning and responding to business basic demand, IT management still does not show clear signs of alignment with the evolving nature of business models, needed to sustain business performance.

  16. Ownership structure and economic and socio-environmental disclosure in the largest Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aquino Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The disclosure of sustainable practices has become important in the search for competitive advantage, so as to meet the expectations of the various stakeholders. Thus, the study aims to investigate the relationship between the ownership structure and the economic and environmental voluntary disclosure in the largest Brazilian companies, analyzing ownership concentration and the identity of the controlling shareholder. For the analysis, we considered the economic, social and environmental perspectives, addressed both individually and jointly. The sample consists of 47 companies from the 100 largest public companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA, according to the magazine Exame Biggest and Best, edition 2013. The research is descriptive and quantitative, using Multiple Linear Regression for statistical analysis. The descriptive analysis of the prospects of (economic, social, environmental and sustainability disclosure showed lower average disclosure for the environmental aspect. The state control organizations stood out with the highest average in three of the four levels of disclosure: economic, social and sustainability. As regards the application of statistical analysis, the regression models were not statistically significant, indicating that, for the companies in the sample, the ownership structure does not influence the economic and socio-environmental disclosure.

  17. THEORETICAL ESSAY ABOUT THE RELATION BETWEEN FINANCIAL LEVERAGE AND INVESTMENT IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Midori Kuroda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quest for understanding the relationship between the capital structure and investment decisions resulted in many different authors contribution. In the Brazilian economic scenario, an empirical study performed by Albuquerque and Matias (2013 identified the existence of a strong negative relation between finance leverage and investment in Brazilian public companies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the theory of finance supports these empirical findings or if there is a discrepancy between the practical behavior and the theoretical rules. To this end, it was performed a bibliographic research of scientific works related with this theme, among them Carneiro, Salles and Wu (2006, Hadlock and Pierce (2010 and Dang (2011. The methodology of this research can be classified as exploratory, according to its purpose, qualitative in terms of approach and bibliographical considering its technical procedures. All the developed analysis led to the formulation of six theoretical propositions that support the relation between financial leverage and investment. The negative and positive effects of debt were considered according to growth opportunities, the supply of credit in the Brazilian context, the raising of risk and cost of capital and the allocation of resources obtained through external funding. Briefly, it can be concluded that these six theoretical propositions could serve as the fundamentals of the relation in question, two being based on the under-investment and overinvestment theories and the other four, on the Brazilian financial market aspects. All of them must be considered in the decision making of a financial manager, especially the related with the financing options.

  18. Chemical, morphological and functional properties of Brazilian jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) seeds starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga, Marta Suely; de Albuquerque, Fabíola Samara Medeiros; Silva, Izis Rafaela Alves; do Amaral, Deborah Silva; Magnani, Marciane; Queiroga Neto, Vicente

    2014-01-15

    Starches used in food industry are extracted from roots, tubers and cereals. Seeds of jackfruit are abundant and contain high amounts of starch. They are discarded during the fruit processing or consumption and can be an alternative source of starch. The starch was extract from the jackfruit seeds and characterised to chemical, morphological and functional properties. Soft and hard jackfruit seeds showed starch content of 92.8% and 94.5%, respectively. Starch granules showed round and bell shape and some irregular cuts on their surface with type-A crystallinity pattern, similar to cereals starches. The swelling power and solubility of jackfruit starch increased with increasing temperature, showing opaque pastes. The soft seeds starch showed initial and final gelatinisation temperature of 36°C and 56°C, respectively; while hard seeds starch presented initial gelatinisation at 40°C and final at 61°C. These results suggest that the Brazilian jackfruit seeds starches could be used in food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [The law of quotas for people with disabilities in Brazilian companies: the impact and possible alternatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanitelli, Leandro Martins

    2013-07-01

    This paper consists of a theoretical analysis of the impact of the Brazilian law establishing quotas for people with disabilities in companies with one hundred or more employees, as well as the possible impact of some alternative legal measures: incentives (fiscal incentives and tradable rights) and information disclosure policies. The analysis is based on work regarding the efficacy of legal norms in general, and particularly the literature concerning the cost and cognitive effects of those norms. Given its exclusively theoretical character, the paper does not affirm the superiority of any regulatory strategy over the current law, but draws attention to the likely reasons for the failure of the quota system and for the potential and inconveniences of its proposed alternatives.

  20. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AND STOCK PRICES OF BRAZILIAN COMPANIES: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aridelmo José Campanharo Teixeira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to identify the relationship between spending on research and development (R&D and the stock price of Brazilian companies listed for trading on the São Paulo Stock Exchange (Bovespa, following on the studies of Lopes (2001;2002 and Rezende (2005 about the value-relevance of accounting information in Brazil. This empirical-analytic study was based on the model of Collins et al. (1997, which is a proxy for the Residual Income Valuation (RIV model of Ohlson (1995, and on the classification of technological intensity in the study of Chan et al. (1990, carried out in the United States. The sample consisted of Brazilian firms with shares traded on the Bovespa between 1996 and 2006. By means of multiple regressions we identified that R&D spending is not statistically significant for the stock prices of the firms analyzed. These conclusions do not corroborate the findings of Chan et al. (1990, but do provide support for the studies of Ohlson (1995 and Lopes (2001; 2002 and complement the study by Rezende (2005, since our results indicate that earnings is statistically significant for stock price, with a positive relationship even after deducting R&D spending accounted for as expense. The situation is different for book value, which ceased being statistically significant and being related with stock price after deducting R&D spending accounted for as investment.

  1. Environmental Discourses in Organizations: the Case of a Brazilian Mobile Telecommunications Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Pádua Carrieri

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the discourse configurations on the environmental theme in business organizations and its relevance to the understanding of the inclusion of ecological discourses in the discourses of organizational members. A case study into a Brazilian telecommunications company offers empirical evidence. It begins with the understanding that organizations adopt several strategies in an attempt to disseminate a certain environmental discourse. As these efforts share space with other pressures, a fragmented discourse emerges. In this paper, the pressures of the environmental theme on organizations are discussed in order to understand this process. The second part of the argument focuses on the context of the case study – Brazilian organizations – and, afterwards, the third part deals with ecological discourses in their insertions in organizational interests. The data of the case study were collected through documental research and 40 semi-structured interviews. The analysis was applied based on Discourse Analysis. In conclusion, an ambiguous discourse configuration was shown that offer elements for the understanding that philanthropy, legal obligation and organizational competitiveness need to be used together to offer legitimacy to the theme of environmental responsibility in business organizations.

  2. Evaluating perceived quality of CELPE service: A Brazilian power company case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paes de Barros Filho, Joao [Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Center of Technology and Geosciences, 5th floor, Academico Helio Ramos av., Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE 50.670-901 (Brazil)], E-mail: joaopaes@celpe.com.br; Fritsch Damasio da Silva, Cleriston [Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Center of Technology and Geosciences, 5th floor, Academico Helio Ramos av., Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE 50.670-901 (Brazil)], E-mail: cleriston_silva@yahoo.com.br; Nascimento Melo, Maria Auxiliadora do [Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Center of Technology and Geosciences, 5th floor, Academico Helio Ramos av., Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE 50.670-901 (Brazil)], E-mail: manmelo@ufpe.br; Dumke de Medeiros, Denise [Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Center of Technology and Geosciences, 5th floor, Academico Helio Ramos av., Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE 50.670-901 (Brazil)], E-mail: ddm@ufpe.br

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents an application of a methodology for the diagnosis and analysis of the service quality perceived by a Particular Group of CELPE Corporate Customers, a Brazilian power company at Pernambuco State. Concepts, on the power sector, of Quality in Services, Performance Objectives and Critical Factors of Success have been used to develop the analysis. Next, the Critical Factors for a power company were determined and classified in accordance with the performance objectives: Quality, Dependability, Speed and Flexibility. From the factors established, a questionnaire was created to collect data. The case studied involves quantitative research on CELPE's private corporate principal customers using statistical tests to measure internal consistency reliability of the questionnaire scales and to identify underlying concepts, in the four groups analyzed, through which the private corporate customers perceive quality in the given services. Among the goals of this study are to improve the relationship with principal Private Corporate Clients, to create customer loyalty, and to maximize efforts in providing the power supply service, all of them with a view to improving and determining the Global Satisfaction Index.

  3. Evaluating perceived quality of CELPE service. A Brazilian power company case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Barros Filho, Joao Paes; Da Silva, Cleriston Fritsch Damasio; Do Nascimento Melo, Maria Auxiliadora; De Medeiros, Denise Dumke [Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Center of Technology and Geosciences, 5th floor, Academico Helio Ramos av., Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE 50.670-901 (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents an application of a methodology for the diagnosis and analysis of the service quality perceived by a Particular Group of CELPE Corporate Customers, a Brazilian power company at Pernambuco State. Concepts, on the power sector, of Quality in Services, Performance Objectives and Critical Factors of Success have been used to develop the analysis. Next, the Critical Factors for a power company were determined and classified in accordance with the performance objectives: Quality, Dependability, Speed and Flexibility. From the factors established, a questionnaire was created to collect data. The case studied involves quantitative research on CELPE's private corporate principal customers using statistical tests to measure internal consistency reliability of the questionnaire scales and to identify underlying concepts, in the four groups analyzed, through which the private corporate customers perceive quality in the given services. Among the goals of this study are to improve the relationship with principal Private Corporate Clients, to create customer loyalty, and to maximize efforts in providing the power supply service, all of them with a view to improving and determining the Global Satisfaction Index. (author)

  4. IMPLICATIONS OF ECONOMIC CRISES ON THE VALUE RELEVANCE OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Moraes da Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This papers investigates the impact of financial crises occurred in Brazil (1997-1999, 2002 and 2007-2008 on the value relevance of book value and earnings. The final sample comprised 1,904 observations from Brazilian listed companies, from 1997 till 2010. It is an empirical study based on panel data regression. To answer the research question, a dummy was applied for each year of negative macroeconomic shocks and how they affected the relation between market prices and accounting variables. Empirical evidence indicates that financial crises affected the value relevance of book value positively and the value relevance of earnings negatively, similarly to other countries like Thailand and Mexico. Therefore, macroeconomic factors should be taken into consideration when analyzing how accounting information captures the underlying characteristics of a firm. Future research could consider companies from other countries in Latin America and evaluate if the effects are similar or not. This is important because macroeconomic policies implemented to mitigate the effects of a crisis could lead to different impacts on the relevance of accounting information.

  5. Influence of Extrusion Cooking on In Vitro Digestibility, Physical and Sensory Properties of Brazilian Pine Seeds Flour (Araucaria Angustifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boff Zortéa-Guidolin, Manoela Estefânea; Piler de Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei; Bueno de Godoy, Rossana Catie; Mottin Demiate, Ivo; Paula Scheer, Agnes

    2017-04-01

    Brazilian pine seeds (pinhão) are gluten-free products derived from Araucaria angustifolia. The commercialization of these seeds is essentially associated with a low level of industrialization. In this context, extrusion cooking is a potential alternative for preparing extrudates of pinhão as a food product, which can be easily digested and is ready for human consumption. Brazilian pine seeds flour was processed in a single-screw extruder following a central composite rotatable design. Three factors (independent parameters) were considered: moisture content (14 to 22 g/100 g), screw speed (100 to 250 rpm), and temperature in the 3rd heating zone (120 to 200 °C). The structural characteristics, in vitro digestibility and sensory acceptance were also evaluated. The resistant starch contents is almost reduced to zero after extrusion cooking while the slowly digestible starch content is increased. An increase in moisture positively affected the hardness and the luminosity (L* ), although it negatively affected the volumetric expansion index, crispness, and color parameters (a* , b* , and ΔE). The experimental conditions of this study allowed the production of expanded extrudates from Brazilian pine seeds with good expansion, texture properties, and acceptance qualities. Thus, extrusion cooking was found to be a potential method for the industrialization of Brazilian pine seeds as a food product. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Use of transgenic seeds in Brazilian agriculture and concentration of agricultural production to large agribusinesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Amaral, S C S; de Mello, M P

    2012-07-19

    We identified the commercial releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Brazil, their characteristics, the types of genetic transformation used, and the companies responsible for the development of these GMOs, classifying them into two categories: private companies, subdivided into multinational and national, and public institutions. The data came from the data bank of the national registration of cultivars and the service of national protection of cultivars of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fishing and Supply (MAPA). This survey was carried out from 1998 to February 12, 2011. Until this date, 27 GMOs had been approved, including five for soybean, 15 for maize and seven for cotton cultivars. These GMOs have been used for the development of 766 cultivars, of which, 305 are soybean, 445 are maize, and 13 are cotton cultivars. The Monsato Company controls 73.2% of the transgenic cultivars certified by the MAPA; a partnership between Dow AgroSciences and DuPont accounts for 21.4%, and Syngenta controls 4.96%. Seed supply by these companies is almost a monopoly supported by law, giving no choice for producers and leading to the fast replacement of conventional cultivars by transgenic cultivars, which are expensive and exclude small producers from the market, since seeds cannot be kept for later use. This situation concentrates production in the hands of a few large national agribusiness entrepreneurs.

  7. Volatile fingerprint of Brazilian defective coffee seeds: corroboration of potential marker compounds and identification of new low quality indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toci, Aline T; Farah, Adriana

    2014-06-15

    In the present work, the volatile profiles of green and roasted Brazilian defective coffee seeds and their controls were characterised, totalling 159 compounds. Overall, defective seeds showed higher number and concentration of volatile compounds compared to those of control seeds, especially pyrazines, pyrroles and phenols. Corroborating our previous results, butyrolactone and hexanoic acid, previously considered as potential defective seeds' markers, were observed only in raw and roasted defective seeds, respectively, and not in control seeds. New compounds were suggested as potential defective seeds' markers: hexanoic acid (for raw and roasted defective seeds in general), butyrolactone (for raw defective seeds in general), and 3-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-hexadiene (for raw black seeds); β-linalool and 2-butyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (for roasted defective seeds in general), and 2-pentylfuran (for roasted black seeds). Additional compounds suggested as low quality indicators were 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine,2,3-butanediol and 4-ethylguaiacol, β-linalool, 2-,3-dimethylbutyl butanoate, 2-phenylethyl acetate, 2,3-butanedione, hexanedioic acid, guaiacol, 2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-1H-benzopyrrol, 3-methylpiperidine, 2-pentylpiperidine, 3-octen-2-one, 2-octenal, 2-pentylfuran and 2-butyl-3-methylpyrazine. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Professional versus family management in Brazilian fashion retail companies: exploring value-investors’ perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Secches Kogut

    Full Text Available Abstract Regarding the debate on which sort of management - professional or family administration - would more effectively run businesses, this paper discusses the advantages and shortcomings of family and professional management from a theoretical and a practitioner’s viewpoint. The study aims at contributing to our understanding about the superiority that either type of management might have delivering long-term performance and value creation to shareholders. Six investors from top value investment funds were interviewed regarding the management of seven fashion retail Brazilian companies. Data analysis revealed that investors do not prefer either type of management - family or professional - when they make investments. Instead, they do look for specific characteristics and patterns of behavior in a CEO, which resemble Selznick’s (1957 definition of an institutional leader. Finally, the paper suggests a new path of research for scholars (relating old institutionalism and professionalism and practical guidelines for each type of management (family or professional, offering, therefore, an academic as well as a practical contribution.

  9. Planning and administration of human resources in Brazilian Electric Power Companies; Planejamento e administracao de recursos humanos nas empresas brasileiras do setor de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Devanir Vieira

    1985-12-01

    Administration and planning of human resources in Brazilian Companies of Electric Power Sector analyzes the evolution of the concept of business planning. This work explore the specific literature of this theme, giving emphasis in predict methods and human resources development and planning models. Is also presented a case study, realized in 1979, which comprehended 84 % of Brazilian Energy Companies. This study aims to evaluate the results of an implementation of this planning and development models 64 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

  10. Value Relevance vis-à-vis Disclosure on Business Combinations and Goodwill Recognized by Publicly Traded Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Melo de Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study is to examine the value relevance of the level of disclosure on business combinations and goodwill recognized by publicly traded Brazilian companies. The research sample is composed of publicly traded Brazilian companies that carried out any type of business combination, as the acquiring entity, between 2010 and 2013, yielding a total sample of 202 observations. To measure the disclosure level of each, a metric was created based on CPC-15 R1 (2011 to examine certain disclosure items in order to render a greater level of detail. Data collection was carried out using the footnotes to the annual consolidated standardized financial statements (DFPs available from the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA website. The results revealed that disclosure levels for business combinations are positively and significantly associated with the stock price of the companies analyzed. As to the recognition of goodwill during business combinations, despite the fact that it represents a significant share of the value of the transactions, no statistical significance explaining stock price behavior was found. It also bears mentioning that the average level of disclosure identified in the explanatory notes in the sample was very low, indicating that companies need to improve when it comes to transparency of information.

  11. The relevance of the capital structure in firm performance: a multivariate analysis of Brazilian publicly traded companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Kennedy Cruz Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic changes in recent years have made the dynamics of the Brazilian market more complex, which directly impacts the administration of large organizations, particularly in management tasks, such as decisions concerning the definition of the capital structure. The literature in this theoretical field is polarized in two seminal works: the first, by Durand (1952, 1959, discusses the existence of an optimal capital structure that maximizes the value of the firm; and, at the other end, the work by Modigliani and Miller (1958, 1963 considers that it is irrelevant how firms are financed. In this sense, the objective was to verify the effective interference of the capital structure in the performance of Brazilian firms listed on BM&FBOVESPA. The sample consisted of cross-sectional data that were selected from the most recent balance sheets of all companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA, available in the Economática® database. The techniques used were the analysis of variance (ANOVA and discriminant analysis. Among the indicators used, it was observed that only general liquidity, the degree of immobilization, Tobin’s Q, and the opportunity for growth were significant at 1%. The results indicate that the capital structure is not directly related to the performance of Brazilian companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA. In the meantime, the results point to the consolidation of the financial theories expounded by Modigliani and Miller (1958, 1963, as opposed to the traditionalist current started in Durand’s studies (1952.

  12. Predictive Power and Value Relevance of Comprehensive Income Statement: an analysis of Brazilian companies listed on the BM&FBovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Angotti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze if the information about comprehensive income (CI and its individual components have predictive power to determine the Operating Cash Flow of the subsequent period (OCFt+1 at the Brazilian capital market companies. The research methodology has used financial data collected from Economatica® and CVM databases. The sample selection was performed considering the availability of variables: OCFt+1 and share prices. The period analyzed comprehended the years 2012-2014. It were used quantitative valuation techniques, establishing two moments of study: the first moment by testing the hypothesis that CI has greater predictive power than Net Income (NI for forecasting OCFt+1 (528 firms/years; and the second moment by testing the hypothesis that CI and its components have a value relevance at the Brazilian capital market (605 firms/years. The results suggest that the analysis of the consolidated CI individually would not be incremental for forecasting OCFt+1. However, an increase was observed in the predictive capacity for OCFt+1, with the inclusion of Other Comprehensive Income (OCI. Could not be verified, with aggregate disruption of the individual items of OCI, incremental capacity to determine the OCFt+1. It was observed that the Equity and NI have value relevance, but that is not confirmed to consolidated CI. Added to that, only the cash flow hedge was significant to explain the market value of the company, indicating there is informational benefit to stakeholders that employ the CI in their analysis.

  13. Diagnóstico da fauna silvestre em empresas florestais brasileiras Diagnosis of wild fauna in brazilian forest companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Debortoli Medeiros

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer a situação atual da fauna silvestre em empresas florestais brasileiras, foram pesquisadas 42 razões sociais, entre Associadas e Co-Participantes da Sociedade de Investigações Florestais (SIF, as quais possuem plantios florestais próprios. As informações foram obtidas com base em questionário enviado às referidas empresas, via correio eletrônico, sendo as respostas obtidas também por esse mecanismo. Entre os vários resultados, destaca-se o fato de que 90,9% das empresas associadas já realizaram levantamentos qualitativos da fauna silvestre. No entanto, de modo geral há notória carência de infra-estrutura nas empresas pesquisadas para atender a trabalhos específicos de manejo e conservação da fauna silvestre.Forty-two companies, associates and co-participants of the Forest Investigation Society (SIF and owners of private forest plantations, were assessed to determine the current situation of wild fauna in Brazilian forest companies. Information was obtained through a questionnaire sent to and received from the companies by e-mail. One of the several results obtained was that 90.9% of the associate companies had already carried out qualitative surveys on wild fauna stands.. On the other hand, in general, there is a total lack of infrastructure in the surveyed companies, to specifically assist in the management and conservation of wild fauna.

  14. GOVERNANCE AND INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT: FINANCING BRAZILIAN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN SOUTH AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    Monteagudo, Thiago Manolo Mautone; Guedes,Ana Lucia Malheiros; de Almeida, Amanda Nieto

    2015-01-01

    Current research deals with fine-tuning the interdisciplinary model of governance and international management (GUEDES, 2010) that acknowledges the interfaces between governance and management and multinational firms in South America. The influence of politics/government is represented by the role of the National Bank for Economic and Social development (BNDES) in South America in financing Brazilian multinational firms. Current paper presents the results of data and their analysis undertaken...

  15. Isolation by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) and identification using CPC and HPLC/ESI/MS of phenolic compounds from Brazilian cherry seeds (Eugenia uniflora L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alessandra L; Destandau, Emilie; Fougère, Laëtitia; Lafosse, Michel

    2014-02-15

    Brazilian cherry seeds are a waste product from juice and frozen pulp production and, the seeds composition was investigated to valorize this by-product. Compounds separation was performed with ethanol by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE). Here we determine the effect of temperature (T), static time (ST), number of cycles (C), and flush volume (VF) on the yield, composition and total phenolic content (TPC) of the seed extracts. T, ST and their interaction positively influenced yield and TPC. Extracts were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). The collected fractions characterizations were made by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) indicated the presence of ellagic acid pentoside and deoxyhexose, quercitrin and kaempferol pentoside. All of these compounds have antioxidant properties and normally are found in plant extracts. These results confirm that Brazilian cherry seed extract is a potentially valuable source of antioxidants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF QUALITY MANAGMENT IMPLEMENTATION IN A SMALL BRAZILIAN COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Schmitz Rauber

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This project involves identifying major organizational changes occurred in a small company in the printing supplies sector as it implemented the ISO 9001:2000 standard. The case study methodology was used through exploratory research to conduct semi-structured interviews with six employees in addition to participant observation. The desired outcome of this article is the identification of the benefits and difficulties encountered in the implementation process and a comparison between the new and previous practices. The main results of the research relate to the process of professionalization of management practices of the company and the improved internal processes.

  17. Corporate governance structure which is based in the S&OP process: Case study in la Brazilian cosmetic company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Rojas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/01/31 - Accepted: 2014/03/25This article is about the generation of a corporate governance structure which is based in the process S&OP for a Brazilian cosmetic industry. The increasing emphasis on business development guided by attention to the requirements and demands of customers, cause nowadays, that the organizations of the commercial sectors work in the creation of a competitive differential. The collaborative business management strategy S&OP is looking for the attention of people who are interested in the improvement of their skills; in order to achieve this differential. With the case study methodology, the objectives are to get knowledge, identify, and analyze the characteristics of the company using analysis tools like SWOT, process analysis, value chain. All with the purpose to get a robust management tool that fits with the requirements and demands of the organization. The analyzed results showed that the principles of collaboration and internal communication were the pillars necessary against any attempt of business development. This supports the proposal of a management structure based on the five step S&OP process. As a complement to this study a methodology CPFR was identified as the platform for an integrated work with the rest of the companies of the supply chain.

  18. Quantification of storage proteins during seed imbibition of native species from the brazilian caatinga vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Francisco Santos da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Poincianella pyramidalis (Fabaceae, Schinopsis brasiliensis (Anacardiaceae and Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Sapotaceae are native species of the Caatinga vegetation from northeastern Brazil and have both biological importance and potential economic uses. Little is known about the water uptake and degradation of storage proteins during seed germination of these species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the imbibition and quantify the amount of storage proteins during seed germination of P. pyramidalis, S. brasiliensis and S. obtusifolium. Two lots of S. obtusifolium seeds with different vigour were used. Four replicates of 20 seeds of P. pyramidalis, S. brasiliensis and S. obtusifolium, were sown onto gerboxes with blotting paper soaked in distilled water and incubated during 72, 200 and 624 hours. Before and after imbibition seeds were weighed and frozen at until the sequential extraction and analysis of the seed storage proteins. Based on our results, we conclude that seed germination of P. pyramidalis, S. brasiliensis and S. obtusifolium has a well-defined triphasic imbibition. All storage proteins content of P. pyramidalis and S. brasiliensis seeds degraded along with the seed imbibition. Likewise, the content of albumins, globulins and glutelins decreased as S. obtusifolium seeds absorbed water.

  19. Dormancy cycles in buried seeds of three perennial Xyris (Xyridaceae) species from the Brazilian campo rupestre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, T G S; Diamantino, I P; Garcia, Q S

    2017-09-01

    Dormancy cycles are an important mechanism for avoiding seed germination under unfavourable periods for seedling establishment. This mechanism has been scarcely studied in tropical species. Here, we studied three tropical and perennial species of Xyris, X. asperula, X. subsetigera and X. trachyphylla, to investigate in situ longevity and the existence of seasonal seed dormancy cycles. Seeds of three species of Xyris were buried in their natural habitat, with samples exhumed bimonthly for 18 months. Germination of exhumed seeds was assessed under a 12-h photoperiod over a broad range of temperatures. Seeds of X. trachyphylla were also subjected to treatments to overcome secondary dormancy. Seeds of all species are able to form a persistent seed bank and exhibit seasonal changes in germinability. Secondary dormancy was acquired during the rainy summer and was overcome during the subsequent dry season (autumn/winter). Desiccation partially overcomes secondary dormancy in X. trachyphylla seeds. Soil seed bank persistence and synchronisation of seed germination under favourable conditions for seedling establishment contribute to the persistence and regeneration of X. asperula, X. subsetigera and X. trachyphylla in their natural environment. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. USES OF ERP SYSTEMS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON CONTROLLERSHIP FUNCTIONS IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Morozini de Lira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Controllership and Information Technology provide ways for companies to adapt to the competitive context of business environments. As such, the aim of this research is to identify and analyze the impacts of ERP systems on Controllership functions, verifying the relationships between the use of solutions and possible improvements in such functions. The need for management control and operations control were observed. This research is descriptive and exploratory of the survey kind. The subjects mentioned in this research are managers involved in Controllership activities in large companies from the Auto Parts sector in the State of São Paulo. The data obtained through a questionnaire by non-probabilistic samples were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics. According to the subjects, ERP systems modify Controllership functions and better serve the control needs of the operations. The results showed problems to be overcome in management control.

  1. A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF QUALITY MANAGMENT IMPLEMENTATION IN A SMALL BRAZILIAN COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Schmitz Rauber; Marco Antonio Viana Borges; Márcio Laênio Manoel Júnior; Diego Augusto de Jesus Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    This project involves identifying major organizational changes occurred in a small company in the printing supplies sector as it implemented the ISO 9001:2000 standard. The case study methodology was used through exploratory research to conduct semi-structured interviews with six employees in addition to participant observation. The desired outcome of this article is the identification of the benefits and difficulties encountered in the implementation process and a comparison between the new ...

  2. Diversity management: a gender study and race in great brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednéia Batista do Prado Gonçalves

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there is an artificial dealing to the theme of diversity in organizations, particularly with regard to the human side (Thomas, 1996. In developed countries like the United States, for example, the study of diversity has had more focus and relevance. In Brazil, this is hindered by bumping into racial prejudices and gender issues that does not allow the advancements and applicability in organizations. The aim of the study was to analyze the 30 largest companies listed on Exame magazine as the diversity of gender and race has been treated by conducting a reflection on gender and race issues in relation to the work of women and blacks occupations of management positions and higher ranking in companies. Methodologically, we carried out a documentary analysis of the Social Balance of the 30 largest domestic companies or operating in Brazil in dealings theme diversity. They were selected on the official website of the 30 largest companies, based on Exame Magazine - Biggest and Best, base year 2013, the Social Report the years 2011-2013, the study of the evolution of the percentage of women and blacks in senior positions was made by calculations of descriptive statistics: sample division into quartiles and average calculation. One can observe a slight variation between the percentage over the years studied, which did not significantly alter the positions occupied by women and blacks in senior positions in the sample. It is expected that this study will contribute to the critical view of the issues related to gender and race in organizations.

  3. Characterization of storage cell wall polysaccharides from Brazilian legume seeds and the formation of aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, T T; Rodrigues, N R; Serra, G E; Panegassi, V R; Buckeridge, M S

    1996-05-17

    Cell wall storage polysaccharides from Brazilian legume seeds of Dimorphandra mollis, Schizolobium parahybum (galactomannans), Copaifera langsdorffii, Hymenaea courbaril (xyloglucans) and the galactan from cotyledons of the Mediterranean species Lupinus angustifolius were extracted and their apparent molecular masses were determined by high-performance size exclusion chromatography analysis. They were, to a large degree, polydisperse, showing molecular masses that varied from 100,000 to 2,000,000. Polyethylene glycol (PEG, 1500, 4000, 6000 and 8000), sodium citrate and dextran (73,000, 60,000-90,000, 505,000 and 2,000,000) were used for investigating phase formation with the seed polysaccharides. Galactomannans and xyloglucans demonstrated phase formation with sodium citrate concentrations lower than 30%, as well as dextrans and polyethylene glycol, and formed gels in the presence of high concentrations of sodium citrate (above 30%). Galactan did not promote phase formation with any of the reagents used. On the basis of the results obtained, the possibility of using legume seed polysaccharides for the partitioning and purification of polysaccharide enzymes in aqueous two-phase systems is suggested.

  4. Voluntary disclosure of Value Chain in Financial Reports of Companies Brazilian Capital Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro da Costa Lopes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing the value chain with the aim to achieve competitive advantage in relation to their competitors and in order to reduce costs has become increasingly important for business organizations. The aim of this paper is to analyse whether Brazilian organisations listed on Sao Paulo´s Stock Exchange (BOVESPA publish information relating to value chain management in their financial reports. In addition, this research aims to investigate the potential relationtionship between evidentiation of this information and two independent variables, gross margin and number of pages. Content Analysis was adopted in the management report and report notes of the year 2011. The analysis was based on the strategic cost management framework developed by Wrubel et al. (2010. The sample selected includes the ten largest non financial organizations, according to their total assets. Despite the fact that publishing the value chain management is not compulsory, it was observed that the businesses studied present on average 30 sentences regarding the topic in their reports. The category internal and external value chain activities represents 54.58% of the total sentences found. It has been found that there is a significant positive correlation between the amount of sentences disclosed and page number of reports, however, it was found that the same does not occur when attempted to correlate the gross margin. As a consequence, the hypothesis that gross margin could be a motivation for higher volume of information regarding value chain was not confirmed.

  5. Performance of Brazilian Companies: Year Effects, Line of Business and Individual Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Artur Ledur Brito

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Performance varies. This simple statement conceals many intricacies of strategic management. Because performance varies among individual firms, researchers can explore factors that differentiate these firms and explain why some firms are consistently outperforming others. Because performance varies among industries, researchers can explore structural characteristics of different branches of accounting as a source of explanation. Because performance varies with time, researchers can explore environmental and internal dynamic elements that drive strategic decision-making. In reality,measuring and analyzing performance is a very complicated issue when performance varies simultaneously from firm to firm, from industry to industry and from year to year. The theoretical discussion behind this question is the relative importance of the industrial organization derived approach to strategy versus the resource-based view. This paper analyzes the composition of performance variance of a set of Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2001. The results demonstrate that firm effects are still dominant, with year and industry effects being lower, as previous studies with North American firms have indicated.

  6. IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON THE SUCCESS OF PROJECTS: A MULTIPLE CASES STUDY IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso Américo Franzin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In a time of great competitiveness among companies, the criteria for evaluation of success of projects can provide for organizations to measure conditions the success of your projects, but many variables related to organizational culture can influence these results. Thus, this study aims to identify, in the vision of professionals working in the area of project management, the impact of organizational culture (CO on the success of the projects (SP. As a methodology, by analysis of literature review identified the levels of organizational culture and the success of projects, as well as the structuring of the theoretical model of the study. In addition, a case study, by means of semi-structured interviews, addressing professionals who work in the offices of project management (EGP. Four companies participated in the survey, in different segments: information technology sector in agribusiness, Department of health systems technology, educational sector and agro-industrial sector. With the results obtained could observe that the organizational culture can introduce direct impacts in the development of projects, helping it to achieve the expected success and, in addition, can provide greater competitiveness for the Organization and satisfaction for the customer.

  7. Comparability of Accounting Choices in Future Valuation of Investment Properties: An Analysis of Brazilian and Portuguese Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaida Êmine Alves de Souza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the main purposes for adopting the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS is the quest for comparability between financial statements within the same country, over time, and between different countries. IFRS have the feature of allowing accounting choices in most of their standards. However, the existence of such flexibility in the process for recognizing, measuring, and disclosing as sets and liabilities may impact on comparability. IFRS have been criticized both due to their accounting choices and the adoption of the fair value paradigm. This article examines these two issues, investigating the choice of the cost model versus the choice of the fair value model for investment properties (IPs, an option guaranteed under the terms of the International Accounting Standard (IAS 40. This research aimed to identify the comparability degree and the factors that determine the accounting choices made by managers of IPs, in Brazilian and Portuguese listed companies, within the periods from 2010 to 2012. Comparability, within and between countries, was identified by the T-index and the search for the determining factors of accounting choices made by managers was performed by means of a logistic re gression analysis. As a result, it was found that, despite the accounting choices allowed by IAS 40, there was a mean comparability between the accounting practices of firms in these countries, but showing a decrease in the index over the years. The explanatory factors identified were auditing by one of the big four (PricewaterhouseCoopers, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, KPMG, or Ernst & Young, companies' indeb tedness, relative importance of IPs' balance, net profit, and less experience of Brazil in using the fair value method to appraise IPs.

  8. Risk of WMSDs in monofunctional and multifunctional workers in a Brazilian footwear company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilza Karla dos Santos Leite

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to analyze the risk of musculoskeletal disorders in monofunctional and multifunctional workers in a footwear company. The sample comprised 114 workers in the shoe production sector. The method Occupational Repetitive Actions was used to assess the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs. Proportional odds models were constructed, relating the risk of WMSDs to the type of work and the worker’s level of multifunctionality. For monofunctional workers, exposure to the higher risk was related to cycle time and the technical actions within their activities, whereas for multifunctional workers, it was related to the range of motion, use of gloves and precision needed in activities. For monofunctional workers, greater risks were associated with a short activity cycle, whereas for multifunctional workers, they were associated with complementary and organizational factors. Moreover, workers whose intracellular activities were less than 30% of the total appeared to be less exposed to the risk of WMSDs.

  9. Cognitive ergonomics: the use of mind mapping tool in maintaining productive sector of a Brazilian paper company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Diego; Mateus, José Roberto; Merino, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    The use of mind maps as a method of building knowledge, planning, organizing activities and ideas can be seen in the literature related to ergonomics. The results of such use are relevant and its use in academic area found. However, regarding to its use in industrial environments, studies can't not be found. With this scenario, and based on the perception of the ergonomist about the importance of using methods such as mind maps in support of human cognition, it seems pertinent to its use in industry sectors whose cognitive demand requires. Given these assumptions, this study aimed to apply the method of Mind Maps in Productive Maintenance sector of a Brazilian paper. The Productive Maintenance sector in the Paper Industry has an important contribution to operational performance. With practical Predictive Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance and Corrective Maintenance, the industry advocates to make the machines to produce paper is not to stop producing when they are programmed to do so. Among the practices cited, the Preventive Maintenance is one that leads to pre-determined intervals in order to reduce the possibility of placing the equipment in a condition below the required level of acceptance. Therefore, this article aims to propose using the tool "mental maps" in order to collaborate in planning and implementation of preventive maintenance activities in the sector of mechanical maintenance of a pulp and paper industry in southern Brazil. The study investigated the maintenance sector through its employees, who went through training about the tool and then use it and ergonomists company.

  10. Palm harvesting affects seed predation of Euterpe edulis, a threatened palm of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizo, M A; Vieira, E M

    2004-08-01

    The palm tree Euterpe edulis is endemic to the Atlantic Forest, where it constitutes an economically important forest product. The often unplanned and illegal harvesting of palm hearts has led to drastic reductions in the populations of E. edulis in many areas where this palm used to be the dominant understorey tree species. We investigated the effects of harvesting on seed and seedling predation of E. edulis. We tested the predictions of the dominance-predation hypothesis according to which predator satiation leads to an inverse relationship between the amount of predation and the dominance of a tree species. During two consecutive years, seeds were set experimentally on an unharvested (> 250 adult palms/ha) and a neighboring harvested site (few, if any, adult palms) located in the Atlantic Forest of SE Brazil. Seedling mortality was studied at both sites for a six-month period in each of two consecutive years. Seed predation caused by rodents was higher at the harvested site, while insects caused more damage to seeds placed at the unharvested site. The proportion of seeds preyed upon by rodents varied annually, while insect predation did not. Seedling mortality did not differ between harvested and unharvested sites. The dominance-predation hypothesis was confirmed for generalist rodent seed predators, but not for specialist insect predators. This result shows that density-dependent mortality, not only at the individual level but also at the population-level scale, is a function of the class of predators and their types of foraging behavior.

  11. Palm harvesting affects seed predation of Euterpe edulis, a threatened palm of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Pizo

    Full Text Available The palm tree Euterpe edulis is endemic to the Atlantic Forest, where it constitutes an economically important forest product. The often unplanned and illegal harvesting of palm hearts has led to drastic reductions in the populations of E. edulis in many areas where this palm used to be the dominant understorey tree species. We investigated the effects of harvesting on seed and seedling predation of E. edulis. We tested the predictions of the dominance-predation hypothesis according to which predator satiation leads to an inverse relationship between the amount of predation and the dominance of a tree species. During two consecutive years, seeds were set experimentally on an unharvested (> 250 adult palms/ha and a neighboring harvested site (few, if any, adult palms located in the Atlantic Forest of SE Brazil. Seedling mortality was studied at both sites for a six-month period in each of two consecutive years. Seed predation caused by rodents was higher at the harvested site, while insects caused more damage to seeds placed at the unharvested site. The proportion of seeds preyed upon by rodents varied annually, while insect predation did not. Seedling mortality did not differ between harvested and unharvested sites. The dominance-predation hypothesis was confirmed for generalist rodent seed predators, but not for specialist insect predators. This result shows that density-dependent mortality, not only at the individual level but also at the population-level scale, is a function of the class of predators and their types of foraging behavior.

  12. Strategies for Industry Internationalization Brazilian Pulp and Paper the Perspective of Eclectic Paradigm: A Case Study of Pulp and Paper Company Suzano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Batista Bitencourt Fagundes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the process of internationalization of the Brazilian pulp and paper. This analysis has an economic bias, basing on the model of internationalization of Eclectic Paradigm of Dunning (1980 in order to identify the internationalization strategies, as well as the key drivers that have enabled reach new markets. We adopted a qualitative methodology, developed through a case study in the company Suzano, a Brazilian company, a global leader in the pulp and paper industry, with a strong presence in the international market. The data were obtained from literature searches, statistics, press releases and official documents of the company. For the treatment of these was used to pattern matching techniques, which enabled contrast them with the theory selected. The results revealed that Suzano differentiated adopted guidelines for the marketing of paper and pulp. The paper is intended primarily for the domestic market, whereas most of the pulp produced is intended to international trade. The company went international for having, according to the Eclectic Paradigm, the advantages of ownership and internalization over their competitors. The strategies used consists in finding markets (market seeking, search efficiency (efficiency seeking and search for strategic assets (strategic asset seeking. We conclude that the theory is Eclectic Paradigm in an appropriate tool for analyzing the internationalization process of the pulp and paper industries.

  13. Seed biometric parameters in oil palm accessions from a Brazilian germplasm bank

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    Julcéia Camillo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the morphological diversity of oil palm seeds and to cluster the accessions according to their morphological characteristics. Forty-one accessions from the oil palm germplasm bank of Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental were evaluated - 18 of Elaeis oleifera and 23 of E. guineensis. The groups were formed based on morphological characteristics, by principal component analysis. In E. oleifera, four groups were formed, tied to their region of origin, but with significant morphological differences between accessions from the same population. For tenera-type E. guineensis seeds, three widely divergent groups were formed, especially as to external parameters, which differentiated them from the other ones. The parameter endocarp thickness stood out in intra- and inter-population differentiation. For dura-type E. guineensis, three groups were formed, with larger seeds and thicker endocarps, which differed from all the other ones. The variability observed for seed characteristics in the analyzed accessions allows the establishment of different groups, to define strategies for genetic improvement.

  14. Implications of Habitat Loss on Seed Predation and Early Recruitment of a Keystone Palm in Anthropogenic Landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest.

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    Leiza Aparecida S S Soares

    Full Text Available Habitat loss is the main driver of the loss of global biodiversity. Knowledge on this subject, however, is highly concentrated on species richness and composition patterns, with little discussion on the consequences of habitat loss for ecological interactions. Therefore, a systemic approach is necessary to maximize the success of conservation efforts by providing more realistic information about the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on natural environmental processes. We investigated the implications of habitat loss for the early recruitment of Euterpe edulis Martius, a keystone palm in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, in nine sampling sites located in landscapes with different percentages of forest cover (9%-83%. We conducted a paired experiment using E. Edulis seeds set up in experimental stations composed of a vertebrate exclosure versus an open treatment. We used ANCOVA models with treatments as factors to assess the influence of habitat loss on the number of germinated seeds, predation by vertebrates and invertebrates, infestation by fungi, and number of seedlings established. Habitat loss did not affect the probability of transition from a dispersed to a germinated seed. However, when seeds were protected from vertebrate removal, seedling recruitment showed a positive relationship with the amount of forest cover. Seed infestation by fungi was not significant, and seed predation was the main factor limiting seed recruitment. The loss of forest cover antagonistically affected the patterns of seed predation by vertebrates and invertebrates; predation by invertebrates was higher in less forested areas, and predation by vertebrates was higher in forested areas. When seeds were exposed to the action of all biotic mortality factors, the number of recruited seedlings was very low and unrelated to habitat loss. This result indicates that the opposite effects of seed predation by vertebrates and invertebrates mask a differential response of E

  15. Implications of Habitat Loss on Seed Predation and Early Recruitment of a Keystone Palm in Anthropogenic Landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Leiza Aparecida S S; Faria, Deborah; Vélez-Garcia, Felipe; Vieira, Emerson M; Talora, Daniela C; Cazetta, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss is the main driver of the loss of global biodiversity. Knowledge on this subject, however, is highly concentrated on species richness and composition patterns, with little discussion on the consequences of habitat loss for ecological interactions. Therefore, a systemic approach is necessary to maximize the success of conservation efforts by providing more realistic information about the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on natural environmental processes. We investigated the implications of habitat loss for the early recruitment of Euterpe edulis Martius, a keystone palm in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, in nine sampling sites located in landscapes with different percentages of forest cover (9%-83%). We conducted a paired experiment using E. Edulis seeds set up in experimental stations composed of a vertebrate exclosure versus an open treatment. We used ANCOVA models with treatments as factors to assess the influence of habitat loss on the number of germinated seeds, predation by vertebrates and invertebrates, infestation by fungi, and number of seedlings established. Habitat loss did not affect the probability of transition from a dispersed to a germinated seed. However, when seeds were protected from vertebrate removal, seedling recruitment showed a positive relationship with the amount of forest cover. Seed infestation by fungi was not significant, and seed predation was the main factor limiting seed recruitment. The loss of forest cover antagonistically affected the patterns of seed predation by vertebrates and invertebrates; predation by invertebrates was higher in less forested areas, and predation by vertebrates was higher in forested areas. When seeds were exposed to the action of all biotic mortality factors, the number of recruited seedlings was very low and unrelated to habitat loss. This result indicates that the opposite effects of seed predation by vertebrates and invertebrates mask a differential response of E. edulis recruitment to

  16. The American policy for the de-germanization of Brazilian air transport system: the case of the Condor company

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tánia Quintaneiro

    2009-01-01

    ... shareholders or sympathizers of Axis countries. Other means such as the offer of credits for the acquisition of aviation equipments and Condor shares, the training of Brazilian substitutes, as well as the infiltration of technicians and...

  17. Seed germination and seedling growth of two Pseudobombax species (Malvaceae with contrasting habitats from Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clesnan Mendes-Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pseudobombax tomentosum and P. longiflorum are common trees in the Cerrado region, but the former species is more common in forest edges while the later is present in open cerrado areas. This work aimed to investigate differences in seed germination and seedling growth in these species, from seed collected from Cerrado areas in Central Brazil. For this, a seed germination experiment was designed and included four replicates with 25 seeds per species; seeds were randomly distributed in the germination chamber. To evaluate initial seedling growth, seedlings height was measured up to 67 days after seedling emergence; besides, some of these seedlings were grown for biomass evaluation during nine months. Results showed that seeds of the two species had the same germinability (near 100% and mean germination time (ca. 12 days. However, P. longiflorum showed a more spread seed germination through time, with higher values of coefficient of variation in germination time and uncertainty index; and lower values of synchronization than P. tomentosum. The two species showed basically the same growth pattern, but lower values for height of apical meristem, diameter of underground structures (mostly roots, dry mass of shoots, underground structure and total mass of seedlings in P. tomentosum were obtained, compared to P. longiflorum. Both species allocated more dry mass to underground structures in detriment of shoot. This probably allows resprouting behavior which prevents hydric stress and detrimental fire action typical of the open Cerrado areas. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1915-1925. Epub 2011 December 01.Pseudobombax tomentosum y P. longiflorum son árboles comunes en la región del Cerrado, pero la primera especie es más común en los bordes del bosque mientras que el segundo está presente en áreas abiertas del cerrado. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo investigar las diferencias en la germinación de las semillas y el crecimiento de ambas especies. Los

  18. Water extracts of Brazilian leguminous seeds as rich sources of larvicidal compounds against Aedes aegypti L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi F. Farias

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the toxicity of seed water extracts of 15 leguminous species upon Aedes aegypti larvae. A partial chemical and biochemical characterization of water extracts, as well as the assessment of their acute toxicity in mice, were performed. The extracts of Amburana cearensis, Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Dioclea megacarpa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum and Piptadenia moniliformis caused 100% of mortalit y after 1 to 3 h of exposure. They showed LC50 and LC90 values ranging from 0.43 ± 0.01 to 9.06 ± 0.12 mg/mL and from 0.71 ± 0.02 to 13.03 ± 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. Among the secondary metabolite constituents, the seed water extracts showed tannins, phenols, flavones, favonols, xanthones, saponins and alkaloids. The extracts also showed high soluble proteins content (0.98 to 7.71 mg/mL, lectin (32 to 256 HU/mL and trypsin inhibitory activity (3.64 = 0.43 to 26.19 = 0.05 gIT/kg of flour The electrophoretic profiles showed a great diversity of protein bands, many of which already described as insecticide proteins. The extracts showed low toxicity to mice (LD50 > 0.15 = 0.01 g/kg body weight, but despite these promising results, further studies are necessary to understand the toxicity of these extracts and their constituentsfrom primary and secondary metabolism upon Ae. aegypti.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a toxicidade dos extratos aquosos de sementes de 15 espécies de leguminosas contra larvas de Aedes aegypti. Foi realizada uma caracterização química e bioquímica parcial dos extratos aquosos e a avaliação da toxicidade aguda em camundongos. Os extratos de Amburana cearensis, Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Dioclea megacarpa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum e Piptadenia moniliformis causaram 100% de mortalidade depois de 1 a 3 h de exposição e mostraram valores de CL50 e CL90 entre 0,43 = 0,01 e 9,06 ± 0,12 e entre 0,71 = 0,02 e 13,03 = 0,15 mg/mL, respectivamente. Dentre os constituintes do metabolismo secundário, os extratos

  19. Motivations, Risks, Barriers, and Results Associated with the Adoption of Global Sourcing by Brazilian Companies: a Case-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moema Pereira Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identi fy the motivations behind g lobal s ourcing (GS adoption , the associated risks and barriers , and the results that companies from emerging countries are achieving . The research explores the distinguishing features of these companies ' experience and examines established theories about GS that are based on companies from developed countries. In the article, a case - based study investigat ed four companies from the electrical and electronics industry in South Brazil. Data w ere collected through in - dep th interviews , documents , and direct observation. According to the research, t he main motivations for adopting GS are faster access to new technologies and establish ing a presence in global markets. It was also found that the opportunity to offer diversified products u sing the distribution channels already developed by companies motivate s GS adoption , a situation that prior literature has not identified . Despite the risks, t he absence of a broad local supply - base prompts companies to adopt GS. Further, the failure to fo rmalize barrier analysis processes creates difficulties f or companies . Th e main results associated with GS relate to innovation and reductions in the time taken to develop product s and reach market s . In this regard, c ompanies face a challenge to develop th e abilities required to compete for the advantages that t he global market can offer.

  20. Analysis of levels disclosure of sustainability reports of brazilian companies A + the Global Reporting Initiative GRI 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geraldo Alemandro Leite Filho; Lorene Alexandre Prates; Thiago Neiva Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    ... without compromising resources for future generations. Thus, this study aims to analyze the level of disclosure of information of social and environmental sustainability reports in 2007 of the companies concerned with application level...

  1. Auditor´s report of report of companies of the brazilian electrical sector: one study of the normative adherence of the reports emited between 1999 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Haendchen Dutra

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to verify the adherence to the normative demands found in the auditors’ reports concerned with the companies of the Brazilian electrical sector. To reach the proposed goal, an exploratory-descriptive study of report samples published between 1999 and 2006 was undertaken, covering the financial statements issued from 1998 to 2005, selected from Closing Balance, of Gazeta Mercantil. The research has an descriptive character and used the content analysis technique for the data analysis and interpretation. The approach adopted was both qualitative and quantitative. 136 auditors’ reports were scrutinized through the comparison between paragraphs contained in those reports and the aforementioned auditing standards issued by the regulating organ, the Accounting Federal Board. 936 frequencies were acknowledged, being divided into adherent and non-adherent, and the 14,9% of non-adherent ones were minutely discussed. Key words: Auditors’ Report, Auditing Standards and Electrical Sector.

  2. Perfil do suporte oferecido pelas incubadoras brasileiras às empresas incubadas The profile of the support offered by the brazilian incubators to the incubated companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Maury Raupp

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo objetiva delinear o perfil do suporte oferecido pelas incubadoras brasileiras às empresas incubadas. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, de natureza quanti-qualitativa, realizado por meio de pesquisa survey. A população da pesquisa corresponde a 179 incubadoras brasileiras, tendo-se obtido um retorno de 37 delas. A coleta de dados deu-se com base em questionário enviado por e-mail aos coordenadores das incubadoras. Inicia-se o estudo fazendo uma breve incursão teórica acerca de incubadoras de empresas, fases do processo de incubação e suporte das incubadoras às empresas incubadas. Na seqüência, identifica-se os procedimentos metodológicos adotados. Em seguida, procede-se à descrição e análise dos dados coletados. Por último, apresenta-se as conclusões do estudo realizado, bem como recomendações para futuras pesquisas.The goal of this article is to outline the profile of the support offered by the Brazilian incubators to the incubated companies. This is a descriptive study, based on both quality and quantity, done through a survey. The target of the research was 179 Brazilian incubators, having heard from 37 of them. The data collection was based on questionnaire sent through e-mail to the coordinators of the incubators. The study began with a brief theoretical foray about incubators of companies. After that, the adopted methodological procedures are identified. Then, the description and the analysis of the data collected are done. At last, the conclusion of the study and recommendation for future researches are presented.

  3. Estratégias de customização em massa implementadas por empresas brasileiras Strategies of mass customization accomplished by brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Gustavo Carvalho Machado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar as estratégias de customização em massa implementadas por empresas brasileiras. Neste sentido, a estratégia de pesquisa adotada foi de estudo de casos múltiplos, empreendido em quinze empresas, abrangendo nove diferentes divisões de atividades econômicas. A entrevista foi a principal técnica de coleta de dados. A análise dos dados, por seu turno, ocorreu em dois estágios: análise individual e análise cruzada dos casos. Ao se analisar as ações empreendidas no processo de customização dos produtos e serviços das empresas selecionadas, constatou-se que duas estratégias se destacaram: modularidade e postergação da manufatura. Ademais, evidenciou-se que a maioria das empresas executa suas atividades de customização em diferentes estágios da cadeia de valor, oferecendo, pelo menos, dois níveis de customização para o mercado. Foi também elaborado um continuum, representando as diferenças entre o grau de customização de cada empresa analisada.The objective of this paper is the analysis of the strategies of mass customization accomplished by Brazilian companies. Therefore, the research strategy adopted was a multiple-case study, which was undertaken in fifteen companies, comprising ten different divisions of economic activities. Interviews were the main technique for collecting data. The analysis of data, in its turn, took place in two phases: within-case analysis and cross-case analysis. When analyzing the actions undertaken in the customization process of the products and services of the selected companies, it was verified that two strategies stood out: modularity and manufacturing postponement. Furthermore, it was proved that most companies carry out their customization activities in different stages of the value chain, offering the market two customization levels, at least. A continuum was also developed, representing the differences among the degrees of customization of each analyzed

  4. Demand Forecast at the Foodstuff Retail Segment: a Strategic Sustainability Tool at a Small-Sized Brazilian Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudimar Pereira Da Veiga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Demand forecasting plays an increasingly relevant role within competitive and globalized marketplaces, in as much as operations planning and subsequent transition into a sustainable chain of supplies, is concerned. To this effect, the purpose of this study is to present the application of demand forecasting as a strategic sustainability tool at a Brazilian SME. Therefore, this is a descriptive, ex-post facto and cross-cut, sectional time case study, which employs qualitative and historical quantitative and direct observational data and that utilizes, as both indicators of the level of service offered to consumers and of opportunity costs the artificial neural networks model and fill-rates, for demand forecasting and response purposes. The study further established cause-effect relationships between prediction accuracy, demand responsiveness and process-resulting economic, environmental and social performances. Findings additionally concurred with both widely acknowledged sustainability concepts - NRBV (Natural-Resource-Based View and 3BL (Triple Bottom Line - by demonstrating that demand forecasts ensure the efficient use of resources, improvements in customer responsiveness and also mitigate supply chain stock out and overstock losses. Further to the mentioned economic benefit, demand forecasting additionally reduced the amount of waste that arises from retail product shelf-life expiration, improving the addressing of demand itself and of customer satisfaction, thus driving consequent environmental and social gains.

  5. Partitioning of seed dispersal services between birds and bats in a fragment of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissa Sarmento

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Community-level network studies suggest that seed dispersal networks may share some universal properties with other complex systems. However, most of the datasets used so far in those studies have been strongly biased towards temperate birds, including not only dispersers, but also seed predators. Recent evidence from multi-taxon networks suggests that seed dispersal networks are not all alike and may be more complex than previously thought. Here, we used network theory to evaluate seed dispersal in a strongly impacted Atlantic Forest fragment in northeastern Brazil, where bats and birds are the only extant dispersers. We hypothesized that the seed dispersal network should be more modular then nested, and that the dispersers should segregate their services according to dispersal syndromes. Furthermore, we predicted that bat and bird species that are more specialized in frugivory would be more important for maintaining the network structure. The mixed network contained 56 plant species, 12 bat species, and eight bird species, and its structure was more modular (M = 0.58 then nested (NODF = 0.21 compared with another multi-taxon network and 21 single-taxon networks (with either bats or birds. All dispersed fruits had seeds smaller than 9 mm. Bats dispersed mainly green fruits, whereas birds dispersed fruits of various colors. The network contained eight modules: five with birds only, two with bats only, and one mixed. Most dispersers were peripheral, and only specialized frugivores acted as hubs or connectors. Our results strongly support recent studies, suggesting that seed dispersal networks are complex mosaics, where different taxa form separate modules with different properties, which in turn play complementary roles in the maintenance of the associated ecosystem functions and services.

  6. The new research centre of the Brazilian Petroleum Company in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: The achievements in the thermal performance of air-conditioned buildings in the tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Rafael; Marcondes, Monica Pereira; De Benedetto, Gisele S.; Goncalves, Joana Carla Soares; Duarte, Denise Helena Silva; Ramos, Jose Ovidio [Laboratorio de Conforto Ambiental e Eficiencia Energetica (LABAUT), Departamento de Tecnologia da Arquitetura (AUT), Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo, Universidade de Sao Paulo (FAUUSP), Sao Paulo, Brasil, Rua do Lago, 876, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The study on the thermal performance of the air-conditioned buildings of the new research centre of the Brazilian Petroleum Company, in the tropical climate of Rio de Janeiro, was part of a bigger research and consultancy project involving environmental issues. The architectural design was the subject of a national competition in 2004, encompassing over 100,000 m{sup 2}. According to the design brief, out of the 10 buildings of the new research centre, 7 have to be either completely or partially air-conditioned, due to specific occupation requirements. The challenge for better thermal performance was related to systems' energy efficiency, to the introduction of natural ventilation and to the notion of adaptive comfort, which were verified with the support of thermal dynamic simulations. At the early stages of the assessments, the potential for natural ventilation in the working spaces considering the mixed-mode strategy achieved 30% of occupation hours. However, the development of the design project led to fully air-conditioned working spaces, due to users' references regarding the conventional culture of the office environment. Nevertheless, the overall architectural approach in accordance to the climatic conditions still showed a contribution to the buildings' energy efficiency. (author)

  7. Brazilian energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil`s natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  8. The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil); O novo modelo tarifario baseado no conceito de custos marginais em desenvolvimento para o setor eletrico brasileiro. Um estudo de caso para a Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, S.P.S.

    1991-12-31

    A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab.

  9. Fatores críticos para a melhoria contínua em indústrias brasileiras Critical factors for the continuous improvement in brazilian manufacturing companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carlos Oprime

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é identificar e analisar fatores críticos no desenvolvimento de atividades de melhoria contínua (MC em empresas industriais brasileiras. Um modelo conceitual de relacionamento entre práticas e resultados foi testado por meio de um survey utilizando uma amostra de 46 empresas industriais. Fatores como: treinamento em ferramentas de solução de problemas, o incentivo a sugestões, a comunicação face a face, visitas ao chão de fábrica e adoção de sistemas de incentivos, se mostraram críticos para alcance de sucesso em atividades de MC. Identificaram pela análise fatorial dois constructos críticos relacionados ao processo de melhoria contínua: 1 a promoção das atividades de melhoria contínua por meio de políticas de incentivos; e 2 o suporte e liderança da alta administração e ativa participação da gerência. Observou-se que há relação estatisticamente significativa entre o uso de técnicas de solução de problemas e mecanismos de incentivos com o desempenho das empresas.The aim of this paper is to identify and analyze critical factors in the development of continuous improvement (CI activities in Brazilian manufacturing companies. A conceptual model of relationship between practices and results was tested through a survey conducted in 46 manufacturing companies. Factors such as: problems solving tools training, suggestion incentives, face-to-face communication, visits to the shop floor and adoption of incentive systems, have proved to be critical at reaching success in CI activities. Through factorial analysis, two critical constructs concerning continuous improvement process were identified: 1 promotion of continuous improvement through incentive mechanisms; and 2 High level management support and leadership and management active involvement. It was observed that there is a statistically meaningful relationship between the use of problem solving techniques and the incentive mechanisms in face of

  10. Diversity of bacteria and yeast in the naturally fermented cotton seed and rice beverage produced by Brazilian Amerindians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; de Almeida, Euziclei Gonzaga; Freire, Ana Luiza; Freitas Schwan, Rosane

    2011-10-01

    Microorganisms associated with the fermentation of cotton seed and rice were studied using a combination of culture-dependent and -independent methods. Samples of the cotton seed and rice beverage were collected every 8 h during the fermentation process for analysis of the microbiota present over 48 h. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population reached values of approximately 8.0 log cfu/mL. A total of 162 bacteria and 81 yeast isolates were identified using polyphasic methods. LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus vermiforme, Lactobacillus paracasei) were the most frequently isolated bacteria. Bacillus subtilis was present from 16 h until the end of the fermentation process. A decrease in pH value from 6.92 (0 h) to 4.76 (48 h) was observed, and the concentration of lactic acid reached 24 g/L at the end of the fermentation process. DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) was performed to determine the dynamics of the communities of bacteria and yeast, and the analysis revealed a predominance of LAB throughout the fermentation process. No changes were observed in the yeast community. The yeast species detected were Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, Clavispora lusitaniae and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Our studies indicate that the DGGE technique combined with a culture-dependent method is required to discern the dynamics in the fermentation of cotton seed and rice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A xyloglucan from seeds of the native Brazilian species Hymenaea courbaril for micropropagation of Marubakaido and Jonagored apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Nishimura, N; Quoirin, M; Naddaf, Y G; Wilhelm, H M; Ribas, L L F; Sierakowski, M-R

    2003-01-01

    Xyloglucan was extracted from seeds of Hymenaea courbaril and mixed with agar to prepare a solid culture medium used for micropropagation of the Marubakaido apple rootstock (Malus prunifolia Borkh) and cv. Jonagored (Malus domestica). The performance on gels created from a blend of 0.4%agar and 0.2% xyloglucan (w/v) was compared with that on media gelled with a standard concentration 0.6% (w/v) of agar. The growth of shoots and the multiplication rate were higher on the modified culture medium than on the agar-gelled medium. The occurrence of hyperhydric shoots was lower on the modified medium. In the absence of auxin, shoot rooting reached 70% (Marubakaido) and 66% (Jonagored) on the agar-xyloglucan medium and 6.7% and 10.4%, respectively, on the agar medium. When 0.25 microM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was added to both media, the modified medium gave better results in terms of rooting percentage and quality of roots than the agar-gelled medium.

  12. Organic forage seed production

    OpenAIRE

    BOELT, B.; Deleuran, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    From January 2004 only organically produced seed can be used in organic farming systems within the EU. Danish seed producers and seed companies are establishing an organic forage seed production in order to supply organic growers within the EU with high quality seed of recognised varieties. This brief paper outlines a project investigating improved cultivation and management techniques to ensure such a supply is met.

  13. Effect of investments on fundamentals and market reaction on pre-operational and operational Brazilian companies for the period 2006-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Pereira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper provides evidence on the market reaction to corporate investment decisions whose shareholder value is largely attributed to growth options. The exploratory research raised pre-operational companies and their operational pairs on the same economy segments. It had the purpose of investigating the existence of statistical differentiation from financial indicators that reflect the installed assets and growth assets, and then study the market reaction to changes in fixed assets as a signaling element about investment decisions. The formation process of operational assets and shareholder value almost exclusively dependent on asset growth stands out in the pre-operational companies. As a result, differentiation tests confirmed that the pre-operational companies had their value especially derived on growth options. The market reaction was particularly bigger in pre-operational companies with abnormal negative stock returns, while the operational companies had positive returns, which may indicate that the quality of the investment is judged based on the financial disclosure. Additionally, operational companies' investors await the disclosure to adjust their prices. We conclude that the results are consistent with the empirical evidence and the participants in financial markets to long-term capital formation investments should give that special attention.

  14. The logistics management in the sizing of the fleet of containers per ships in dedicated route - The use of computer simulation: A Brazilian shipping company case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmo Alves de Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is provide the use of the simulation in the discrete event to manage one important point in the logistics systems to shipping companies that is the imbalance of containers, movement of empty containers from surplus ports to deficit ports. From a survey of data from a shipping company operating in Brazil, at various ports, it was possible to model and simulate the needs in six major domestic ports of empty and full containers and seek to meet demand in the shipping market, reducing storage of containers and maintaining the level of excellence in service. Based on the discrete event simulation it was possible to analyze the problem of empty and full containers at the ports in the maritime transportation system. It was possible study the imbalance situation in the ports e provide one tool the companies to manage yours service. The data are confined to one company located in São Paulo and operating in Brazil at maritime transportation. The research shows that the imbalance problem between full and empty containers is a real case to all companies in the maritime transportation and can have effective solutions using discrete event simulation. To have excellent supply chain management it is important to have also one effective transportation system. This paper contributes to research in the inbound and outbound part of the supply chain management.

  15. The processes of organizational learning and innovation: a longitudinal case study (1986-1995 in a company of brazilian oil sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio Valle Antunes Júnior

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is one important factor for companies. This study presents a longitudinal case study focusing on the learning processes associated to innovation on an oil industry company. To conduct the study, which was of exploratory nature, interviews were conducted with professionals connected to the history of the company. Reports about the processes of innovation were described by content analysis and related to: the types of innovation proposed by Schumpeter (1942; the types of learning proposed by Malerba (1992; the modes of learning single loop and double loop of Argyris and Schön (1978; the ways of knowledge conversion of Nonaka and Takeuchi (1997; and the creation of spaces of knowledge of Nonaka et. al (1998, 2000. The research results indicate that radical innovation tends to require a wider range of learning styles, if compared to incremental innovations. Still, the internalization and socialization seems to prevail in contexts of radical innovation, while externalization and combination are more frequent in incremental innovation contexts. Finally, the results point to the fact that the single loop learning is more directly related to incremental innovations, while the double loop learning is more present in radical innovation contexts.

  16. Custos dos Serviços de Não-auditoria (SNA das Maiores Empresas Brasileiras = Non-audit service (SNA fees in the biggest brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Aguiar da Rosa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é caracterizar os custos dos Serviços de Não-Auditoria – SNA das maiores empresas listadas na Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo – BM&FBOVESPA. Para a consecução deste trabalho foram utilizadas as informações divulgadas no Formulário de Referência – FR e no Relatório de Administração – RA, relativas ao ano de 2010, das 100 maiores empresas classificadas por valor de mercado, apresentadas na Revista Exame. Para identificar os elementos que caracterizam os grupos de empresas com diferentes custos de SNA evidenciados utilizou-se a análise de variância, avaliando-se a partir das variáveis ativo total, patrimônio líquido, resultado líquido e custos dos serviços de auditoria externa - SAE. Os resultados encontrados demonstram que os SNA mais utilizados pelas empresas são os de auditoria de impostos (31%. Por outro lado, os serviços de auditoria SOX detêm um custo expressivo, representando 16% do total de SNA, mas possuem uma baixa incidência, que pode ser justificada por uma preocupação recente com a governança corporativa. Uma preocupação com a evidenciação dos SNA pode surgir, pois 50% dos custos evidenciados pelas empresas compõem o grupo “outros serviços” e não são explicitados os tipos de serviços que fazem parte desse grupo. Além disso, foram encontradas incoerências de informações evidenciadas no FR e RA em 35% das empresas. Quanto às relações da variabilidade dos custos dos SNA, este estudo traz evidências de que os maiores custos dos SNA evidenciados pelas empresas da amostra estão naquelas em que os custos de SAE são maiores. The aim of this paper is to characterize the costs of Non-Audit Services - SNA of the largest companies listed at BM&FBOVESPA. To achieve this study, the Reference Form - FR and Management Report - RA were used to find information about SNAdisclosed in 2010 by the top 100 companies ranked by market value, which were listed at Exame magazine. To

  17. Implementação de programas de qualidade: um survey em empresas de grande porte no Brasil Implementation of quality programs: a survey in large size Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Helena Boarin Pinto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é identificar os principais aspectos da implementação dos programas de qualidade em empresas brasileiras, a partir dos modelos mais difundidos e implementados como a certificação de sistemas de qualidade nas normas ISO 9000, o Seis Sigma e o Total Quality Management (TQM, fazendo uma análise comparativa e crítica de sua adoção pelas organizações e estudando as relações existentes entre eles, a complementaridade e as redundâncias. O tema é extremamente relevante no cenário atual, em que as companhias investem quantias significativas em diversos programas de melhoria da qualidade e possuem enormes dificuldades para avaliar o impacto estratégico, bem como o respectivo valor agregado. A metodologia adotou elementos da análise quantitativa, isto é, uma pesquisa do tipo survey. O universo para a coleta de dados foi extraído da relação "Ranking Valor 1.000", que contém as 1.000 maiores empresas brasileiras, publicadas no anuário do jornal "Valor Econômico", ano-base de 2004, partindo-se do pressuposto de que, nestas empresas, estarão os embriões dos modelos emergentes de gestão da qualidade. Posteriormente, as respostas obtidas por meio de questionários foram analisadas com o auxílio de um programa estatístico. A análise concluiu que as empresas que implantaram o programa Seis Sigma são as de maior tradição em qualidade, ou seja, adotaram outros programas anteriormente; as organizações que mais investiram em qualidade, pela adoção de programas, obtiveram sucesso nos indicadores de desempenho; e as principais causas do insucesso dos programas de qualidade ISO 9000, Seis Sigma e TQM nas organizações analisadas foram a escassez de recursos financeiros para a correta implantação e o frágil apoio da direção da empresa.This research aims to identify the main trends in the implementation of Quality Programs in Brazilian companies and is based on the most widely known and implemented

  18. Uso do sistema de controle gerencial e desempenho: um estudo em empresas brasileiras sob a perspectiva da resources-based view Management control system use and performance: a study in brazilian companies using resources-based view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Tiomatsu Oyadomari

    2011-08-01

    of the international research that has shown some contradictory results. The research was carried out in 2008, by a survey in a sample of 104 companies from Exame Magazine 1000 Biggest Brazilian Companies. Using the Structural Equation Model, the main results indicate no evidence of negative relationships between the diagnostic use and the organizational competences development, what contradicts Henri's results (2006. It was also identified that the interactive use has positive influences in the competences of Organizational Learning and Market Orientation, and these have positive influences in Performance (measured by self-evaluation. This study contributes to Brazilian research as its subject integrates Management Accounting and Strategy and also for measurement the construct Dynamic Tensions. For the practice, the result is important as it shows that companies should continue to use Management Control for diagnostic, as it helps the organization to correct errors, simultaneously recommending the use of interactive way to activate organizational ompetences.

  19. Indigenous Brazilian Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandra Balbinot

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research seeks to understand to what extent companies in emerging countries, specifically, Brazilian, adopt dominant management practices, the so-called Euro-American practices, possess their one, or show a syncretism between the two. Methods: Mixed research. One phase was to collect data using a survey about cultural dimensions adopted from GLOBE (House 1998 management practices and also from Brazilian academy. Another was to collect data through interviews, which were analyzed in parallel. Results: Of the seven dominant cultural dimensions, indigenous practices influenced two. Another three were influenced by dominant management practices. Two of the local dimensions, even with internationalization, merged practices with Brazilian cultural traits. Even so, the practices derived from Jeitinho diminished relative to the international relations and experience of managers. Conclusions: The paper shows the existence of powerful Brazilian Indigenous Managerial Practices such as personalism and formalism. These practices have great influence on international business negotiations. On the other hand, it also shows that there are still dominant managerial practices specially in the case of more internationalized Brazilian managers

  20. Interaction between ants and fruits of Guapira opposita (Nyctaginaceae) in a Brazilian sandy plain rainforest: ant effects on seeds and seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Luciana; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2004-05-01

    This study examines the dispersal system of Guapira opposita in a tropical sandy rainforest in southeast Brazil. Guapira trees produce small fruits with a high protein content (28.4%) and low lipid content (0.3%), and the plant is primarily dispersed by birds. Mature fruits of G. opposita can fall spontaneously with the pulp intact, or be dropped by birds with bits of pulp attached. In either case, ground-dwelling ants rapidly remove the fruits to their nest (93% after 12 h). The ponerine ants Odontomachus chelifer and Pachycondyla striata are the main seed vectors among the ants, and together account for 56% (20 of 36) of the ant-fruit interactions recorded on the forest floor. Individual workers of O. chelifer and P. striata transport single fruits to their nests. Bits of pulp are fed to larvae and worker nestmates, and intact seeds are discarded outside the nest. Germination success in Guapira is higher for cleaned seeds (pulp removed) than for seeds coated by pulp. Guapira seedlings and juveniles are more frequent close to Odontomachus nests than at sites without such nests. Soil samples from Odontomachus nests had greater penetrability, and higher concentrations of P, K, and Ca than random soil samples. Field experiments suggest that the association between G. opposita seedlings and O. chelifer nests can potentially render the plant some protection against herbivores. Results indicate that fruit displacement by ponerine ants play an important role in the biology of G. opposita seeds and seedlings in the sandy forest, and illustrate the complex nature of the dispersal ecology of tropical tree species.

  1. Disclosure of social information by Brazilian companies according to United Nations indicators of corporate social responsibility Divulgação de informações sociais por empresas brasileiras segundo os indicadores de responsabilidade social corporativa da ONU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Colares Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Several frameworks of social information disclosure have been proposed worldwide to satisfy stakeholders' information needs. In 2008, the United Nations launched a guide with recommendations for corporate responsibility indicators in annual reports based on the Global Reporting Initiative framework and standards of the International Labour Organization, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and International Accounting Standards Board. The objective of the present study was to analyze the disclosure of social information by Brazilian companies of the New Market listing segment traded on the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BOVESPA in accordance with UN indicators of corporate social responsibility. This was an exploratory and qualitative study based on a review of documents and the literature. The findings were interpreted by way of content analysis to determine the predominance of UN indicators disclosed by Brazilian enterprises. The results were compared to those of a 2008 UN study on social information disclosure by 100 large enterprises in the top ten emerging economies in the world. The companies in our study were found to disclose most of the indicators recommended by the UN in harmony with internationally accepted standards. However, more recently introduced non-financial indicators were less frequently reported.Diversas são as iniciativas de instituições nacionais e internacionais no sentido de se chegar a um conteúdo de informações sociais que seja evidenciado pelas empresas e atenda às necessidades dos stakeholders. Em 2008, foi lançado o Guia de Indicadores de Responsabilidade Corporativa em Relatórios Anuais, da Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU, elaborado com base no GRI, nas normas da OIT e da OCDE e alinhado às definições adotadas nas normas do IASB. O presente estudo tem por objetivo principal analisar a divulgação de informações sociais pelas empresas brasileiras do Novo Mercado da Bovespa

  2. Etapas da implementação da educação corporativa e seus impactos em empresas brasileiras: um estudo multicaso Corporate education implementation stages and their impacts on Brazilian companies: a multi-case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique Antunes Vieira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a Educação Corporativa - EC nas organizações brasileiras, como uma forma de aprendizado contínuo, apesar dessa prática ainda estar em fase de amadurecimento no País. O objetivo da pesquisa é avaliar as etapas da implementação do processo da EC através de um estudo multicaso. Foi observado que a implementação da unidade de EC deve levar em consideração a singularidade de cada empresa, com suas características e especificidades. Pode-se concluir que a maioria das empresas desse estudo indicou que a implementação foi realizada após decisão dos dirigentes como a etapa inicial. Mesmo inexistindo uma fórmula capaz de atender às especificações das mais diversas organizações, houve uma sequência lógica para a estruturação e implementação da unidade.This study presents the corporate education (CE in Brazilian organizations as a means of continuous learning, despite the fact that this practice is still under development in the country. The purpose of this research was to analyze the implementation stages of the CE process through a multi-case study. It was possible to observe that the CE unit implementationshould consider the singularities of each company, with its characteristics and specificities. It is possible to conclude that most enterprises in this study indicated that the implementation was carried out after the executives' decision as the first phase. Although there is no formula capable of meeting the specifications of all organizations, there was a logical sequence for the structuring and implementation of the unit.

  3. Observation of TEC perturbation associated with medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance and possible seeding mechanism of atmospheric gravity wave at a Brazilian sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonah, O. F.; Kherani, E. A.; De Paula, E. R.

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we document daytime total electron content (TEC) disturbances associated with medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs), on few chosen geomagnetically quiet days over Southern Hemisphere of Brazilian longitude sector. These disturbances are derived from TEC data obtained using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver networks. From the keograms and cross-correlation maps, the TEC disturbances are identified as the MSTIDs that are propagating equatorward-eastward, having most of their average wavelengths longer in latitude than in longitude direction. These are the important outcomes of the present study which suggest that the daytime MSTIDs over Southern Hemisphere are similar to their counterparts in the Northern Hemisphere. Another important outcome is that the occurrence characteristics of these MSTIDs and that of atmospheric gravity wave (AGW) activities in the thermosphere are found to be similar on day-to-day basis. This suggests a possible connection between them, confirming the widely accepted AGW forcing mechanism for the generation of these daytime MSTIDs. The source of this AGW is investigated using the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES) and Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate satellite data. Finally, we provided evidences that AGWs are generated by convection activities from the tropospheric region.

  4. Processos operacionais e resultados de empresas brasileiras após a certificação ambiental ISO 14001 Operation process and results of Brazilian companies according to the ISO 14001 environmental certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Jesus Avila

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar os resultados operacionais obtidos pelas empresas brasileiras certificadas na Norma ISO 1400. Para alcançar este objetivo, procurou-se identificar os fatores relacionados aos processos de operação e ao desempenho das operações após a certificação ambiental. O método de pesquisa se orientou pela busca de integração entre a análise quantitativa e a análise qualitativa. A análise quantitativa foi baseada no tratamento estatístico de dados atuais resultantes da participação de empresas brasileiras no projeto DEVISO (Developing Countries and ISO 14000. A análise qualitativa, por sua vez, utilizou como mecanismo para coleta de dados a técnica de entrevista pessoal a Gerentes do Sistema de Gestão Ambiental de duas empresas participantes do projeto. A análise quantitativa fundamentou-se na análise fatorial (Análise de Componentes Principais - PCA e na comparação entre médias dos fatores resultantes por meio do teste t de médias emparelhadas. Esta análise possibilitou elaborar uma hierarquia para o desempenho destes fatores quando comparados a um limite máximo. Posteriormente, os fatores identificados foram aprofundados em dois casos. Os fatores identificados para os processos de operação foram: Gerenciamento Ambiental, Fornecedores, Reciclagem e Cooperação. Para o desempenho das operações resultaram os fatores Imagem, Cumprimento de Padrões, Resíduos Tóxicos e Uso Eficiente.The aim of this work was to analyze the operational results achieved for ISO 14001 certificated Brazilian companies. In order to achieve this objective, the factors related to the operation process and the performance of operations according to the certification were identified. The research method integrated qualitative and quantitative analyses. The quantitative step was based on the analysis of the database created by the DEVISO project (Developing Countries and ISO 14000. The qualitative analysis was

  5. brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Mendes Borini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of corporate social responsibility (CSR has not been widely examined in the context of multinationals. This dearth is even greater with respect to subsidiaries, particularly the subject of reverse transfer of practices, that is, the transfer of practices developed in subsidiaries back to the parent company. Because of this theoretical gap, the present article investigates the factors involved on reverse transfer of CSR practices. The research hypotheses test the importance of developing nonlocation-bound capabilities, of integration between subsidiaries and parent and of institutional distance. The data were obtained by a survey of the main foreign subsidiaries in Brazil. All told, we analyzed 150 Brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals, by applying multiple linear regression. The results indicate that the reverse transfer of CSR depends on the development of nonlocation-bound capabilities of the subsidiaries and integration between the parent company and its foreign subsidiaries.

  6. Smart Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagan, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Capturing and leveraging knowledge is an important new management trend that is as yet undefined. Some companies are accounting for their intellectual capital and applying it to the company balance sheets. (JOW)

  7. Planejamento otimizado da produção e logística de empresas produtoras de sementes de milho: um estudo de caso Optimizing production and logistics planning in corn seeds companies: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Ávila Ribeiro Junqueira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Em um trabalho anterior (JUNQUEIRA; MORABITO, 2006 foi apresentado um modelo de otimização linear para auxiliar nas decisões do planejamento tático da produção, estocagem e transporte de sementes de milho, de forma a minimizar custos de produção, logísticos e fiscais, e satisfazer restrições de programação da colheita, capacidade das plantas e demanda dos clientes. O modelo foi testado apenas em situações simplificadas da realidade. No presente trabalho, analisamos a aplicação deste modelo para gerar um planejamento agregado otimizado em um estudo de caso de uma safra completa de uma empresa do setor de sementes de milho. Foram gerados e avaliados diversos cenários por meio deste modelo, considerando, entre outros, os custos fiscais de ICMS e de secagem de sementes, e os resultados obtidos foram comparados com os do método de planejamento utilizado pela empresa. Estes resultados mostram que reduções de custo importantes podem ser obtidas nos planos de produção e logística, quando consideradas as premissas presentes no modelo.An earlier study (JUNQUEIRA; MORABITO, 2006 presented a linear optimization model to support tactical planning decisions in corn seed production, storage and transportation, aimed at minimizing production, logistics and tax costs and meeting restrictions in harvest scheduling, production capacities and client requirements. The model was tested only in simplified real situations. In the present study, this model was applied to generate an optimized aggregate production plan for a case study of the crop of a corn seed producer during a complete season. Using the model, several scenarios were evaluated considering, for example, different ICMS tax and seed drying costs, and the results obtained were compared with the planning method used by the company. These results indicated that costs in aggregate production and logistic plans can be reduced substantially when the model's premises are taken into

  8. Managing and Planning an Event for Case Company X

    OpenAIRE

    Palo, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is written for Case Company X, which is an international and sales-focused accelerator for innovative software companies. The company invests seed capital in their portfolio companies and deliver concrete results for their sales and international growth. In addition, Case Company X organizes events for startup founders. This thesis will discuss how to plan and manage an event for Case Company X. The objective of this thesis is to clarify the process of organizing a successful ...

  9. Contradições gerenciais na disseminação da "cultura corporativa": o caso de uma estatal brasileira Management contradictions on 'corporate culture' dissemination: the case of a Brazilian state-owned company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Rodrigues Leite-da-Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Os que defendem as propostas da "cultura corporativa" vêem o gestor como um agente consensual, capaz de integrar os demais em uma cultura "única". Os que se opõem a essas propostas focam a alienação e a exploração organizacional, instrumentalizada pelo gestor. Neste artigo, propõe-se extrapolar essa visão do gestor como apenas um agente consensual. Para isso, buscou-se evidenciar esses limites, ao confrontar as origens e as críticas dos estudos sobre "cultura corporativa" e destacar aspectos que podem levar o gestor a disseminar a diferença e a ambigüidade. Para embasar a argumentação foi apresentado um estudo de caso em uma regional da Empresa Brasileira de Correios e Telégrafos (ECT. Os dados foram coletados por meio de documentos e entrevistas semi-estruturadas, com 26 atores em diversos níveis gerenciais. O tratamento dos dados baseou-se na análise de conteúdo, buscando-se padrões ou recorrências de palavras, frases, idéias e tópicos de interesse. Concluiu-se que o gestor não pode ser considerado apenas elemento consensual, pois ele dissemina a integração e, também, a diferenciação e a fragmentação, permeado por objetivos e questões pessoais, sociais e organizacionais, não se limitando aos interesses da empresa.The advocates of 'corporate culture' proposals see the manager as an agent of consensus, capable of integrating others in a 'single' culture. Those who oppose such proposals focus on the organizational alienation and exploitation enforced by managers. This article proposes to extrapolate this perspective of the manager simply as an agent of consensus. It points out its limitations, contrasting the origins and criticisms of 'corporate culture' studies and underlining aspects that can lead the manager to disseminate differences and ambiguity. The argument is based on a study of a regional branch of the Brazilian Postal Service (Empresa Brasileira de Correios e Telégrafos - ECT. The data was collected in

  10. Economic Efficiency of Latin American Technology Companies According to Their Capital Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Tarcísio Pedro da; Gonçalves, Michele; Leite, Maurício

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the economic efficiency of Latin American technology companies according to their capital structure. Therefore, we carried out a descriptive study, using documentary and quantitative evidence. The sample included Latin American companies in the technology sector in Thomson’s® database, from 2009 to 2013. The evidence shows that Brazilian companies had higher debt levels from 2009 to 2013. So, it seems that Brazilian companies use more third-party capi...

  11. Nível de convergência dos princípios contábeis brasileiros e norte-americanos às normas do IASB: uma contribuição para a adoção das IFRS por empresas brasileiras The convergence level of the brazilian and american accounting principles with IASB standards: a contribution to brazilian companies' adoption of IFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Alves Oliveira

    2011-08-01

    required the adoption of IFRS by Brazilian companies in CVM Instruction 457/07. Through a descriptive study about their goals and using the technical procedures of information retrieval and classical content analysis, we analyzed the financial statements prepared for the year 2008 in accordance with U.S. GAAP and B.R. GAAP of 20 Brazilian companies listed both on the Stock Exchange of New York (NYSE and the Bolsa de Valores de Sao Paulo (BOVESPA, and calculated the rate of disclosure proposed in the study by Lopes and Rodrigues (2007. The research pointed out that the rates of disclosure calculated for Form 20F were higher than those calculated for the Standard Financial Statements (DFP, confirming a higher degree of convergence between U.S. GAAP and IFRS and suggesting that, due to IFRS adoption, financial statements in BR GAAP tend to change substantially, increasing the level of disclosure. Furthermore, for the sample, the results confirm what was presented in the selected literature about the direct influence of market sector and firm size on information disclosure. For auditors, the fact that global audit companies known as the Big Four audited the statement did not determine the extent of disclosure.

  12. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural

  13. Company analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenster, Per V.; Hussey, David

    This volume looks at the company appraisal as a whole, examining the continuing need to appraise companies as part of the continuing strategy process. Building from a sound basis of theory, the text aims to be practical and to give guidance to senior managers and others involved in the strategy...

  14. A COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF FARMER BASED SEED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    seed company participating in seed multiplication. The principal finding was that farmer based common bean seed production was a profitable enterprise and was less sensitive to price fluctuations. Compared to certified common bean seed production, net profit margins were five times higher for certified common bean ...

  15. Brazilian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Lima Crisóstomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work makes an analysis of the determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of Brazilian firms, as proxied by firm membership of the ISE Index of BM&FBOVESPA. Besides other proposed determinants of CSR present in the literature (firm size, profitability, growth opportunities, the work examines ownership concentration and the persistence on CSR status. Logit regression estimates have been run for a sample of 1649 firm-year observations in the period 2006-2011. The findings show that CSR of Brazilian firms is inversely correlated to its ownership concentration indicating that controlling voting shareholders may not see social concerns as a priority. Besides, firms tend to maintain their present CSR status. The results also indicate that leading CSR firms are larger, face more growth opportunities, and are persistent in their superior CSR situation.

  16. Impact of adopting IFRS standard on the equity cost of brazilian open capital companies / Impacto da adoção do padrão IFRS no custo de capital próprio das empresas de capital aberto no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Confetti Gatsios

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to assess the impact of adopting IFRS standard on the equity cost of Brazilian open capital companies in the period of 2004-2013. Originality/gap/relevance/implications: The adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards aims to increase the quality of accounting information. Studies performed in Europe suggest that, after the adoption of the IFRS standard, there was a reduction in the equity cost of companies due to the reduction of information asymmetry and risk. Key methodological aspects: The equity cost was calculated using the capital asset pricing model (CAPM adapted to the Brazilian case. The empirical strategy was the difference analysis in differences, comparing the results of companies that voluntarily adopted the IFRS with companies that adopted IFRS after the mandatory adoption period. Summary of key results: The results indicate that the adoption of the IFRS standard does not contribute to reduce the equity cost in Brazil. Key considerations/conclusions: Suggesting that the process of adopting the international accounting standard may take more time to impact the equity cost of Brazilian open capital companies, since the impact of IFRS is not related only with the adoption, but also with its use by companies and users. Objetivo: Este trabalho se propõe a avaliar o impacto da adoção do padrão IFRS sobre o custo de capital próprio das empresas de capital aberto no Brasil. Originalidade/Lacuna/Relevância/Implicações: A adoção do padrão International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS apresenta como objetivo o aumento da qualidade das informações contábeis. Estudos realizados para a Europa indicam que após a adoção do padrão IFRS se verificou a redução do custo de capital próprio das empresas devido a redução da assimetria de informação e do risco. Principais aspectos metodológicos: O estudo foi realizado no período de 2004 a 2013. O custo de capital próprio foi calculado

  17. Comparabilidade entre o resultado em BR GAAP e U.S. GAAP: evidências das companhias brasileiras listadas nas bolsas norte-americanas Comparability between BR GAAP and U.S. GAAP results: evidence from Brazilian companies listed on North American stock exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlei Lemes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa avalia a materialidade das diferenças de reconciliação dos lucros divulgados por empresas brasileiras. Dada a inexistência de demonstrações contábeis conforme as IFRS publicadas por empresas brasileiras, a amostra foi composta de empresas que divulgam o resultado, segundo os Br GAAP e os U.S. GAAP, nos Form 20-F arquivados na SEC. Por meio de uma pesquisa exploratória, em função dos seus objetivos, e documental, em consequência da coleta de dados, aplicou-se o Índice de Comparabilidade de Gray (GRAY, 1980 às diferenças evidenciadas por 30 companhias brasileiras nos anos de 2000 a 2005. Os resultados indicam um número representativo de empresas com resultados materialmente não comparáveis, sendo três para uma margem de materialidade de 5%, seis a 10% e, para 15%, somente 21 das 30 empresas apresentaram lucros comparáveis. Analisando as reconciliações de 10 empresas do ano de 2005, o ajuste referente à combinação de empresas foi o que afetou o maior número de empresas e quanto à reavaliação de ativos, caracteristicamente apontada como uma prática que demanda frequentes ajustes aos U.S. GAAP, não foi observada a reconciliação para a maioria das empresas. Sugerem-se estudos adicionais para identificar diferenças específicas para um maior número de empresas e anos.This research assesses the materiality of the reconciliation differences in profits reported by Brazilian companies. Given the non-existence of IFRS compatible accounting statements for Brazilian companies, the sample was composed of enterprises that publish the result according to Br GAAP and U.S. GAAP on the 20-F Form filed at the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC. By means of an exploratory - in function of its objectives - and documentary research - due to the data collection method - Gray's Index of Comparability (Gray, 1980 was applied to the differences evidenced for 30 Brazilian companies between 2000 and 2005. The results

  18. Green Chemistry, Green Engineering and Eco-Innovation Towards a More Sustainable Petrochemical Industry: Determinants of Brazilian Petrochemical Companies´ Engagement in GCE-Based Eco-Innovation Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Freire da Silva (Paulo)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ It is the general wisdom, within the petrochemical industrial sector, that technological changes, for the development of cleaner products, processes and services, is a basic requirement for companies to achieve advanced states of environmental and

  19. The Restrictions to the Improper Use of Liability Company's Administration as a Way of Shareholder's Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luis Nogueira Matias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The brazilian limited company, in line with the principles of the Constitution, is not treated as partners's subject. There is the recognition of outside's interest. New standards are set in the internal relations with the protection of the rights of the minority. The partners can shape the limited company governance, however, the brazilian civil code put cogent norms that limit the abuse of management. In this paper will be analyzed the administration typology; agency conflicts; conflicts of interests between direction and the limited company and the management control. It is verified that the restrictions on brazilian limited company administration provides protection to shareholders.

  20. Environmental management and operational performance in automotive companies in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, C.J.C.; De Sousa Jabbour, A.B.L.; Govindan, Kannan

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to verify the influence of Environmental Management (EM) on Operational Performance (OP) in Brazilian automotive companies, analyzing whether Lean Manufacturing (LM) and Human Resources (HR) interfere in the greening of these companies. Therefore, a conceptual ...

  1. Gestão de processos, indicadores analíticos e impactos sobre o desempenho competitivo em grandes e médias empresas brasileiras dos setores da indústria e de serviços Process management, analytical indicators, and impacts on competitive performance at large and midsized brazilian companies in the industry and services sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bronzo Ladeira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo compila os principais achados de uma pesquisa cujo objetivo foi o de investigar a natureza dos relacionamentos entre os construtos de orientação para processos de negócio (business process orientation - BPO, indicadores analíticos e desempenho competitivo de uma amostra de 368 empresas brasileiras, de grande e médio portes, atuantes em diferentes setores da indústria e de operações de serviços no âmbito da economia brasileira. Por meio de um survey, a pesquisa envolveu o teste de hipóteses e uso de técnicas de estatística bivariada e multivariada. Foram realizados testes para se mensurar a consistência interna das escalas do instrumento de pesquisa, bem como para se avaliar a composição estrutural do modelo, por meio da modelagem de equações estruturais. As escalas e o modelo foram validados. Os resultados apontam a importância estratégica dos fatores de BPO e de indicadores analíticos como preditores do desempenho competitivo das empresas. Por meio da equação estrutural do modelo, esses fatores preditores foram capazes de explicar 66,3% das variações do desempenho das empresas da amostra, sendo igualmente significativos os efeitos diretos (coeficientes de caminho verificados entre os construtos da BPO, indicadores analíticos e desempenho.This article compiles the main findings of a study that aimed to investigate the nature of the relationships between business process orientation (BPO constructs, analytical indicators, and competitive performance from a sample of 368 large and midsized Brazilian companies that are present in different sectors of industry and services operations within the Brazilian economy. By means of a survey, this research involved the use of hypothesis testing and bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Tests were carried out to measure the internal consistency of the research tool scales as well as to assess the model structure using structural equation modeling. Both the

  2. O q de Tobin e o Setor Siderúrgico: um estudo em companhias abertas brasileiras e norte-americanasTobin’s q and Iron and Steel Companies: a study of Brazilian and North-American open companiesEl q de Tobin y el Sector Siderúrgico: un estudio de las compañías abiertas brasileñas y norteamericanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOGUEIRA, Igor Vasconcelos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOModelos de avaliação de investimentos, que empregam medidas financeiras com base no mercado, como o q de Tobin, ainda são incipientes na literatura nacional. Assim, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo analisar o comportamento do q de Tobin para Companhias Siderúrgicas Brasileiras e Norte-americanas, com ações negociadas na BOVESPA e NYSE, apresentando um estudo econométrico sobre alguns de seus principais determinantes macro e microeconômicos no período de 1997 a 2005. O q de Tobin calculado para as empresas brasileiras selecionadas apresentou-se crescente ao longo do período selecionado. Em relação ao q de Tobin para as empresas norte-americanas, verificou-se que este indicador foi menor que 1, demonstrando um desestímulo a novos investimentos. A análise econométrica realizada indicou que, as variáveis econômicas tais como a taxa de juros, a taxa de desemprego e o nível de produção industrial foram fatores de influência determinantes para explicar o comportamento do q de Tobin, tanto para as empresas brasileiras como para as empresas norte-americanas. Conclui-se que este indicador captura informações relevantes dos principais determinantes macro e microeconômicos do setor siderúrgico, destacando o seu potencial para a análise financeira deste setor.ABSTRACTModels for investment evaluation that employ financial measures based on the market such as Tobin's q, are still scarce in the national literature. Therefore, the present work aims to analyze the behavior of Tobin's q for Brazilian and North American iron and steel companies present in the stock market at BOVESPA and NYSE, by presenting an econometric study on some of its key macroeconomic and microeconomic determinants from 1997 to 2005. Tobin's q calculated for selected Brazilian companies revealed to be increasing over the selected period. Regarding Tobin’s q for U.S. companies, it was verified that such indicator was less than 1, thus pointing to a

  3. The Brazilian Postal System In Transformation: Proposals And Changes In Market Regulation And Restructuring Of The Organizational Model Of The Brazilian Post And Telegraph Company (1994-2011) [o Sistema Postal Brasileiro Em Transformação: Propostas E Mudanças Na Regulação Do Mercado E Na Reestruturação Do Modelo Organizacional Da Empresa Brasileira De Correios E Telégrafos (1994-2011)] [el Sistema De Correos De Brasil En Transformación: Las Propuestas Y Los Cambios En La Regulación Del Mercado Y La Reestructuración Del Modelo De Organización De La Empresa Brasileña De Correos Y Telégrafos (1994-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira T.G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to answer the question: what were the proposals and changes in the regulatory mechanisms of the Brazilian postal market and the organizational structure of the Brazilian Post and Telegraph Company (ECT) from 1994 up to 2011? From 1994 up to 2002, the federal government’s proposal, submitted in 1999 by the “New Postal Law”, provided for the creation of the National System of Post, liberalizing the postal market, creating a regulator body and turning ECT in a mixed ec...

  4. Gestão do desenvolvimento de produto em empresas de pequeno e médio porte do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de SP Product development process management in small and medium-sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Toledo

    2010-01-01

    The product development process (PDP, if well-structured and managed, can become a business process that directly influences the companies' competitiveness increase. The PDP in Brazilian SMEs in the agricultural machinery and implement industry Sector (AMI is little known since most publications on product development focuses on the reality of large and multinational companies, which have a quite different structure from SMEs. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and analyze the management maturity profiles of the product development process in small and medium sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector located in the state of São Paulo. Therefore, the addressed actions of PDP improvements in those companies can be undertaken. A survey research was conducted in 40 companies. An in loco interview was applied to the respective individual in-charge of PDP by means of a structured questionnaire. For the data analysis, descriptive statistics and the multivariate cluster analysis techniques were used. The findings indicated that the SMEs in AMIs of the state of Sao Paulo present a heterogeneous structure with respect to PDP management. Three groups of companies were identified in the sample with different maturity PDP profiles: Group I (20% of companies in the sample, Group II (50% of the sample, and Group III (30% of the sample. Differences in the management of PDP were observed, especially among companies of Group I (smallest level of PDP maturity and Group III (highest level of PDP maturity. However, despite the differences in PDP management presented in the groups of companies, according to the literature on PDP management, all groups are in the basic (initial maturity level of PDP. The identification of the maturity level, in which these companies are, can help the determination of activities that link the internal actions to improve the PDP of these companies and the proposal of specific public policies that encourage the

  5. Seed technology training in the year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed quality will remain the centerpiece of successful agricultural programs in the year 2000. As new changes occur in agriculture driven by advancements in biotechnology, seed enhancement technologies, a more diverse seed user clientele, and communication technologies, successful seed companies will require a knowledgeable and informed workforce to assure high seed quality. A new approach to seed technology training is professed that relies on the establishment of a three-institution consortium to achieve this objective. Advantages of the consortium are identified that emphasize the unique strengths of each institution, their geographic advantages representing major climactic/agricultural zones in the world, and differing approaches to seed technology training that are facilitated by increasing ease of global communication. This may be a better way to conduct seed technology training in the year 2000.

  6. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The la...

  7. Potencial invasor de duas cultivares de Melinis minutiflora no cerrado brasileiro - características de sementes e estabelecimento de plântulas Invasion potential of two cultivars of Melinis minutiflora in the brazilian cerrado - seed characteristics and seedling establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Romero Martins

    2009-08-01

    evaluate the invasive potential of two cultivars of Melinis minutiflora. Field and laboratory evaluations showed a seed production of 192 kg/ha (71946 viable seeds/m² and 171 kg/ha (81690 viable seeds/m² and 171 kg/ha for the cultivars Cabelo-de-Negro and Roxo, respectively. Recently collected seeds presented high viability and dormancy. As for colonization, the burial of seeds up to 3 cm of depth did not hinder seedling emergence, but the seeds of both cultivars buried at 4 cm did not emerge. The emergence of seedlings occurred from December to March. However, adverse factors such as shade, inter and intraspecific competition, low soil fertility and water stress did not completely eliminate all of the recently established individuals in the last rainy season. These cultivars of molasses grass showed similar behavior and the factors studied help to partially explain the success of this grass in colonizing natural habitats in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  8. Ajustes aos US-GAAPS: estudo empírico sobre sua relevância para empresas brasileiras com ADRs negociados na bolsa de Nova Iorque Adjustments to US-GAAPS: empirical study on their relevance for brazilian companies with ADR traded on the New York exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Moraes da Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A relevância das informações disponibilizadas ao mercado por empresas brasileiras com American Depositary Recepts (ADRs negociados na Bolsa de Nova Iorque foi avaliada neste trabalho. Essas empresas devem atender à exigência da Securities and Exchange Commission e elaborar suas demonstrações contábeis de acordo com os United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US-GAAP até 30 de junho, anualmente. Diante desse fato, dois conjuntos de informações estão disponíveis, promovendo a base de dados para o estudo da relevância das variáveis lucro líquido e patrimônio líquido para o período entre 1999 e 2003. Após a utilização do modelo desenvolvido por Ohlson (1995 e de seus desdobramentos posteriores, os resultados evidenciam que (1 as informações elaboradas segundo os princípios de contabilidade geralmente aceitos no Brasil são relevantes; (2 as informações em US-GAAP disponibilizadas em junho possuem menor ou igual relevância do que as divulgadas em abril e (3 os ajustes aos US-GAAP efetuados no patrimônio líquido são relevantes para o mercado de capitais brasileiro.This study evaluated the value-relevance of the information disclosed by Brazilian companies with American Depositary Receipts traded on the New York Stock Exchange. Those companies must comply with the requirement of the Securities and Exchange Commission and elaborate their financial statements according to the United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US-GAAP until 30th of June, annually. Thus, two sets of information are available, providing data to evaluate the value-relevance of the variables net income and stockholders’ equity, from 1999 to 2003. After applying the model Ohlson developed in 1995 and its further developments, results indicate that (1 the information elaborated according to the generally accepted accounting principles in Brazil are value-relevant; (2 the relevance of the information in US-GAAP made available

  9. Conservadorismo contábil e timeliness: evidências empíricas nas demonstrações contábeis de empresas Brasileiras com ADRs negociados na bolsa de Nova Iorque Accounting conservatism and timeliness: empirical evidence in financial statements of Brazilian companies with ADRs traded on the New York stock exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sérgio Ribeiro dos Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investiga o nível de utilização do conservadorismo e da oportunidade (timeliness da informação contábil nas demonstrações contábeis de empresas brasileiras com ADRs negociados na Bolsa de Nova Iorque. Essas empresas apresentam suas demonstrações contábeis tanto conforme o modelo contábil brasileiro quanto segundo o norte-americano, atendendo às exigências da Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC. Os dados foram coletados compreendendo o período de 1999 a 2004 e aplicou-se o modelo de Basu (BASU, 1997 para a avaliação da oportunidade e do conservadorismo da informação contábil. Os resultados encontrados indicam que (1 não há diferenças no nível de utilização do conservadorismo e (2 o lucro contábil segundo o modelo brasileiro seria mais oportuno do que o norte-americano. Assim, as evidências contribuem para o atual debate sobre a inserção do Brasil no atual estágio de convergência de demonstrações contábeis.This study investigates the timeliness and the degree of conservatism in fi nancial statements disclosed by Brazilian companies with ADRs traded on the New York Stock Exchange. According to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC, those companies must disclose accounting information according to the Brazilian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (BR GAAP as well as the United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP. The data were collected between 1999 and 2004 and the Basu Model (BASU, 1997 was applied to evaluate earnings timeliness and conservatism. The results are: (1 there is no difference in earnings conservatism and (2 earnings according to the BR GAAP are more timely than those according to the US GAAP. The evidence contributes to the current debate about the role of Brazil in the current stage of the convergence process.

  10. Análise discriminante como preditiva de dificuldades financeiras em empresas brasileiras do mercado acionário = Discriminant analysis as a predictive tool of financial difficulties in brazilian companies in the share market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Aparecido Teixeira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Verificar a situação econômico-financeira de uma empresa pressupõe a análise conjunta de suas demonstrações contábeis, no intuito de prever as condições futuras de gerar resultados e de honrar seus compromissos. O presente artigo tem como objetivo estimar funções discriminantes para os grupos de empresas lucrativas, intermediárias e deficitárias, listadas na BM&FBOVESPA, no período de 2009 a 2011. Os procedimentos metodológicos utilizados caracterizam o estudo como pesquisa descritiva, documental e quantitativa. Os dados utilizados foram coletados do ®banco Economática . As empresas pertencentes ao setor financeiro e de serviços não foram consideradas na análise e aquelas que não apresentaram os dados requeridos foram excluídas, resultando em uma amostra de 255 organizações. ®A análise dos dados foi efetuada com o uso do software SPSS , tendo como variável de reunião os três grupos de empresas e como variáveis explicativas os indicadores econômico-financeiros de liquidez, rentabilidade e estrutura de capital. A análise dos dados permitiu identificar a existência de separação entre os grupos, apontando a Composição do Endividamento como a variável que melhor representa essa separação. Duas funções foram criadas. A primeira delas que segrega as empresas lucrativas das intermediárias, apresentou alta capacidade para demonstrar as diferenças entre os grupos. A segunda função discriminante representou apenas o poder residual para segregação entre as empresas intermediárias e as deficitárias. The objective of this study is to verify the economic-financial situation of some companies. For that, it is required the joint analysis of their financial statements in order to predict future conditions which will generate results and honor their commitments. This paper aims at estimating discriminant functions for groups of profitable, intermediary and lossmaking companies listed on the BM&FBOVESPA within 2009

  11. SAFER - Company Snapshot - SAFER - Company Snapshot

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Company Snapshot is a concise electronic record of company identification, size, commodity information, and safety record, including the safety rating (if any),...

  12. Formulation of a projection model of electric power demand applied to isolated systems in natural development: the case of the brazilian electric company of Rondonia territory; Formulacao de um modelo de projecao de demanda de energia eletrica aplicado a sistemas isolados em desenvolvimento natural: o caso da CERON - Centrais Eletricas de Rondonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, Rosana Aparecida

    2004-07-01

    The Electricity inserts it self more than other services in the economy and in the Brasilian society resulting an increase of market of electrical energy more than that of economy e consequently in the national energy bases. Given the importance of the definition of the demand of electrical energy inside the development process of a region, the objective of this dissertation is to propose a model of forecasting energy demand applied to a small scale utility. With basing on the foundation that the electrical energy demand varies accordingly with the region, social levels and economical conditions and also the activities developed, the method utilized was a definition of a set of representative variables in this context, using the relation between the population an the number of residential consumers; consumption per residential consumer and the consumption structure of the residential segment over the total demand. The results with the application of the model utilizing this philosophy of the technique of modeling scenes, permitted the definition of electrical energy demand for the market of the Brazilian electric company CERON S.A. like a case study. (author)

  13. The effectiveness of the Brazilian customs activity as a conditioning of the partnership and business results among oil and gas companies; A efetividade da atividade aduaneira brasileira como condicionante dos resultados das aliancas e negocios entre empresas de petroleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Helio Fernando R. [Ministerio da Fazenda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Terceiro Conselho de Contribuintes; Pires, Adilson Rodrigues [Contex - Consultoria em Administracao e Comercio Exterior, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alves, Ronaldo J. [Ronaldo Alves e Associados, Consultores em Exploracao e Producao, RJ (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The thriving of the national oil and gas production depends in major part on the effectiveness of the import operations at non-definitive title made under the customs special regime named Special Customs Regime for Export and Import of Goods for Oil and Natural Gas Exploration and Production Activities - REPETRO. This regime has not totally complied with the targets it has been conceived for, that is, to enable the development of the oil and gas industry at the least import costs in a legal stable environment. This regime is a precarious norm, conceived in a hurry, aiming solely at not unveiling the big threat to the forming of partnerships among companies acting in the commerce of import and/or export of equipment for the exploration and production in the Brazilian territory, that is, the intent of the Federal Fiscal Administration to using the import tax, an extra-fiscal tax by its nature, as a mere collecting instrument. This fact becomes evident from a more detailed analysis of certain aspects of the REPETRO normative structure. (author)

  14. Categorias de Riscos Evidenciadas nos Relatórios da Administração de Empresas Brasileiras com ADRsRisk Categories Disclosed in the Administration Reports of Brazilian Companies with ADRsCategorías de Riesgos Constatadas en los Informes de Administración de Empresas Brasileñas con ADRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZONATTO, Vinícius Costa da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO estudo objetiva identificar as categorias de riscos evidenciadas no Relatório da Administração (RA, relativa ao ano de 2007, das empresas brasileiras com emissão de American Depositary Receipt (ADRs. A pesquisa caracteriza-se como descritiva, realizada por meio de análise documental. A amostra compreende 28 empresas brasileiras com emissão de ADRs na Bolsa de Valores de Nova Iorque (EUA. Consideraram-se sete categorias de riscos corporativos, identificadas a partir da metodologia do Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO, 2004: riscos estratégicos, riscos de mercado, riscos de crédito, riscos de liquidez, riscos operacionais, riscos legais e riscos de imagem. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que, em geral, não há uma padronização quanto aos tipos de riscos evidenciados pelas empresas. Ao todo foram identificados 14 tipos de riscos. A categoria predominante na evidenciação foi risco operacional, com 20,72% das observações. Não foi encontrada evidenciação de riscos de imagem nos RA das empresas pesquisadas. Constatou-se que 19 empresas evidenciam algum tipo de risco a que a empresa está exposta, o que representa 67,86% da amostra. Por outro lado, nove empresas (32,14% não evidenciaram nenhum tipo de risco.ABSTRACTThe study aims to find the categories of risks disclosed in the Administration Reports of Brazilian companies with the issuance of ADR's. The research is characterized as descriptive, accomplished through documentary analysis. The sample includes 28 Brazilian companies with the issuance of American Depositary Receipt (ADR's in the Stock Exchange of New York (USA. We have tried to identify the categories of risk, presented by the companies surveyed in the Administration Reports (AR of 2007. Seven categories of corporate risks were considered, identified through COSO (2004 methodology: strategic risks, market risks, credit risks, liquidity risks, operational risks, legal risks

  15. KEY FACTORS IN WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT IN THE BRAZILIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Toshiro Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted in corporate finance regarding long-term investment and financing decisions. However, short-term asset investments play a significant role in the balance sheet of companies. Moreover, financial managers dedicate significantamounts of time and effort to the subject of working capital management, balancing current assets and liabilities. This paper provides insights regarding the key factors of working capital management by exploring the internal variables of a number of companies. This study used data from 2,976 Brazilian public companies from 2001 to 2008, and found that debt level, size and growth rate can affect the working capital management of companies.

  16. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metri, Paulo, E-mail: pmetri@terra.com.br [Clube de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  17. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    ABSTRACT. Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly soap products. The chemical analysis of seed oil was carried out using the methods reported by AOAC (1998), Akpan et al., (2006) and Bassir, (1978) which revealed that it had.

  18. The PETROBRAS and the end of monopoly: a legal vision of the new tendency of the Brazilian oil company; A PETROBRAS e a flexibilizacao do monopolio: visao juridica sobre os novos rumos da empresa petrolifera brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, Camila Gomes; Silva, Julianne Holder da Camara; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos em Direito do Petroleo e Gas Natural

    2008-07-01

    The situation in the oil industry in Brazil has a history that predates the creation of PETROBRAS, dating from approximately end of the nineteenth century, but only with the state economic sector that was spent to develop the full steam, so that Law No. 2.004 / 53 was the real point for the insertion of that product domestically. However after the issue of Constitutional Amendment No 09/95, requiring the creation of a law for the industry itself, from then on PETROBRAS is no longer the only one in the industry, and will act in competition with other private companies. With the promulgation of Law 9.478/97 has been subject to supervision and control by the National Petroleum Agency, Regulatory Agency sector. In this context the present study aims to show how the state was in the national market and its integration within international oil, bringing relevant points as the paid procedure disciplined in Article 22, Section 2 of the law cited, and its position as a leader in offshore production. (author)

  19. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  20. Growing knowledge: an overview of Seed Plant diversity in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela C. Zappi; Filardi,Fabiana L. Ranzato; Leitman,Paula; Vinícius C. Souza; Walter, Bruno M. T.; Pirani,José R.; Morim,Marli P.; Queiroz, Luciano P; Cavalcanti,Taciana B.; Mansano, Vidal F.; Forzza,Rafaela C.; Abreu,Maria C.; Acevedo-Rodríguez, Pedro; Agra,Maria de F.; Almeida Jr.,Eduardo B.

    2016-01-01

    An updated inventory of Brazilian seed plants is presented and offers important insights into the country’s biodiversity. This work started in 2010, with the publication of the Plants and Fungi Catalogue, and has been updated since by more than 430 specialists working online. Brazil is home to 32,086 native Angiosperms and 23 native Gymnosperms, showing an increase of 3% in its species richness in relation to 2010. The Amazon Rainforest is the richest Brazilian biome for Gymnosperms, while th...

  1. The management strategy of energetic companies before new businesses: CESP - a case study; A postura empresarial de empresas energeticas diante de novos negocios: CESP - um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado Junior, Fernando Amaral de Almeida

    1994-12-01

    This thesis focuses the new challenges which the Brazilian electric power companies have been facing towards the new market requirements. Special emphasis is given to: organizational theory; Brazilian electric power industry history; and, comparative analysis of the Brazilian electric power system regulation and legislation. A case study is presented based on the electric power company of Sao Paulo State - Southeast Brazil 60 refs., 21 figs., 37 tabs.

  2. The Corporate Governance of Privately Controlled Brazilian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica C. R. Gorga

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of the corporate governance practices of Brazilian public companies, based primarily on an extensive 2005 survey of 116 companies. We focus on the 88 responding Brazilian private firms which are not majority owned by the state or a foreign company. We identify areas where Brazilian corporate governance is relatively strong and weak. Board independence is an area of weakness: The boards of most Brazilian private firms are comprised entirely or almost entirely of insiders or representatives of the controlling family or group. Many firms have zero independent directors. At the same time, minority shareholders have legal rights to representation on the boards of many firms, and this representation is reasonably common. Financial disclosure lags behind world standards. Only a minority of firms provide a statement of cash flows or consolidated financial statements. However, many provide English language financial statements, and an English language version of their website. Audit committees are uncommon, but many Brazilian firms use an alternate approach to ensuring financial statement accuracy – establishing a fiscal board. A minority of firms provide takeout rights to minority shareholders on a sale of control. Controlling shareholders often use shareholders agreements to ensure control.

  3. A safety culture maturity model for petrochemical companies in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalves Filho, Anastacio Pinto; Andrade,José Célio Silveira; Marinho,Marcia Mara de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 615-624 A framework to measure safety culture maturity in the Brazilian oil and gas companies was formulated based on the model of Hudson (2001). Following a review of the safety culture literature, a questionnaire was designed to measure five aspects of organisational safety indicative of five levels of cultural maturity. The questionnaire was completed by the safety managers of 23 petrochemical companies based in Camacari,Bahia, Brazil and they were...

  4. Equity Market Timing: Testing Using Brazilian IPOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Rossi Jr

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes whether the behavior related to the equity market timing affected the recent IPO wave of Brazilian firms and exerted an impact on companies'capital structure. Using data from january 2004 to december 2007 the paper classifies the months in the sample in hot or cold according the number of IPOs that took place in each month. The paper confirms an oportunistic behavior by the firms that issue a higher volume of stocks in periods classified as hot. The paper also shows that the impact of this behavior on companies` capital structure is very limited. Although there is a reduction in companies` leverage right after the IPO, this returns to its previous level only a few quarters after the IPO.

  5. The carbon footprint of exported Brazilian yellow melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Kroeze, C.; Potting, J.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa de Aragão, A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon footprint of food has become important for producers worldwide as consumers and retail companies increasingly base their purchase decisions on carbon footprint labels. In this context, our objectives is to assess the carbon footprint (CF) of Brazilian yellow melon exported from the Low

  6. Identificação de oportunidades de pesquisa a partir de um levantamento da implantação da produção enxuta em empresas do Brasil e do exterior Identification of research opportunities based on a survey on lean production implementation conducted in Brazilian and foreign companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisio Abreu Saurin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um levantamento do processo de implantação da Produção Enxuta (PE em 47 empresas do Brasil e do exterior. Entre os principais resultados, o levantamento revelou que: os temas de maior interesse em ampliar conhecimentos são a cultura organizacional enxuta e o mapeamento do fluxo de valor; os principais motivos para adotar a PE são a necessidade de melhorar a competitividade e a adequação da PE ao combate de problemas críticos da produção; as principais dificuldades na implantação da PE são a resistência das pessoas e a dificuldade na adaptação de conceitos e práticas; as práticas mais utilizadas são a padronização do trabalho e o gerenciamento visual; a produção puxada é a prática prioritária no momento. Os resultados deste levantamento, aliados a observações realizadas durante visitas em algumas das empresas, permitiram a identificação de necessidades e oportunidades para pesquisas sobre a implantação da PE, as quais são sumarizadas no final do artigo.This paper presents a survey on the lean production (LP implementation process in 47 Brazilian and foreign companies. Among the main results, the survey pointed out that the respondents are mostly interested in learning about lean organizational culture and value stream mapping. The main drivers for adopting LP are improving competitiveness and the fact that LP is adequate to solve critical production problems. People resistance to changes and difficulties to adapt concepts and practices are the main difficulties during LP implementation. The most frequently used practices are work standardization and visual management. Pull production implementation is the practice of highest priority. The results of this survey, along with the observation data collected during visits to some of the investigated companies, permitted the identification of research opportunities on LP implementation, which are summarized at the end of this article.

  7. Brazilian antidoping public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Claudio Bispo de; Rodrigues, Deyvis Nascimento

    2014-07-01

    Doping, used to improve sports performance, is legally prohibited. This paper describes Brazilian regulations, resolutions, and Federal laws addressing the issue of doping and antidoping which were collected in 2012 from official websites. We conclude that Brazilian laws have constrained doping, and have been updated over the years to conform to worldwide legal guidelines. Study limitations are noted.

  8. Analysis of the Brazilian Entrepreneurial Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Inácio Júnior

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the Brazilian entrepreneurial ecosystem in the light of the National System of Entrepreneurship – NSE theory, through the implementation of the Global Entrepreneurship Index methodology – GEI. The study indicates that Brazil has low quality average institutional interaction. However, social context is the main bottleneck in the national entrepreneurial ecosystem. Differences between the performance quality of the institutional framework and social factors promote entrepreneurship low socioeconomic impact. The results of the article show that the Brazilian entrepreneurial ecosystem presents low internationalization of companies, innovation in pro- ducts and processes, formation of human capital and high-growth enterprises. The results of the article provide insights for decision makers on the factors that determine the opening of new businesses.

  9. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  10. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  11. Species diversity, pathogenicity and toxigenicity of Fusarium associated with rice seeds in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium is commonly reported in association with rice seeds in Brazil, but knowledge on the species diversity and toxigenic potential is lacking. Such information is critical because maximum limits for Fusarium mycotoxins were set for Brazilian rice in 2011. Ninety-eight rice seed samples from the ...

  12. Environmental and Social Disclosure Through Social Networks: A Study at Companies Listed in the BM&FBOVESPAIBRX-100

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dante Baiardo Cavalcante Viana Junior

    2016-01-01

    .... Thus, the study investigated the degree of environmental disclosure through social networks, from 45 Brazilian companies with an official account in Twitter and 40 firms in Facebook during 2014...

  13. Analysis Brazilian preference shares: financial liabilities or equity instruments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lucia de Almeida

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian preference shares, in general, except when they present specific features, such as mandatory redemption and cumulative dividends, meet the accounting definition of equity instruments. However, the scientific literature believes that those shares that do not have discretion to avoid the delivery of cash must be classified as financial liabilities. In a context in which remain differences of understanding of their proper accounting treatment, the following question arises: preferred shares of Brazilian companies are being recognized in the financial statements in accordance with the theoretical and normative precepts? Thus, the aim of this study is to verify if the preference shares of Brazilian companies have been recognized in the financial statements for according to the scientific literature and accounting standards. Through content analysis, we analyzed the information of 157 companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA. The results show that 155 companies classify its preference shares as equity instruments and two as financial liabilities. These two companies, as well as 149 of those which qualify as equity instruments, are treating them properly in its accounting. The other six companies should present its preference shares as liabilities, given the absence of discretion to avoid cash delivery, feature present in financial liabilities, unlike equity instruments. It is noticed that, unlike what happens, for instance, in the US market, it is not possible to classify all Brazilian preference shares as a financial liability, since, in Brazil , they are used in different legal format of those widely found in that market. Moreover, almost all of the analyzed shares have essential features for classification as equity instruments. Hence, the importance of analysis of the economic essence of each instrument, thus, enabling the appropriate accounting treatment in the financial statements.

  14. Seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis in plant communities of the Atlantic Forest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brancalion, Pedro Henrique Santin; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    .... This may imply important consequences for biodiversity conservation and restoration. Therefore, we sought to investigate seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis populations growing in plant communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest...

  15. Impact of tropical forage seed development in villages in Thailand and Laos: Research to village farmer production to seed export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed of 6 forage varieties, Mulato II hybrid brachiaria, Cayman hybrid brachiaria, Mombasa guinea, Tanzania guinea, Ubon stylo and Ubon paspalum, are currently being produced by more than 1000 smallholder farmers in villages in northeast Thailand and northern Laos, under contract to Ubon Forage Seeds, Faculty of Agriculture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Thailand. The seed is mainly exported overseas (95% and the remainder is sold within Thailand. Tropical Seeds LLC, a subsidiary of the Mexican seed company, Grupo Papalotla, employs the seed producing and seed research group, Ubon Forage Seeds, to manage seed production, seed sales and export, and to conduct research on new forage species. This paper discusses in detail how the development in villages of a smallholder farmer seed production program has had positive social and economic outcomes for the village seed growers and enabled farmers in other countries to receive high quality forage seeds. The strong emphasis on seed quality, high purity, high vigor and high germination, has had a large impact on tropical pastures in more than 20 tropical countries in Asia, Africa, the Pacific and Central and South America.

  16. Leadership Style and Organizational Performance: a Comparative Description of Two Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Amélia Tomei; Leonardo Riche

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzed leadership styles and organizational performance comparing two small Brazilian family-owned companies using a mixed-method quantitative and qualitative approach. Qualitative data were collected by means of interviews conducted with the respective company leaders about the history of the organization, the role of founders, and company mission, vision, values and organizational strategies. Quantitative data were collected by means of questionnaires applied to subordinates to ...

  17. Physical-chemical characteristics and antioxidant potential of seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ximenia americana popularly known as wild plum grow wildly in Brazilian semiarid region and its fruit were harvested in two maturity stages and evaluated for quality. The experimental design was completely randomized with three treatments (immature, mature pulp and seeds), and treatment effect was evaluated for pulp ...

  18. Validation of the Team Factors Inventory in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Prado Gimenez

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to test the validity and reliability of a Portuguese version of the Team Factors Inventory/TFI derived from the Creative Leadership Model. This inventory measures the propensity of a team towards creative leadership and consists of a paper and pen measure with 37 items on a Likert-type scale. The literature concerning creativity in organizational studies has focused mainly on the contribution the individual makes to innovation and technical change. The model of Creative Leadership, on the other hand, has turned attention to group behaviour and team management. The model has been recently proposed in England and thereare no literature reports on its application in a language other than English. The method involved a review of the literature on creative leadership, backtranslation of the inventory, and data analysis through descriptive statistics, hypotheses testing, factor analysis, and analysis of variance, using as control variables, sex, and type of enterprise. The sample consisted of 115 respondents, with 73 owner-managers of high-tech incubated firms and 42 owner-managers of service firms. Analyses indicated that the translated version Portuguese of the inventory reached satisfactory levels of validity and reliability. This means that the TFI may be applied in a cultural context other than the original.

  19. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE IN A BRAZILIAN FAMILIAR COMPANY: A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTINA LYRA COUTO DE SOUZA

    2006-01-01

    Esta dissertação tem por objetivo avaliar a eficácia da gestão do processo de mudança organizacional de uma empresa familiar brasileira da área de saúde que está passando por uma fase de sucessão e busca de maior profissionalização. Para atingir este objetivo foi realizada uma pesquisa de campo e uma análise qualitativa, comparando os dados levantados com os conceitos identificados na literatura. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevista...

  20. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  1. [Profile of clinical trials enrolling Brazilian children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Jean Mendes de Lucena; Lima, Elisangela da Costa; Land, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot; Ventura, Miriam; Coelho, Helena Lutescia Luna

    2017-06-12

    This study aimed to characterize the clinical trials with medicines enrolling Brazilian children and adolescents, registered in the databases of Clinical Trials and the Brazilian Clinical Trials Network (ReBEC) from 1994 to 2014. Only 462 clinical trials enrolled Brazilian children and adolescents. There was an increase in registrations beginning in 2003, with an important drop in 2011. Among these trials, 35.5% were hosted in Brazil. The international clinical trials were mostly conducted by North American companies. In both cases, multinational industry was the principal source of funding. The clinical trials were predominantly phase III with injectable and solid oral pharmaceutical forms of antiviral drugs. Domestic clinical trials showed wider variation in the pharmaceutical forms and higher percentage of liquid formulations, when compared to the international trials. In addition to heavy external dependence for conducting clinical trials, the study emphasized the challenge for pediatric care in Brazil, which presents epidemiological peculiarities in an environment prone to the use of unlicensed medicines for children.

  2. on oil palm seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    flies' activities caused damage to seeds including rotten kennels and seeds, empty shells and dead developing embryos in transparent polyethylene storage bags. The highest infestation was on 2052 seeds out of a total production of 582,503 germinated seeds in batch number 5 and the lowest was 223 seeds out of ...

  3. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    The foam height of the soap was found to be 2.0 cm which is lower than that of Jatropha oil soap(5.4cm), Sesame oil soap(4.8cm), Cotton seed oil soap(4.5cm) and shea nut soap(4.2cm),t higher than that of Castor oil soap(1.6cm) and Castor glycerine soap(1.4cm). The soap was milk in colour and slightly soluble in distilled ...

  4. Secondary Metabolite Profile, Antioxidant Capacity, and Mosquito Repellent Activity of Bixa orellana from Brazilian Amazon Region

    OpenAIRE

    Annamaria Giorgi; Pietro De Marinis; Giuseppe Granelli; Luca Maria Chiesa; Sara Panseri

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian flora was widely used as source of food and natural remedies to treat various diseases. Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae), also known as annatto, urucù, or achiote, is a symbol for the Amazonian tribes that traditionally use its seeds as coloured ink to paint their bodies for religious ceremonies. The aim of this study was to investigate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profile of B. orellana fresh fruits (in vivo sampled), dried seeds, wood, bark, and leaves analyzed with Headsp...

  5. Biological Assets in Companies in Brazil: Pursuant To CPC 29 and Association with Business Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Martins Macedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of international accounting standards in Brazil has brought about changes in the form of recognition, measurement and disclosure of economic facts of companies. In order to harmonize the accounting standards with the international standard-setting bodies Brazilian approved CPC 29, which establishes the accounting treatment and disclosure of biological assets and agricultural products. The objective of this study was to verify the Brazilian companies with biological assets the level of compliance with the CPC 29 and its association with business features. The study adopted the descriptive approach and examined the consolidated Financial Statements for the year 2013 of Brazilian public companies. In total 19 companies were analyzed showed that biological assets in 2013. The survey results show that the average compliance of companies with CPC 29 is 74.68%. Regarding the statistical analysis, it was observed that the level of compliance of companies have associations with business characteristics such as sector, governance, size, profitability and representativeness of the asset and the company's size has significant interaction with the level of accordingly. Compared to previous studies it was found that there was a significant increase in company compliance level with CPC 29 over time

  6. As Relações entre Governança e Risco nas Companhias Abertas BrasileirasThe Relationships Between Governance and Risk in Brazilian CompaniesLas Relaciones entre Gestión y Riesgo en las Empresas Brasileñas de Capital Abierto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAMEIRA, Valdir de Jesus

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMONesta pesquisa procurou-se estimar a qualidade da governança praticada por uma amostra significativa de companhias abertas brasileiras, por meio de um índice composto por 20 perguntas de respostas binárias, no período entre 2002 e 2006, e estudar as possíveis relações entre esse índice e o risco das companhias abertas brasileiras. Confirmou-se a hipótese inicial de que melhores níveis de governança estão associados a menores riscos. Os resultados conseguidos por meio da aplicação do método das regressões lineares foram confirmados pelos resultados obtidos com o uso do método das equações estruturais, mesmo sendo observada a presença de endogeneidade nesse relacionamento. Desse modo, o artigo contribui para evidenciar de que modo a governança afeta o risco, que é uma variável que afeta diretamente o valor das empresas. Assim, aumenta-se a compressão das relações entre governança e valor. Desse modo, as empresas devem buscar a melhoria de suas práticas de governança para maximizar o valor de seus acionistas e aumentar sua competitividade na atração de recursos que viabilizem suas operações e diminuam o custo desse capital.ABSTRACTThis study evaluated the quality of governance practiced by a significant sample of publicly traded Brazilian companies between 2002 and 2006 and related it to their market risk. An index containing twenty questions with binary answers was used to measure governance quality. Market risk was measured by the betas, the volatility of the shares prices, the idiosyncratic risk and the weighted average cost of capital. The results obtained by the method of linear regressions were confirmed by the results obtained by structural equations. The original hypotheses that better levels of governance are associated with a lower risk were confirmed. The effects of possible endogeneity didn't prejudice the results obtained by linear regressions. The article contributes to show how governance

  7. From health plan companies to international insurance companies: changes in the accumulation regime and repercussions on the healthcare system in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Bahia

    Full Text Available Abstract: The concentration and internationalization of health plan companies in Brazil gave them a clearly financial face. Based on the need to understand the health care industry's capital accumulation patterns, the current study examines health plan companies' expansion strategies through the classification of their supply and demand characteristics by recent historical periods and an analysis of recent shareholding trends in one of the leading corporations in the Brazilian health care industry. The 1960s to 2000s witnessed changes in the scale of demands for health plans and adherence by companies to long-term accumulation strategies. Beginning in the early 21st century, changes in the shareholding structures of the largest Brazilian company, consistent with the financialization of its accumulation regime, resulted in the rapid multiplication of its capital. Deepening segmentation of the health care system in a context marked by the downturn in the national economy challenges the preservation of public subsidies for private health plans.

  8. The Cultural Challenges of Managing Global Project Teams: A Study of Brazilian Multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization of Brazilian companies brings a new reality: the need for implementation of global projects that bring, in turn, the challenge of managing multicultural teams. Since this is a recent phenomenon with little theoretical development, this study sought to understand the relationships between cultural characteristics and management teams of global projects in Brazilian multinationals. To carry this discussion forward, we studied six cases of Brazilian multinational companies, with the aim of deepening the understanding of the management of global teams, involving the planning, deployment, development and management of human resources. Among the projects studied, it was found that there is very little concern with the specific issue of multiculturalism and little inter-cultural incentive to the development of team members, which ends up hindering the construction of a global mindset, important for the Brazilian multinational companies to perform successfully abroad. Faced with this situation, each of the managerial processes mentioned were presented with a number of actions to be undertaken by the project manager in three different dimensions: the project itself, the organization and the global environment. The work contributes, thus, to enable Brazilian multinational companies to manage their global teams in order to maximize the advantages of global teams, such as increased creativity and innovative capacity, but avoid the problems that multiculturalism can bring, ranging from conflicts between people to project failure.

  9. Seed manual: Rural household seed security

    OpenAIRE

    Neuendorf, O. (ed.)

    2004-01-01

    This training manual on Small Scale Seed Production is meant to be used by the individual farmer or farmer group, the intermediary or extension worker, as well as the trainer(s) to train, elaborate, and execute a small scale seed production project. Nine instructional chapters focus on the following topics: introduction to the basic theoretical principles of food production, planning and implementation of seed production, project preparatory phase: training of trainers; small scale seed produ...

  10. A Datacenter Backstage: The Knowledge that Supports the Brazilian Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhau, J.; Assumpcao, M.; Collaço, B.; Bianchi, M.; Pirchiner, M.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, Brazilian seismology never had a clear strategic vision about how its data should be acquired, evaluated, stored and shared. Without a data management plan, data (for any practical purpose) could be lost, resulting in a non-uniform coverage that will reduce any chance of local and international collaboration, i.e., data will never become scientific knowledge. Since 2009, huge efforts from four different institutions are establishing the new permanent Brazilian Seismographic Network (RSBR), mainly with resources from PETROBRAS, the Brazilian Government oil company. Four FDSN sub-networks currently compose RSBR, with a total of 80 permanent stations. BL and BR codes (from BRASIS subnet) with 47 stations maintained by University of Sao Paulo (USP) and University of Brasilia (UnB) respectively; NB code (RSISNE subnet), with 16 stations deployed by University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN); and ON code (RSIS subnet), with 18 stations operated by the National Observatory (ON) in Rio de Janeiro. Most stations transmit data in real-time via satellite or cell-phone links. Each node acquires its own stations locally, and data is real-time shared using SeedLink. Archived data is distributed via ArcLink and/or FDSNWS services. All nodes use the SeisComP3 system for real-time processing and as a levering back-end. Open-source solutions like Seiscomp3 require some homemade tools to be developed, to help solve the most common daily problems of a data management center: local magnitude into the real-time earthquake processor, website plugins, regional earthquake catalog, contribution with ISC catalog, quality-control tools, data request tools, etc. The main data products and community activities include: kml files, data availability plots, request charts, summer school courses, an Open Lab Day and news interviews. Finally, a good effort was made to establish BRASIS sub-network and the whole RSBR as a unified project, that serves as a communication channel between

  11. The Danish East India Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  12. Brazil for Sale? Does Sino-Brazilian Trade or Investment Significantly Influence Brazil’s United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) Voting Pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    procured the immigration of several hundred Chinese colonists. See: James C. Fletcher, and Daniel P. Kidder. Brazil and the Brazilians Portrayed in...Grain Group, a Chinese state company, for example, plans to purchase 100,000 hectares of land in the Brazilian state of Bahia to Produce Soy for the

  13. 76 FR 29744 - Monongahela Power Company, West Penn Power Company, The Potomac Edison Company, PJM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Monongahela Power Company, West Penn Power Company, The Potomac Edison Company, PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 13, 2011, Monongahela Power Company, West Penn Power Company, The Potomac Edison Company (collectively, the Designated...

  14. 75 FR 5075 - Coalinga Cogeneration Company, Kern River Cogeneration Company, Mid-Set Cogeneration Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ...-612-000; ER10-611-000] Coalinga Cogeneration Company, Kern River Cogeneration Company, Mid-Set Cogeneration Company, Salinas River Cogeneration Company, Sargent Canyon Cogeneration Company, Sycamore Cogeneration Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  15. FDI Companies and the Indian Company Law: Regulations vs. Disclosures

    OpenAIRE

    ISID, Foreign Investments Study Team

    2014-01-01

    In India companies with substantial foreign direct investment can register as private companies irrespective of the size of their operation whether in India or abroad. Under the Indian company law private companies can prevent public access to certain critical information on their operations. While many FDI companies got delisted (gone 'private')over the past few years ,indications are that most FDI companies are registered as private companies. The Discussion Note argues for withdrawal of...

  16. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  17. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  18. Seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis in plant communities of the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of seed size and number differences among plant populations growing in contrasting habitats can provide relevant information about ecological strategies that optimize reproductive effort. This may imply important consequences for biodiversity conservation and restoration. Therefore, we sought to investigate seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis populations growing in plant communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Seed dry mass and seed number per bunch were evaluated in 2008 and 2009 in large remnants of the Seasonally Dry Forest, Restinga Forest and Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil, in 20 individuals per site and year. Seed size and seed number varied among forest types, but a seed size-number trade-off was neither observed within nor among populations. Positive association between seed size and number was found in the Atlantic Rainforest, and reduced seed crop was not accompanied by heavier seeds in the Restinga Forest. Seed dry mass declined in 2009 in all three forest types. Compared to seed number in 2008, palms of both the Restinga Forest and the Atlantic Rainforest produced in 2009 higher yields of smaller seeds - evidence of between years seed size-number trade-off -, while the Seasonally Dry Forest population produced a reduced number of smaller seeds. Such a flexible reproductive strategy, involving neutral, positive, and negative associations between seed size and number could enhance the ecological amplitude of this species and their potential to adapt to different environment conditions.

  19. Virtual Company and Modelbank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1996-01-01

    Ansøgning til Socrates programmet vedr. Tematisk netværk inden for området Virtual Company and Modelbank......Ansøgning til Socrates programmet vedr. Tematisk netværk inden for området Virtual Company and Modelbank...

  20. Conclusion: The balanced company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm; Jensen, Inger

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  1. Seed vigor testing: an overview of the past, present and future perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Marcos Filho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of seed vigor has many important implications to the seed industry as a basic monitoring of seed physiological potential during different phases of seed production and a support for strategic decisions regarding the selection of high quality seedlots to meet the consumer demand. The potential attributes of seed vigor as a fundamental physiological seed characteristic and its association with field stand establishment and crop productivity has been worldwide recognized from the 1960s onward. This led to the diversification of research approaches involving the synchronization of different physiological characteristics and events that determine the potential for high performance during seed storage and after sowing. The basic objective of vigor testing is to provide a consistent identification of differences in physiological potential among seedlots of commercial value and this represents a more sensitive parameter than the germination test. There are various procedures to assess seed vigor including those that directly or indirectly evaluate seed metabolic state or identify seed tolerance to specific stress(es. At the same time, in more recent years, new knowledge has come from molecular biology, biotechnology, biophysics and seed and seedling imaging analyses; these approaches has been important complements to traditional seed research.. This text has the purpose to emphasize the role of Brazilian research in seed vigor, whose competence is internationally recognized, and to provide an overview of the evolution of knowledge also attempting to highlight events that contributed to the advancement of research on the subject.

  2. The mortality of companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daepp, Madeleine I G; Hamilton, Marcus J; West, Geoffrey B; Bettencourt, Luís M A

    2015-05-06

    The firm is a fundamental economic unit of contemporary human societies. Studies on the general quantitative and statistical character of firms have produced mixed results regarding their lifespans and mortality. We examine a comprehensive database of more than 25 000 publicly traded North American companies, from 1950 to 2009, to derive the statistics of firm lifespans. Based on detailed survival analysis, we show that the mortality of publicly traded companies manifests an approximately constant hazard rate over long periods of observation. This regularity indicates that mortality rates are independent of a company's age. We show that the typical half-life of a publicly traded company is about a decade, regardless of business sector. Our results shed new light on the dynamics of births and deaths of publicly traded companies and identify some of the necessary ingredients of a general theory of firms.

  3. Striking Features of the New Market Companies Adopting Hedge Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Augusto Toigo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research had as main objective to analyze the corporate and financial governance characteristics that discriminate against groups of companies that adopt hedge accounting in the new market for risk management. In this sense, there was descriptive survey the site of BM&FBOVESPA, conducted through desk review of the financial statements of 31/12/2012, including the explicative notes and management reports, there was also collecting data in reference form and Economatica. The population corresponds as 128 companies of the governance level - new market, and that the reserve sample was random and probabilistic, comprising 88 companies. We used a construct of the CPC 40 that deals with hedge accounting in order to segment the sample companies opting or not hedge accounting. The results of the application of Pearson's correlation and logistic regression with the Hosmer and Lemoshow tests (HLT and Test Omnibus coefficient model (OTMC, have shown that companies with ownership concentration, foreign investors and larger assets are adopting more significantly CPC 40. It follows that Brazilian companies belonging to the new market that adopt the practice of accounting disclosure to demonstrate improvement in risk management of the investments of the shareholders, are large companies with the capital structure composed of foreign investor and representative shareholder wealth.

  4. The Brazilian School Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Ricardo de Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the policy nature of school principal, considering the thoughts of many authors about school administration and the debate about politics, power and burocracy. The study still presents a profile of Brazilian school principals with the data of Basic Education Evaluation System – SAEB, of 2003, specially comparing elements about gender, experience and formation of school principals, and aspects linked with methodology to provide/indicate the school principal and its possible democratic vocation.

  5. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Paprocki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp., followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp. and Polycentropodidae (97 spp., are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region.

  6. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  7. KNOWLEDGE IN LEARNING COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Cristina VASILE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes are the only constant value in the current unpredictable economy. Under these circumstances leaders and employees must manage the external and internal environment and bring profitability for their companies. This paper gives an introductory approach to different perspective over learning companies in international literature. Different theoretical aspects, models and theories are taken into account for having a higher visibility to the complex concept of learning companies from leadership side to multiculturalism as the firm profitability should be the final goal of each economic system. The article concludes that not the process of learning is important but the adaptability to every different environment must be seen as vital.

  8. Valuation of Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lisník

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with valuating telecommunications companies. Six groups operating mainly in the European countries are compared. The comparison is based on financial and techno-economic indicators.These indicators are used to value the company by the DCF method. However, many companies have only a very short history. To value these, classical methods like DCF or real options are not suitable. In this case, methods based on market confrontation seem to be efficient. A further exploration of these methods is also the topic of my graduate studies 

  9. Companies as capital companies and personal companies determination of the term company

    OpenAIRE

    Belovski, Vojo

    2016-01-01

    In this modest work the author, as a professor of commercial law and using the opinions of eminent scholars in this field, will try to answer the question: is the existence of capital companies possible, on one hand, and of personal companies, on the other hand, in their pure form? The laws on business associations of capital should start from the idea that they are not laws for retailers, but laws for companies in which the material for traders, including the material for entr...

  10. Devitalization of Transgenic Seed That Preserves DNA and Protein Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Schafer, Barry W.; Cai, Charles Q.; Embrey, Shawna K.; Herman, Rod A.; Song, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology companies have been asked to provide intact transgenic seed to regulatory agencies as reference materials for evaluating transgene and protein detection methods (PCR and immunoassay). Due to intellectual-property and product-stewardship considerations, submission of devitalized seed prior to regulatory approval is preferable in any given country. Commonly used devitalization procedures, such as heating or autoclaving, degrade the protein and/or DNA rendering the see...

  11. Is Industry-University Interaction Promoting Innovation in the Brazilian Pharmaceutical Industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranhos, Julia; Hasenclever, Lia

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses industry-university interaction and its characteristics in the Brazilian pharmaceutical system of innovation, taking account of the relevance of company strategies, the approach of the universities and the actions of government. By analysing primary and secondary data the authors show that, for as long as corporate investment…

  12. 78 FR 11638 - Michigan Consolidated Gas Company, DTE Gas Company, DTE Gas Company; Notice of Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Michigan Consolidated Gas Company, DTE Gas Company, DTE Gas Company; Notice... Docket Nos. PR13-29-000, and PR13-30-000 (not consolidated), Michigan Consolidated Gas Company (MichCon) and DTE Gas Company (DTE Gas) filed to institute a name change to both itself from MichCon to DTE Gas...

  13. Bull Moose Tube Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Bull Moose Tube Company, a business located at 1819 Clarkson Road, Chesterfield, MO, 63017, for alleged violations at the facility located at 406 East Industrial Drive,

  14. CSR in TSL companies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joanna DYCZKOWSKA

    2015-01-01

    .... The purpose of this article is to present the activities in the area of the eco-friendly CSR aspect in the activities of TSL companies taking into consideration particularly logistic operators...

  15. Company profile: Athersys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bokkelen, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Athersys (Nasdaq: ATHX) is a biopharmaceutical company engaged in the discovery and development of novel therapies designed to treat significant unmet medical needs. The company is heavily focused on the regenerative medicine area, with multiple clinical and preclinical stage programs. The most advanced programs at the company are focused on the development of MultiStem®, a clinical stage allogeneic stem cell therapy that has demonstrated potential for treating a range of conditions and is believed to have widespread application in the field of regenerative medicine. The company has internal programs applying MultiStem across multiple therapeutic areas including cardiovascular, neurological, immune dysfunction and other disease areas, and partnered programs with Pfizer (applying MultiStem to treat inflammatory bowel disease) and Angiotech Pharmaceuticals (acute myocardial infarction). Athersys has a broad network of collaborative relationships with leading research and clinical institutions and is committed to developing a pipeline of novel 'best-in-class' medicines.

  16. Schildberg Construction Company, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Schildberg Construction Company, Inc. for alleged violations at its locations at 1605 218th Avenue, Osceola, IA 50213 and 34466 Elkhorn Trail, Graham, MO 64455.

  17. Hawaii Macadamia Nut Company

    OpenAIRE

    Tompson, George H.; Verreault, Dan; Holly B Tompson

    2009-01-01

    Owners of the Hawaii Macadamia Nut Company (HMNC) are facing an expansion opportunity. A land owner has property available that would enable the HMNC to expand its acreage and revenue by about 20%. To fully consider this opportunity the owners must decide 1) whether the expansion is strategically and financially viable, 2) how to raise capital to finance the expansion, and 3) whether they have the skills to manage the company's growth during expansion. This is a case study describing a real c...

  18. The evolution of seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkies, Ada; Graeber, Kai; Knight, Charles; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    The evolution of the seed represents a remarkable life-history transition for photosynthetic organisms. Here, we review the recent literature and historical understanding of how and why seeds evolved. Answering the 'how' question involves a detailed understanding of the developmental morphology and anatomy of seeds, as well as the genetic programs that determine seed size. We complement this with a special emphasis on the evolution of dormancy, the characteristic of seeds that allows for long 'distance' time travel. Answering the 'why' question involves proposed hypotheses of how natural selection has operated to favor the seed life-history phenomenon. The recent flurry of research describing the comparative biology of seeds is discussed. The review will be divided into sections dealing with: (1) the development and anatomy of seeds; (2) the endosperm; (3) dormancy; (4) early seed-like structures and the transition to seeds; and (5) the evolution of seed size (mass). In many cases, a special distinction is made between angiosperm and gymnosperm seeds. Finally, we make some recommendations for future research in seed biology.

  19. Independent environmental audit at COPENE (Petrochemical Company of Northeast, Brazil): first results of a partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu Pereira, Vera L. de [Companhia Petroquimica do Nordeste (COPENE), Camacari, BA (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Ambiental

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents the first experiences and results in the implementation of a pioneer model in environmental monitoring of a Brazilian companies consortium, for wastewater and groundwater monitoring. Some practical results, such as the flow reduction in the organic wastewaters and organic load in the final effluents, were obtained in the very first year of activities. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Análise da complexidade, estratégias e aprendizagem em projetos de melhoria contínua: estudos de caso em empresas brasileiras Analysis of complexity, strategies, and learning organization in continuous improvement processes: case studies in brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carlos Oprime

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar projetos de melhoria contínua desenvolvidos por empresas industriais brasileiras com base na abordagem/programa da Manutenção Produtiva Total (Total Productive Maintenance, TPM e da Qualidade Total (Total Quality Management, TQM. As variáveis estudadas nas análises dos projetos foram as seguintes: i complexidade dos projetos; ii seus objetivos específicos; iii as estratégias competitivas relacionadas; iv o aprendizado organizacional obtido; e v as ferramentas e os principais pilares do TPM implementados. Selecionou-se para estudo projetos considerados de sucesso por suas empresas. Ao todo, analisaram-se 42 projetos de 12 diferentes empresas que representaram diversos segmentos industriais do Brasil. Os resultados indicaram correspondência entre a natureza do projeto, em termos da sua complexidade e estrutura organizacional, com a estratégia competitiva adotada.This paper analyses the major goals and results of TPM and TQM processes in companies that adopt these approaches. The main variables considered in this study were: i complexity of the projects developed by the companies; ii projects´ specific goals iii relationship between the projects and the company's strategy; iv relationship between projects and continuous improvement and organizational learning; v tools and TPM concepts that support the projects. A descriptive research was carried out using field research strategies. Forty-two processes adopted by 12 companies were analyzed in this study. The processes implemented were considered successful by the companies that adopt them and by outside specialists. The results indicated close relationship between the project`s nature (its complexity and team structure and the company`s strategy, project goals and organizational learning.

  1. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds (crop...

  2. Efficiency of seed production in southern pine seed orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Bramlett

    1977-01-01

    Seed production in southern pine seed orchards can be evaluated by estimating the efficiency of four separate stages of cone, seed, and seedling development. Calculated values are: cone efficiency (CE), the ratio of mature cones to the initial flower crop; seed efficiency (SE), the ratio of filled seeds per cone to the seed potential; extraction efficiency (EE), the...

  3. Structure and genetic diversity of natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvares-Carvalho, S V; Duarte, J F; Santos, T C; Santos, R M; Silva-Mann, R; Carvalho, D

    2016-06-17

    In the face of a possible loss of genetic diversity in plants due the environmental changes, actions to ensure the genetic variability are an urgent necessity. The extraction of Brazilian pepper fruits is a cause of concern because it results in the lack of seeds in soil, hindering its distribution in space and time. It is important to address this concern and explore the species, used by riparian communities and agro-factories without considering the need for keeping the seeds for natural seed banks and for species sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure and the genetic diversity in natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi). Twenty-two alleles in 223 individuals were identified from eight forest remnants located in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, and Sergipe. All populations presented loci in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviation. Four populations presented six combinations of loci in linkage disequilibrium. Six exclusive alleles were detected in four populations. Analysis of molecular variance showed the absence of diversity between regions and that between the populations (GST) was 41%. Genetic diversity was structured in seven clusters (ΔK7). Brazilian pepper populations were not structured in a pattern of isolation by distance and present genetic bottleneck. The populations São Mateus, Canastra, Barbacena, and Ilha das Flores were identified as management units and may support conservation projects, ecological restoration and in implementation of management plans for Brazilian pepper in the State of Sergipe.

  4. Novi Sad wheat cultivars and their seed production in the period 1970-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Denčić Srbislav; Mladenov Novica; Kobiljski Borislav; Štatkić Slaviša

    2011-01-01

    Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad started a large-scale seed production of its wheat cultivars in1971. This activity was done in cooperation with a large number of seed companies from the former Yugoslavia and later on from Serbia. A total volume of production of all seed categories for the period from 1971 to 2010 was 3,790,712 tons. On average for this period, the annual production of certified seed was 94,768 t. The largest amount of seed of Novi Sad wheat cultivars was pl...

  5. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chia seeds; Wellness - Chia seeds References Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. What are chia seeds? Updated February 5, 2014. www.eatright.org/resource/food/vitamins-and-supplements/nutrient-rich-foods/what-are-chia-seeds . Accessed ...

  6. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seeds, which are by-products of the wine industry. Grape seed extract is available in capsules and ... take anticoagulants (blood thinners), such as warfarin or aspirin. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care ...

  7. Seed dispersal in fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, Beth; van Diggelen, Rudy; Jensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and

  8. Further notes on Brazilian Conidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, van J.-J.; Tursch, B.; Kempf, M.

    1971-01-01

    Since the publication of a survey of brazilian Conidae (Van Moll et al., 1967) new extensive dredgings effected by one of us (M.K.) along considerable portions of the Brazilian coast have brought a rich material allowing us to add to the previous work and to correct certain opinions therein

  9. Predispersal infestation of Vochysia haenkeana seeds by Lius conicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Letícia Oliveira Lourenço

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The deficient development of fertile seeds of native forest plant species in Brazil limits the reproduction of these plants in various conditions. Among the limiting biotic factors in quality and quantity of the forest seeds, borer insects are quite prominent, before and after their dispersion. This study reports for the first time a host of the buprestid beetle Lius conicus (Gory & Laporte, 1840. The larval development of L. conicus takes place in the seed capsules of Vochysia haenkeana Mart. (Vochysiaceae, a typical tree species in the Brazilian cerrado biome. In two regions of the cerrado in Goiás State, Brazil, almost ripe fruits of V. haenkeana were collected directly from the plants. After natural drying, and fruit and seed processing in laboratory, damage caused by the L. conicus larvae was quantified and qualified. Bigger fruits were preferred as hosts. Fruits developing on the eastern side of the plant were most frequently occupied by L. conicus. Seed lots of bigger fruits showed damage up to 37.5% from the infestation by L. conicus larvae. There was only one larva per fruit, which damaged all the seeds of the capsule (three or four and generally consumed around 26% of the seed dry mass.

  10. The superefficient company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, M

    2001-09-01

    Most companies do a great job promoting efficiency within their own walls, streamlining internal processes wherever possible. But they have less success coordinating cross-company business interactions. When data pass between companies, inconsistencies, errors, and misunderstandings routinely arise, leading to wasted work--for instance, the same sales, order entry, and customer data may be entered repeatedly into different systems. Typically, scores of employees at each company manage these cumbersome interactions. The costs of such inefficiencies are very real and very large. In this article, Michael Hammer outlines the activities and goals used in streamlining cross-company processes. He breaks down the approach into four stages: scoping--identifying the business process for redesign and selecting a partner; organizing--establishing a joint committee to oversee the redesign and convening a design team to implement it; redesigning--taking apart and reassembling the process, with performance goals in mind; and implementing--rolling out the new process and communicating it across the collaborating companies. The author describes how several companies have streamlined their supply-chain and product development processes. Plastics compounder Geon integrated its forecasting and fulfillment processes with those of its main supplier after watching inventories, working capital, and shipping times creep up. General Mills coordinated the delivery of its yogurt with Land O'Lakes; butter and yogurt travel cost effectively in the same trucks to the same stores. Hammer says this new kind of collaboration promises to change the traditional vocabulary of corporate relationships. What if you and I sell different products to the same customer? We're not competitors, but what are we? In the past, we didn't care. Now, we should, the author says.

  11. (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lenovo

    2013-08-19

    Aug 19, 2013 ... Key words: Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), Apiaceae, seed, fatty acids composition, petroselinic acid, maturation. ... Harvest dates, days after flowering, fruit colour and state of maturity, relative moisture and oil contents of cumin seeds ..... composition of cactus pear seed compared with cotton and grape.

  12. Needs of Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The "Needs of Seeds" formative assessment probe can be used to find out whether students recognize that seeds have needs both similar to and different from plants and other living organisms (Keeley, Eberle, and Tugel 2007). The probe reveals whether students overgeneralize the needs of seeds by assuming they have the same needs as the adult plants…

  13. Seed Proteomics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteomic analysis of seeds encounters some specific problems that do not impinge on analyses of other plant cells, tissues, or organs. There are anatomic considerations. Seeds comprise the seed coat, the storage organ(s), and the embryonic axis. Are these to be studied individually or as a compo...

  14. Seed development and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be

  15. Seeds to survive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds are important for man, either as propagation material of crops or directly for the production of foods, fodder and drinks. The natural function of seeds is dispersal of its genes to successive generations. Survival mechanisms seed have evolved sometimes interfere with those preferred by

  16. Seed-predator satiation and Janzen-Connell effects vary with spatial scales for seed-feeding insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhishu; Mi, Xiangcheng; Holyoak, Marcel; Xie, Wenhua; Cao, Ke; Yang, Xifu; Huang, Xiaoqun; Krebs, Charles J

    2017-01-01

    The Janzen-Connell model predicts that common species suffer high seed predation from specialized natural enemies as a function of distance from parent trees, and consequently as a function of conspecific density, whereas the predator satiation hypothesis predicts that seed attack is reduced due to predator satiation at high seed densities. Pre-dispersal predation by insects was studied while seeds are still on parent trees, which represents a frequently overlooked stage in which seed predation occurs. Reproductive tree density and seed production were investigated from ten Quercus serrata populations located in south-west China, quantifying density-dependent pre-dispersal seed predation over two years by three insect groups. Acorn infestation was nearly twice as high in the low-seed year as that in the high-seed year, with considerable spatio-temporal variation in the direction and magnitude of density-dependent pre-dispersal seed predation evident. Across whole populations of trees, a high density of reproductive trees caused predator satiation and reduced insect attack in the high-seed year. Within individual trees, and consistent with the Janzen-Connell model, overall insect seed predation was positively correlated with seed production in the low-seed year. In addition, there was variation among insect taxa, with positive density-dependent seed predation by Curculio weevils in the high-seed year and moths in the low-seed year, but apparent density independence by Cyllorhynchites weevils in both years. The overall trend of negative density-dependent, pre-dispersal seed predation suggests that predator satiation limited the occurrence of Janzen-Connell effects across Q. serrata populations. Such effects may have large impacts on plant population dynamics and tree diversity, depending on the extent to which they are reduced by counteracting positive density-dependent predation for seeds on individual trees and other factors affecting successful recruitment. © The

  17. Functional redundancy and complementarities of seed dispersal by the last neotropical megafrugivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael S Bueno

    Full Text Available Functional redundancy has been debated largely in ecology and conservation, yet we lack detailed empirical studies on the roles of functionally similar species in ecosystem function. Large bodied frugivores may disperse similar plant species and have strong impact on plant recruitment in tropical forests. The two largest frugivores in the neotropics, tapirs (Tapirus terrestris and muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides are potential candidates for functional redundancy on seed dispersal effectiveness. Here we provide a comparison of the quantitative, qualitative and spatial effects on seed dispersal by these megafrugivores in a continuous Brazilian Atlantic forest.We found a low overlap of plant species dispersed by both muriquis and tapirs. A group of 35 muriquis occupied an area of 850 ha and dispersed 5 times more plant species, and 13 times more seeds than 22 tapirs living in the same area. Muriquis dispersed 2.4 times more seeds in any random position than tapirs. This can be explained mainly because seed deposition by muriquis leaves less empty space than tapirs. However, tapirs are able to disperse larger seeds than muriquis and move them into sites not reached by primates, such as large forest gaps, open areas and fragments nearby. Based on published information we found 302 plant species that are dispersed by at least one of these megafrugivores in the Brazilian Atlantic forest.Our study showed that both megafrugivores play complementary rather than redundant roles as seed dispersers. Although tapirs disperse fewer seeds and species than muriquis, they disperse larger-seeded species and in places not used by primates. The selective extinction of these megafrugivores will change the spatial seed rain they generate and may have negative effects on the recruitment of several plant species, particularly those with large seeds that have muriquis and tapirs as the last living seed dispersers.

  18. Analysis of Conservatism and Persistence of Financial Results of the Brazilian Financial Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Paulo de Arruda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory environment for public and private companies are significant differences in earnings quality between public and private companies (BALL; SHIVAKUMAR, 2005. However, the literature has suggested that the process of accounting measurement of financial institutions differ substantially from other companies (PEASNELL et al, 2000. Nevertheless,previous studies did not have systematically analyzed the informational differences between the public and private financial institutions. The aim of this study was to analyze the behavior of levels of conservatism and persistence of financial results of the public and private Brazilian financial institutions. To meet the objective of this work was realize an analysis of the data based on the models of conservatism proposed by Ball and Shivakumar (2005 and persistence described by Dechow and Schrand (2004, estimated using panel data. The sample was composed by Brazilian financial institutions public and private in the period between 1996 and 2013. The results of this research identified that none of the types of financial institutions (public and private presents timely losses during the period-analyzed recognition. Regarding the persistence of financial results, the analyses indicate that the private financial institutions have greater persistence in their accounting results that the public institutions, resulting in greater predictability of future profits on present profits. These results suggest that the financial results of Brazilian financial institutions do not exhibit conservative behavior, moreover, the profits of private companies are more persistent than the public companies.

  19. Effectiveness of business strategies in Brazilian textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César de Sousa Batista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research analyses how the interaction between strategy capabilities, strategy types, strategy formulation quality and implementation capability affect organizational performance in Brazilian textiles companies. This article proposes and tests a conceptual framework, using a structural equation modeling of a set of 211 valid questionnaires on Brazilian textiles firms. The results support links between focus strategy and marketing capabilities, and between cost leadership strategy and management capabilities. However, the relationship between technologic capabilities and differentiation strategy was not statistically significant. The existence of an inter-relationship between generic strategies of focus, cost leadership and differentiation indicates the use of combined strategies. Concerning the firms' financial performance, the results show that management capability and market performance have a statistically significant relationship with financial performance.

  20. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  1. Captive insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of the business world is changing; and now, more than ever, business owners are recognizing that life is filled with risks: known risk, calculated risk, and unexpected risk. Every day, businesses thrive or fail based on understanding the risk of owning and operating their business, and business owners are recognizing that there are alternative risk financing mechanisms other than simply taking out a basket of standard coverage as recommended by your friendly neighborhood agent. A captive insurance company is an insurance company established to provide a broad range of risk management capabilities to affiliated companies. The captive is owned by the business owner and can provide insurance to the business for potential future losses, whether or not the losses are already covered by a commercial carrier or are "self-insured." The premiums paid by your business are tax deductible. Meanwhile, the premiums that your captive collects are tax-free up to $1.2 million annually.

  2. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  3. Companies as "Cyborgs"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Grahame

    This paper investigates the legal and commercial consequences of companies being considered as both an entity and a person in law – hence the notion of ‘cyborg’ in its title. It concentrates upon legal personhood and relates this particular feature to the issue of corporate citizenship. In turn...... corporate citizenship provides a link to considering the political role of companies, since in claiming citizenship they are implicitly at least claiming a particular set of political rights consequent upon that status, and announcing a particular politically constrained context associated...... with their operational characteristics. But what would be involved in granting companies full citizenship rights in the image of natural person citizenship? The paper explores this issue in connection to the differences between corporate social responsibility and an earlier idea of the socially responsible corporation...

  4. Company cases Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2005-01-01

    to technology but also from more focus on human beings and business.It has been important that CSC has respected Nordic values in worklife and that the CSC philosophy has been important and not so different from DC. The other case is from pharmaceutical industry in which Norwegian Nycomed buys DAK......The Danish part of the publication describes two Danish cases with foreign companies taking over Danish companies. The first case is from software industry where Datacentralen (DC) was taken over by American company Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) in 1986. DC delivered IT - solutions...... for government sector in Denmark. DC employed 1,000 persons and had a market share on 75 % in the market of large government institutions when it was taken over. Danish government wanted to sell DC in order to get more intensity in competion in IT - markets in general and especially in the market for public...

  5. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE AT BRAZILIAN INDUSTRIAL MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Quinello

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The industrial maintenance activities, generally, were considered as more one problem to the organizations. This image needs to change in Brazil , because this sector is part of the companies supply chain, is responsible to maintain equipments reliability and availability and it is a generator of the companies costs. This responsibility increases in a country where the productive capacity is in the limit, demanding extra efforts and where increasing pressures for reductions of the costs and restrictions techniques and human beings are increasing, ask to paradigms changes. The present study had for purpose to identify main canals of captation of the information used by the Brazilian industrial maintenance professionals, demonstrating systematic use of Competitive Intelligence can bring technological advance and profit of competitive advantage. For this, a qualitative research was made, using as research instruments the Delphi method, interviews with professionals and an experimental delineation C.I- Competitive Intelligence in a department-pilot (automotive sector.The results had shown to the use of formal and informal sources in different frequencies of access and the fragility in these departments in the not-systematic use of C.I, harming the above-mentioned challenges.

  6. RESTRUCTURING COMPANIES UNDER CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezi Aviram SHAYB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nobody is planning to fail, but many companies are failing because of lack of planning. Real business experience showed during the years that crisis can be prevented, avoided or limited. If detected in time, the risks associated with the crisis can be mitigated and the effects can be diminished, with the condition that the actions required are done fast, in a sharp and accurate manner. When it comes, a crisis brings an intense level of pressure and under these conditions there is no time or room for mistakes. Delays, losing focus and lack of planning will bring a company one step away from failure. The right way to deal with crisis, if required measures are not done in time, is to minimize the losses and reposition in the best way possible. Analysing the success stories of some of the biggest and strongest companies in the world, led to an important conclusion: the majority of these companies were in the situation to face huge crises which threatened their ability to survive in certain moments, on their way to success. With the right planning and by setting a proper organisational structure, the negative aspects of the crisis can be turned into benefits and opportunities for the company. The most critical challenge for management is to assess the level of exposure to risk of the company and identify the key points to focus on in order to overcome the crisis and create value. In order to set up a strong plan in dealing with crisis, a business organisation needs reliable, efficient and effective tools and this is what this article is all about.

  7. Determinants of Board Interlocking in the Brazilian Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ribeiro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this article was to identify the main determinants of Board Interlocking in the Brazilian capital market. As the theoretical structure, the Agency theory and Corporate Governance, the Resource Dependence theory and the Board of Administrators and the Characteristics of Board Interlocking. The sample consists of 58 Brazilian companies that participate in the Bovespa Index (Ibovespa. An empirical analytic study was undertaken. With regard to the objectives, it is characterized as exploratory and, with regard to the procedures, a documentary research was undertaken. The data on the Boards of Administrators were collected from the Reference Forms available on the website of the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA. The results found demonstrate the generalized presence of Board Interlocking in these companies, normally associated with four factors: (1 economic group formation; (2 governmental control; (3 formation of pension funds; and (4 presence of professionals with acknowledged market experience. The results also suggest that the first three factors give rise to long-lasting links and that these connections are hard to break. On the other hand, the links established through professionals with market experience tend to be more unstable because the presence of these professionals is highly demanded to serve on the board of different companies.

  8. Physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced in the state of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Frandoloso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean production accounts for approximately 43% of Brazil’s grain produce, worth over 81 million tons for the 2012- 2013 cropping season. The use of quality seeds is essential for a high-yield agriculture, since low quality seeds compromise plant standing and increase production costs due to reseeding. This will in turn reduce yields through delays on the establishment dates. Seed quality is affected by relative humidity levels, mechanical damage during harvest and processing, thermal damage during the drying process and the environmental conditions during storage that could foster insect and fungi damage. The climate in the state of Santa Catarina favors soybean seed production, and seed companies in general work with high levels of technology. This work is aimed at characterizing the physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced by different companies at different locations throughout the state of Santa Catarina (municipalities of Xanxerê, Abelardo Luz, Campos Novos and Canoinhas. The physical purity, moisture level, sanitary quality and mechanical damage of soybean seeds were studied at three stages, i.e. reception at the seed processing unit, at the end of the processing process and before being marketed. Results pointed out at mechanical injury and cultivar mixture as the main issues concerning seed lot quality, and that soybean seeds produced in Santa Catarina show pathogen contamination, which emphasizes the need for seed treatment.

  9. Outsourcing: Analysis of Slovenian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Klemen Kavcic

    2007-01-01

    Outsourcing can mean an all-important strategic decision for a company and also for the company which accepts orders from an outsourcing partner. The research results in Slovenia have confirmed that outsourcing has become standard practice in the majority of Slovenian enterprises. Companies most often decide to outsource less important activities at the company level. In the majority of Slovenian companies analysed the management focuses merely on short-term benefits of outsourcing without co...

  10. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  11. Parallel Careers and their Consequences for Companies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Candida Baumer Azevedo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the relevance of the need to manage parallel careers to attract and retain people in organizations, this paper provides insight into this phenomenon from an organizational perspective. The parallel career concept, introduced by Alboher (2007 and recently addressed by Schuiling (2012, has previously been examined only from the perspective of the parallel career holder (PC holder. The paper provides insight from both individual and organizational perspectives on the phenomenon of parallel careers and considers how it can function as an important tool for attracting and retaining people by contributing to human development. This paper employs a qualitative approach that includes 30 semi-structured one-on-one interviews. The organizational perspective arises from the 15 interviews with human resources (HR executives from different companies. The individual viewpoint originates from the interviews with 15 executives who are also PC holders. An inductive content analysis approach was used to examine Brazilian companies and the Brazilian office of multinationals. Companies that are concerned about having the best talent on their teams can benefit from a deeper understanding of parallel careers, which can be used to attract, develop, and retain talent. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

  12. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  13. Brazilian Space Weather Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Antonio; Takahashi, Hisao; de Paula, Eurico; Sawant, Hanumant; de Campos Velho, Haroldo; Vitorello, Icaro; Costa, Joaquim; Souza, Jonas; Cecatto, José; Mendes, Odim; Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter Demétrio

    A space weather program is being initiated at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) to study events from their initiation on the sun to their impacts on the earth, including their effects on space-based and ground-based technological systems. The program is built on existing capabilities at INPE, which include scientists with a long tradition and excellence in the observation, analysis and modeling of solar and solar-terrestrial phenomena and an array of geophysical instruments that spans all over the Brazilian territory from the north to south of the magnetic dip equator. Available sensors include solar radio frequency receivers and telescopes, optical instruments and solar imagers, GNSS receivers, ionosondes, radars, allsky imagers, magnetometers and cosmic ray detectors. In the equatorial region, ionosphere and thermosphere constitute a coupled system with electrodynamical and plasma physical processes being responsible for a variety of peculiar phenomena. The most important of them are the equatorial electrojet current system and its instabilities, the equatorial ionization anomaly, and the plasma instabilities/irregularities of the night-time ionosphere (associated with the plasma bubble events). In addition, space weather events modify the equatorial ionosphere in a complex and up to now unpredictable manner. Consequently, a main focus of the program will be on monitoring the low, middle and upper atmosphere phenomena and developing a predictive model of the equatorial ionosphere through data assimilation, that could help to mitigate against the deleterious effects on radio communications and navigation systems. The technological, economic and social importance of such activities was recognized by the Brazilian government and a proposal for funding was approved for the period 2008-2011. New ground instruments will be installed during this period allowing us to extend our current capability to provide space weather observations, accurate

  14. Drying on the germination and vigor of Crataeva tapia L. seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Alves,Edna Ursulino; Santos-Moura, Sueli da Silva; Moura, Mácio Farias de; Silva, Rosemere dos Santos; Galindo, Evio Alves

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Crataeva tapia L. is a fruit native to the Brazilian savanna, the Caatinga, and is used in the production of soft drinks and other beverages. Given the importance of this species and the lack of knowledge about its seeds, this research aimed to evaluate the physiological quality of C. tapia L. seeds subjected to different environments and drying periods. Seeds were dried for the following time periods: 0 (no drying), 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours, in the laboratory environment (25°C...

  15. Reading and company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmičová, Anežka; Dias, Patrícia; Vogrinčič Čepič, Ana

    2017-01-01

    . Across all six samples included in the study, participants spontaneously attested to varied, and partly surprising, forms of sensitivity to company and social space in their daily efforts to align body with mind for reading. The article reports these emergent trends and discusses their potential...

  16. Company Administration Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    commander and lot Sergeant. 4-1 Nh h that the company clerk in highly inexperienced. he is continually peitiotming Lasks~ f.:1Lhde first Lime . Because of this...quality of the typing is eyewash. Because of this pre- supposition in many organizations, a document is retyped if it con- tains any type of a blotch

  17. Detection of ethanol and acetaldehyde released from cabbage seeds of different quality : laser photoacoustic spectroscopy versus FTIR and headspace gaschromatographydetection of ethylene and acetaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.D.; Persijn, S.; Taylor, A.; Cozijnsen, J.L.; Veldhuyzen, van B.; Lenssen, G.; Wegh, H.C.P.

    2003-01-01

    Detecting early ageing stages of seeds in storage is of great concern to vegetable seed companies. Despite their reliability conventional germination tests are destructive and time consuming. One alternative towards assessing the quality of seed is to monitor the concentration of certain volatiles

  18. Seed Capital for Young Entrepreneurs since more than 25 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, Jean-Pierre

    2014-12-01

    The WA de Vigier Foundation has supported start-up companies with a total of almost CHF 10 million since the late 1980s. And very successfully too: thanks to the seed money from Solothurn, the sponsored start-ups have provided hundreds of jobs.

  19. Brazilian chicken meat production chain:a 10-year overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Nääs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest broiler meat exporter. Health control, knowledge and technology, as well as the natural aspects of the country are pointed out as the keys for the success of that product in the market. Brazilian broiler production grew significantly in the last decade; it creates jobs and has a significant social role in Brazilian economy. This study aimed at evaluating the Brazilian broiler meat supply chain from 2000 to 2010 using the social network analysis (SNA. Data from governmental and private sources were organized and analyzed. The focus of this study was the broiler production supply chain segment involving the hatchery, the broiler farm, the feed mill, the processing plant, and the government. The inputs considered were one-day-old chicks, pullet, feedstuff, and the infrastructure; and the outputs were broiler meat and taxes paid. The software UCINET was applied for calculating the structural attributes and indicators of the network. Results showed a relatively disorganized network in 2000 with the strongest tie between the farmer and the processing plant. The structural organization of the network improved until 2010. The density of the ties in the broiler meat production network increased steadily from 2000 to 2010 within a vertical cohesive supply chain structure. The success of Brazilian broiler meat production is attributed to the abundance of land, fertile soil, favorable climate, and the effort and investments in research and development by innovative companies in the last few years. The results of the present study showed that Brazilian broiler production evolved positively in the last ten years, and it was weakly influenced by international challenges.

  20. Company profile: Sistemic Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jim

    2013-09-01

    Founded in 2009 and headquartered in Glasgow, Scotland, UK, Sistemic Ltd has developed from a thought in the minds of four scientists into a company working globally to play its part in delivering the exciting opportunities for improvements in human health presented by cell therapies and regenerative medicine products (jointly referred to as the CT industry). Sistemic is now working in all corners of the world with some of the industry's leading companies to ensure that the products that they are developing, which will undoubtedly change the way we treat some of the major diseases and conditions currently placing a large burden on healthcare systems, including diabetes, dementia and cardiovascular disease, are as safe and efficacious as possible. Sistemic is also working to ensure that these products can be produced at a cost that will not lead to potentially transformational treatments being an additional financial burden on our already overburdened healthcare systems. Sistemic is using its revolutionary and IP-protected SistemQC™ (UK) technology to enhance understanding of characterization, process optimization and potency of CT products. The company is using the diagnostic power of miRNAs, a set of approximately 2000 ncRNAs that regulate a large percentage of the total gene expression of a cell. miRNAs are often present in a cell- and tissue-specific way that, at least in some cases, accounts for the phenotypic differences between cell types. These differences in miRNA expression can be interpreted by the miRNA profile and it is interpreting the instructive power of these profiles that underpin Sistemic's knowledge bases, giving CT companies a more comprehensive understanding of their cell populations with respect to their identity and functional capabilities. This knowledge is being used by companies to characterize, process, optimize and assess the efficacy of cell products.

  1. The living company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Geus, A

    1997-01-01

    What can explain the longevity gap between a company that survives for centuries--the Swedish company Stora, for example, which is more than 700 years old--and the average corporation, which does not last 20 years? A team at Royal Dutch/Shell Group explored that question. Arie de Geus, a retired Shell executive, writes about the team's findings and describes what he calls living companies-organizations that have beaten the high mortality rate of the average corporation. Many companies die young, de Geus argues, because their policies and practices are based too heavily on the thinking and language of economics. Their managers focus on producing goods and services and forget that the organization is a community of human beings that is in business--any business--to stay alive. In contrast, managers of living companies consider themselves to be stewards of a long-standing enterprise. Their priorities reflect their commitment to the organization's long-term survival in an unpredictable world. Like careful gardeners, they encourage growth and renewal without endangering the plant they are tending. They value profits the same way most people value oxygen: as necessary for life but not the purpose of it. They scuttle assets when necessary to make a dramatic change in the business portfolio. And they constantly search for new ideas. These managers also focus on developing people. They create opportunities for employees to learn from one another. Such organizations are suited for survival in a world in which success depends on the ability to learn, to adapt, and to evolve.

  2. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  3. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  4. Viability of Macrotyloma axillare cv. Guatá seeds under chemical scarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleize Rocha Terra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of the associacion of grasses and legumes results in a good forage yield as well as a good animal performance due to maintenance of adequate levels of crude protein (CP in the animal diet, both the direct effect of the ingestion of legumes, or even through indirect effect of the introduction of nitrogen by legumes in the pasture, thereby increasing the production of forage mass. However, the seeds of legumines have the so-called hardness seeds or dormant according to their coats impermeable to water. The hardness of the seed prevents the germination of the same since these seeds have a hard shell impervious to water and gas exchange, not allowing the imbibition of water by the seed, or embryo oxygenation. This dormancy may be broken by various known methods such as scarification, promoting cracks in the seed coat allowing the entry of water therein. In the case of Macrotyloma axillare exposure of seeds to scarification method has proven to be an efficient way to break dormancy and promoting seed germination. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the viability of seeds after suffering dormancy by immersion seeds in sulfuric acid. The experiment to break dormancy Macrotyloma axillares cv. Guatá was conducted in the laboratory of Plant Physiology at the Intituto de Zootecnia in Nova Odessa, São Paulo State, using the seeds that were stored in a cold room with temperatures between 10-12 ºC, relative humidity (RH 30-33% and no light. The treatments studied were: control, chemical scarification with sulfuric acid for 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 minutes. We used a completely randomized design with two replications, being 100 seeds each repetition. After treatment the seeds were under to tetrazolium test resulting in viable seeds and seed viability. So the result of the tetrazolium test was obtained by average percentage of viable seeds, found in the repeats tested, respecting the maximum tolerances set out in Brazilian Rules for Seed

  5. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  6. Effect of seed invigoration by osmopriming on seed quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slow and uneven germination of seeds of Capsicum species are undesirable to the seed producers and farmers. Seed osmo priming is one of the pre-treatments for enhancing seed quality. An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of osmopriming techniques on seed lots of three Capsicum species.

  7. The Brazilian Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, Antonio Carlos S. de

    1998-12-31

    This presentation discusses the technology and experience of Petrobras in the development of deep-water exploitation off the coast of Brazil. The company recently found important oil deposits in waters over 300 m deep in Campos Basin, the main petroleum province in Brazil, located offshore Rio de Janeiro State. It is estimated that 50% of the new discoveries will take place in waters deeper than 1000 m. Unlike other companies, Petrobras made an option to develop its offshore fields by means of sub-sea equipment and floating production units. This was possible mainly because of the characteristics of the reservoirs and the mild environmental conditions in Campos Basin. Petrobras has 288 subsea trees on the seabed, 48 subsea manifolds and 21 floating production units in operation. The company has constantly moved on to deeper and deeper waters and by the end of 1998 a new milestone will be achieved with a Roncador field subsea well at 1853 m. Procap-2000, a strategic research and development corporate programme for ultra-deep water technology, was developed. Other innovations by Petrobras are also discussed. 3 figs.

  8. SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE FOOTWEAR SECTOR: ONE COMPANY, TWO REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvania Terezinha Moll

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the phenomenon of globalization, Brazilian companies have sought growth opportunities in several ways. Through tax incentives the states, from their governments, aimed to attract investment generating competition with others, a practice known as tax competition. Some companies, using this feature installed new production units or even moved to distant regions with poor socioeconomic conditions and poor qualification of manpower. This study aimed to examine the use of the territory from the case of a footwear company, located in two regions - South and Northeast - with quite diverse Human Development indices. From a comparative analysis of the perception of 658 workers of group D on development, it is assessed the impact of the industry installation in the new location, as well as with the workers working in the company's headquarters. It was also verified the socio economic growth of the municipalities of Nova Petrópolis in RS, and Russas, in Ceará, in the decade from 1997 to 2007.From the results of the research it has been identified differences between workers of the South Unit and the Northeast Unit regarding to formal education, salary level, family income, unionization, the first job, among others. As to the quality of life, satisfaction levels of workers before employment and after being hired by the company are also different in the two units. However there are points in common that relate to the acquisition of material goods, occupation and level of ambition of the workers.

  9. Spectroscopic and thermooxidative analysis of organic okra oil and seeds from Abelmoschus esculentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Ferreira Soares, Geórgia; Gomes, Vinicius de Morais; Dos Reis Albuquerque, Anderson; Barbosa Dantas, Manoel; Rosenhain, Raul; de Souza, Antônio Gouveia; Persunh, Darlene Camati; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Costa, Maria José de Carvalho; Gadelha, Tatiane Santi

    2012-01-01

    With changes in human consumption from animal fats to vegetable oils, the search for seed types, often from unconventional vegetable sources has grown. Research on the chemical composition of both seed and oil for Brazilian Okra in South America is still incipient. In this study, flour and oil from organic Okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus L Moench), grown in northeastern Brazil were analyzed. Similar to Okra varieties from the Middle East and Central America, Brazilian Okra has significant amounts of protein (22.14%), lipids (14.01%), and high amounts of unsaturated lipids (66.32%), especially the oleic (20.38%) and linoleic acids (44.48%). Oil analysis through PDSC revealed an oxidation temperature of 175.2 °C, which in combination with low amounts of peroxide, demonstrates its resistance to oxidation and favors its use for human consumption.

  10. Sesame seed lignans

    OpenAIRE

    Moazzami, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Sesame seed has been an important oilseed since ancient times. It contains 25% protein and 50% oil. Sesame seed possesses many health promoting effects, some of which have been attributed to a group of compounds called lignans (sesamin, sesamolin, sesaminol and sesamolinol). Sesame seed contains lignan aglycones in oil and lignan glucosides. Sesamin, the major sesame oil lignan, is known to reduce plasma cholesterol and to increase plasma γ-tocopherol in humans. This thesis aimed at investiga...

  11. Post-release monitoring: the Brazilian system, its aims and requirements for information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, P P; Melo, M A; Kido, E A

    2014-12-01

    The Brazilian National Biosafety Committee approved in 2011 a new post release monitoring system for environmental releases of genetically modified organisms. It has a number of novel features in comparison with other established or proposed systems. The new system also allows the proponent to ask for monitoring exemption. General surveillance forms the basis of the monitoring system, similar to the European model, but differs markedly in the way it operates. While the European proposal is based on monitoring measurable variables extracted from environmental observations, from baselines previously established for multiple protection targets, the Brazilian system uses direct alerts of damage, without the aid of baseline values. The strength of the Brazilian form of monitoring is the possibility of generating an information network with the effective participation of many actors from the monitored area. A network constituted by highly qualified members, as proposed elsewhere, is too complex and unrealistic in Brazil and in many other countries. In conclusion, the Brazilian monitoring system is flexible and can be adjusted to the Brazilian reality over the next years, as a response to the ever growing experience in monitoring. It also meets the demands of the Brazilian society for transparency, rational use of resources, opportunity for national companies, and food and environmental biosafety.

  12. The Leimert Phone Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Baumann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Leimert Phone Company is a design collaborative that seeks to reimagine the phonebooth. We are repurposing old payphones for civic engagement and storytelling on local streets. The project was born in Leimert Park, a neighborhood in South Los Angeles famous for its African American culture. Across the country, public phonebooths are dying. Is this a hidden opportunity to reclaim physical space and shift the narrative of the neighborhood? We go beyond booths as wifi hotspots. This project reveals an ambitious strategy for a “payphone redesign,” mixing installation art with mobile technology and activism. Members of the Leimert Phone Company include a diverse mix of artists and technologists from Leimert (anchored by KAOS Network and the nearby University of Southern California (USC.

  13. Marketing company profile: Consumer-led company features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting point in defining modern company profile is its absolute orientation to customers. So called Customer-led companies are those which all their activities put toward customers instead of product which is offered. These companies try to make all their sectors to be oriented toward customers.

  14. Analysis of the use of Essential GRI (G3 Indicators in the Reports of Companies in the Sectors of Oil, Gas, And Biofuels; And Public Utilities In Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana karina de Melo Travassos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to verify the degree of full adhesion and Effective Disclosure for business sectors in Brazil for oil, gas, and biofuel; and utilities, through sustainability reports prepared by the G3 version of the GRI Guidelines. The report of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI is constituted by a set of principles and indicators of economic, social, and environmental concerns with emphasis on transparency, quality, and reliability. This paper develops a multi-case methodology using a qualitative approach and has an exploratory purpose concerning the compliance of the reports of Brazilian companies to the parameters of the GRI. We opted for the use of a non-probabilistic sample of Brazilian companies in two Brazilian sectors, namely oil, gas, and biofuel; and utilities. Then we obtained sustainability reports which provided the summary index of the indicators from the institutional page of each company on the internet. From these observations we found that some Brazilian companies are adhering to the use of indicators of Sustainability Reports proposed by GRI. Furthermore, we found that the fact that companies are part of the same economic sector implies they are at a similar level of adherence to the indicators. Also, we observed that despite the effort postulated by GRI to develop a quality model more consistent and complete for sustainability reports, its applicability in the Brazilian oil, gas, and biofuel; and utility industries still needs to be improved.

  15. Building Company Loyalty System

    OpenAIRE

    Haniková, Alžběta

    2010-01-01

    The thesis discusses the importance of loyal customers, and loyalty system as a tool for building loyalty. It defines loyalty and customer satisfaction, it deals with the issue of customer retention. It describes the history and types of loyalty programs, important factors for deciding on their implementation and problems associated with them. The practical part is concerned with the clothing market, Orsay company and its Orsay Club loyalty systeme. The work also includes a survey of the loya...

  16. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMIC CRISES IN THE BRAZILIAN CAPITAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldy Fernandes da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2008 economic crisis challenged accounting, either demanding recognition and measurement criteria well adjusted to this scenario or even questioning its ability to inform appropriately entities’ financial situation before the crisis occurred. So, our purpose was to verify if during economic crises listed companies in the Brazilian capital market tended to adopt earnings management (EM practices. Our sample consisted in 3,772 firm-years observations, in 13 years – 1997 to 2009. We developed regression models considering discretionary accruals as EM proxy (dependent variable, crisis as a macroeconomic factor (dummy variable of interest, ROA, market-to-book, size, leverage, foreign direct investment (FDI and sector as control variables. Different for previous EM studies two approaches were used in data panel regression models and multiple crises were observed simultaneously. Statistics tests revealed a significant relation between economic crisis and EM practices concerning listed companies in Brazil in both approaches used.

  17. Company Vision and Organizational Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Toman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a company is largely dependent on the company itself; it depends above all on its corporate governance, management, and implementation, as well as on decision-making processes and coordination. Many authors believe that organizational learning and knowledge are the most relevant aspects of company effectiveness. If a company wants to be effective it needs to create and realize its vision; to do this, it needs creativity, imagination, and knowledge, which can be obtained or enhanced through learning. This paper defines vision, learning, creativity and management and, above all, their relationships. The author argues that company vision influences the learning and knowledge of employees in the company through the vision’s content, through the vision-creating process, and through the vision enforcement process. Conversely, the influence of learning on company vision is explained. The paper is aimed at the use in the practice of companies and helps them to increase their effectiveness.

  18. Isozymic variability in a Brazilian collection of annatto (Bixa orellana L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Jane Fiuza Rodrigues Portela de; Robinson,Ingrid Peters; Alfenas, Acelino Couto

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to optimize the isozyme electrophoresis technique for Bixa orellana, and use isozyme markers for a preliminary survey on the genetic variability in Brazilian annatto germplasm accessions. Collection consisted of seed samples from sixty open pollinated trees, representing two Northern and four Southern geographic provenances. The extraction, electrophoresis, and interpretation of annatto isozymes are described. Three out of the twenty-one identified isozyme loc...

  19. The role of the seed sector in Italy for a modern and competitive agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Nardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The high number of seed companies that are active on the Italian market provides our agriculture with the most appropriate varieties. Italy is particularly suited for growing seed crops: thanks to its favourable environmental conditions and also to the high level of professional skills of companies and farmers, Italy plays a leading role in the multiplication and export of vegetables, rice and sugarbeet seeds. In many cases, seeds grown in Italy are exported for conditioning and then re-imported for distribution to the end users. In 2014 the annual turnover for seed sales in Italy was approximately EUR 680-700 million, at wholesale level and excluding the incidence of chemical seed treatment. The difference between the value of seed imports and exports has been negative in the last few years of an average amount of approximately EUR 100 million. At the moment there are about 300 seed companies trading on the Italian market (220 for agricultural plant species and 80 for vegetable species. Seed multiplication is also a great income opportunity for farmers: every year approximately 15,000 Italian farmers devote around 220,000 ha to grow seed crops. The use of high quality seed today represents not only a simple means to start a new cultivation, with a healthy, well identified and traced product, but an efficient way to transfer plant breeding results to farmers, in order to cope with the need of innovation and sustainability. Through the purchase and planting of certified seeds farmers support and strengthen variety research and innovation.

  20. Paper (essay on seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Mladen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on detailed studies of the past of the agrarian thought of the world (evolution of agro-innovation, and within it, the relationship of man and seed, the author has selected key data for Table 1. In addition, more or less known folk sayings, proverbs, curses and allegories in which the seed is the key word have been collected. Then, religious books, folk art and literature works (sayings of prominent individuals and experts and observations of the author himself have been studied. According to the collected opus, it can be concluded that the vast importance of seed meaningfully entwined into all spheres of folk life and cultural heritage. Seed is directly tied to the following eight key (revolutionary milestones in the food and economic life of mankind: 1. the first and for the longest time, the seed used to be the main food of the people and the first food reserve; 2. Neolithic Revolution was simply caused by the sowing of seeds; 3. for the sake of sowing man began to develop more complex processing techniques; 4. everywhere and forever, especially since the late 15th century, the seed has been a carrier of (rescuing plants between Europe and the New World, that is, between continents; 5. seed was the first product that has been chemically treated since the mid-18th century; 6. standard operation procedures and quality are promoted on seed by which it became the first product to have prescribed (compulsory methods, but it also became a good whose quality has to be tested before sale; 7. hybrid seed is a 'perpetrator' of the green revolution in the mid-20th century and at last there is disputable seed of genetically modified organisms that are spreading with certain reactions. The author proposes that the United Nations Standard International Trade Classification includes a special section (division which would classify the seed for sowing, while beyond this Classification terms such as seed, plant seed should be replaced with non-seed

  1. Seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Steven

    2017-09-11

    Reproduction is a critical time in plant life history. Therefore, genes affecting seed dormancy and germination are among those under strongest selection in natural plant populations. Germination terminates seed dispersal and thus influences the location and timing of plant growth. After seed shedding, germination can be prevented by a property known as seed dormancy. In practise, seeds are rarely either dormant or non-dormant, but seeds whose dormancy-inducing pathways are activated to higher levels will germinate in an ever-narrower range of environments. Thus, measurements of dormancy must always be accompanied by analysis of environmental contexts in which phenotypes or behaviours are described. At its simplest, dormancy can be imposed by the formation of a simple physical barrier around the seed through which gas exchange and the passage of water are prevented. Seeds featuring this so-called 'physical dormancy' often require either scarification or passage through an animal gut (replete with its associated digestive enzymes) to disrupt the barrier and permit germination. In other types of seeds with 'morphological dormancy' the embryo remains under-developed at maturity and a dormant phase exists as the embryo continues its growth post-shedding, eventually breaking through the surrounding tissues. By far, the majority of seeds exhibit 'physiological dormancy' - a quiescence program initiated by either the embryo or the surrounding endosperm tissues. Physiological dormancy uses germination-inhibiting hormones to prevent germination in the absence of the specific environmental triggers that promote germination. During and after germination, early seedling growth is supported by catabolism of stored reserves of protein, oil or starch accumulated during seed maturation. These reserves support cell expansion, chloroplast development and root growth until photoauxotrophic growth can be resumed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Strategy Assessment of Company ECOPOSTES

    OpenAIRE

    Cortazar Sanabria, Javier Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on developing a research on the different types of strategies a company can implement depending on their situation and the various analyses that must be completed before making the strategy decision. External and internal environment methods are described together with the various forms of corporate restructure methods a company can use if needed. The whole process is followed step by step to provide a strategy assessment to company Ecopostes, a Colombian company focused o...

  3. Risk Management in Insurance Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xufeng

    2006-01-01

    Insurance is the uncertain business in uncertain society. Today, insures face more complex and difficult risks. Efficient risk management mechanisms are essential for the insurers. The paper is set out initially to explore UK insurance companies risk management and risk disclosure by examining companies annual report after all the listed insurance companies are required to disclose risk information in their annual report, which seeks to reflect the recent development in UK insurance companies...

  4. IMPLEMENTATION OF QUALITATIVE RULES IN COMPANY`S INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna WOLNOWSKA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article there were presented chosen issues of quality management. Important role of information and work processes in companies were emphasized . Based on eight rules of quality management, TQM standards and ideas of discipline pioneers like Deming, Juran, Crosby and Shewart, author has constructed way of using chosen rules and assumptions to company`s information circulation. Analogy, suggested by author, has not only emphasized importance of information as a company`s resource, but also has pointed to possibility of improving ways of managing this information.

  5. Multilingualism in Companies: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Tamah; Strubell, Miquel

    2013-01-01

    This thematic collection of four papers explores a number of perspectives on companies in which multiple languages are used. The "organisational" perspective concerns the question of how the presence of or demand for multiple languages in the company is managed--how companies are guided by national and other policies in regard to the use…

  6. 12 CFR 583.15 - Parent company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parent company. 583.15 Section 583.15 Banks and... SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.15 Parent company. The term parent company means any company which directly or indirectly controls any other company or companies. ...

  7. Seed thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    , for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses...

  8. Financial distress in Brazilian banks: an early warning model,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to propose an early warning model for predicting financial distress events in Brazilian banking institutions. Initially, a set of economic-financial indicators is evaluated, suggested by the risk management literature for identifying situations of bank insolvency and exclusively taking public information into account. For this, multivariate logistic regressions are performed, using as independent variables financial indicators involving capital adequacy, asset quality, management quality, earnings, and liquidity. The empirical analysis was based on a sample of 142 financial institutions, including privately and publicly held and state-owned companies, using monthly data from 2006 to 2014, which resulted in panel data with 12,136 observations. In the sample window there were nine cases of Brazilian Central Bank intervention or mergers and acquisitions motivated by financial distress. The results were evaluated based on the estimation of the in-sample parameters, out-of-sample tests, and the early warning model signs for a 12-month forecast horizon. These obtained true positive rates of 81%, 94%, and 89%, respectively. We conclude that typical balance-sheet indicators are relevant for the early warning signs of financial distress in Brazilian banks, which contributes to the literature on financial intermediary credit risk, especially from the perspective of bank supervisory agencies acting towards financial stability.

  9. Amazon, priority for Brazilian National Defense Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pereira, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    .... The Brazilian national defense policy, issued in 1996, the first in the history of the country, established directives to orient the Brazilian military strategic planning as well as diplomatic...

  10. Accounting choices in Brazil: identifying the characteristics of publicly traded companies that opted to maintain versus derecognise deferred assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Drago Lorencini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The issuance of Brazilian Law 11.638/2007 is a critical step in the convergence of the Brazilian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAPs towards International Financial Reporting Standards. After the law was implemented and later modified by Provisional Executive Order 449/2008 (converted into Law 11.941/2009, certain accounting choices were allowed during the transition period. The Brazilian GAAPs allowed for restructuring costs and costs related to opening a new facility to be recognised as assets. As a transitional provision, companies were allowed to choose between maintaining or eliminating these values. In this paper, we attempted to identify which company characteristics were associated with this accounting choice. The final sample consisted of Brazilian companies listed on the BM & FBOVESPA, and a logistic regression identified two characteristics. Participation in one of the three different corporate governance levels of the BM & FBOVESPA was associated with the choice to derecognise the deferred assets, while companies decided to maintain the deferred asset if it was relatively large. The empirical evidence reported here contributes to the literature by explaining the manner in which a set of firm characteristics is related to a firm's accounting choices.

  11. CSR in TSL companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna DYCZKOWSKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available TSL companies are characterized by high dynamics of an increase of incomes, and hence increased shipping. Owing to a rational policy in the area of the consolidation of production and distribution, they may boast of a better use of the means of transport. The purpose of this article is to present the activities in the area of the eco-friendly CSR aspect in the activities of TSL companies taking into consideration particularly logistic operators. The research methods used in the study include an analysis of secondary data, observations and comparative analyses. Road transport in the shipping structure comes first and it constitutes 84% of freights. In the year 2009, in Poland greenhouse gas emissions from road transport amounted to 42.5 million tons (4.84% of the EU member states and CO emissions were 41.9 million tons (analogically, 4.83% of environment pollutions in the European Union. This causes an emission of fumes into the atmosphere. The policy of sustainable development pursued by logistic operators under corporate social responsibility is a response to the abovementioned data. They take decisions concerning social and environmental aspects. The activities of TSL companies under CSR need to provide an answer to customer expectations and needs, and they have to cause an increase of competitiveness on the market. The selected four largest logistic operators conduct the following eco-friendly activities on the highest level: fume emission reports and the control of these emissions, transport of hazardous goods (ADR, voluntary services in the scope of environmental protection and cooperation with eco-friendly organizations. There are those activities which call for improvement: a limitation of the emission of fumes, waste management and sewage treatment policy.

  12. Business, Government and Foreign Policy: Brazilian Construction Firms Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Frossard Silva Rego

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the interaction between Brazilian companies and government in the context of foreign policy, observing the state's support for the internationalization of large Brazilian civil construction firms. The results show that over the years these companies had privileged access to the Federal Executive, including civil service agencies. One consequence of this system of channelling demands through the Executive was to demote the Legislative branch to a secondary role. This pattern of interaction changed following the restoration of Congress's decision-making capacity, prompting the sector to diversify its areas of influence, focusing in particular on the Congress. To expand internationally, construction firms interact with the government primarily through the Executive, specifically via the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Itamaraty, which provides technical and diplomatic support, and the Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico, which supplies funding. The main argument of this article is that foreign policy should be examined through the relations between state and non-state actors in a multitude of decision-making arenas, taking into consideration both domestic and international factors.

  13. The European Model Company Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    2011-01-01

    European Company Law regulation is currently undergoing a reform. These reforms raise a number of regulatory questions, such as what should be the aims of companies' legislation, and how these aims should best be met by regulation. Many of the reforms and discussions (both on EU and national level......) on the organisation of company laws reflect an interesting paradigm shift. Whereas, previously company law was primarily focused on preventing abuse, there is now a trend towards legislation that promote commerce and satisfy the needs of business. This means that the goal of economic efficiency is having...... an increasing influence on the framing of company legislation, such as the choice between mandatory or default rules. This article introduces the project 'European Company Law and the choice of Regulatory Method' which is carried out in collaboration with the 'European Model Company Act Group'. The project aims...

  14. The seed physiological potential of hybrid corn treated with insecticides and store in two environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Fátima Baldiga Tonin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed treatment is a widely disseminated practice in Brazilian cultural areas, which linked to other cultural practices, has contributed to the increase in productivity, cost reduction, final product improvement, environmental damage reduction as well as good seed protection in the field level and storage. The work had the objective to check the insecticide effect on the germination and vigor of the hybrid maize seeds, stored in two environmental conditions. The seeds were treated with three insecticides, identified as: Insecticide one (Thiametoxan; Insecticide two (Neonicotinoide and Insecticide three [Neonicotinoide + (Imidaclopride+thiodicarbe]. After being treated, the seeds were stored for a period of 270 days, in two different places, one with (10ºC temperature and relative humidity (60% and another under normal condition of storage. During this period evaluations were accomplished every 45 days, through germination and vigor tests. In addition to germination and cooling tests, sanitation analysis, seedling emergency and seed inoculation were carried out. After that the seeds were stored for a period of 30 days in environmental places with and without control of air condition. The results obtained allow to conclude that the maintenance of seed quality of hybrid maize, treated with insecticides, depends on the hybrid and chemical product used in their treatment and that the reduction in feasibility and vigor of seeds treated with thiametoxan is intensified due to the storage period extension.

  15. "Eu fui, voltei e ninguém viu": um estudo sobre a expectativa de carreira após a repatriação em uma empresa brasileira "I went, I got back, and nobody saw it": a study on the expected career after repatriation in a Brazilian company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalimar Gallon

    2013-03-01

    international experience. Expatriation provides knowledge and professional experience, something which may be related, by the repatriate, to possible career ascension or better performance in the organization. However, when this doesn't occur, frustration can lead him to look for another company which appreciates his knowledge, and this is a major entrepreneurial challenge: the retention of repatriates. This study aims to analyze the perceived relation between repatriation and expectations concerning professional career on the part of professionals who had or have an international professional experience through the Alpha company, a large organization which operates in more than 100 countries and maintains an expatriation process for 12 years, in 9 countries. Thus, a case study was carried out with 21 interviews, discussed through content analysis. As the main finding of this study, one finds out that repatriates start attributing more value to their professional development, establishing a stronger bond with themselves than with the organization where they work. As there're failures on the part of the company to present a planning to take advantage from the experience of this employee in positions which require more responsibility, some respondents stop thinking of their career within the company. Thus, they open themselves to search for other opportunities in the labor market. On the other hand, those who seek space within the organization end up perceiving themselves as "a problem" for the company.

  16. Microsatellite polymorphism in wheat from Brazilian cultivars; inter- and intra-varietal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Vitor Lopes de Abreu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven samples of wheat (Triticum aestivum from different Brazilian cultivars and six American varieties were compared for polymorphism, using primers for nine different STR loci. STR analysis of DNA from single grains of the Brazilian varieties showed that for most loci there was very little intra-cultivar polymorphism. The polymorphic variation observed for Brazilian cultivars was similar to that seen in the American varieties. For the Brazilian cultivars PCR analysis could be performed on only one half of a grain. The American samples required more seeds for analysis. The nucleotide sequences of five amplified microsatellites selected at random from the Brazilian samples were also determined and compared to those of the Chinese Spring variety. Although generally the dinucleotide sequence repeat was preserved for most loci, there were significant differences in sequences interspersed within the repeat domain. This result suggested that it may be possible to unequivocally identify the geographical origin of the cultivar by inspection of the DNA sequences of the repeat region.

  17. Genetics and Forest Seed Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    High genetic quality seed is obtained from seed sources that match the planting site, have a good outcrossing rate, and are superior in some desirable characters. Non-degraded natural forests and plantations may be used as untested seed sources, which can sometimes be managed to promote outbreeding...... and increase seed production. Planted seed orchards aim at capturing large genetic variation and are planted in a design that facilitates genetic evaluation and promotes outbred seed production. Good seed production relies upon success of the whole range of reproductive events from flower differentiation...... to seed maturation. Physiologically sound seed shows a high germination rate, but germination may be restricted by various dormancy mechanisms that in nature aim at delaying or restricting seed germination during time of poor seed survival....

  18. Development and sensory evaluation of yogurt with chia seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Vilela dos Santos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the sensory acceptance of yogurt formulations with chia seeds. After preparation of the formulations (A - Control, B - yogurt added of 2% of chia seeds, C - yoghurt added of 3% of chia seeds, microbiological and physicochemical analyzes were performed. Hedonic scales were used to verify the acceptance and the intention to purchase the elaborated formulations, as well as the Acceptability Index. The data of the acceptance and purchase intention tests were evaluated through Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, and later, Tukey’s Test was applied at a 5% probability. Yogurt formulations were within the standards required by Brazilian Legislation for microbiological and physicochemical analyzes. There was no significant difference (p > 0,05 between the 3 yoghurt formulations for the attributes of flavor, texture and overall impression. However, regarding the appearance attribute, the formulation with 3% chia (C seeds was less appreciated (p 0,05 regarding the average of the purchase intention notes for the 3 yogurt formulations. It was concluded that the yogurt formulations with chia seeds were adequate for the microbiological and physicochemical parameters during the storage period, besides obtaining a good sensorial acceptance, presenting itself as a healthier milk alternative for the consumers.

  19. HUMIC ACID ON GERMINATION AND VIGOR OF CORN SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LENNIS AFRAIRE RODRIGUES

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of technologies to increase stand establishment efficiency and seed vigor, as well as to maximize profits, is of fundamental importance for the sustainability of agriculture. Products based on humic substances, such as humic acids, have been recently used in Brazilian agriculture to produce seedlings with high vigor, which positively influences the establishment of the initial stand. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of treatment of corn seeds with a commercial humic acid-based product, Humykos® (18% of humic acid content, on germination and seedling vigor. The treatments consisted of six doses (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mL 100 kg-1 seed of Humykos®, and the treated seeds were analyzed for germination and vigor (first count, emergence, emergence speed index, length, and dry mass of shoots and roots. Our results show that humic acid promotes greater seedling growth and increased shoot dry mass in corn; in addition, it has a positive influence on the emergence speed index up to a dose 158 mL 100 kg-1 seeds.

  20. Brazilian medical publications: citation patterns for Brazilian-edited and non-Brazilian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Cunha-Melo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, the quality of a scientific article depends on the periodical in which it is published and on the number of times the article is cited in the literature. In Brazil, the criteria for the evaluation of this scientific production are improving. However, there is still some resistance, with authors arguing that Brazilian publications must be preferentially addressed to the national readers and, therefore, they should ideally be written in Portuguese. In order to determine the kind of scientific journals cited in the reference lists of articles published in medical periodicals edited in Brazil, in the present study we determine the rate of Portuguese/English citations. Three issues of 43 periodicals (19 indexed in SciELO, 10 in PubMed, 10 in LILACS, and 4 in the ISI-Thompson base of different medical specialties were analyzed, and the number of both Portuguese and English citations in the reference list of each article was recorded. The results showed that in Brazilian-edited journals the mean number of citations/article was 20.9 ± 6.9 and the percentage of citations of international non-Brazilian periodicals was 86.0 ± 11.2%. Of the latter, 94.4 ± 7.0 are indexed by ISI-Thompson. Therefore, we conclude that Brazilian medical scientists cite the international non-Brazilian periodicals more than the national journals, and most of the cited papers are indexed by ISI-Thompson.

  1. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  2. Effect of Genotypes and Seed Production Environments on Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds from each harvest were subjected to different seed quality tests and data generated were analyzed. Seed quality traits were considerably affected by the genotypes and growing conditions i.e. plant population and cropping seasons. Genotypes with superior seed quality were prevalent at 166.667 and 266.667 plants ...

  3. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Lagenaria siceraria seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor. Three seed fermentation methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested on two cultivars during two years. Seed germination and ...

  4. Drivers of human resource management competences development in Brazilian multinational subsidiaries: a multilevel research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Glufke Reis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to verify the factors associated with the development of human resource management (HRM competences in foreign subsidiaries of Brazilian multinationals. These competences are essential in that they allow foreign units to adopt HRM practices that are consistent with the countries or markets in which they operate. A multilevel research was conducted, involving headquarters and subsidiaries of major Brazilian companies; the empirical analysis employed hierarchical linear modelling. Despite the recurrent debate on global standardisation versus local adaptation, it was identified that the integration of international HRM policies (addressing simultaneously global guidelines and local response may stimulate competences development. In addition, interaction in external networks in the host country may enhance the development of HRM competences in the subsidiaries. However, specific cultural factors of the company may inhibit development activity in units abroad.

  5. Dormancy-breaking requirements of Sophora tomentosa and Erythrina speciosa (Fabaceae) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzia Delgado, Carolina Maria; Souza de Paula, Alexandre; Santos, Marisa; Silveira Paulilo, Maria Terezinha

    2015-03-01

    The physical dormancy of seeds has been poorly studied in species from tropical forests, such as the Atlantic Forest. This study aimed to examine the effect of moderate alternating temperatures on breaking the physical dormancy of seeds, the morphoanatomy and histochemistry of seed coats, and to locate the structure/region responsible for water entrance into the seed, after breaking the physical dormancy of seeds of two woody Fabaceae (subfamily Faboideae) species that occur in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Sophora tomentosa and Erythrina speciosa. To assess temperature effect, seeds were incubated in several temperature values that occur in the Atlantic Forest. For morphological and histochemical studies, sections of fixed seeds were subjected to different reagents, and were observed using light or epifluorescence microscopy, to analyze the anatomy and histochemistry of the seed coat. Treated and nonreated seeds were also analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to observe the morphology of the seed coat. To localize the specific site of water entrance, the seeds were blocked with glue in different regions and also immersed in ink. In the present work a maximum temperature fluctuation of 15 degrees C was applied during a period of 20 days and these conditions did not increase the germination of S. tomentosa or E. speciosa. These results may indicate that these seeds require larger fluctuation of temperature than the applied or/and longer period of exposition to the temperature fluctuation. Blocking experiments water inlet combined with SEM analysis of the structures of seed coat for both species showed that besides the lens, the hilum and micropyle are involved in water absorption in seeds scarified with hot water. In seeds of E. speciosa the immersion of scarified seeds into an aniline aqueous solution showed that the solution first entered the seed through the hilum. Both species showed seed morphological and anatomical features for seed coats of the

  6. Influence of Control and Family Management in the Indebtedness of Brazilian Open Business: a Quantitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Cristina Segura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the influence of the family on the debt of Brazilian open business companies. Although there is a vast national and international literature on capital structure, there are still doubts on the importance of family in business management. In Brazil, due to the large number of family businesses, it is even more evident the need to investigate the issue. The studied population was composed of companies listed on the BM&FBovespa, in 2010, and the final sample consisted of 356 companies. Six years were analyzed (2004-2009, in a total of 2,136 observations. The results show that the studied companies that are familiar or that have family management have become less indebted than others. This result is in accordance with national and international studies, according to which family firms tend to be more conservative in their investments, seeking to use more equity than third party capital.

  7. Production, Marketing and Value Chain Mapping of 'Srijana' Tomato Hybrid Seed in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Babu Thapa Magar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A tomato variety known as ‘Srijana’ developed by Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC has been substantially popular among Nepalese farmers and entrepreneurs. To understand the seed value chain of the Srijana hybrid tomato, a survey was conducted in 2014/15 with public research and extension institutions, private seed companies/firms, non-governmental organization and community group including individual farmers, involved in Srijana tomato seed production. The survey covered random selection of 30 agro-vets and 30 farmers in Kathmandu valley, Kavre, Nuwakot, Dolakha and Kaski districts, Nepal where production of Srijana tomato seed is mostly concentrated. A focus group discussion was also conducted with commercial tomato farmers in each of the study districts. The study showed a total production of 293 kg Srijana seed having a value of around 47 million Nepalese Rupees (US $ 470 thousands in year 2013/14. Private sector was the dominant actor sharing about 85% of the total Srijana seed production followed by non-governmental organization (10%, farmers group (3% and governmental station/farm/centers (2%, respectively. Out of the total Srijana seed produced, about 95% was consumed in domestic market while 5% was exported to India. The study revealed increasing trend of production, supply and price of Srijana tomato seed. About 0.3 million NRs (US $ 3,000 profit was estimated through the production of Srijana tomato seed in 0.05 hectares (500 m2 of land. Agro-vets (private sector seed dealers were the major actors for supplying the seed from the producers to farms and received a higher profit margins. The farmers producing and selling the seed in technical assistance of public agencies received higher producer`s share (66.6% than farmers producing and selling seed through own group (60%, technical assistance of non-governmental organization (53.3%, and in contract with private seed companies (26.7%. Majority of commercial tomato farmers

  8. Village-based tropical pasture seed production in Thailand and Laos – a success story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed of 6 forage species, Mulato II hybrid brachiaria (Brachiaria ruziziensis x B. decumbens x B. brizantha, Cayman hybrid brachiaria (B. ruziziensis x B. decumbens x B. brizantha, Mombasa guinea (Panicum maximum, Tanzania guinea (P. maximum, Ubon stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis var. vulgaris x var. pauciflora and Ubon paspalum (Paspalum atratum, is currently being produced by more than 1,000 smallholder farmers in villages in northeast Thailand and northern Laos, under contract to Ubon Forage Seeds, Faculty of Agriculture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Thailand. The seed is mainly exported (95%, with the remainder sold within Thailand. Tropical Seeds LLC, a subsidiary of a Mexican seed company, Grupo Papalotla, employs Ubon Forage Seeds to manage seed production, seed sales and export, and to conduct research on new forage species. This paper details how the development of a smallholder-farmer seed-production program in Thailand and Laos produced positive social and economic outcomes for the village seed-growers. In addition, the strong emphasis on seed quality, high purity, high vigor and high germination enabled pasture growers in more than 20 tropical countries in Asia, Africa, the Pacific and Central and South America, to establish more than 20,000 ha of pastures over the past 3 years. 

  9. When Citizenship demands Care: the inclusion of people with autism in the Brazilian labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Aydos; Helena Fietz

    2017-01-01

    In the late 2000s, a network of agents started to promote the inclusion of people with disabilities into the Brazilian labor market, through an Affirmative Action Law that requires private companies to include from 2 to 5 % of people with disabilities among their employees. In this context, the experiences of people with autism brought to light theoretical and practical discussions on both the autonomy of these people and the 'best ways' of managing their everyday work routines. Perceiving pu...

  10. Improvement of the electric power sector through the access to the national power transmission system - SINTREL (Brazilian National System of Electric Power Transmission); Aperfeicoamento do setor de energia eletrica atraves do acesso a transmissao - SINTREL (Sistema Nacional de Transmissao de Energia Eletrica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the organization and the operation of SINTREL (Brazilian National System of Electric Power Transmission), the national power transmission system, and it defines its function in the process of reform of the Brazilian electric sector. Besides showing the traditional organization of the companies and of the electric system, and the evolution of the organization of the Brazilian electric system to favor the competition.

  11. Limites térmicos para a germinação em função da origem de sementes de espécies de Eugenia (Myrtaceae nativas do Brasil Thermal requirements for the seeds of Brazilian species of Eugenia (Myrtaceae according to their origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Vicente Lamarca

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A germinação das sementes é dependente de numerosos fatores abióticos, dentre os quais a temperatura figura entre os principais. No presente estudo analisou-se o comportamento germinativo de sementes de E. brasiliensis, E. involucrata, E. pyriformis e E. uniflora em resposta a diferentes condições de luz e temperatura, incluindo-se o cálculo da soma térmica durante o desenvolvimento e maturação das sementes. Os resultados demonstraram que a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de plântulas normais ocorreram adequadamente na faixa de 20 ºC a 30 ºC. Nessa faixa, as sementes foram indiferentes à luz e à alternância de temperatura para a germinação. Especifi camente para Eugenia pyriformis, avaliaram-se temperaturas superiores a 30 ºC e inferiores a 20 ºC, verifi cando-se que as sementes germinaram na faixa térmica de 10 ºC a 35 ºC, mas não a 5 ºC e a 40 ºC; os maiores valores de germinação e de IVG foram observados a 25 ºC e 30 ºC. Ficou evidente que a secagem modifica os limites e exigências térmicas para a germinação das sementes de E. pyriformis, uma vez que os maiores níveis de desidratação resultaram em maiores prejuízos à germinação fora da faixa térmica ótima. As sementes de E. pyriformis coletadas em Lavras, MG, que receberam maior quantidade de graus-dia durante o desenvolvimento e a maturação, apresentaram melhor desempenho em relação às sementes coletadas em Campinas, SP e em São Paulo, SP.Seed germination is dependent on several abiotic factors including temperature. In this study, we analyzed the germination of seeds of Eugenia brasiliensis, E. involucrata, E. pyriformis and E. uniflora in response to diff erent conditions of light and temperature. Seeds of all species showed high germination values from 20 to 30 ºC. Germination of seeds of E. Pyriformis was also evaluated at temperatures higher than 30 ºC and lower than 20 ºC. The germination and the normal seedling

  12. The Balanced Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Controlling the sustainability of production processes and ethical employment of the work force in suppliers' production facilities far away from the home country has resulted in new challenges for managers. They now have to consider how important it is for customers, investors and employees to see...... that a company is respected in wider society and behaves according to ethical standards. Strategists and Leaders need to make balanced choices about long-term goals and the allocation of resources. They need to analyse, understand and adjust strategies to market, political, value and technology related changes...... through control or trust. Human resource specialists need to make balanced decisions about how to design tasks and jobs in order to make them attractive as well as motivating. Marketers need to make balanced decisions about how to market products in the light of what is now important in consumers...

  13. Zapata Coffee Roasting Company

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata Pardo, Paula Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Zapata Coffee Roasting Company es un pequeño negocio de tostión y comercialización de café gourmet, ubicado en la ciudad de Bothell, Washington, al norte del área de Seattle, al noroeste de Estados Unidos. Fue fundada por María V. Zapata, quien proviene de cuatro generaciones de amor y pasión por el café, ya que su familia ha cosechado y tostado café por casi un siglo en el suroccidente de los Andes Colombianos. La compañía compite con otros pequeños tostadores y con grandes empresas con m...

  14. Measuring the Company Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the logics of the efficient capital investment, the management of the investment of the saving capital in the company’s assets must conclude, on the end of the financial year, with a plus ofreal value (NPV > 0. From this point of view, in this paper we suggest the usage of an investment valuationmodel for the assessment of the company managerial and technological performance. Supposing the book value is a proxy of the just value (of assets and operational results and supposing the capital cost iscorrectly estimated, we evaluate the company’s performance both by the net present value model, and also by the company’s ability to create a surplus of the invested capital (NPV >0.Our paper also aims to identify the performance of the financial breakeven point (for which NPV is at least equal to zero as the minimum acceptable level for the company’s activity. Under this critical sales point, the company goes through the undervaluation of shareholders fortune even if the company’s sales are greater than accounting breakeven point. The performance’s activity level is one which the managers recover and surpass the cost of capital, cost which stand for the normal activity benchmark.The risks of applying of our suggested model we support go down to the confidence of accounting data and of the cost of capital estimating. In spite all of this, the usage of a sensitivity analysis to search anaverage NPV would leads to the company’s performance valuation within investment logic with a high information power.

  15. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help improve cardiovascular risk factors such as lowering cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure. However, there are not ... ground or whole chia seeds on cereal, rice, yogurt or vegetables. In Mexico, a dish called chia ...

  16. Seed collection notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains tables, lists, and notes related to tallgrass prairie seed collection on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in 1992.

  17. Concerning seed spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Larsen; R. J. Smith

    1913-01-01

    In connection with the sowing of Yellow pine, White pine and Western larch on The Blackfeet National Forest during the sea sons of 1911 and 1912, seventeen and one-half acres were sowed directly in seed spots.

  18. Prescribed seed plantings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains memos, notes, and tables related to tallgrass prairie seed harvesting on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in 1995.

  19. Comparison of frailty among Japanese, Brazilian Japanese descendants and Brazilian community-dwelling older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Priscila Yukari Sewo; Sampaio, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho; Yamada, Minoru; Ogita, Mihoko; Arai, Hidenori

    2015-06-01

    To investigate frailty in Japanese, Brazilian Japanese descendants and Brazilian older women. The collected data included sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, and the frailty index Kihon Checklist. We analyzed the differences between the mean scores of Kihon Checklist domains (using ancova) and the percentage of frail women (using χ(2)-test). We carried out a binary logistic regression with Kihon Checklist domains. A total of 211 participants (Japanese n = 84, Brazilian Japanese descendants n = 55, Brazilian n = 72) participated in this research. The Brazilian participants had the highest total Kihon Checklist scores (more frail), whereas the Brazilian Japanese descendants had the lowest scores (P Brazilian group had more participants with oral dysfunction (P Brazilian women were likely to be more frail than the participants in other groups. More than the environment itself, the lifestyle and sociodemographic conditions could affect the frailty of older Brazilian women. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Leadership Style and Organizational Performance: a Comparative Description of Two Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Amélia Tomei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzed leadership styles and organizational performance comparing two small Brazilian family-owned companies using a mixed-method quantitative and qualitative approach. Qualitative data were collected by means of interviews conducted with the respective company leaders about the history of the organization, the role of founders, and company mission, vision, values and organizational strategies. Quantitative data were collected by means of questionnaires applied to subordinates to identify the leadership style prevalent in the companies and business performance. Results showed that both leaders posssess transactional leadership characteristics, but only the leader of company B has some transformational leadership characteristics. Company A's performance stood out only with respect to marketing and financial results, revealing an unsatisfactory organizational climate, while company B showed satisfactory results with respect to all measures of performance. The comparative study of the two cases revealed that transactional leadership influences organizational efficiency while transformational leadership favors effectiveness and the achievement of tangible and intangible returns for the company.

  1. Identification of Company Command Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    45 Virtual role plays ( VRPs ) could be used to measure many of the company command competencies identified in this project. In a VRP , the user...could play the role of a Company Commander who must deal with myriad crises, challenges, and potential opportunities. In a web- enabled VRP , the user...to be concerned about. Future research should create VRPs or other engaging assessments to determine proficiency levels on the identified company

  2. Principles of European Company Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us......, and this is presented in the article as the provisional capstone of 400 years of joint European development of company law....

  3. EXTERNAL CORPORATE GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS: MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS ON THE BRAZILIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Augusto Parente Monteiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to answer the following question: What is the effectiveness of mergers and acquisitions in the Brazilian market as external corporate governance mechanism? The main objective of the study is to verify if mergers and acquisitions operations in Brazilian market may act as an external mechanism of corporate governance, replacing managers and, as a consequence of changes in management, improving financial performance. The study is exploratory, qualitative in its approach, supported by documentary research on secondary data concerning an intentional sample of Brazilian companies aiming to identify the effect of M&A operations on the corporate governance structure of the acquired firm and on its financial results. Data obtained on the website of the Brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission (CVM, related to Brazilian M&A operations in the period 2005-2010, were analyzed. Although M&A operations in Brazil were found to have disciplinary nature in our sample of firms in the studied period, our results are inconclusive regarding the effectiveness of these transactions and external governance mechanisms.

  4. QTL mapping for yield components and agronomic traits in a Brazilian soybean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Isabela da Silva Rodrigues

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to map QTL for agronomic traits in a Brazilian soybean population. For this, 207 F2:3 progenies from the cross CS3035PTA276-1-5-2x UFVS2012 were genotyped and cultivated in Viçosa-MG, using randomized block design with three replications. QTL detection was carried out by linear regression and composite interval mapping. Thirty molecular markers linked to QTL were detected by linear regression for the total of nine agronomic traits. QTL for SWP (seed weight per plant, W100S (weight of 100 seeds, NPP (number of pods per plant, and NSP (number of seeds per plant were detected by composite interval mapping. Four QTL with additive effect are promising for marker-assisted selection (MAS. Particularly, the markers Satt155 and Satt300 could be useful in simultaneous selection for greater SWP, NPP, and NSP.

  5. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  6. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  7. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-10-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  9. A construção social do mercado de madeiras certificadas na Amazônia brasileira: a atuação das ONGs ambientalistas e das empresas pioneiras The social construction of the Brazilian certified wood market in the Amazon Region: the performance of the environmental NGOs and Pioneer Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sampaio Carneiro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o processo de construção de um mercado de madeiras certificadas pelo selo do Forest Stewardship Council (FSC na Amazônia brasileira. A certificação florestal pode ser compreendida como uma estratégia, desenvolvida a partir dos anos 90, por um conjunto de ONGs ambientalistas para tentar modificar o padrão de funcionamento da indústria mundial de madeiras. Como mostram alguns trabalhos de Sociologia Econômica, o processo de construção de um mercado requer um conjunto diverso de investimentos, de forma a permitir o estabelecimento e o funcionamento das trocas mercantis. No caso em questão, procuramos mostrar como esse processo se desenrolou, através da constituição de mecanismos de apoio à emergência da produção de madeiras certificadas e da atuação de empresas pioneiras (na obtenção do selo do FSC no interior do campo econômico da indústria de madeiras tropicais.This text studies the process of construction of a market for Forest Stewardship Council (FSC certified timber in the Brazilian Amazon. Forestry certification can be understood as a strategy developed from the 1990s by some environmental non-governmental organizations in an attempt to modify the working patterns of the world timber industry face the relative failure of the previous boycott policy of tropical timber. The process of construction of a market, as shown by several works in economic Sociology, always demand investments that facilitate the mechanism of commodity exchange. We try to show that, in the case of certified timber products, market construction unfolds from the criticism of the traditional market for tropical wood products and from the promotion of mechanisms that supported the growth of certified timber production. We also highlight the trajectory of the first firms who obtained the stamp of forestry certification in order to try to understand the likelihood that this market becomes dominant and therefore redirects forest

  10. Diversification strategies in the pesticide industry: from seeds to biopesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Pelaez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The pesticide industry has undergone a diversification process led by six leading companies (Monsanto, Syngenta, Bayer, Dow, DuPont, BASF that control roughly 68% of the world market. This growth, initiated in the second half of the 1990s, occurred through deals and acquisitions of companies from the seed and biopesticide markets. This paper analyzes these diversification strategies, which have involved a capital mobilization process based on the exploitation of economies of scope and management of complementary assets. This aims to minimize the risks of investment in consolidated markets as well as in new ones.

  11. Secondary Metabolite Profile, Antioxidant Capacity, and Mosquito Repellent Activity of Bixa orellana from Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Giorgi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian flora was widely used as source of food and natural remedies to treat various diseases. Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae, also known as annatto, urucù, or achiote, is a symbol for the Amazonian tribes that traditionally use its seeds as coloured ink to paint their bodies for religious ceremonies. The aim of this study was to investigate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs profile of B. orellana fresh fruits (in vivo sampled, dried seeds, wood, bark, and leaves analyzed with Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A screening on phenolic content (the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and antiradical activity (DPPH assay of seeds was also conducted. In addition, the repellent properties of seed extracts against Aedes aegypti L. were investigated. Volatile compounds detected in B. orellana samples consisted mainly of sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, and arenes: α-humulene is the major volatile compound present in seed extracts followed by D-germacrene, γ-elemene, and caryophyllene. B. orellana proved to be a good source of antioxidants. Preliminary data on repellency against A. aegypti of three different dried seed extracts (hexane, ethanol, and ethanol/water indicated a significant skin protection activity. A protection of 90% and 73% for hexane and ethanol/water extracts was recorded.

  12. Behavior of Jatropha curcas L. seeds under osmotic stress: germination and cell cycle activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Dantas de Brito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is an oil-rich Euphorbiaceae seed species renowned for its apparent tolerance to environmental stresses. It is considered a promising source of renewable feedstock for biodiesel production in the Brazilian semiarid region where crop establishment requires a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to proper seed and plant behavior under water restrictive conditions. This study describes physiological and cytological profiles of J. curcas seeds imbibed in water restriction conditions by means of osmotic stress or osmoconditioning. Seeds were characterized by size, weight, moisture content and dry mass, germinability, and cell cycle activation by means of tubulin and microtubule cytoskeleton accumulation. Osmoconditioning at -0.8 MPa did not induce priming effects as it did not improve the physiological quality of the seed lots. Western blotting and immunocytochemical analysis revealed an increasing accumulation of tubulin and microtubule cytoskeleton in seeds imbibed in water for 48h onwards, culminating in the onset of mitotic configurations after germination. Only cortical microtubules were observed during seed osmoconditioning, whereas mitotic microtubules only occurred after re-imbibition of osmoconditioned seeds in water and subsequent germination.

  13. Determinantes da Qualidade das Práticas de Governança Corporativa das Empresas Brasileiras de Capital Aberto que Possuem Investimentos PúblicosQuality Determinants of Corporate Governance Practices of Brazilian Companies of Traded that Have Public InvestmentDeterminantes de la Calidad de las Prácticas de Gestión Corporativa de las Empresas Brasileñas de Capital Abierto con Inversiones Públicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALMEIDA, Moisés Araújo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOA adoção das boas práticas de governança corporativa abre espaço para uma gestão mais transparente, diminuindo a assimetria de informações e o conflito de agência. O objetivo do artigo é investigar os determinantes da qualidade das práticas de governança corporativa das empresas brasileiras de capital aberto que possuem investimento público. A amostra da pesquisa é formada por 35 empresas públicas brasileiras de capital aberto para o ano de 2005 e por 34 empresas para o ano de 2006, com informações públicas disponibilizadas pela CVM. Utilizaram-se técnicas econométricas de regressão linear múltipla, com aplicação do método dos mínimos quadrados ordinários. Os resultados mostraram que a maior parte das empresas analisadas apresentam um nível de governança acima da média da amostra. Também foi evidenciado que maior concentração de ações de controle nas mãos de um único acionista influencia positivamente o indicador da qualidade das práticas de governança corporativa, e que alavancagem, tangibilidade, crescimento e idade impactam negativamente sobre as práticas de governança das empresas analisadas.ABSTRACTThe adoption of good practices of corporate governance allows transparent management, diminishing the asymmetry of information and the agency conflict. This article investigates the determinants of the corporate governance quality on Brazilian companies with public investment. The sample of the research was constituted by 35 firms for the year 2005 and 34 firms for the year 2006, with public information available on CVM database. It was used econometric techniques of multiple linear regression with application of the ordinary least squares. The results show that the major part of the analyzed companies presents levels of governance above the average. Also, it is evidenced that the greater ownership concentration in the hands of a single shareholder influences positively the corporate governance index

  14. Effects of glyphosate acid and the glyphosate-commercial formulation (Roundup) on Dimorphandra wilsonii seed germination: Interference of seed respiratory metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; da Silva Cruz, Fernanda Vieira; Bicalho, Elisa Monteze; Borges, Felipe Viègas; Fonseca, Marcia Bacelar; Juneau, Philippe; Garcia, Queila Souza

    2017-01-01

    Glyphosate-formulations are widely used in the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna) with little or no control, threatening population of the endangered species Dimorphandra wilsonii. We investigated the toxicity of different concentrations (0, 5, 25 and 50 mg l(-1)) of glyphosate acid and one of its formulations (Roundup(®)) on seed germination in D. wilsonii. Glyphosate acid and Roundup drastically decreased seed germination by decreasing seed respiration rates. The activation of antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase assure no hydrogen peroxide accumulation in exposed seeds. Glyphosate acid and the Roundup-formulation negatively affected the activities of enzymes associated with the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), with Complex III as its precise target. The toxicity of Roundup-formulation was greater than that of glyphosate acid due to its greater effects on respiration. The herbicide glyphosate must impair D. wilsonii seed germination by disrupting the mitochondrial ETC, resulting in decreased energy (ATP) production. Our results therefore indicate the importance of avoiding (or closely regulating) the use of glyphosate-based herbicides in natural Cerrado habitats of D. wilsonni as they are toxic to seed germination and therefore threaten conservation efforts. It will likewise be important to investigate the effects of glyphosate on the seeds of other species and to investigate the impacts of these pesticides elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Poisoning by the ingestion of seeds of the fruit of the "cotieira" (Joannesia princeps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de Andrade Nishioka

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old boy ingested the core of two seeds of a fruit of Joannesia princeps, a large tree sometimes found planted in sidewalks on streets in Brazilian towns. Four hours after the ingestion, he had several episodes of vomiting and diarrhea, but recovered spontaneously th same day. Poisoning by the ingestion of seeds of Joannesia princeps is possibly not rare, considering that the tree gives plenty of fruit and the seeds have an agreeable flavor, but is probably underestimated as mild cases are unlikely to be reported. Ingestion by small children, that could lead to potentially more severe cases, is in part probably prevented by the hardness of the shells covering the seeds.

  16. Tree Seed Technology Training Course - Instructor's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.T. Bonner; John A. Vozzo; W.W. Elam; S.B. Land

    1994-01-01

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but it can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses. The manual covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling, seed-quality...

  17. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

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    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  18. Multielemental analysis in organic products and seed of linum by X-ray total reflection fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: renata@lin.ufrj.br; Carmo, Maria da Graca T. do [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Nutricao; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: silvana@fec.com.br

    2005-07-01

    The main goal of this study is to determining the trace and major elements levels in organic seeds samples, like soy, rice, bean and in Brazilian and Canadian linum seed by X-ray Total Reflection Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SR-TXRF). The measurements were carried out in the XRF beamline at the Light Synchrotron National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The organic soy presented major concentrations of P, Ca, Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr than organic bean and rice. Brazilian linum samples presented higher concentrations of S, P, Ca, Ni, Cu, Sr, Zr and Mo than Canadian one, even than organic samples. However potassium, iron and zinc were more pronounced in the Canadian seed of linum (author)

  19. Company Value Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Nelson Guedes de Carvalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The seminal propositions by Modigliani and Miller started a new study area in modern finance theory. Over time, their basic assumptions were relaxed, to the extent that, nowadays, situations in which they can be fully applied, with consistent and satisfactory results, are rare. On the other hand, as this simple set of propositions became known worldwide and was easily applicable, it was adopted as a rule of thumb for general enterprise valuation. However, in situations without methodological bias, the resulting enterprise values obtained by traditional methodologies are abstruse and do not allow for the analysis and management of the individual values that make up the firm and own capital values. In order to avoid this kind of abstruseness in company valuation, this study theoretically deducts an alternative valuation methodology, which permits the identification of assets’ value independently of their financing; moreover, we identify the gain on debt value that the debt provides to the shareholders, the debt tax shield and the value loss of assets and tax shield due to the increase in shareholder risk because of the leverage capital structure.

  20. 17 CFR 256.01-2 - Application to service companies doing business with nonassociate companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... companies doing business with nonassociate companies. 256.01-2 Section 256.01-2 Commodity and Securities... COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-2 Application to service companies doing business with nonassociate companies. While this...

  1. Which Companies Benefit form Liberalization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth; Schneider, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical research shows that competition has positive effects on productivity, for companies that are initially efficient, but not for unproductive firms. Our empirical analysis on a panel data of Czech companies, years 1995–2004, confirms this result. In addition, our analysis shows that when...

  2. Company's Data Security - Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stera, Piotr

    This paper describes a computer network and data security problems in an existing company. Two main issues were pointed out: data loss protection and uncontrolled data copying. Security system was designed and implemented. The system consists of many dedicated programs. This system protect from data loss and detected unauthorized file copying from company's server by a dishonest employee.

  3. A strategy for company improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, L

    2000-03-01

    Strategies based on the kaizen methodology are designed to continuously improve company performance without the need for large capital investments. This article looks at how one company used simple kaizen principles to its advantage, achieving 67% increase in productivity and 10% reduction in the standard cost of product.

  4. Responsibilities of Companies towards Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monray Marsellus Botha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Central to company law is the promotion of corporate governance. An important question in company law still today is in whose interest the company should be managed. Corporate governance needs to address the entire span of responsibilities to stakeholders of the company such as customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers and the community at large. The promotion of human rights in the application of company law must also take place. This is extremely important given the significant role of enterprises within the social and economic life of the nation. The interests of various stakeholder groups in the context of the corporation as a "social institution" should be enhanced and protected. Because corporations are part of society and the community, like all of us, it is required of them to be socially responsible and have greater accountability to all stakeholders of the company. Although directors must act in the best interests of shareholders collectively they must also consider the interests of other stakeholders. Sustainable relationships with all the relevant stakeholders are thus important. The advancement of social justice is thus important to corporations in that they should take note of the Constitution, labour legislation and company law legislation when social justice issues are dealt with. Employees have become very important stakeholders of companies and their needs should be taken into account in the bigger corporate governance and social responsibility framework.

  5. Company Development Through the Employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvenegaard, Hans; Limborg, Hans Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter four documents the the proces and results...

  6. Gamification in a Consulting Company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, Frank; Bazylevska, L.; Aiello, M.

    2014-01-01

    Gamification refers to the use of game-design elements in a non-gaming context. The consulting company Capgemini has set up a rudimentary Gamification platform to help motivating the people to do extra work for the company in their spare time. In order to re- ward people for this effort, they can

  7. Company profile: Complete Genomics Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Clifford

    2011-02-01

    Complete Genomics Inc. is a life sciences company that focuses on complete human genome sequencing. It is taking a completely different approach to DNA sequencing than other companies in the industry. Rather than building a general-purpose platform for sequencing all organisms and all applications, it has focused on a single application - complete human genome sequencing. The company's Complete Genomics Analysis Platform (CGA™ Platform) comprises an integrated package of biochemistry, instrumentation and software that sequences human genomes at the highest quality, lowest cost and largest scale available. Complete Genomics offers a turnkey service that enables customers to outsource their human genome sequencing to the company's genome sequencing center in Mountain View, CA, USA. Customers send in their DNA samples, the company does all the library preparation, DNA sequencing, assembly and variant analysis, and customers receive research-ready data that they can use for biological discovery.

  8. Institutional and Strategic Influences on IT Architecture Decisions: comparative case studies in Brazilian companiesInfluências Institucionais e Estratégicas em Decisões de Arquitetura de TI: estudo de casos comparados em empresas brasileiras Influencias Institucionales y Estratégicas en la toma de Decisiones de la Arquitectura de TI: estudio de casos en empresas brasileñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOUZA, Cesar Alexandre

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this paper is to examine the influences on IT architecture decisions by viewing it through the lens of Institutional Theory and of Strategic Choice Theory, using the comparative case studies. Institutional influence can be the result of an external action or of something internal within the organizational, whereas strategic influence is related to the voluntary behavior of managers. The case of a large-scale company, where there is extensive internal policy formalization, was compared to a midsize company with a less mature architecture level. In spite of their differences as to the use of IT architecture, similar findings appeared in both organizations concerning these two influences. Both types of influence act together: the strategic type was most mentioned during interviews, whereas the institutional type appeared in decisions related to innovation and risks.RESUMOEsta pesquisa tem como objetivo examinar as influências sobre as decisões de arquitetura de TI sob as lentes da Teoria Institucional e da Teoria da Escolha Estratégica por meio de estudos de casos comparados. A influência institucional pode ser proveniente de uma ação externa ou de algo interno à organização, ao passo que a influência estratégica está relacionada com a ação voluntária dos gestores. O caso de uma empresa de grande porte, que possui maior formalização de suas políticas, foi comparado com o de outra de médio porte, que está em um estágio de maturidade de arquitetura menos avançado. As duas organizações, apesar de haver diferenças em relação ao uso da arquitetura de TI, apresentaram resultados semelhantes relacionados à atuação dessas duas influências. Ambas as influências agem em conjunto: a estratégica foi a mais mencionada pelos entrevistados e a institucional apareceu pontualmente em decisões que envolviam inovação e riscos.RESUMENA partir de la Teoría Institucional y de la Teoría de la Elección Estrat

  9. Implementation of the balanced scorecard in a brazilian state-owned company: the case of Petrobras El proceso de implantación del balanced scorecard en una empresa estatal brasileña: el caso Petrobras O processo de implantação do balanced scorecard em uma empresa estatal brasileira: o caso Petrobras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Almeida Filgueiras

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Balanced Scorecard (BSC, developed by Kaplan and Norton in 1992, responded to a need for consolidating the performance complexity of the organization and has been increasingly used since then. Among the advantages are the composition and visualization of performance measurements that reflect the company’s business strategy. The BSC summarizes and indicates in a single document, performance from four perspectives, financial, clients, internal processes and learning and growth. This study is important because the BSC is the first systematic attempt to develop a project for a performance evaluation process that focuses on company objectives, coordination of individual decisions and a basis for the organizational learning. Therefore, applicable literature was reviewed and a presentation was made on implementation of the BSC at Petrobras, an integrated state-owned company acting in exploration, production, refining, commercialization and transport of oil and derivatives in Brazil and abroad.El Balanced Scorecard (BSC, desarrollado por Kaplan y Norton en 1992, resultó de la necesidad de captar toda la complejidad del desempeño de la organización, y ha sido amplia y creciente su utilización en empresas y organizaciones. Entre sus contribuciones están la composición y la visualización de medidas de desempeño que reflejen la estrategia de negocios de la empresa. El BSC resume, en un único documento, indicadores de desempeño en cuatro perspectivas: financiera, clientes, procesos internos y aprendizaje, y crecimiento. La importancia del estudio está en el hecho de que el BSC constituye el primer intento sistemático de desarrollar un proyecto para el sistema de evaluación de desempeño que enfoque los objetivos de la empresa, la coordinación de la tomada de decisión individual y la provisión de una base para el aprendizaje organizacional. Así, en este trabajo fue realizada una revisión de la

  10. Genetically modified crops: Brazilian law and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; dos Santos, O J A P; Alves, D P; Brasileiro, B P; Peternelli, L A

    2014-07-07

    In Brazil, the first genetically modified (GM) crop was released in 1998, and it is estimated that 84, 78, and 50% of crop areas containing soybean, corn, and cotton, respectively, were transgenic in 2012. This intense and rapid adoption rate confirms that the choice to use technology has been the main factor in developing national agriculture. Thus, this review focuses on understanding these dynamics in the context of farmers, trade relations, and legislation. To accomplish this goal, a survey was conducted using the database of the National Cultivar Registry and the National Service for Plant Variety Protection of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply [Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA)] between 1998 and October 13, 2013. To date, 36 events have been released: five for soybeans, 18 for corn, 12 for cotton, and one for beans. From these events, 1395 cultivars have been developed and registered: 582 for soybean, 783 for corn and 30 for cotton. Monsanto owns 73.05% of the technologies used to develop these cultivars, while the Dow AgroScience - DuPont partnership and Syngenta have 16.34 and 4.37% ownership, respectively. Thus, the provision of transgenic seeds by these companies is an oligopoly supported by legislation. Moreover, there has been a rapid replacement of conventional crops by GM crops, whose technologies belong almost exclusively to four multinational companies, with the major ownership by Monsanto. These results reflect a warning to the government of the increased dependence on multinational corporations for key agricultural commodities.

  11. A suitable pricing strategy for hybrid maize seed in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.B.A. A general increase in price elasticity on farming inputs as well as increasing pressure on South African subsidiaries of international companies makes it important for a well-planned pricing strategy. This is accentuated by the fact that pricing is normally done only once a year in seed companies in South Africa, and customers are unlikely to accept more frequent price changes. The aim of this study is to determine a suitable pricing strategy for hybrid maize seed for Monsanto in So...

  12. As Gene Giants, os Agrotóxicos e as Sementes Transgênicas: o Papel Regulatório Brasileiro sob a perspectiva do Desenvolvimento Sustentável / The Gene Giants, Pesticides and Genetically Modified Seeds: The Brazilian Regulatory Role from the perspective of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Tullius Fernandes dos Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this study is to analyze the market performance of the gene giants with respect to the production and marketing of pesticides and genetically modified seeds in Brazil, checking the regulatory role regarding control and supervision by the federal government, on par with the discussion on the implementation of sustainable development. Methodology/approach/design – Research of the literature associated with data collection and documents in the period 2005-2015 was implemented at the institutions responsible for the registration, release, control and inspection of GM seeds and pesticides in Brazil, using the institutional theory of law. The main idea is that laws and institutions have not crystallized culture of sustainability, since in their application on cases involving the gene giants economic interests have overshadowed weak regulatory modeling. Findings – There is need to establish a smart regulatory model so that regulation can be implemented by abandoning the one-sided view of the preponderance of economic interest. Only with strong regulatory, social and economic pressures can address the transnational nature of sustainable development in face of the power of big business corporations. Practical implications – Regulatory criteria were developed by avoiding the preponderance of economic interests at the expense of sensitive environmental, social, cultural, and political values.

  13. Seed harvesting is influenced by associational effects in mixed seed neighbourhoods, not just by seed density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan; Klinger, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Rodents frequently forage in a density-dependent manner, increasing harvesting in patches with greater seed densities. Although seldom considered, seed harvesting may also depend on the species identities of other individuals in the seed neighbourhood. When the seed harvest of a focal species increases in association with another seed species, the focal species suffers from Associational Susceptibility. In contrast, if seeds of the focal species are harvested less when in association with a second species, the focal species benefits from Associational Resistance.To evaluate density dependence and associational effects among seeds in mixtures, we conducted seed removal experiments using a completely additive design patterned after a two-species competition experiment using seeds of either Achnatherum hymenoides(Indian ricegrass), Leymus cinereus (basin wildrye) or Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass), all native perennial grasses, combined with seeds of Bromus tectorum(cheatgrass), a non-native annual grass. The experiment involved placing five fixed quantities of the native seeds mixed with five fixed quantities of B. tectorum seeds in a factorial design, resulting in 35 seed mixture combinations. The seed-eating rodent community at our study sites, in order of abundance, is composed of Peromyscus maniculatus (North American deer mouse), Dipodomys ordii (Ord's kangaroo rat) and Perognathus parvus (Great Basin pocket mouse).Native seed harvesting was density dependent, with a greater proportion of seeds being harvested as density increased. In the mixed density model, the presence of B. tectorumdid not affect harvest of any of the native species' seeds when analysed individually. However, when all three native species were analysed together, increasing quantities of B. tectorum resulted in reduced harvest of native seeds, demonstrating weak but significant Associational Resistance. In contrast, harvest of B. tectorum seeds increased

  14. Seeding Event: Creating and Developing Spaces of Entrepreneurial Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëtan Mourmant

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of initiating, fostering and growing a vibrant economy by developing Spaces of Entrepreneurial Freedom (SoEF. Establishing and developing the SoEF is explained by a seeding event which is the core category of this grounded theory. In short, a seeding event leads to the patching of a potential, structural “hole”, which may prove valuable to an entrepreneurial network. Seeding events are started by an initiator who will recognize a network opportunity and exploit it. After event designing, the initiators implement the event through bold experimentation and using an adaptive structure. If the event is considered successful, the next stages are refining, growing, templating and finally replicating; these stages may occur one after the other or simultaneously. Through the development of SoEF, we suggest that entrepreneurs, governments, universities, large companies, and other players in the business world can improve the development of entrepreneurship at their respective levels.

  15. STEPS: A NARRATIVE ACCOUNT OF A GABAPENTIN SEEDING TRIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Samuel D.; Egilman, David S.; Ross, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Seeding trials, clinical studies conducted by pharmaceutical companies for marketing purposes, have rarely been described in detail. Methods We examined all documents relating to the clinical trial Study of Neurontin: Titrate to Effect, Profile of Safety (STEPS) produced during the Neurontin marketing, sales practices and product liability litigation, including company internal and external correspondence, reports, and presentations, as well as depositions elicited in legal proceedings of Harden Manufacturing v. Pfizer and Franklin v. Warner-Lambert, the majority of which were created between 1990 and 2009. Using a systematic search strategy, we identified and reviewed all documents related to the STEPS trial, in order to identify key themes related to the trial’s conduct and determine the extent of marketing involvement in its planning and implementation. Results Documents demonstrated that STEPS was a seeding trial posing as a legitimate scientific study. Documents consistently described the trial itself, not trial results, to be a marketing tactic in the company’s marketing plans. Documents demonstrated that several external sources questioned the validity of the study before execution, and that data quality during the study was often compromised. Furthermore, documents described company analyses examining the impact of participating as a STEPS investigator on rates and dosages of gabapentin prescribing, finding a positive association. None of these findings were reported in two published papers. Conclusions The STEPS trial was a seeding trial, used to promote gabapentin and increase prescribing among investigators, and marketing was extensively involved in its planning and implementation. PMID:21709111

  16. Comparative analysis on the adoption of innovation in furniture companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Reinaldo Hermes Petter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify factors categorical adoption of innovation in three main groups: in products, processes and administrative procedures in a group of micro and small enterprises in the furniture sector, located in the middle western state of Santa Catarina. In particular, the study sought to compare the data of a survey conducted by SEBRAE (2009 observed the same factors present innovation in micro and small businesses scattered throughout the Brazilian territory, in order to compare the national stage for the adoption of innovation in relation the scenario presented by the companies studied in this research. Data collection took place by means of a questionnaire consisting of multiple choice closed questions related to the three aforementioned groups of innovation, which was answered by managers of the constituent companies of the group studied. As a result of this research, it was found that the adoption of innovation in product development is the most important aspect in the surveyed companies. It was also found that they seek to adopt the innovation with the objective of entering new markets. However, the main difficulty in adopting innovation were identified lack of skilled labor, shortage and / or lack of access to technology and financial difficulties. Compared to general adoption of innovation by micro and small enterprises studied by SEBRAE (2009, the studied firms have a tendency to develop in the same direction.

  17. Passages on Brazilian scientific cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Jane; da Silva, Cicero Inacio; Suppia, Alfredo; Stalbaum, Brett

    2017-07-01

    The article examines the conditions of production and recognition of scientific cinema in Brazil by comparing three distinct moments and contexts: the first moment takes place in the nineteenth century, and it is related to the contribution of a Brazilian astronomer otherwise little known to Brazilian film scholars, the second addresses Benedito Junqueira Duarte's voluminous mid-twentieth-century filmography, and the third moment documents recent scientific film experiences within ultra high resolution movies transmitted over photonic networks. Future trajectories for aesthetic concerns and practical issues such as the archiving of ultra high definition cinema are usefully informed by these histories of scientific cinema, even as a current generation of multidisciplinary teams including scientists, filmmakers, computer scientists, and network engineers reinvent, rediscover, and necessarily expand the scientific cinema toward concerns of real time collaboration and teaching.

  18. Compartilhamento e aquisição de competências na estratégia da Empresa Brasileira de Correios e Telégrafos Competence sharing and acquisition strategy organization in Empresa Brasileira de Correios e Telégrafos - ECT (Brazilian Post Office Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Mazzali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendo por referência a proposição de Frechet e Pardo (2005, o trabalho é um estudo explanatório que aborda a estratégia de diversificação da Empresa Brasileira de Correios e Telégrafos (ECT, analisando como o portfolio de recursos influencia e é influenciado pelas decisões de entrada em novos domínios. Trata-se de um estudo de caso assentado no levantamento de ativos tangíveis e intangíveis e na avaliação dos efeitos da atuação em novos segmentos sobre o faturamento da empresa. O estudo confirma a proposição dos autores de referência, apontando para duas lógicas imanentes ao processo de diversificação: utilização de recursos preexistentes para entrar em novos produtos/mercados e para o desenvolvimento de novos recursos. Ademais, pode-se argumentar que um fator dinâmico crucial na evolução da corporação é a interdependênci a ou interação no tempo entre a diversificação de negócios relacionada aos recursos e a diversificação de recursos.Taking Frechet and Pardo's proposition (2005 as reference, this work is an explanatory study that analyzes in depth the strategy of ECT diversification, investigating how the portfolio of resources impacts on and is impacted by the decisions to enter into new domains. It deals with a case study, based on the raising of tangible and intangible assets and the evaluation of the effects of the new participating segments on company revenues. The study confirms the proposition of the reference authors, pointing towards two logics immanent to the diversification process: utilization of pre-existing resources to ingress into new products/markets, and the entering into new products/markets for the development of new resources. Therefore, it may be argued that a crucial dynamic factor in corporate evolution is the interdependency or interaction over time between business diversification related to resources and diversification of resources.

  19. INTERNATIONALIZATION STRATEGIES OF THE BRAZILIAN MEAT AGRIBUSINESS SECTOR: EXPORTS OR DIRECT INVESTMENT ABROAD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Stal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the internationalization strategies of the four largest Brazilian companies in the meat (beef, pork and poultry agribusiness sector, by considering the comparative and competitive advantages of the country and the companies. JBS, Marfrig, Sadia and Perdigão were studied, of which the last two merged in May 2009, forming Brasil Foods. The authors looked into what led these companies to start investing  abroad directly, as from 2005, as a complement to their exports, the preferred strategy for placing products in foreign markets. The research method used was the multiple case study, drawing on primary data (interviews, corporate annual reports, financial statements, press releases and shareholder information and secondary data (theses, dissertations, academic articles, reports in newspapers and business journals, using bibliographic and documentary research. Everything was analyzed in the light of international business and strategy theories. The results show that exports still predominate and that investing directly abroad was, in principle, a reactive strategy to sanitary barriers against Brazilian products. However, the acquisition of companies in restriction-free countries has increased as part of a forward-looking strategy for gaining access to new markets and strengthening brands. Key-words: Agribusiness. Internationalization. Strategy. 

  20. PERFORMANCE IN CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE BRAZILIAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the cross-border acquisitions made by Brazilian companies over the past 15 years have improved their financial performance. Drawing on institutional, sociocultural, and organizational learning theories, this study develops and empirically tests several hypotheses on the determinants of M&A performance. The results demonstrate that the cross-border acquisition moves by Brazilian companies actually improve their financial performance. Financial performance tends to be positive when the cultural distance between the countries of the acquiring and acquired companies is low to medium and when the institutional context of the acquired company is a developed one. We also found an inverted-U shape relationship between acquiring companies’ previous international M&A experience and the performance of a new cross-border operation. These findings suggest that research on international M&As should include acquirers’ M&A experience as well as the institutional characteristics of their target countries.

  1. Control of seed borne diseasees in organic seed propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Borgen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Introduction The key control measure of plant diseases in organic agriculture is crop rotation, mixed cropping and moderate fertilization. A wide range of plant diseases can be controlled or minimized in this way. However, at least one group of plant diseases, the seed borne diseases, cannot. The seed borne diseases are not transmitted through the soil, and crop rotation is therefore an insufficient tool. Mixed cropping is impractical in seed propagation, where seed purity according to the...

  2. Brands Repositioning: Brazilian case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Serralvo, Francisco Antonio; Furrier, Márcio Tadeu

    2008-01-01

    Based on the assumption of the increasing relevance of both brand positioning and equity in the context of marketing management in competitive environments, the objective of this work was to deepen the existing knowledge on the brand repositioning process. Four theoretical models of reference obtained after literature review supported the empiric verification represented by content analysis of six reports (cases) of Brazilian brands repositioning experiences awarded with the “Top of Marketing...

  3. Brazilian Participation in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-15

    internal rebellions and secessionist movements such as the Canudos rebellion in 1897 and 1898 in Bahia province. As a 2 result, the Brazilian Army...Brazilian Army would play an important role in ending this dictatorship. Brazil had accepted large numbers of Italian and German immigrants for more than...including the Brazilian Armed Forces. They had a significant influence on decision makers. In the 1930s, German immigrants numbered more than 900,000 and

  4. Teoria dos Stakeholders e Teoria da Firma: um estudo sobre a hierarquização das funções-objetivo em empresas brasileirasStakeholders Theory and Theory of the Firm: a study on the hierarchy of objective- functions in Brazilian companiesTeoría de los Stakeholders y Teoría de la Firma: un estudio sobre la jerarquización de las funciones objetivo, en empresas brasileñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOAVENTURA, João Maurício Gama

    2009-09-01

    desta pesquisa buscando aprimoramentos visando à ampliação da amostra e, por conseguinte, viabilizando o emprego de outras técnicas estatísticas que permitam a análise do fenômeno estudado de forma mais minuciosa.ABSTRACTDiscussions opposing the Theory of the Firm to the Theory of Stakeholders are contemporaneous and polemical. One focal point of such debates refers to which objective-function companies should choose, whether that of the shareholders or that of the stakeholders, and whether it is possible to opt for both simultaneously. Several empirical studies have attempted to test a possible correlation between both functions, and there has not been any consensus so far. The objective of the present research is to examine a gap in such discussions: is there (or not a subordination of the stakeholders´ objective-function to that of the shareholders? The research is empirical and analytical and employs quantitative methods. Hypotheses were tested and data analyzed by using non-parametrical (chi-square test and parametrical procedures (frequency correlation coefficient. Secondary data was collected from the Economática database and from the Brazilian Institute of Social and Economic Analyses (IBASE website, relative to public companies that have published their Social Balance Statements following the IBASE model from 1999 to 2006, whose sample amounted to 65 companies. In order to assess the objective-function of shareholders a proxy was created based on the following three indices: ROE (return on equity, EnterpriseValue and Tobin´s Q. In order to assess the objective-function of stakeholders a proxy was created by employing the following IBASE social balance indices: internal ones (ISI, external ones (ISE, and environmental ones (IAM. The results have shown no evidence of subordination of stakeholders´ objective-function to that of the shareholders in analyzed companies, negating initial expectations and calling for deeper investigation of results. Its main

  5. 12 CFR 583.6 - Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Company. 583.6 Section 583.6 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.6 Company. The term company means any corporation, partnership, trust, joint-stock company, or similar organization, but does not include: (a) The Federal Deposit Insurance...

  6. Corporate Culture and Productive Restructuring in Brazilian industry: The Lupo Case S / A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Carvalho de Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Founded in 1921, the company currently known as Lupo S/A is one of the most ancient textile and clothing industries in Brazil. In this article we aim to describe the general lines of the trajectory of this family company, currently producing socks, nightwear and sports articles. The focus of this paper is on the analysis of some strategies used by the company along its formation and development process, and, particularly, the way these strategies made possible the productive restructuring associated to the overcoming of the strong crisis which began in the end of the 80's and early 90's, contributing to its recent consolidation in the clothing industry. The leading hypothesis of the study is that pioneering connected to a strong organizational culture that has been formed and constructed since its foundation and that was reestablished in a more recent management were the factors which were responsible for the advances able to generate an innovation environment in products as well as in processes and management. The theoretical reflection selected to subsidize the cognitive construction of the study of the company is based on the historical approach of the development of the textile industry in Brazil and in studies about the importance of the action of the entrepreneur, in the role of the organizational culture and LORENZO, H.C. & CAÍRES, A.C.R. of innovation to choose strategies in companies. The research involved the analysis of documents and data of the company, as well as interviews with directors and employees. The results show a traditional company model, but also show the presence of a very advanced entrepreneurial dynamic. Modern world – known as a fordist industrial model – could already be noticed in the company when this production pattern was not clearly defined yet in the Brazilian industry. Nowadays, the company faces the challenge of globalization and the open competition in the international market which brings the rivalry

  7. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depaoli, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  8. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  9. Restoration seed reserves for assisted gene flow within seed orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.S. Echt; B.S. Crane

    2017-01-01

    Changing climate and declining forest populations imperil the future of certain forest tree species. To complement forest management and genetic conservation plans, we propose a new paradigm for seedling seed orchards: foster genetic mixing among a variety of seed sources to increase genetic diversity and adaptive potential of seed supplies used for forest restoration...

  10. Cowpea seed coat chemical analysis in relation to storage seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field emergence of stored cowpea seeds in the tropical environment is a major limitation to its production, particularly in cultivars with unpigmented seed coats. To determine the storage potential of cowpea, seeds of five cultivars comprising two pigmented and three unpigmented ones were subjected to controlled ...

  11. combining high seed number and weight to improve seed yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    ABSTRACT. Increasing seed size and seed weight is an important trait for trade, yield component and adaptation of chickpea. (Cicer arietinum). ..... between photosynthesis and seed number at phloem isolated nodes in soybean. Crop. Science39: 1769-1775. Carlson, J.B. 1973. Morphology. pp. 17-95. In: Wilcox, J.R. (Ed.).

  12. Cone and seed yields in white spruce seed production areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Pitcher

    1966-01-01

    The source of seed is an important consideration in the reforestation program on the National Forests in the North Central Region. Thirty-five seed production areas have been set up in the Region, along the lines proposed by the North Central Forest Experiment Station, to provide control of seed source. Red pine, white pine, shortleaf and loblolly pine, and white...

  13. Seed-feeding insects impacting globemallow seed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Hammon; Melissa Franklin

    2012-01-01

    Weevils (Anthonomus sphaeralciae Fall [Coleoptera: Curculionidae]), which attack flowers and developing seeds, can significantly impact globemallow Sphaeralcea spp. A. St.-Hil. (Malvaceae) seed production without a grower even noticing there was insect damage. This weevil damaged almost one-quarter of the flowers in a seed production field in Delta County, Colorado,...

  14. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  15. Lower seed rates favor seed multiplication ratio with minimal impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted in split plot design of three replications to determine effects of four sowing rates (50, 75, 100, 125 kg ha-1) and three row spacing (10, 20, 30 cm) on seed multiplication ratio, seed yield, and seed quality of wheat at Kulumsa and Assasa from 2012 to 2014. Results indicated that ...

  16. Utility of avocado pear seed ( Persea Americana ), mango seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition and amino acid profile of three plant materials, Avocado pear seed (Persea americana), mango seed (Magifera indica) and bean seed coat (Phaseolus vulgaris) were determined. Crude protein varied from 2.0 ± 0.06% in Magifera indica to 3.73 ± 0.08% in Persea americana. Generally, the amino ...

  17. Effect of Genotypes and Seed Production Environments on Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen genetically diverse sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes were grown under three diverse plant populations during 2001 and 2002 cropping seasons. Seeds Jrom each harvest were subjected to different seed quality tests and data generated were analyzed. Seed quality traits were considerably affected by ...

  18. STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Cristina VASILE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article intends to show how multinational companies gain market share and visibility by using the appropriate strategic communication. The study evaluate the base framework, analysis, tools, data sources, sets of improvement plans and results that some multinational companies obtain by using strategic communication. The analysed companies are American based mainly communicative corporations and it will be underlined the importance of communication in the current economic environment. The results will show how important strategic communication is along the information used and the strategic management in targeting the position in the market.

  19. Allelopathic Activity of Extracts from Different Brazilian Peanut (Arachis hypogaeaL.) Cultivars on Lettuce(Lactuca sativa)and Weed Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casimiro, G S; Mansur, E; Pacheco, G; Garcia, R; Leal, I C R; Simas, N K

    2017-01-01

    Peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) is the fourth most consumed oleaginous plant in the world, producing seeds with high contents of lipids, proteins, vitamins, and carbohydrates. Biological activities of different extracts of this species have already been evaluated by many researchers, including antioxidant, antitumoral, and antibacterial. In this work, the allelopathic activity of extracts from different Brazilian peanut cultivars against lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and two weed plants ( Commelina benghalensis and Ipomoea nil ) was studied. Aerial parts, roots, seeds, and seed coats were used for the preparation of crude extracts. Seed extract partitioning was performed with n -hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n -butanol, and aqueous residue. Germination and growth of hypocotyls and rootlets were evaluated after one and five days of incubation with plant extracts, respectively. Crude seed extract and its dichloromethanic partition displayed highest allelopathic activity. These results contribute for the study of new potential natural herbicides.

  20. SEEDS AND Abelmoschus esculentus (OKRA)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    , .... process. Sample Preparations and Treatments. The kernel of Irvingia gabonensis was obtained by cracking the shell to separate out the seeds from the shell. The seeds were .... the basis of industrial processing involving water, Irvingia ...

  1. Heterogeneity in earnings quality between different classes of companies after IFRS adoption: evidence from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Black

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper aims to investigate the existence of heterogeneity in earnings quality between different classes of companies after the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. IFRS adoption is generally associated with an increase in the quality of financial statements. However, companies within the same country are likely to have different economic incentives regarding the disclosure of information. Thus, treating companies equally, without considering the related economic incentives, could contaminate earnings quality investigations. The case of Brazil is analyzed, which is a country classified as code-law, in which tax laws determined accounting practice and in which IFRS adoption is mandatory. First, Brazilian companies listed on the São Paulo Stock, Commodities, and Futures Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA were separated into two classes: companies issuing American Depositary Receipts (ADRs before IFRS adoption and companies that did not issue ADRs until the adoption of IFRS. Then, this second class of companies was grouped, using cluster analysis, into two different subclasses according to economic incentives. Based on the groups identified, the quality of accounting earnings is tested for each class of the companies before and after IFRS adoption. This paper uses timely recognition of economic events, value relevance of net income, and earnings management as proxies for the quality of accounting earnings. The results indicate that a particular class of companies began showing conditional conservatism, value relevance of net income, and lower earnings management after IFRS adoption. On the other hand, these results were not found for the two other classes of companies.

  2. Brazilian union actions for workers' health protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repullo Junior, Rodolpho; Gomes, Jorge da Rocha

    2005-01-02

    Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. Qualitative study. Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saúde Publica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights guarantees and amplifies the improvement of health and working conditions.

  3. Brazilian union actions for workers' health protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolpho Repullo Junior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. OBJECTIVE: To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. TYPE OF STUDY: Qualitative study. SETTING: Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. DISCUSSION: Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. CONCLUSIONS: The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights

  4. 75 FR 19963 - Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Florida Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental... Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC (FGT) and the Pascagoula Expansion Project proposed by FGT and...

  5. Seed coat sculpturing in Halophila

    OpenAIRE

    Japar, Sidik Bujang; Muta, Harah Zakaria; Suzalina, Akma Awing; Nojima, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao

    2006-01-01

    This study furnishes information on external morphology of the seed coats of selected Halophila. Fruiting plants of Halophila beccarii, H. ovalis, H. decipiens, Halophila sp. were collected from various locations around Malaysia and including Halophila stipulacea from Mauritus. Seeds extracted from mature fruits were fixed in 2.5% glutaradehyde. Fixed seeds were washed in 0.1M Sodium cacodylate buffer at 4℃ for 10 minutes. The washing procedure was repeated three times. The seeds were dehydra...

  6. CONVOCATION REGIMES FOR ENVIRONMENTALISM IN BRAZILIAN BUSINESS MAGAZINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Prates

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The tensions between the liberal-capitalist discourse and the antagonistic discourses of environmentalism are of special interest in Brazil. This paper outlines a study of the convocation regimes employed in environmental reports published in 2010 in the two most prominent Brazilian economics and business magazines, whose communication contracts propose the modalization of executives and companies towards economic success. Its objective is to analyze how enunciators thematize environmental antagonisms while keeping their general communication contract within the liberal-capitalist paradigm. The enunciator constitutes a regime of sameness/otherness, where sameness is built upon the terms of the reformist orientation of environmentalism, while deep ecology and radical ecology are presented as othernesses. The nodal points that connect the chains of equivalence of the discursive field of environmentalism, in terms of environmental reformist sameness, or “sustainability,” are technology and efficient management, which return the reader to the original communication agreement.  

  7. Convocation regimes for environmentalism in Brazilian business magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luiz Aidar Prado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The tensions between the liberal-capitalist discourse and the antagonistic discourses of environmentalism are of special interest in Brazil. This paper outlines a study of the convocation regimes employed in environmental reports published in 2010 in the two most prominent Brazilian economics and business magazines, whose communication contracts propose the modalization of executives and companies towards economic success. Its objective is to analyze how enunciators thematize environmental antagonisms while keeping their general communication contract within the liberal-capitalist paradigm. The enunciator constitutes a regime of sameness/otherness, where sameness is built upon the terms of the reformist orientation of environmentalism, while deep ecology and radical ecology are presented as othernesses. The nodal points that connect the chains of equivalence of the discursive field of environmentalism, in terms of environmental reformist sameness, or “sustainability,” are technology and efficient management, which return the reader to the original communication agreement.

  8. Managing Communication among Geographically Distributed Teams: A Brazilian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ana Carina M.; de Farias Junior, Ivaldir H.; de S. Carneiro, Pedro Jorge

    The growing demand for qualified professionals is making software companies opt for distributed software development (DSD). At the project conception, communication and synchronization of information are critical factors for success. However problems such as time-zone difference between teams, culture, language and different development processes among sites could difficult the communication among teams. In this way, the main goal of this paper is to describe the solution adopted by a Brazilian team to improve communication in a multisite project environment. The purposed solution was based on the best practices described in the literature, and the communication plan was created based on the infrastructure needed by the project. The outcome of this work is to minimize the impact of communication issues in multisite projects, increasing productivity, good understanding and avoiding rework on code and document writing.

  9. CONCEPT OF A JOINT STOCK COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojo Belovski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Companies are classified in two separate groups. One is the so-called personal type of companies, the other is the capital type. Companies of capital are those whose essence is joining of capital. Unlike companies of capital, where for the work of the company it is important to raise capital from various sources, regardless of the fact who the persons giving it are, the personal type of companies are based on persons who make up that company. Out of the companies provided by the laws on companies only two are pure types of companies of capital, i.e. companies of persons without any qualities that are attributed to the other type of companies. A joint stock company has, solely, the characteristics of a company of capital. The prototype of a personal company type is the public trade company. A company is, in fact, a union of those persons. In the company of persons each partner agrees to participate in the company, valuing the personality of the other stakeholders (intuitively person.

  10. Drying on the germination and vigor of Crataeva tapia L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Ursulino Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Crataeva tapia L. is a fruit native to the Brazilian savanna, the Caatinga, and is used in the production of soft drinks and other beverages. Given the importance of this species and the lack of knowledge about its seeds, this research aimed to evaluate the physiological quality of C. tapia L. seeds subjected to different environments and drying periods. Seeds were dried for the following time periods: 0 (no drying, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours, in the laboratory environment (25°C and 90% RH and in a greenhouse (30°C and 80% RH. After the drying period, seeds from each of the treatments were used for determining the water content, germination, and vigor (using tests for emergence, first count of germination and emergence, rate of germination and emergence, length, and seedling dry weight. The experimental design was completely randomized and a factorial 2×6 scheme (local environment × drying periods was used with four replicate sets of seeds. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial regression using quadratic models. The germination and seed vigor reduced as the drying periods increased. For optimum results, the seeds of C. tapia L. must be dried in the laboratory for a period of 48 hours. In addition, their desiccation resistance was classified as intermediate.

  11. Participation of the Nuclear Power Plants in the New Brazilian Electric Energy Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, S.G.

    2004-10-06

    A new regulation framework has been established for the Brazilian electric energy market by a law put into effect on March 15,2004. The main overall goals of this new regulation are: to allow the lowest possible tariffs for end users, while providing the necessary economic incentives for the operation of present installations (generating plants, transmission lines, distribution networks) and the expansion of the system; long-term planning of the extension of the installations required to meet the demand growth; separation of the generation, transmission and distribution activities by allocating them into different companies; new contracts between generating and distribution companies must result from bidding processes based on lowest-tariff criteria; and energy from new generating units required to meet the demand growth must be contracted by all distributing companies integrated to the National Interconnected Grid, in individual amounts proportional to their respective markets.

  12. The Application of RFID in Brazilian Harvest Facilities: Two Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Cristina Cabral Ribeiro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Using the two case studies presented in this work, this article aims to evaluate identification technology used in the Brazilian cattle market. Although Brazil possesses large companies in this sector (one of which is the largest exporter of meat in the world some of them have yet to implement information technology (IT for cattle identification purposes. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID is an IT that identifies cattle using electronic ear tags. This particular form of technology is especially accurate and dependable as it can be used to trace a product from the origin of conception to the consumer. This paper utilizes a qualitative approach – two case studies – which were created with the application of a questionnaire (open and closed questions. Using RFID for internal control purposes only, each of the sample companies has limited use of the technology. Instead, these companies use barcode systems to trace and identify cattle and to send important information to their supply chain partners.

  13. Discretionary-Based Disclosure: Evidence from the Brazilian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dal-Ri Murcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to identify the factors that explain Brazilian companies’ level of voluntary disclosure. Underpinning this work is the Discretionary-based Disclosure theory. The sample is composed of the top 100 largest non-financial companies listed in the Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (Brazilian Securities, Commodities, and Futures exchange - BOVESPA. Information was gathered from Financial Statements for the years ending in 2006, 2007, and 2008, with the use of content analysis. A disclosure framework based on 27 studies from these years was created, with a total of 92 voluntary items divided into two dimensions: economic (43 and socio-environmental (49. Based on the existing literature, a total of 12 hypotheses were elaborated and tested using a panel data approach. Results evidence that: (a Sector and Origin of Control are statistically significant in all three models tested: economic, socio-environmental, and total; (b ‘Profitability’ is relevant in the economic model and in the total model; (c Tobin’s Q is relevant in the socio-environmental model and in the total disclosure model; (d Leverage and Auditing Firm are only relevant in the economic disclosure model; (e Size, Governance, Stock Issuing, Growth Opportunities and Concentration of Control are not statistically significant in any of the three models.

  14. Efficiency of Brazilian public and private water utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo da Silva e Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares cost efficiencies of Brazilian public and private companies of water supply. To measure efficiency a Cobb-Douglas stochastic cost frontier model including technical effects is estimated by maximum likelihood to a panel of Brazilian firms for the period 2002 -2004. The statistical results indicate that there is evidence that public firms are more efficient although the difference in efficiency is declining over time. Overall the system of water and sewerage supply is becoming more efficient over time.Este artigo compara eficiências custo de empresas publicas e privadas brasileiras de oferta de água. Para mensurar a eficiência faz-se uso de um modelo de fronteira estocástica definido por meio de uma função custo na família Cobb-Douglas. A especificação da fronteira inclui efeitos técnicos. Estima-se o modelo pelo método de máxima verossimilhança para um painel de firmas brasileiras observadas no período 20022004. Os resultados estatísticos indicam evidência de que as firmas públicas são mais eficientes, embora a diferença em eficiência esteja declinando no período analisado. De um modo geral, o sistema de oferta de água e saneamento está se tornando mais eficiente ao longo do tempo.

  15. Trade Companies and their Classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P. Tărchilă

    2013-01-01

    The Romanian legislation does not define anyhow the concept of companies. It was the merit of the doctrine, which attempted such a definition, starting usually from the provisions of the Civil Code, which in art...

  16. LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENTS IN SLOVENIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kohont

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the relationship between the company and the leaders. We are interested what is characteristic of leadership in the best Slovenian companies. We used standardised employee questionnaire and data gathered in the Golden thread project. We observe the situation in these companies in the period between 2007 and 2014 to find out if there are any significant changes in leadership developments. Special attention in leadership observation is devoted to 1. The fundamental relationship between the company and the leaders, 2. The role and quality of leaders work, 3. Organizational culture, climate and relationships, 4. Entrepreneurship and innovation, 5. The quality of the working environment, 6. The personal growth and development and 7. Emotional commitment. The analysis represents an insight into current leadership situation and shows that the recent developments were heavily marked by the economic crisis, especially in 2009.

  17. East India Company Logbooks - Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection consists of images of 1,235 ship logbooks created during British East India Company voyages. Period of record 1786-1834, peaking in 1804. The...

  18. THE INNOVATIVE COMPANIES IN MODERN ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina F. Maksimova; Viktor M. Askinadzi

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to innovations, innovative companies and the classification of innovative companies. The paper examines approaches to the ranking of innovative companies with regard to innovation premium.

  19. Human resource policy and Danish multinational companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Daniel; Søborg, Henrik

    A study of Danish multinational companies' human resource policy in their subsidiaries in Malaysia and Singapore.The sample of companies consists of 8 Danish multinational companies with activities in both Malaysia and Singapore....

  20. Seed systems support in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munyi, Peter; Jonge, De Bram

    2015-01-01

    The threats of climate change and rising food prices have stirred renewed attention for seed and food security in Africa, inviting new thinking on the role of seed sector development in coping with these concerns. One conceptual framework that has gained attention is the Integrated Seed Sector

  1. Sexual reproduction, seeds, and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter T. McDonough

    1985-01-01

    Natural genetic interchange and extensive colonization of aspen by seed strongly depends upon favorable climatic and microclimatic conditions and upon human intervention. At times, in regions with the right combination of environmental conditions, there is significant L, reproduction by seed; elsewhere such establishment is rare. Seed production generally is profuse;...

  2. Germination of red alder seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell

    1981-01-01

    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  3. Characterization of amaranth seed oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The oil fractions of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. seeds were studied after different treatments of the seeds. The oil contents were 7.1 and 8.5% for raw A. caudatus L. and A. cruentus L. seeds, and consisted of 80.3¿82.3% of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Phospholipids represented

  4. Seed for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassena Beko, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia is an agrarian country where agriculture dominates the economy, and thus agriculture is considered as an engine of growth by the government. Seed as one of the agricultural technologies, in fact, a carrier of many technologies, is critical to increasing production, but the use of quality

  5. The SEED Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  6. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  7. Prosopis Africana SEEDS (OKPEYE)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    F. U. Asoiro1,* and C. J. Ohagwu2. 1, 2, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL AND BIORESOURCES ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA, NIGERIA .... Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) [14]. 2.2 Determination of Moisture ..... corn and Gupta and Das [43] for sunflower seed. PA has the highest bulk density at ...

  8. International Companies in Fragile States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patey, Luke; Kragelund, Peter

    Denmark must not fail to promote corporate social responsibility in fragile states. International companies remain active in these environments, and often worsen rather than alleviate poor governance. Financial transparency and human rights initiatives offer the first step in ensuring that this d......Denmark must not fail to promote corporate social responsibility in fragile states. International companies remain active in these environments, and often worsen rather than alleviate poor governance. Financial transparency and human rights initiatives offer the first step in ensuring...

  9. Corporate Mobility and Company Law

    OpenAIRE

    Ferran, Eilís

    2016-01-01

    Globalisation has given commercial parties more freedom to choose the company law system that best suits their private needs. The growing range of techniques to facilitate choice between systems of company law reshapes the mandatory/enabling debate in countries where corporate mobility is a relatively new business phenomenon and where the past focus has mostly been on degrees of flexibility within domestic law. This article examines relocations, both out of and into the UK, as a source of lea...

  10. Seeding big sagebrush successfully on Intermountain rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer; Thomas W. Warren

    2015-01-01

    Big sagebrush can be seeded successfully on climatically suitable sites in the Great Basin using the proper seeding guidelines. These guidelines include using sufficient quantities of high-quality seed of the correct subspecies and ecotype, seeding in late fall to mid-winter, making sure that the seed is not planted too deeply, and seeding into an environment...

  11. Tree Seed Technology Training Course: Student Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, F. T.; And Others

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses and covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling,…

  12. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed, if...

  13. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed...

  14. Trade and Transfer of Tree Seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    When seed producers and seed users are geographically or functionally separated, seeds are transferred from producers to users. In market-oriented systems, transfer includes the pricing of seed, which reflects the procurement cost and seed quality. Physiological quality is documented via the seed...

  15. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation or...

  16. Analysis Of Employee Engagement And Company Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mekel, Peggy A.; Saerang, David P.E; Silalahi, Immanuel Maradopan

    2014-01-01

    Employee could be a competitive advantage of a company if company manages its employees well. The success of a company could be seen from how a company manages their employees and engages their employees. Most of big companies put their employees in top priority in order to keep their top performance. These big companies manage their employees and try to engage their employees so that their employees could generate high performance. In this study, employee engagement is the factor to examine ...

  17. Trade Companies and their Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tărchilă

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian legislation does not define anyhow the concept of companies. It was the merit of the doctrine, which attempted such a definition, starting usually from the provisions of the Civil Code, which in art. 1491 defines the civil society, for the purpose of the memorandum of the association1. For that matter, also in the specialized foreign doctrine (ex. the French doctrine companies are defined based on similar concepts, but standardized by the Civil Code. The two meanings that the company has to be regarded through, also explain the very specific legal matter, a matter of concepts resulting from understanding the concept of memorandum of association and the company-institution. Thus, the contractual conception, imposed by the development of the contract theory in the last century, explains the existence of the companies starting from the validity conditions imposed to any contract and from the contractual techniques that establish the relationships formed within the society (for example, the company management is based on a mandate contract under which the executive operates.

  18. Compliance with Environmental and Social Legislation in Certified Forestry Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Santana Leite

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of the FSC forestry certification system to improve the forestry sector, in terms of compliance to environmental and social laws and improvements in working conditions resulting from the certification process. Thirty-seven auditing reports from five Brazilian forestry companies were evaluated, throughout the 2006-2013 period. Non-compliance and observations were analyzed and organized into categories, which identified the main performance issues found in certified forestry organizations. 301 instances of non-compliance and 138 observations of audit reports were verified, where 48 and 57% respectively, were linked to the two principles studied. For obtaining and/or maintaining the certificate it is necessary for all violations to be resolved. Therefore, it was concluded that forest certification contributes to the advancement of the forestry sector in Brazil, in relation to compliance with legal, social and labor issues.

  19. 75 FR 11228 - Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Manufacturers Alliance Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Manufacturers Alliance Insurance Company....C. 9305 to the following company: Manufacturers Alliance Insurance Company (NAIC 36897). Business... tong as the companies remain qualified ] (see 31 CFR part 223). A list of qualified companies is...

  20. 75 FR 22689 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Regent Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Regent Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial... following company: Regent Insurance Company (NAIC 24449) Business Address: One General Drive, Sun Prairie... renewal as long as the companies remain qualified (see 31 CFR part 223). A list of qualified companies is...

  1. 77 FR 8956 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Grange Mutual Casualty Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Grange Mutual Casualty Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Grange Mutual Casualty Company (NAIC 14060). Business Address: 671 South... long as the companies remain qualified (see 31 CFR part 223). A list of qualified companies is...

  2. 75 FR 11228 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Pennsylvania Manufacturers Indemnity Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Pennsylvania Manufacturers Indemnity Company....C. 9305 to the following company: Pennsylvania Manufacturers Indemnity Company (NAIC 41424... renewal as long as the companies remain qualified (see 31 CFR part 223). A list of qualified companies is...

  3. THE WHOLESALE COMPANIES AS A LINK BETWEEN THE TWO CIRCUITS OF URBAN ECONOMY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Xavier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current space division of labour increases the importance of circulation in production process and imposes a rapid and more frequent replacement of supplies, according to shorter stated periods, both in industry and retail. In Brazil, the opening of the economy, imposing a bigger competitiveness to the companies, and the social and territorial expansion of consumption have affected the organization and the structure of the wholesale companies. In reply, the logistics, as the management of the flow of goods, information and other resources, has enhanced the activities of planning and control. As the logistics becomes more important, a new organization of territory arises, increasing the relationships among places. Thus, we conclude that the wholesale distributors continue exerting a significant role in the intermediation between the industry and small retail. The modernization of Brazilian wholesale companies confirms the link existing between the two circuits of urban economy in Brazil.

  4. A characterization of performance measures for measuring postponement strategies: case studies in food companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Araújo Ferreira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The postponement strategy is more and more used by companies with the increasing complexity and variety of products, currently required by the market. In essence, the postponement is used to delay as much as possible the final configuration and/or movement of products and services, until the demand known. Despite the increasing attention to the subject, little is known about is implementation, especially in the Brazilian food industry. This research aims to investigate how the postponement strategy is applied to food companies and what performance measures that can be used to evaluate the results of this application. To meet these goals were developed six exploratory case studies in orange juice and fruits processing companies. The results allow comparing the performance measures found in the literature with those obtained in empirical research and systematize them in order to obtain a list of performance measures for measuring postponement strategies.

  5. [Effects of seed priming on vigor of Prunella vulgaris seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Xiu; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Wang, Yan-Ru

    2008-03-01

    To select an effective way to enhance vigor of Prunella vulgaris seeds. Three population seeds were treated at the 20 degrees C and dark enviroment. Priming with 20% - 30% PEG and 200 - 400 mg x L(-1) GA3 could enhance seeds germination and vigor. Germination percentage of three population seeds treated with 0. 6% - 3.0% NaCl reduced, but they started to germinate in advance. Treated with 0.6% - 2.4% KNO3-KH2PO4, germination rate and vigor of seeds in Zijinshan and Pan' an both increased and the one in Bozhou decreased. Vigor of P. vulgaris seed treated with PEG and GA3 under proper concentration increases, while treated with KNO3-KH2PO, and NaCl low vigor seeds germination rate reduces.

  6. Seed production and quality of maize in High Valleys of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Virgen-Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to increase the productivity of maize in High Valleys of Mexico, at the Valley of México and Bajio Experimental Stations of the National Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research (INIFAP. The following activities were carried out: production of registered seed to strengthen seed micro- enterprises of national capital, quality evaluation of certified seed, and generation of production technology. Between 2005 and 2013, 46.71 tons of registered seed of the hybrids parents: H-40, H-48, H-50, H-52, H-66, H-70 and H-161, and the varieties: VS-22, V-54A and V-55A were produced and sold to 31 seed producers in the Estado de Mexico, Tlaxcala, Puebla, Hidalgo, Morelos, Guanajuato, Michoacan, and Jalisco; that satisfied 60 % of demand per year (8.68 t. In 2013 and 2014, agreements were signed between INIFAP and four micro-enterprises to produce registered seeds. The certified seed produced by companies reached certification standards, germination percentage ≥ 85, 98% pure seed and less than 2% inert matter; test weight between 72 and 78 kg/hl, thousand seed weight between 288 and 361 g and genetic quality between 96 and 98 % of the true type plants. The study identified information about locations, potential yields, population density, and planting dates for the production of parents, lines and single crosses, in the Estado de Mexico and Tlaxcala.

  7. Global 5-methylcytosine alterations in DNA during ageing of Quercus robur seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Marcin; Plitta-Michalak, Beata P; Naskręt-Barciszewska, Mirosława; Barciszewski, Jan; Bujarska-Borkowska, Barbara; Chmielarz, Paweł

    2015-09-01

    Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the management of plant growth, development and response to stress factors, and several reports have indicated that DNA methylation plays a critical role in seed development and viability. This study examines changes in 5-methylcytosine (m(5)C) levels in the DNA of seeds during ageing, a process that has important implications for plant conservation and agriculture. Changes in the global level of m(5)C were measured in mature seeds of oak, Quercus robur. The extent of DNA methylation was measured using a protocol based on two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Viability of seeds was determined by germination and seedling emergence tests. An ageing-related decrease in total m(5)C during storage of recalcitrant seeds was highly and significantly correlated with a decrease in seed viability, as reflected by a reduction in germination (r = 0·8880) and seedling emergence (r = 0·8269). The decrease in viability during ageing of Q. robur seeds is highly correlated with a global decline in the amount of m(5)C in genomic DNA, and it is possible that this may represent a typical response to ageing and senescence in recalcitrant seeds. Potential mechanisms that drive changes in genomic DNA methylation during ageing are discussed, together with their implications for seed viability. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Indigenous reclamation : oilsands sites can be reclaimed with naturally occurring seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.L.M.

    2007-04-15

    Some oilsands sites are now being reclaimed through the use of indigenous seeds. This article discussed reclamation activities undertaken by Arctic Alpine, a company that is currently developing over 50 varieties of grasses and legume seed collections for use in oilsands remediation projects. The company's products have been used for reclamation and re-vegetation projects in various national and provincial parks, as well as at tailings ponds and mining sites in Canada and internationally. Before selecting the appropriate seeds, the sites are carefully evaluated in order to determine its latitude, longitude, altitude and ecosystem type. The existing undisturbed ecosystem botany surrounding the reclamation site is also examined. The commercial availability of appropriate indigenous species suitable for the re-vegetation of the site is also assessed. Indigenous seeds are ideal colonizers of disturbed sites as they help sites to attain an earlier balance with the surrounding landscape. Once they are established, indigenous seeds do not require irrigation, fertilization, or maintenance. The seeds are also resistant to indigenous pests and diseases, and will not become invasive. Arctic Alpine has continued to develop seed varieties that are capable of adapting to harsh northern winter conditions. Their grasses and legumes have been selected to quickly propagate in adverse conditions. While land use planners and regulators are increasingly interested in phytoremediation strategies, only a few oilsands reclamation projects are using indigenous seeds. It was concluded that a large increase in the number of projects using indigenous seeds is anticipated in the next 5 years, due to the fact that more and more indigenous seed varieties are now commercially available. 1 fig.

  10. First direct seeding at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltezopoulos, Theophilos; Azima, Armin; Boedewadt, Joern; Curbis, Francesca; Delsim-Hashemi, Hossein; Drescher, Markus; Hass, Eugen; Hipp, Ulrich; Lechner, Christoph; Miltchev, Velizar; Mittenzwey, Manuel; Rehders, Marie; Roensch-Schulenburg, Juliane; Rossbach, Joerg; Schulz, Michael; Tarkeshian, Roxana; Wieland, Marek [University of Hamburg and CFEL (Germany); Ackermann, Sven; Bajt, Sasa; Duesterer, Stefan; Faatz, Bart; Felber, Matthias; Feldhaus, Josef; Honkavaara, Katja; Laarmann, Tim; Schlarb, Holger; Schreiber, Siegfried; Schroedter, Lasse; Tischer, Markus [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Ischebeck, Rasmus [PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Khan, Shaukat [DELTA, Dortmund (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Direct seeding with a high-harmonic generation source can improve the spectral, temporal, and coherence properties of a free-electron-laser (FEL) and reduces intensity- and arrival-time fluctuations. In the seeding experiment at the XUV-FEL in Hamburg, FLASH, which is normally operated in the self-amplified spontaneous emission mode, the 21st harmonic of an 800 nm laser is focused into a dedicated seeding undulator. The interaction with the relativistic electrons acts as an amplifier for the seed radiation. We present the setup of the seeding section of FLASH and first experimental results.

  11. The relation between the board of directors, performance, work and risk in the brazilian stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Martins de Paiva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the Corporate Governance mechanisms, the Board of Directors is mentioned in academic research as fundamental in company performance and values in different countries. The important role in defense of the stockholders’ rights, preventing the managers from using the company in defense of their own interests, makes this a relevant mechanism in empirical research, even more when its relations with financial indicators is analyzed. In this study, the main objective was to analyze the relation between this mechanism and the value, performance and risk of Brazilian companies in 2012 and 2013, using panel data regression. Therefore, a Board of Directors index was created, based on binary questions, adapted from Silva, Santos and Almeida (2011, to be used as an independent variable in econometric models. A positive statistical relation was found between the proposed inedex and the variable Volatility, against expectations. The research also indicated relevant relations between the dependent and control variables. Among other results, it was concluded that: a positive relation exists between the company size and its performance; a positive relation exists between the growth of sales and the company value; a position relation between the risk variables beta and volatility; and belonging to the distinguished corporate governance levels on the stock exchange reduces the volatility of company stocks.

  12. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  13. The new Brazilian national forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joberto V. de Freitas; Yeda M. M. de Oliveira; Doadi A. Brena; Guilherme L.A. Gomide; Jose Arimatea Silva; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The new Brazilian national forest inventory (NFI) is being planned to be carried out through five components: (1) general coordination, led by the Brazilian Forest Service; (2) vegetation mapping, which will serve as the basis for sample plot location; (3) field data collection; (4) landscape data collection of 10 x 10-km sample plots, based on high-resolution...

  14. Brazilian Studies and Brazilianists: Conceptual remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Mariano de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of Brazilian Studies. It does not intend to outline a defence for a new discipline, or to propose paradigms for that elusive field called ‘area studies’. It will, bring some reflections on epistemological and methodological issues realted to what it is been called Brazilian Studies.

  15. Types and myths in Brazilian thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Ianni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available "Ideal types" elaborated by different authors and that have become emblematic, notorious or even definitive, sometimes representing myths are quite frequent in Brazilian thought. That is the case of the bandeirantes (colonial crusaders, the gaúcho, Jeca Tatu, Macunaíma, cordial man and others. It is worth contemplating this aspect of Brazilian culture and thought.

  16. Sociocultural Influences on Brazilian Children's Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Reports on insights about sociocultural influences on Brazilian children's drawings, using visual anthropology to examine children's drawings that depicted what they like to do. Discusses visual anthropology, provides information on Brazilian educational influences, and presents the context and findings of the study. (CMK)

  17. The role of food standards on international trade: assessing the Brazilian beef chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challengesfacing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

  18. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required under...

  19. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  20. Hedge Accounting in the Brazilian Stock Market: Effects on the Quality of Accounting Information, Disclosure, and Information Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas Adolfo Potin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper investigates, in the Brazilian stock market, the effect of hedge accounting on the quality of financial information, on the disclosure of derivative financial instruments, and on the information asymmetry. To measure the quality of accounting information, relevance metrics of accounting information and book earnings informativeness were used. For executing this research, a general sample was obtained through Brazilian companies, non-financial, listed on the Brazilian Securities, Commodities, and Futures Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA, comprising the 150 companies with highest market value on 01/01/2014. Through the general sample, samples were compiled for applying the econometric models of value relevance, informativeness, disclosure, and information asymmetry. The sample for relevance had 758 companies-years observations within the period from 2008 to 2013; the sample for informativeness had 701 companies-years observations with the period from 2008 to 2013; the sample for disclosure had 100 companies-years observations, within the period from 2011 to 2012; the sample for information asymmetry had 100 companies-years observations, also related to the period from 2011 to 2012. In addition to the econometric models, the propensity score matching method was applied to the analyses of the hedge accounting effect on disclosure and information asymmetry. The evidence found for the influence of hedge accounting indicates a relation: (i positive and significant concerning accounting information relevance and disclosure of derivatives; (ii negative and significant for book earnings informativeness. Regarding information asymmetry, although the coefficients showed up as expected, they were not statistically significant.

  1. THERE IS INFLUENCE IN DEVELOPMENT OF COMPANIES WHICH BUILT STOCK, WITH SUPPORT OF INVESTIMENT FUND PRIVATE EQUITY AND VENTURE CAPITAL? EVIDENCES OF ENTRANT COMPANIES AT BOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caciano Gianechini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work seeks to identify the impact of the participation of Private Equity funds and Venture Capital (PE/VC, the performance of companies that owned the contribution prior to the opening of capital (IPO. In a more objective the present study seeks to investigate whether companies that opened capital, financed by PE/VC, have performed better than the other formerly the Brazilian stock market debut. The sample of work consists of 116 companies that made the initial public offering (IPO in the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BOVESPA in the period January 2004 to December 2009. First identified that 41 enterprises debuted at BOVESPA being financed by PE/VC funds. Furthermore, the results indicate that the influence of PE/VC funds tend to improve some indices of profitability and market of companies after the IPO. In summary, the evidence found lead to the conclusion that the organizations of private equity and venture capital influence positively the performance of investee companies.

  2. The Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, P F

    2005-01-01

    The Brazilian Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory has been operating the only light source in the southern hemisphere since July 1997. Over this 7 year period, approximately 22000 hours of beam time were delivered to users from all over Brazil as well as from 10 other countries. In this article, we report on the present configuration of the 1.37 GeV electron storage ring and associated instrumentation, describe recent improvements to the light source and analyze future prespectives including the installation of insertion devices and additional beamlines.

  3. Elementary education in brazilian legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Veronese, Josiane Rose Petry; Vieira, Cleverton Elias

    2003-01-01

    The education was a present subject, directly or indirectly, in every Brazilian Constitutions. In the Federal Constitution of 1988, two aspects about education can be detached: the participation of the civil society in the elaboration of devices that regulate the national education and the treatment given to basic education, raised to the category of subjective public right. Child and Adolescent Statute practically repeats the devices of the&n...

  4. Strategy as a Learning Process: An Empirical Study of its Determinants in a Company of It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Pereira Barbosa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify in a Brazilian manufacturer of computers, if its process of formulating business strategies is understood primarily as a learning process. Interviews based on a script of questions, direct observation, archival research and content analysis were the instruments used in a field research with a qualitative approach. The first stage of the research was the identification of strategic actions recently implemented in the company. The subsequent stage verified from the analysis of the process of choosing seven strategic actions identified in the first stage, the intensity of the presence in the company of nine characteristics that, according the authors cited in the theoretical framework, are common to companies who understand the formulation strategies as a learning process. The survey results suggest that four features - intrapreneurship, strength of middle management, flexible organizational structure and unstable external environment - are strongly present in the company; two features - little emphasis on planning and control, and emergency of unplanned strategies - can be classified as average degree of presence, and three characteristics - emphasis on strategy as umbrella; emphasis on double-loop learning, and emphasis on strategy as perspective - proved to be present in low level. The research revealed that the most effective strategic actions of the company surveyed were not developed through clear, well ordered, controlled and explicit processes, but were shaped, in a relevant way, for a learning process focused on the past history of the company.

  5. 17 CFR 270.3a-3 - Certain investment companies owned by companies which are not investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain investment companies owned by companies which are not investment companies. 270.3a-3 Section 270.3a-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY...

  6. Physiological quality and seed respiration of primed Jatropha curcas seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Angelica Horbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seed deterioration is a natural and irreversible process. Nevertheless, seed priming with water and antioxidants can minimize oxidative damage in oilseeds, resulting in attenuation of seed deterioration. The objective of this assay was to evaluate seed priming on respiratory activity of Jatropha curcas submitted to accelerated aging. Seeds from two provenances (Janauba and Pedro J. Caballero were submitted to three priming treatments (control, immersion in deionized water, and with 750 µmol L-1 of ascorbic acid and treated for accelerated aging at 41 °C for 72 h. The results showed that the priming of J. curcas seeds promoted tolerance to accelerated aging. Primed seeds, with ascorbic acid from Janauba and deionized water from Pedro J. Caballero, resulted in a higher percentage of normal seedlings, and increased germination speed index and seed respiration. The decline of physiological quality of J. curcas seeds after accelerated aging is directly associated with a reduction in respiratory activity that is related to seed moisture content.

  7. Effects of gamma radiation and storage on cooked pine seed (Araucaria angustifollia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Modolo, Debora M.; Martinez, Patricia; Piero, Edson A. di; Bigide, Priscila; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Ambiente, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). Despite being appreciated nutritious food, the gear has been widely used in Brazilian cook as other seeds, and its consumption in the more usual way roasted or boiled, however, certain foods have been developed, such as flour, pine seeds, artisan produced only due to poor commercial expression. Because of this, the aim of this work was to study the effect of storage under vacuum and gamma radiation on samples cooked pinion. Pine seeds after cooking were stored in vacuum packaging and polypropylene irradiated with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy. Later they were stored at a temperature of 6 degree C. Analyzes were performed to characterize physical (weight, temperature, percentage of losses) and proximate composition (Humidity, fat, protein, ash and weight loss) of A. angustifolia (Bert.) pine seed after three months of storage. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between treatments at protein parameter. About the other parameters there was an increase humidity and decrease with ash and fat with the treatments. (author)

  8. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  9. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  10. Aerial and soil seed banks enable populations of an annual species to cope with an unpredictable dune ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruiru; Yang, Xuejun; Yang, Fan; Wei, Lingling; Huang, Zhenying; Walck, Jeffrey L

    2014-08-01

    Simultaneous formation of aerial and soil seed banks by a species provides a mechanism for population maintenance in unpredictable environments. Eolian activity greatly affects growth and regeneration of plants in a sand dune system, but we know little about the difference in the contributions of these two seed banks to population dynamics in sand dunes. Seed release, germination, seedling emergence and survival of a desert annual, Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), inhabiting the Ordos Sandland in China, were determined in order to explore the different functions of the aerial and soil seed banks. The size of the aerial seed bank was higher than that of the soil seed bank throughout the growing season. Seed release was positively related to wind velocity. Compared with the soil seed bank, seed germination from the aerial seed bank was lower at low temperature (5/15 °C night/day) but higher in the light. Seedling emergence from the soil seed bank was earlier than that from the aerial seed bank. Early-emerged (15 April-15 May) seedlings died due to frost, but seedlings that emerged during the following months survived to reproduce successfully. The timing of seed release and different germination behaviour resulted in a temporal heterogeneity of seedling emergence and establishment between the two seed banks. The study suggests that a bet-hedging strategy for the two seed banks enables A. squarrosum populations to cope successfully with the unpredictable desert environment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Seeds of the Future

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Five of the global issues most frequently debated today are the decline of biodiversity in general and of agrobiodiversity in particular, climate change, hunger and malnutrition, poverty and water. These issues are connected with each other, and should be dealt with as such. Most of our food comes from seeds (even when we eat meat, we indirectly eat plants, which come from seeds) and food affects our health. The evolution of plant breeding, the science which is responsible for the type and the diversity of seed that farmers plant, and hence for the diversity of food that we eat, helps us understand how agrobiodiversity has decreased. An agro-ecological model of agriculture could be solution to the most important problems affecting the planet, but is often criticized for not being able to produce enough food for a growing population casting doubts on whether food security and food safety can be compatible objectives. Participatory and evolutionary plant breeding, while benefiting from advances in molecular g...

  12. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  13. Technological and Productive Density in Sectoral Innovation Systems: The Case of the Brazilian Aeronautics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio da Silveira Luz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses whether a globally competitive high-tech firm is sustainable without being associated with a sufficiently dense sectoral innovation system. It focuses on Embraer and hence on the Brazilian aeronautics industry. Despite not benefiting from a highly subsidized process for technological and financial modernization, Embraer has become the world’s third-ranking producer of commercial jets thanks to institutional innovations, especially in producing and managing contracts with suppliers and risk-sharing partners. The conclusion drawn is that the competitiveness of the Brazilian aircraft industry depends on the continuing supply of technology in international markets. Technological restrictions imposed for geopolitical reasons, or even for market constraints, could fatally undermine the strategy adopted by the company.

  14. Collaborative Environments in RD&I Institutions of the Brazilian Agricultural Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercia Zavaglia Torres

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Research, development and technological innovation (RD&I companies promote inter- and intra-organizational interactions based on the formation of research nets. This arrangement prioritizes the use of competencies of both people and institutions, stimulating the generation of new knowledge and competencies, and consequently technological innovation. The Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation – Embrapa, responsible for knowledge generation and technological innovation in the Brazilian agricultural sector, has put a lot of effort into the establishment of a collaborative environment which allows the exchange of information, knowledge and experience among researchers and promote new knowledge, competencies and technological innovation. The present paper discusses conceptual bases and presents a model of collaborative environment established by the above-mentioned corporation in order to favor the learning and the production of innovative solutions in agricultural research nets.

  15. 75 FR 76452 - ConocoPhillips Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ConocoPhillips Company v. Enterprise TE Products Pipeline Company LLC... (ICA), ConocoPhillips Company (ConocoPhillips or Complainant) filed a complaint against Enterprise TE Products Pipeline Company LLC (Enterprise TEPPCO or Respondent) alleging that Enterprise TEPPCO has refused...

  16. How to Analyze Company Using Social Network?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Sebastian; Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Every single company or institution wants to utilize its resources in the most efficient way. In order to do so they have to be have good structure. The new way to analyze company structure by utilizing existing within company natural social network and example of its usage on Enron company are presented in this paper.

  17. Responsibilities of companies towards employees | Botha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central to company law is the promotion of corporate governance. An important question in company law still today is in whose interest the company should be managed. Corporate governance needs to address the entire span of responsibilities to stakeholders of the company such as customers, employees, shareholders, ...

  18. Online Company-stakeholder Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rikke Augustinus; Morsing, Mette

    technologies and we question to what extent social media serve the enhancement of improved understandings across corporate and civil society on CSR issues. This paper suggests that managers face a risk of the “double-edge of stakeholder communication” when incorporating social media into their CSR strategies......Based on a systematic data collection we study one of the first pioneering company-stakeholder communication campaigns in social media: the case of energy company Vattenfall A/S’s pan-European campaign ‘The Climate Manifesto’. Our findings challenge the general assumption, that stakeholder...... lacked between the company and stakeholders. Vattenfall was accused of green-washing, resulting in a communications crisis. Negative stakeholder reactions consisted of prejudiced and non-negotiable argumentation indicating that social media imposes new managerial challenges since communication processes...

  19. The phylogeography of African Brazilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Carvalho, Cláudia M B; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Bydlowski, Sérgio P; Pena, Sérgio D J

    2008-01-01

    Approximately four million Africans were taken as slaves to Brazil, where they interbred extensively with Amerindians and Europeans. We have previously shown that while most White Brazilians carry Y chromosomes of European origin, they display high proportions of African and Amerindian mtDNA lineages, because of sex-biased genetic admixture. We studied the Y chromosome and mtDNA haplogroup structure of 120 Black males from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Only 48% of the Y chromosomes, but 85% of the mtDNA haplogroups were characteristic of sub-Saharan Africa, confirming our previous observation of sexually biased mating. We mined literature data for mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroup frequencies for African native populations from regions involved in Atlantic Slave Trade. Principal Components Analysis and Bayesian analysis of population structure revealed no genetic differentiation of Y chromosome marker frequencies between the African regions. However, mtDNA examination unraveled considerable genetic structure, with three clusters at Central-West Africa, West Africa and Southeast Africa. A hypothesis is proposed to explain this structure. Using these mtDNA data we could obtain for the first time an estimate of the relative ancestral contribution of Central-West (0.445), West (0.431) and Southeast Africa (0.123) to African Brazilians from Sao Paulo. These estimates are consistent with historical information. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Study of the enthalpy-entropy mechanism from water sorption of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilian for the use of agro-industrial residues as a possible source of vegetable oil production Estudo do mecanismo entálpico-entrópico de sorção da água de sementes de laranja (C. sinensis cv. Brasileira, para a utilização de resíduos agroindustriais como uma possível fonte de produção de óleo vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange seeds are a promising agroindustry-waste which can be implemented in the extraction and production of vegetable oil. The relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for the processing and storage of this waste item. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of water sorption enthalpy-entropy of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilians according to the moisture content. Therefore, desorption isotherms were determined at five different temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC under a wide range of moisture content (0.005-0.057 kg kg-1 d.b. and water activity (0.02-0.756. Theoretical and empirical models were used for modeling the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to compute the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs free energy using the Oswin model when the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium was considered.As sementes de laranja são resíduos promissores da agroindústria com um alto potencial de aplicação na produção de óleo vegetal. A relação entre o conteúdo de umidade de equilíbrio e a atividade de água fornece informações úteis para seu processamento e armazenamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o mecanismo entalpia-entropia de sorção da água de sementes de laranja (C. sinensis cv. Brasileiros em função do teor de umidade. Para isso, isotermas de dessorção das sementes de laranja foram determinados em cinco níveis de temperaturas (30, 40, 50, 60 e 70 ºC em um intervalo de umidade de equilíbrio (0.005-0.057 kg kg-1 d.b. e atividade de água de 0,02-0,756. Modelos teóricos e empíricos foram usados para a modelagem das isotermas de dessorção. A solução analítica da equação de Clausius-Clapeyron foi proposta para calcular o calor isostérico de sorção, a entropia diferencial e a energia livre de Gibbs através do modelo de Oswin quando o

  1. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  2. Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase and Fatty Acid Composition in Theobroma grandiflorum Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casandra Valentina Itriago

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Theobroma grandiflorum is an important fruit tree from Sterculiaceae family, native to the Brazilian Amazon, known in the region as cupuaçu. The seeds have a high fat content (24% with characteristics that resemble those of cocoa (Theobroma cacao butter with potential applications in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The main objective of this work was to explore the seed fats from T. grandiflorum that were analyzed for fatty acid composition by Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID and to analyze their activity for acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Chromatographic analysis provided detection of nine fatty acids. The major fatty acids found in the species were oleic (40.0%, stearic (32.7%, arachidic (10.4% and palmitic (8.0%. The acetylcholinesterase inhibition by fats from seeds was over 40.48%. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v0i0.894 

  3. Analysis of the evolution of after sales and post-consumption reverse logistics actions by the brazilian electricity sector in 2009 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Oliveira Sousa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the evolution of of post-consumer reverse logistics actions by the Brazilian electric power sector in 2009 to 2011. The approach includes literature review, exploratory, descriptive, quantitative and qualitative research. In this study, a sample of 15 companies in the Brazilian energy sector were selected, based on content analysis of sustainability reports extracted from the company websites in 2009 to 2011. After collecting the data, 48 indicators were analyzed in the reports. Based on the scores, a comparative analysis between levels of disclosure of reverse logistics was performed. The 15 companies analyzed revealed the presence of reverse logistics actions in 2011, showing an overall result in the course of three years. Among the sectors presented, distribution achieved greater prominence in 2011, with an increase in the presence of post-consumption indicators, showing a great result.

  4. STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A CASE IN THE BRAZILIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Carneiro Lima

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE. The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors, and the adoption of its strategic positioning in exploring two automobile market niches: in the B2B market, vehicles adapted to specific operational functions; and in the B2C, off-road vehicles with a strong appeal to consumers’ life styles. This case study allowed us to visualize the challenging path of a genuinely Brazilian small company in a sector dominated by large multinational groups, besides demonstrating decision-related dilemmas and aspects related to managerial creativity.Key-words: Automobile industry. Case study. Strategic entrepreneurship. Discovery theory. Strategic positioning.

  5. Concession of Brazilian Federal Highways: Orphan Assets Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel de Rezende Salgado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the uses of public service concession contracts in Brazil is in the road infrastructure sector, existing at the federal level 21 roads’ concession contracts, totaling approximately 10 thousand kilometers, which is 12.6% of the federal road network. Whereas in this type of contract the government does not transfer ownership of the asset, but only access to the concessionaire for the operation of public services, this study aims to determine in which entity (public or private are registered the federal roads, object of the concession contracts. To address the research question, the financial statements of 21 utility companies or controlling group were analyzed, as well the balance sheet of the National Land Transportation Agency (ANTT, all for the year 2014. The study findings show that the Brazilian federal highways are not recorded in public statements or in the financial statements of utility companies, providing evidence that these infrastructure assets meet the definition of orphan assets. Thus, the net worth of the ANTT is not adequately represented in its balance sheet.

  6. Hearing Profile of Brazilian Forestry Workers' Noise Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacerda, Adriana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Researchers studying the hearing health of forestry workers have revealed the presence of a noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL in this population and have concluded that the vibration of the equipment, the carbon monoxide released by motors, and pesticides might also contribute to NIHL. Objective To analyze the noise exposure in the Brazilian forestry industry workers and the effects on hearing. Methods The study sample comprised 109 employees of a company that specialized in reforestation. Their participants' mean age was 35.5 years (21 to 54 years, mean tenure at the company was 3.9 years (1 to 13 years, and mean total duration of noise exposure was 12.3 years (1 to 30 years. The existing documentation reporting on the jobs risk analysis was examined, noise level was measured, and pure tone audiometry was performed in all participants. Participants were divided into three groups according to their noise exposure levels in their current job. Results Of the participants who were exposed to noise levels less than 85 dBA (decibels with A-weighting filter, 23.8% had hearing loss, and 5.5% of the participants who were exposed to noise ranging from 85 to 89.9 dBA and 11% of the participants who were exposed to noise greater than 90 dBA had audiogram results suggestive of NIHL. Conclusion The implementation of a hearing loss prevention program tailored to forestry workers is needed.

  7. Sunflower seed allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients' IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient's anaphylactic reaction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. BIOFUELS AND THE INCLUSIVE GREEN ECONOMY: SEARCHING FOR SUSTAINABLE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE BRAZILIAN LEGAL AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Alves Finco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production has been greatly discussed in Brazil. In 2004, some debates lead the country to develop new policies and implement the National Biodiesel Use and Production Program (PNPB, with the intent to increase the share of renewable energy and foster sustainable regional development. In this context, the present study aims to assess the linkages between family farmer’s living standard and the adoption of oil seed activity in northern Brazil, in a region of transition between the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna and the Amazon rain forest. Ranges of socio-economic indicators were collected among smallholders who cultivate soybean. A fuzzy logic set theory based on living standard criteria and a non-linear probit model was applied to assess the inclusion of poor rural families in the biodiesel chain. Preliminary results point towards a negative relation between the family degree of deprivation and adoption of oil seed activity, for the soybean production.

  9. Founders of share companies under the Ethiopian share company ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the Commercial Code and other laws of Ethiopia regarding founders – who they are, liabilities and benefits - who are also called 'promoters' by many other company laws. To some extent, it also looks into the business practice based on documents like memorandum of associations, articles of ...

  10. Brazilian Arms Production: Partial Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    supported by the government, which actively created state enterprises such as Banco do Brasil , Companhia Siderurgica Nacional (the state-owned steel...slate holding company Industria do Material Belico do Brasil (IMBEL) was formed to manage Brazil’s war materiel production factories and to formulate

  11. Orchestrating Company Development in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Jens Ove

    2003-01-01

    Over a period of several years many companies undergo a transformation with signifi­cant improvement in performance. We have studied such a process in seven SMEs to achieve a better understanding of how the change process was initiated and orches­trated. A rather complex picture has emerged...... suggesting a multitude of dimensions and aspects to be employed when interpreting the findings. The metaphor of orchestration seems well suited to describe company development as a process of bringing a broad spectrum of areas and aspects into play, in parallel and in series. It implies following a score...

  12. Pro Forma Registration of Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article analyses the view taken by Community law on companies' pro forma registration in another EU or EEA country. Community law recognises pro forma registration under company law, i.e. a brass plate is sufficient, whereas it does not recognise pro forma registration under tax law, i.......e. a brass plate is not sufficient. The article provides reasons for the differential treatment of the two contexts and clarifies the difference on the basis of the Hubbard criterion, in which it was ruled that the effectiveness of Community law cannot vary according to the various branches of national law....

  13. The Liability of Corporate Social Influence in Brand Image: A Study in Brazilian Cosmetics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Ribeiro da Fonseca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluate the influence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in brand image (BI and corporate reputation (CR analyzing Brazilian companies in the cosmetics industry. The empirical investigation explores the perception of two large Brazilian brand cosmetic companies interviewing undergraduate students belonging to highincome classes. The objective was to compare the perceptions and the differences between the two companies that publish social reports with GRI methodology. The development of this study occurred in two stages: the first stage involved a literature review, verifying theories and published research on corporate social responsibility, IM and CR. The second stage involved collecting data through a survey. The results demonstrate that the CSR has a positive influence on the IM, but such effect demonstrated only significant for one of the brands studied, and moderately to the second. Among the contributions of this work are to review the literature on the subject, identified the influence of variables of CSR in BI and RC and the differences in consumer perception for each of the brands studied, as well recommendations for future studies.

  14. Drivers of Spatial Variation in the Role of Ants as Secondary Seed Dispersers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottcher, C; Peixoto, P E C; Silva, W R; Pizo, M A

    2016-08-01

    The spatial variation in the outcome of the interaction between secondary dispersers and seeds is superimposed upon the variation produced by primary dispersers. Investigating the factors that drive the outcome of the interactions with secondary seed dispersers thus represents an essential refinement to our understanding of the complete seed dispersal process. We studied the interactions between two ponerine ants (Pachycondyla striata Smith, 1858 and Odontomachus chelifer (Latreille, 1802)) with fruits experimentally set on the ground, and estimated the effects of ants on seedling establishment in three areas distributed along a 2-km stretch of a Brazilian Atlantic rainforest that differ in soil properties and vegetation physiognomies. We tested the hypothesis that interactions are more frequent, resulting in greater seedling establishment at the site with harsher abiotic and biotic conditions. Both ant species removed fruits frequently and have a positive effect on seedling establishment in all study areas, but fruit removal did not differ among areas, while seedling establishment was more pronounced at the site with stressful abiotic conditions. The two ant species differed in important aspects of their seed dispersal services, including the propensity to interact with seeds. As a result, both the species of ant and abiotic conditions interact at the scale of 2 km to determine the fate of seeds interacting with ants, thus creating a mosaic of outcomes with variable benefits to plants. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Brazilian scientific production on herbal medicines used in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    R.D. Castro; J.A. Oliveira; Vasconcelos,L.C.; Maciel,P.P.; Brasil,V.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to critically analyze the scientific production published in specialized Brazilian journals concerning the use of medicinal plants in dentistry. A literature review was carried out using an indirect documentation technique by means of a bibliographical study. Four examiners performed independent searches in Brazilian journals of medicinal plants indexed in the database SciELO (Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy; Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants; Brazilian ...

  16. Consumer-company Identification: Development and Validation of a Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Fajardo Nunes Hildebrand

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumer-Company Identification is a relatively new issue in the marketing academia. Bhattacharya and Sen(2003 explored the Social Identity theory and established Consumer-Company Identification as the primary psychological substrate for deep relationships between the organization and its customers. In the present study a new instrument was constructed and validated that permits the empirical verification of the phenomenon described by Bhattacharya and Sen (2003. The scale validated in the present study is the first to embrace the idiosyncrasies of the identification between consumers and organizations. The process was conducted through 3 independent data collections. The first one was collected using literature search and in-depth interviews with 12 undergraduate students and bachelors from different professional fields. The second data base was obtained from a survey of 226 undergraduate students from 3 universities in 2 big Brazilian cities. This data base was used for purification purposes using Explanatory Factorial Analysis. Finally, the Structural Equation Modeling technique was applied to analyze a third data base composed of 387 observations collected from the same 3 universities of the second study. The results confirm the content, convergent and discriminant validity of the new scale proposed.

  17. The Term Structure of Interest Rates and its Impact on the Liability Adequacy Test for Insurance Companies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Aurelio Duarte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian regulation for applying the Liability Adequacy Test (LAT to technical provisions in insurance companies requires that the current estimate is discounted by a term structure of interest rates (hereafter TSIR. This article aims to analyze the LAT results, derived from the use of various models to build the TSIR: the cubic spline interpolation technique, Svensson's model (adopted by the regulator and Vasicek's model. In order to achieve the objective proposed, the exchange rates of BM&FBOVESPA trading days were used to model the ETTJ and, consequently, to discount the cash flow of the insurance company. The results indicate that: (i LAT is sensitive to the choice of the model used to build the TSIR; (ii this sensitivity increases with cash flow longevity; (iii the adoption of an ultimate forward rate (UFR for the Brazilian insurance market should be evaluated by the regulator, in order to stabilize the trajectory of the yield curve at longer maturities. The technical provision is among the main solvency items of insurance companies and the LAT result is a significant indicator of the quality of this provision, as this evaluates its sufficiency or insufficiency. Thus, this article bridges a gap in the Brazilian actuarial literature, introducing the main methodologies available for modeling the yield curve and a practical application to analyze the impact of its choice on LAT.

  18. The mechanical defence advantage of small seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Evan C; Wright, S Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Seed size and toughness affect seed predators, and size-dependent investment in mechanical defence could affect relationships between seed size and predation. We tested how seed toughness and mechanical defence traits (tissue density and protective tissue content) are related to seed size among tropical forest species. Absolute toughness increased with seed size. However, smaller seeds had higher specific toughness both within and among species, with the smallest seeds requiring over 2000 times more energy per gram to break than the largest seeds. Investment in mechanical defence traits varied widely but independently of the toughness-mass allometry. Instead, a physical scaling relationship confers a toughness advantage on small seeds independent of selection on defence traits and without a direct cost. This scaling relationship may contribute to seed size diversity by decreasing fitness differences among large and small seeds. Allometric scaling of toughness reconciles predictions and conflicting empirical relationships between seed size and predation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. ATR Performance Estimation Seed Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 09/28/2015 Research Performance Report July 2014 - June 2015 ATR Performance Estimation Seed Program Cook...Report: ATR Performance Estimation Seed Program Daniel A. Cook Georgia Tech Research Institute Sensors and Electromagnetic Applications Laboratory...term seed program to expand the Navy’s efforts in performance prediction for MCM. The team included individuals from ARL/PSU, APL-UW, GTRI, and NSWC

  20. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  1. 78 FR 15123 - Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Atlantic Specialty Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Atlantic Specialty Insurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Atlantic Specialty Insurance Company (NAIC 27154). BUSINESS ADDRESS: 150... Certificates are subject to subsequent annual renewal as long as the companies remain qualified (see 31 CFR...

  2. 77 FR 25536 - Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Endurance American Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Endurance American Insurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Endurance American Insurance Company (NAIC 10641). Business Address: 333... subsequent annual renewal as long as the companies remain qualified (see 31 CFR part 223). A list of...

  3. 75 FR 60865 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Allied World Reinsurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Allied World Reinsurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Allied World Reinsurance Company (NAIC 22730). Business Address: 199... subsequent annual renewal as long as the companies remain qualified (see 31 CFR part 223). A list of...

  4. 75 FR 61246 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Darwin National Assurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Darwin National Assurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Darwin National Assurance Company (NAIC 16624). Business Address: 9 Farm... subsequent annual renewal as long as the companies remain qualified ] (see 31 CFR part 223). A list of...

  5. 77 FR 8956 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Integrity Mutual Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Integrity Mutual Insurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Integrity Mutual Insurance Company (NAIC 14303). Business Address: P.O... Certificates are subject to subsequent annual renewal as long as the companies remain qualified (see 31 CFR...

  6. 77 FR 25535 - Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Pacific Employers Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds: Pacific Employers Insurance Company AGENCY....C. 9305 to the following company: Pacific Employers Insurance Company (NAIC 22748). Business Address... prior to that date. The Certificates are subject to subsequent annual renewal as long as the companies...

  7. 78 FR 17763 - Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc., Maybrook Railroad Company, and Housatonic Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ...), Maybrook Railroad Company (MRC), and Housatonic Transportation Company (HTC) (collectively, applicants... transfer to MRC (but will continue to operate) a segment of railroad line, and HTC, a Delaware corporation... Terminal Company (CTC). HTC, a noncarrier holding company, is the parent company of wholly owned...

  8. Financial management for small companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Hansen; Jeff Palmer; Jeff Palmer

    2000-01-01

    The wood-products industry is characterized by many small manufacturers that lack the staff to compile and analyze information on their operations and investments. Two computer programs, FRAN and JEFFI, have been developed by the USDA Forest Service at Princeton, West Virginia,to help small companies better analyze and monitor current performance, and better evaluate...

  9. Ergonomics Contributions to Company Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dul (Jan); W.P. Neumann (Patrick)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractManagers usually associate ergonomics with occupational health and safety and related legislation, not with business performance. In many companies, these decision makers seem not to be positively motivated to apply ergonomics for reasons of improving health and safety. In order to

  10. Resensi Buku: The Living Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Chairina Laksmi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Book ReviewJudul buku    : The Living CompanyPenulis    : Arie de GeusPengantar    : Peter M. SengePenerbit    : Harvard Business School PressTahun terbit    : 1997Tebal    : xiv + 214 hal

  11. Chinese Companies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, T.M.; Pieke, F.N.; Stam, T.

    2017-01-01

    The rapid growth of Chinese investment in the Netherlands has been cause for both excitement and anxiety. Many of the companies and other investors are still unknown and the background and objectives of their investment often remain unclear. This research takes a close look at fourteen Chinese

  12. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or...

  13. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seeds. 201.57 Section 201.57 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57 Hard seeds. Seeds which remain hard at...

  14. Metal deposition using seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  15. Use of tetrazolium (TTC, Germ's and greenhouse plant emergences methods for testing seed vigour of selected ornamental plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hołubowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1996-1997 the experiments were carried out on methods to investigate seed vigour of tassel flower (Amaranthus caudatus L., sand pink (Dianthus chinensis L., babies' breath (Gypsophila elegans M.B., sweet pea (Lathyrus odorathus L., African marigold (Tagetes erecta L. and zinnia (Zinnia elegans Jasq.. The main goals of this research were to specify conditions for accelerated ageing (AA of the seeds of a few selected ornamental plant species and to choose the most appropriate methods for their seed vigour evaluation in the laboratory and greenhouse conditions. All used in the experiments seeds came from the commercial seed lots from Polish seed company. Evaluation was carried out on the seed samples with high and low vigour. The latter ones were received through subjecting the seed samples to AA, i.e. by placing them in 100% relative humidity (RH at 44°C, except African marigold-at 42°C, in the darkness and keeping them for 144, 88, 100, 48, 72 and 72 hours, respectively. The tested seed vigour estimated methods included the Germ's method, the 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazoilum chloride (TTC method and the test of plant emergences in the greenhouse. The high vigour seeds samples were used as a check. The Germ's method was found to be useful to evaluate sand pink, babies' breath and African marigold seed vigour, whereas the TTC method was found to be suitable for vigour evaluation of sand pink, babies' breath and zinnia. At present stage of our knowledge about seed vigour, the plant emergences in the greenhouse method was found to be the best for evaluation of seed vigour of tassel flower, sand pink, babies' breath, sweet pea and zinnia. It is reasonable to combine a few methods of seed vigour evaluation for ornamental plant species.

  16. Shaking Youngsters and Shaken Adults: Female Beetles Eavesdrop on Larval Seed Vibrations to Make Egg-Laying Decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Narciso C Guedes

    Full Text Available Egg-laying decisions are critical for insects, and particularly those competing for limited resources. Sensory information used by females to mediate egg-laying decisions has been reported to be primarily chemical, but the role of vibration has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that vibrational cues produced by feeding larvae occupying a seed influences egg-laying decisions amongst female cowpea beetles. This hypothesis is supported by three lines of evidence using two strains of the cowpea beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus, an Indian strain with choosy females and aggressively competing larvae and a Brazilian strain with less choosy females and larvae exhibiting an "accommodating" type of competition. First, in free-choice bioassays of seed selection, choosy Indian females selected control seeds (free of eggs, larvae, or egg-laying marker over seeds with live larvae (free of eggs and egg-laying marker, but did not discriminate between control seeds and those with dead larvae. In contrast, less choosy Brazilian females showed no preference for seeds containing live or dead larvae over controls. Second, laser-doppler vibrometer recordings confirmed that larvae feeding inside seeds generate vibrations that are available to the female during egg-laying decisions. Third, during dichotomous choice experiments where artificial vibrations approximating those produced by feeding larvae were played back during seed selection, Indian females preferred immobile control seeds over vibrating seeds, but Brazilian females showed no preference. These results support the hypothesis that females use larval vibrations in their egg-laying decisions; whether these vibrations are passive cues exploited by the female, or active signals that 'steer' the behaviour of the female is unknown. We propose that vibration cues and signals could be important for host selection in insects, particularly those laying on substrates where visual or chemical cues may

  17. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  18. Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

  19. Exploratory study regarding how cultural perspectives can influence the perceptions of project success in Brazilian companies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramos, Pamela Adelino; Mota, Caroline Maria de Miranda

    2016-01-01

    ...; as a result, culture may become an important aspect to be considered. The majority of articles regarding projects include factors of success and failure, but only a few embrace cultural perspectives...

  20. Do Brazilian REITs depend on Real Estate sector companies or Overall Market?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Milani; Paulo Sergio Ceretta

    2013-01-01

    Real Estate investments have been considered a good tool to provide diversification without increasing risk in a portfolio. Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) are a well-known investment alternative to many investors who want to invest in real estate minimizing the liquidity problem, since they have traded shares. However, the fact that REITs have traded shares brings the following question: are these shares driven by a “real estate factor” or they simply follow the overall market variatio...