WorldWideScience

Sample records for brazilian seed companies

  1. Use of molecular marker techniques in seed testing by Brazilian seed companies

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    Della Vecchia P.T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed market is becoming global and globalization is growing very fast. To compete favourably in this new global seed world, quality and cost are and will be certanly the key issues. High seed quality can only be obtained by a thorough control of the entire seed production process, step by step from planning to final delivery. That requires science, technology, expertise, experience, good management and certanly, the most important, an absolute and unconditional commitment with quality. Seed testing for quality assurance is one important step in the process of production of high quality seed. In the late years a considerable amount of research has been published, particularly on the use of some Polymerase Chain Reaction DNA based new technologies (RAPD, microsatelites, AFLP for genetic purity determinations in seed testing. As far as we know, no Brazilian seed company is using, on regular basis, RAPD or other molecular marker techniques in the determination of genetic purity in seed testing. Most of these are using morphological or physiological traits expressed by seed, seedling or mature plant and/or electrophoresis of seed or seedling proteins/isoenzymes for that purpose. Main reasons for that are: DNA molecular marker techniques are relatively new; lack of specialized personnel to run DNA molecular marker assays on routine basis; higher cost/sample when compared to proteins/isoenzymes electrophoresis.

  2. IPO Determinants of Brazilian Companies

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    Bruno Cals de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature on Initial Public Offerings (IPO is still little explored in Brazil, since the significant growth in the stock market occurred only recently. The purpose of this study is to identify the determining factors for the IPO of Brazilian companies, based on logistic regression methods and using a sample with private and public Brazilian companies. The results indicate that firms that undertook their IPO in the period were those that had been making significant investments, those that had the highest level of profitability and/or those that increased their level of indebtedness. The IPO was an alternative to improve the capital structure and/or raise funds to continue investing in their growth. The companies that went public were those that seized the opportunity offered in the period and the size of the companies was not significant for the IPO.

  3. luxury marketing: internationalization strategies for brazilian jewelry companies

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    Chaline Gasperini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to make an analysis of the luxury market and of Brazilian jewelry companies. The main objective is to analyze the attraction of external marketing to luxury brands internationalization, emphasizing Brazilian jewelry companies. First, the national environment of luxury market an jewelry in Brazil is presented. In sequence, it will address the possible goals, risks and opportunities that internationalized jewelry companies face in the expansion process and its difficulties in foreign markets. Finally, some forms of internationalization will be presented based on the case of the Brazilian jewelry companies H Stern and Talento Jóias. The methodology used in this article is exploratory, with documental analysis and in depth interview. As theoretical foundations for the article, the themes luxury, exportations, company internationalization and global market were addressed. The main author(s researched were: Allérès (2006, Almeida (2007, Czinkota (2001, Grande (2007, Lipovetsky e Roux (2005. Among the main conclusions, Brazilian jewelry companies have great advantages compared to other countries, having the possibility to use Brazilian nature resources, like precious stones and gems, thus, it become more interesting and viable to innovate and conquer external market. Besides, jewelry market attractions make several entrepreneurs interested in opening business in this field, and lately internationalize them, such as H Stern case.

  4. Systematic risk variations (beta convertible debenture brazilian companies

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    Renata Drumond Pinto Coelho Antonino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available purpose of this article is to analyze the impact of issuing convertible debentures on the systematic risk of Brazilian companies. Some applied researches in the U.S. capital market (STEIN, 1992; LEWIS et al, 2002; RAI, 2005 indicate that convertible debentures may be used as an alternative financing source when adverse selection problem makes stock issuing unattractive financing source. The analysis of Brazilian companies that issued convertible debentures recorded in the period from 1998 to 2006 and that presented liquidity on the market indicated that variation in beta, on average, is positive. These results are coherent with the signaling hypothesis and with the absence of convertible debenture issuing in 2005 and 2006 on the Brazilian market. They also may be related to the precarious financial situation of issuing companies, observed by the analysis of some financial indicators in year of issue and in two pre- e post-issuing years.

  5. Environmental management in companies from Rio Grande do Sul - a comparative study with other brazilian companies

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Candido da Silva Cyrne; Claus Haetinger; Claudete Rempel

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to describe how companies have managed the environmental issues, which kind of instruments are used for this purpose, comparing companies from the state of Rio Grande do Sul and the rest of Brazil. This work was developed using data published by Análise Editorial magazine about the environmental management practices that have been used by Brazilian companies. Data was obtained from the seventh edition of the yearbook Análise da Gestão Ambiental, which includes 853 companies, 2...

  6. Cleaner Production: A Growing Movement in Brazilian Companies

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    Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner Production (CP is gaining emphasis in both world and Brazilian production sectors. Nature’s warnings indicating the exhaustion of any capacity to absorb and regenerate waste, stricter legislation regarding pollution emitters, market competitiveness associated with environmental and social responsibility cause concerns and lead to actions to reduce aggressions against the environment. This paper shows evidence of this concern and presents cases in which a large automotive industry, acting as a partner to suppliers, promotes changes in how it delivers its products, eliminating large cardboard, plastic and wood packaging. A small company had a similar initiative, reducing the use of cardboard and plastic packaging. More important is the revelation of a widely dispersed, yet growing and incremental movement of responsibilities among companies.The benefits of cleaner production implementation were evaluated by confronting environmental and financial assessment. For the ambient evaluation, it will be used methodology of Material Intensity (Wuppertal Institute, a.

  7. Environmental Financial Information: differences in disclosure levels among Brazilian companies

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    Janaína da Silva Ferreira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to the environment and sustainability have motivated interests of the academic community and organizations. The current model of society is permeated by excessive production and consumption, which is exacerbating man's relationship with nature. It is a fact that, to subsist, society needs the manufacturing of products and delivery of services, but it is also known that manufacturing products and providing services impact the environment. The impact also differs according to the activity that is developed. In Brazil, Law No. 10.165/2000 determines on the National Environmental Policy and ranks companies according to the environmental impact they cause. This research analyzed the voluntary disclosure of environmental financial information in Brazilian companies, classified into sectors with different environmental impacts. Therefore, we investigated the Standardized Financial Statements of the companies that make up the IBRX-50 index, in its portfolio from May to August 2014, in the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. The measure ranked the environmental financial information, distributing the data into seven categories and 30 subcategories. The most evidenced category relates to environmental investments, with 58% of the information disclosed. The highest amount presented was in the category of environmental liabilities and contingencies, with R$259.84 billion. The results show that there is a difference in the disclosure of environmental financial information compared to the amount of sentences disclosed without the number of subcategories evidenced. The nonparametric test and content analysis showed that, in the years analyzed, companies with high environmental impact disclose more environmental financial information.

  8. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICE OF BRAZILIAN FOOTWEAR-EXPORTING COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Flavia Luciane; Gomes, Clandia Maffini; Crespam, Cristina Ceribola

    2010-01-01

    The present study aims to analyze social and environmental management practices adopted by Brazilian footwear-exporting companies. To that end, we reviewed the literature on the Brazilian footwear industry and its socio-environmental management, which serves to frame our empirical survey of Brazilian footwear manufacturers having international operations, according to the Brazilian Footwear Association [ABICALÇADOS]. We undertook a descriptive study by using the survey method as a data collec...

  9. Composition of the board and firm value of brazilian public companies

    OpenAIRE

    Enalto de Oliveira Gondrige; Ademir Clemente; Márcia Maria dos Santos Bortolocci Espejo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the composition of boards of directors of Brazilian public companies and the firm value. The analysis is conducted by reference to a group of 208 Brazilian companies listed on Bovespa in the year 2008. The contribution of the study is done to assess the level of adherence to the recommendations of the Brazilian Institute of Corporate Governance (IBGC) regarding the composition of the board and its relation to market value. U...

  10. Delisting Brazilian Public Companies: Empirical Evidence about Corporate Governance Issues

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    Patricia Maria Bortolon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper prop oses to analyse the relationship between corporate governance and delisting process of public companies listed on the Brazilian Securities, Commodities and Futures Exchange (Bolsa de Valores, Mercadorias e Futuros de São Paulo – BM&FBovespa. The sample co mprises 86 voluntary delisting operations in 2008 - 2012 period and a matching sample with companies that remained public, identified here as “comparable”. A corporate governance index comprising four dimensions (ownership structure, ethics and conflicts of interest, disclosure and board of directors and a set of 16 questions was used to analyse the two groups. As expected, delisted companies score lower than their comparable ones is the broad index. However, board of directors, disclosure and ethics and con flicts of interest dimensions didn’t show statistical significant differences between the two groups. In the ownership structure dimension the issues related to concentration of control differentiate the groups. Despite the mean differences, corporate gove rnance doesn’t seem to impact significantly the chances to delist in a model with ownership structure and financial variables.

  11. FUZZY CLUSTERING: APPLICATION ON ORGANIZATIONAL METAPHORS IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

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    Angel Cobo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Different theories of organization and management are based on implicit images or metaphors. Nevertheless, a quantitative approach is needed to minimize human subjectivity or bias on metaphors studies. Hence, this paper analyzed the presence of metaphors and clustered them using fuzzy data mining techniques in a sample of 61 Brazilian companies that operate in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. For this purpose the results of a questionnaire answered by 198 employees of companies in the sample were analyzed by R free software. The results show that it is difficult to find a clear image in most organizations. In most cases characteristics of different images or metaphors are observed, so soft computing techniques are particularly appropriate for this type of analysis. However, according to these results, it is noted that the most present image in the organizations studied is that of “organisms” and the least present image is that of a “political system” and of an “instrument of domination”

  12. Differences in the patent management in Brazilian companies with and without plants abroad

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    Hilda Maria Salomé Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the procedures of local Brazilian companies (those which have plants in Brazil only with those of international Brazilian companies (which have plants in at least two countries regarding the patent management. Although there are a lot more variables to consider when examining the issue of patents in companies, this study presents and analyzes the results of a qualitative research on the decision to patent innovations, the choice of countries where to patent and the strategic significance of patents to the company.

  13. Corporate governance and internationalization of capital of brazilian companies of the sectors construction and transports

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Beatriz Grangeiro Ribeiro Maia; Alessandra Carvalho de Vasconcelos; Márcia Martins Mendes De Luca

    2013-01-01

    The study aims at analyzing comparatively the representativeness of foreign capital in the capital of Brazilian companies of the sectors construction and transports, considering their segments on the BM&FBovespa. The internationalization of the 66 companies in the sample was measured by the percentage of the company's share capital held by foreign investors, and governance by the company's participation on the “Differentiated Level of Corporate Governance” (DLCG) segments of BM&FBoves...

  14. Lifestyle factors, direct and indirect costs for a Brazilian airline company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Rabacow (Fabiana Maluf); O. Do Carmo Luiz (Olinda); A.M. Malik (Ana Maria); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To analyze lifestyle risk factors related to direct healthcare costs and the indirect costs due to sick leave among workers of an airline company in Brazil. Methods: In this longitudinal 12-month study of 2,201 employees of a Brazilian airline company, the costs of sick leave

  15. BRAZILIAN FOREST SEEDS: A PRECARIOUS BEGINNING, A HEADY PRESENT AND THE FUTURE, WILL IT BE PROMISING?

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    João Paulo Ribeiro-Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815738By analyzing the trajectory of forest seed sector, it is widely known the relationship between the studies on native species and the Brazilian Forest Legislation. The Brazilian market for forest seed species is mostly informal and there are only a few species with laboratory tests registered in the Rules for Seed Testing (RAS. However, Law number 10,711, when ruling as to the marketing of seeds and seedlings, granted legal subsidies to promote the formalization of the forest seeds industry. Compliance with this law is conditioned to standardized laboratory methodologies for evaluating seed quality. For this reason, the formulation of a supplement or specific RAS for native forest seeds seems to be near. This fact will certainly consolidate the national seed industry sector. However, what were the paths that native forest seed science had to walk down to reach this standardization? What are the prospects for the future relating to the native forest seed sector? These are just some of the questions this work intends to answer, based on the perspectives of forestry and environmental organizations, such as the Seeds Networks.

  16. Evaluation of the Effect of Environmental Management Strategies on the Financial Performance of Brazilian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Aguiar De Araújo; Marcos Cohen; Jorge Ferreira da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Since the last decades of the 20th century, companies have been pressured by new demands of society in order to present more conscious and sustainable behaviors. Adapting to this new paradigm, many of the medium and large companies have directed their strategies and actions to social and environmental aspects. Environmental management figures as an indispensable tool to guide such actions. The purpose of this article is to understand the environmental practices of Brazilian companies and to a...

  17. Determining factors for the adoption of stock option plans in brazilian publicly traded companies

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    Geovanne Dias de Moura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify the determining factors for the adoption of stock option plans in Brazilian publicly traded companies. Therefore, a descriptive research was developed by means of document analysis and a quantitative approach, using logistic regression. The sample consists of 158 companies, using data for the period from 2009 till 2012. The results evidenced an increase in the number of companies with stock option plans during the period. Among the factors company size, liquidity constraint, stock concentration, horizon problem, stockholder participation of CEO, dual function of CEO and chairman of the board, described in the literature as influences for the use of stock option plans, three were confirmed in the sample analyzed. The factors “current liquidity” between 2010 and 2012; “horizon problem” between 2009 and 2012; and “stockholder participation” in 2012, further evidence positive relations in the Brazilian context.

  18. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICE OF BRAZILIAN FOOTWEAR-EXPORTING COMPANIES

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    Flavia Luciane Scherer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze social and environmental management practices adopted by Brazilian footwear-exporting companies. To that end, we reviewed the literature on the Brazilian footwear industry and its socio-environmental management, which serves to frame our empirical survey of Brazilian footwear manufacturers having international operations, according to the Brazilian Footwear Association [ABICALÇADOS]. We undertook a descriptive study by using the survey method as a data collection procedure. The data obtained from responding companies showed the predominance of firms with proven market experience, mostly large-sized and with at least two decades of activity. The descriptive analysis allowed us to verify that whereas their investments in environmental practices usually have low to medium intensity rates, these investments nonetheless stand out when compared with investments in social issues. The factorial analysis enabled us to reduce and group the practices studied into two factors, which we termed “environmental” and “social.” Key-words: Social and Environmental Practices. Brazilian footwear-exporting companies.

  19. Lifestyle factors, direct and indirect costs for a Brazilian airline company

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Maluf Rabacow; Olinda do Carmo Luiz; Ana Maria Malik; Alex Burdorf

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze lifestyle risk factors related to direct healthcare costs and the indirect costs due to sick leave among workers of an airline company in Brazil. METHODS In this longitudinal 12-month study of 2,201 employees of a Brazilian airline company, the costs of sick leave and healthcare were the primary outcomes of interest. Information on the independent variables, such as gender, age, educational level, type of work, stress, and lifestyle-related factors (body mass index, phy...

  20. THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF THE SOFTWARE MARKET: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

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    Oscar Roberto Burzynski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the potential for internationalization of the Brazilian software industry from the perspective of software developers and service providers. The purpose of the study conducted was to better understand the way Brazilian software companies relate to the international software market by comparing the perceptions of entrepreneurs and those of government agency officials responsible for increasing Brazil's participation in the international software market. Data collection took place by means of semi-structured interviews with entrepreneurs and government agency officials. The data gathered was subjected to content analysis. Results show that Brazilian software companies perform poorly with regard to levels of exporting their products and services for a number of reasons, among which the most outstanding is that they still think that the internal market offers enough challenges and opportunities.

  1. Cleaner Production: A Growing Movement in Brazilian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Oduvaldo Vendrametto; Nivaldo Palmeri Palmeri; Geraldo Cardoso de Oliveira Neto; Osvaldo D'Angelo Perreti

    2010-01-01

    Cleaner Production (CP) is gaining emphasis in both world and Brazilian production sectors. Nature’s warnings indicating the exhaustion of any capacity to absorb and regenerate waste, stricter legislation regarding pollution emitters, market competitiveness associated with environmental and social responsibility cause concerns and lead to actions to reduce aggressions against the environment. This paper shows evidence of this concern and presents cases in which a large automotive industry, ac...

  2. Corporate governance and internationalization of capital of brazilian companies of the sectors construction and transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Beatriz Grangeiro Ribeiro Maia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at analyzing comparatively the representativeness of foreign capital in the capital of Brazilian companies of the sectors construction and transports, considering their segments on the BM&FBovespa. The internationalization of the 66 companies in the sample was measured by the percentage of the company's share capital held by foreign investors, and governance by the company's participation on the “Differentiated Level of Corporate Governance” (DLCG segments of BM&FBovespa. Using a descriptive and a quantitative study, the results of applying the Mann-Whitney test for the percentage of foreign capital in the capital of DLCG firms and of companies listed on the traditional market indicate that there is a difference statistically significant between the two groups of firms, confirming the hypothesis of this research. The conclusion is that governance is a sign of the internationalization of capital companies, confirming the efficiency of the administration based on the theory of transaction costs.

  3. TAX TREATMENT OF CARBON CREDIT OPERATIONS IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES WITH CDM PROJECTS

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    Vanderlei dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this study is to identify the tax treatment applied to carbon credit operations in Brazilian companies that are developing projects in the context of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM. Therefore, an exploratory research with a qualitative approach was developed. Data were collected with the help of questionnaire, forwarded to all Brazilian companies with CDM projects that received approval from the Inter-Ministerial Commission on Global Climate Change (CIMGC without safeguards, according to the list of the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology. Out of 117 companies listed, only five answered the research instrument, which represents an accessibility sample. The results show that, as for the tax treatment applied in the companies under analysis, IRPJ and CSLL should be charged on carbon credit operations. Regarding PIS, COFINS, ISS, some companies considered that these taxes are due and others that they are not. There is a consensus, though, about the fact that ICMS and IOF should not be charged. In conclusion, no uniform understanding exists as of yet about due taxes in the research sample, as no specific fiscal legislation exists yet on carbon credits in Brazil.

  4. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Brazilian Passiflora Seed Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana, Fernanda Carvalho; Shinagawa, Fernanda Branco; Araujo, Elias da Silva; Costa, Ana Maria; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    The seed oils of different varieties of 4 Passiflora species cultivated in Brazil were analyzed and compared regarding their physicochemical parameters, fatty acid composition and the presence of minor components, such as phytosterols, tocopherols, total carotenoids, and phenolic compounds. The antioxidant capacities of the oil extracts were determined using the 2,2'azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] and oxygen radical absorbance capacity methods. The results revealed that all studied Passiflora seed oils possessed similar physicochemical characteristics, except for color, and predominantly contained polyunsaturated fatty acids with a high percentage of linolenic acid (68.75% to 71.54%). Other than the total phytosterol content, the extracted oil from Passiflora setacea BRS Pérola do Cerrado seeds had higher quantities (% times higher than the average of all samples), of carotenoids (44%), phenolic compounds (282%) and vitamin E (215%, 56%, 398%, and 100% for the α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol isomers, respectively). The methanolic extracts from Passiflora setacea BRS Pérola do Cerrado seed oil also showed higher antioxidant activity, which was positively correlated with the total phenolic, δ-tocopherol, and vitamin E contents. For the first time, these results indicate that Passiflora species have strong potential regarding the use of their seeds for oil extraction. Due to their interesting composition, the seed oils may be used as a raw material in manufacturing industries in addition to other widely used vegetable oils. PMID:26512548

  5. The internationalization of Brazilian companies: developing managers as an essential business strategy factor

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    HILARIO DE MACEDO OLIVEIRA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The globalization phenomenon has given rise to a new and virtually limitless dimension for companies to gain access to new markets beyond their country borders. This has proven to be an opportunity for growth and expansion. Given the transformations that this phenomenon has driven in the international business environment, one is struck by the fact that the presence of Brazilian companies abroad is still low, as Brazilian business is continues to be shy of expanding via internationalization. One concludes that the leaders of Brazilian firms are better prepared to operate in the domestic market and with processes and businesses that focus on exports; few executives are required to run operations abroad. However, the reality of internationalization calls for a new type of manager, the “global executive,” who is expected to be cosmopolitan, a negotiator and a cross-culture communicator that is able to generate synergy and lead changes. Brazilian companies that want to grow beyond cultural and ethnic frontiers are facing the challenge of forming theses “citizens of the world,” capable not only of making room in the international market, but also of leading the processes of transformation and change within corporate environments. The aim of this article is to discuss how to develop people for the strategic management of internationalization processes, as well as to identify current gaps and to provide recommendations both for the development of the competences that a global mindset requires among our managers, and for the management of the international mobility of Brazilian executives.Key words: Company internationalization. Expatriation. People management. Leadership.

  6. Fantasy Seed Company: A Role Playing Game for Plant Breeding Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, Steve S.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding plant breeding as well as procedures and issues of seed companies are skills students studying agronomy need to acquire. Simulation games can be effective teaching tools in developing higher-order thinking skills of students. The "Fantasy Seed Company" game was developed to create motivated learners by allowing students to run a mock…

  7. Relationships between R & D, patents and export actively innovative Brazilian companies

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    Micheline Gaia Hoffmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the outcome of quantitative research that examines the relationship between R&D (expenditures, personnel training and practices of external collaboration, patent generation and exporting in Brazilian companies which are identified as innovative. The research tested 07 hypotheses for the relationship between variables, using data collected from the companies that participated in the FINEP Prize for Innovation 2010. The sample is non-probabilistic and counted on 471 companies, distributed over 18 sectors and 5 regions of Brazil. The results show that there is a relationship between the investments in R&D, the number of patents generated and the capacity of exporting in the researched companies. The research also shows that there is a weak relationship between R&D expenditures and patents, as well as between partnership with universities and patents. In addition, in the researched companies, the more training the personnel working on R&D receive, the more patents that are generated.

  8. Work for sustainability: Case studies of Brazilian companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolis, Ivan; Brunoro, Claudio M; Sznelwar, Laerte I

    2016-11-01

    The introduction of strategic corporate sustainability policies is expected to result in the improvement of several issues in companies. One of these issues is work, which should involve greater well-being for workers. Within the context of production engineering, this research connects sustainability and work-related issues, the latter seen in light of the discipline of ergonomics. Based on case studies conducted at four companies considered sustainability benchmarks, we examined how the introduction of the theme of sustainability has influenced work-related issues. The elements analyzed here were the corporate sustainability strategy, organizational practices for deploying the strategy, and the work design phase. The last element is the moment in which work is prescribed in the organization. The results show that, despite the announcement of the inclusion of changes in work, there is not any explicit evidence confirming that such changes are considered as a requirement for corporate sustainability projects. PMID:26477892

  9. Work for sustainability: Case studies of Brazilian companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolis, Ivan; Brunoro, Claudio M; Sznelwar, Laerte I

    2016-11-01

    The introduction of strategic corporate sustainability policies is expected to result in the improvement of several issues in companies. One of these issues is work, which should involve greater well-being for workers. Within the context of production engineering, this research connects sustainability and work-related issues, the latter seen in light of the discipline of ergonomics. Based on case studies conducted at four companies considered sustainability benchmarks, we examined how the introduction of the theme of sustainability has influenced work-related issues. The elements analyzed here were the corporate sustainability strategy, organizational practices for deploying the strategy, and the work design phase. The last element is the moment in which work is prescribed in the organization. The results show that, despite the announcement of the inclusion of changes in work, there is not any explicit evidence confirming that such changes are considered as a requirement for corporate sustainability projects.

  10. The Role of Home Country Political Resources for Brazilian Multinational Companies

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    Karina Regina Vieira Bazuchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the interactions between home country governments and Developing Country Multinational Companies (DMNCs. Drawing on evidence from the Brazilian political environment and Brazilian multinationals we investigate the mechanisms governments use to influence the internationalization process of domestic companies and firms’ political strategic responses to shape the political institutional environment in which they operate. We argue that foreign direct investment (FDI outflows from developing economies need to be explored given specific country level contextual factors, such as high levels of government involvement. Our main findings support this idea and indicate that home country governments use a series of formal and informal mechanisms in order to drive the international expansion of DMNCs in both the entry and consolidation phases. Moreover, DMNCs political behavior in the home country political environment accounts for an important part of their strategy to develop political resources and obtain above average returns from governmental benefits.

  11. THE DIMENSIONS OF IT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT (ITPM: AN ANALYSIS INVOLVING IT MANAGERS IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

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    Pietro Cunha Dolci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore and validate the dimensions of IT Portfolio Management (ITPM in Brazilian companies, based on three different models. Five case studies were carried out in Brazilian companies that invest more than nine million reals per year in IT. Eight top IT executives from those organizations who had knowledge of the dimensions of ITPM were interviewed. Items were modified and new items included within the dimensions, while examples of equipment or systems applicable to each of the four dimensions were also identified. Research that helps managers to better understand and structure their IT investments by using the dimensions of ITPM is important to assist in the management of such resources. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. The authors wish to thank CNPq and CAPES for their financial support during the development of this research.

  12. PETROBRAS, an energy company and the Brazilian biofuel program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Fernando; Diehl Filho, Rubin P.; Fernandes Valle, Luiz Alberto

    2010-09-15

    Ever since the launches of Proalcool (ETHANOL PROGRAM) and PNPB (BIODIESEL PROGRAM), PETROBRAS (as an energy company) has been actively participating in these national projects and investing in tankage collection and storage, shipment and marine terminals, distribution infrastructure, biodiesel and ethanol plants and second-generation biofuels. It has also been the pioneer in offering these products at its service stations to final consumers. PETROBRAS in its 2008-2012 Business Plan intends to invest US$ 1.5 billion in biofuel business and act globally in biofuel commercialization and logistics, leading national biodiesel production and expanding its presence in the ethanol business.

  13. DETERMINANTS OF FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES: A MULTI-RATIO MODEL USING MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Dr. Hong Yuh Ching; Prof. Dr. Fábio Gerab

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this research are twofold: a) identify the factors and correlated indicators that impact corporate financial performance; b) determine the indicators that most affect profitability of Brazilian cyclical consumer goods industry. Two motivations for this study were the lack of academic research in this industry and its importance in the economy. Sixteen companies with current asset greater than 50% of total asset, for the period 2005-2009, were selected. Principal Component An...

  14. The Payout Decision-Making Process of Brazilian Listed Companies: A CFO Survey

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    Roberto Frota Decourt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a survey with Brazilian listed companies CFOs` trying to identify how these companies determine and manage their payout policy. It was identified that the final decision about dividends is taken by the board of directors, taking into consideration a management proposal sent to them before. Main factors analyzed are net profit and cash generation during immediate previous period. The managers mainly consider interest on own capital (JSCP and dividends as instruments for payout policy. They believe that share repurchase is advantageous to shareholders; however, it is viewed more as an investment decision by the company than a dividend policy. The interest on own capital is broadly used because it provides a fiscal benefit to the company. It seems that management compensation policy affects dividends payout. This suggests an agency conflict between managers and shareholders.

  15. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN THE INTEGRATED REPORTING FRAMEWORK: DISCLOSURE OF BRAZILIAN COMPANIES PARTICIPANTS IN THE PILOT PROJECT

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    Ana Cristina Silva Abreu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes how Brazilian companies adhered the IIRC’s framework for integrated reporting, regarding the content element of corporate governance. The 2013 annual reporting of each company were analyzed consonants to the IIRC's framework using qualitative analysis. Categories were created for adherence of information provided by companies and applied content analysis for this purpose. Results suggest that the framework, although not being adopted integrally by the companies, was used as guide for their disclosure practices. Among other observed results for each of framework topics, BRF S.A, CPFL Energia and Itaú Unibanco disclosure practices featured as examples of adherence for the IIRC model and the inherent principles integrated in the report.

  16. Lifestyle factors, direct and indirect costs for a Brazilian airline company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Malik, Ana Maria; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze lifestyle risk factors related to direct healthcare costs and the indirect costs due to sick leave among workers of an airline company in Brazil. METHODS In this longitudinal 12-month study of 2,201 employees of a Brazilian airline company, the costs of sick leave and healthcare were the primary outcomes of interest. Information on the independent variables, such as gender, age, educational level, type of work, stress, and lifestyle-related factors (body mass index, physical activity, and smoking), was collected using a questionnaire on enrolment in the study. Data on sick leave days were available from the company register, and data on healthcare costs were obtained from insurance records. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between direct and indirect healthcare costs with sociodemographic, work, and lifestyle-related factors. RESULTS Over the 12-month study period, the average direct healthcare expenditure per worker was US$505.00 and the average indirect cost because of sick leave was US$249.00 per worker. Direct costs were more than twice the indirect costs and both were higher in women. Body mass index was a determinant of direct costs and smoking was a determinant of indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS Obesity and smoking among workers in a Brazilian airline company were associated with increased health costs. Therefore, promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and anti-tobacco campaigns are important targets for health promotion in this study population. PMID:26039398

  17. Lifestyle factors, direct and indirect costs for a Brazilian airline company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Malik, Ana Maria; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze lifestyle risk factors related to direct healthcare costs and the indirect costs due to sick leave among workers of an airline company in Brazil. METHODS In this longitudinal 12-month study of 2,201 employees of a Brazilian airline company, the costs of sick leave and healthcare were the primary outcomes of interest. Information on the independent variables, such as gender, age, educational level, type of work, stress, and lifestyle-related factors (body mass index, physical activity, and smoking), was collected using a questionnaire on enrolment in the study. Data on sick leave days were available from the company register, and data on healthcare costs were obtained from insurance records. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between direct and indirect healthcare costs with sociodemographic, work, and lifestyle-related factors. RESULTS Over the 12-month study period, the average direct healthcare expenditure per worker was US$505.00 and the average indirect cost because of sick leave was US$249.00 per worker. Direct costs were more than twice the indirect costs and both were higher in women. Body mass index was a determinant of direct costs and smoking was a determinant of indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS Obesity and smoking among workers in a Brazilian airline company were associated with increased health costs. Therefore, promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and anti-tobacco campaigns are important targets for health promotion in this study population.

  18. Lifestyle factors, direct and indirect costs for a Brazilian airline company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maluf Rabacow

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze lifestyle risk factors related to direct healthcare costs and the indirect costs due to sick leave among workers of an airline company in Brazil. METHODS In this longitudinal 12-month study of 2,201 employees of a Brazilian airline company, the costs of sick leave and healthcare were the primary outcomes of interest. Information on the independent variables, such as gender, age, educational level, type of work, stress, and lifestyle-related factors (body mass index, physical activity, and smoking, was collected using a questionnaire on enrolment in the study. Data on sick leave days were available from the company register, and data on healthcare costs were obtained from insurance records. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between direct and indirect healthcare costs with sociodemographic, work, and lifestyle-related factors. RESULTS Over the 12-month study period, the average direct healthcare expenditure per worker was US$505.00 and the average indirect cost because of sick leave was US$249.00 per worker. Direct costs were more than twice the indirect costs and both were higher in women. Body mass index was a determinant of direct costs and smoking was a determinant of indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS Obesity and smoking among workers in a Brazilian airline company were associated with increased health costs. Therefore, promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and anti-tobacco campaigns are important targets for health promotion in this study population.

  19. Lifestyle factors, direct and indirect costs for a Brazilian airline company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Malik, Ana Maria; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze lifestyle risk factors related to direct healthcare costs and the indirect costs due to sick leave among workers of an airline company in Brazil. METHODS In this longitudinal 12-month study of 2,201 employees of a Brazilian airline company, the costs of sick leave and healthcare were the primary outcomes of interest. Information on the independent variables, such as gender, age, educational level, type of work, stress, and lifestyle-related factors (body mass index, physical activity, and smoking), was collected using a questionnaire on enrolment in the study. Data on sick leave days were available from the company register, and data on healthcare costs were obtained from insurance records. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between direct and indirect healthcare costs with sociodemographic, work, and lifestyle-related factors. RESULTS Over the 12-month study period, the average direct healthcare expenditure per worker was US$505.00 and the average indirect cost because of sick leave was US$249.00 per worker. Direct costs were more than twice the indirect costs and both were higher in women. Body mass index was a determinant of direct costs and smoking was a determinant of indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS Obesity and smoking among workers in a Brazilian airline company were associated with increased health costs. Therefore, promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and anti-tobacco campaigns are important targets for health promotion in this study population. PMID:26039398

  20. The World Financial Crisis and the International Financing of Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Carvalhal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The world financial crisis initiated in 2008 may have affected the international financing mix of firms in Brazil and their determinants, given its aftereffects. Financial crisis are recurrent events with varying degrees of severity. Many public Brazilian firms use international financing in their capital structure mix and it is relevant to understand their behavior during international crises. Thus, our goal was to investigate the foreign financing mixes of Brazilian listed companies before (2004 and during the 2008 world financial crisis by means of descriptive and probit regression analyses of their components and determinants at the end of these years. Brazilian companies usage of Eurobonds fluctuates with the value of the real (R$ and is still small considering the size of Brazil’s economy. Short-term financing and bank loans, domestic and foreign, decreased in 2008 and were replaced by domestic and international bonds and American Depository Receipts (ADRs. Firms with foreign shareholders more often resorted to foreign capital markets and their presence became a more important determinant in 2008, while the other determinants did not change. Firms that employ international debt tend to use all other sources of financing more often. International bank loans may be the first step to reduce international financing constraints.

  1. INTERNATIONALIZATION STRATEGIES OF EMERGING COMPANIES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BRAZILIAN CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Maria Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, interest has picked up as to emerging economies and their companies. This recent movement does not imply that previous theories and models are no longer applicable, however, one must analyze, in a broader comprehensive manner, a series of specific context factors and those concerning the management of this kind of company. Therefore, this paper analyzed the internationalization strategies adopted by six Brazilian companies before a set of internationalization models. A qualitative research approach was employed and in-depth interviews were conducted with corporate management level professionals. Companies were divided into three groups according to internationalization times (Group I – over ten years, Group II - between five and ten years, and Group III – under five years. Observations indicated that for Groups I and III companies the product lifecycle (Vernon, 1966 and 1979 and the eclectic paradigm (Dunning, 1980, 1988 and 2000 economic models support justifying internationalization motivations for companies’ internalization whilst the Uppsala model (Johanson and VAHLNE, 1979, 2009, at least in part explains, choice decisions concerning a few countries. As to Group II companies, the product lifecycle model is not the underlying motivation for internationalization, choices being more closely related to sector opportunities and the characteristics of both products and services.

  2. An analysis of the deinstitutionalization of inflation-adjusted accounting practices in Brazilian companies

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    Amaury José Rezende

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the deinstitutionalization of the inflation-adjustment accounting practices used by large Brazilian companies. The theoretical assumptions used were based on institutional theory, which provides a sociological interpretation of human behavior that recognizes the phenomenon of limited rationality and the political character of social action. Analyses were based on the empirical approach that was proposed by Oliver (1992. The research strategy consisted of questionnaires and interviews conducted in a population of 118 large Brazilian companies from Exame Magazine's list of the 500 largest companies. The primary respondents were accountants and controllers. Factor analysis, one-way ANOVA and the Kruskal-Wallis test were conducted using the approach proposed by Oliver (1992, and the research included 22 variables comprising 12 constructs and 6 qualitative hypotheses regarding the pressures that motivate the deinstitutionalization of inflation-adjusted accounting practices. Therefore, with regard to the constructs assessed, emphasis was placed on identifying the political pressures (the environment and the functional pressures in both the organizational and environmental dimensions. However, the social pressures did not prove to be significant. We conclude that the process of deinstitutionalization results from a distinct combination of institutional factors, and these results are consistent with the findings from research conducted in the US market and in the UK.

  3. COMPARATIVE EVIDENCE ABOUT KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER BETWEEN BRAZILIAN AND FOREIGN FRANCHISE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Stival Morgado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to compare the process of transferring knowledge in franchising between Brazilian and international companies operating in Brazil. Franchising has shown an important phenomenon in many countries, with considerable evidence of growing globally. It is a new type of business organization as an object of academic research field offering great reviews, but also limitations as references and studies of depth of field. The traditional literature in management emphasis on franchising, in large part to its importance as a way to circumvent resource constraints, as their characteristics and definition of business practices among its different parts. The transfer of knowledge in franchising is still a gap especially among companies in different countries. In addition, we adopted a methodology that this study followed a qualitative research with in-depth interviews of franchisees. The results show that Brazilian firms oriented transfer of knowledge in franchising for more lawsuits based on tacit knowledge, thus using more informal and less number of transfer mechanisms in these processes. International companies operating in Brazil for franchising rely on formal processes with periodic meetings, training and technological resources, and therefore have a greater control over the process of transferring knowledge to the franchised units. Thus, this study seeks to help we better understand franchising, development processes and their expansion in emerging markets like Brazil.

  4. The role of Pteridium arachnoideum(Kaulf) on the seed bank of the endangered Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, R O; Alday, J G; Marrs, R H; Matos, D M S

    2016-02-01

    The native bracken (Pteridium arachnoideum) often occurs in mono-specific stands in the Brazilian Cerrado, and this dominance can impact on both the above-ground vegetation and soil seed bank. This study investigated how invasion by this species over a 20-year period changed the seed bank and the relationship between the seed bank and litter mass. We extracted soil samples from three replicated invaded and uninvaded sites, and followed seedling emergence for six months. We collected the above-ground biomass and litter of P. arachnoideum in ten 1m2 plots from three invaded sites. There was no difference between invaded and uninvaded areas in seed bank richness, diversity or overall abundance. The most abundant family was the Melastomataceae, followed by the Poaceae. The Melastomataceae was more abundant in uninvaded sites, but the most common species of this family (Tibouchinastenocarpa) was not affected. The grasses were more common in invaded sites in the rainy season and were affected by heterogeneity in the litter layer. The seed bank could play a role in the recovery of these invaded areas, but the presence of weeds and invasive grasses could constrain their use as a management strategy. PMID:26871749

  5. Evaluation of the Effect of Environmental Management Strategies on the Financial Performance of Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Aguiar De Araújo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the last decades of the 20th century, companies have been pressured by new demands of society in order to present more conscious and sustainable behaviors. Adapting to this new paradigm, many of the medium and large companies have directed their strategies and actions to social and environmental aspects. Environmental management figures as an indispensable tool to guide such actions. The purpose of this article is to understand the environmental practices of Brazilian companies and to analyze if these practices influence their financial performance. Data were collected from Análise Gestão Ambiental magazine about the environmental initiatives of enterprises as well as from financial indicators (Exame magazine, BOVESPA, and official financial statements of the companies. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 17.0 software. Initially a TwoStep cluster analysis was used in order to identify groups of firms practicing distinct environmental strategies. Then, the financial indicators of companies clusters found were analyzed by means of ANOVA and MANOVA statistical tools to check for differences between the financial performances of these clusters. The results of this analysis of a sample of 142 firms suggest that environmental management practices can be classified into two distinct categories - reactive and proactive - but no significant differences between the financial performances of these clusters were found.

  6. Exploratory study regarding how cultural perspectives can influence the perceptions of project success in Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Adelino Ramos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to globalization and dynamic business environment, teams in companies are multicultural; as a result, culture may become an important aspect to be considered. The majority of articles regarding projects include factors of success and failure, but only a few embrace cultural perspectives. To provide more insight into the effects of cultural perspectives, this paper presents findings from an exploratory study that investigated how Brazilian information technology companies perceive project success and failure, and then makes inferences regarding the cultural factors. Interviews and questionnaires were applied, and the results provide insights for understanding how cultural factors may influence the project success perceptions. As the primary results, contributions regarding cultural perceptions are offered and related to different dimensions with a view to exploring the cultural aspects as determinant factors of success in a project management environment.

  7. IT MANAGEMENT DESIGN AT THE TOP 100 BRAZILIAN COMPANIES, ACCORDING TO THEIR CIOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Cezar Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify the design of IT management atn the top 100 Brazilian companies. The research method was a quantitative approach, using the descriptive-statistical method to describe the data collected through a questionnaire with 77 questions, based on the rationale of the IT management, proposed by Lutchen (2003. The main results indicate that: a IT aligns with the basic processes of business, although not fully synchronized; b IT management adheres to conformity systems (ITIL, COBIT, but does not show optimization of business processes; c IT delivers the basic demands, but does not impose or use the best automated practices; and d IT quality is based on documented processes, but lacks indicators to control and orient business improvement. One may infer that IT management, at the top 100 Brazilian companies is essentially based on standard IT conformity systems, under the rationale of solution providers, and not as a business innovator or rule breaker. Thus, in spite of aligning and responding to business basic demand, IT management still does not show clear signs of alignment with the evolving nature of business models, needed to sustain business performance.

  8. IT MANAGEMENT DESIGN AT THE TOP 100 BRAZILIAN COMPANIES, ACCORDING TO THEIR CIOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Cezar Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify the design of IT management atn the top 100 Brazilian companies. The research method was a quantitative approach, using the descriptive-statistical method to describe the data collected through a questionnaire with 77 questions, based on the rationale of the IT management, proposed by Lutchen (2003. The main results indicate that: a IT aligns with the basic processes of business, although not fully synchronized; b IT management adheres to conformity systems (ITIL, COBIT, but does not show optimization of business processes; c IT delivers the basic demands, but does not impose or use the best automated practices; and d IT quality is based on documented processes, but lacks indicators to control and orient business improvement. One may infer that IT management, at the top 100 Brazilian companies is essentially based on standard IT conformity systems, under the rationale of solution providers, and not as a business innovator or rule breaker. Thus, in spite of aligning and responding to business basic demand, IT management still does not show clear signs of alignment with the evolving nature of business models, needed to sustain business performance.

  9. THEORETICAL ESSAY ABOUT THE RELATION BETWEEN FINANCIAL LEVERAGE AND INVESTMENT IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Midori Kuroda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quest for understanding the relationship between the capital structure and investment decisions resulted in many different authors contribution. In the Brazilian economic scenario, an empirical study performed by Albuquerque and Matias (2013 identified the existence of a strong negative relation between finance leverage and investment in Brazilian public companies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the theory of finance supports these empirical findings or if there is a discrepancy between the practical behavior and the theoretical rules. To this end, it was performed a bibliographic research of scientific works related with this theme, among them Carneiro, Salles and Wu (2006, Hadlock and Pierce (2010 and Dang (2011. The methodology of this research can be classified as exploratory, according to its purpose, qualitative in terms of approach and bibliographical considering its technical procedures. All the developed analysis led to the formulation of six theoretical propositions that support the relation between financial leverage and investment. The negative and positive effects of debt were considered according to growth opportunities, the supply of credit in the Brazilian context, the raising of risk and cost of capital and the allocation of resources obtained through external funding. Briefly, it can be concluded that these six theoretical propositions could serve as the fundamentals of the relation in question, two being based on the under-investment and overinvestment theories and the other four, on the Brazilian financial market aspects. All of them must be considered in the decision making of a financial manager, especially the related with the financing options.

  10. Ownership structure and economic and socio-environmental disclosure in the largest Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aquino Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The disclosure of sustainable practices has become important in the search for competitive advantage, so as to meet the expectations of the various stakeholders. Thus, the study aims to investigate the relationship between the ownership structure and the economic and environmental voluntary disclosure in the largest Brazilian companies, analyzing ownership concentration and the identity of the controlling shareholder. For the analysis, we considered the economic, social and environmental perspectives, addressed both individually and jointly. The sample consists of 47 companies from the 100 largest public companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA, according to the magazine Exame Biggest and Best, edition 2013. The research is descriptive and quantitative, using Multiple Linear Regression for statistical analysis. The descriptive analysis of the prospects of (economic, social, environmental and sustainability disclosure showed lower average disclosure for the environmental aspect. The state control organizations stood out with the highest average in three of the four levels of disclosure: economic, social and sustainability. As regards the application of statistical analysis, the regression models were not statistically significant, indicating that, for the companies in the sample, the ownership structure does not influence the economic and socio-environmental disclosure.

  11. Use of transgenic seeds in Brazilian agriculture and concentration of agricultural production to large agribusinesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Amaral, S C S; de Mello, M P

    2012-01-01

    We identified the commercial releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Brazil, their characteristics, the types of genetic transformation used, and the companies responsible for the development of these GMOs, classifying them into two categories: private companies, subdivided into multinational and national, and public institutions. The data came from the data bank of the national registration of cultivars and the service of national protection of cultivars of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fishing and Supply (MAPA). This survey was carried out from 1998 to February 12, 2011. Until this date, 27 GMOs had been approved, including five for soybean, 15 for maize and seven for cotton cultivars. These GMOs have been used for the development of 766 cultivars, of which, 305 are soybean, 445 are maize, and 13 are cotton cultivars. The Monsato Company controls 73.2% of the transgenic cultivars certified by the MAPA; a partnership between Dow AgroSciences and DuPont accounts for 21.4%, and Syngenta controls 4.96%. Seed supply by these companies is almost a monopoly supported by law, giving no choice for producers and leading to the fast replacement of conventional cultivars by transgenic cultivars, which are expensive and exclude small producers from the market, since seeds cannot be kept for later use. This situation concentrates production in the hands of a few large national agribusiness entrepreneurs.

  12. Environmental Discourses in Organizations: the Case of a Brazilian Mobile Telecommunications Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Pádua Carrieri

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the discourse configurations on the environmental theme in business organizations and its relevance to the understanding of the inclusion of ecological discourses in the discourses of organizational members. A case study into a Brazilian telecommunications company offers empirical evidence. It begins with the understanding that organizations adopt several strategies in an attempt to disseminate a certain environmental discourse. As these efforts share space with other pressures, a fragmented discourse emerges. In this paper, the pressures of the environmental theme on organizations are discussed in order to understand this process. The second part of the argument focuses on the context of the case study – Brazilian organizations – and, afterwards, the third part deals with ecological discourses in their insertions in organizational interests. The data of the case study were collected through documental research and 40 semi-structured interviews. The analysis was applied based on Discourse Analysis. In conclusion, an ambiguous discourse configuration was shown that offer elements for the understanding that philanthropy, legal obligation and organizational competitiveness need to be used together to offer legitimacy to the theme of environmental responsibility in business organizations.

  13. Cost-benefit analysis of a socio-technical intervention in a Brazilian footwear company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, L B de M; Ribeiro, J L D; Renner, J S

    2012-09-01

    This article presents a costs-benefits analysis of a macroergonomic intervention in a Brazilian footwear company. Comparing results of a pilot line (composed by 100 multiskilled workers organized in teams) with eight traditional lines (still working in a one human being/one task model) the intervention showed to be worth pursuing since achieved gains were higher than intervention costs: there was a reduction in human resource costs (80% reduction in industrial accidents, 100% reduction in work-related musculoskeletal disorders or WMSD, medical consultations and turnover, and a 45.65% reduction in absenteeism) and production improvement (productivity increased in 3% and production waste decrease to less than 1%). The net intervention value of the intervention was around U$ 430,000 with a benefit-to-cost ratio of 7.2. Moreover, employees who worked in the pilot line understood that their quality of work life improved, compensating the anxiety brought up by the radical changes implemented. PMID:22464605

  14. Evaluating perceived quality of CELPE service: A Brazilian power company case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paes de Barros Filho, Joao [Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Center of Technology and Geosciences, 5th floor, Academico Helio Ramos av., Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE 50.670-901 (Brazil)], E-mail: joaopaes@celpe.com.br; Fritsch Damasio da Silva, Cleriston [Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Center of Technology and Geosciences, 5th floor, Academico Helio Ramos av., Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE 50.670-901 (Brazil)], E-mail: cleriston_silva@yahoo.com.br; Nascimento Melo, Maria Auxiliadora do [Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Center of Technology and Geosciences, 5th floor, Academico Helio Ramos av., Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE 50.670-901 (Brazil)], E-mail: manmelo@ufpe.br; Dumke de Medeiros, Denise [Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Center of Technology and Geosciences, 5th floor, Academico Helio Ramos av., Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE 50.670-901 (Brazil)], E-mail: ddm@ufpe.br

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents an application of a methodology for the diagnosis and analysis of the service quality perceived by a Particular Group of CELPE Corporate Customers, a Brazilian power company at Pernambuco State. Concepts, on the power sector, of Quality in Services, Performance Objectives and Critical Factors of Success have been used to develop the analysis. Next, the Critical Factors for a power company were determined and classified in accordance with the performance objectives: Quality, Dependability, Speed and Flexibility. From the factors established, a questionnaire was created to collect data. The case studied involves quantitative research on CELPE's private corporate principal customers using statistical tests to measure internal consistency reliability of the questionnaire scales and to identify underlying concepts, in the four groups analyzed, through which the private corporate customers perceive quality in the given services. Among the goals of this study are to improve the relationship with principal Private Corporate Clients, to create customer loyalty, and to maximize efforts in providing the power supply service, all of them with a view to improving and determining the Global Satisfaction Index.

  15. IMPLICATIONS OF ECONOMIC CRISES ON THE VALUE RELEVANCE OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Moraes da Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This papers investigates the impact of financial crises occurred in Brazil (1997-1999, 2002 and 2007-2008 on the value relevance of book value and earnings. The final sample comprised 1,904 observations from Brazilian listed companies, from 1997 till 2010. It is an empirical study based on panel data regression. To answer the research question, a dummy was applied for each year of negative macroeconomic shocks and how they affected the relation between market prices and accounting variables. Empirical evidence indicates that financial crises affected the value relevance of book value positively and the value relevance of earnings negatively, similarly to other countries like Thailand and Mexico. Therefore, macroeconomic factors should be taken into consideration when analyzing how accounting information captures the underlying characteristics of a firm. Future research could consider companies from other countries in Latin America and evaluate if the effects are similar or not. This is important because macroeconomic policies implemented to mitigate the effects of a crisis could lead to different impacts on the relevance of accounting information.

  16. Evaluating perceived quality of CELPE service: A Brazilian power company case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an application of a methodology for the diagnosis and analysis of the service quality perceived by a Particular Group of CELPE Corporate Customers, a Brazilian power company at Pernambuco State. Concepts, on the power sector, of Quality in Services, Performance Objectives and Critical Factors of Success have been used to develop the analysis. Next, the Critical Factors for a power company were determined and classified in accordance with the performance objectives: Quality, Dependability, Speed and Flexibility. From the factors established, a questionnaire was created to collect data. The case studied involves quantitative research on CELPE's private corporate principal customers using statistical tests to measure internal consistency reliability of the questionnaire scales and to identify underlying concepts, in the four groups analyzed, through which the private corporate customers perceive quality in the given services. Among the goals of this study are to improve the relationship with principal Private Corporate Clients, to create customer loyalty, and to maximize efforts in providing the power supply service, all of them with a view to improving and determining the Global Satisfaction Index

  17. Evaluating perceived quality of CELPE service. A Brazilian power company case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Barros Filho, Joao Paes; Da Silva, Cleriston Fritsch Damasio; Do Nascimento Melo, Maria Auxiliadora; De Medeiros, Denise Dumke [Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Center of Technology and Geosciences, 5th floor, Academico Helio Ramos av., Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE 50.670-901 (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents an application of a methodology for the diagnosis and analysis of the service quality perceived by a Particular Group of CELPE Corporate Customers, a Brazilian power company at Pernambuco State. Concepts, on the power sector, of Quality in Services, Performance Objectives and Critical Factors of Success have been used to develop the analysis. Next, the Critical Factors for a power company were determined and classified in accordance with the performance objectives: Quality, Dependability, Speed and Flexibility. From the factors established, a questionnaire was created to collect data. The case studied involves quantitative research on CELPE's private corporate principal customers using statistical tests to measure internal consistency reliability of the questionnaire scales and to identify underlying concepts, in the four groups analyzed, through which the private corporate customers perceive quality in the given services. Among the goals of this study are to improve the relationship with principal Private Corporate Clients, to create customer loyalty, and to maximize efforts in providing the power supply service, all of them with a view to improving and determining the Global Satisfaction Index. (author)

  18. The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab

  19. Proposal of managerial standards for new product portfolio management in Brazilian pharmaceutical companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Assis Moreira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available New Product Portfolio Management is aimed at helping decision-makers better select projects for new products based on key criteria for the manufacturer. The Brazilian pharmaceutical industry has been undergoing change due to stricter sanitary requirements following the enactment of the Generic Law in 1999. This paper presents the results of a research study aimed at clarifying the rationale employed by national pharmaceutical companies in selecting and prioritizing their new product development projects. Consequently, proposals for an analytical structure that could help these companies better select their products were produced. The research was carried out using case study methodology in which four different companies were investigated. The results of the field study confirmed that these companies had a non-structured Product Development System and that the selection of new product development projects was made on a non-systematic basis. The research also identified key criteria for the selection of projects of new pharmaceutical products, which provided the basis for the preparation of a proposal for a managerial standard for application of New Product Portfolio Management.A gestão de portfólio de projetos de novos produtos visa a auxiliar os tomadores de decisão a selecionar projetos de novos produtos considerando critérios importantes para a organização. A indústria farmacêutica brasileira tem passado por transformações devido ao aumento das exigências sanitárias após a Lei de Genéricos, de 1999. O objetivo deste trabalho foi entender como as indústrias farmacêuticas brasileiras selecionam seus projetos de desenvolvimento de novos produtos e propor uma estrutura que possa auxiliar estas empresas a selecionar seus projetos de produtos. Foi utilizada a metodologia de estudo de caso e uma mostra de quatro organizações foi investigada. Os resultados indicam que essas empresas apresentam um desenvolvimento de produtos n

  20. Immunomodulatory and toxicological evaluation of the fruit seeds from Platonia insignis, a native species from Brazilian Amazon Rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Karina M.F. Lustosa; Daniel D.R. Arcanjo; Rayra G. Ribeiro; Klinger Antonio F. Rodrigues; Flávia Franceli B. Passos; Celyane A. Piauilino; José Couras Silva-Filho; Bruno Q. Araújo; José S. Lima-Neto; Joaquim S. Costa-Júnior; Fernando Aécio A. Carvalho; Antônia Maria das Graças L. Citó

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The “bacuri” (Platonia insignis Mart., Clusiaceae) is a native tropical fruit from the Brazilian Amazon and Northeast Regions. Its seeds are used to treat inflammatory diseases, diarrhea and skin problems in traditional medical practices. Regarding its widespread medicinal uses, it is important to evaluate the biological and toxicological potential of this species. This way, the aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of the hexanic ex...

  1. Planning and administration of human resources in Brazilian Electric Power Companies; Planejamento e administracao de recursos humanos nas empresas brasileiras do setor de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Devanir Vieira

    1985-12-01

    Administration and planning of human resources in Brazilian Companies of Electric Power Sector analyzes the evolution of the concept of business planning. This work explore the specific literature of this theme, giving emphasis in predict methods and human resources development and planning models. Is also presented a case study, realized in 1979, which comprehended 84 % of Brazilian Energy Companies. This study aims to evaluate the results of an implementation of this planning and development models 64 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

  2. STRATEGIES FOR INDUSTRY INTERNATIONALIZATION BRAZILIAN PULP AND PAPER THE PERSPECTIVE OF ECLECTIC PARADIGM: A CASE STUDY OF PULP AND PAPER COMPANY SUZANO

    OpenAIRE

    Mayra Batista Bitencourt Fagundes; Carla Christina de Oliveira Viana; Leandro Sauer; Jeovan De Carvalho Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the process of internationalization of the Brazilian pulp and paper. This analysis has an economic bias, basing on the model of internationalization of Eclectic Paradigm of Dunning (1980) in order to identify the internationalization strategies, as well as the key drivers that have enabled reach new markets. We adopted a qualitative methodology, developed through a case study in the company Suzano, a Brazilian company, a global leader in the pulp and paper industr...

  3. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Felipe Farias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (− organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+ organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μg/mL (T. gardneriana to 487.51 μg/mL (Licania rigida. For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL. Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay.

  4. The relevance of the capital structure in firm performance: a multivariate analysis of Brazilian publicly traded companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Kennedy Cruz Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic changes in recent years have made the dynamics of the Brazilian market more complex, which directly impacts the administration of large organizations, particularly in management tasks, such as decisions concerning the definition of the capital structure. The literature in this theoretical field is polarized in two seminal works: the first, by Durand (1952, 1959, discusses the existence of an optimal capital structure that maximizes the value of the firm; and, at the other end, the work by Modigliani and Miller (1958, 1963 considers that it is irrelevant how firms are financed. In this sense, the objective was to verify the effective interference of the capital structure in the performance of Brazilian firms listed on BM&FBOVESPA. The sample consisted of cross-sectional data that were selected from the most recent balance sheets of all companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA, available in the Economática® database. The techniques used were the analysis of variance (ANOVA and discriminant analysis. Among the indicators used, it was observed that only general liquidity, the degree of immobilization, Tobin’s Q, and the opportunity for growth were significant at 1%. The results indicate that the capital structure is not directly related to the performance of Brazilian companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA. In the meantime, the results point to the consolidation of the financial theories expounded by Modigliani and Miller (1958, 1963, as opposed to the traditionalist current started in Durand’s studies (1952.

  5. The influence of cognitive and motivational biases in managerial decision making: empirical evidence from a Brazilian construction company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Barros Feitosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The heuristics and the biases affect the decision making process allowing the manager to take high complexity decisions under simplified conditions with the benefit of time saving. Although they are useful, making the information processing more efficient by directing the managers to relevancies and common urgencies to the decision making process, the use of heuristics can lead to induced inconsistencies by biases or lapses of decisions, which persistent and predictable generate patterns of behavior. Against that, the object of this research consists in diagnose possible cognitive and motivational biases, in special, the confidence excess, the optimism and the anchorage, in managers of a great Brazilian construction company. In order to achieve that objective, a structured questionary with selected tools into the literature on decision process was submitted to 120 managers of a big Brazilian construction company, however, only 84 questionaries were obtained, tabled and analyzed. As from the parametric and non-parametric tests, univariate and bivariate, it was found that the managers of the analyzed company: (1 are excessively confidents in their estimates; (2 seem more optimists than other economic agent groups; (3 are totally influenced by bosses in theirs estimates. The results confirm empirical evidences, emanated from the literature on heuristics and cognitive and emotional biases, particularly with concepts of Prospect Theory, and are opposed to the concepts derived from the literature that addresses the rational model of decision making, more specifically, the Expected Utility Theory.

  6. The Influence of Environmental Disclosure on Capital Structure of Brazilian Companies listed on the BM&FBovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Mendes Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study to verify the relationship between environmental disclosure and the capital structure of companies classified according to Law 10165 which provides for the National Environmental Policy for the period 2006 to 2010. To meet the proposed objectives were used as proxies for capital structure debt to verify the cost of debt and to verify the CAPM cost of equity. To measure the level of environmental disclosure content analysis was carried out in the notes, the management report and the report of the environmental information contained in the report of the Annual Information (IAN. We analyzed 89 companies with 95,020 sentences, and 5279 relating to environmental events, such 4819 relating to environmental information regarding positive and 460 negative environmental information. To investigate the relationship between these variables was used in the analysis panel with random effects adjusted by robust tool. The findings of this study demonstrate that environmental disclosure does not affect the cost of debt, ie, in the Brazilian market, the environmental information whether positive or negative does not drive the market to influence positively / negatively the cost of debt. However, the results showed that the positive environmental disclosure adversely affects the cost of equity demonstrating that "good environmental image of the company" leverage the company's credibility this crucial factor in reducing the risk of the company since the engagement with sustainability and generate savings for the effective and efficient use of resources eliminates and / or reduces the incidence of government regulations.

  7. Diagnóstico da fauna silvestre em empresas florestais brasileiras Diagnosis of wild fauna in brazilian forest companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Debortoli Medeiros

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer a situação atual da fauna silvestre em empresas florestais brasileiras, foram pesquisadas 42 razões sociais, entre Associadas e Co-Participantes da Sociedade de Investigações Florestais (SIF, as quais possuem plantios florestais próprios. As informações foram obtidas com base em questionário enviado às referidas empresas, via correio eletrônico, sendo as respostas obtidas também por esse mecanismo. Entre os vários resultados, destaca-se o fato de que 90,9% das empresas associadas já realizaram levantamentos qualitativos da fauna silvestre. No entanto, de modo geral há notória carência de infra-estrutura nas empresas pesquisadas para atender a trabalhos específicos de manejo e conservação da fauna silvestre.Forty-two companies, associates and co-participants of the Forest Investigation Society (SIF and owners of private forest plantations, were assessed to determine the current situation of wild fauna in Brazilian forest companies. Information was obtained through a questionnaire sent to and received from the companies by e-mail. One of the several results obtained was that 90.9% of the associate companies had already carried out qualitative surveys on wild fauna stands.. On the other hand, in general, there is a total lack of infrastructure in the surveyed companies, to specifically assist in the management and conservation of wild fauna.

  8. 我国种业企业整合路径研究%On Seed Company Consolidation Approach in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何蒙巧; 侯军岐

    2015-01-01

    Based on the feature of seed and the current situation of seed industry in China, the paper analyses the necessity of consolidation in seed industry. It clarifies the characteristics of seed industry in the world. Using the SWOT analyzing tool to analyze the current situation of seed companies in China and considering the characteristics of seed industry in the world, the paper provides some suggestions for how to choose the consolidation approaches for seed companies in China.%基于种子的特性和我国种业企业的发展现状提出种业企业整合的必要性,并分析了当前世界种业产业的发展特点。利用SWOT分析工具,对我国种业企业发展现状进行综合分析,结合世界种业产业当前的发展特点,为我国种业企业的整合路径提供建议。

  9. Outward Foreign Direct Investment from BRIC countries: Comparing strategies of Brazilian, Russian, Indian and Chinese multinational companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Andreff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An overall comparative study of outward foreign direct investment (OFDI from BRIC countries and strategies conducted by multinational companies (MNCs based in the BRICs is elaborated on with a same methodology for Brazil, Russia, India and China. The comparison pertains to the historical emergence of firms’ internationalisation, their booming expansion in the 2000s then their muddling through the current crisis, the specificities of OFDI from each home country, OFDI geographical distribution and industrial structure, econometric testing of the respective determinants of Brazilian, Russian, Indian and Chinese OFDI, and the role of home countries’ governments vis-à-vis home-based MNCs. Beyond some common characteristics, BRICs’ MNCs exhibit a number of major country-specific features.

  10. Immunomodulatory and toxicological evaluation of the fruit seeds from Platonia insignis, a native species from Brazilian Amazon Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina M.F. Lustosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The “bacuri” (Platonia insignis Mart., Clusiaceae is a native tropical fruit from the Brazilian Amazon and Northeast Regions. Its seeds are used to treat inflammatory diseases, diarrhea and skin problems in traditional medical practices. Regarding its widespread medicinal uses, it is important to evaluate the biological and toxicological potential of this species. This way, the aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of the hexanic extract of P. insignis seeds, as well as its in vivo acute oral toxicity. The biological evaluation was performed by the determination of cytotoxic (MTT and hemolysis assay and immunomodulatory (phagocytic capacity, lysosomal volume and nitrite production activities of EHSB in murine peritoneal macrophages. In addition, the oral acute toxicity was evaluated using female Wistar rats treated with EHSB (2.0 g/kg, in accordance with the OECD 423 Guideline. The EHSB showed low toxicity for macrophages in the MTT test (CC50 value: 90.03 µg/ml, as well as for erythrocytes, which caused only 2.5% hemolysis at the highest concentration. A strong immunomodulatory activity was observed by a markedly increase of the NO production, phagocytic ability and lysosomal volume. On the other hand, it was not observed deaths or changes in the clinical and behavioral parameters in the toxicological evaluation. This manner, the present study contributes to the knowledge about the immunomodulatory and toxicological properties of the P. insignis. This may provide perspectives for the evaluation and development of effective and safe phytomedicines created from the Brazilian local biodiversity.

  11. Organizational Impacts due to ISO 9001 Certified Implementation on Brazilians Cardboard Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Glaucia Aparecida Prates; Jose Claudio Caraschi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation internal and external organizational impacts of a company that has adopted a total quality management system: ISO 9001 certification. Based on a case study, supported in bibliographic references in a cardboard sector company, the survey aims to measure and evaluate the basic concepts of quality and the certification benefits. Upon this study completion it was found that actually getting a certified ISO 9001 brings many organizational impacts and leads to ove...

  12. Financial frictions and substitution between internal and external funds in publicly traded Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Telles Portal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to document the effects of financial constraints on the negative relationship between cash flow and external funds, a phenomenon associated with the Pecking Order Theory. This theory suggests that companies subject to more expensive external funds (financially constrained firms should demonstrate a stronger negative relationship with cash flow than companies subject to minor financial frictions (financially unconstrained firms. The results indicate that the external funds of constrained firms consistently present less negative sensitivity to cash flow compared with those of unconstrained companies. Additionally, the internal funds of constrained companies demonstrate a positive sensitivity to cash flow, whereas those of unconstrained companies do not show any such significant behavior. These results are in accordance with the findings of Almeida and Campello (2010, who suggest the following: first, because of the endogenous nature of investment decisions in constrained companies, the complementary relationship between internal and external funds prevails over the substitutive effects suggested by the Pecking Order Theory; and second, the negative relationship between cash flow and external funds cannot be interpreted as evidence of costly external funds and therefore does not corroborate the Pecking Order Theory.

  13. An Alternative Model of Risk in Non-financial Companies Applied to the Brazilian Pulp and Paper Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hubert Jr.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Earnings at Risk (EaR is a financial risk measure that can be applied to non-financial companies, similarly to Cash Flow at Risk (CFaR. It is based on a relation that can be quantified using a multiple linear regression model, where the dependent variable is the change on the company's results and the independent variables are changes in distinct risk factors. The presence of correlation between explanatory factors (multicollinearity in this kind of model may cause problems when calculating EaR and CFaR. In this paper, we indicate some possible consequences of these problems when calculating EaR, and propose a method to solve it based on Principal Component Analysis technique. To test the model, we choose the Brazilian agriculture-business industry, more specifically the paper and pulp sectors. We will show that, on the absence of significant correlation between variables, the proposed model has equivalent performance to usual multiple linear regression models. We find evidence that when correlation appears, the model here proposed yields more accurate and reliable forecasts.

  14. Corporate governance structure which is based in the S&OP process: Case study in la Brazilian cosmetic company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Rojas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/01/31 - Accepted: 2014/03/25This article is about the generation of a corporate governance structure which is based in the process S&OP for a Brazilian cosmetic industry. The increasing emphasis on business development guided by attention to the requirements and demands of customers, cause nowadays, that the organizations of the commercial sectors work in the creation of a competitive differential. The collaborative business management strategy S&OP is looking for the attention of people who are interested in the improvement of their skills; in order to achieve this differential. With the case study methodology, the objectives are to get knowledge, identify, and analyze the characteristics of the company using analysis tools like SWOT, process analysis, value chain. All with the purpose to get a robust management tool that fits with the requirements and demands of the organization. The analyzed results showed that the principles of collaboration and internal communication were the pillars necessary against any attempt of business development. This supports the proposal of a management structure based on the five step S&OP process. As a complement to this study a methodology CPFR was identified as the platform for an integrated work with the rest of the companies of the supply chain.

  15. A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF QUALITY MANAGMENT IMPLEMENTATION IN A SMALL BRAZILIAN COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Schmitz Rauber

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This project involves identifying major organizational changes occurred in a small company in the printing supplies sector as it implemented the ISO 9001:2000 standard. The case study methodology was used through exploratory research to conduct semi-structured interviews with six employees in addition to participant observation. The desired outcome of this article is the identification of the benefits and difficulties encountered in the implementation process and a comparison between the new and previous practices. The main results of the research relate to the process of professionalization of management practices of the company and the improved internal processes.

  16. Barriers to the adoption of green operational practices at Brazilian companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, Charbel José Chiappetta; De Sousa Jabbour, Ana Beatriz Lopes; Govindan, Kannan;

    2016-01-01

    by showing that companies which are looking for green competitive advantages should try to reduce their IBs. Also, policy-makers should pay attention not only to legislation that promotes ecological modernisation, but also to create a strong set of initiatives to overcome IBs, regardless of the size...

  17. PETRÓLEO BRASILEIRO S.A.: AN INTERNATIONALIZED BRAZILIAN STATE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Dalla Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petrobras is the largest governmental firm in Brazil and has a solid path of internationalization. This paper explores how Petrobras grew in the domestic market and, in the light of the theory of the internationalization of the firm, moved on towards the international market. First, it shows the beginning steps of Petrobras. It then follows Petrobras’ internationalization moves to three geographic areas (America, Eurasia and Africa, all in a context of a global dispute for oil exploration, production and distribution. In the conclusion, it is showed that Petrobras’ main revenues still come from the Brazilian market. Its expansion to international markets, however, has grown in absolute terms and also in sophistication. Petrobras started with a strategy of searching for new sources of oil (inputs and progressed to a new phase, focused on selling final goods and developing technology for exploration in deeper waters.

  18. Brand reposition impact in the internationalization of Brazilian footwear companies: the Havaianas case

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Maria João; Silva, Susana Costa e; Filho, Fernando Freyre

    2010-01-01

    New markets, needs, desires and opportunities seem to appear every day on the global stage. This also means an increase in the number of competitors, technological innovations and new purchase alternatives for the consumer. The conquest of these buyers’ preferences therefore becomes the purpose of many companies, to whom brand starts to be seen as an intangible asset – fundamental in attracting the attention of several interest groups; creating an emotional bond with the customer. The e...

  19. STUDY OF THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS OF A BRAZILIAN COMPANY IN THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AND IMPLEMENTS SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozali Araújo Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The agribusiness industry and agricultural machinery as well as the internationalization of companies are subjects of growing interest. Thus, a case study of a company in the sector of machinery and implements allowed the analysis of the movements of internationalization under the aspects of strategy, entry mode and challenges of internationalization. The study of the theories and the case study allowed a visualization of their application in practice. The literature review explored the themes internationalization, internationalization strategies, entry modes and challenges of internationalization. The data, qualitative and descriptive, were obtained from semi-structured interviews with the export manager and supplemented by secondary data published on the company’s website. The content analyzes of the data showed that the company is in a primary level of internationalization. However, it also presents strategic orientation toward an internationalization process. The development of this paper can serve as a discussion for further development of internationalization theories and also as a reference in the agribusiness industry to understand this process.

  20. Performance of Brazilian Companies: Year Effects, Line of Business and Individual Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Artur Ledur Brito

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Performance varies. This simple statement conceals many intricacies of strategic management. Because performance varies among individual firms, researchers can explore factors that differentiate these firms and explain why some firms are consistently outperforming others. Because performance varies among industries, researchers can explore structural characteristics of different branches of accounting as a source of explanation. Because performance varies with time, researchers can explore environmental and internal dynamic elements that drive strategic decision-making. In reality,measuring and analyzing performance is a very complicated issue when performance varies simultaneously from firm to firm, from industry to industry and from year to year. The theoretical discussion behind this question is the relative importance of the industrial organization derived approach to strategy versus the resource-based view. This paper analyzes the composition of performance variance of a set of Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2001. The results demonstrate that firm effects are still dominant, with year and industry effects being lower, as previous studies with North American firms have indicated.

  1. Voluntary disclosure of Value Chain in Financial Reports of Companies Brazilian Capital Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro da Costa Lopes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing the value chain with the aim to achieve competitive advantage in relation to their competitors and in order to reduce costs has become increasingly important for business organizations. The aim of this paper is to analyse whether Brazilian organisations listed on Sao Paulo´s Stock Exchange (BOVESPA publish information relating to value chain management in their financial reports. In addition, this research aims to investigate the potential relationtionship between evidentiation of this information and two independent variables, gross margin and number of pages. Content Analysis was adopted in the management report and report notes of the year 2011. The analysis was based on the strategic cost management framework developed by Wrubel et al. (2010. The sample selected includes the ten largest non financial organizations, according to their total assets. Despite the fact that publishing the value chain management is not compulsory, it was observed that the businesses studied present on average 30 sentences regarding the topic in their reports. The category internal and external value chain activities represents 54.58% of the total sentences found. It has been found that there is a significant positive correlation between the amount of sentences disclosed and page number of reports, however, it was found that the same does not occur when attempted to correlate the gross margin. As a consequence, the hypothesis that gross margin could be a motivation for higher volume of information regarding value chain was not confirmed.

  2. Organizational Images in Brazilian Companies: detection and analysis with data mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Rocío Rocha Blanco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The organizational images allow visualizing the business context in which organizations are embedded, and define behavioral models that respond to their organizational culture. This work begins with the approach of Morgan (1986 and uses 35 questions to identify metaphors in a sample of companies in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Quantitative analysis was performed by data mining techniques. The techniques identified images that are present in the sample. Analyzes are importance for the management of culture and business behavior, due to the identification of images may achieve organizational objectives.

  3. Comparability of Accounting Choices in Future Valuation of Investment Properties: An Analysis of Brazilian and Portuguese Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaida Êmine Alves de Souza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the main purposes for adopting the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS is the quest for comparability between financial statements within the same country, over time, and between different countries. IFRS have the feature of allowing accounting choices in most of their standards. However, the existence of such flexibility in the process for recognizing, measuring, and disclosing as sets and liabilities may impact on comparability. IFRS have been criticized both due to their accounting choices and the adoption of the fair value paradigm. This article examines these two issues, investigating the choice of the cost model versus the choice of the fair value model for investment properties (IPs, an option guaranteed under the terms of the International Accounting Standard (IAS 40. This research aimed to identify the comparability degree and the factors that determine the accounting choices made by managers of IPs, in Brazilian and Portuguese listed companies, within the periods from 2010 to 2012. Comparability, within and between countries, was identified by the T-index and the search for the determining factors of accounting choices made by managers was performed by means of a logistic re gression analysis. As a result, it was found that, despite the accounting choices allowed by IAS 40, there was a mean comparability between the accounting practices of firms in these countries, but showing a decrease in the index over the years. The explanatory factors identified were auditing by one of the big four (PricewaterhouseCoopers, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, KPMG, or Ernst & Young, companies' indeb tedness, relative importance of IPs' balance, net profit, and less experience of Brazil in using the fair value method to appraise IPs.

  4. International Competitiveness Based on Resources – Study of the Relation amog Resources and The International Dtrategies in the Biggest Exporting Companies of the Brazilian Footwear Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Arruda Cavalcante Forte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization of companies refers to a strategy to get greater presence in the international market. As the companies need to make use of strategical resources for their insertion in the international market, was searched to answer: Is there a relation between the evolution of the strategical resources and the strategies of internationalization in great exporting companies of the Brazilian footwear sector? For the theoretical base were used the classifications of the resources of Fahy (2002 and the strategies of internationalization of Sharma and Erramilli (2004. The study searched to rescue the dynamic character of the Resouce-based View. The method of the research was the quantitative and explicative nature. The data were collected from 2004 to 2005, with 15 great exporting companies of the Brazilian footwear sector and had been analyzed by the Cluster Analysis in the entrance in the international market, in the current situation and in 2010. It was concluded that the companies which use more complex strategies of internationalization, at the entrance moment and in the future, consider more strategical the capabilities, then the tangible resources and finally the intangible resources. However, in the current situation, they consider more strategical the capabilities, then the intangible resources and finally, the tangible resources.

  5. Implications of Habitat Loss on Seed Predation and Early Recruitment of a Keystone Palm in Anthropogenic Landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Leiza Aparecida S. S.; Faria, Deborah; Vélez-Garcia, Felipe; Vieira, Emerson M.; Talora, Daniela C.; Cazetta, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss is the main driver of the loss of global biodiversity. Knowledge on this subject, however, is highly concentrated on species richness and composition patterns, with little discussion on the consequences of habitat loss for ecological interactions. Therefore, a systemic approach is necessary to maximize the success of conservation efforts by providing more realistic information about the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on natural environmental processes. We investigated the implications of habitat loss for the early recruitment of Euterpe edulis Martius, a keystone palm in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, in nine sampling sites located in landscapes with different percentages of forest cover (9%-83%). We conducted a paired experiment using E. Edulis seeds set up in experimental stations composed of a vertebrate exclosure versus an open treatment. We used ANCOVA models with treatments as factors to assess the influence of habitat loss on the number of germinated seeds, predation by vertebrates and invertebrates, infestation by fungi, and number of seedlings established. Habitat loss did not affect the probability of transition from a dispersed to a germinated seed. However, when seeds were protected from vertebrate removal, seedling recruitment showed a positive relationship with the amount of forest cover. Seed infestation by fungi was not significant, and seed predation was the main factor limiting seed recruitment. The loss of forest cover antagonistically affected the patterns of seed predation by vertebrates and invertebrates; predation by invertebrates was higher in less forested areas, and predation by vertebrates was higher in forested areas. When seeds were exposed to the action of all biotic mortality factors, the number of recruited seedlings was very low and unrelated to habitat loss. This result indicates that the opposite effects of seed predation by vertebrates and invertebrates mask a differential response of E. edulis recruitment to

  6. STRATEGIES FOR INDUSTRY INTERNATIONALIZATION BRAZILIAN PULP AND PAPER THE PERSPECTIVE OF ECLECTIC PARADIGM: A CASE STUDY OF PULP AND PAPER COMPANY SUZANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Batista Bitencourt Fagundes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the process of internationalization of the Brazilian pulp and paper. This analysis has an economic bias, basing on the model of internationalization of Eclectic Paradigm of Dunning (1980 in order to identify the internationalization strategies, as well as the key drivers that have enabled reach new markets. We adopted a qualitative methodology, developed through a case study in the company Suzano, a Brazilian company, a global leader in the pulp and paper industry, with a strong presence in the international market. The data were obtained from literature searches, statistics, press releases and official documents of the company. For the treatment of these was used to pattern matching techniques, which enabled contrast them with the theory selected. The results revealed that Suzano differentiated adopted guidelines for the marketing of paper and pulp. The paper is intended primarily for the domestic market, whereas most of the pulp produced is intended to international trade. The company went international for having, according to the Eclectic Paradigm, the advantages of ownership and internalization over their competitors. The strategies used consists in finding markets (market seeking, search efficiency (efficiency seeking and search for strategic assets (strategic asset seeking. We conclude that the theory is Eclectic Paradigm in an appropriate tool for analyzing the internationalization process of the pulp and paper industries.

  7. Water extracts of Brazilian leguminous seeds as rich sources of larvicidal compounds against Aedes aegypti L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi F. Farias

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the toxicity of seed water extracts of 15 leguminous species upon Aedes aegypti larvae. A partial chemical and biochemical characterization of water extracts, as well as the assessment of their acute toxicity in mice, were performed. The extracts of Amburana cearensis, Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Dioclea megacarpa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum and Piptadenia moniliformis caused 100% of mortalit y after 1 to 3 h of exposure. They showed LC50 and LC90 values ranging from 0.43 ± 0.01 to 9.06 ± 0.12 mg/mL and from 0.71 ± 0.02 to 13.03 ± 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. Among the secondary metabolite constituents, the seed water extracts showed tannins, phenols, flavones, favonols, xanthones, saponins and alkaloids. The extracts also showed high soluble proteins content (0.98 to 7.71 mg/mL, lectin (32 to 256 HU/mL and trypsin inhibitory activity (3.64 = 0.43 to 26.19 = 0.05 gIT/kg of flour The electrophoretic profiles showed a great diversity of protein bands, many of which already described as insecticide proteins. The extracts showed low toxicity to mice (LD50 > 0.15 = 0.01 g/kg body weight, but despite these promising results, further studies are necessary to understand the toxicity of these extracts and their constituentsfrom primary and secondary metabolism upon Ae. aegypti.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a toxicidade dos extratos aquosos de sementes de 15 espécies de leguminosas contra larvas de Aedes aegypti. Foi realizada uma caracterização química e bioquímica parcial dos extratos aquosos e a avaliação da toxicidade aguda em camundongos. Os extratos de Amburana cearensis, Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Dioclea megacarpa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum e Piptadenia moniliformis causaram 100% de mortalidade depois de 1 a 3 h de exposição e mostraram valores de CL50 e CL90 entre 0,43 = 0,01 e 9,06 ± 0,12 e entre 0,71 = 0,02 e 13,03 = 0,15 mg/mL, respectivamente. Dentre os constituintes do metabolismo secundário, os extratos

  8. Motivations, Risks, Barriers, and Results Associated with the Adoption of Global Sourcing by Brazilian Companies: a Case-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moema Pereira Nunes

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to identi fy the motivations behind g lobal s ourcing (GS) adoption , the associated risks and barriers , and the results that companies from emerging countries are achieving . The research explores the distinguishing features of these companies ' experience and examines established theories about GS that are based on companies from developed countries. In the article, a case - based study investigat ed four companies from t...

  9. THE MODEL AND PERFORMANCE OF PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN SEED COMPANY AND FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Widi Prasetyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The partnership concept is expected to be one of the ways to improve agricultural sector in Indonesia, so that it will become a mutually beneficial partnership. One of the business entities in seed and supplier for horticultural crops is CV Rahmat Tani. However, the research has found some problems in the partnership system between CV Rahmat Tani and its farmers. Some of them are the products’ qualities which have no standard and the low price.  The aims of this study were 1 to describe and evaluate the partnership that has been used by CV Rahmat Tani and partner farmers, 2 to analyze the farmers’ perception on the partnership’s implementation partnership, 3 to analyze CV Rahmat Tani’s perception on the partnership’s implementation and 4 to formulate strategies to improve the partnership’s performance. The tools of analysis used were gap analysis, EPA, and Mann Whitney Test. The result of the study showed that the pattern that tied the CV and its farmers was informal model. According to partner farmers’ perception, the priorities were 1 the delivery of seeds, pesticides, and fertilizers, 2 seeds selling price 3 cultivation and seeds management training and 4 post–harvest payment. The main priority that would be improved based on the owner’s opinion was the field supervisors’ inputs and recommendation. The recommendation strategies to improve the partnership are: 1 CV Rahmat Tani and its farmers together need to optimize planning; 2 the CV needs to provide trainings about cultivation and postharvest, and to oversee the quality of seed; 3 the CV needs to socialize the postharvest payment deadline; and 4 both parties should synchronize their perception and set some rules.Keywords: EPA, gap analysis, partnerships, seedABSTRAKKonsep kemitraan diharapkan menjadi salah satu cara untuk meningkatkan sektor pertanian di Indonesia sehingga ini akan menjadi sebuah hubungan yang menguntungkan. Salah satu badan usaha yang bergerak

  10. Demand Forecast at the Foodstuff Retail Segment: a Strategic Sustainability Tool at a Small-Sized Brazilian Company

    OpenAIRE

    Claudimar Pereira Da Veiga; Cássia Rita Pereira Da Veiga; Anderson Catapan; Ubiratã Tortato; Wesley Vieira Da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Demand forecasting plays an increasingly relevant role within competitive and globalized marketplaces, in as much as operations planning and subsequent transition into a sustainable chain of supplies, is concerned. To this effect, the purpose of this study is to present the application of demand forecasting as a strategic sustainability tool at a Brazilian SME. Therefore, this is a descriptive, ex-post facto and cross-cut, sectional time case study, which employs qualitative and historical qu...

  11. Motivations, Risks, Barriers, and Results Associated with the Adoption of Global Sourcing by Brazilian Companies: a Case-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moema Pereira Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identi fy the motivations behind g lobal s ourcing (GS adoption , the associated risks and barriers , and the results that companies from emerging countries are achieving . The research explores the distinguishing features of these companies ' experience and examines established theories about GS that are based on companies from developed countries. In the article, a case - based study investigat ed four companies from the electrical and electronics industry in South Brazil. Data w ere collected through in - dep th interviews , documents , and direct observation. According to the research, t he main motivations for adopting GS are faster access to new technologies and establish ing a presence in global markets. It was also found that the opportunity to offer diversified products u sing the distribution channels already developed by companies motivate s GS adoption , a situation that prior literature has not identified . Despite the risks, t he absence of a broad local supply - base prompts companies to adopt GS. Further, the failure to fo rmalize barrier analysis processes creates difficulties f or companies . Th e main results associated with GS relate to innovation and reductions in the time taken to develop product s and reach market s . In this regard, c ompanies face a challenge to develop th e abilities required to compete for the advantages that t he global market can offer.

  12. Perfil do suporte oferecido pelas incubadoras brasileiras às empresas incubadas The profile of the support offered by the brazilian incubators to the incubated companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Maury Raupp

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo objetiva delinear o perfil do suporte oferecido pelas incubadoras brasileiras às empresas incubadas. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, de natureza quanti-qualitativa, realizado por meio de pesquisa survey. A população da pesquisa corresponde a 179 incubadoras brasileiras, tendo-se obtido um retorno de 37 delas. A coleta de dados deu-se com base em questionário enviado por e-mail aos coordenadores das incubadoras. Inicia-se o estudo fazendo uma breve incursão teórica acerca de incubadoras de empresas, fases do processo de incubação e suporte das incubadoras às empresas incubadas. Na seqüência, identifica-se os procedimentos metodológicos adotados. Em seguida, procede-se à descrição e análise dos dados coletados. Por último, apresenta-se as conclusões do estudo realizado, bem como recomendações para futuras pesquisas.The goal of this article is to outline the profile of the support offered by the Brazilian incubators to the incubated companies. This is a descriptive study, based on both quality and quantity, done through a survey. The target of the research was 179 Brazilian incubators, having heard from 37 of them. The data collection was based on questionnaire sent through e-mail to the coordinators of the incubators. The study began with a brief theoretical foray about incubators of companies. After that, the adopted methodological procedures are identified. Then, the description and the analysis of the data collected are done. At last, the conclusion of the study and recommendation for future researches are presented.

  13. a-galactosidase activity and carbohydrate mobilization in seeds of Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemão ex Benth. - Fabaceae (Brazilian rosewood during germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanna Clicia Carrijo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex substances are converted by enzyme action into soluble molecules during the germination process, and theseare in turn translocated to the growing plant embryo, serving as an energy source or physical structure. With the objective ofquantifying -galactosidase enzyme activity as well as mono- and oligosaccharide mobilization during germination, this study wasconducted using Brazilian rosewood seeds. Seeds were kept in a germinator at 25ºC under continuous light for evaluation of radicleemergence (protrusion over a period of 10 days. Mono- and oligosaccharide contents and also the specific activity of -galactosidaseenzyme were quantified on days zero, one, three and five. There was mobilization of glucose and mannose stored in cotyledons, andalso of xylose in cotyledons and in the embryo in the first three days of germination. Rhamnose contents increased in cotyledons andin the embryonic axis. Raffinose was the initially used oligosaccharide, both in the embryonic axis and in cotyledons, while sucroseaccumulated in both. Enzyme activity varied throughout, with greater specific activity on day one of imbibition, both in cotyledonsand in the embryonic axis.

  14. Partitioning of seed dispersal services between birds and bats in a fragment of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Raissa Sarmento

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Community-level network studies suggest that seed dispersal networks may share some universal properties with other complex systems. However, most of the datasets used so far in those studies have been strongly biased towards temperate birds, including not only dispersers, but also seed predators. Recent evidence from multi-taxon networks suggests that seed dispersal networks are not all alike and may be more complex than previously thought. Here, we used network theory to evaluate seed dispersal in a strongly impacted Atlantic Forest fragment in northeastern Brazil, where bats and birds are the only extant dispersers. We hypothesized that the seed dispersal network should be more modular then nested, and that the dispersers should segregate their services according to dispersal syndromes. Furthermore, we predicted that bat and bird species that are more specialized in frugivory would be more important for maintaining the network structure. The mixed network contained 56 plant species, 12 bat species, and eight bird species, and its structure was more modular (M = 0.58 then nested (NODF = 0.21 compared with another multi-taxon network and 21 single-taxon networks (with either bats or birds. All dispersed fruits had seeds smaller than 9 mm. Bats dispersed mainly green fruits, whereas birds dispersed fruits of various colors. The network contained eight modules: five with birds only, two with bats only, and one mixed. Most dispersers were peripheral, and only specialized frugivores acted as hubs or connectors. Our results strongly support recent studies, suggesting that seed dispersal networks are complex mosaics, where different taxa form separate modules with different properties, which in turn play complementary roles in the maintenance of the associated ecosystem functions and services.

  15. Estratégias de customização em massa implementadas por empresas brasileiras Strategies of mass customization accomplished by brazilian companies

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    André Gustavo Carvalho Machado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar as estratégias de customização em massa implementadas por empresas brasileiras. Neste sentido, a estratégia de pesquisa adotada foi de estudo de casos múltiplos, empreendido em quinze empresas, abrangendo nove diferentes divisões de atividades econômicas. A entrevista foi a principal técnica de coleta de dados. A análise dos dados, por seu turno, ocorreu em dois estágios: análise individual e análise cruzada dos casos. Ao se analisar as ações empreendidas no processo de customização dos produtos e serviços das empresas selecionadas, constatou-se que duas estratégias se destacaram: modularidade e postergação da manufatura. Ademais, evidenciou-se que a maioria das empresas executa suas atividades de customização em diferentes estágios da cadeia de valor, oferecendo, pelo menos, dois níveis de customização para o mercado. Foi também elaborado um continuum, representando as diferenças entre o grau de customização de cada empresa analisada.The objective of this paper is the analysis of the strategies of mass customization accomplished by Brazilian companies. Therefore, the research strategy adopted was a multiple-case study, which was undertaken in fifteen companies, comprising ten different divisions of economic activities. Interviews were the main technique for collecting data. The analysis of data, in its turn, took place in two phases: within-case analysis and cross-case analysis. When analyzing the actions undertaken in the customization process of the products and services of the selected companies, it was verified that two strategies stood out: modularity and manufacturing postponement. Furthermore, it was proved that most companies carry out their customization activities in different stages of the value chain, offering the market two customization levels, at least. A continuum was also developed, representing the differences among the degrees of customization of each analyzed

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIERARCHICAL LEVELS AND THE COMPETITIVENESS IN EMPLOYEES’ VIEWS IN A UNIT OF A BRAZILIAN METALLURGICAL COMPANY.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Fernandes Barreto; Djair Picchiai

    2013-01-01

    The market competition leads companies to develop strategic plans. The challenge is to deploy a plan and commit employees in carrying out actions aligned to the goals and to hierarchical levels. This research reveals the management model used in a business unit of a metallurgical industry and the relationship between its hierarchical levels. In order to reach our goals, an evaluation tool called flexible organizational model developed by Mendes (2002) was used. We applied a questionnaire Like...

  17. The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil); O novo modelo tarifario baseado no conceito de custos marginais em desenvolvimento para o setor eletrico brasileiro. Um estudo de caso para a Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, S.P.S.

    1991-12-31

    A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab.

  18. Demand Forecast at the Foodstuff Retail Segment: a Strategic Sustainability Tool at a Small-Sized Brazilian Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudimar Pereira Da Veiga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Demand forecasting plays an increasingly relevant role within competitive and globalized marketplaces, in as much as operations planning and subsequent transition into a sustainable chain of supplies, is concerned. To this effect, the purpose of this study is to present the application of demand forecasting as a strategic sustainability tool at a Brazilian SME. Therefore, this is a descriptive, ex-post facto and cross-cut, sectional time case study, which employs qualitative and historical quantitative and direct observational data and that utilizes, as both indicators of the level of service offered to consumers and of opportunity costs the artificial neural networks model and fill-rates, for demand forecasting and response purposes. The study further established cause-effect relationships between prediction accuracy, demand responsiveness and process-resulting economic, environmental and social performances. Findings additionally concurred with both widely acknowledged sustainability concepts - NRBV (Natural-Resource-Based View and 3BL (Triple Bottom Line - by demonstrating that demand forecasts ensure the efficient use of resources, improvements in customer responsiveness and also mitigate supply chain stock out and overstock losses. Further to the mentioned economic benefit, demand forecasting additionally reduced the amount of waste that arises from retail product shelf-life expiration, improving the addressing of demand itself and of customer satisfaction, thus driving consequent environmental and social gains.

  19. The new research centre of the Brazilian Petroleum Company in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: The achievements in the thermal performance of air-conditioned buildings in the tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Rafael; Marcondes, Monica Pereira; De Benedetto, Gisele S.; Goncalves, Joana Carla Soares; Duarte, Denise Helena Silva; Ramos, Jose Ovidio [Laboratorio de Conforto Ambiental e Eficiencia Energetica (LABAUT), Departamento de Tecnologia da Arquitetura (AUT), Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo, Universidade de Sao Paulo (FAUUSP), Sao Paulo, Brasil, Rua do Lago, 876, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The study on the thermal performance of the air-conditioned buildings of the new research centre of the Brazilian Petroleum Company, in the tropical climate of Rio de Janeiro, was part of a bigger research and consultancy project involving environmental issues. The architectural design was the subject of a national competition in 2004, encompassing over 100,000 m{sup 2}. According to the design brief, out of the 10 buildings of the new research centre, 7 have to be either completely or partially air-conditioned, due to specific occupation requirements. The challenge for better thermal performance was related to systems' energy efficiency, to the introduction of natural ventilation and to the notion of adaptive comfort, which were verified with the support of thermal dynamic simulations. At the early stages of the assessments, the potential for natural ventilation in the working spaces considering the mixed-mode strategy achieved 30% of occupation hours. However, the development of the design project led to fully air-conditioned working spaces, due to users' references regarding the conventional culture of the office environment. Nevertheless, the overall architectural approach in accordance to the climatic conditions still showed a contribution to the buildings' energy efficiency. (author)

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIERARCHICAL LEVELS AND THE COMPETITIVENESS IN EMPLOYEES’ VIEWS IN A UNIT OF A BRAZILIAN METALLURGICAL COMPANY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernandes Barreto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The market competition leads companies to develop strategic plans. The challenge is to deploy a plan and commit employees in carrying out actions aligned to the goals and to hierarchical levels. This research reveals the management model used in a business unit of a metallurgical industry and the relationship between its hierarchical levels. In order to reach our goals, an evaluation tool called flexible organizational model developed by Mendes (2002 was used. We applied a questionnaire Likert type scale of five - response numbered one represented total disagreement and number five, total agreement. We calculated the median level of agreement on the Likert scale and the degree of agreement and disagreement through dichotomization of the data. The study found a high degree of concordance with flexible organizational model applied to this business unit. It also confirmed the leveling between the hierarchical levels studied, as elements of increased competitiveness in the perception of respondents.

  1. The Corporate Governance of Privately Controlled Brazilian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Érica C. R. Gorga; Antonio Gledson de Carvalho; Bernard S. Black

    2009-01-01

    We provide an overview of the corporate governance practices of Brazilian public companies, based primarily on an extensive 2005 survey of 116 companies. We focus on the 88 responding Brazilian private firms which are not majority owned by the state or a foreign company. We identify areas where Brazilian corporate governance is relatively strong and weak. Board independence is an area of weakness: The boards of most Brazilian private firms are comprised entirely or almost entirely of insiders...

  2. Germinação de sementes de três espécies arbóreas brasileiras. Seeds germination of three arboreal Brazilian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Balistiero FIGLIOLIA

    2009-06-01

    ; (b com 90 mL de água,na ausência de luz ou sob luz branca, para D. mollis;(c a 20ºC, 25ºC ou 20-30ºC, sob luz branca,para A. colubrina var. colubrina.In order to complement the informationabout seed germination available in literature andto contribute for the establishment of protocol ofanalysis for three Brazilian arboreal species, in thiswork the effects of different conditions oftemperature and substrate moisture content forGuazuma ulmifolia, substrate moisture content andlight for Dimorphandra mollis, and temperatureand light for Anadenanthera colubrina var.colubrina, were evaluated. Seeds of G. ulmifoliawere scarified with concentrated sulfuric acid for45 minutes and released to germinate in substratemoistened with 30 and 60 mL of distilled water,at constant (30ºC and alternating (20-30ºCtemperatures, under white light. Seeds of D. molliswere scarified with concentrated sulfuric acid for60 minutes and placed to germinate at 30ºC insubstrate moistened with 30, 60 and 90 mL ofdistilled water. Seeds of A. colubrina var. colubrinawere placed to germinate without pretreatment insubstrate moistened with 60 mL of distilled waterat constant (15ºC, 20ºC, 25ºC e 30ºC and alternating(20-30ºC temperatures. Seeds of the two lastspecies were also submitted to darkness and to8 hours photoperiod under white, red and far-redlight. For all the studied species vermiculite wasused as substrate and both final percentage andspeed of germination index of seeds wereevaluated. Significant effect of the tested factorswas found for the three species and the obtainedresults suggest that under natural conditions, seedsof G. ulmifolia are able to germinate better in lightgap, seeds of D. mollis under canopy, and seeds ofA. colubrina var. colubrina either in light gap orunder canopy. The germination test, using vermiculiteas substrate, can be performed at the followingconditions: 30 mL of water at 30ºC for G. ulmifolia,90 mL of water in darkness or under white light forD. mollis

  3. 外资种业公司对中国扩张行动预测及应对策略%Strategies Based on Action Forecasting of Foreign Seed Companies' Expansion in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒坤良; 张亚辉; 林际彤; 徐晓红; 王军; 王洪丽; 杨双; 李万良

    2013-01-01

    外资种业公司对我国玉米市场的第一轮布局遍布全国三大玉米生产区,直接威胁到我国种业的生存和发展.面对我国政策及市场竞争形势的变化,外资种业公司必将调整其扩张策略.分析并预测外资种业公司的行动趋势,提出我国应对下一步种业扩张的策略,对遏制外资种业扩张、促进自主种业发展、保障国家粮食主权提供参考.%Foreign seed companies had been widely infiltrating into main maize producing areas of China in the past few years and threatened the survival and development of domestic seed industry directly. In future, the foreign seed companies will adjust their expansion strategy according to the change of national policy and market situation of China. So, analysis and forecasting the action trend of foreign seed companies, and put forward corresponding strategies is very important for limit the expansion of foreign seed companies, promoting the development of domestic seed industry, and protection the food sovereignty of China.

  4. Implications on the introduction of transgenics in Brazilian maize breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Garcia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic maize was approved in Brazil in 2008/2009. In 2012, it occupied 73% of the country maize growing area. This high adoption rate confirms studies indicating that technology use has been the major driving force in Brazilian agriculture. Maize seed market in the world has been a concentrated sector. Although, when this sector is associated with transgenesis, this concentration increases sharply. In one side, there is the idea that companies can benefit from gains of scale and complementarities to maximize their efficiency in research and development (R&D. On the other side, this concentration may allow the exercise of “market power” by dominant companies. The objective of this study is to analyze the impacts of the adoption of transgenic technology in the arrangements of maize breeding programs and seed production sector in Brazil. A critical analysis of the situation of the breeding programs that do not have this technology is made.

  5. Study of the enthalpy-entropy mechanism from water sorption of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilian for the use of agro-industrial residues as a possible source of vegetable oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange seeds are a promising agroindustry-waste which can be implemented in the extraction and production of vegetable oil. The relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for the processing and storage of this waste item. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of water sorption enthalpy-entropy of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilians according to the moisture content. Therefore, desorption isotherms were determined at five different temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC under a wide range of moisture content (0.005-0.057 kg kg-1 d.b. and water activity (0.02-0.756. Theoretical and empirical models were used for modeling the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to compute the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs free energy using the Oswin model when the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium was considered.

  6. The logistics management in the sizing of the fleet of containers per ships in dedicated route - The use of computer simulation: A Brazilian shipping company case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmo Alves de Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is provide the use of the simulation in the discrete event to manage one important point in the logistics systems to shipping companies that is the imbalance of containers, movement of empty containers from surplus ports to deficit ports. From a survey of data from a shipping company operating in Brazil, at various ports, it was possible to model and simulate the needs in six major domestic ports of empty and full containers and seek to meet demand in the shipping market, reducing storage of containers and maintaining the level of excellence in service. Based on the discrete event simulation it was possible to analyze the problem of empty and full containers at the ports in the maritime transportation system. It was possible study the imbalance situation in the ports e provide one tool the companies to manage yours service. The data are confined to one company located in São Paulo and operating in Brazil at maritime transportation. The research shows that the imbalance problem between full and empty containers is a real case to all companies in the maritime transportation and can have effective solutions using discrete event simulation. To have excellent supply chain management it is important to have also one effective transportation system. This paper contributes to research in the inbound and outbound part of the supply chain management.

  7. Estrutura de propriedade e de controle das empresas de capital aberto no Brasil Ownership and control in brazilian limited liability companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Mendes Aldrighi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as its main objective to measure the magnitude of deviations between control rights and cash-flow rights for the ultimate shareholder with the largest voting rights of limited liability companies in Brazil. Furthermore, it pinpoints how these discrepancies are generated, evaluating the relative importance of the issuance of preferred stocks with no voting rights, pyramidal arrangements of ownership, and cross-shareholdings. The data set embraces 602 companies that in 2001 complied with the mandatory requirement of filing to the CVM.

  8. The processes of organizational learning and innovation: a longitudinal case study (1986-1995 in a company of brazilian oil sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio Valle Antunes Júnior

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is one important factor for companies. This study presents a longitudinal case study focusing on the learning processes associated to innovation on an oil industry company. To conduct the study, which was of exploratory nature, interviews were conducted with professionals connected to the history of the company. Reports about the processes of innovation were described by content analysis and related to: the types of innovation proposed by Schumpeter (1942; the types of learning proposed by Malerba (1992; the modes of learning single loop and double loop of Argyris and Schön (1978; the ways of knowledge conversion of Nonaka and Takeuchi (1997; and the creation of spaces of knowledge of Nonaka et. al (1998, 2000. The research results indicate that radical innovation tends to require a wider range of learning styles, if compared to incremental innovations. Still, the internalization and socialization seems to prevail in contexts of radical innovation, while externalization and combination are more frequent in incremental innovation contexts. Finally, the results point to the fact that the single loop learning is more directly related to incremental innovations, while the double loop learning is more present in radical innovation contexts.

  9. Investigação sobre a existência de inovações disruptivas das grandes empresas multinacionais para o mercado brasileiro de baixa renda Large multinational companies innovations to the low-income Brazilian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Novaes Zilber

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar se grandes empresas multinacionais no mercado brasileiro, antes focadas prioritariamente nas classes de maior poder aquisitivo, promoveram algum tipo de inovação, particularmente inovações disruptivas, a fim de atender ao emergente mercado de baixa renda, impactando a gestão da produção e/ou cadeia de suprimentos dessas multinacionais. Para isso foi utilizado o método de estudo de casos múltiplos, estudando-se as empresas Nestlé, Unilever e Johnson & Johnson. Os resultados mostraram que as multinacionais que atuam no mercado brasileiro estudadas não promoveram inovações disruptivas para atuar na base da pirâmide, pois consideraram que a faixa de classes D e E não é atrativa o suficiente para investirem no desenvolvimento de produtos para essa faixa, atendendo preferencialmente a classe C através de pequenas modificações em produtos e distribuição. Dessa forma, não foram encontradas evidências de inovações disruptivas, mas inovações sustentadoras e incrementais ligadas à adequação de produtos existentes.The objective of this study was to identify whether major multinational companies in the Brazilian market, focused primarily on higher income classes, have promoted some kind of innovation, particularly disruptive innovations, to meet the emerging low-income market, impacting the operation management and/or supply chain of these multinationals. To this end, a multiple case study method was used at Nestlé, Unilever and Johnson & Johnson. Results showed that multinational companies operating in the Brazilian market have not promoted disruptive innovations directed to the base of the pyramid, once they felt that the "D" and "E" classes are not attractive enough to justify investments in product development, directing investments preferentially to the "C" class through small changes in products and distribution. This way, no evidence of disruptive innovations was found; only

  10. Investigação sobre a existência de inovações disruptivas das grandes empresas multinacionais para o mercado brasileiro de baixa renda Large multinational companies innovations to the low-income Brazilian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Novaes Zilber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar se grandes empresas multinacionais no mercado brasileiro, antes focadas prioritariamente nas classes de maior poder aquisitivo, promoveram algum tipo de inovação, particularmente inovações disruptivas, a fim de atender ao emergente mercado de baixa renda, impactando a gestão da produção e/ou cadeia de suprimentos dessas multinacionais. Para isso foi utilizado o método de estudo de casos múltiplos, estudando-se as empresas Nestlé, Unilever e Johnson & Johnson. Os resultados mostraram que as multinacionais que atuam no mercado brasileiro estudadas não promoveram inovações disruptivas para atuar na base da pirâmide, pois consideraram que a faixa de classes D e E não é atrativa o suficiente para investirem no desenvolvimento de produtos para essa faixa, atendendo preferencialmente a classe C através de pequenas modificações em produtos e distribuição. Dessa forma, não foram encontradas evidências de inovações disruptivas, mas inovações sustentadoras e incrementais ligadas à adequação de produtos existentes.The objective of this study was to identify whether major multinational companies in the Brazilian market, focused primarily on higher income classes, have promoted some kind of innovation, particularly disruptive innovations, to meet the emerging low-income market, impacting the operation management and/or supply chain of these multinationals. To this end, a multiple case study method was used at Nestlé, Unilever and Johnson & Johnson. Results showed that multinational companies operating in the Brazilian market have not promoted disruptive innovations directed to the base of the pyramid, once they felt that the "D" and "E" classes are not attractive enough to justify investments in product development, directing investments preferentially to the "C" class through small changes in products and distribution. This way, no evidence of disruptive innovations was found; only

  11. Implementação de programas de qualidade: um survey em empresas de grande porte no Brasil Implementation of quality programs: a survey in large size Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Helena Boarin Pinto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é identificar os principais aspectos da implementação dos programas de qualidade em empresas brasileiras, a partir dos modelos mais difundidos e implementados como a certificação de sistemas de qualidade nas normas ISO 9000, o Seis Sigma e o Total Quality Management (TQM, fazendo uma análise comparativa e crítica de sua adoção pelas organizações e estudando as relações existentes entre eles, a complementaridade e as redundâncias. O tema é extremamente relevante no cenário atual, em que as companhias investem quantias significativas em diversos programas de melhoria da qualidade e possuem enormes dificuldades para avaliar o impacto estratégico, bem como o respectivo valor agregado. A metodologia adotou elementos da análise quantitativa, isto é, uma pesquisa do tipo survey. O universo para a coleta de dados foi extraído da relação "Ranking Valor 1.000", que contém as 1.000 maiores empresas brasileiras, publicadas no anuário do jornal "Valor Econômico", ano-base de 2004, partindo-se do pressuposto de que, nestas empresas, estarão os embriões dos modelos emergentes de gestão da qualidade. Posteriormente, as respostas obtidas por meio de questionários foram analisadas com o auxílio de um programa estatístico. A análise concluiu que as empresas que implantaram o programa Seis Sigma são as de maior tradição em qualidade, ou seja, adotaram outros programas anteriormente; as organizações que mais investiram em qualidade, pela adoção de programas, obtiveram sucesso nos indicadores de desempenho; e as principais causas do insucesso dos programas de qualidade ISO 9000, Seis Sigma e TQM nas organizações analisadas foram a escassez de recursos financeiros para a correta implantação e o frágil apoio da direção da empresa.This research aims to identify the main trends in the implementation of Quality Programs in Brazilian companies and is based on the most widely known and implemented

  12. Custos dos Serviços de Não-auditoria (SNA das Maiores Empresas Brasileiras = Non-audit service (SNA fees in the biggest brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Aguiar da Rosa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é caracterizar os custos dos Serviços de Não-Auditoria – SNA das maiores empresas listadas na Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo – BM&FBOVESPA. Para a consecução deste trabalho foram utilizadas as informações divulgadas no Formulário de Referência – FR e no Relatório de Administração – RA, relativas ao ano de 2010, das 100 maiores empresas classificadas por valor de mercado, apresentadas na Revista Exame. Para identificar os elementos que caracterizam os grupos de empresas com diferentes custos de SNA evidenciados utilizou-se a análise de variância, avaliando-se a partir das variáveis ativo total, patrimônio líquido, resultado líquido e custos dos serviços de auditoria externa - SAE. Os resultados encontrados demonstram que os SNA mais utilizados pelas empresas são os de auditoria de impostos (31%. Por outro lado, os serviços de auditoria SOX detêm um custo expressivo, representando 16% do total de SNA, mas possuem uma baixa incidência, que pode ser justificada por uma preocupação recente com a governança corporativa. Uma preocupação com a evidenciação dos SNA pode surgir, pois 50% dos custos evidenciados pelas empresas compõem o grupo “outros serviços” e não são explicitados os tipos de serviços que fazem parte desse grupo. Além disso, foram encontradas incoerências de informações evidenciadas no FR e RA em 35% das empresas. Quanto às relações da variabilidade dos custos dos SNA, este estudo traz evidências de que os maiores custos dos SNA evidenciados pelas empresas da amostra estão naquelas em que os custos de SAE são maiores. The aim of this paper is to characterize the costs of Non-Audit Services - SNA of the largest companies listed at BM&FBOVESPA. To achieve this study, the Reference Form - FR and Management Report - RA were used to find information about SNAdisclosed in 2010 by the top 100 companies ranked by market value, which were listed at Exame magazine. To

  13. Uso do sistema de controle gerencial e desempenho: um estudo em empresas brasileiras sob a perspectiva da resources-based view Management control system use and performance: a study in brazilian companies using resources-based view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Tiomatsu Oyadomari

    2011-08-01

    of the international research that has shown some contradictory results. The research was carried out in 2008, by a survey in a sample of 104 companies from Exame Magazine 1000 Biggest Brazilian Companies. Using the Structural Equation Model, the main results indicate no evidence of negative relationships between the diagnostic use and the organizational competences development, what contradicts Henri's results (2006. It was also identified that the interactive use has positive influences in the competences of Organizational Learning and Market Orientation, and these have positive influences in Performance (measured by self-evaluation. This study contributes to Brazilian research as its subject integrates Management Accounting and Strategy and also for measurement the construct Dynamic Tensions. For the practice, the result is important as it shows that companies should continue to use Management Control for diagnostic, as it helps the organization to correct errors, simultaneously recommending the use of interactive way to activate organizational ompetences.

  14. The relation between voluntary dissemination of information in Brazilian company sites and company financial performance Análise da relação entre disseminação voluntária de informações em sites corporativos e desempenho financeiro de empresas brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jupter Júnior Moreira Luz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is becoming an important aspect of management and internet is now convenient for disclosure of information to the market. Therefore this relation between voluntary dissemination of information in company sites and financial performance of Brazilian companies was investigated. A multiple regression analysis was of made of 40 companies, 24 that belonged to the New Bovespa Market (N1, N2 or NM as well as 16 others that did not. The extent of transparent disclosure in the form of voluntary dissemination of information in company these sites was found to be directly associated with company size, shareholder return and return on total assets. However, contrary to expectations, a statistically significant negative association was identified between return on equity and voluntary disclosure of information in company sites.A governança corporativa vem-se tornando um importante mecanismo da gestão empresarial nos últimos anos, e a internet, uma ferramenta para disseminar informações ao mercado. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar se existe associação entre disseminação voluntária de informações em sites corporativos e desempenho financeiro. A análise foi feita de uma amostra de 40 empresas, das quais 24 fazem parte do Novo Mercado da Bovespa (N1, N2 ou NM e outras 16 não fazem parte, por meio de uma regressão múltipla. Constatou-se que a disseminação voluntária de informações nos sites corporativos das empresas pesquisadas está associada diretamente ao tamanho da empresa, ao retorno acionário e ao retorno sobre o ativo total, ou seja, quanto maior a empresa, o retorno acionário e o retorno sobre o ativo, maior tende a ser a transparência e a divulgação de informações ao mercado por meio dos sites corporativos. E, contrariando as expectativas, foi encontrada, também com significância estatística, uma associação negativa entre o retorno sobre o patrimônio líquido e a disseminação voluntária de

  15. Observation of TEC perturbation associated with medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance and possible seeding mechanism of atmospheric gravity wave at a Brazilian sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonah, O. F.; Kherani, E. A.; De Paula, E. R.

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we document daytime total electron content (TEC) disturbances associated with medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs), on few chosen geomagnetically quiet days over Southern Hemisphere of Brazilian longitude sector. These disturbances are derived from TEC data obtained using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver networks. From the keograms and cross-correlation maps, the TEC disturbances are identified as the MSTIDs that are propagating equatorward-eastward, having most of their average wavelengths longer in latitude than in longitude direction. These are the important outcomes of the present study which suggest that the daytime MSTIDs over Southern Hemisphere are similar to their counterparts in the Northern Hemisphere. Another important outcome is that the occurrence characteristics of these MSTIDs and that of atmospheric gravity wave (AGW) activities in the thermosphere are found to be similar on day-to-day basis. This suggests a possible connection between them, confirming the widely accepted AGW forcing mechanism for the generation of these daytime MSTIDs. The source of this AGW is investigated using the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES) and Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate satellite data. Finally, we provided evidences that AGWs are generated by convection activities from the tropospheric region.

  16. brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Mendes Borini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of corporate social responsibility (CSR has not been widely examined in the context of multinationals. This dearth is even greater with respect to subsidiaries, particularly the subject of reverse transfer of practices, that is, the transfer of practices developed in subsidiaries back to the parent company. Because of this theoretical gap, the present article investigates the factors involved on reverse transfer of CSR practices. The research hypotheses test the importance of developing nonlocation-bound capabilities, of integration between subsidiaries and parent and of institutional distance. The data were obtained by a survey of the main foreign subsidiaries in Brazil. All told, we analyzed 150 Brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals, by applying multiple linear regression. The results indicate that the reverse transfer of CSR depends on the development of nonlocation-bound capabilities of the subsidiaries and integration between the parent company and its foreign subsidiaries.

  17. Disclosure of social information by Brazilian companies according to United Nations indicators of corporate social responsibility Divulgação de informações sociais por empresas brasileiras segundo os indicadores de responsabilidade social corporativa da ONU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Colares Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Several frameworks of social information disclosure have been proposed worldwide to satisfy stakeholders' information needs. In 2008, the United Nations launched a guide with recommendations for corporate responsibility indicators in annual reports based on the Global Reporting Initiative framework and standards of the International Labour Organization, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and International Accounting Standards Board. The objective of the present study was to analyze the disclosure of social information by Brazilian companies of the New Market listing segment traded on the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BOVESPA in accordance with UN indicators of corporate social responsibility. This was an exploratory and qualitative study based on a review of documents and the literature. The findings were interpreted by way of content analysis to determine the predominance of UN indicators disclosed by Brazilian enterprises. The results were compared to those of a 2008 UN study on social information disclosure by 100 large enterprises in the top ten emerging economies in the world. The companies in our study were found to disclose most of the indicators recommended by the UN in harmony with internationally accepted standards. However, more recently introduced non-financial indicators were less frequently reported.Diversas são as iniciativas de instituições nacionais e internacionais no sentido de se chegar a um conteúdo de informações sociais que seja evidenciado pelas empresas e atenda às necessidades dos stakeholders. Em 2008, foi lançado o Guia de Indicadores de Responsabilidade Corporativa em Relatórios Anuais, da Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU, elaborado com base no GRI, nas normas da OIT e da OCDE e alinhado às definições adotadas nas normas do IASB. O presente estudo tem por objetivo principal analisar a divulgação de informações sociais pelas empresas brasileiras do Novo Mercado da Bovespa

  18. Effectiveness of business strategies in Brazilian textile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo César Sousa Batista; João Veríssimo de Oliveira Lisboa; Mário Gomes Augusto; Fátima Evaneide Barbosa de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research analyses how the interaction between strategy capabilities, strategy types, strategy formulation quality and implementation capability affect organizational performance in Brazilian textiles companies. This article proposes and tests a conceptual framework, using a structural equation modeling of a set of 211 valid questionnaires on Brazilian textiles firms. The results support links between focus strategy and marketing capabilities, and between cost leadership strategy...

  19. Gerenciamento de resultados e a relação com o custo da dívida das empresas brasileiras abertas Earnings management and the relation with cost of debt of Brazilian public companies

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    Paula Carolina Ciampaglia Nardi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sob a teoria de agência e as premissas de gerenciamento de resultados, o objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a relação entre o gerenciamento de resultados (GR e o custo da dívida (Ki das empresas brasileiras abertas, no período de 1996 a 2007. Os pressupostos levantados, por meio da literatura existente, são de que, almejando melhores condições contratuais, como o custo da dívida, o custo atual ou passado motiva a empresa a gerenciar o resultado corrente para obter melhores condições de custo futuro ou corrente. Dessa forma, as empresas, intencionalmente, procurariam gerenciar seus resultados, motivadas pelo custo da dívida. Todavia, há apoio teórico para que a relação entre essas variáveis seja unidirecional, com o GR influenciando o custo da dívida, sustentando a segunda hipótese. Para chegar ao objetivo, o trabalho utilizou, como proxy de GR, o modelo para cálculo dos accruals discricionários proposto por Kang e Sivaramakrishnan (1995. As análises foram baseadas no teste não-paramétrico U de Mann-Whitney, seguidas do teste de especificação de Hausman para a análise de simultaneidade, finalizando com a regressão com dados dispostos em painel com correção de Newey-West. Os testes de média apontaram para uma relação positiva entre GR e Ki, mas o teste de simultaneidade não indicou haver inter-relação entre as variáveis. Contudo, os resultados das regressões em painel indicaram que o Ki não influencia o GR, mas que há uma relação positiva, em que quanto maior o GR, maior o custo da dívida, ou seja, este é influenciado por aquele.Under agency theory and assumptions of earnings management, the objective is to study the relationship between earnings management (EM and the cost of debt (Ki of Brazilian publicly held companies in the period from 1996 to 2007. The assumptions raised through the literature are that targeting better contractual terms, like cost of debt, current or past cost, motivates the company

  20. Processos operacionais e resultados de empresas brasileiras após a certificação ambiental ISO 14001 Operation process and results of Brazilian companies according to the ISO 14001 environmental certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Jesus Avila

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar os resultados operacionais obtidos pelas empresas brasileiras certificadas na Norma ISO 1400. Para alcançar este objetivo, procurou-se identificar os fatores relacionados aos processos de operação e ao desempenho das operações após a certificação ambiental. O método de pesquisa se orientou pela busca de integração entre a análise quantitativa e a análise qualitativa. A análise quantitativa foi baseada no tratamento estatístico de dados atuais resultantes da participação de empresas brasileiras no projeto DEVISO (Developing Countries and ISO 14000. A análise qualitativa, por sua vez, utilizou como mecanismo para coleta de dados a técnica de entrevista pessoal a Gerentes do Sistema de Gestão Ambiental de duas empresas participantes do projeto. A análise quantitativa fundamentou-se na análise fatorial (Análise de Componentes Principais - PCA e na comparação entre médias dos fatores resultantes por meio do teste t de médias emparelhadas. Esta análise possibilitou elaborar uma hierarquia para o desempenho destes fatores quando comparados a um limite máximo. Posteriormente, os fatores identificados foram aprofundados em dois casos. Os fatores identificados para os processos de operação foram: Gerenciamento Ambiental, Fornecedores, Reciclagem e Cooperação. Para o desempenho das operações resultaram os fatores Imagem, Cumprimento de Padrões, Resíduos Tóxicos e Uso Eficiente.The aim of this work was to analyze the operational results achieved for ISO 14001 certificated Brazilian companies. In order to achieve this objective, the factors related to the operation process and the performance of operations according to the certification were identified. The research method integrated qualitative and quantitative analyses. The quantitative step was based on the analysis of the database created by the DEVISO project (Developing Countries and ISO 14000. The qualitative analysis was

  1. Nível de convergência dos princípios contábeis brasileiros e norte-americanos às normas do IASB: uma contribuição para a adoção das IFRS por empresas brasileiras The convergence level of the brazilian and american accounting principles with IASB standards: a contribution to brazilian companies' adoption of IFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Alves Oliveira

    2011-08-01

    required the adoption of IFRS by Brazilian companies in CVM Instruction 457/07. Through a descriptive study about their goals and using the technical procedures of information retrieval and classical content analysis, we analyzed the financial statements prepared for the year 2008 in accordance with U.S. GAAP and B.R. GAAP of 20 Brazilian companies listed both on the Stock Exchange of New York (NYSE and the Bolsa de Valores de Sao Paulo (BOVESPA, and calculated the rate of disclosure proposed in the study by Lopes and Rodrigues (2007. The research pointed out that the rates of disclosure calculated for Form 20F were higher than those calculated for the Standard Financial Statements (DFP, confirming a higher degree of convergence between U.S. GAAP and IFRS and suggesting that, due to IFRS adoption, financial statements in BR GAAP tend to change substantially, increasing the level of disclosure. Furthermore, for the sample, the results confirm what was presented in the selected literature about the direct influence of market sector and firm size on information disclosure. For auditors, the fact that global audit companies known as the Big Four audited the statement did not determine the extent of disclosure.

  2. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural producti

  3. Planejamento otimizado da produção e logística de empresas produtoras de sementes de milho: um estudo de caso Optimizing production and logistics planning in corn seeds companies: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Ávila Ribeiro Junqueira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Em um trabalho anterior (JUNQUEIRA; MORABITO, 2006 foi apresentado um modelo de otimização linear para auxiliar nas decisões do planejamento tático da produção, estocagem e transporte de sementes de milho, de forma a minimizar custos de produção, logísticos e fiscais, e satisfazer restrições de programação da colheita, capacidade das plantas e demanda dos clientes. O modelo foi testado apenas em situações simplificadas da realidade. No presente trabalho, analisamos a aplicação deste modelo para gerar um planejamento agregado otimizado em um estudo de caso de uma safra completa de uma empresa do setor de sementes de milho. Foram gerados e avaliados diversos cenários por meio deste modelo, considerando, entre outros, os custos fiscais de ICMS e de secagem de sementes, e os resultados obtidos foram comparados com os do método de planejamento utilizado pela empresa. Estes resultados mostram que reduções de custo importantes podem ser obtidas nos planos de produção e logística, quando consideradas as premissas presentes no modelo.An earlier study (JUNQUEIRA; MORABITO, 2006 presented a linear optimization model to support tactical planning decisions in corn seed production, storage and transportation, aimed at minimizing production, logistics and tax costs and meeting restrictions in harvest scheduling, production capacities and client requirements. The model was tested only in simplified real situations. In the present study, this model was applied to generate an optimized aggregate production plan for a case study of the crop of a corn seed producer during a complete season. Using the model, several scenarios were evaluated considering, for example, different ICMS tax and seed drying costs, and the results obtained were compared with the planning method used by the company. These results indicated that costs in aggregate production and logistic plans can be reduced substantially when the model's premises are taken into

  4. Comparabilidade entre o resultado em BR GAAP e U.S. GAAP: evidências das companhias brasileiras listadas nas bolsas norte-americanas Comparability between BR GAAP and U.S. GAAP results: evidence from Brazilian companies listed on North American stock exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlei Lemes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa avalia a materialidade das diferenças de reconciliação dos lucros divulgados por empresas brasileiras. Dada a inexistência de demonstrações contábeis conforme as IFRS publicadas por empresas brasileiras, a amostra foi composta de empresas que divulgam o resultado, segundo os Br GAAP e os U.S. GAAP, nos Form 20-F arquivados na SEC. Por meio de uma pesquisa exploratória, em função dos seus objetivos, e documental, em consequência da coleta de dados, aplicou-se o Índice de Comparabilidade de Gray (GRAY, 1980 às diferenças evidenciadas por 30 companhias brasileiras nos anos de 2000 a 2005. Os resultados indicam um número representativo de empresas com resultados materialmente não comparáveis, sendo três para uma margem de materialidade de 5%, seis a 10% e, para 15%, somente 21 das 30 empresas apresentaram lucros comparáveis. Analisando as reconciliações de 10 empresas do ano de 2005, o ajuste referente à combinação de empresas foi o que afetou o maior número de empresas e quanto à reavaliação de ativos, caracteristicamente apontada como uma prática que demanda frequentes ajustes aos U.S. GAAP, não foi observada a reconciliação para a maioria das empresas. Sugerem-se estudos adicionais para identificar diferenças específicas para um maior número de empresas e anos.This research assesses the materiality of the reconciliation differences in profits reported by Brazilian companies. Given the non-existence of IFRS compatible accounting statements for Brazilian companies, the sample was composed of enterprises that publish the result according to Br GAAP and U.S. GAAP on the 20-F Form filed at the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC. By means of an exploratory - in function of its objectives - and documentary research - due to the data collection method - Gray's Index of Comparability (Gray, 1980 was applied to the differences evidenced for 30 Brazilian companies between 2000 and 2005. The results

  5. The Brazilian Business World: the difficult adaptation to globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Caixeta Arraes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the internationalization of Brazilian businesses in the current decade. In the 1990s, Brazil embraced economic neoliberalism and promoted a huge opening up of its economy. At that time, Brazilian companies had to adapt rapidly. Twenty years later, the country has reinforced its presence in Latin America and has ensured a better position in the global markets, especially by through agricultural exports.

  6. Green Chemistry, Green Engineering and Eco-Innovation Towards a More Sustainable Petrochemical Industry: Determinants of Brazilian Petrochemical Companies´ Engagement in GCE-Based Eco-Innovation Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Freire da Silva (Paulo)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ It is the general wisdom, within the petrochemical industrial sector, that technological changes, for the development of cleaner products, processes and services, is a basic requirement for companies to achieve advanced states of environmental and economic sustainabilit

  7. Managing and Planning an Event for Case Company X

    OpenAIRE

    Palo, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is written for Case Company X, which is an international and sales-focused accelerator for innovative software companies. The company invests seed capital in their portfolio companies and deliver concrete results for their sales and international growth. In addition, Case Company X organizes events for startup founders. This thesis will discuss how to plan and manage an event for Case Company X. The objective of this thesis is to clarify the process of organizing a successful ...

  8. Crop protection by seed coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsanfar, S; Modarres-Sanavy, S A M

    2005-01-01

    Providence of sufficient and healthy food for increasing human population clears the importance of notice to increasing crop production in company with environmental loss reduction. Growth and yield of every plant with sexual reproduction, depends on germination & emergence of sown seeds. Seed is a small alive plant that its biological function is protection and nutrition of embryo. Biological, chemical and physiological characteristics of seed, affect on plant performance & its resistance to undesirable environmental conditions, and even on its total yield. So attention to seed and try to increase its performance is so important. One of the factors that cause reduction in germination percentage and seedling establishment, is seed disease. It's possible to control these diseases by treating the seed before planting it. Coating the seed with pesticides, is one of the ways to gain this goal. Seed coating is a technique in which several material as fertilizers, nutritional elements, moisture attractive or repulsive agents, plant growth regulators, rhizobium inocolum, chemical & pesticide etc, add to seed by adhesive agents and cause to increase seed performance and germination. Seed coating, leads to increase benefits in seed industry, because seeds can use all of their genetic vigor. This technique is used for seeds of many garden plants, valuable crops (such as corn, sunflower, canola, alfalfa,...) and some of the grasses. In this technique that was first used in coating cereal seeds in 1930, a thin and permeable layer of pesticide is stuck on seed surface and prevent damage of seedborn pathogens. This layer is melted or splited after absorption of moisture and suitable temperature by seed, and let the radical to exit the seed. In this approach materials are used accurately with seed, evaporation & leakage of pesticide and also adverse effects of some pesticides on seeds are diminished, and these factors cause to increase the accuracy and performance of pesticide

  9. Gestão de processos, indicadores analíticos e impactos sobre o desempenho competitivo em grandes e médias empresas brasileiras dos setores da indústria e de serviços Process management, analytical indicators, and impacts on competitive performance at large and midsized brazilian companies in the industry and services sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bronzo Ladeira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo compila os principais achados de uma pesquisa cujo objetivo foi o de investigar a natureza dos relacionamentos entre os construtos de orientação para processos de negócio (business process orientation - BPO, indicadores analíticos e desempenho competitivo de uma amostra de 368 empresas brasileiras, de grande e médio portes, atuantes em diferentes setores da indústria e de operações de serviços no âmbito da economia brasileira. Por meio de um survey, a pesquisa envolveu o teste de hipóteses e uso de técnicas de estatística bivariada e multivariada. Foram realizados testes para se mensurar a consistência interna das escalas do instrumento de pesquisa, bem como para se avaliar a composição estrutural do modelo, por meio da modelagem de equações estruturais. As escalas e o modelo foram validados. Os resultados apontam a importância estratégica dos fatores de BPO e de indicadores analíticos como preditores do desempenho competitivo das empresas. Por meio da equação estrutural do modelo, esses fatores preditores foram capazes de explicar 66,3% das variações do desempenho das empresas da amostra, sendo igualmente significativos os efeitos diretos (coeficientes de caminho verificados entre os construtos da BPO, indicadores analíticos e desempenho.This article compiles the main findings of a study that aimed to investigate the nature of the relationships between business process orientation (BPO constructs, analytical indicators, and competitive performance from a sample of 368 large and midsized Brazilian companies that are present in different sectors of industry and services operations within the Brazilian economy. By means of a survey, this research involved the use of hypothesis testing and bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Tests were carried out to measure the internal consistency of the research tool scales as well as to assess the model structure using structural equation modeling. Both the

  10. Seed proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds comprise a protective covering, a small embryonic plant, and a nutrient-storage organ. Seeds are protein-rich, and have been the subject of many mass spectrometry-based analyses. Seed storage proteins (SSP), which are transient depots for reduced nitrogen, have been studied for decades by cel...

  11. Competitiveness in the Brazilian oil industry. The Brazilian 'oil diamond'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is recognized the economic benefits that might follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which shall experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private investors. However, we should not neglect the broader impact of this process on the future development of all that cluster of national agents that lived around and served the former national oil monopoly, managed by the Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras. This work focuses on this larger perspective, discussing about the capacity of Brazil to sustain and expand its competitiveness in the oil business as well as to obtain the maximum economic development from the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. We adopt the work of Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, about the Competitive Advantage of Nations, as a theoretical model to analyze the Competitive Advantage of Brazil in the global oil industry. By introducing the concept of ''oil diamond'', adapted from the notion introduced by this author, we develop a new understanding of national competitiveness in the oil sector. In this paper, we present the general model as well as a brief characterization of the results found for Brazil Subsequently, we focus on just one leg of the model, for which we discuss, with more detail, about the competitive condition of the country in the opening-up scenario. This leg regards the so-called supporting and supplementary industries that constitute what is denominated in the French tradition the ''para petroleum'' industry. We analyze the conditions for the Brazilian domestic ''para petroleum industry'' to survive and grow in the new competitive environment. (authors)

  12. KEY FACTORS IN WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT IN THE BRAZILIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Toshiro Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted in corporate finance regarding long-term investment and financing decisions. However, short-term asset investments play a significant role in the balance sheet of companies. Moreover, financial managers dedicate significantamounts of time and effort to the subject of working capital management, balancing current assets and liabilities. This paper provides insights regarding the key factors of working capital management by exploring the internal variables of a number of companies. This study used data from 2,976 Brazilian public companies from 2001 to 2008, and found that debt level, size and growth rate can affect the working capital management of companies.

  13. Seed technology training in the year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed quality will remain the centerpiece of successful agricultural programs in the year 2000. As new changes occur in agriculture driven by advancements in biotechnology, seed enhancement technologies, a more diverse seed user clientele, and communication technologies, successful seed companies will require a knowledgeable and informed workforce to assure high seed quality. A new approach to seed technology training is professed that relies on the establishment of a three-institution consortium to achieve this objective. Advantages of the consortium are identified that emphasize the unique strengths of each institution, their geographic advantages representing major climactic/agricultural zones in the world, and differing approaches to seed technology training that are facilitated by increasing ease of global communication. This may be a better way to conduct seed technology training in the year 2000.

  14. Gestão do desenvolvimento de produto em empresas de pequeno e médio porte do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de SP Product development process management in small and medium-sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Toledo

    2010-01-01

    The product development process (PDP, if well-structured and managed, can become a business process that directly influences the companies' competitiveness increase. The PDP in Brazilian SMEs in the agricultural machinery and implement industry Sector (AMI is little known since most publications on product development focuses on the reality of large and multinational companies, which have a quite different structure from SMEs. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and analyze the management maturity profiles of the product development process in small and medium sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector located in the state of São Paulo. Therefore, the addressed actions of PDP improvements in those companies can be undertaken. A survey research was conducted in 40 companies. An in loco interview was applied to the respective individual in-charge of PDP by means of a structured questionnaire. For the data analysis, descriptive statistics and the multivariate cluster analysis techniques were used. The findings indicated that the SMEs in AMIs of the state of Sao Paulo present a heterogeneous structure with respect to PDP management. Three groups of companies were identified in the sample with different maturity PDP profiles: Group I (20% of companies in the sample, Group II (50% of the sample, and Group III (30% of the sample. Differences in the management of PDP were observed, especially among companies of Group I (smallest level of PDP maturity and Group III (highest level of PDP maturity. However, despite the differences in PDP management presented in the groups of companies, according to the literature on PDP management, all groups are in the basic (initial maturity level of PDP. The identification of the maturity level, in which these companies are, can help the determination of activities that link the internal actions to improve the PDP of these companies and the proposal of specific public policies that encourage the

  15. Teste de tetrazólio para avaliação da qualidade fisiológica em sementes de Goiabeira-serrana (Acca sellowiana O. Berg Burret Tetrazolium test to evaluate physiological quality of Brazilian Guava seeds (Acca sellowiana O. Berg Burret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Benevenga Sarmento

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A goiabeira-serrana, espécie frutífera nativa do Sul do Brasil, vem mostrando- se promissora em termos ecológicos e comerciais. O trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade fisiológica de dois lotes de sementes de goiabeira-serrana por meio do teste de tetrazólio. O experimento foi dividido em duas etapas. Na primeira, os lotes foram submetidos aos testes de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação, tempo médio de germinação, emergência em casa de vegetação, índice de velocidade de emergência de plântulas em casa de vegetação, tempo médio de emergência e comprimento de parte aérea. Na segunda, foi realizado o teste de tetrazólio nas concentrações de 0,5 e 1,0, e tempos de embebição (2 h e 4 h. O tratamento 0,5 TZ 4h obteve 73% de sementes viáveis (lote 2007. Para o lote 2008, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos. O teste de germinação apresentou correlação positiva para os tratamentos 0,5 TZ 2 h e 1 TZ 2 h. Para a emergência de plântulas em casa de vegetação, houve correlação positiva para o tratamento 0,5 TZ 2 h. O teste de tetrazólio permitiu a classificação dos lotes em quatro níveis de viabilidade, confirmando a eficiência do teste na avaliação da viabilidade de sementes de goiabeira-serrana.Brazilian guava, native fruit tree from Southern Brazil, has become relevant due to its potencial use as ecological and comercial. This article aims evaluate the physiological quality of Brazilian guava seeds by tetrazolium test. The work was divided in two parts. In the first, both lots were submitted to the germination test, index of speed germination, mean time of germination, emergency of seedlings in greenhouse, mean time of emergency and shoot length of seedlings. In the second part it was performed the tetrazolium test. Two concentrations of tetrazolium were used (0,5 e 1,0 and two times of imbibition (2 h e 4 h. To the lot 2007, the treatment 0,5 TZ 4 h obtained 73% of viable seeds

  16. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The la...

  17. Environmental management and operational performance in automotive companies in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, C.J.C.; De Sousa Jabbour, A.B.L.; Govindan, Kannan;

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to verify the influence of Environmental Management (EM) on Operational Performance (OP) in Brazilian automotive companies, analyzing whether Lean Manufacturing (LM) and Human Resources (HR) interfere in the greening of these companies. Therefore, a conceptual...

  18. Green Chemistry, Green Engineering and Eco-Innovation Towards a More Sustainable Petrochemical Industry: Determinants of Brazilian Petrochemical Companies´ Engagement in GCE-Based Eco-Innovation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Freire da Silva, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ It is the general wisdom, within the petrochemical industrial sector, that technological changes, for the development of cleaner products, processes and services, is a basic requirement for companies to achieve advanced states of environmental and economic sustainability in the 21st century. It is also agreed that to innovate is essential for this industry make the necessary advancements and to reconcile the firms´ interests of being profitable, in the short-term,...

  19. The Corporate Governance of Privately Controlled Brazilian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica C. R. Gorga

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of the corporate governance practices of Brazilian public companies, based primarily on an extensive 2005 survey of 116 companies. We focus on the 88 responding Brazilian private firms which are not majority owned by the state or a foreign company. We identify areas where Brazilian corporate governance is relatively strong and weak. Board independence is an area of weakness: The boards of most Brazilian private firms are comprised entirely or almost entirely of insiders or representatives of the controlling family or group. Many firms have zero independent directors. At the same time, minority shareholders have legal rights to representation on the boards of many firms, and this representation is reasonably common. Financial disclosure lags behind world standards. Only a minority of firms provide a statement of cash flows or consolidated financial statements. However, many provide English language financial statements, and an English language version of their website. Audit committees are uncommon, but many Brazilian firms use an alternate approach to ensuring financial statement accuracy – establishing a fiscal board. A minority of firms provide takeout rights to minority shareholders on a sale of control. Controlling shareholders often use shareholders agreements to ensure control.

  20. Ajustes aos US-GAAPS: estudo empírico sobre sua relevância para empresas brasileiras com ADRs negociados na bolsa de Nova Iorque Adjustments to US-GAAPS: empirical study on their relevance for brazilian companies with ADR traded on the New York exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Moraes da Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A relevância das informações disponibilizadas ao mercado por empresas brasileiras com American Depositary Recepts (ADRs negociados na Bolsa de Nova Iorque foi avaliada neste trabalho. Essas empresas devem atender à exigência da Securities and Exchange Commission e elaborar suas demonstrações contábeis de acordo com os United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US-GAAP até 30 de junho, anualmente. Diante desse fato, dois conjuntos de informações estão disponíveis, promovendo a base de dados para o estudo da relevância das variáveis lucro líquido e patrimônio líquido para o período entre 1999 e 2003. Após a utilização do modelo desenvolvido por Ohlson (1995 e de seus desdobramentos posteriores, os resultados evidenciam que (1 as informações elaboradas segundo os princípios de contabilidade geralmente aceitos no Brasil são relevantes; (2 as informações em US-GAAP disponibilizadas em junho possuem menor ou igual relevância do que as divulgadas em abril e (3 os ajustes aos US-GAAP efetuados no patrimônio líquido são relevantes para o mercado de capitais brasileiro.This study evaluated the value-relevance of the information disclosed by Brazilian companies with American Depositary Receipts traded on the New York Stock Exchange. Those companies must comply with the requirement of the Securities and Exchange Commission and elaborate their financial statements according to the United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US-GAAP until 30th of June, annually. Thus, two sets of information are available, providing data to evaluate the value-relevance of the variables net income and stockholders’ equity, from 1999 to 2003. After applying the model Ohlson developed in 1995 and its further developments, results indicate that (1 the information elaborated according to the generally accepted accounting principles in Brazil are value-relevant; (2 the relevance of the information in US-GAAP made available

  1. Conservadorismo contábil e timeliness: evidências empíricas nas demonstrações contábeis de empresas Brasileiras com ADRs negociados na bolsa de Nova Iorque Accounting conservatism and timeliness: empirical evidence in financial statements of Brazilian companies with ADRs traded on the New York stock exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sérgio Ribeiro dos Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investiga o nível de utilização do conservadorismo e da oportunidade (timeliness da informação contábil nas demonstrações contábeis de empresas brasileiras com ADRs negociados na Bolsa de Nova Iorque. Essas empresas apresentam suas demonstrações contábeis tanto conforme o modelo contábil brasileiro quanto segundo o norte-americano, atendendo às exigências da Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC. Os dados foram coletados compreendendo o período de 1999 a 2004 e aplicou-se o modelo de Basu (BASU, 1997 para a avaliação da oportunidade e do conservadorismo da informação contábil. Os resultados encontrados indicam que (1 não há diferenças no nível de utilização do conservadorismo e (2 o lucro contábil segundo o modelo brasileiro seria mais oportuno do que o norte-americano. Assim, as evidências contribuem para o atual debate sobre a inserção do Brasil no atual estágio de convergência de demonstrações contábeis.This study investigates the timeliness and the degree of conservatism in fi nancial statements disclosed by Brazilian companies with ADRs traded on the New York Stock Exchange. According to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC, those companies must disclose accounting information according to the Brazilian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (BR GAAP as well as the United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP. The data were collected between 1999 and 2004 and the Basu Model (BASU, 1997 was applied to evaluate earnings timeliness and conservatism. The results are: (1 there is no difference in earnings conservatism and (2 earnings according to the BR GAAP are more timely than those according to the US GAAP. The evidence contributes to the current debate about the role of Brazil in the current stage of the convergence process.

  2. Análise da relação entre gerenciamento de resultados e custo de capital em empresas brasileiras listadas na BM&FBOVESPA = Analysis of the Relationship Between Results-Based Management and Cost of Equity in Brazilian Companies Listed in BM&FBOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanne Dias de Moura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou analisar a relação entre o gerenciamento de resultados contábeis e o custo de capital próprio e de terceiros em empresas brasileiras listadas na BM&FBovespa. Para tal, realizou-se pesquisa descritiva, conduzida por meio de análise documental e abordagem quantitativa dos dados referentes ao período de 2010 a 2013 de uma amostra composta de 217 empresas. Os resultados evidenciaram que houve elevação do custo de capital próprio. No que tange ao custo de capital de terceiros, quando analisado por meio da variável Kd, constatou-se que ocorreu uma pequena redução de 31,81% para 28,37%. Ao analisar o custo de capital de terceiros, por meio da variável Ki, constatou-se que houve aumento de 23,94% para 30,13%. Os resultados evidenciaram destaque para os gerenciamentos de baixas proporções, principalmente a partir do ano de 2011. Também entre as empresas analisadas aquelas com menor gerenciamento de resultados não apresentavam menor custo de capital próprio e de terceiros. The study aimed at analyzing the relationship between results-based management and the company's cost of equity and its third party in Brazilian companies listed in BM&FBovespa. To this end, a descriptive research was conducted through documentary analysis and quantitative analysis of the data from 2010 to 2013 from a sample of 217 companies. The results revealed that the cost of equity rose in the period of 2010 to 2013. With respect to the cost of third party, when analyzed by Kd variable, it was found out a slight decrease from 31,81% to 28,37%. When analyzing the cost of third party by Ki variable, it was noticed an increase from 23,94% to 30,13% between 2010 and 2013. As for management, the results showed significance for the low proportion managements, especially since 2011. The results also showed that, among the analyzed companies, those with lower results-based management did not have lower cost of equity and third party.

  3. The carbon footprint of exported Brazilian yellow melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Kroeze, C.; Potting, J.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa de Aragão, A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon footprint of food has become important for producers worldwide as consumers and retail companies increasingly base their purchase decisions on carbon footprint labels. In this context, our objectives is to assess the carbon footprint (CF) of Brazilian yellow melon exported from the Low Ja

  4. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PRACTICES AT BRAZILIAN FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Galego-Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility practices have been on the rise in recent years in firms all over the world. Brazil, as one of the most important countries emerging on the international scene, is no exception to this, with more and more firms taking up these practices. The present study focuses on analyzing the corporate social responsibility practices that Brazilian companies engage into. The sample used is comprised of 500 firms grouped by geographical area; the theoretical framework is based on stakeholder and institutional theories; and the technique used for the analysis is the biplot, more specifically the HJ Biplot and cluster analysis. From the results obtained it is possible to infer that the CSR variables corresponding to environmental practices are more closely linked to companies located in the northern areas of Brazil. Social and community practices are related to companies primarily in the southern and northeastern regions of the country.

  5. The seed physiological potential of hybrid corn treated with insecticides and store in two environmental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rosane Fátima Baldiga Tonin; Orlando Antonio Lucca Filho; Leopoldo Mario Baudet Labbe; Mirela Rossetto

    2014-01-01

    Seed treatment is a widely disseminated practice in Brazilian cultural areas, which linked to other cultural practices, has contributed to the increase in productivity, cost reduction, final product improvement, environmental damage reduction as well as good seed protection in the field level and storage. The work had the objective to check the insecticide effect on the germination and vigor of the hybrid maize seeds, stored in two environmental conditions. The seeds were treated with three i...

  6. Comic-book Crás!: Brazilian Comics and Publishing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldomiro Vergueiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article has the objective of rescuing the trajectory of Brazilian comics in the 1970s, a period considered of special relevance for the advancement of the sequential graphic art in Brazil. In this period, initiatives of small publishing companies located in some Brazilian states can be seen, and, also, the efforts of big publishing companies to publish national material. As a case study, it presents the Crás! magazine, produced by Editora Abril of São Paulo, that congregated veteran and young gifted professionals of the Brazilian sequential graphic art. The analysis of this publication discloses the difficulties Brazilian comics faced, considering the necessities and limits of the commercial publishing companies and the publishing market in the country.

  7. Análise das Políticas de Incentivos Fiscais nos Municípios Brasileiros: o caso da instalação da Grendene no Município de Teixeira de Freitas = Analysis of the Tax Break policies in Brazilian municipalities: the case of the installation of Grendene Company in Teixeira de Freitas Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Gabrielle Soares Marinho de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Os incentivos fiscais são mecanismos utilizados pelo Estado para atrair novos investimentos para sua região, com o intuito de gerar crescimento econômico. No entanto, não se sabe ao certo se a concessão desses benefícios realmente gera crescimento para as regiões e renda para a população. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste estudo consiste em identificar eventuais impactos da política de incentivos fiscais adotada pelo município de Teixeira de Freitas no crescimento e na geração de renda para a população. Para isso, foi utilizada a análise documental e métodos estatísticos. Foram analisadas variáveis que são influenciadas pela concessão dos incentivos fiscais, tais como o PIB, admissões e desligamentos no período, comportamento das indústrias, arrecadação e repasse de ICMS e repasse de IPI, bem como o recente levantamento do IBGE sobre o perfil dos municípios brasileiros. De modo geral, os dados apontaram para um crescimento econômico do município, o que tende a corroborar a premissa de cunho teórico de que os incentivos fiscais efetivamente geram crescimento econômico. Porém, não se pode afirmar, somente a partir da realização desta pesquisa, que tal crescimento foi gerado pela concessão de incentivos fiscais. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo contribui para tornar esse assunto mais evidente e fomentar novas pesquisas. Tax incentives are mechanisms used by the State to attract new investments for generating economic growth in its region. However, no one knows for sure if the granting of such benefits actually creates growth for the regions and income for the population. In this context, this study aims at identifying whether the tax incentive policies adopted by the city of Teixeira de Freitas, Bahia State, Brazil, for installing the Grendene S.A. company (Brazilian company of shoe manufacturing has brought economic growth to the city and generated income for the population. For this purpose, documentary analysis

  8. Análise discriminante como preditiva de dificuldades financeiras em empresas brasileiras do mercado acionário = Discriminant analysis as a predictive tool of financial difficulties in brazilian companies in the share market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Aparecido Teixeira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Verificar a situação econômico-financeira de uma empresa pressupõe a análise conjunta de suas demonstrações contábeis, no intuito de prever as condições futuras de gerar resultados e de honrar seus compromissos. O presente artigo tem como objetivo estimar funções discriminantes para os grupos de empresas lucrativas, intermediárias e deficitárias, listadas na BM&FBOVESPA, no período de 2009 a 2011. Os procedimentos metodológicos utilizados caracterizam o estudo como pesquisa descritiva, documental e quantitativa. Os dados utilizados foram coletados do ®banco Economática . As empresas pertencentes ao setor financeiro e de serviços não foram consideradas na análise e aquelas que não apresentaram os dados requeridos foram excluídas, resultando em uma amostra de 255 organizações. ®A análise dos dados foi efetuada com o uso do software SPSS , tendo como variável de reunião os três grupos de empresas e como variáveis explicativas os indicadores econômico-financeiros de liquidez, rentabilidade e estrutura de capital. A análise dos dados permitiu identificar a existência de separação entre os grupos, apontando a Composição do Endividamento como a variável que melhor representa essa separação. Duas funções foram criadas. A primeira delas que segrega as empresas lucrativas das intermediárias, apresentou alta capacidade para demonstrar as diferenças entre os grupos. A segunda função discriminante representou apenas o poder residual para segregação entre as empresas intermediárias e as deficitárias. The objective of this study is to verify the economic-financial situation of some companies. For that, it is required the joint analysis of their financial statements in order to predict future conditions which will generate results and honor their commitments. This paper aims at estimating discriminant functions for groups of profitable, intermediary and lossmaking companies listed on the BM&FBOVESPA within 2009

  9. Formulation of a projection model of electric power demand applied to isolated systems in natural development: the case of the brazilian electric company of Rondonia territory; Formulacao de um modelo de projecao de demanda de energia eletrica aplicado a sistemas isolados em desenvolvimento natural: o caso da CERON - Centrais Eletricas de Rondonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, Rosana Aparecida

    2004-07-01

    The Electricity inserts it self more than other services in the economy and in the Brasilian society resulting an increase of market of electrical energy more than that of economy e consequently in the national energy bases. Given the importance of the definition of the demand of electrical energy inside the development process of a region, the objective of this dissertation is to propose a model of forecasting energy demand applied to a small scale utility. With basing on the foundation that the electrical energy demand varies accordingly with the region, social levels and economical conditions and also the activities developed, the method utilized was a definition of a set of representative variables in this context, using the relation between the population an the number of residential consumers; consumption per residential consumer and the consumption structure of the residential segment over the total demand. The results with the application of the model utilizing this philosophy of the technique of modeling scenes, permitted the definition of electrical energy demand for the market of the Brazilian electric company CERON S.A. like a case study. (author)

  10. The effectiveness of the Brazilian customs activity as a conditioning of the partnership and business results among oil and gas companies; A efetividade da atividade aduaneira brasileira como condicionante dos resultados das aliancas e negocios entre empresas de petroleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Helio Fernando R. [Ministerio da Fazenda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Terceiro Conselho de Contribuintes; Pires, Adilson Rodrigues [Contex - Consultoria em Administracao e Comercio Exterior, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alves, Ronaldo J. [Ronaldo Alves e Associados, Consultores em Exploracao e Producao, RJ (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The thriving of the national oil and gas production depends in major part on the effectiveness of the import operations at non-definitive title made under the customs special regime named Special Customs Regime for Export and Import of Goods for Oil and Natural Gas Exploration and Production Activities - REPETRO. This regime has not totally complied with the targets it has been conceived for, that is, to enable the development of the oil and gas industry at the least import costs in a legal stable environment. This regime is a precarious norm, conceived in a hurry, aiming solely at not unveiling the big threat to the forming of partnerships among companies acting in the commerce of import and/or export of equipment for the exploration and production in the Brazilian territory, that is, the intent of the Federal Fiscal Administration to using the import tax, an extra-fiscal tax by its nature, as a mere collecting instrument. This fact becomes evident from a more detailed analysis of certain aspects of the REPETRO normative structure. (author)

  11. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  12. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  13. Ideal seeds harvest moment of different maize hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Abrahão Jacob Junior; Liliane Marcia Mertz; Fernando Augusto Henning; Silmar Teichert Peske; Francisco Amaral Villela; Leopoldo Mario Baudet Labbé

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the ideal maize seed harvest moment by different characteristics, as black layer formation, milk line development, seed moisture content and seed dry matter accumulation. Three simple hybrids from Syngenta Company were used in this work; ears from plants in the same development stage were collected, the first harvesting began 40 days after flowering, at four days interval until all seeds in an ear had the black layer formation. The characteristics evaluat...

  14. Desempenho agronômico e qualidade de sementes de cultivares de feijão-caupi na região do cerrado Agronomic performance and quality of seeds of cowpea cultivar in the brazilian "cerrado" region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Rosa Teixeira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As produções de feijão-caupi, atualmente, no Brasil, são baixas em função, especialmente, do uso de materiais de baixa capacidade produtiva, associado à utilização de sementes de baixa qualidade. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as características agronômicas e qualidade fisiológica de sementes de diferentes cultivares de caupi nas condições edafoclimáticas do cerrado goiano. Empregou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por oito cultivares de caupi (BRS Guariba, BRS 17 Gurguéia, BRS Rouxinol, BRS Marataoã, Patativa, BRS Tracuateua, BRS Milênio e CE 315, recomendados para as regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. O efeito dos tratamentos foram significativos para todos os caracteres avaliados. As cultivares BRS Guariba, BRS 17 Gurguéia e BRS Marataoã apresentaram menores problemas com oídio. Os genótipos de caupi mais produtivos foram BRS Guariba e BRS Gurguéia, com 2.211 e 2.196 kg ha-1 de grãos, respectivamente. A qualidade fisiológica de sementes de caupi foi influenciada pelas cultivares testadas. As cultivares de tegumento colorido caupi CE 315, BRS Gurguéia, BRS Rouxinol, BRS Marataoã e Patativa produziram sementes de melhor qualidade fisiológica, comparativamente, com as cultivares de tegumento branco BRS Tracuateua, BRS Milênio e BRS Guariba.The productivities of cowpea are low, depending on the use of low productivity capacity cultivar planted, associated with the use of low-quality seeds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic characteristics and physiological quality in seed lots of different cultivar of cowpea in the "Cerrado", Goiás State, Brazil. The experimental design was a complete block with four replicates. The treatments were eight cultivar of cowpea (BRS Guariba, BRS 17 Gurguéia, BRS Rouxinol, BRS Marataoã, Patativa, BRS Tracuateua, BRS Milênio e CE 315, recommended for the North and Northeast regions

  15. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Unexplored Brazilian Native Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Infante, Juliana; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Lazarini, Josy Goldoni; Franchin, Marcelo; de Alencar, Severino Matias

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian native fruits are unmatched in their variety, but a poorly explored resource for the development of food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of leaves, seeds, and pulp of four Brazilian native fruits (Eugenia leitonii, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia brasiliensis, and Eugenia myrcianthes). GC—MS analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of epi...

  16. Terceirização de serviços de tecnologia de informação em organizações brasileiras Information technology outsourcing by Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Parada Vasques Prado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa é analisar a terceirização de serviços de Tecnologia de Informação (TI. A pesquisa abrange as organizações de porte médio e grande do setor privado localizadas no Brasil. Utilizou-se uma amostra não probabilística contendo 267 serviços terceirizados, presentes em 71 organizações. Os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário e tratados estatisticamente através de técnicas não paramétricas. A pesquisa representa um estudo descritivo, verificando freqüências e relações entre variáveis que caracterizam a organização, os serviços terceirizados e os arranjos contratuais. A partir de um modelo proposto para análise da terceirização da TI, foi possível identificar quatro grupos distintos de organizações e descrever suas características organizacionais, as razões mais freqüentes para terceirizar, as categorias de serviços mais terceirizadas e os arranjos contratuais mais adotados. Adicionalmente, foram identificadas três possíveis relações de causa e efeito entre as características organizacionais, as categorias de serviços terceirizados e os arranjos contratuais.Information Technology outsourcing activities by medium and large sized private companies in Brazil were analyzed. Included were 267 outsourced services in 71 organizations, however this was not a random sample. Data was collected by questionnaire and analyzed by non-parametric statistical methods. This was a descriptive study of the variables describing organization characteristics, outsourced services and contractual arrangements. Four groups of companies were identified and distinguished by the amount of outsourcing as well the most common outsourcing reasons, activities and models of contracts. Discussion about three possible cause and effect relationships of these variables was included.

  17. Analysis Brazilian preference shares: financial liabilities or equity instruments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lucia de Almeida

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian preference shares, in general, except when they present specific features, such as mandatory redemption and cumulative dividends, meet the accounting definition of equity instruments. However, the scientific literature believes that those shares that do not have discretion to avoid the delivery of cash must be classified as financial liabilities. In a context in which remain differences of understanding of their proper accounting treatment, the following question arises: preferred shares of Brazilian companies are being recognized in the financial statements in accordance with the theoretical and normative precepts? Thus, the aim of this study is to verify if the preference shares of Brazilian companies have been recognized in the financial statements for according to the scientific literature and accounting standards. Through content analysis, we analyzed the information of 157 companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA. The results show that 155 companies classify its preference shares as equity instruments and two as financial liabilities. These two companies, as well as 149 of those which qualify as equity instruments, are treating them properly in its accounting. The other six companies should present its preference shares as liabilities, given the absence of discretion to avoid cash delivery, feature present in financial liabilities, unlike equity instruments. It is noticed that, unlike what happens, for instance, in the US market, it is not possible to classify all Brazilian preference shares as a financial liability, since, in Brazil , they are used in different legal format of those widely found in that market. Moreover, almost all of the analyzed shares have essential features for classification as equity instruments. Hence, the importance of analysis of the economic essence of each instrument, thus, enabling the appropriate accounting treatment in the financial statements.

  18. The PETROBRAS and the end of monopoly: a legal vision of the new tendency of the Brazilian oil company; A PETROBRAS e a flexibilizacao do monopolio: visao juridica sobre os novos rumos da empresa petrolifera brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, Camila Gomes; Silva, Julianne Holder da Camara; Xavier, Yanko Marcius de Alencar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos em Direito do Petroleo e Gas Natural

    2008-07-01

    The situation in the oil industry in Brazil has a history that predates the creation of PETROBRAS, dating from approximately end of the nineteenth century, but only with the state economic sector that was spent to develop the full steam, so that Law No. 2.004 / 53 was the real point for the insertion of that product domestically. However after the issue of Constitutional Amendment No 09/95, requiring the creation of a law for the industry itself, from then on PETROBRAS is no longer the only one in the industry, and will act in competition with other private companies. With the promulgation of Law 9.478/97 has been subject to supervision and control by the National Petroleum Agency, Regulatory Agency sector. In this context the present study aims to show how the state was in the national market and its integration within international oil, bringing relevant points as the paid procedure disciplined in Article 22, Section 2 of the law cited, and its position as a leader in offshore production. (author)

  19. SEED QUALITY OF SELECTED VEGETABLE SPECIES ON THE POLISH MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz W. BRALEWSKI

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2001-2003 the seed quality of 108 samples of white head cabbage, garden carrot, red beet, onion, cucumber, tomato, radish, lettuce, common bean and garden pea were checked. They came from 3 Polish seed companies and 1 foreign one operating on the Polish market. It was found out that 22.2% of the examined seed samples did not meet the standards concerning germination capacity. The worst were seeds of lettuce and head cabbage. Their samples did not meet the germination capacity standards in 55.5% and 41.7%, respectively. The best quality was found for seeds of red beet and cucumbers - all their tested samples met the germination capacity standards. The highest number of samples, which did not meet the standards, came from the company number 2, the smallest - from the company number 4. All tested seed samples met the purity standards.

  20. The management strategy of energetic companies before new businesses: CESP - a case study; A postura empresarial de empresas energeticas diante de novos negocios: CESP - um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado Junior, Fernando Amaral de Almeida

    1994-12-01

    This thesis focuses the new challenges which the Brazilian electric power companies have been facing towards the new market requirements. Special emphasis is given to: organizational theory; Brazilian electric power industry history; and, comparative analysis of the Brazilian electric power system regulation and legislation. A case study is presented based on the electric power company of Sao Paulo State - Southeast Brazil 60 refs., 21 figs., 37 tabs.

  1. Quality Change in Brazilian Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the quality evolution of Brazilian autos. To measure the quality evolution of Brazilian autos, I have assembled a data set for Brazilian passenger cars for the period 1960/94, to which I have applied the hedonic pricing methodology. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time an index of quality change has been constructed for the Brazilian automobile industry. The results presented here have two major implications. They allow a better understanding of prod...

  2. INTERNATIONALIZATION STRATEGIES OF THE BRAZILIAN MEAT AGRIBUSINESS SECTOR: EXPORTS OR DIRECT INVESTMENT ABROAD?

    OpenAIRE

    Stal, Eva; Sereia, Vanderlei José; Silva, Ricardo Cesso da

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes the internationalization strategies of the four largest Brazilian companies in the meat (beef, pork and poultry) agribusiness sector, by considering the comparative and competitive advantages of the country and the companies. JBS, Marfrig, Sadia and Perdigão were studied, of which the last two merged in May 2009, forming Brasil Foods. The authors looked into what led these companies to start investing  abroad directly, as from 2005, as a complement to their exports, the p...

  3. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed

  4. A relação entre o conservadorismo contábil e os conflitos entre acionistas controladores e minoritários sobre as políticas de dividendos nas empresas brasileiras listadas na Bovespa The relation between accounting conservatism and conflicts on dividend policies between major and minor shareholders of Brazilian companies listed on Bovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Pimentel Gonzaga

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi buscar evidências empíricas quanto à relação do conservadorismo contábil com os conflitos sobre as políticas de dividendos entre acionistas minoritários e controladores nas companhias abertas listadas na Bovespa, compreendendo o período de 1995 a 2006. Os dados foram coletados no software Economática. Para o teste das hipóteses, usou-se regressão com dados em painel utilizando como proxies para conservadorismo contábil a medida baseada em accruals utilizada por Givoly e Hayn (2000 e a baseada no book-to-market proposta por Beaver e Ryan (2000. Os resultados encontrados corroboram os achados por Ahmed et al. (2002, indicando que há relação entre o conservadorismo contábil e os conflitos sobre as políticas de dividendos entre acionistas nas empresas da amostra. Porém, não é possível afirmar sobre tal relação quando a métrica de conservadorismo baseada em book-to-market é utilizada.The main objective of this study was to present empirical evidence on the relation between accounting conservatism and conflicts about dividend policies between majority and minority shareholders of Brazilian publicly traded companies listed on BOVESPA. Data for the period from 1995 to 2006 was retrieved from Economatica. To test the hypotheses, panel data regression was used with two proxies for accounting conservatism - the accrual-based measure used by Givoly and Hayn (2000 and the book-to-market-based measure proposed by Beaver and Ryan (2000. The results corroborate the findings by Ahmed et al. (2002, indicating a relation between accounting conservatism and conflicts about dividend policies between shareholders in the sample companies. The same cannot be affirmed, however, when the proxy based on book-to-market is employed.

  5. As (novas práticas pós-privatização de atuação comunitária em seis empresas do setor siderúrgico brasileiro The (new post-privatization practices of communitarian action in six companies of Brazilian steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozália Del Gáudio Soares Baptista

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar como as empresas do setor siderúrgico brasileiro reorganizaram suas práticas de relacionamento com a comunidade após a privatização. Para isso, tendo como referenciais a teoria existente sobre responsabilidade social e um estudo exploratório baseado em dados quantitativos e qualitativos coletados sobre a situação das principais siderúrgicas privatizadas, pôde-se traçar um quadro ilustrativo da realidade do setor. Os principais resultados revelam que o papel desempenhado no passado por tais organizações vem se adaptando tanto às novas demandas e realidades socioeconômicas do país quanto à emergência da valorização das ações privadas como mecanismo compensatório das lacunas deixadas pela transformação do papel do Estado. O atual discurso sobre a responsabilidade social empresarial legitima as ações empreendidas pela iniciativa privada, o que, entretanto, não desobriga o Estado do seu papel fundamental de agente do desenvolvimento nacional, independentemente do porte da economia da região em foco.An analysis was made of how six Brazilian steel companies restructured their community relations after privatization. This description was based upon an exploratory study of quantitive and qualitative information regarding social responsibility obtained from the most important privatized steel companies and includes as a reference the currently expounded theory of social responsibility. Results disclose that past performance was adapted to the new requirements and socio-economic situation of the country and to enhance this private activity in order to make up for deficiencies in the wake of the changing role played by the government. The current discourse on these actions of social responsibility endorses these private undertakings and does not, however, free the government from the basic role of agent in national development, irrespective of the size of the regional economy in question.

  6. Identificação de oportunidades de pesquisa a partir de um levantamento da implantação da produção enxuta em empresas do Brasil e do exterior Identification of research opportunities based on a survey on lean production implementation conducted in Brazilian and foreign companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisio Abreu Saurin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um levantamento do processo de implantação da Produção Enxuta (PE em 47 empresas do Brasil e do exterior. Entre os principais resultados, o levantamento revelou que: os temas de maior interesse em ampliar conhecimentos são a cultura organizacional enxuta e o mapeamento do fluxo de valor; os principais motivos para adotar a PE são a necessidade de melhorar a competitividade e a adequação da PE ao combate de problemas críticos da produção; as principais dificuldades na implantação da PE são a resistência das pessoas e a dificuldade na adaptação de conceitos e práticas; as práticas mais utilizadas são a padronização do trabalho e o gerenciamento visual; a produção puxada é a prática prioritária no momento. Os resultados deste levantamento, aliados a observações realizadas durante visitas em algumas das empresas, permitiram a identificação de necessidades e oportunidades para pesquisas sobre a implantação da PE, as quais são sumarizadas no final do artigo.This paper presents a survey on the lean production (LP implementation process in 47 Brazilian and foreign companies. Among the main results, the survey pointed out that the respondents are mostly interested in learning about lean organizational culture and value stream mapping. The main drivers for adopting LP are improving competitiveness and the fact that LP is adequate to solve critical production problems. People resistance to changes and difficulties to adapt concepts and practices are the main difficulties during LP implementation. The most frequently used practices are work standardization and visual management. Pull production implementation is the practice of highest priority. The results of this survey, along with the observation data collected during visits to some of the investigated companies, permitted the identification of research opportunities on LP implementation, which are summarized at the end of this article.

  7. Estudo comparativo do perfil de ácidos graxos em semente de Passifloras nativas do cerrado brasileiro A comparative study of fatty acids profile of Passiflora seed from Brazilian savana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Miranda Lopes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available No mundo, existem mais de 580 espécies de maracujazeiros, grande parte nativa da América Tropical e Subtropical, principalmente no Brasil. Os programas de melhoramento utilizam uma parte pequena dos recursos genéticos disponíveis, já que o potencial deste material geralmente não está suficientemente caracterizado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a caracterização do teor de lipídios e do perfil de ácidos graxos presentes nas sementes de 03 espécies nativas silvestres de maracujás (Passiflora cincinnata, P. setacea e P. nitida, empregando o maracujá comercial (P.edulis como referência. Os lipídios totais foram extraídos com éter de petróleo em extrator tipo Soxhlet. O perfil dos ésteres metílicos foi caracterizado por cromatografia a gás, usando detector de ionização de chama. A espécie P. setacea apresentou o maior teor de óleo (31,2-33,5%, seguida por P. nitida (29,5-32,3% e P. cincinnata (16,7-19,2%. O óleo de P. setacea apresentou 64,7% de ácido linoleico, 19,7% de oleico e 10,2% de ácido palmítico; o óleo de P. nitida apresentou os ácidos mirístico (0,6%, palmítico (15,3%, palmitoleico (2,0%, oleico (24,8%, linoleico (51,7% e um ácido graxo incomum às outras espécies de Passiflora, o láurico (0.4%; já o óleo de P. cincinnata apresentou os ácidos oleico (11,0%, palmítico (10,2% e linoleico (74,3%. O ácido linoleico foi predominante nas três espécies estudadas. Todas as espécies apresentaram ácido vacênico (0,3-0,6%, descrito pela primeira vez no gênero Passiflora.There are more 580 species of passion fruit in world, majority native from America Tropical and Subtropical, especially Brazil. Breeding programs use small part of genetic resources available, because potential of this material is not sufficiently characterized. The objective of this work was the characterization of lipids content and fatty acids profile present in the seeds of 03 species of wild native passion fruit (Passiflora

  8. Company profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Datacon was founded in 1986 and, since the beginning of 2005, has been part of the Dutch Besi group (BE Semiconductor Industries N.V.), an international group of companies operating in the semiconductor industry. Besi is a leading manufacturer of semiconductor die sorting, die bonding, packaging and plating equipment and provides the most cost efficient solution for RFID inlay production.

  9. Seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis in plant communities of the Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion; Ricardo Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of seed size and number differences among plant populations growing in contrasting habitats can provide relevant information about ecological strategies that optimize reproductive effort. This may imply important consequences for biodiversity conservation and restoration. Therefore, we sought to investigate seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis populations growing in plant communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Seed dry mass and seed number per bunch were evaluate...

  10. Demand for Life Annuities: a Brazilian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Amorim Vaz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Because pension plans have been marketed using outdated technical premises, Brazilian insurance companies find themselves required to identify additional resources to ensure their ability to meet future benefit payments obligations. When calculating the additional amount of this provision, the parameters used are: mortality and disability decrements, the structure of interest rates, financial performance, cancellation fees and conversion rates. The aim of this study is to present the estimation of conversion rates based on a Probit Model. The data for this study was obtained through the transfer of restricted data from the portfolio of a company with relevant activity in the Brazilian insurance market, including a group of 14,511 individuals eligible for retirement in the period between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009. The resulting analysis of the data allows us to conclude that two factors — the volume of accumulated reserves and the classification of prices as actuarially fair —increase the propensity of an individual to convert resources upon retirement. In turn, retirement age and the need for liquidity reduce the propensity to convert resources upon retirement.

  11. An Empirical Investigation of Factors Influencing Exporting Success of Brazilian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Carl H Christensen; Angela da Rocha; Rosane Kerbel Gertner

    1987-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-two Brazilian companies that were exporting in 1978 were interviewed again six years later in 1984 to determine the factors that were correlated with the continuance of exporting. Firm characteristics, export management practices and manager perceptions were each found to be correlated with exporting success thus supporting the basic contention that it is possible to predict export performance. Firms that discontinued exporting relied more on the Brazilian government exp...

  12. The Association between Socioeconomic Characteristics and Consumption of Food Items among Brazilian Industry Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele B. Vinholes; Ione M. F. Melo; Carlos Alberto Machado; Hilton de Castro Chaves; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Dietary pattern plays a causative role in the rising of noncommunicable diseases. The SESI (Serviço Social da Indústria) study was designed to evaluate risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. We aimed to describe food items consumed by Brazilian workers and to assess their association with socioeconomic status. Methods. Cross-sectional study was carried out among Brazilian industrial workers, selected by multistage sampling, from 157 companies. Interviews were conducted at the ...

  13. Secondary Metabolite Profile, Antioxidant Capacity, and Mosquito Repellent Activity of Bixa orellana from Brazilian Amazon Region

    OpenAIRE

    Annamaria Giorgi; Pietro De Marinis; Giuseppe Granelli; Luca Maria Chiesa; Sara Panseri

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian flora was widely used as source of food and natural remedies to treat various diseases. Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae), also known as annatto, urucù, or achiote, is a symbol for the Amazonian tribes that traditionally use its seeds as coloured ink to paint their bodies for religious ceremonies. The aim of this study was to investigate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profile of B. orellana fresh fruits (in vivo sampled), dried seeds, wood, bark, and leaves analyzed with Headsp...

  14. Company Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天田

    2011-01-01

    有些演员长得不好看但上镜,这叫有Camera Face;而有些企业有明星企业家,这叫有Company Face.塑造一张Company Face对企业来说是非常合算的,因为公众对于枯燥的商业概念和数据并无兴趣,把企业人格化才是建立沟通的捷径.然而,究竟你的CompanyFace是杂志封面的人物还是客户走进公司会接触的保安、保洁和秘书?听说一个绿色八卦:张艺谋在《山楂树之恋》选角时,为了“静秋”可谓是踏破铁鞋.当时分了若干组人马四处寻访,但是带回来的候选人张艺谋统统看不上.张艺谋讽刺一位选角的同事:你选出来的女孩儿,一打开电视满眼都是!这位同事立即反唇相讥:你选的呢?连电视都不让上!

  15. Study of brazilian franchises internationalization: challenges and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Loffredo da Rocha Leite

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to analyze brazilian franchises internationalization through a case study, in order to identify the factors that influence internationalization, the adaptations of marketing strategies and main barriers and challenges of brazilian franchises internationalization. A qualitative exploratory research was developed through the case study method. The information was colected via observation and semi-structured interviews with managers in charge of international expansion of two companies. A comparative analysis between obtained data and the theoretical background was made. The results found showed that the studied companies expanded internationally due to external demands and the desire to explore new markets. Changes in marketing strategies were made in different degrees, and communication was the element that suffered greater changes. The main challenge of internationalization found, was to understand local culture and incorporate it into the company’s operations.

  16. The Supply of Trade Credit by Brazilian Publicly Traded Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe Schiozer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of trade credit supply by Brazilian publicly traded companies between the years of 2005 and 2008. International literature (both theoretical and empirical documents that the main determinants of trade credit supply are the size of the firm and the size of its debt. Both indicate that the availability of resources to the firm is an important factor for the supply of trade credit. In addition, the literature confirms strategic uses of trade credit such as those for price discrimination purposes. The results obtained using a sample of 157 Brazilian companies do not support that size and indebtedness are relevant determinants for trade credit supply, but they confirm the supply of trade credit as a strategic tool for the firms. Additionally we observed a significant decrease in trade credit supply in 2008, the year in which a severe international financial crisis took place.

  17. SAFER - Company Snapshot - SAFER - Company Snapshot

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Company Snapshot is a concise electronic record of company identification, size, commodity information, and safety record, including the safety rating (if any),...

  18. A Datacenter Backstage: The Knowledge that Supports the Brazilian Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhau, J.; Assumpcao, M.; Collaço, B.; Bianchi, M.; Pirchiner, M.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, Brazilian seismology never had a clear strategic vision about how its data should be acquired, evaluated, stored and shared. Without a data management plan, data (for any practical purpose) could be lost, resulting in a non-uniform coverage that will reduce any chance of local and international collaboration, i.e., data will never become scientific knowledge. Since 2009, huge efforts from four different institutions are establishing the new permanent Brazilian Seismographic Network (RSBR), mainly with resources from PETROBRAS, the Brazilian Government oil company. Four FDSN sub-networks currently compose RSBR, with a total of 80 permanent stations. BL and BR codes (from BRASIS subnet) with 47 stations maintained by University of Sao Paulo (USP) and University of Brasilia (UnB) respectively; NB code (RSISNE subnet), with 16 stations deployed by University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN); and ON code (RSIS subnet), with 18 stations operated by the National Observatory (ON) in Rio de Janeiro. Most stations transmit data in real-time via satellite or cell-phone links. Each node acquires its own stations locally, and data is real-time shared using SeedLink. Archived data is distributed via ArcLink and/or FDSNWS services. All nodes use the SeisComP3 system for real-time processing and as a levering back-end. Open-source solutions like Seiscomp3 require some homemade tools to be developed, to help solve the most common daily problems of a data management center: local magnitude into the real-time earthquake processor, website plugins, regional earthquake catalog, contribution with ISC catalog, quality-control tools, data request tools, etc. The main data products and community activities include: kml files, data availability plots, request charts, summer school courses, an Open Lab Day and news interviews. Finally, a good effort was made to establish BRASIS sub-network and the whole RSBR as a unified project, that serves as a communication channel between

  19. Supporting Services Functionality in Brazilian Sectors: The Primacy of Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Gaspar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available E - commerce can benefit companies by enabling new business models, improving efficiencies, and building competitive advantages. But there are some critical issues to be addressed in order to a chieve those benefits, and one of them relates to the effectiveness of online customer servicing in e - commerce, also referred to as supporting services functionality (SSF. In this paper we discuss a subset of SSF in 110 large Brazilian companies represent ing 11 key sectors of the economy. Results enabled the ranking of sectors according to levels of SSF effectiveness, and the conclusion was that the nature of business may explain why general banks and telecommunications companies currently perform the bett er, while siderurgy and metallurgy, wholesale and international commerce, and chemical and petrochemical companies have the lowest performance in implementing the tools for customer support in e - commerce .

  20. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region. PMID:25349524

  1. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  2. Validation of the Team Factors Inventory in Brazilian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Antonio Prado Gimenez; Edmundo Inácio Júnior

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to test the validity and reliability of a Portuguese version of the Team Factors Inventory/TFI derived from the Creative Leadership Model. This inventory measures the propensity of a team towards creative leadership and consists of a paper and pen measure with 37 items on a Likert-type scale. The literature concerning creativity in organizational studies has focused mainly on the contribution the individual makes to innovation and technical change. The model of Creati...

  3. Validation of the Team Factors Inventory in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Prado Gimenez

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to test the validity and reliability of a Portuguese version of the Team Factors Inventory/TFI derived from the Creative Leadership Model. This inventory measures the propensity of a team towards creative leadership and consists of a paper and pen measure with 37 items on a Likert-type scale. The literature concerning creativity in organizational studies has focused mainly on the contribution the individual makes to innovation and technical change. The model of Creative Leadership, on the other hand, has turned attention to group behaviour and team management. The model has been recently proposed in England and thereare no literature reports on its application in a language other than English. The method involved a review of the literature on creative leadership, backtranslation of the inventory, and data analysis through descriptive statistics, hypotheses testing, factor analysis, and analysis of variance, using as control variables, sex, and type of enterprise. The sample consisted of 115 respondents, with 73 owner-managers of high-tech incubated firms and 42 owner-managers of service firms. Analyses indicated that the translated version Portuguese of the inventory reached satisfactory levels of validity and reliability. This means that the TFI may be applied in a cultural context other than the original.

  4. PETROBRAS: an energy company and the Brazilian Biofuels Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Fernando Martins; Valle, Luiz Alberto Fernandes; Diehl Filho, Rubin Pedro [PETROBRAS University, Rio de de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). School of Gas and Energy Science and Technology], e-mail: fernandotorres@com.br, e-mail: lavalle@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: rubin@petrobras.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Global warming and other climate changes have been occurring because of human activities, mainly the burning of fossil fuels. This releases greenhouse gases, chief among them carbon dioxide, into the atmosphere. Brazil's answer was to launch of the National Alcohol Program (Proalcool) in 1975, in response to the first oil shock (in 1973). This was intensified with the second oil shock (in 1979-80). Under this program, the gasoline used in the transportation segment was replaced by: anhydrous ethanol in vehicles manufactured to consume gasoline, up to a proportion of 25%; hydrated ethanol in vehicles especially manufactured to consume this renewable fuel. The impact of these efforts was extremely significant, as demonstrated by the the effects of the first and second oil shocks on the country's trade balance and balance of oil and derivatives in 1973-74 and 1979-80 can be clearly seen. At the time of the second shock, the increase in imports in the trade balance basically coincided with the increased imports of oil and refined products. (author)

  5. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  6. Managing Migration: The Brazilian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  7. Brazilian energy overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy overview compared with the rest of the world is presented, as well as the current situation and prospects for the future. In a first part, the evalution from the past through the present time is considered, and in a second part, attention is given on the future prospects for Brazil and the different countries in connection with the energy field. It is expected that the current per capita energy consumption in Brazil, in all of its various forms, now totalling 6 million kcal/inh, will reach at least 22 million kcal/inh toward the end of this century

  8. Low Cost Helicopter Training Simulator : A Software Case Study from the Brazilian Military Police

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Joice B.; Brandao-Ramos, Alexandre Carlos; Mora-Camino, Félix

    2014-01-01

    International audience This work describes a computer based training system to assist the crew members to learn the ground school of helicopter AS350-B2, manufactured by HELIBRAS, a Brazilian helicopter company and widely used by the Armed Forces, Civil and Military Policies and by companies of executive transportation and load lifting. The training system consists of a 1:1 scale aircraft cabin simulator, a system software and a MS Flight Simulator interface. The project is in advanced pha...

  9. Board diversity and firm performance: an empirical investigation in the Brazilian market

    OpenAIRE

    João Batista Fraga; Vinícius Augusto Brunassi Silva

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the diversity of the boards of directors of Brazilian companies listed on the BM&FBovespa with respect to gender, age, educational attainment and independence, to ascertain whether there is a relationship between any of these diversity measures and firm performance. The study covers all companies without majority control, a type of corporate structure that first appeared in Brazil in 2005. The results indicate that greater diversity in the educational disciplines and...

  10. Solidarity liability of the cooperatives part of the Unimed Group – a Brazilian private healthcare insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHEFFER, Mario

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Unimed medical cooperatives – a Brazilian private health insurance- are a very expressive group in the Brazilian supplementary healthcare market, as they bring together the largest number of beneficiaries and present the highest turnover in the sector. In light of the decision of the Brazilian Superior Court of Justice (STJ recognizing the solidarity liability related to obligations of any company belonging to the group Unimed, this article analyzes arguments and implications of this judgment. The transparency obligation stems from the basic consumer’s right to receive clear and adequate information on the marketed services and products. As for the good faith, it is linked to the loyalty that the parties must maintain at every stage of the contract, in respect to the expectations created. This article concludes that the STJ’s position, related to the responsibility of all companies of the Unimed Group, is a logical and necessary outcome.

  11. Academic production of brazilian authors about internationalisation: balance of publications in Brazil in the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Garrido Moraes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the Brazilian scientific research on Internationalization of Companies by reviewing all articles published in journals in the area classified as CAPES Qualis A, in the period 2001-2014 and its comparison with some indicators of other studies on academic research in Brazil and abroad, both in international business as in management in general. The analysis focuses on the theme, the methodology and the theories discussed in articles, as well as authorial demographics. It was verified that there are possible differences in Brazilian research on internationalization compared to what is practiced in other countries regarding the theme, methodology and theories. Within the authorial demographics, it is pointed out that the contribution of public and private institutions, as well as gender distribution is in line with other areas. At the end, possibilities for expanding the study are suggested to better reflect the Brazilian scientific production in Internationalization of Companies.

  12. Psychic distance in the process of internationalization: the perception of brazilian expatriates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Chunques Gervasoni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to identify the perceptions of Brazilian expatriates concerning the psychic in the internationalization process. Although the concept of psychic distance has being explored in the literature for the analysis of processes of internationalization of companies, recently have researchers begun to examine its influence on the processes of expatriation. To this end, a review was made of the studies of psychic distance and international companies as well as of the expatriation processes that are directly influenced by the challenge of psychic distance. Brazilian expatriates ' perceptions about the psychic distance was identified through 24 interviews, in which it noted that the psychic distance tends to be high for the cultural dimension and median for business and environmental dimensions in the sample investigated. Moreover, the difficulties in the expatriation process tend to intensify the perception of high psychic distance for the Brazilian expats.

  13. Structure and genetic diversity of natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvares-Carvalho, S V; Duarte, J F; Santos, T C; Santos, R M; Silva-Mann, R; Carvalho, D

    2016-01-01

    In the face of a possible loss of genetic diversity in plants due the environmental changes, actions to ensure the genetic variability are an urgent necessity. The extraction of Brazilian pepper fruits is a cause of concern because it results in the lack of seeds in soil, hindering its distribution in space and time. It is important to address this concern and explore the species, used by riparian communities and agro-factories without considering the need for keeping the seeds for natural seed banks and for species sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure and the genetic diversity in natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi). Twenty-two alleles in 223 individuals were identified from eight forest remnants located in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, and Sergipe. All populations presented loci in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviation. Four populations presented six combinations of loci in linkage disequilibrium. Six exclusive alleles were detected in four populations. Analysis of molecular variance showed the absence of diversity between regions and that between the populations (GST) was 41%. Genetic diversity was structured in seven clusters (ΔK7). Brazilian pepper populations were not structured in a pattern of isolation by distance and present genetic bottleneck. The populations São Mateus, Canastra, Barbacena, and Ilha das Flores were identified as management units and may support conservation projects, ecological restoration and in implementation of management plans for Brazilian pepper in the State of Sergipe. PMID:27323193

  14. The Brazilian Bolsa Escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cassidy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bolsa Escola (‘school stipend’ and its successor the Bolsa Familia (‘family stipend’ schemes have formed a crucial and successful part of Brazil’s welfare program. Bolsa Escola provided aid to Brazil’s poorest families on the condition that their children attended school, and Bolsa Familia has extended this idea, giving aid on the condition that children both attend school and receive vaccinations. Bolsa Familia is currently the largest Conditional Cash Transfer Program (CCTP in the world, costing roughly 0.5% of Brazilian GDP and helping around 11.2 million families (around 44 million Brazilians, constituting roughly one fifth of the population. Multilateral institutions have praised the schemes, and they are setting a leading example to other developing nations. In 2005, Paul Wolfowitz (former president of the World Bank said, ‘Bolsa Familia has already become a highly praised model of effective social policy. Countries around the world are drawing lessons from Brazil’s experience and are trying to produce the same results for their own people’.

  15. Is Industry-University Interaction Promoting Innovation in the Brazilian Pharmaceutical Industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranhos, Julia; Hasenclever, Lia

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses industry-university interaction and its characteristics in the Brazilian pharmaceutical system of innovation, taking account of the relevance of company strategies, the approach of the universities and the actions of government. By analysing primary and secondary data the authors show that, for as long as corporate investment…

  16. Seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis in plant communities of the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of seed size and number differences among plant populations growing in contrasting habitats can provide relevant information about ecological strategies that optimize reproductive effort. This may imply important consequences for biodiversity conservation and restoration. Therefore, we sought to investigate seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis populations growing in plant communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Seed dry mass and seed number per bunch were evaluated in 2008 and 2009 in large remnants of the Seasonally Dry Forest, Restinga Forest and Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil, in 20 individuals per site and year. Seed size and seed number varied among forest types, but a seed size-number trade-off was neither observed within nor among populations. Positive association between seed size and number was found in the Atlantic Rainforest, and reduced seed crop was not accompanied by heavier seeds in the Restinga Forest. Seed dry mass declined in 2009 in all three forest types. Compared to seed number in 2008, palms of both the Restinga Forest and the Atlantic Rainforest produced in 2009 higher yields of smaller seeds - evidence of between years seed size-number trade-off -, while the Seasonally Dry Forest population produced a reduced number of smaller seeds. Such a flexible reproductive strategy, involving neutral, positive, and negative associations between seed size and number could enhance the ecological amplitude of this species and their potential to adapt to different environment conditions.

  17. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  18. Pharmacogenetics in the brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190;million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians: most individuals, irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black - the major categories of the Brazilian Census "race/color" system - have significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx) implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g., CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc) varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV protease inhibitors and non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first-generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen, a nation-wide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact. PMID:21833165

  19. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  20. Seed vigor testing: an overview of the past, present and future perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Marcos Filho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of seed vigor has many important implications to the seed industry as a basic monitoring of seed physiological potential during different phases of seed production and a support for strategic decisions regarding the selection of high quality seedlots to meet the consumer demand. The potential attributes of seed vigor as a fundamental physiological seed characteristic and its association with field stand establishment and crop productivity has been worldwide recognized from the 1960s onward. This led to the diversification of research approaches involving the synchronization of different physiological characteristics and events that determine the potential for high performance during seed storage and after sowing. The basic objective of vigor testing is to provide a consistent identification of differences in physiological potential among seedlots of commercial value and this represents a more sensitive parameter than the germination test. There are various procedures to assess seed vigor including those that directly or indirectly evaluate seed metabolic state or identify seed tolerance to specific stress(es. At the same time, in more recent years, new knowledge has come from molecular biology, biotechnology, biophysics and seed and seedling imaging analyses; these approaches has been important complements to traditional seed research.. This text has the purpose to emphasize the role of Brazilian research in seed vigor, whose competence is internationally recognized, and to provide an overview of the evolution of knowledge also attempting to highlight events that contributed to the advancement of research on the subject.

  1. Community-wide spatial and temporal discordances of seed-seedling shadows in a tropical rainforest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Cristina Rother

    Full Text Available Several factors decrease plant survival throughout their lifecycles. Among them, seed dispersal limitation may play a major role by resulting in highly aggregated (contagious seed and seedling distributions entailing increased mortality. The arrival of seeds, furthermore, may not match suitable environments for seed survival and, consequently, for seedling establishment. In this study, we investigated spatio-temporal patterns of seed and seedling distribution in contrasting microhabitats (bamboo and non-bamboo stands from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Spatial distribution patterns, spatial concordance between seed rain and seedling recruitment between subsequent years in two fruiting seasons (2004-2005 and 2007-2009, and the relation between seeds and seedlings with environmental factors were examined within a spatially-explicit framework. Density and species richness of both seeds and seedlings were randomly distributed in non-bamboo stands, but showed significant clustering in bamboo stands. Seed and seedling distributions showed across-year inconsistency, suggesting a marked spatial decoupling of the seed and seedling stages. Generalized linear mixed effects models indicated that only seed density and seed species richness differed between stand types while accounting for variation in soil characteristics. Our analyses provide evidence of marked recruitment limitation as a result of the interplay between biotic and abiotic factors. Because bamboo stands promote heterogeneity in the forest, they are important components of the landscape. However, at high densities, bamboos may limit recruitment for the plant community by imposing marked discordances of seed arrival and early seedling recruitment.

  2. Effectiveness of business strategies in Brazilian textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César de Sousa Batista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research analyses how the interaction between strategy capabilities, strategy types, strategy formulation quality and implementation capability affect organizational performance in Brazilian textiles companies. This article proposes and tests a conceptual framework, using a structural equation modeling of a set of 211 valid questionnaires on Brazilian textiles firms. The results support links between focus strategy and marketing capabilities, and between cost leadership strategy and management capabilities. However, the relationship between technologic capabilities and differentiation strategy was not statistically significant. The existence of an inter-relationship between generic strategies of focus, cost leadership and differentiation indicates the use of combined strategies. Concerning the firms' financial performance, the results show that management capability and market performance have a statistically significant relationship with financial performance.

  3. INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERING AND PERFORMANCE OF BRAZILIAN FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Rodriguez Cao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates changes in long-term operational and financial performance for a sample of Brazilian companies made initial public offerings (IPO's shares, in the period 2002-2008. This period showed a historically high number of IPOs, a heavily discontinued phenomenon with the international financial crisis of 2008. As performance measures were chosen six financial indicators usually adopted in the literature in periods of three years pre-IPO, year of listing and three years post-IPO. The indicators evaluated were size, growth rate, profitability, financial leverage, investment level and investment rate. The results show evidence that, on average, there were statistically significant improvements in size, profitability, investment level and investment rate. But there was no evidence statistically significant changes in the growth rate and financial leverage after the IPO of Brazilian firms.

  4. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    and germination percentage. Production in tunnels provided high yields of organic leek seed of good quality. Tunnel systems may be a set-up for organic seed production where small quantities of seed can be produced without compromising the high requirements of genetic purity and seed quality.......To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...

  5. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    and germination percentage. Production in tunnels provided high yields of organic leek seed of good quality. Tunnel systems may be a set-up for organic seed production where small quantities of seed can be produced without compromising the high requirements of genetic purity and seed quality......To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...

  6. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  7. Biological Assets in Companies in Brazil: Pursuant To CPC 29 and Association with Business Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Martins Macedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of international accounting standards in Brazil has brought about changes in the form of recognition, measurement and disclosure of economic facts of companies. In order to harmonize the accounting standards with the international standard-setting bodies Brazilian approved CPC 29, which establishes the accounting treatment and disclosure of biological assets and agricultural products. The objective of this study was to verify the Brazilian companies with biological assets the level of compliance with the CPC 29 and its association with business features. The study adopted the descriptive approach and examined the consolidated Financial Statements for the year 2013 of Brazilian public companies. In total 19 companies were analyzed showed that biological assets in 2013. The survey results show that the average compliance of companies with CPC 29 is 74.68%. Regarding the statistical analysis, it was observed that the level of compliance of companies have associations with business characteristics such as sector, governance, size, profitability and representativeness of the asset and the company's size has significant interaction with the level of accordingly. Compared to previous studies it was found that there was a significant increase in company compliance level with CPC 29 over time

  8. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE AT BRAZILIAN INDUSTRIAL MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Quinello

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The industrial maintenance activities, generally, were considered as more one problem to the organizations. This image needs to change in Brazil , because this sector is part of the companies supply chain, is responsible to maintain equipments reliability and availability and it is a generator of the companies costs. This responsibility increases in a country where the productive capacity is in the limit, demanding extra efforts and where increasing pressures for reductions of the costs and restrictions techniques and human beings are increasing, ask to paradigms changes. The present study had for purpose to identify main canals of captation of the information used by the Brazilian industrial maintenance professionals, demonstrating systematic use of Competitive Intelligence can bring technological advance and profit of competitive advantage. For this, a qualitative research was made, using as research instruments the Delphi method, interviews with professionals and an experimental delineation C.I- Competitive Intelligence in a department-pilot (automotive sector.The results had shown to the use of formal and informal sources in different frequencies of access and the fragility in these departments in the not-systematic use of C.I, harming the above-mentioned challenges.

  9. Brazilian chicken meat production chain:a 10-year overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Nääs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest broiler meat exporter. Health control, knowledge and technology, as well as the natural aspects of the country are pointed out as the keys for the success of that product in the market. Brazilian broiler production grew significantly in the last decade; it creates jobs and has a significant social role in Brazilian economy. This study aimed at evaluating the Brazilian broiler meat supply chain from 2000 to 2010 using the social network analysis (SNA. Data from governmental and private sources were organized and analyzed. The focus of this study was the broiler production supply chain segment involving the hatchery, the broiler farm, the feed mill, the processing plant, and the government. The inputs considered were one-day-old chicks, pullet, feedstuff, and the infrastructure; and the outputs were broiler meat and taxes paid. The software UCINET was applied for calculating the structural attributes and indicators of the network. Results showed a relatively disorganized network in 2000 with the strongest tie between the farmer and the processing plant. The structural organization of the network improved until 2010. The density of the ties in the broiler meat production network increased steadily from 2000 to 2010 within a vertical cohesive supply chain structure. The success of Brazilian broiler meat production is attributed to the abundance of land, fertile soil, favorable climate, and the effort and investments in research and development by innovative companies in the last few years. The results of the present study showed that Brazilian broiler production evolved positively in the last ten years, and it was weakly influenced by international challenges.

  10. Development of Small Company

    OpenAIRE

    Fiedler, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The subject of bachelor thesis is analysis of possibilities and directions of the development of small company. It describes the structure of small company and the problems of its development. It analyses present economical, financial and business situation inside and outside the company. In the second part author introduces some proposals for improving several parts of company.

  11. Antioxidant activity, cito- and phototoxicity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed pulp extract

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Aparecida Pedriali; Adjaci Uchoa Fernandes; Patricia Araujo dos Santos; Moisés Melquíades da Silva; Divinomar Severino; Mauricio Baptista da Silva

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, a hydroethanolic extract was prepared from the entire seeds of pomegranate [Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae)] with Cachaça, a distilled Brazilian alcoholic beverage, protected from light for an 80-hour period. The desorption curve of the seeds, presented an optimal time extraction of approximately 24 hours. The extract was divided into two samples: protected from light, (Extract 1), or not, (Extract 2). The extracts were characterized by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy,...

  12. Analysis of Conservatism and Persistence of Financial Results of the Brazilian Financial Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Paulo de Arruda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory environment for public and private companies are significant differences in earnings quality between public and private companies (BALL; SHIVAKUMAR, 2005. However, the literature has suggested that the process of accounting measurement of financial institutions differ substantially from other companies (PEASNELL et al, 2000. Nevertheless,previous studies did not have systematically analyzed the informational differences between the public and private financial institutions. The aim of this study was to analyze the behavior of levels of conservatism and persistence of financial results of the public and private Brazilian financial institutions. To meet the objective of this work was realize an analysis of the data based on the models of conservatism proposed by Ball and Shivakumar (2005 and persistence described by Dechow and Schrand (2004, estimated using panel data. The sample was composed by Brazilian financial institutions public and private in the period between 1996 and 2013. The results of this research identified that none of the types of financial institutions (public and private presents timely losses during the period-analyzed recognition. Regarding the persistence of financial results, the analyses indicate that the private financial institutions have greater persistence in their accounting results that the public institutions, resulting in greater predictability of future profits on present profits. These results suggest that the financial results of Brazilian financial institutions do not exhibit conservative behavior, moreover, the profits of private companies are more persistent than the public companies.

  13. The Brazilian Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, Antonio Carlos S. de

    1998-12-31

    This presentation discusses the technology and experience of Petrobras in the development of deep-water exploitation off the coast of Brazil. The company recently found important oil deposits in waters over 300 m deep in Campos Basin, the main petroleum province in Brazil, located offshore Rio de Janeiro State. It is estimated that 50% of the new discoveries will take place in waters deeper than 1000 m. Unlike other companies, Petrobras made an option to develop its offshore fields by means of sub-sea equipment and floating production units. This was possible mainly because of the characteristics of the reservoirs and the mild environmental conditions in Campos Basin. Petrobras has 288 subsea trees on the seabed, 48 subsea manifolds and 21 floating production units in operation. The company has constantly moved on to deeper and deeper waters and by the end of 1998 a new milestone will be achieved with a Roncador field subsea well at 1853 m. Procap-2000, a strategic research and development corporate programme for ultra-deep water technology, was developed. Other innovations by Petrobras are also discussed. 3 figs.

  14. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lorel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  15. Follow the Leaders: competition in the Brazilian Auto Financing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. S. Moita

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to understand the competitive pattern and strategy of the firms in the Brazilian automobile financing market. First, we analyzed the strong segmentation observed in this market, determining market niches. We then estimated reaction functions to price changes. The results indicated that the three largest companies in the sector have a strong influence on interest rate setting within the entire segment. This phenomenon characterizes the competition of this sector as the leader-follower type, rather than Bertrand competition, the latter of which is often expected in the banking sector and it demonstrates the existence of the leading firms' market power.

  16. Functional redundancy and complementarities of seed dispersal by the last neotropical megafrugivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael S Bueno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Functional redundancy has been debated largely in ecology and conservation, yet we lack detailed empirical studies on the roles of functionally similar species in ecosystem function. Large bodied frugivores may disperse similar plant species and have strong impact on plant recruitment in tropical forests. The two largest frugivores in the neotropics, tapirs (Tapirus terrestris and muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides are potential candidates for functional redundancy on seed dispersal effectiveness. Here we provide a comparison of the quantitative, qualitative and spatial effects on seed dispersal by these megafrugivores in a continuous Brazilian Atlantic forest. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found a low overlap of plant species dispersed by both muriquis and tapirs. A group of 35 muriquis occupied an area of 850 ha and dispersed 5 times more plant species, and 13 times more seeds than 22 tapirs living in the same area. Muriquis dispersed 2.4 times more seeds in any random position than tapirs. This can be explained mainly because seed deposition by muriquis leaves less empty space than tapirs. However, tapirs are able to disperse larger seeds than muriquis and move them into sites not reached by primates, such as large forest gaps, open areas and fragments nearby. Based on published information we found 302 plant species that are dispersed by at least one of these megafrugivores in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study showed that both megafrugivores play complementary rather than redundant roles as seed dispersers. Although tapirs disperse fewer seeds and species than muriquis, they disperse larger-seeded species and in places not used by primates. The selective extinction of these megafrugivores will change the spatial seed rain they generate and may have negative effects on the recruitment of several plant species, particularly those with large seeds that have muriquis and tapirs as the last living

  17. The Role of Innovation in Internationalization of Brazilian Medium Firms that operate in Information Technology and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferreira Ribeiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to examine the role of innovation in the internationalization of Brazilian companies that operate in the medium sector of Information and Communication Technology (ICT. To achieve this goal, we performed a descriptive qualitative research method used and how the study of multiple cases, which were researched in depth and Light Infocon and Dígitro. The main results of the survey revealed companies with different trajectories of internationalization, but whose innovation activities are central to the entry and operations in foreign markets. The results also showed the importance of innovative cooperative activities through alliances with universities, research institutes and other companies, and government support through funding. An additional contribution of this work was the analysis of the internationalization process of Brazilian companies innovative medium-sized sectors with high technological content, since most studies on internationalization in Brazil focuses on large industrial enterprises already established for decades in the national and sectors with low technological intensity.

  18. Seed Treatment. Sale Publication 4076.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide gives information about types of seeds that may require chemical protection against pests, seed treatment pesticide formulations, seed treatment methods, labeling treated seed, and safety and environmental precautions. (Author/BB)

  19. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMIC CRISES IN THE BRAZILIAN CAPITAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldy Fernandes da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2008 economic crisis challenged accounting, either demanding recognition and measurement criteria well adjusted to this scenario or even questioning its ability to inform appropriately entities’ financial situation before the crisis occurred. So, our purpose was to verify if during economic crises listed companies in the Brazilian capital market tended to adopt earnings management (EM practices. Our sample consisted in 3,772 firm-years observations, in 13 years – 1997 to 2009. We developed regression models considering discretionary accruals as EM proxy (dependent variable, crisis as a macroeconomic factor (dummy variable of interest, ROA, market-to-book, size, leverage, foreign direct investment (FDI and sector as control variables. Different for previous EM studies two approaches were used in data panel regression models and multiple crises were observed simultaneously. Statistics tests revealed a significant relation between economic crisis and EM practices concerning listed companies in Brazil in both approaches used.

  20. Characterize the import players of Brazilian women's swimwear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Henrique Antonelli Da Veiga

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The extensive Brazilian littoral combined with a culture of its use as a means of entertainment provided to the country the emergence of several companies specializing in the production and marketing of swimwear. However, there is a group of customers looking for imported products, even in this segment. Thus, this study aimed to characterize the import of Brazilian women's swimwear, which is investigating its importance and participation in the international context and the need for knowledge innovation to maintain importer’s market, supported by the content documentation’s analysis and theme with official data collected in the site Aliceweb of the Brazilian Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade. A final result of the study we obtain a table with 20th source countries and the behavior of purchase, where in 2009, China was considered the exponent with 60.9% of the amount imported parts purchased 110,945, average value US$ 3.31 FOB, performance and growth in purchase price trend variable.

  1. Seed development and carbohydrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be consumed by the embryo during seed development or retained for use by the embryo during germination. Differences in timing of endosperm digestion can be illustrated with broad bean ( Vicia faba ) and Gasteria...

  2. Seed development and carbohydrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be consumed by

  3. Brazilian Congress structural balance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Levorato, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the behavior of Brazilian politicians and political parties with the help of clustering algorithms for signed social networks. For this purpose, we extract and analyze a collection of signed networks representing voting sessions of the lower house of Brazilian National Congress. We process all available voting data for the period between 2011 and 2016, by considering voting similarities between members of the Congress to define weighted signed links. The solutions obtained by solving Correlation Clustering (CC) problems are the basis for investigating deputies voting networks as well as questions about loyalty, leadership, coalitions, political crisis, and social phenomena such as mediation and polarization.

  4. Company in Distress?

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio N. Rechden; Miller, Kalina B.

    2015-01-01

    Investors see value in nominating members to the boards of companies they have invested in. Through board members, they can help improve the company's operations, define corporate strategy, adjust inefficiencies, improve governance, and ultimately increase the expected return on their investment. The authors examine the shift in the relative position of stakeholders when a company enters t...

  5. Reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii in Brazilian sandy coastal plain vegetation: implications for biological invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campanhã Bechara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pinus is the most invasive woody taxon, exceeded only by herbaceous plants. This study reports the reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii, describing its invasive properties in a protected natural area of the Brazilian coastal sandy plains. We evaluated the seed germination and rain, longevity of seed viability and the initial dynamics of the seedlings of Pinus elliottii var elliottii through field and laboratory experiments. We recorded a continuous seed rain of about 204.0 viable seeds m- 2 per year, with a 90 % germination rate. The seeds exhibited a low longevity of viability in the soil and a dense, permanent seedling bank that may explain the high levels of pine invasion. The environmental impact caused by the pine's biological invasion suggests the recommendation for its immediate eradication, together with a restoration plan to restitute the native biodiversity gradually.

  6. Brazilian Mothers' Socialization Goals: Intracultural Differences in Seven Brazilian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl-de-Moura, Maria Lucia; Lordelo, Eulina; Vieira, Mauro Luis; Piccinini, Cesar Augusto; Siqueira, Jose de Oliveira; Magalhaes, Celina Maria Colino; Pontes, Fernando Augusto Ramos; Salomao, Nadia Maria; Rimoli, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate Brazilian mothers' socialization goals. The participants in the study were 349 primiparous mothers, whose ages ranged from 17 to 47 years (mean = 26.6 years), who had children aged between 1 and 48 months (mean = 16.4 months). The families were living in seven different cities representing each of the five…

  7. Análise da complexidade, estratégias e aprendizagem em projetos de melhoria contínua: estudos de caso em empresas brasileiras Analysis of complexity, strategies, and learning organization in continuous improvement processes: case studies in brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carlos Oprime

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar projetos de melhoria contínua desenvolvidos por empresas industriais brasileiras com base na abordagem/programa da Manutenção Produtiva Total (Total Productive Maintenance, TPM e da Qualidade Total (Total Quality Management, TQM. As variáveis estudadas nas análises dos projetos foram as seguintes: i complexidade dos projetos; ii seus objetivos específicos; iii as estratégias competitivas relacionadas; iv o aprendizado organizacional obtido; e v as ferramentas e os principais pilares do TPM implementados. Selecionou-se para estudo projetos considerados de sucesso por suas empresas. Ao todo, analisaram-se 42 projetos de 12 diferentes empresas que representaram diversos segmentos industriais do Brasil. Os resultados indicaram correspondência entre a natureza do projeto, em termos da sua complexidade e estrutura organizacional, com a estratégia competitiva adotada.This paper analyses the major goals and results of TPM and TQM processes in companies that adopt these approaches. The main variables considered in this study were: i complexity of the projects developed by the companies; ii projects´ specific goals iii relationship between the projects and the company's strategy; iv relationship between projects and continuous improvement and organizational learning; v tools and TPM concepts that support the projects. A descriptive research was carried out using field research strategies. Forty-two processes adopted by 12 companies were analyzed in this study. The processes implemented were considered successful by the companies that adopt them and by outside specialists. The results indicated close relationship between the project`s nature (its complexity and team structure and the company`s strategy, project goals and organizational learning.

  8. Securitization in the Brazilian Banking Industry: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umbelina Cravo Teixeira Lagioia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Securitization is a modality of structured finance which allows a company to raise funds based on its receivables through capital markets. In Brazil, securitization was developed mostly in the form of mutual funds -- the FIDC, which raise money by issuing senior quotas for qualified investors, and subordinated cotes, usually bought by the company that originated the receivables. This paper evaluates the risk and return for both kinds of investors through a stochastic model with two main variables: interest rates and default rates. The model is still sensible to the characteristics of the fund, like the amount of subordinated cotes, the type of asset being securitized; and the amount of receivables in relation to the assets. Regarding the case of senior cotes, the risk of returns under the basic level of interest rates is highly improbable; and in the case of subordinated cotes, the risk of returns under the basic interest rate may be considered still low, due to the high spreads observed in the Brazilian financial market. The simulations indicated that under historically mean interest rate volatility the default rates are the main component of the total risk. Accordingly to the developed analysis of international standards of regulation, the Brazilian Central Bank imposes very strong capital requirements to banks that securitize their assets and purchase the corresponding subordinated cotes.

  9. MERGER ACCOUTING FOR COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Companies, especially nowadays, are characterized through great mobility, fast circulation of capital, occurring in their chase for profit. In this context, companies look for alliances, economical and political assistance. These objectives can materialize through merging of companies. The merger can be internal (between Romanian companies or transboundary, which includes foreign companies. In order to correctly reflect these events, the merger operations must be regulated and must respect national and international regulations. One important request concerning the merger operations is that the accounting values of the assets, debts and ownership equity must be brought to the present financial value.

  10. Independent environmental audit at COPENE (Petrochemical Company of Northeast, Brazil): first results of a partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu Pereira, Vera L. de [Companhia Petroquimica do Nordeste (COPENE), Camacari, BA (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Ambiental

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents the first experiences and results in the implementation of a pioneer model in environmental monitoring of a Brazilian companies consortium, for wastewater and groundwater monitoring. Some practical results, such as the flow reduction in the organic wastewaters and organic load in the final effluents, were obtained in the very first year of activities. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  12. Jorge de Lima: Brazilian Poet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Jorge de Lima--born in Uniao dos Palmares, Brazil on April 23, 1893, died in Rio de Janeiro on November 15, 1953--who during the Twenties became an important member of the literary movement known as Modernism and wrote both religious and regional poetry constituting the beginnings of a Afro-Brazilian poetry. (Author/JM)

  13. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  14. The Brazilian nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The booklet contains survey articles on the nuclear power problems of Brazil, the German-Brazilian nuclear power agreement, the application of international safety measures, and 'Brazil and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons'. The agreement is given in full wording. (HP)

  15. Gramscian Thought and Brazilian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    In the history of Brazilian education, it is only since the 1980s, during the redemocratization of Brazil, that proposals for public education in a socialist perspective have been presented. The past two decades have been marked by a growing interest in Gramscian thought, mainly in the educational field, making possible the elaboration of…

  16. Viability of Macrotyloma axillare cv. Guatá seeds under chemical scarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleize Rocha Terra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of the associacion of grasses and legumes results in a good forage yield as well as a good animal performance due to maintenance of adequate levels of crude protein (CP in the animal diet, both the direct effect of the ingestion of legumes, or even through indirect effect of the introduction of nitrogen by legumes in the pasture, thereby increasing the production of forage mass. However, the seeds of legumines have the so-called hardness seeds or dormant according to their coats impermeable to water. The hardness of the seed prevents the germination of the same since these seeds have a hard shell impervious to water and gas exchange, not allowing the imbibition of water by the seed, or embryo oxygenation. This dormancy may be broken by various known methods such as scarification, promoting cracks in the seed coat allowing the entry of water therein. In the case of Macrotyloma axillare exposure of seeds to scarification method has proven to be an efficient way to break dormancy and promoting seed germination. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the viability of seeds after suffering dormancy by immersion seeds in sulfuric acid. The experiment to break dormancy Macrotyloma axillares cv. Guatá was conducted in the laboratory of Plant Physiology at the Intituto de Zootecnia in Nova Odessa, São Paulo State, using the seeds that were stored in a cold room with temperatures between 10-12 ºC, relative humidity (RH 30-33% and no light. The treatments studied were: control, chemical scarification with sulfuric acid for 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 minutes. We used a completely randomized design with two replications, being 100 seeds each repetition. After treatment the seeds were under to tetrazolium test resulting in viable seeds and seed viability. So the result of the tetrazolium test was obtained by average percentage of viable seeds, found in the repeats tested, respecting the maximum tolerances set out in Brazilian Rules for Seed

  17. Physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced in the state of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Frandoloso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean production accounts for approximately 43% of Brazil’s grain produce, worth over 81 million tons for the 2012- 2013 cropping season. The use of quality seeds is essential for a high-yield agriculture, since low quality seeds compromise plant standing and increase production costs due to reseeding. This will in turn reduce yields through delays on the establishment dates. Seed quality is affected by relative humidity levels, mechanical damage during harvest and processing, thermal damage during the drying process and the environmental conditions during storage that could foster insect and fungi damage. The climate in the state of Santa Catarina favors soybean seed production, and seed companies in general work with high levels of technology. This work is aimed at characterizing the physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced by different companies at different locations throughout the state of Santa Catarina (municipalities of Xanxerê, Abelardo Luz, Campos Novos and Canoinhas. The physical purity, moisture level, sanitary quality and mechanical damage of soybean seeds were studied at three stages, i.e. reception at the seed processing unit, at the end of the processing process and before being marketed. Results pointed out at mechanical injury and cultivar mixture as the main issues concerning seed lot quality, and that soybean seeds produced in Santa Catarina show pathogen contamination, which emphasizes the need for seed treatment.

  18. Open Source Telecommunication Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Liu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about companies whose core business is selling telecommunications products that lever open source projects. Open source telecommunications (OST companies operate in markets that are very different from typical software product markets. The telecommunications market is regulated, vertically integrated, and proprietary designs and special chips are widely used. For a telecommunications product to be useful, it must interact with both access network products and core network products. Due to specifications in Service Agreements Levels, penalties for failures of telecommunications products are very high. This article shares information that is not widely known, including a list of OST companies and the open source projects on which they depend, the size and diversity of venture capital investment in OST companies, the nature of the commercial product-open source software and company-project relationships, ways in which OST companies make money, benefits and risks of OST companies, and competition between OST companies. Analysis of this information provides insights into the ways in which companies can build business models around open source software. These findings will be of interest to entrepreneurs, top management teams of incumbent companies that sell telecommunications products, and those who care about Ontario's ability to compete globally.

  19. Drivers of human resource management competences development in Brazilian multinational subsidiaries: a multilevel research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Glufke Reis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to verify the factors associated with the development of human resource management (HRM competences in foreign subsidiaries of Brazilian multinationals. These competences are essential in that they allow foreign units to adopt HRM practices that are consistent with the countries or markets in which they operate. A multilevel research was conducted, involving headquarters and subsidiaries of major Brazilian companies; the empirical analysis employed hierarchical linear modelling. Despite the recurrent debate on global standardisation versus local adaptation, it was identified that the integration of international HRM policies (addressing simultaneously global guidelines and local response may stimulate competences development. In addition, interaction in external networks in the host country may enhance the development of HRM competences in the subsidiaries. However, specific cultural factors of the company may inhibit development activity in units abroad.

  20. Water relations in seed biology

    OpenAIRE

    Villela F. A.

    1998-01-01

    The water relations play a fundamental role in seed biology. Thus, the purpose of the present paper was to analyze the performance of water status in seed development and germination. The researches have suggested that the water potential of the seed or seed structures provides a better indicator of the seed water status than water content. The seed water status plays a regulatory role in seed development and germination.

  1. The Danish East India Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  2. EXTERNAL CORPORATE GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS: MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS ON THE BRAZILIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Augusto Parente Monteiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to answer the following question: What is the effectiveness of mergers and acquisitions in the Brazilian market as external corporate governance mechanism? The main objective of the study is to verify if mergers and acquisitions operations in Brazilian market may act as an external mechanism of corporate governance, replacing managers and, as a consequence of changes in management, improving financial performance. The study is exploratory, qualitative in its approach, supported by documentary research on secondary data concerning an intentional sample of Brazilian companies aiming to identify the effect of M&A operations on the corporate governance structure of the acquired firm and on its financial results. Data obtained on the website of the Brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission (CVM, related to Brazilian M&A operations in the period 2005-2010, were analyzed. Although M&A operations in Brazil were found to have disciplinary nature in our sample of firms in the studied period, our results are inconclusive regarding the effectiveness of these transactions and external governance mechanisms.

  3. Improvement of the electric power sector through the access to the national power transmission system - SINTREL (Brazilian National System of Electric Power Transmission); Aperfeicoamento do setor de energia eletrica atraves do acesso a transmissao - SINTREL (Sistema Nacional de Transmissao de Energia Eletrica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the organization and the operation of SINTREL (Brazilian National System of Electric Power Transmission), the national power transmission system, and it defines its function in the process of reform of the Brazilian electric sector. Besides showing the traditional organization of the companies and of the electric system, and the evolution of the organization of the Brazilian electric system to favor the competition.

  4. Corporate Internationalization: The effects of the exchange rate on Brazilian outward foreign direct investment

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico Turolla; Ronald de Oliveira Concer

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of corporate internationalization in Brazil and tests the hypothesis that the country’s strengthening currency prompted companies to expand abroad. We start with a review of the literature on the main international business approaches and theories, aiming to present the drivers behind the behavior of firms that have followed an internationalization path. We worked with the variables Exchange Rate (FX) and Brazilian Foreign Direct Investment (BFDI)...

  5. Seed rain generated by bats under Cerrado's pasture remnant trees in a Neotropical savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netto, J; Santos, A A

    2015-11-01

    In this study we described the seed rain generated by bats under four Cerrado's tree species common within pastures, Buchenavia tomentosa, Couepia grandiflora, Licania humilis and Qualea grandiflora. We analyzed the similarity among the four tree species in terms of seed rain composition, and compared the number of seeds and seed species deposited under them. Besides that, we assessed the relationship between seed rain intensity and the density of each tree species. Then, we randomly selected 10 mature trees of each species to sample seed rain. We recorded a total of 4892 bat dispersed seeds from 11 species. Also, we observed that along the year seed deposition varied substantially under all trees. At least two seed sub-communities could be distinguished according to tree species used by bats as feeding roost. One related to Couepia grandiflora and Licania humilis, and the other to Buchenavia tomentosa and Qualea grandiflora trees. The variability of seed rain composition in any particular tree and the range of actual seed fall into a particular species indicate patchiness in seed rain, and the overall results appear to be consistent in terms of a substantial and diverse seed rain generated by bats in a highly anthropized landscape. This is the first study concerning seed dispersal by bats in modified Brazilian Cerrado, one of the most endangered biomes in the world. In this respect, by preserving a dense and diverse collection of remnant trees within today's pastures may, potentially, contribute to a faster Cerrado recovery in extensive areas that can be reclaimed for restoration in the future.

  6. Seed rain generated by bats under Cerrado's pasture remnant trees in a Neotropical savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netto, J; Santos, A A

    2015-11-01

    In this study we described the seed rain generated by bats under four Cerrado's tree species common within pastures, Buchenavia tomentosa, Couepia grandiflora, Licania humilis and Qualea grandiflora. We analyzed the similarity among the four tree species in terms of seed rain composition, and compared the number of seeds and seed species deposited under them. Besides that, we assessed the relationship between seed rain intensity and the density of each tree species. Then, we randomly selected 10 mature trees of each species to sample seed rain. We recorded a total of 4892 bat dispersed seeds from 11 species. Also, we observed that along the year seed deposition varied substantially under all trees. At least two seed sub-communities could be distinguished according to tree species used by bats as feeding roost. One related to Couepia grandiflora and Licania humilis, and the other to Buchenavia tomentosa and Qualea grandiflora trees. The variability of seed rain composition in any particular tree and the range of actual seed fall into a particular species indicate patchiness in seed rain, and the overall results appear to be consistent in terms of a substantial and diverse seed rain generated by bats in a highly anthropized landscape. This is the first study concerning seed dispersal by bats in modified Brazilian Cerrado, one of the most endangered biomes in the world. In this respect, by preserving a dense and diverse collection of remnant trees within today's pastures may, potentially, contribute to a faster Cerrado recovery in extensive areas that can be reclaimed for restoration in the future. PMID:26602344

  7. Public Shareholdership Energy Companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National and international developments on the energy markets and changes in legislation and regulation require a renewed strategic orientation of energy companies and their shareholders. Decentralized authorities will have to reconsider their position as a shareholder in energy companies carefully. This report provides an overview of the recommendations of the Kist Commission on how provinces and municipalities can make a well-considered choice as shareholder of energy companies. [mk

  8. Privatised companies and market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Italian Government decided to adopt the public company structure where a little group of medium-term investors had the task of supporting the transition of the privatised companies to the market. The article examines the reasons for this decision and its failure in attaining the purpose, not excluding the possibility for the public company of imposing itself in the long period and in a context of a minor legislative intervention and more effective Corporate Governance rules

  9. KNOWLEDGE IN LEARNING COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrina Cristina VASILE; Luminița NICOLESCU

    2016-01-01

    Changes are the only constant value in the current unpredictable economy. Under these circumstances leaders and employees must manage the external and internal environment and bring profitability for their companies. This paper gives an introductory approach to different perspective over learning companies in international literature. Different theoretical aspects, models and theories are taken into account for having a higher visibility to the complex concept of learning companies from leade...

  10. FDI Companies and the Indian Company Law: Regulations vs. Disclosures

    OpenAIRE

    ISID, Foreign Investments Study Team

    2014-01-01

    In India companies with substantial foreign direct investment can register as private companies irrespective of the size of their operation whether in India or abroad. Under the Indian company law private companies can prevent public access to certain critical information on their operations. While many FDI companies got delisted (gone 'private')over the past few years ,indications are that most FDI companies are registered as private companies. The Discussion Note argues for withdrawal of...

  11. Physalis peruviana seed storage

    OpenAIRE

    Cíntia L. M. de Souza; Manuela O. de Souza; Ronaldo S. Oliveira; Claudineia R. Pelacani

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C). Every 4 months, the seeds were r...

  12. Ideal seeds harvest moment of different maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Abrahão Jacob Junior

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the ideal maize seed harvest moment by different characteristics, as black layer formation, milk line development, seed moisture content and seed dry matter accumulation. Three simple hybrids from Syngenta Company were used in this work; ears from plants in the same development stage were collected, the first harvesting began 40 days after flowering, at four days interval until all seeds in an ear had the black layer formation. The characteristics evaluated were: black layer formation, milk line development, seed moisture content and seed dry matter. Seed physiological quality was evaluated by germination test, cold test, accelerated ageing and electrical conductivity. Results obtained in this study showed that the best indicative to identify the ideal maize seeds harvest moment is milk line stage 4 (75% of solidified endosperm. This stage occurs at different time for each genotype studied, 60DAF to hybrids 1 and 3, and 52DAF to hybrid 2, due to genetic differences among the hybrids.

  13. Effects of tallowtree seed coat on seed germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-xian; GU Hong-biao; MAO Yan; YIN Tong-ming; GAO Han-dong

    2012-01-01

    We measured physiological parameters including water uptake,in-vitro embryo germination ratio,and seed coat structure observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to explore the influence of seed coat on the germination of seeds of tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (Linn) Roxb.).Tallow tree seeds had good water permeability.We found that germination of cabbage seeds was inhibited when cabbage seeds were soaked in extracted solutions from tallow tree seed coat.Seed coat structure at the side of the radicle appeared to be a barrier to seed germination.We tested methods to break tallow tree seed dormancy.Dormancy of tallow tree seeds was overcome by soaking the seeds in 500 mg·L-1 or 1000 mg·L-1 GA3,followed by 100 days of cold stratification.

  14. A brief overview of Sino-Brazilian relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hinia Lan Wan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the Sino-Brazilian relations approaching a Brazilian perspective and outlines bilateral trade features,challenges and opportunities.It is basically a reflection after analyzes on the existing literature related to Brazilian foreign rela

  15. The competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Luiz Gustavo Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    This thesis proposes a construct to measure the competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations and orient the actions of public and private tourism managers. The model of this study is based on a relevant literature review, a panel with specialists that have expertise in Brazilian tourism and field research. The investigation was carried out in 15 Brazilian tourist cities, representative of the socioeconomic diversity that characterises the heterogeneity of a developing country. The result...

  16. Pathways to Internationalize Brazilian Journals of Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Estêvão C. Gamba; Abel Laerte Packer; Rogerio Meneghini

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe science of psychology has been developing in the country of Brazil over the last 50 years. Nonetheless, most of the science in this field is published only in Brazilian journals. Overall, Brazil has yet to share its science with the international community. The potential to internationalize the science generated by Brazilian psychologists exists, though. One way would be to scale up the publication of Brazilian psychologists in international journals. Another way would be to inter...

  17. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Rogério da Silva; Gilmara de Oliveira Machado; Jay Deiner; Carlito Calil Junior

    2010-01-01

    The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as t...

  18. Secondary Metabolite Profile, Antioxidant Capacity, and Mosquito Repellent Activity of Bixa orellana from Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Giorgi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian flora was widely used as source of food and natural remedies to treat various diseases. Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae, also known as annatto, urucù, or achiote, is a symbol for the Amazonian tribes that traditionally use its seeds as coloured ink to paint their bodies for religious ceremonies. The aim of this study was to investigate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs profile of B. orellana fresh fruits (in vivo sampled, dried seeds, wood, bark, and leaves analyzed with Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A screening on phenolic content (the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and antiradical activity (DPPH assay of seeds was also conducted. In addition, the repellent properties of seed extracts against Aedes aegypti L. were investigated. Volatile compounds detected in B. orellana samples consisted mainly of sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, and arenes: α-humulene is the major volatile compound present in seed extracts followed by D-germacrene, γ-elemene, and caryophyllene. B. orellana proved to be a good source of antioxidants. Preliminary data on repellency against A. aegypti of three different dried seed extracts (hexane, ethanol, and ethanol/water indicated a significant skin protection activity. A protection of 90% and 73% for hexane and ethanol/water extracts was recorded.

  19. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  20. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  1. Allocation for manufacturing companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Assuring a high material availability for production is while reducing sourcing costs remains a major logistical challenge for producing companies. Lean economic processes, flexibility and responsiveness - beneficial both for the customer and for the supplier - are characteristics of an excellent customer-supplier relationship. Standard sourcing models offer a field-tested approach for setting up across company boarders processes.

  2. Conclusion: The balanced company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm; Jensen, Inger

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  3. Virtual Company and Modelbank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1996-01-01

    Ansøgning til Socrates programmet vedr. Tematisk netværk inden for området Virtual Company and Modelbank......Ansøgning til Socrates programmet vedr. Tematisk netværk inden for området Virtual Company and Modelbank...

  4. The seed physiological potential of hybrid corn treated with insecticides and store in two environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Fátima Baldiga Tonin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed treatment is a widely disseminated practice in Brazilian cultural areas, which linked to other cultural practices, has contributed to the increase in productivity, cost reduction, final product improvement, environmental damage reduction as well as good seed protection in the field level and storage. The work had the objective to check the insecticide effect on the germination and vigor of the hybrid maize seeds, stored in two environmental conditions. The seeds were treated with three insecticides, identified as: Insecticide one (Thiametoxan; Insecticide two (Neonicotinoide and Insecticide three [Neonicotinoide + (Imidaclopride+thiodicarbe]. After being treated, the seeds were stored for a period of 270 days, in two different places, one with (10ºC temperature and relative humidity (60% and another under normal condition of storage. During this period evaluations were accomplished every 45 days, through germination and vigor tests. In addition to germination and cooling tests, sanitation analysis, seedling emergency and seed inoculation were carried out. After that the seeds were stored for a period of 30 days in environmental places with and without control of air condition. The results obtained allow to conclude that the maintenance of seed quality of hybrid maize, treated with insecticides, depends on the hybrid and chemical product used in their treatment and that the reduction in feasibility and vigor of seeds treated with thiametoxan is intensified due to the storage period extension.

  5. Company cases Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2005-01-01

    IT - solitions. CSC wanted to buy DC to penetrate the Nordic market. Some effects can be mentioned: Employment in CSC - DK is in 2003 1,700 persons or 2,600 including other companies bought up recently. In innovation positive effects can be registered from contacts with CSC - International. Not only from access......The Danish part of the publication describes two Danish cases with foreign companies taking over Danish companies. The first case is from software industry where Datacentralen (DC) was taken over by American company Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) in 1986. DC delivered IT - solutions...... - Laboratoriet, Benzon - Pharma and Pharma - Medica during years 1988 - 1991.Nycomed wants to establish itself as a company on European level.After a decade with different owners, fusions and splitting ups a construction in which head quarter and R&D move to Denmark close to Copenhagen. The importance...

  6. The mortality of companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daepp, Madeleine I. G.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; West, Geoffrey B.; Bettencourt, Luís M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The firm is a fundamental economic unit of contemporary human societies. Studies on the general quantitative and statistical character of firms have produced mixed results regarding their lifespans and mortality. We examine a comprehensive database of more than 25 000 publicly traded North American companies, from 1950 to 2009, to derive the statistics of firm lifespans. Based on detailed survival analysis, we show that the mortality of publicly traded companies manifests an approximately constant hazard rate over long periods of observation. This regularity indicates that mortality rates are independent of a company's age. We show that the typical half-life of a publicly traded company is about a decade, regardless of business sector. Our results shed new light on the dynamics of births and deaths of publicly traded companies and identify some of the necessary ingredients of a general theory of firms. PMID:25833247

  7. Seed thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki;

    2016-01-01

    , for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses...

  8. EXPORT INCENTIVE PROGRAMS: A STUDY ABOUT BRAZILIAN SME’S FROM SANTA CATARINA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Regina de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The reality of the Brazilian economy during the last decade has influenced many companies to get new markets to expand to other parameters of competition. The export incentive programs created by the government, is an example of this, and he has performed positively, strengthening the relationship of resources and capacity to develop sales strategies and relationships with the external market. With the use of financial incentive programs for export, companies can enjoy the competitiveness and advantages related to cost of goods or services, and thus help them achieve a satisfactory goal with the export activity. Careful to promote exports, the Brazilian government creates lines of financial incentives that can meet the needs of Brazilian companies. These floor plane are known as advances on exchange contracts (ACC, Advances on foreign exchange delivered (ACE, Program for Export – (Proex among others. Santa Catarina has been active in the export process of the country, accounting for significant numbers for the trade balance. The target of this study is to understand the reactions of the business of Santa Catarina in the use of financial incentives for export. The research method adopted, as to the purposes of research, the research was exploratory and the means of investigation was a qualitative field research through interviews. The results showed that the reasons these companies entering in the international market, have been opening new markets, new business opportunities and increase the export volume. Financial incentives are most commonly used by companies to Advance on Export Contracts (ACC and Advances on Foreign Exchange Delivered (ACE.

  9. Effect of temperature and pre-germinative treatments in the germination of Adenanthera pavonina L. seeds /
    Efeito da temperatura e de tratamentos pré-germinativos na germinação de sementes de Adenanthera pavonina L.

    OpenAIRE

    Idalina Tereza de Almeida Leite; Geraldo Rogério Faustini Cuzzuol; Márcio Dias Pereira; Viviana Borges Corte; Advanio Inácio Siqueira Silva

    2009-01-01

    Adenanthera pavonina L. is a native tree specie from India and with extensive distribution in all Brazilian states, whose seeds have dormancy and present medicinal and economical interest. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of different temperatures and pre-germinative treatments on the germinative behavior of newly collected A. pavonina seeds. The seeds were submitted to three settled temperatures: 20, 25 and 30ºC; and to five pre-germinative treatments: coating cuttin...

  10. The earliest seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, W.H.; Rothwell, G.W.; Scheckler, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    Lagenostomalean-type seeds in bifurcating cupule systems have been discovered in the late Devonian Hampshire Formation of Randolph County, West Virginia, USA (Fig. 1). The associated megaflora, plants from coal balls, and vertebrate and invertebrate faunas demonstrate that the material is Famennian; the microflora indicates a more specific Fa2c age. Consequently, these seeds predate Archaeosperma arnoldii1 from the Fa2d of northeastern Pennsylvania, the oldest previously reported seed. By applying precision fracture, transfer, de??gagement, and thin-section techniques to selected cupules from the more than 100 specimens on hand, we have determined the three-dimensional morphology and histology of the seeds (Fig. 2a-h, k) and cupule systems. A comparison with known late Devonian to early Carboniferous seeds reveals that ours are more primitively organized than all except Genomosperma2,3. ?? 1981 Nature Publishing Group.

  11. Neutron irradiation of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrons are a valuable type of ionizing radiation for seed irradiation and radiobiological studies and for inducing mutations in crop plants. In experiments where neutrons are used in research reactors for seed irradiation it is difficult to measure the dose accurately and therefore to establish significant comparisons between experimental results obtained in various reactors and between repeated experiments in the same reactor. A further obstacle lies in the nature and response of the seeds themselves and the variety of ways in which they are exposed in reactors. The International Atomic Energy Agency decided to initiate international efforts to improve and standardize methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and of measuring and reporting the neutron dose. For this purpose, an International Neutron Seed Irradiation Programme has been established. The present report aims to give a brief but comprehensive picture of the work so far done in this programme. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. THE EVOLUTION OF CSR ACROSS LISTED BRAZILIAN FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gisbert

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the improvements in corporate social responsibility (CSR among Brazilian companies listed on the Sao Paulo Stock Exchange – Bovespa, focusing on the type of social and environmental projects together with the amount of investments over the period 2003-2007. The empirical analysis is based on the content of the CSR reports of 48 companies, among them those making up the Bovespa’s Corporate Sustainability Index. All the identified social and environmental projects were classified into eleven categories and three investment categories: internal, external and environmental. The results show the need to standardize the CSR reports due to the absence of uniformity among the sample firms. The investment data reveal a significant increase in external investment projects, followed by the internal category. The results of the environmental category reveal only a moderate increase due to the reduction of the environmental investment in the petroleum industry. Overall, the results reveal that companies tend to invest in projects strongly linked to their main activities.

  13. Parallel Careers and their Consequences for Companies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Candida Baumer Azevedo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the relevance of the need to manage parallel careers to attract and retain people in organizations, this paper provides insight into this phenomenon from an organizational perspective. The parallel career concept, introduced by Alboher (2007 and recently addressed by Schuiling (2012, has previously been examined only from the perspective of the parallel career holder (PC holder. The paper provides insight from both individual and organizational perspectives on the phenomenon of parallel careers and considers how it can function as an important tool for attracting and retaining people by contributing to human development. This paper employs a qualitative approach that includes 30 semi-structured one-on-one interviews. The organizational perspective arises from the 15 interviews with human resources (HR executives from different companies. The individual viewpoint originates from the interviews with 15 executives who are also PC holders. An inductive content analysis approach was used to examine Brazilian companies and the Brazilian office of multinationals. Companies that are concerned about having the best talent on their teams can benefit from a deeper understanding of parallel careers, which can be used to attract, develop, and retain talent. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

  14. Energy policy and regional inequalities in the Brazilian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the long-run regional impacts of the tariff policy of the Brazilian electric power sector. This sector has undergone a reform process that started in the 1990s. Since the beginning of the reform, two spatial trends of distribution of electric power tariffs have emerged among the Brazilian states, one of convergence and another of spatial divergence. These trends have been guided by the new electric power tariff policy and by the spatial features of the Brazilian economy, which is marked by a high degree of spatial concentration and hierarchical distribution of large markets. In addition, because of the presence of strong economies of scale, the recent electric power prices differentials might be caused by differentials in market size that provide better conditions for the achievement of economies of scale for electric power utility companies located in larger markets. Given the role of electric power as an important intermediate input in the production process and the interdependence between sectors, an Energy Interregional Computable General Equilibrium model was used to simulate the long-run regional impacts of electric power tariff policy in Brazil. The simulations showed that the heterogeneity of energy-intensity and the differentials of energy substitution drive the spatial impacts of changes in electric power prices. On the other hand, the recent trend of spatial dispersion of electric power prices might contribute to a decrease in the long-run economic growth and to an increase in the regional inequalities in Brazil. - Highlights: ► We model the regional impacts of tariff policy of the electric power sector in Brazil. ► High electric power tariffs increases in regions with higher electric-power-intensity. ► Heterogeneity of energy supply determines an unequal pattern of energy substitution. ► Low possibilities of energy substitution generate the most negative economic impacts

  15. SICHUAN GEOPHYSICAL COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Sichuan Geophysical Company (abbreviated as SCGC below), originally named Sichuan Geophysical Company of CNPC Sichuan Petroleum, was founded in 1956 and is a subsidiary of CNPC Chuanqing Drilling Engineering Company Limited. With more than 50 years' development, SCGC now owns almost 3800 employees and has become a big oil & gas seismic exploration engineering service enterprise with the characteristic mountain seismic exploration techniques, and its annual business turnover reaches nearly 2 billion RMB. It can provide the integrated seismic exploration engineering service including seismic data acquisition, processing, interpretation, and geological comprehensive evaluation in various complex regions for clients at home and abroad.

  16. KNOWLEDGE IN LEARNING COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Cristina VASILE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes are the only constant value in the current unpredictable economy. Under these circumstances leaders and employees must manage the external and internal environment and bring profitability for their companies. This paper gives an introductory approach to different perspective over learning companies in international literature. Different theoretical aspects, models and theories are taken into account for having a higher visibility to the complex concept of learning companies from leadership side to multiculturalism as the firm profitability should be the final goal of each economic system. The article concludes that not the process of learning is important but the adaptability to every different environment must be seen as vital.

  17. 78 FR 11638 - Michigan Consolidated Gas Company, DTE Gas Company, DTE Gas Company; Notice of Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Michigan Consolidated Gas Company, DTE Gas Company, DTE Gas Company; Notice... Docket Nos. PR13-29-000, and PR13-30-000 (not consolidated), Michigan Consolidated Gas Company (MichCon) and DTE Gas Company (DTE Gas) filed to institute a name change to both itself from MichCon to DTE...

  18. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... of Application March 16, 2010. Take notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company... other owners, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental...

  19. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  20. High speed measurement of corn seed viability using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Ashabahebwa; Kandpal, Lalit Mohan; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Wang-Hee; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-03-01

    Corn is one of the most cultivated crops all over world as food for humans as well as animals. Optimized agronomic practices and improved technological interventions during planting, harvesting and post-harvest handling are critical to improving the quantity and quality of corn production. Seed germination and vigor are the primary determinants of high yield notwithstanding any other factors that may play during the growth period. Seed viability may be lost during storage due to unfavorable conditions e.g. moisture content and temperatures, or physical damage during mechanical processing e.g. shelling, or over heating during drying. It is therefore vital for seed companies and farmers to test and ascertain seed viability to avoid losses of any kind. This study aimed at investigating the possibility of using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique to discriminate viable and nonviable corn seeds. A group of corn samples were heat treated by using microwave process while a group of seeds were kept as control group (untreated). The hyperspectral images of corn seeds of both groups were captured between 400 and 2500 nm wave range. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was built for the classification of aged (heat treated) and normal (untreated) corn seeds. The model showed highest classification accuracy of 97.6% (calibration) and 95.6% (prediction) in the SWIR region of the HSI. Furthermore, the PLS-DA and binary images were capable to provide the visual information of treated and untreated corn seeds. The overall results suggest that HSI technique is accurate for classification of viable and non-viable seeds with non-destructive manner.

  1. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  2. Physalis peruviana seed storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia L. M. de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C. Every 4 months, the seeds were removed from storage for evaluation of germination and moisture content in the laboratory and emergence and development of seedlings in greenhouse. During the last evaluation at 16 months, the seeds under the same conditions were subjected to salt stress. The moisture content varied during the storage period, but was always higher for seeds kept at -196 ºC. These seeds kept high germination percentage in water until 16 months, regardless of the tested temperature; however, in salt solution the germination percentage was significantly reduced.

  3. Discretionary-Based Disclosure: Evidence from the Brazilian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dal-Ri Murcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to identify the factors that explain Brazilian companies’ level of voluntary disclosure. Underpinning this work is the Discretionary-based Disclosure theory. The sample is composed of the top 100 largest non-financial companies listed in the Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (Brazilian Securities, Commodities, and Futures exchange - BOVESPA. Information was gathered from Financial Statements for the years ending in 2006, 2007, and 2008, with the use of content analysis. A disclosure framework based on 27 studies from these years was created, with a total of 92 voluntary items divided into two dimensions: economic (43 and socio-environmental (49. Based on the existing literature, a total of 12 hypotheses were elaborated and tested using a panel data approach. Results evidence that: (a Sector and Origin of Control are statistically significant in all three models tested: economic, socio-environmental, and total; (b ‘Profitability’ is relevant in the economic model and in the total model; (c Tobin’s Q is relevant in the socio-environmental model and in the total disclosure model; (d Leverage and Auditing Firm are only relevant in the economic disclosure model; (e Size, Governance, Stock Issuing, Growth Opportunities and Concentration of Control are not statistically significant in any of the three models.

  4. PERFORMANCE INDICATORS APPLIED TO BRAZILIAN PRIVATE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Átila de Melo Lira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Initially focused on for-profit companies the Balance Scorecard (BSC has been adopted by many organizations with different objectives, such as higher education institutions (HEIs. However, it is not clear if the adoption of the BSC model is appropriate, or yet is hard to perceive how HEIs have modified and implemented this tool for evaluating educational institutions, public or privates, in Brazil. This study aims to fill the gap existent in the context of using the BSC in organizations. We intend to demonstrate how these organizations use performance indicators to measure their primary activities. A quantitative and exploratory study was developed from the analysis of performance indicators found in the web sites to Brazilian universities. A total of 91 Brazilian private universities evaluation process were reviewed. Even with a considerable amount of private HEIs there are few that have performance indicators guided by numerical and statistical data covering its main activities which is a concern for their managers in terms of managerial control.

  5. Eletronuclear's relationship with the Brazilian media: transparency and credibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a capitalist economy the most valued assets are not money, shares or facilities, but credibility. Lack of money can ruin a company, but often it is reputation that delivers the final blow. It has become challenging to safeguard reputation in a world where Communication is increasingly connected and with such an intense and lightning fast flow of information. This is particularly true for the electricity sector - a commodity so prevalent in everyday modern life, but, whose business dealings, are hardly known by the general public. When it comes to nuclear energy, the challenge of establishing an effective Communication with transparency and credibility touches on even more complex elements. The topic of this paper is the scenario through which the Communication process, along with its characteristics and approaches, unfolds between the nuclear sector and the Brazilian media. (author)

  6. INTERNATIONALIZATION STRATEGIES OF THE BRAZILIAN MEAT AGRIBUSINESS SECTOR: EXPORTS OR DIRECT INVESTMENT ABROAD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Stal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the internationalization strategies of the four largest Brazilian companies in the meat (beef, pork and poultry agribusiness sector, by considering the comparative and competitive advantages of the country and the companies. JBS, Marfrig, Sadia and Perdigão were studied, of which the last two merged in May 2009, forming Brasil Foods. The authors looked into what led these companies to start investing  abroad directly, as from 2005, as a complement to their exports, the preferred strategy for placing products in foreign markets. The research method used was the multiple case study, drawing on primary data (interviews, corporate annual reports, financial statements, press releases and shareholder information and secondary data (theses, dissertations, academic articles, reports in newspapers and business journals, using bibliographic and documentary research. Everything was analyzed in the light of international business and strategy theories. The results show that exports still predominate and that investing directly abroad was, in principle, a reactive strategy to sanitary barriers against Brazilian products. However, the acquisition of companies in restriction-free countries has increased as part of a forward-looking strategy for gaining access to new markets and strengthening brands. Key-words: Agribusiness. Internationalization. Strategy. 

  7. PERFORMANCE IN CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE BRAZILIAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the cross-border acquisitions made by Brazilian companies over the past 15 years have improved their financial performance. Drawing on institutional, sociocultural, and organizational learning theories, this study develops and empirically tests several hypotheses on the determinants of M&A performance. The results demonstrate that the cross-border acquisition moves by Brazilian companies actually improve their financial performance. Financial performance tends to be positive when the cultural distance between the countries of the acquiring and acquired companies is low to medium and when the institutional context of the acquired company is a developed one. We also found an inverted-U shape relationship between acquiring companies’ previous international M&A experience and the performance of a new cross-border operation. These findings suggest that research on international M&As should include acquirers’ M&A experience as well as the institutional characteristics of their target countries.

  8. SICHUAN GEOPHYSICAL COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sichuan Geophysical Company(SCGC)remains a leading part of SPA CNPC.Through 50 years'development,it has evolved into the largest oil and gas enterprise in west China with technical services for seismic exploration.

  9. The first Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos Candeiro, Carlos Roberto; da Silva Marinho, Thiago

    2015-08-01

    The 1st Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium gathered paleontologists, geologists, and paleoartists in the city of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from April 21st to 24th, 2013. The Dinosaur Symposium in the Pontal Campus of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil provided an opportunity to share many new results of dinosaur research being conducted around the world. The symposium coincided with a new dawn of scientific advances in dinosaur paleontology further expanding its importance, interest and credibility worldwide.

  10. Approaching comparative company law

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, David C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies some common errors that occur in comparative law, offers some guidelines to help avoid such errors, and provides a framework for entering into studies of the company laws of three major jurisdictions. The first section illustrates why a conscious approach to comparative company law is useful. Part I discusses some of the problems that can arise in comparative law and offers a few points of caution that can be useful for practical, theoretical and legislative comparative ...

  11. Marketing Concept Company

    OpenAIRE

    Hronová, Kristýna

    2012-01-01

    The subject of the thesis "Marketing Concept Company" is the analysis of the company Tina-Eva Hronová. The objective is to assess its marketing plan, improvement suggestions and recommendations in this area. The first part of the thesis consists of a theoretical knowledge gained from literature. It briefly explains the concept of marketing. For the most part, the theoretical part is devoted to marketing planning and the process of creating a marketing plan. The practical part of the thesis fo...

  12. Open Source Telecommunication Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Liu

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about companies whose core business is selling telecommunications products that lever open source projects. Open source telecommunications (OST) companies operate in markets that are very different from typical software product markets. The telecommunications market is regulated, vertically integrated, and proprietary designs and special chips are widely used. For a telecommunications product to be useful, it must interact with both access network products and core network pro...

  13. Hawaii Macadamia Nut Company

    OpenAIRE

    George H. (Jody) Tompson; Verreault, Dan; Tompson, Holly B.

    2009-01-01

    Owners of the Hawaii Macadamia Nut Company (HMNC) are facing an expansion opportunity. A land owner has property available that would enable the HMNC to expand its acreage and revenue by about 20%. To fully consider this opportunity the owners must decide 1) whether the expansion is strategically and financially viable, 2) how to raise capital to finance the expansion, and 3) whether they have the skills to manage the company's growth during expansion. This is a case study describing a real c...

  14. Work motivation at company

    OpenAIRE

    Skřivánková, Martina

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor work deals with work motivation of the employees at company Jindřich Valenta – ELKO Valenta. The aim of the bachelor work was to describe an existing motivation program, figure out which motivation factors are the most important for the employees and also find out satisfaction or dissatisfaction of employees with actual motivation factors in the company. Eventually propose improvement in motivation program. Questionnaire method was chosen as research technique. It appears from ...

  15. Outsourcing Company Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Mihalache D. Arsenie-Samoil

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account both the development of information and communication technology and the effects of the current recession on global economy, outsourcing company services has been booming all over the world as it is regarded as a way to meet the strategic goals of cutting costs, improving the satisfaction of the clients’ expectations, and of increasing company efficiency and effectiveness. The paper aims at presenting the current issues of outsourcing accounting professional services and I...

  16. Accounting choices in Brazil: identifying the characteristics of publicly traded companies that opted to maintain versus derecognise deferred assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Drago Lorencini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The issuance of Brazilian Law 11.638/2007 is a critical step in the convergence of the Brazilian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAPs towards International Financial Reporting Standards. After the law was implemented and later modified by Provisional Executive Order 449/2008 (converted into Law 11.941/2009, certain accounting choices were allowed during the transition period. The Brazilian GAAPs allowed for restructuring costs and costs related to opening a new facility to be recognised as assets. As a transitional provision, companies were allowed to choose between maintaining or eliminating these values. In this paper, we attempted to identify which company characteristics were associated with this accounting choice. The final sample consisted of Brazilian companies listed on the BM & FBOVESPA, and a logistic regression identified two characteristics. Participation in one of the three different corporate governance levels of the BM & FBOVESPA was associated with the choice to derecognise the deferred assets, while companies decided to maintain the deferred asset if it was relatively large. The empirical evidence reported here contributes to the literature by explaining the manner in which a set of firm characteristics is related to a firm's accounting choices.

  17. Seed output and the seed bank in Vallisneria americana (Hydrocharitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokker, C; Lovett-Doust, L; Lovett-Doust, J

    1997-10-01

    Seed banks and sexual reproduction are known to be significant in colonization and re-establishment of some aquatic macrophyte communities. For highly clonal aquatic macrophytes, however, there is a lack of information on seed production and seed fate as compared with annual sexual species. The seed bank for three populations of Vallisneria americana in the Huron-Erie corridor of the Great Lakes was sampled and quantified in the spring of 1994, and related to seed production in the previous season at these sites. Seed deposition rates during 1994 were also assessed. Sites varied in the proportion of plants flowering and in their tertiary sex ratios, but did not differ in seed numbers produced per unit area. The size of the seed bank was not significantly related to the previous season's seed output, and estimates of seed deposition in the following year tended to be approximately tenfold greater than seed densities found in the seed bank. The stages between seed production and subsequent seed germination are generally very dynamic, with dispersal, mortality, and predation as likely regulating factors. The potential for seedling establishment in V. americana needs to be assessed more fully before the role of seeds in population processes can be determined. PMID:21708549

  18. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  19. Priorities in seed pathology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nameth S.T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed pathology as a subdisipline of plant pathology is relatively new. Paul Neergard is considered the father of seed pathology. Recent developments in the area of seed pathology technology allow for more ecofriendly seed treatments and more reliable seed health testing. Due to economics and new interest in environmental issues, research into the viability of biological seed treatments is becoming more common. The use of sophisticated DNA amplification technologies allows for the detection of seedborne pathogens that might go undetected using more conventional means. These types of research will be fundamental in guaranteeing seed health quality standards and achieving phytosanitary requirements throughout the world in the new millennium.

  20. Seed collection notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains tables, lists, and notes related to tallgrass prairie seed collection on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in 1992.

  1. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... magnesium and zinc. Emerging research suggests that including chia seeds as part of a healthy diet may help improve cardiovascular risk factors such as lowering cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure. However, there are not many ...

  2. Performance of brazilian supermarket companies: a data envelopment analysis approach Desempeño organizacional en el sector de los supermercados brasileños: un analisis apoyado en el dea Desempenho organizacional no setor supermercadista brasileiro: uma análise apoiada em dea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Ferreira de Souza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article applies Data Envelopment Analysis, DEA, to compare the relative performance of the 100 smallest supermarket companies from the list of the 300 largest in the sector. This is in consideration of relevance that has been given to DEA by academics. Results disclose that all single store companies have performance problems related to economies of scale while chain stores have problems more frequently related to poor technical efficiency. The ten largest supermarket companies have better performance, especially with regard to efficiency of scale, than the ten smallest supermarkets studied.El presente artículo pretende analizar el desempeño de las 100 empresas más pequeñas entre las 300 más grandes del sector de supermercados. En este contexto, se presenta como contribución una discusión del desempeño relativo por medio de la aplicación del Análisis Envolvente de Datos (DEA. Los resultados muestran, entre otras informaciones interesantes, que todos los supermercados con una sola tienda tienen sus problemas de rendimiento relacionados con la escala, mientras que aquellos con más de una tienda presentan más problemas relacionados con la eficiencia técnica. Se advierte que, en general, especialmente en lo que se refiere a la eficiencia de escala, los 10 supermercados más grandes tienen un rendimiento superior en comparación con los 10 más pequeños.Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar o desempenho das 100 menores empresas supermercadistas dentre as 300 maiores do setor. Nesse contexto, apresenta-se como contribuição uma discussão do desempenho relativo por meio da aplicação da Análise Envoltória de Dados (DEA. Os resultados mostram, entre outras informações interessantes, que todos os supermercados com uma loja única têm seus problemas de desempenho relacionados à escala, enquanto os que têm mais de uma loja apresentam problemas relacionados mais

  3. The role of food standards on international trade: assessing the Brazilian beef chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challengesfacing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

  4. German schools in Santa Catarina and their transformation into teuto-brazilian schools: an historical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Valdir dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Current research investigates the establishment of educational institutions in the wake of European migration toBrazil. The study focuses on the rise and on the transformations of schools in the German immigration settlement area in Santa Catarina between 1897 and 1930. Research is based on such documents as the reports of the Hanseatic Colonization Company, legislation and published material. Results indicated that the emergence of schools was due to the initiative of the immigrants and to the settlement company involved. The schools’ pedagogical characterization was marked by a European curriculum and use of German. Gradually another type of formation started replacing the older one. It was focused on regionalism and the compulsory use of the Portuguese language. The condition of German schools based on ethnic-oriented social relations linked to German-European culture were being oriented to teaching ideas based on technology and on the Brazilian government´s guidelines for more Brazilian-directed features that eventually generated a new identity, or rather, a German-Brazilian identity.

  5. Ethylene and lettuce seed germination

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento Warley Marcos

    2003-01-01

    Ethylene can stimulate seed germination and overcome dormancy in many species. For instance, the inhibitory effect of high temperature on lettuce seed germination can be overcome by exogenous ethylene. Involvement of ethylene in seed germination is a widely accepted fact, but the mechanistic details are poorly understood. A critical factor in ethylene studies is the response of seed germination properties to various ethylene inhibitors. Lettuce seed has been used as a model to study the role ...

  6. Seed systems support in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Munyi, Peter; Jonge, de, M.J.I.

    2015-01-01

    The threats of climate change and rising food prices have stirred renewed attention for seed and food security in Africa, inviting new thinking on the role of seed sector development in coping with these concerns. One conceptual framework that has gained attention is the Integrated Seed Sector Development (ISSD) approach. The ISSD approach has evolved as a response to the almost exclusive focus on formal seed systems in seed sector development programs. Instead, ISSD aims to recognize and sup...

  7. The Application of RFID in Brazilian Harvest Facilities: Two Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Cristina Cabral Ribeiro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Using the two case studies presented in this work, this article aims to evaluate identification technology used in the Brazilian cattle market. Although Brazil possesses large companies in this sector (one of which is the largest exporter of meat in the world some of them have yet to implement information technology (IT for cattle identification purposes. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID is an IT that identifies cattle using electronic ear tags. This particular form of technology is especially accurate and dependable as it can be used to trace a product from the origin of conception to the consumer. This paper utilizes a qualitative approach – two case studies – which were created with the application of a questionnaire (open and closed questions. Using RFID for internal control purposes only, each of the sample companies has limited use of the technology. Instead, these companies use barcode systems to trace and identify cattle and to send important information to their supply chain partners.

  8. Priming and stress under high humidity and temperature on the physiological quality of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-5 seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Barbosa Batista; Eliana Duarte Cardoso; Flávio Ferreira da Silva Binotti; Edilson Costa; Marco Eustáquio de Sá

    2016-01-01

    Palisade grass is a forage plant that is widely used in pasture cropping in the Brazilian savannah. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG–5) seeds subjected to priming and stress at high humidity and temperature (before and after conditioning). The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x5 factorial arrangement. Seeds were exposed to stress under high humidity and temperature (before and after conditioning) and five priming treatme...

  9. Germination of radish seeds (Raphanus sativus treated with homeopathic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Monteiro de Toledo Piza Gomes Carneiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The radish is a short cycle crop, since it is harvested at 25-30 days after direct sowing. Under the economic point of view it is an important species, but there are few studies on germination of radish seeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of high diluted substances on the germination of radish seeds. The trial was conducted at the Agricultural Research Institute of Paraná (IAPAR in Londrina / Paraná. It was used a pesticide free cultivar named Cometa. The treatments were: Bryonia, hydroalcoholic solution, Arnica montana, Cina and Lupine + Oat, all of them diluted and agitated at 9x; distilled water and agitated distilled water were used as controls. The mother tincture of Lupine + Oat was prepared from plants collected at the experimental station of IAPAR in Londrina. The mother tincture and all treatments were prepared according to the guidelines in the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopeia, Part I [1]. The agitations of the treatments were made by a mechanical equipment, model Denise 10-50 manufactured by Autic. The water was distilled the day before preparing the treatments. The experiment was performed with 300 seeds per treatment. The seeds were placed in gerbox with germitest paper, and 50 gerbox were used per treatment, with six seeds in each gerbox. The germitest papers were moistened with the treatments and the seeds were soaked for 2 hours previously set up the experiment. The substances in high dilutions were agitated 100 times on the machine before soaking the seeds and moistening the germitest paper. The experimental design was entirely randomized and the gerbox were kept at the bench at the Laboratory of Plant Protection of IAPAR. A person not involved in conduct of the experiment coded (blinded the treatments solutions with a random letter code. The code was kept secret until all measurements and data processing were finished. Seeds were observed daily for germination and counted only those

  10. Seed coat color and seed weight contribute differential responses of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinwook; Hwang, Young-Sun; Kim, Sun Tae; Yoon, Won-Byong; Han, Won Young; Kang, In-Kyu; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2017-01-01

    The distribution and variation of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds are affected by genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we used 192 soybean germplasm accessions collected from two provinces of Korea to elucidate the effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight on the metabolic variation and responses of targeted metabolites. The effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight were present in sucrose, total oligosaccharides, total carbohydrates and all measured fatty acids. The targeted metabolites were clustered within three groups. These metabolites were not only differently related to seeds dry weight, but also responded differentially to seed coat color. The inter-relationship between the targeted metabolites was highly present in the result of correlation analysis. Overall, results revealed that the targeted metabolites were diverged in relation to seed coat color and seeds dry weight within locally collected soybean seed germplasm accessions. PMID:27507473

  11. Study on Municipal Energy Companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a summarizing overview of the local, renewable energy initiatives that are grouped under the heading of 'municipal energy company'. A municipal energy company (or sustainable energy company) is a local energy company that initiates, coordinates and/or manages sustainable energy projects with the primary objective of realizing the climate objectives.

  12. Oil Companies Climb Global List

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JESSY ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    @@ Backed by the huge market size,China's energy companies have been ranked in the group of the world's largest industry players. On September 6th,eight companies from the Chinese mainland and six companies from Hong Kong SAR were included in this year's Platts Top 250 Energy Companies List.

  13. Companies: Their duties and powers

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We have produced this information booklet to explain the process of managing a company under the Companies Acts. A company is a legal body created to run a business or social enterprise. It exists separately from the people who own and manage it. A company can make contracts, own property, have debts and take legal action.

  14. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment.

  15. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment. PMID:27627071

  16. Captive insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of the business world is changing; and now, more than ever, business owners are recognizing that life is filled with risks: known risk, calculated risk, and unexpected risk. Every day, businesses thrive or fail based on understanding the risk of owning and operating their business, and business owners are recognizing that there are alternative risk financing mechanisms other than simply taking out a basket of standard coverage as recommended by your friendly neighborhood agent. A captive insurance company is an insurance company established to provide a broad range of risk management capabilities to affiliated companies. The captive is owned by the business owner and can provide insurance to the business for potential future losses, whether or not the losses are already covered by a commercial carrier or are "self-insured." The premiums paid by your business are tax deductible. Meanwhile, the premiums that your captive collects are tax-free up to $1.2 million annually.

  17. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  18. Companies as "Cyborgs"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Grahame

    with their operational characteristics. But what would be involved in granting companies full citizenship rights in the image of natural person citizenship? The paper explores this issue in connection to the differences between corporate social responsibility and an earlier idea of the socially responsible corporation......This paper investigates the legal and commercial consequences of companies being considered as both an entity and a person in law – hence the notion of ‘cyborg’ in its title. It concentrates upon legal personhood and relates this particular feature to the issue of corporate citizenship. In turn...... corporate citizenship provides a link to considering the political role of companies, since in claiming citizenship they are implicitly at least claiming a particular set of political rights consequent upon that status, and announcing a particular politically constrained context associated...

  19. Impacto da contabilização do leasing operacional no balanço patrimonial: o caso das Cias. aéreas brasileiras TAM e GOL = The impact of operating leasing recognition in the balance sheet: the case of brazilian airlines companies Tam and Gol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila de Melo Souza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As operações de leasing são utilizadas pelas empresas como uma forma alternativa de capitalização. Atualmente, esse tipo de operação pode ser classificado em duas modalidades: financeiro e operacional, em que este funciona como um contrato de aluguel e aquele se assemelha a uma compra financiada. Em termos de contabilização, a grande diferença é que o leasing operacional não integra o balanço. O FASB, ciente dessa possível distorção que a não contabilização gera no usuário da informação contábil, reuniu-se com o IASB e discutiram a melhor forma para solucionar o problema. Os dois conselhos decidiram provisoriamente que as arrendatárias devem contabilizar as operações decorrentes de leasing operacional no ativo e no passivo. Portanto, o objetivo do trabalho é verificar o impacto da contabilização do leasing operacional de forma semelhante ao leasing financeiro na estrutura patrimonial das empresas presentes na amostra. Assim, o presente trabalho analisou os Balanços Patrimoniais da TAM e da GOL nos anos de 2007 a 2009, uma vez que as companhias aéreas são grandes usuárias das operações de leasing operacional na “aquisição” de aeronaves. Os balanços foram ajustados com os valores informados nas notas explicativas. Conclui-se que o registro das operações de leasing operacional representou para as empresas analisadas um significativo impacto na estrutura patrimonial e consequentemente nos indicadores financeiros e que a contabilização das operações de leasing operacional dará maior transparência às demonstrações contábeis.Leasing transactions are used by companies as a way to get capitalized. However, this type of transaction can be classified in two types: financial and operating, in which the operating leasing works as a rent and financial leasing resembles a financed purchase. The most important difference in the accounting model is that the operating lease is not included in the balance sheet

  20. Responsibilities of companies towards employees

    OpenAIRE

    Monray Marsellus Botha

    2015-01-01

    Central to company law is the promotion of corporate governance. An important question in company law still today is in whose interest the company should be managed. Corporate governance needs to address the entire span of responsibilities to stakeholders of the company such as customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers and the community at large. The promotion of human rights in the application of company law must also take place. This is extremely important given the significant role of ...

  1. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century)

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Papavero; Márcia Souto Couri

    2012-01-01

    Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century). Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also...

  2. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century. Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also includes reports of Friar Laureano de la Cruz, Father João de Sotto Mayor and Maurício de Heriarte.

  3. Supply chain in brazilian automobile industry: production organization, performance and innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sacomano Neto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This Paper presents the main results of a recent research on Supply Chain Management within the Brazilian Automotive Industry. The research aimed to study how the different forms of configuration of the Automaker’s Supply Chain influence the organization forms of production, the performance measures and the innovations in the Supply Chain Management. The research involves an automaker, two first tier suppliers and two second tier suppliers and it has been conducted through interviews with executives of those companies involved with the logistics, purchases and production areas. The study shows mainly that the recent structural changes within the Brazilian Automotive Industry have implicated directly in the coordination forms and innovations in the Supply Chain Management.

  4. CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) and regulation in Brazilian electric distribution sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Beta in the Brazilian electric distribution sector tariffs review. The betas applied by the Regulatory Agency are defined using data from the American, English and Brazilian markets. These betas will then be compared to the betas obtained in the domestic market. The betas were directly obtained from an economic-financial databank largely employed by the market. The sample is composed of companies' shares, priced at Sao Paulo Stock Market. Their main activity is the distribution of electric energy between July 2002 and July 2007. The results of mean betas obtained for the distribution segment, with values close to the ones applied by the regulatory agency for the cycle of tariff reviews between 2007-2010. (author)

  5. CULTURAL DISTANCE AND ENTRY MODE CHOICE: A STUDY WITH BRAZILIANS MAJOR TRANSNATIONAL FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Lopes Barakat

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the degree of relationship between cultural distance (CD and the preference of brazilian transnationals when choosing for a entrance mode strategy. Aiming to bring a new perspective on the topic of DC this study seeks to analyze the phenomenon beyond the cultural dimensions of Hofstede, using the theoretical framework of the Globe Project. This study get's a sample of 31 firms that are among the top 100 Transnational Companies (TNCs in Brazil. Results indicate that the Brazilian TNCs are relatively less willing to choose more risky entrance mode strategies when they operate in culturally distant countries. Firm size also acts as a moderator of the relationship between DC and the entrance mode preference, where bigger firms are less affected by cultural distance when deciding the strategy for international ventures. Finally, the two dimensions of DC (values and practices shown different relations with entrance mode preference.

  6. Business Small company

    OpenAIRE

    KREJČOVÁ, Kateřina

    2011-01-01

    This diploma work deals with a Business Small company. The work moves on the concrete company, which is analyzed and on the basis of analyses the new strategy is formulated. At the theoretical part, summary of solving problems is introduced. It’s needed for the analytic part of work. At the beginning, business is defined in economic terms. Found in this part are basic concepts that are linked to business. From the general definition of business the work fluently proceeds to more concrete...

  7. The EPCM company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role in international marketing of the large, privately-owned Canadian engineering, procurement and construction management (EPCM) firm is discussed. The main activities of such a firm cover a wide range of services for nuclear power plants and are usually paid for on a manhour basis. The involvement in past and present CANDU projects of an EPCM company is reviwed, and its marketing role in overseas projects is discussed. In reviewing these projects, the various methods of contracting for nuclear power stations overseas are described and the international competition versus Canada is illustrated. Future scenario of the future of the EPCM company in marketing are outlined. (LL)

  8. Valuation of the company

    OpenAIRE

    Skříček, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to estimate the value of company Blažek Praha, a.s. at the day of 1st 2015 in order to provide information for owners, creditors and potential investors to make decisions. After a short theoretical introduction, the thesis will consist of all of the steps necessary to value the company. First, strategic analysis is elaborated. This will be followed by financial analysis, analysis of value drivers and the creation of a financial plan. Lastly, the valuation will be con...

  9. COMPANY ACTIVITY FINANCIAL RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruntu Genu Alexandru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In economic and financial activity, risk is an inherent financial decisions, encountered in daily agenda of managers of companies. Unexpected changes in the price of a product development not only affect the financial results of a company, but can cause even bankruptcy. In fact, the nature of financial decisions involve uncertainty. Financial decisions are made based on cash flows under future contracts, which are par excellence incerte.Activitatea an enterprise that holds any weight in the industry is subject to risks, since it can not predict with certainty different components of its outcome (cost, quantity, price and operating cycle (purchase, processing, sales.

  10. PREVENTION OF COMPANY RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCI U GHEORGHE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A company’s manager has to create and maintain a healthy internal control system. An efficient internal control system implies the implementation in the company of risk management. Each company, but also each individual, who tries to attain certain objectives, establishes the activities which lead to the achievement of goals and, at the same time, tries to identify as many “threats” as possible, in order to take the necessary measures to eliminate them. Thus, even if one is not familiar with the concepts of risk and risk management, one acts, consciously or not, for that purpose.

  11. Hedge Accounting in the Brazilian Stock Market: Effects on the Quality of Accounting Information, Disclosure, and Information Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas Adolfo Potin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper investigates, in the Brazilian stock market, the effect of hedge accounting on the quality of financial information, on the disclosure of derivative financial instruments, and on the information asymmetry. To measure the quality of accounting information, relevance metrics of accounting information and book earnings informativeness were used. For executing this research, a general sample was obtained through Brazilian companies, non-financial, listed on the Brazilian Securities, Commodities, and Futures Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA, comprising the 150 companies with highest market value on 01/01/2014. Through the general sample, samples were compiled for applying the econometric models of value relevance, informativeness, disclosure, and information asymmetry. The sample for relevance had 758 companies-years observations within the period from 2008 to 2013; the sample for informativeness had 701 companies-years observations with the period from 2008 to 2013; the sample for disclosure had 100 companies-years observations, within the period from 2011 to 2012; the sample for information asymmetry had 100 companies-years observations, also related to the period from 2011 to 2012. In addition to the econometric models, the propensity score matching method was applied to the analyses of the hedge accounting effect on disclosure and information asymmetry. The evidence found for the influence of hedge accounting indicates a relation: (i positive and significant concerning accounting information relevance and disclosure of derivatives; (ii negative and significant for book earnings informativeness. Regarding information asymmetry, although the coefficients showed up as expected, they were not statistically significant.

  12. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  13. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, N J; Jr., Newton J. Moura; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results were obtained with the maximum likelihood estimator, showing an exponent equal to 2.41 for 1970 and 2.36 for the other three years.

  14. Social Responsibility: The Posture of Agro-Industrial Companies with Their Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Taderka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of a study that sought to diagnose whether agro industrial companies surveyed consider the practice of social responsibility as an important criterion when selecting their suppliers. The study was conducted with 52 Brazilians agribusiness, and the questionnaires were applied in three phases. The research showed that the Brazilian agribusiness does not consider the social position of suppliers as purchase criteria, and also that the majority of agro-industrial companies surveyed does not perform social actions. It turns out that despite that considers it important that suppliers taking part in social activities, the agricultural industries do not consider these social responsibilities, a decision-making factor for the realization of their purchases.

  15. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  16. Religious Requirements in Inter-organizational Networks of Halal Foods: Brazilian Chicken Exported to the Muslim Community

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Januario de Souza; Nawfal Assa Mossa Alssabak; Julio Araujo Carneiro da Cunha; Flavio Romero Macau

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to describe how the actors within the network of companies involved in the export of Brazilian Halal chicken interact in order to meet the religious requirements of the Muslim market in the Middle East. Qualitative research was undertaken via a single case study. Primary evidences were collected in semi-structured interviews and via participative observation within the network; secondary evidences were collected through documents and the internet. The results ind...

  17. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Oliveira B. Oriá

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches of Portuguese-language sources. Articles were organized and analyzed chronologically by comparing the evolution of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Program. The incomplete research output of the Brazilian nursing profession in regard to breastfeeding research needs to be addressed. In addition, specific cultural, sociological, and anthropological characteristics of Brazilian regional settings remain to be explored. Emphasis on potential confounders and critical interrelations is warranted.

  18. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: report of two Brazilian brothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M.C.; Zetola, V.F.; Teive, H.; Scola, R.H.; Trentin, A.P.; Zavala, J.A.; Pereira, E.R.; Raskin, S.; Werneck, L.C.; Sistermans, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a treatable rare autossomal recessive disease characterized by lipid storage secondary to a sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency in the formation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. We describe two Brazilian brothers with cognitive impairement and chronic diarrhea. On

  19. STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A CASE IN THE BRAZILIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Carneiro Lima

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE. The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors, and the adoption of its strategic positioning in exploring two automobile market niches: in the B2B market, vehicles adapted to specific operational functions; and in the B2C, off-road vehicles with a strong appeal to consumers’ life styles. This case study allowed us to visualize the challenging path of a genuinely Brazilian small company in a sector dominated by large multinational groups, besides demonstrating decision-related dilemmas and aspects related to managerial creativity.Key-words: Automobile industry. Case study. Strategic entrepreneurship. Discovery theory. Strategic positioning.

  20. Brazilians sentenced to sewage-related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Édison Carlos

    2016-01-01

    There is no furthest behind infrastructure in Brazil than the lack of sewage disposal, particularly the shortage of services for treating water, and for collecting and treating waste. The scarcity of these essential services to human dignity has been plaguing millions of Brazilians, as indicated by the data of the National Sanitation Information System 2014. We have 35 million Brazilians without access to services for treating water, where half the population has no sewage collection an...

  1. Ethics and science in brazilian legal discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Cota Marçal, Antônio; Nasser Cury, Paula Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 declares Brazil as a Democratic State of Law. This formally democratic legal status has been facing difficulties when it comes to its material implementation. Brazilian legal procedures are still greatly influenced by the catholic heritage from Portugal in the times of colonization, translated in the present times into a strong moral set of dogmas that still reflects upon the legal production and interpretation in the country. Recently in Brazil, a debate br...

  2. Myths and truths about Brazilian hospitality

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz, Valéria de Souza

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilians image is often associated with sympathy and joy. However these characteristics do not necessarily make them hospitable. To be hospitable it´s not just have a smile or be helpful, you must have hospitability, that is, the ability to offer hospitality. Hospitality is a social phenomenon that manifests in the domestic, commercial or public context. It is believed that the Brazilian has a natural talent for the domestic hospitality, which extends somehow into the ...

  3. [Theater in Brazilian science museums and centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Leonardo Maciel; Marandino, Martha

    2015-12-01

    This qualitative research, based on a descriptive and exploratory study, examines how theater is used as a science communication strategy by Brazilian science museums and centers. Data was collected through a survey emailed to 24 Brazilian institutions identified as science museums and centers. Content analysis was performed, using cross-sectional thematic analysis. It was found that respondents' activities could be classified as approaching theater as an educational support.

  4. Radioactive seed migration after prostate brachytherapy with Iodine-125 using loose seeds versus stranded seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To assess the incidence and clinical parameters that could influence migration of seeds in localized prostate cancer patients treated by stranded versus loose sources by Iodine-125 brachytherapy. Materials and Methods: 100 patients were treated from January/1998 until December/2006. Age, PSA, clinical stage, Gleason, prostate volume, number of seeds, activity of radioactive seeds, and dosimetric parameters, such as V100, V150 and D90 were evaluated. Results: Mean follow-up was 79 months (18 - 120. CI 95%: 72 - 85). Overall, 6 of 100 patients experienced seed migration. Seed migration was found in 4/50 (8%) patients using loose seeds and in 2/50 (4%) treated by stranded seeds. Mean value dosimetric parameters for stranded seeds were greater than those for loose seeds (V100(%): 88.7/82, D90(Gy): 149.2/140.3, D90(%): 104.2/93.8, V150 (%): 53.8/47, respectively). No significant difference in migration of seeds was detected between loose and stranded seeds considering age (p = 0.33), PSA (p = 0.391), prostate volume (p 0.397), activity of radioactive seeds (p = 0.109), number of seeds (p 0.338), V100 (p = 0.332), although significant differences were measured in the values of D90 (% and Gy) (p = 0.022 and 0.011) and V150 (p = 0.023). Conclusions: Seed migration after brachytherapy might occur and it does affect post-implant dosimetry. (author)

  5. SICHUAN GEOPHYSICAL COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Sichuan Geophysical Company (SCGC) remains a leading part of SPA CNPC.Through 50 years' development,it has evolved into the largest oil and gas enterprise in West China with technical services for seismic exploration.It can serve full mountain seismic exploration in diverse and complex regions for clients both at home and abroad.

  6. SICHUAN GEOPHYSICAL COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Sichuan Geophysical Company(SCGC) remains a leading part of SPA CNPC. Through 50 years' development, it has evolved into the largest oil and gas enterPrise in west China with technical services for seismic exploration. It can serve full mountain seismic exploration in diverse and complex regions for clients both at home and abroad.

  7. Sichuan Geophysical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sichuan Geophysical Company (SCGC)remains a leading part of SPA CNPC. Through 50 years' development ,it has evolved into the largest oil and gas enterprise in west China with technical services for seismic exploration.It can serve full mountain seismic exploration in diverse and comples regions for clients both at home and abroad.

  8. Smart customers, dumb companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, C

    2000-01-01

    Customers today are being bombarded with an overwhelming array of choices. To alleviate customer frustration, say Steven Cristol and Peter Sealey in Simplicity Marketing, companies should stop creating new brands and product extensions. Better to consolidate product and service functions by following a four R approach: replace, repackage, reposition, and replenish. That's an outmoded, dictatorial view of markets, says Christopher Locke. Far from being stymied by choices, customers are rapidly becoming smarter than the companies that pretend to serve them. In this networked economy, people are talking among themselves, and that changes everything. Locke predicts we'll see a growing number of well-defined micromarkets--groups of customers converging in real time around entertaining and knowledgeable voices--such as NPR's car guys and the Motley Fool investment site. "Micromedia" Web sites will replace traditional advertising because they'll provide credible user-supplied news about products and services. Locke contends that an open exchange of information solves the "problem" of choice much better than manipulative strategies like simplicity or even permission marketing. Companies can participate in micromarkets through what Locke dubs "gonzo marketing." If Ford, for example, discovers that a subset of its employees are organic gardeners, it may offer support to a big independent organic-gardening Web site with donations and employee volunteers. This marketing effort would be driven not by advertising managers but by people with genuine interest in each micromarket, so it would have credibility with customers. With gonzo marketing, both companies and their markets will benefit.

  9. Analysis of tariff levels from electric company in relation to financing request

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic-financial model of the Brazilian electric sector is discussed, considering the compatibility of the practiced tariff levels to the demand of consumption market and the production and operation costs. Some institutional actions are identified as solutions for emergency questions and subsides to the big strategies. The economic-finance indicators are also presented, showing the performance of the electrical companies. (C.G.C.)

  10. Different perceptions of company leaders: Corporate social responsibility in Brazil and India

    OpenAIRE

    Mônica Cavalcanti Sá de Abreu; Fernanda Rosalina da Silva Meireles; Larissa Teixeira da Cunha

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates corporate social responsibility strategies and efforts to implement them in a Brazilian oil and gas multinational and an Indian steel multinational. Qualitative research was conducted through interviews with executives of both companies, and a content analysis and comparison of approaches to corporate social responsibility and engagement with stakeholders were made. The evidence from this research shows that the type of corporate social responsibility adopted by each co...

  11. 78 FR 17763 - Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc., Maybrook Railroad Company, and Housatonic Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc., Maybrook Railroad Company, and Housatonic Transportation Company--Intra-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc. (HRRC), Maybrook Railroad Company (MRC), and Housatonic Transportation Company (HTC) (collectively,...

  12. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  13. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  14. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Ismail Ahmed; Awad Mohammed Babeker; Ahmed Mohammed Ahmed Elamin; Elshiekh Awadelkarim Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea), Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi) seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were...

  15. Different perceptions of company leaders: Corporate social responsibility in Brazil and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Cavalcanti Sá de Abreu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates corporate social responsibility strategies and efforts to implement them in a Brazilian oil and gas multinational and an Indian steel multinational. Qualitative research was conducted through interviews with executives of both companies, and a content analysis and comparison of approaches to corporate social responsibility and engagement with stakeholders were made. The evidence from this research shows that the type of corporate social responsibility adopted by each company depends on the ethical values, socio-economic environment, legal and institutional framework of the country in which the firm operates.

  16. BRAZILIAN INTERNATIONALIZATION STRATEGIES FOR CHINA AND THEIR REFLECTIONS IN THE INTERCULTURAL ADJUSTMENT OF THE BRAZILIAN EXPATRIATE INDIVIDUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletéia Carpes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for sites with greater strategic location advantage for the development of activities means that for some companies in the footwear sector, China represents a favorable site for the establishment of factories and commercial offices. The transfer of activities to foreign territory accords the inherent benefits of proximity to the chosen country, but highlights the challenges of choosing and preparing people for appropriate international action and following up on the development of selected work abroad. Business performance abroad is influenced by the performance of the individual expatriate, and the greater the difference of culture experienced between the country of origin and the country to which the individual will relocate, the lower the psychological comfort of the expatriate. Knowing this, this study’s objective was to check the reflection of the internationalization of China in the individual expatriate intercultural adjustment, through the Black model, Mendehall and Oddou (1991. Among other findings, researchers noted the absence of advance directives coming from the expatriate company, the obstacle of psychic distance in the adjustment of the individual, and the reactive posture of Brazilians as a way of adjusting to the circumstance.

  17. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes

  18. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depaoli, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  19. Implementation of the balanced scorecard in a brazilian state-owned company: the case of Petrobras El proceso de implantación del balanced scorecard en una empresa estatal brasileña: el caso Petrobras O processo de implantação do balanced scorecard em uma empresa estatal brasileira: o caso Petrobras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Almeida Filgueiras

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Balanced Scorecard (BSC, developed by Kaplan and Norton in 1992, responded to a need for consolidating the performance complexity of the organization and has been increasingly used since then. Among the advantages are the composition and visualization of performance measurements that reflect the company’s business strategy. The BSC summarizes and indicates in a single document, performance from four perspectives, financial, clients, internal processes and learning and growth. This study is important because the BSC is the first systematic attempt to develop a project for a performance evaluation process that focuses on company objectives, coordination of individual decisions and a basis for the organizational learning. Therefore, applicable literature was reviewed and a presentation was made on implementation of the BSC at Petrobras, an integrated state-owned company acting in exploration, production, refining, commercialization and transport of oil and derivatives in Brazil and abroad.El Balanced Scorecard (BSC, desarrollado por Kaplan y Norton en 1992, resultó de la necesidad de captar toda la complejidad del desempeño de la organización, y ha sido amplia y creciente su utilización en empresas y organizaciones. Entre sus contribuciones están la composición y la visualización de medidas de desempeño que reflejen la estrategia de negocios de la empresa. El BSC resume, en un único documento, indicadores de desempeño en cuatro perspectivas: financiera, clientes, procesos internos y aprendizaje, y crecimiento. La importancia del estudio está en el hecho de que el BSC constituye el primer intento sistemático de desarrollar un proyecto para el sistema de evaluación de desempeño que enfoque los objetivos de la empresa, la coordinación de la tomada de decisión individual y la provisión de una base para el aprendizaje organizacional. Así, en este trabajo fue realizada una revisión de la

  20. Study of the enthalpy-entropy mechanism from water sorption of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilian for the use of agro-industrial residues as a possible source of vegetable oil production Estudo do mecanismo entálpico-entrópico de sorção da água de sementes de laranja (C. sinensis cv. Brasileira, para a utilização de resíduos agroindustriais como uma possível fonte de produção de óleo vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange seeds are a promising agroindustry-waste which can be implemented in the extraction and production of vegetable oil. The relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for the processing and storage of this waste item. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of water sorption enthalpy-entropy of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilians according to the moisture content. Therefore, desorption isotherms were determined at five different temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC under a wide range of moisture content (0.005-0.057 kg kg-1 d.b. and water activity (0.02-0.756. Theoretical and empirical models were used for modeling the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to compute the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs free energy using the Oswin model when the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium was considered.As sementes de laranja são resíduos promissores da agroindústria com um alto potencial de aplicação na produção de óleo vegetal. A relação entre o conteúdo de umidade de equilíbrio e a atividade de água fornece informações úteis para seu processamento e armazenamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o mecanismo entalpia-entropia de sorção da água de sementes de laranja (C. sinensis cv. Brasileiros em função do teor de umidade. Para isso, isotermas de dessorção das sementes de laranja foram determinados em cinco níveis de temperaturas (30, 40, 50, 60 e 70 ºC em um intervalo de umidade de equilíbrio (0.005-0.057 kg kg-1 d.b. e atividade de água de 0,02-0,756. Modelos teóricos e empíricos foram usados para a modelagem das isotermas de dessorção. A solução analítica da equação de Clausius-Clapeyron foi proposta para calcular o calor isostérico de sorção, a entropia diferencial e a energia livre de Gibbs através do modelo de Oswin quando o

  1. The influence of design parameters of rotary dryer on sunflower seeds drying

    OpenAIRE

    R. Yakobchuk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In order to improve the drying of sunflower seeds in the apparatus of the rotary type, it is appropriate to model processes in this devices using computer simulation software. Materials and methods. Simulation of sunflower seeds drying was based on the finite element method using the software package Flow Vision (company "TUSYM") and mathematical and statistical methods. Results. Mathematical models were obtained that show the dependence...

  2. Analysis of the evolution of after sales and post-consumption reverse logistics actions by the brazilian electricity sector in 2009 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Oliveira Sousa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the evolution of of post-consumer reverse logistics actions by the Brazilian electric power sector in 2009 to 2011. The approach includes literature review, exploratory, descriptive, quantitative and qualitative research. In this study, a sample of 15 companies in the Brazilian energy sector were selected, based on content analysis of sustainability reports extracted from the company websites in 2009 to 2011. After collecting the data, 48 indicators were analyzed in the reports. Based on the scores, a comparative analysis between levels of disclosure of reverse logistics was performed. The 15 companies analyzed revealed the presence of reverse logistics actions in 2011, showing an overall result in the course of three years. Among the sectors presented, distribution achieved greater prominence in 2011, with an increase in the presence of post-consumption indicators, showing a great result.

  3. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  4. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  5. ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS IN THE MARKET VALUE OF COMPANIES THE ELECTRIC ENERGY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo José Soares Miranda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of financial, economic and legal variables on the market value of companies operating in the electricity sector of the brazilian economy. To perform this study, we used the methodology Ordinary Least Squares (OLS. The Electricity Sector Index (ESI was used as a proxy to evaluate the performance of these companies that make up the sector. The results pointed that the market value of these companies is influenced by the rates charged for the services, by the consumption of electricity in the country and also by the interest rate. In addition, it is verified also that institutional and regulatory changes are important determinants of the market value of these companies. Keywords: Electricity Sector. Electricity Sector Index (ESI. Brazil.

  6. Seeding Event: Creating and Developing Spaces of Entrepreneurial Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëtan Mourmant

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of initiating, fostering and growing a vibrant economy by developing Spaces of Entrepreneurial Freedom (SoEF. Establishing and developing the SoEF is explained by a seeding event which is the core category of this grounded theory. In short, a seeding event leads to the patching of a potential, structural “hole”, which may prove valuable to an entrepreneurial network. Seeding events are started by an initiator who will recognize a network opportunity and exploit it. After event designing, the initiators implement the event through bold experimentation and using an adaptive structure. If the event is considered successful, the next stages are refining, growing, templating and finally replicating; these stages may occur one after the other or simultaneously. Through the development of SoEF, we suggest that entrepreneurs, governments, universities, large companies, and other players in the business world can improve the development of entrepreneurship at their respective levels.

  7. Bird and ant synergy increases the seed dispersal effectiveness of an ornithochoric shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Paulo H S A; Martins, Milene M; Feitosa, Rodrigo M; Christianini, Alexander V

    2016-06-01

    Seed dispersal may involve different vectors of dispersal in two or more sequential phases (i.e., diplochory). However, contributions of each phase to the overall seed dispersal effectiveness (SDE) are poorly understood and hard to evaluate due to post-dispersal processes that affect seed and seedling survival. We investigated the simultaneous bird (phase 1, in plant canopy) and ant (phase 2, on the floor) contributions to SDE with the ornithochoric shrub Erythroxylum ambiguum in a Brazilian Atlantic forest. Twelve species of birds fed on fruit and dispersed approximately 26 % of the seed crop. The remaining seed crop, 90 % of which contained viable seeds, fell to the ground beneath the parental plant. Ants either cleaned seeds in fruits or carried fallen fruit and seeds from bird feces to their nests. Although E. ambiguum has no adaptation for ant dispersal, ants were as quantitatively important as birds. Birds and ants equally increased germination rates compared to controls. However, birds deposited seeds farther from the parent, where seedling survival was higher (78 %) than it was beneath the parent (44 %), whereas ants carried seeds to their nests, where seedling survival was higher (83 %) than in controls away from their nests (63 %). Diplochory allowed a 42 % increase in SDE compared to dispersal in phase 1 alone. High lipid content in the fruit pulp of E. ambiguum may facilitate the inclusion of ants in a second step of dispersal after diaspores reach the floor. Ants can also buffer the dispersal of diplochorous plants against decreases in phase 1 dispersers. PMID:26899481

  8. STUDY OF MATURITY OF UNIVERSITY COOPERATION PROJECTS-PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Barrenha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The relations between universities and companies are enable better dissemination and transfer of new knowledge and technology, and promote job creation and increased income. To place a knowledge transfer of technology between universities and companies, there should be a series of compatibility between the two institutions. Ones they must have a minimum maturity in managing a project of this nature because it seeks to minimize risk and meet deadlines. The study aimed to analyze factors that influence the maturity of project management for technology transfer within the university-enterprise cooperation. For this model was applied to sector project management maturity of Prado-MMGP, adapted to transfer projects. It consists of descriptive research and exploratory, which made the use of case studies. The case studies involving projects of technology transfer made between national pharmaceutical companies and Brazilian universities and the results showed that the lack of investment in internal training, not the alignment of projects to transfer the company's business and delay awareness of the importance of managing a design can affect the evolution of the maturity level of project management firms and as a result it may damage the innovative capacity and competitiveness

  9. Seed disinfestation methods for in vitro cultivation of epiphyte orchids from Southern Brazil Métodos de desinfestação de sementes para o cultivo in vitro de orquídeas epífitas do Sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica M Alvarez-Pardo; Alfredo Gui Ferreira; Valter F Nunes

    2006-01-01

    Disinfestation of orchid seeds is necessary when the germination is performed in vitro. In such case, cultures are supplemented by a source of sugar and salts in order to obtain energy and other requirements. However, the presence of sugar and salts easily allows the development of unwanted microorganisms. To avoid such phenomenon, an efficient procedure must be done as a pretreatment of the seeds with liquid or gaseous substances. In this study with several Brazilian orchids, the seeds were ...

  10. Compartilhamento e aquisição de competências na estratégia da Empresa Brasileira de Correios e Telégrafos Competence sharing and acquisition strategy organization in Empresa Brasileira de Correios e Telégrafos - ECT (Brazilian Post Office Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Mazzali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendo por referência a proposição de Frechet e Pardo (2005, o trabalho é um estudo explanatório que aborda a estratégia de diversificação da Empresa Brasileira de Correios e Telégrafos (ECT, analisando como o portfolio de recursos influencia e é influenciado pelas decisões de entrada em novos domínios. Trata-se de um estudo de caso assentado no levantamento de ativos tangíveis e intangíveis e na avaliação dos efeitos da atuação em novos segmentos sobre o faturamento da empresa. O estudo confirma a proposição dos autores de referência, apontando para duas lógicas imanentes ao processo de diversificação: utilização de recursos preexistentes para entrar em novos produtos/mercados e para o desenvolvimento de novos recursos. Ademais, pode-se argumentar que um fator dinâmico crucial na evolução da corporação é a interdependênci a ou interação no tempo entre a diversificação de negócios relacionada aos recursos e a diversificação de recursos.Taking Frechet and Pardo's proposition (2005 as reference, this work is an explanatory study that analyzes in depth the strategy of ECT diversification, investigating how the portfolio of resources impacts on and is impacted by the decisions to enter into new domains. It deals with a case study, based on the raising of tangible and intangible assets and the evaluation of the effects of the new participating segments on company revenues. The study confirms the proposition of the reference authors, pointing towards two logics immanent to the diversification process: utilization of pre-existing resources to ingress into new products/markets, and the entering into new products/markets for the development of new resources. Therefore, it may be argued that a crucial dynamic factor in corporate evolution is the interdependency or interaction over time between business diversification related to resources and diversification of resources.

  11. Effects of gamma radiation and storage on cooked pine seed (Araucaria angustifollia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). Despite being appreciated nutritious food, the gear has been widely used in Brazilian cook as other seeds, and its consumption in the more usual way roasted or boiled, however, certain foods have been developed, such as flour, pine seeds, artisan produced only due to poor commercial expression. Because of this, the aim of this work was to study the effect of storage under vacuum and gamma radiation on samples cooked pinion. Pine seeds after cooking were stored in vacuum packaging and polypropylene irradiated with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy. Later they were stored at a temperature of 6 degree C. Analyzes were performed to characterize physical (weight, temperature, percentage of losses) and proximate composition (Humidity, fat, protein, ash and weight loss) of A. angustifolia (Bert.) pine seed after three months of storage. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between treatments at protein parameter. About the other parameters there was an increase humidity and decrease with ash and fat with the treatments. (author)

  12. Effects of gamma radiation and storage on cooked pine seed (Araucaria angustifollia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Modolo, Debora M.; Martinez, Patricia; Piero, Edson A. di; Bigide, Priscila; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Ambiente, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). Despite being appreciated nutritious food, the gear has been widely used in Brazilian cook as other seeds, and its consumption in the more usual way roasted or boiled, however, certain foods have been developed, such as flour, pine seeds, artisan produced only due to poor commercial expression. Because of this, the aim of this work was to study the effect of storage under vacuum and gamma radiation on samples cooked pinion. Pine seeds after cooking were stored in vacuum packaging and polypropylene irradiated with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy. Later they were stored at a temperature of 6 degree C. Analyzes were performed to characterize physical (weight, temperature, percentage of losses) and proximate composition (Humidity, fat, protein, ash and weight loss) of A. angustifolia (Bert.) pine seed after three months of storage. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between treatments at protein parameter. About the other parameters there was an increase humidity and decrease with ash and fat with the treatments. (author)

  13. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  14. The SEED Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  15. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  16. Characterization of amaranth seed oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The oil fractions of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. seeds were studied after different treatments of the seeds. The oil contents were 7.1 and 8.5% for raw A. caudatus L. and A. cruentus L. seeds, and consisted of 80.3¿82.3% of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Phospholipids represented 9.1

  17. Lectin release by soybean seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountain, D.W.; Foard, D.E.; Replogle, W.D.; Yang, W.K.

    1977-09-16

    Lectin is released from soybean seeds during water uptake. Hemagglutination activity data show that the lectin is a preferential release product within the first 8 hours of hydration. A qualitative filter-paper assay for detection of lectin released by single seeds is used to show that the release phenomenon is independent of seed viability and insensitive to azide.

  18. Insights from Brazilian medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Caramelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This brand-new series of articles aims at delivering to national and international readers some of the cutting-edge contributions from the Brazilian medical literature. Recently papers published in the main Brazilian medical journals are carefully selected and analyzed by skilled medical editors. In addition we asked editors to choose keywords to be highlighted in order to claim for reader's attention. Articles are organized by area of interest to facilitate reading. To get the most of the limited available editorial space we did not include the names of the authors of the related articles in the text itself but a complete reference guide is provided at the end of the article. The result carries the most important messages from the original paper accompanied by a personal interpretation. Directed to the busy medical doctor we hope that this initiative may help in the successful translation of knowledge from scientific evidence to clinical practice.Esta nova série de artigos tem por objetivo levar aos leitores nacionais e internacionais algumas das mais importantes contribuições provenientes da literatura médica brasileira recente. Os artigos originais mais relevantes são selecionados por experientes editores a quem solicitamos que escolham palavras- chaves para que sejam destacadas para chamar a atenção do leitor. Para facilitar a leitura, os artigos são organizados por área de interesse. Para aproveitar ao máximo o limitado espaço editorial não são incluídos os nomes dos autores dos artigos. Entretanto, a referência completa é oferecida ao final do artigo. O resultado final traz o que há de melhor do artigo, seguido de uma sintética interpretação pessoal. Endereçado ao médico ocupado, esperamos que esta inciativa possa contribuir para o sucesso da translação do conhecimento da evidência científica para a prática clínica.

  19. Breaking of Dormancy of Erythrina crista-galli Seeds Quebra de Dormência de Sementes de Erythrina crista-galli

    OpenAIRE

    Ariadne Josiane Castoldi Silva; Antonio Aparecido Carpanezzi; Osmir José Lavoranti

    2011-01-01

    Erythrina crista-galli L., Fabaceae, a medium-sized N-fixing tree, is native to flooding soils of several Brazilian biomes. Its cultivation has interest for ornamental and ecological restoration purposes. Information on seed coat dormancy is conflicting and inexact, therefore the present work aimed to verify it and to define methods for its overcoming. The study was composed by two experiments, using seed lots collected in different dates. Seeds were subjected ...

  20. Marketing Mix Strategies towards the Bottom of the Pyramid: a study of the Brazilian market

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Teresa; Mårdh, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Prahalad has started a debate in the last decade regarding the opportunities of doing business towards the low-income consumers of emerging markets, which he called Bottom of the Pyramid (BOP) markets. The purpose of this study is to investigate how companies adapt their marketing mix strategies in order to target this type of market. The research is developed as case studies within the Brazilian telecom market in order to offer a new BOP setting as previous research has been focusing on Asia...

  1. Why Should I Accept Ads on my Mobile Phone? Factors Affecting the Acceptance by Brazilian Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Fernando Hor-Meyll; Marcel Correia de Lima; Jorge Brantes Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Among the more than six billion cellular phone lines in the world, around 220 million are found in Brazil. These numbers draw the attention of companies and academics, seeking to understand how cell phones can be used as an advertising media. This study sought to discover factors that could affect the intention of Brazilian teenagers to accept advertisements via SMS messages. A survey was conducted on a sample of 385 students of a high school in Rio de Janeiro. The results of an analysis via ...

  2. Company Vision and Organizational Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Toman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a company is largely dependent on the company itself; it depends above all on its corporate governance, management, and implementation, as well as on decision-making processes and coordination. Many authors believe that organizational learning and knowledge are the most relevant aspects of company effectiveness. If a company wants to be effective it needs to create and realize its vision; to do this, it needs creativity, imagination, and knowledge, which can be obtained or enhanced through learning. This paper defines vision, learning, creativity and management and, above all, their relationships. The author argues that company vision influences the learning and knowledge of employees in the company through the vision’s content, through the vision-creating process, and through the vision enforcement process. Conversely, the influence of learning on company vision is explained. The paper is aimed at the use in the practice of companies and helps them to increase their effectiveness.

  3. Tree Seed Technology Training Course: Student Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, F. T.; And Others

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses and covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling,…

  4. 12 CFR 583.15 - Parent company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parent company. 583.15 Section 583.15 Banks and... SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.15 Parent company. The term parent company means any company which directly or indirectly controls any other company or companies....

  5. Buyouts in Large Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Hermalin, Benjamin; SCHWARTZ, Alan

    1998-01-01

    We consider legal rules that determine the price at which minority shareholders can be excluded from the corporate enterprise after a change in control. These rules affect investment after such a change, as well as probability of the change itself. Our principal results are that minority shareholders should be given the value that their interest would have had were no later investment made and that this rule is best implemented in large companies by awarding the minority the preinvestment mar...

  6. Social responsibility company

    OpenAIRE

    Holečková, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The diploma thesis focuses on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) issue. Initially, there is a definition of CSR determined that could be summarised as a duty of companies to behave ethically and gently to the environment, improve economical growth and relationships between employees. Another attention has been dedicated to three basic areas of social responsibility - economical, social, and environmental which are commonly known as a triple-bottom line. The social area could be extended...

  7. Smart customers, dumb companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, C

    2000-01-01

    Customers today are being bombarded with an overwhelming array of choices. To alleviate customer frustration, say Steven Cristol and Peter Sealey in Simplicity Marketing, companies should stop creating new brands and product extensions. Better to consolidate product and service functions by following a four R approach: replace, repackage, reposition, and replenish. That's an outmoded, dictatorial view of markets, says Christopher Locke. Far from being stymied by choices, customers are rapidly becoming smarter than the companies that pretend to serve them. In this networked economy, people are talking among themselves, and that changes everything. Locke predicts we'll see a growing number of well-defined micromarkets--groups of customers converging in real time around entertaining and knowledgeable voices--such as NPR's car guys and the Motley Fool investment site. "Micromedia" Web sites will replace traditional advertising because they'll provide credible user-supplied news about products and services. Locke contends that an open exchange of information solves the "problem" of choice much better than manipulative strategies like simplicity or even permission marketing. Companies can participate in micromarkets through what Locke dubs "gonzo marketing." If Ford, for example, discovers that a subset of its employees are organic gardeners, it may offer support to a big independent organic-gardening Web site with donations and employee volunteers. This marketing effort would be driven not by advertising managers but by people with genuine interest in each micromarket, so it would have credibility with customers. With gonzo marketing, both companies and their markets will benefit. PMID:11184973

  8. Social network of companies

    OpenAIRE

    Krsnik, Luka

    2014-01-01

    The thesis contains a description about starting the implementation of business idea. We made a web page, which helps in extending, simplifying and accelerating classical business, making it easier for companies in phase of searching and concluding business. We decided to make such application, because at the moment, up to our knowledge, application, which would comprehensively cover this functionality doesn't exist. During developement of an application we used 3-tier architecture. For th...

  9. Company Vision and Organizational Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Vojko Toman

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of a company is largely dependent on the company itself; it depends above all on its corporate governance, management, and implementation, as well as on decision-making processes and coordination. Many authors believe that organizational learning and knowledge are the most relevant aspects of company effectiveness. If a company wants to be effective it needs to create and realize its vision; to do this, it needs creativity, imagination, and knowledge, which can be obtained o...

  10. Concurrent engineering in small companies

    OpenAIRE

    Starbek, Marko; Grum, Janez

    2015-01-01

    In 1991, attainment of independence in Slovenia caused a drastic decrease in domestic market for Slovenian companies. The companies which did not adapt to the new market conditions were destined for ruin. In this time several smaller companies were established which could adapt to new market conditions easier. When these companies entered the world market they encountered several difficulties such as excessive flow times for development of new products. After a survey of available literature ...

  11. Risk Management in Insurance Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xufeng

    2006-01-01

    Insurance is the uncertain business in uncertain society. Today, insures face more complex and difficult risks. Efficient risk management mechanisms are essential for the insurers. The paper is set out initially to explore UK insurance companies risk management and risk disclosure by examining companies annual report after all the listed insurance companies are required to disclose risk information in their annual report, which seeks to reflect the recent development in UK insurance companies...

  12. Multilingualism in Companies: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Tamah; Strubell, Miquel

    2013-01-01

    This thematic collection of four papers explores a number of perspectives on companies in which multiple languages are used. The "organisational" perspective concerns the question of how the presence of or demand for multiple languages in the company is managed--how companies are guided by national and other policies in regard to the use…

  13. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  14. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  15. Development of an Iridium-192 seed for use in ophthalmic brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Fabio R.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos; Moura, Joao A.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Eduardo S.; Souza, Carla D.; Peleias Junior, Fernando S., E-mail: frmattos@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), in partnership with the School or Medicine (UNIFESP), created a project that aims to develop and implement an ophthalmic therapeutic treatment for cancer with Iridium-192 seeds. The School of Medicine treats many cancer cases in the SUS (Brazilian Public Health System), and brachytherapy group of IPEN has extensive experience in prototype sources. The seed to be manufactured will perform as follows: a core of Iridium-192 is packaged inside small cylindrical seeds consist of a titanium capsule of 0.8 mm outer diameter, 0.05 mm wall thickness and 4 5 mm in length. The core is an alloy of platinum-iridium (20/80) of 3.0 mm in length and 0.3 mm in diameter. Material analysis, neutron activation and activity measurements were carried out. (author)

  16. Sustainability in the Brazilian Heavy Construction Industry: An Analysis of Organizational Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Luiz Gonçalves Quelhas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study performs a comparison between the theoretical frameworks of sustainable development and its incorporation in the decision-making practices and models used by heavy construction companies. This study was conducted by using documentary analysis of corporate sustainability reports. Specifically, the content analysis method was used to examine the sustainability reports disclosed by the companies studied. The results indicate four main conclusions: first, the social, political and economic context directed the companies towards implementing sustainable management practices; second, human resource development follows the traditional model of training and development; third, there is an evident effort to balance economic goals and profit-making with social responsibility practices as a way to characterize the corporate commitment with sustainability; fourth, effective and indispensable measures to transform decision-making models were not adopted in the business practices analyzed, and thus the economic factor continues to be prioritized at the expense of social and environmental aspects in those models. This paper, in looking at three Brazilian multinational heavy construction companies, examines the synergy between the theoretical and the identified corporate sustainability practices. Lastly, this paper may be characterized as a descriptive study based on a literature review and an analysis of sustainability reports from the companies studied.

  17. Seed production and quality of maize in High Valleys of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Virgen-Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to increase the productivity of maize in High Valleys of Mexico, at the Valley of México and Bajio Experimental Stations of the National Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research (INIFAP. The following activities were carried out: production of registered seed to strengthen seed micro- enterprises of national capital, quality evaluation of certified seed, and generation of production technology. Between 2005 and 2013, 46.71 tons of registered seed of the hybrids parents: H-40, H-48, H-50, H-52, H-66, H-70 and H-161, and the varieties: VS-22, V-54A and V-55A were produced and sold to 31 seed producers in the Estado de Mexico, Tlaxcala, Puebla, Hidalgo, Morelos, Guanajuato, Michoacan, and Jalisco; that satisfied 60 % of demand per year (8.68 t. In 2013 and 2014, agreements were signed between INIFAP and four micro-enterprises to produce registered seeds. The certified seed produced by companies reached certification standards, germination percentage ≥ 85, 98% pure seed and less than 2% inert matter; test weight between 72 and 78 kg/hl, thousand seed weight between 288 and 361 g and genetic quality between 96 and 98 % of the true type plants. The study identified information about locations, potential yields, population density, and planting dates for the production of parents, lines and single crosses, in the Estado de Mexico and Tlaxcala.

  18. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  19. Irradiation effect on the seed vigor, SOD activity and MDA content in germinating seeds of yellow-seeded and black-seeded rape seed (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of a set of near-isogenic lines (Brassica napus L.) with different seed coat color from yellow to black were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays of 150 krad. Seed vigor, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in germinating seeds were analysed. In these characters, no significant difference between yellow-seeded lines (YLs) and black-seeded lines (BLs) showed before irradiation. But after irradiation, SOD activity in YLs was lower than that in BLs. While MDA content in YLs was obviously higher that that in DLs. As a result of irradiation, seed vigor of YLs was lower than that in BLs. these results indicated that the irradiation resistance of rape seed was related to the level of SOD as well as protective structure or substances in seed coat and that the radiosensitivity of YLs was higher than that of DLs

  20. Citizenship and decoloniality in Brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Conceição Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the importance of multiculturalism in teaching process and observing the otherness are primarily a challenge. This enables us to rethink what we have within ourselves, also to reconstitute memories involving discriminatory and unethical attitudes, which takes place in social fellowship. Based on the studies of Walsh (2007, 2009, Gomes (2007 and Tavares (2011, this work relies on decoloniality studies, mainly on the relevance of the history of Africa and Africanness in Brazilian education. Our corpus of analysis is found in the "Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica" (DCN, 2013, the Brazilian Legislative Syllabus for Basic Education. Our focus is on the chapters concerning the Native-Brazilian and Quilomboa Education and ethnic-racial relations. Our most important aims are: to show the intercultural theoretical framework in which they are based on; to understand the immediate link established between the Native-Brazilian education and intercultural perspective; to clarify how the African diaspora was carried out in this particular case. Based on some Excel resources we were able to: 1 stablish the predominance of functional framework of interculturalism throughout these chapters, along with some critical features of interculturalism, as the issue of curricular decoloniality; 2 observe the established relationship between bilingualism and multiculturalism in the guidelines of Native-Brazilian education; and 3 identify a search for an effective inclusion of Africanness in curricula supported by the historical recognition and visibility of their sociocultural contribution.

  1. Brazilian Review of Finance 2013 Editorial Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Câmara Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RBFin is the main Brazilian publication outlet of academic papers about finance. The contents of the Review are open and online with a printed version distributed to members of the Brazilian Finance Society. Using the Open Journals System to manage the editorial process, publication of RBFin adheres to a strict publication schedule. The Review is indexed by EconLit, RedALyC, Google Scholar, Gale, Proquest and Ebsco and is listed in the JEL, DOAJ, Latindex, OpenJGate, and Cabell's directories. RBFin is rated B1 in the business area of the Brazilian classification system and B2 in Economics. The editorial board undergoes partial turnover every year and comprises 19 individuals from four countries, the Brazilian members being affiliated with universities in five different Brazilian states. The acceptance rate was 27% for papers submitted in 2012, the most recent year in which all submissions have already received a final decision. The average number of days between receipt and acceptance for articles submitted in 2013 was 203. The worst case was 361 days. The average number of days between receipt and publication was 294. The worst case was 575 days. Fifty-three individuals served as reviewers in 2013.

  2. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  3. XBRL from audit companies' perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Suosalo, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to find out how XBRL will affect big audit companies. Purpose is to find out first of all, why audit companies are involved in developing XBRL and secondly, what are the main outcomes of XBRL for these companies. Also, the value-added of XBRL for other information process participants from audit companies' perspective is discussed. The specific point of view of audit companies in relation to XBRL is little researched in the past and thus, there is no re...

  4. Priming and stress under high humidity and temperature on the physiological quality of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-5 seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Barbosa Batista

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Palisade grass is a forage plant that is widely used in pasture cropping in the Brazilian savannah. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG–5 seeds subjected to priming and stress at high humidity and temperature (before and after conditioning. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x5 factorial arrangement. Seeds were exposed to stress under high humidity and temperature (before and after conditioning and five priming treatments [Water (Control, potassium nitrate (KNO3 at 0.2%, calcium nitrate Ca(NO32 at 0.2%, gibberellin (GA3 at 0.2% and glucose at 10%] with four replications. Two experiments were performed: Experiment I - seed with chemical scarification using H2SO4 and Experiment II - without scarification. The stress on the seed was applied using artificial aging at 41°C for 96 hours. Seed priming was accomplished by immersion at 25°C for 2 hours. Thereafter, the seeds were oven-dried at 35°C until they regained hygroscopic equilibrium. Seed germination and vigor were evaluated. Priming using KNO3 and Ca(NO32 produced seeds with high tolerance to stress under high temperature, and this process is efficient to overcome dormancy.

  5. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed. PMID:23776503

  6. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  7. Trends in water balance components across the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brazilian Cerrado (Savanna) is considered one of the most important biomes for Brazilian water resources; however, little is known about the components of the water balance in this biome. In this study, we reviewed the available literature on the water balance components in the Brazilian Cerrado...

  8. Directions and deviations in the Brazilian nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergence of the Brazilian nuclear policy as a subject of interest to the Brazilian society, the conflicts characterizing its formulation and implementation between 1945 and 1958 and the political criteria for executing a Brazilian nuclear program are presented. (M.C.K.)

  9. Intrapreneurship, Competition and Company Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Kocjančič

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates intrapreneurship, competition and company efficiencyin large Slovenian companies in order to provide firm-level evidenceand management implications on the extent to which companiesexploit available internal business potentials. The survey data for thesample of large Slovenian companies and statistical methodology areused to analyse the association between intrapreneurship, competitionand company efficiency. The empirical results confirmed the significantimpact of the internal business potentials on the operating results of theanalysed companies. The utilization rate of internal business potentialswas only partially or ill-used, reflecting the internal potential source ofunused business opportunities as one of possible ways to improve competitiveadvantage and company efficiency. The empirical results implythe importance of long-term managerial strategy towards innovationand encouraging creativity as the basis for successful internal corporatebusiness strategy to improve competitive advantage and company efficiency.

  10. Seed thioredoxin h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki; Shahpiri, Azar; Buchanan, Bob B; Henriksen, Anette; Svensson, Birte

    2016-08-01

    Thioredoxins are nearly ubiquitous disulfide reductases involved in a wide range of biochemical pathways in various biological systems, and also implicated in numerous biotechnological applications. Plants uniquely synthesize an array of thioredoxins targeted to different cell compartments, for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses on occurrence, reaction mechanisms, specificity, target protein identification, three-dimensional structure and various applications. The aim is to provide a general background as well as an update covering the most recent findings. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics - a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. PMID:26876537

  11. CSR in TSL companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna DYCZKOWSKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available TSL companies are characterized by high dynamics of an increase of incomes, and hence increased shipping. Owing to a rational policy in the area of the consolidation of production and distribution, they may boast of a better use of the means of transport. The purpose of this article is to present the activities in the area of the eco-friendly CSR aspect in the activities of TSL companies taking into consideration particularly logistic operators. The research methods used in the study include an analysis of secondary data, observations and comparative analyses. Road transport in the shipping structure comes first and it constitutes 84% of freights. In the year 2009, in Poland greenhouse gas emissions from road transport amounted to 42.5 million tons (4.84% of the EU member states and CO emissions were 41.9 million tons (analogically, 4.83% of environment pollutions in the European Union. This causes an emission of fumes into the atmosphere. The policy of sustainable development pursued by logistic operators under corporate social responsibility is a response to the abovementioned data. They take decisions concerning social and environmental aspects. The activities of TSL companies under CSR need to provide an answer to customer expectations and needs, and they have to cause an increase of competitiveness on the market. The selected four largest logistic operators conduct the following eco-friendly activities on the highest level: fume emission reports and the control of these emissions, transport of hazardous goods (ADR, voluntary services in the scope of environmental protection and cooperation with eco-friendly organizations. There are those activities which call for improvement: a limitation of the emission of fumes, waste management and sewage treatment policy.

  12. Board diversity and firm performance: an empirical investigation in the Brazilian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Fraga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the diversity of the boards of directors of Brazilian companies listed on the BM&FBovespa with respect to gender, age, educational attainment and independence, to ascertain whether there is a relationship between any of these diversity measures and firm performance. The study covers all companies without majority control, a type of corporate structure that first appeared in Brazil in 2005. The results indicate that greater diversity in the educational disciplines and the presence or absence of independent board members negatively affect performance, while diversity in years of schooling has a positive effect. The presence of women board members is small, but firms that have at least one female director outperform those that do not.

  13. Brazilian Congress, 2014 elections and governability challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research note examines the results of the 2014 elections focusing on the National Congress. Its main objective is to ponder over common claims and predictions regarding the future of Brazilian politics. Beyond agreements and alliances involved in the electoral dispute, President Dilma Rousseff once again shall face the political challenges and dilemmas of Brazilian presidentialism, namely, how to create and manage government coalitions capable of implementing a coherent political program with a fragmented and heterogeneous Congress. The critical examination of the current hypotheses on the latest elections, especially concerning parliamentary fragmentation and a shift towards the right-wing, will serve as a compass attempting to formulate possible answers to such a fundamental problem in Brazilian politics.

  14. Proposal of a Methodology of Stakeholder Analysis for the Brazilian Satellite Space Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Elizabeth Rocha de Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the continuity and growth of space activities in Brazil, it is fundamental to persuade the Brazilian society and its representatives in Government about the importance of investments in space activities. Also, it is important to convince talented professionals to place space activities as an object of their interest; the best schools should also be convinced to offer courses related to the space sector; finally, innovative companies should be convinced to take part in space sector activities, looking to returns, mainly in terms of market differentiation and qualification, as a path to take part in high-technology and high-complexity projects. On the one hand, this process of convincing or, more importantly, committing these actors to space activities, implies a thorough understanding of their expectations and needs, in order to plan how the system/organization can meet them. On the other hand, if stakeholders understand how much they can benefit from this relationship, their consequent commitment will very much strengthen the action of the system/organization. With this framework in perspective, this paper proposes a methodology of stakeholder analysis for the Brazilian satellite space program. In the exercise developed in the article, stakeholders have been identified from a study of the legal framework of the Brazilian space program. Subsequently, the proposed methodology has been applied to the planning of actions by a public organization.

  15. The carbon fiber development for uranium centrifuges: a Brazilian cooperative research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Paulo Cesar Beltrao de, E-mail: p.queiroz@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zouain, Desiree Moraes, E-mail: dmzouain@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper analyzes both the carbon fiber-based development for uranium centrifuges and the research project that supports its development effort over time. The carbon fiber-based engineering properties make it a valuable supply for high technologic products. Nevertheless, its fabrication occurs only in few developed countries and there is no production in Brazil. In addition, the carbon fiber-based products have dual applications: they can be used by the civilian and military industry. Therefore, there are international restrictions related to its use and applications that justify the internal development. Moreover, the Brazilian Navy centrifuges for uranium enrichment were developed using carbon-fiber which contains polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as an imported raw material. The PAN properties of low weight, high tensile strength increase the isotopic separation efficiency. The Brazilian financial scenario surrounded by the international uncertain economy shows that combined creative project solutions are more effective. Therefore, the Navy's Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP), the University of Campinas (UNICAMP), the University of Sao Paulo (USP), the RADICIFIBRAS Company, and the Brazilian FINEP agency, which is responsible for the project financial support, established a partnership aiming the development of a domestic PAN-based carbon fiber industry. The innovative project solutions adopted and the results of this partnership are presented here. (author)

  16. The Association between Socioeconomic Characteristics and Consumption of Food Items among Brazilian Industry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele B. Vinholes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dietary pattern plays a causative role in the rising of noncommunicable diseases. The SESI (Serviço Social da Indústria study was designed to evaluate risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. We aimed to describe food items consumed by Brazilian workers and to assess their association with socioeconomic status. Methods. Cross-sectional study was carried out among Brazilian industrial workers, selected by multistage sampling, from 157 companies. Interviews were conducted at the work place using standardized forms. Results. 4818 workers were interviewed, aged 35.4±10.7 years, 76.5% were men. The workers had an average of 8.7±4.1 years of schooling and 25.4±4.1 kg/m2 of BMI. Men and individuals with less than high school education were less likely to consume dairy products, fruits, and vegetables daily, even after control for confounding factors. Men consumed rice and beans daily more often than women. In comparison to workers aged 50–76 years, those under 30 years old consumed less fruits and green leafy vegetables daily. Conclusion. The food items consumed by Brazilian workers show that there are insufficient consumption according to the guidelines of healthy foods, particularly of dairy products, vegetables, and fruits.

  17. The role of the decomissioning process on the development of the Brazilian nuclear program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Joao Roberto L. de; Dias, Marcio S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: jrmattos@cdtn.br, e-mail: marciod@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    The National Energy Plan 2030, issued by the Energy Research Company of the Brazilian Ministry of Mines and Energy (EPE, 2007), formalized a reference scenario for the renaissance of the nuclear option in Brazil. This scenario includes the completion of Angra 3 Nuclear Power Plant up to 2014 and the construction of four additional nuclear power plants of 1000 MWe: a fourth unit by 2020, a fifth unit by 2025 and the sixth and seventh plants by 2030. Worldwide, the energy demand and the renaissance of nuclear energy as a primary source for electric power generation are leading the industry toward new constructions as well as uprates and operational life extensions. In this new scenario the decommissioning is pushed further into the future and Brazil is not an exception, considering that Angra 1 NPP is under a process of uprating and certainly will apply for and will receive license renewals allowing its operation for 20 or more years beyond its original project. Thus, why to focus on decommissioning in the present? What is the importance of decommissioning for the development of the Brazilian nuclear industry considering the existing reactors? Should the decommissioning be considered in the design of the new nuclear power plants? What would be the decommissioning plan for the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants? The present paper is intended to contextualize the decommissioning in the present scenarios as well as to try to answer the above questions. (author)

  18. Innovation based on value co-creation: An alternative for Brazilian wine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Martiele Cortes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian wine industry has been facing obstacles such as competition and high tax rates. Innovation is an alternative towards this scenario being it a major factor for any company's survival and growth in the market. Besides this, technological advances and access to information provide consumers with a larger number of choices and knowledge for an informed decision making. Despite differentiation efforts consumers did not obtain satisfaction. Customer interaction provides another way to generate innovation from its involvement in the production process (co-creation of value. The research was held in an awarded winery located in Bento Gonçalves (Brazil with the objective of understanding how the process of value co-creation between Brazilian award-winning wineries and consumers influences innovation generation. It is an exploratory and qualitative study collected through in-depth interviews with a semi-structured script. The winery identifies beneficial effects in the production process resulting from interactions because it narrows the bond with the consumer creating a better understanding of the consumers as well as develop a more tailored offer regarding value. The innovations generated based on co-creation can be taken as an alternative to imposed barriers in the current Brazilian wine sector.

  19. INNOVATION TEACHING WITHIN THE BRAZILIAN ACADEMIC SCENARIO: CONTRIBUTIONS TO HIGHER EDUCATION COURSE ADMINISTRATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel da Silva Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of contributing to innovative business management, this paper investigates how innovation is addressed in Bachelor of Business Administration courses. This work employs a qualitative approach supported by exploratory research and underlined by historical-document research with access to primary data sources in the databases of the Ministry of Education and Culture, Anísio Teixeira National Institute for Studies and Educational Research and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The Brazilian context of innovation was characterized based on the Guide Innovation Index. Data analysis identified the different stages of teaching innovation in existing Administration courses in the country, analyzed regionally. From the results, this paper points out that, although innovation is a marginally addressed topic overall, is most often discussed in Administration courses from Brazil’s South and Southeast regions, which account for the majority of the country’s industrial activity. This study concludes that the theme of innovation is poorly debated within Brazil’s Business Administration courses, indicating an opportunity to review the programmatic contents in line with governmental strategies to increase the rate of innovation in Brazilian companies.

  20. The carbon fiber development for uranium centrifuges: a Brazilian cooperative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes both the carbon fiber-based development for uranium centrifuges and the research project that supports its development effort over time. The carbon fiber-based engineering properties make it a valuable supply for high technologic products. Nevertheless, its fabrication occurs only in few developed countries and there is no production in Brazil. In addition, the carbon fiber-based products have dual applications: they can be used by the civilian and military industry. Therefore, there are international restrictions related to its use and applications that justify the internal development. Moreover, the Brazilian Navy centrifuges for uranium enrichment were developed using carbon-fiber which contains polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as an imported raw material. The PAN properties of low weight, high tensile strength increase the isotopic separation efficiency. The Brazilian financial scenario surrounded by the international uncertain economy shows that combined creative project solutions are more effective. Therefore, the Navy's Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP), the University of Campinas (UNICAMP), the University of Sao Paulo (USP), the RADICIFIBRAS Company, and the Brazilian FINEP agency, which is responsible for the project financial support, established a partnership aiming the development of a domestic PAN-based carbon fiber industry. The innovative project solutions adopted and the results of this partnership are presented here. (author)

  1. Trends on Brazilian book market – fiction best sellers by Brazilian writers (2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Reimão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes Brazilian general book market quantitative data on the period from 2000 to 2009; the second part analyzes the list of best sellers in Brazil on that period, focusing on the presence of Brazilian fiction writers on it. Our analysis points to the conclusion that there is an undeniable quantitative increase on such market but it is not accompanied by innovation. Most titles are world wide best sellers from Anglo-Saxon culture that receive massive publishing campaign and issuing, and represent very little risk to the publishing industry. As for Brazilian writers, they were already well known, especially from TV.

  2. Marketing plan of company

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoš, Lukáš

    2011-01-01

    The topic of the thesis is the formulation of a marketing plan for a small firm, CHICkočárky, which sells baby products. This work should help the company improve its performance on the current local markets. The first part of the thesis includes an overview of the basic marketing concepts and of the most frequently used tools according to renowned experts like e.g. Philip Kotler and Miroslav Foret. This part explains the following marketing terms – marketing, marketing plan, situation analys...

  3. Seeds of the Future

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Five of the global issues most frequently debated today are the decline of biodiversity in general and of agrobiodiversity in particular, climate change, hunger and malnutrition, poverty and water. These issues are connected with each other, and should be dealt with as such. Most of our food comes from seeds (even when we eat meat, we indirectly eat plants, which come from seeds) and food affects our health. The evolution of plant breeding, the science which is responsible for the type and the diversity of seed that farmers plant, and hence for the diversity of food that we eat, helps us understand how agrobiodiversity has decreased. An agro-ecological model of agriculture could be solution to the most important problems affecting the planet, but is often criticized for not being able to produce enough food for a growing population casting doubts on whether food security and food safety can be compatible objectives. Participatory and evolutionary plant breeding, while benefiting from advances in molecular g...

  4. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  5. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Miyamoto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  6. Company Secretaries: Their duties and powers

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Every company must have a company secretary. Their main role is to: carry out the directors’ instructions; help ensure that the company obeys the law and its own constitutional rules; and prepare and maintain the associated company documents.

  7. Shaking Youngsters and Shaken Adults: Female Beetles Eavesdrop on Larval Seed Vibrations to Make Egg-Laying Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Yack, Jayne E

    2016-01-01

    Egg-laying decisions are critical for insects, and particularly those competing for limited resources. Sensory information used by females to mediate egg-laying decisions has been reported to be primarily chemical, but the role of vibration has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that vibrational cues produced by feeding larvae occupying a seed influences egg-laying decisions amongst female cowpea beetles. This hypothesis is supported by three lines of evidence using two strains of the cowpea beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus), an Indian strain with choosy females and aggressively competing larvae and a Brazilian strain with less choosy females and larvae exhibiting an "accommodating" type of competition. First, in free-choice bioassays of seed selection, choosy Indian females selected control seeds (free of eggs, larvae, or egg-laying marker) over seeds with live larvae (free of eggs and egg-laying marker), but did not discriminate between control seeds and those with dead larvae. In contrast, less choosy Brazilian females showed no preference for seeds containing live or dead larvae over controls. Second, laser-doppler vibrometer recordings confirmed that larvae feeding inside seeds generate vibrations that are available to the female during egg-laying decisions. Third, during dichotomous choice experiments where artificial vibrations approximating those produced by feeding larvae were played back during seed selection, Indian females preferred immobile control seeds over vibrating seeds, but Brazilian females showed no preference. These results support the hypothesis that females use larval vibrations in their egg-laying decisions; whether these vibrations are passive cues exploited by the female, or active signals that 'steer' the behaviour of the female is unknown. We propose that vibration cues and signals could be important for host selection in insects, particularly those laying on substrates where visual or chemical cues may be unreliable

  8. Shaking Youngsters and Shaken Adults: Female Beetles Eavesdrop on Larval Seed Vibrations to Make Egg-Laying Decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Narciso C Guedes

    Full Text Available Egg-laying decisions are critical for insects, and particularly those competing for limited resources. Sensory information used by females to mediate egg-laying decisions has been reported to be primarily chemical, but the role of vibration has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that vibrational cues produced by feeding larvae occupying a seed influences egg-laying decisions amongst female cowpea beetles. This hypothesis is supported by three lines of evidence using two strains of the cowpea beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus, an Indian strain with choosy females and aggressively competing larvae and a Brazilian strain with less choosy females and larvae exhibiting an "accommodating" type of competition. First, in free-choice bioassays of seed selection, choosy Indian females selected control seeds (free of eggs, larvae, or egg-laying marker over seeds with live larvae (free of eggs and egg-laying marker, but did not discriminate between control seeds and those with dead larvae. In contrast, less choosy Brazilian females showed no preference for seeds containing live or dead larvae over controls. Second, laser-doppler vibrometer recordings confirmed that larvae feeding inside seeds generate vibrations that are available to the female during egg-laying decisions. Third, during dichotomous choice experiments where artificial vibrations approximating those produced by feeding larvae were played back during seed selection, Indian females preferred immobile control seeds over vibrating seeds, but Brazilian females showed no preference. These results support the hypothesis that females use larval vibrations in their egg-laying decisions; whether these vibrations are passive cues exploited by the female, or active signals that 'steer' the behaviour of the female is unknown. We propose that vibration cues and signals could be important for host selection in insects, particularly those laying on substrates where visual or chemical cues may

  9. Vietnamese Cosmetic Market Study for Company X : case Company: Company X

    OpenAIRE

    Quynh Trang Nguyen, Thi

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam has been known as one of the fastest growing economies in the world, and the Vietnamese cosmetic market is attracting lots of investment from many foreign companies. As a result, the author was assigned to do initial cosmetic market research for Company X, a Finland-based holistic beauty company. The company has been the market leader in Finland and at the moment, Company X is evaluating promising market in Asia for expansion in the future. The main objective of this thesis is to a...

  10. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  11. Seed and Embryo Germination in Ardisia crenata

    OpenAIRE

    Masayuki Oda; Shuji Shiozaki; Hideyuki Tanaka; Hisa Yokoyama; Takahiro Tezuka

    2012-01-01

    Ardisia crenata is an evergreen shrub with attractive bright red berries. Although this species is usually propagated by seed, the seeds take a long time to germinate with conventional sowing methods. We investigated the germination capacity of seeds and embryos collected in different months and the effects of seed storage conditions, germination temperature, water permeability of the seed coat, and the endosperm on seed germination. Seeds and embryos collected in late September or later show...

  12. Potassium leakage and maize seed physiological potential

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Mariane Victorio de Carvalho; Marcos Filho Julio

    2002-01-01

    Seed production usually requires fast decisions to improve the efficacy of seed handling during harvesting, processing and storage. Seed technologists have focused on the development or improvement of procedures which allow rapid and consistent identification of higher quality seed lots. This research verified the effectiveness of the potassium leachate test on the evaluation of the physiological potential of maize seeds in comparison to recommended seed vigor tests. Five seed lots of the hyb...

  13. Brazilian methodology adopted about lightning rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Felipe [Comissao Nacional de Enegia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Rejeitos Radioativos]. E-mail: felipe@cnen.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the Brazilian experience concerning the suspension of the authorization for the production and installation of lightning rods containing radioactive material in the country and the main measures put into practice in order to safely remove and transport to temporary storage facilities all the existing devices Brazil that would be put out of use after the suspension. It is also presented the procedure established by the National Regulatory Body namely the Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy- CNEN to be accomplished by the owners of this kind of devices. (author)

  14. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  15. THE INDIGENOUS GROUPS AND THE BRAZILIAN SWEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mártin César Tempass

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the books of Gilberto Freyre and Câmara Cascudo, that influencied so much the literature about brazilian alimentation, the participation of indigenous groups in the national sweets formation process is negligencied. However, is possible to find in book´s “interlineations” of these two authors valuables informations about indigenous contributions to this process. Starting from these two authors and based in the culinary system notion, this paper quests to situate the role of indigenous groups in the brazilian sweets formation and numbers the possibles causes to invisibility of sweets by indigenous at the culinary formation process.

  16. Brazilians sentenced to sewage-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édison Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no furthest behind infrastructure in Brazil than the lack of sewage disposal, particularly the shortage of services for treating water, and for collecting and treating waste. The scarcity of these essential services to human dignity has been plaguing millions of Brazilians, as indicated by the data of the National Sanitation Information System 2014. We have 35 million Brazilians without access to services for treating water, where half the population has no sewage collection and only 40% of the waste collected in this country is treated. The shortage of sewage disposal affects all of us.

  17. CHANGQING OILFIELD COMPANY PROMOTES COOPERATION WITH FOREIGN COMPANIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Guanglong; Li Dongxun

    2001-01-01

    @@ PetroChina Changqing Oilfield Company has vigorously promoted cooperation with foreign companies in oil and gas exploration and development in Orodos basin. In partnership with US-based Halliburton International Inc., Baker Hughes Inc., Schlumberger Ltd. and BJ Corporation,the company has carried out acidizing and fracturing design and operation for almost 30 wells with acquisition of the equipment. The cooperation has achieved satisfactory results. At present, the company is under negotiation with Exxon-Mobil Corporation and Chevron Corporation on the cooperative natural gas development and application of Sulige and Mizhi gas fields. A large number of first-class international petroleum companies have expressed their great interest and willingness to cooperate with Changqing Oilfield Company. On 30 July, the Asian Exchange Association based in Japan sent a 24-member delegation to Changqing on its fourth tour to seek business opportunities.

  18. Seed treatment technology of carrot seeds with plant volatile substances

    OpenAIRE

    Ličková, Simona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of carrot (Daucus carota L.) seed treatment using essential oil vapour phase, especially focused on finding appropriate combination of concentration, temperature and application time to decrease number of native fungi and evaluating the effect of essential oil on seed germination. Seed samples were contaminated with natural microorganisms. Essential oils of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry) and ci...

  19. Disclosure of immobilized assets on companies sector industrial goods of BM&FBovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Viviani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the process of disclosure of Industrials companies listed on the BM&FBovespa, after the convergence of Brazilian accounting to IFRS, in accordance with CPC 27 - Fixed Assets . Was carried a descriptive study, conducted through content analysis and quantitative approach using the calculation of entropy proposed by Zeleny (1982. The sample consists of 34 companies in the Industrial Goods sector listed on the BM&FBovespa. The results revealed that the disclosure of items of fixed assets is not performed homogeneously by companies. Some requirements required by CPC 27 were reported incompletely or are absent. A detailed analysis of the items investigated stressed that disclosure to class of fixed assets, was the best performed, followed by depreciation policies adopted by companies, it was observed that most companies show so complete this information. The information highlighted regarding the reconciliation of the carrying amount, had higher entropy, hence there is greater heterogeneity in this items reported. The disclosure of other information about the property, deemed necessary by CPC27, were less prominent by the companies, not apply in some cases or for being absent in the notes. In general, we concluded that the analyzed companies have been responding only partially to the disclosure requirements of CPC 27. However, the basic and more important information to the external user, concerning the class of assets and depreciation rates are being shown.

  20. Simulation Of Seed Distribution Uniformity In Row On Seeding Machines

    OpenAIRE

    TAŞER, Ö. Faruk

    1996-01-01

    : In this research, it was determined the uniformity of seed distribution in row on the machines by using a simulation programme which made for this purpose. It was tested the truth of simulation programme by the applications of seeding in row. It was conducted the applications of controling in a closed area and it was made seeding machine constant and stick band system active. In the control applications, lentil seeds were used and application paramétrés were accepted on two different types...

  1. Seed size selection by olive baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Britta Kerstin; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2008-10-01

    Seed size is an important plant fitness trait that can influence several steps between fruiting and the establishment of a plant's offspring. Seed size varies considerably within many plant species, yet the relevance of the trait for intra-specific fruit choice by primates has received little attention. Primates may select certain seed sizes within a species for a number of reasons, e.g. to decrease indigestible seed load or increase pulp intake per fruit. Olive baboons (Papio anubis, Cercopithecidae) are known to select seed size in unripe and mature pods of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) differentially, so that pods with small seeds, and an intermediate seed number, contribute most to dispersal by baboons. We tested whether olive baboons likewise select for smaller ripe seeds within each of nine additional fruit species whose fruit pulp baboons commonly consume, and for larger seeds in one species in which baboons feed on the seeds. Species differed in fruit type and seed number per fruit. For five of these species, baboons dispersed seeds that were significantly smaller than seeds extracted manually from randomly collected fresh fruits. In contrast, for three species, baboons swallowed seeds that were significantly longer and/or wider than seeds from fresh fruits. In two species, sizes of ingested seeds and seeds from fresh fruits did not differ significantly. Baboons frequently spat out seeds of Drypetes floribunda (Euphorbiaceae) but not those of other plant species having seeds of equal size. Oral processing of D. floribunda seeds depended on seed size: seeds that were spat out were significantly larger and swallowed seeds smaller, than seeds from randomly collected fresh fruits. We argue that seed size selection in baboons is influenced, among other traits, by the amount of pulp rewarded per fruit relative to seed load, which is likely to vary with fruit and seed shape.

  2. The relevance of thermoelectricity for the development of the Brazilian natural gas industry; A importancia da termoeletricidade para o desenvolvimento da industria de gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico]. E-mail: canelas@ppe.ufrj.br

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the capacity of the 'inflexible production', by state-owned Brazilian company PETROBRAS at its natural gas-based thermo-electrical generation stations, to promote in a increase in the use of the Brazil- Bolivia Gaspipe (Gasbol), which is the natural gas transport pipe related to 90,66% of the Brazilian natural gas imports. As the contract is a 'take or pay' contract, Brazil ends up paying for such a large volume of gas that the country does not effectively consume, since the consume of natural gas in Brazil has not come to the expectations which were prevailing when the import contract was signed. Last but not least, this article addresses the future possibilities for the increase of the share of natural gas in the total Brazilian energy consumption. (author)

  3. Proceedings of the 12. Brazilian congress on energy. Challenges of the Brazilian energy sector. V. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and experimental papers are approaching by these proceedings covering the following subjects: distributed generation, co-generation, fuel cells, hybrid solar systems, natural gas, small hydroelectric power plants, renewable sources, biogas, and the Brazilian Biofuels Program

  4. Comparative analysis on the adoption of innovation in furniture companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Reinaldo Hermes Petter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify factors categorical adoption of innovation in three main groups: in products, processes and administrative procedures in a group of micro and small enterprises in the furniture sector, located in the middle western state of Santa Catarina. In particular, the study sought to compare the data of a survey conducted by SEBRAE (2009 observed the same factors present innovation in micro and small businesses scattered throughout the Brazilian territory, in order to compare the national stage for the adoption of innovation in relation the scenario presented by the companies studied in this research. Data collection took place by means of a questionnaire consisting of multiple choice closed questions related to the three aforementioned groups of innovation, which was answered by managers of the constituent companies of the group studied. As a result of this research, it was found that the adoption of innovation in product development is the most important aspect in the surveyed companies. It was also found that they seek to adopt the innovation with the objective of entering new markets. However, the main difficulty in adopting innovation were identified lack of skilled labor, shortage and / or lack of access to technology and financial difficulties. Compared to general adoption of innovation by micro and small enterprises studied by SEBRAE (2009, the studied firms have a tendency to develop in the same direction.

  5. 7 CFR 457.152 - Hybrid seed corn crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... closing date, the Board of Directors of the seed company has executed and adopted a corporate resolution... that the female parent plants are expected to produce when grown under a specific production practice... by crossing a male and female parent plant, each having a different genetic character. This...

  6. 7 CFR 457.112 - Hybrid sorghum seed crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the Board of Directors of the seed company has executed and adopted a corporate resolution containing... that the female parent plants are expected to produce when grown under a specific production practice... produced by crossing a male and female parent plant, each having a different genetic character....

  7. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel Maria; Nishimoto Ines; Hamada Gerson; Kusama Ritsu; Nishimura Hideki; Onuma Hiroshi; Yokoyama Shiro; Kasuga Yoshio; Iwasaki Motoki; Motola Juvenal; Laginha Fábio; Anzai Roberto; Tsugane Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Bra...

  8. 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology and 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunology, virology, bacteriology, genetics and protozoology are some of the subjects treated in the 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology. Studies using radioisotopic techniques and ultrastructural cytological studies are presented. Use of optical - and electron microscopy in some of these studies is discussed. In the 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy, the application of this technique to materials science is discussed (failure analysis in metallurgy, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, etc). (I.C.R.)

  9. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-01-01

    Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  10. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  11. Diagnostic Process of Company Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emese Tokarˇcíková

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an actual topic of how key factors of enterprise diagnostics can help to increase company productivity. Recognition and use of relevant internal and external information in this field determines the success of the enterprise. Application of the general diagnostic model of company productivity to the net income has been a frequent problem of company practice. This problem is of profit showing, which is an inevitable precondition for long-term company development and growth. Diagnostic access of company productivity allows recognition of specific problems in greater detail, which results from the activity of each company. This article also presents an introduction to the researched area of enterprise diagnostics, which opens opportunities for other publishing activities and can lead to information exchange.

  12. PROJECTION OF PENETRATION OF THE BROKER IN HOME BRAZILIAN CAPITAL MARKET THROUGH LINEAR, GOMPERTZ AND FISHER – PRY MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Kawamoto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the theories of internationalization and competitiveness, the positioning of a Brazilian company from agribusiness industry, exporting meat and food that has become a major global player in this industry JBS - Friboi. This company has been internationalized very fast in recent years and become a global leader in beef production, the second to the production of chicken meat and third largest producer of pork in the U.S. (JBS, 2010. The case is emblematic of JBS when analyzed under the concept of Porter's diamond applied to Brazil. This company gained scale and competitiveness with the access to natural resources of prodution (condition factor, but now it is necessary for maintenance its leading position, it requires a strategy grounded in innovation beyond just scale and operational excellence.

  13. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets...

  14. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed... percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage....

  15. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed, if... percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage....

  16. Employee motivation and company benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Zadinová, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis pertains to employee motivation and company benefits. In the first part thereof the concepts related to motivation and stimulation of employees are described and explained, the most well-know theories of motivation are summarized and the reason for company benefits existence are explained there. In the second part of the thesis the author makes a survey of the employees‘ satisfaction with the available benefits within ComAp, spol. s r.o. (Limited Liability Company). The s...

  17. Best Practice In Company Standardisation

    OpenAIRE

    Slob, F.J.C.; de Vries, Henk

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThough the majority of standards are company standards, scientific standardisation literature pays hardly any attention to them. In this paper we describe results from a research project on company standardisation (Oly & Slob, 1999). The researchers investigated six chemical and petrochemical industries in the Netherlands: Akzo Nobel, Dow Chemical, DSM, Gasunie, NAM and Shell. These companies have numerous standards for their installations. Best practice for developing such standa...

  18. Profitability of Title Insurance Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin H. Duett; Robert A. Hershbarger

    1992-01-01

    The research in this paper examines the profitability of title insurance companies in relationship to property/casualty, life/health insurance and non-insurance firms. A series of four profitability measures which have previously been tested in prior literature have been used to determine if title insurance companies are more or less profitable than the other types of insurance companies and non-insurance firms.

  19. Metal deposition using seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  20. Motor Acquisition Rate in Brazilian Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Virlaine Bardella; de Lima, Carolina Daniel; Tudella, Eloisa

    2009-01-01

    This study used the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) with the aim of characterizing motor acquisition rate in 70 healthy 0-6-month-old Brazilian infants, as well as comparing both emergence (initial age) and establishment (final age) of each skill between the study sample and the AIMS normative data. New motor skills were continuously acquired…

  1. Virus infections in Brazilian honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian honey bees are famously resistant to disease, perhaps because of long-term introgression from Apis mellifera subsp. scutellata. Recently, colony losses were observed in the Altinópolis region of southeastern Brazil. We sampled 200 colonies from this region for Israeli acute paralysis vir...

  2. Effects of Brazilian Schools on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, José Francisco; Alves, Maria Teresa Gonzaga; Xavier, Flavia Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Brazilian elementary schools on the chances of their students achieving at different levels of mathematics proficiency. Since student proficiency is classified at three levels--Insufficient, Basic and Proficient--the chosen model of analysis was the hierarchical multinomial model. The…

  3. Bullying in Brazilian Schools and Restorative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Patricia Krieger; dos Santos, Andreia Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a widespread phenomenon that affects many children and adolescents in Brazilian schools. A pilot research study was carried out in four schools (one private and three public) located in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. A combination of self-administered questionnaires and focus groups with students as well as interviews with teachers were…

  4. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Fabio; Salles, João; Hamdy, Osama; Coutinho, Walmir; Baptista, Deise Regina; Benchimol, Alexander; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy) and regular physical activity (structured exercise) represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  5. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy and regular physical activity (structured exercise represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  6. Logistics problems in soybeans Brazilian exportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heráclito Lopes Jaguaribe Pontes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available With the globalization process, the world-wide nations are having an increase of the international trade. Brazil has, each time more, used the agribusiness as a strategy of insertion in the world-wide economy. The exportations of Brazilian agricultural productscome playing an important paper in the supplying revenues and increase of the domestic income, but a visible problem of the agribusiness for exportation is related to logistic. In theworld-wide marketplace, Brazil presents comparative advantages in the production of agricultural products in relation to the other world-wide producers, but it loses in logistic costs. The importance of this work is in characterizing the logistic problems of the Brazilian exportation of one of the most important commodities national, the soybeans. The soybeans is the agricultural product that more generates volume of exportation for Brazil, demanding sufficiently of the logistic structure of the country. For accomplishment of this work, it was used an general bibliographical research, where if it carried through a detailed survey of themain problems, causes, costs and solutions for the flowing of the soybeans in Brazilian for exportation. From the development of this work, it was perceived that the challenges of the logistic of the soybeans are many and that the resolution of these problems will increase the Brazilian international competitiveness, increasing the trustworthiness in the delivery times and reducing the costs of the inefficiencies in the exportation process.

  7. Earning management in Brazilian financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aims to study earnings management in a significant sample of 123 banks in the Brazilian market between 2001 and 2012. Given the important role that banks play in a country's economy, it is important to understand that there are discretionary factors involved in the reporting of a financial institution's profitability. Credit provisioning guidelines for Brazilian financial institutions are described in Resolution 2682/99 of the National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional. Because of the discretion allowed in this resolution, loan loss provision is used as instrument of earnings management, which is not an illegal practice, but this behavior does affect the risk perception of agents and analysts, and they should be aware of it and understand it. We found that credit provisioning is used as an earnings management mechanism to smooth the net income of Brazilian financial institutions. Brazilian banks tend to avoid not only negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes, but also negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes in relation to the previous period. Contrary to the previous studies, it is not clear if banks avoid lower net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes than a given peer group.

  8. Impacts of Climate Change on Brazilian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Assad, Eduardo; Pinto, Hilton S.; Nassar, Andre; Harfuch, Leila; Freitas, Saulo; Farinelli, Barbara; Lundell, Mark; Erick C.M. Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    This report evaluates the requirements for an assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture to guide policy makers on investment priorities and phasing. Because agriculture is vital for national food security and is a strong contributor to Brazil's GDP growth, there is growing concern that Brazilian agriculture is increasingly vulnerable to climate variability and change. To meet nat...

  9. Analogies in high school Brazilian chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária Justi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an analysis of the analogies presented by Brazilian chemistry textbooks for the medium level. The main aim of the analysis is to discuss whether such analogies can be said good teaching models. From the results, some aspects concerning with teachers' role are discussed. Finally, some new research questions are emphasised.

  10. Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Margulis, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide concern with deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia is motivated not only by the irreversible loss of this natural wealth, but also by the perception that it is a destructive process in which the social and economic gains are smaller than the environmental losses. This perception also underlies the diagnosis, formulation and evaluation of public policies proposed by government a...

  11. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna incl

  12. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L. sn

  13. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Plan of Action on Science, Technology and Innovation (PACT 2007-2010) of the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI), aligned to the governmental strategies for the Brazilian Nuclear Program, established as a goal the study and definition of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). The RMB research reactor is designed to perform three main functions: radioisotope production for medicine, industry, agriculture and environmental applications; fuel and material irradiation testing in support to the Brazilian nuclear energy program; and to provide neutron beams for scientific and applied research. The main project facilities are: nuclear pool type reactor with a flux level compatible to the multipurpose uses; hot cells laboratory for Mo-99 and I-131 processing; hot cells laboratory for radioisotope processing; hot cells laboratory for irradiated material post irradiation analysis; neutron beams laboratory building with scientific equipment and instrumentation for researching; radiochemistry laboratory; radioactive waste treatment facility; support laboratories for operation and researching; and buildings for researchers and operators. This speech presents the RMB project status, giving some technical and management details on its development and its future perspectives for new jobs in research activities for the Brazilian technical and scientific community. (author)

  14. The Brazilian business and growth cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauvet Marcelle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses several produceres to date and analyse the Brazilian business and growth cycles. In particular, a Markov switching model is fitted to quarterly and annual real production data. The smoothed probabilities of the Markov states are used as predictive rules to define different phases of cyclical fluctuations of real Brazilian production. The results are compared with different non-parametric rules. All methods implemented yield similar dating and reveal asymmetries across the different states of the Brazilian business and growth cycles, in which slowdowns and recessions are short and abrupt, while high growth phases and expansions are longer and less steep. The resulting dating of the Brazilian economic cycles can be used as a reference point for construction and evaluation of the predictive performance of coincident, leading, or lagging indicators of economic activity. In addition, the filtered probabilities obtained from the Markov switching model allow early recognition of the transition to a new business cycle phase, wich can be used, for example, for evaluation of the adequate strength and timing of countercyclical policies, for reassessment of projected sales or profits by businesses and investors, or for monitoring of inflation pressures.

  15. THE WHOLESALE COMPANIES AS A LINK BETWEEN THE TWO CIRCUITS OF URBAN ECONOMY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Xavier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current space division of labour increases the importance of circulation in production process and imposes a rapid and more frequent replacement of supplies, according to shorter stated periods, both in industry and retail. In Brazil, the opening of the economy, imposing a bigger competitiveness to the companies, and the social and territorial expansion of consumption have affected the organization and the structure of the wholesale companies. In reply, the logistics, as the management of the flow of goods, information and other resources, has enhanced the activities of planning and control. As the logistics becomes more important, a new organization of territory arises, increasing the relationships among places. Thus, we conclude that the wholesale distributors continue exerting a significant role in the intermediation between the industry and small retail. The modernization of Brazilian wholesale companies confirms the link existing between the two circuits of urban economy in Brazil.

  16. A characterization of performance measures for measuring postponement strategies: case studies in food companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Araújo Ferreira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The postponement strategy is more and more used by companies with the increasing complexity and variety of products, currently required by the market. In essence, the postponement is used to delay as much as possible the final configuration and/or movement of products and services, until the demand known. Despite the increasing attention to the subject, little is known about is implementation, especially in the Brazilian food industry. This research aims to investigate how the postponement strategy is applied to food companies and what performance measures that can be used to evaluate the results of this application. To meet these goals were developed six exploratory case studies in orange juice and fruits processing companies. The results allow comparing the performance measures found in the literature with those obtained in empirical research and systematize them in order to obtain a list of performance measures for measuring postponement strategies.

  17. Principles of European Company Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us, and this is presen......The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us...

  18. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also presents the

  19. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Soares, Adalberto Jose [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also

  20. 78 FR 58571 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company, Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, and The Yankee Atomic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Atomic Power Company, Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, and The Yankee Atomic Electric Company... Power Company (Maine Yankee), Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company (Connecticut Yankee), and the Yankee Atomic Electric Company (Yankee Atomic) (together, ``licensees'' or ``the Yankee Companies'')...

  1. OUTWARD BRAZILIAN FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: IMPULSES AND RESPONSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald de Oliveira Concer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper models the outward foreign direct investment from Brazil series using time a series econometrics model, namely the Vector Auto Regressive (VAR model. We have drawn impulse response functions for the key relevant factors that may explain the outward foreign direct investment flows. We start with a review of the literature on the Dunning location approach to international business. We worked with a data set of quarterly observations from Q1-1995 to Q1-2010. We carried also out Granger causality tests as for determining whether international business travelling should be included as an explanatory variable in our model. Results stressed that although the strong exchange rate in Brazil is often blamed for forcing companies to invest abroad, the evidence found in the aggregate data suggests that there is not a significant relationship between the level of foreign exchange rate and the outward Brazilian foreign direct investment. Differently from previous studies, this paper uses impulse response functions to present dynamic results, thus avoiding the typical binary results “affect” or “don’t affect”, and in so doing we provide a more detailed insight into this important location factor.

  2. Hedge Effectiveness in the Brazilian US Dollar Futures Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lima Gomes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, one could observe a very definite surge in dollar prices in Brazil. Many Brazilian Companies, especially those with large amounts of dollar denominated debt incurred substantial losses due to the strong and fast growth of the dollar. The subsequent dollar price collapse from 2002 to 2008 caused great losses to exporters. In the context of hedge being a form of protection against currency oscillations, this paper aimed to study its effectiveness using the dollar future market in the BM&FBovespa. Specifically, four alternatives for calculating the optimum hedge ratio were compared: a the so called naïve approach, where opposite positions are taken in the spot and future markets; b OLS – Ordinary Least Squares c symmetric bi-variate GARCH (Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity; d asymmetric bi-variate GARCH. The results showed that both GARCH supported hedge ratios presented higher effectiveness when compared to OLS, with in turn surpassed the naïve one.

  3. OUTWARD BRAZILIAN FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: IMPULSES AND RESPONSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald de Oliveira Concer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper models the outward foreign direct investment from Brazil series using time a series econometrics model, namely the Vector Auto Regressive (VAR model. We have drawn impulse response functions for the key relevant factors that may explain the outward foreign direct investment flows. We start with a review of the literature on the Dunning location approach to international business. We worked with a data set of quarterly observations from Q1-1995 to Q1-2010. We carried also out Granger causality tests as for determining whether international business travelling should be included as an explanatory variable in our model. Results stressed that although the strong exchange rate in Brazil is often blamed for forcing companies to invest abroad, the evidence found in the aggregate data suggests that there is not a significant relationship between the level of foreign exchange rate and the outward Brazilian foreign direct investment. Differently from previous studies, this paper uses impulse response functions to present dynamic results, thus avoiding the typical binary results “affect” or “don’t affect”, and in so doing we provide a more detailed insight into this important location factor.

  4. Inclusive business and poverty: prospects in the Brazilian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armindo dos Santos de Sousa Teodósio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive business is a term currently used to explain the organizations that aim to solve social problems with efficiency and financial sustainability by means of market mechanisms. It can be said that inclusive businesses are those targeted at generating employment and income for groups with little or no market mobility, in keeping with the standards of so-called "decent jobs" and in a self-sustaining manner, i.e., generating profit for the enterprises, and establishing relationships with typical business organizations as suppliers of products and services or in the distribution of this type of production. This article discusses the different concepts found in the scientific literature on inclusive businesses. It also analyses data from a survey conducted with the audiences of Social Corporate Responsibility seminars held by FIEMG. This analysis reveals that prospects, risks and idealizations similar to those found in inclusive business theories can also be found among individuals that run social corporate responsibility projects, even if this designation is new for them. The connection between companies and poverty, especially in relation to inclusive businesses, seems full of stumbling blocks and traps in the Brazilian context.

  5. Cloning and expression of embryogenesis-regulating genes in Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze (Brazilian Pine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlögl, Paulo Sérgio; dos Santos, André Luis Wendt; Vieira, Leila do Nascimento; Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Angiosperm and gymnosperm plants evolved from a common ancestor about 300 million years ago. Apart from morphological and structural differences in embryogenesis and seed origin, a set of embryogenesis-regulating genes and the molecular mechanisms involved in embryo development seem to have been conserved alike in both taxa. Few studies have covered molecular aspects of embryogenesis in the Brazilian pine, the only economically important native conifer in Brazil. Thus eight embryogenesis-regulating genes, viz., ARGONAUTE 1, CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1, WUSCHEL-related WOX, S-LOCUS LECTIN PROTEIN KINASE, SCARECROW-like, VICILIN 7S, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1, and REVERSIBLE GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE 1, were analyzed through semi-quantitative RT-PCR during embryo development and germination. All the eight were found to be differentially expressed in the various developmental stages of zygotic embryos, seeds and seedling tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on embryogenesis-regulating gene expression in members of the Araucariaceae family, as well as in plants with recalcitrant seeds. PMID:22481892

  6. The attitude of foreign consumers towards Brazilian products: an investigation of the footwear sector in Brazil Atitude de consumidores estrangeiros com relação a produtos brasileiros: uma investigação do setor calçadista no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian footwear and leather supply chain is important for the economy not only because of the exports generated but also for the ability to create jobs as well. A review of these exports was made together with a report of empirical research conducted with undergraduate university students in Holland to determine their evaluation and impressions of Brazilian footwear. Since the attitude of these consumers was largely negative, a recommendation was made that marketing professionals from these companies should endeavor to improve this poor attitude in order to increase the sales potential of Brazilian footwear.

  7. INTERNATIONALIZATION STRATEGY OF BRAZILIAN HEAVY CONSTRUCTION: REFLECTIONS ON THE HISTORY AND RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Luciane Scherer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that internationalization is a booming phenomenon, the paper aims to describe the process of internationalization of Brazilian companies in the heavy construction sector which have internationalized their activities through the execution of foreign direct investment (FDI. The focus is to understand the trajectories adopted in understanding the choices made, and the identification of the results obtained by these companies, experienced in international markets. Performing empirical research in business segment of heavy construction felt the need to broaden the scope of studies related to the internationalization of service firms. About the internationalization path adopted, the analysis of four cases showed similarities. To minimize the ignorance concerning market conditions, companies work normally with local partners. Concerning strategic choices and outcomes arising, the cases showed that the maintenance of external activity followed other criteria in addition to profitability. Maintaining external operations also been explained in terms of the need for constant updating. Different stages of internationalization were identified in the companies studied.

  8. Chlorophyll in tomato seeds: marker for seed performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhartanto, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Using Xe-PAM, laser induced fluorometry and high performance liquid chromatography we found that chlorophyll was present in young tomato (cv. Moneymaker) seeds and was degraded during maturation. Fluorescence microscopy and imaging showed that the majority of chlorophyll is located in the seed coat

  9. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  10. Use of tetrazolium (TTC, Germ's and greenhouse plant emergences methods for testing seed vigour of selected ornamental plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hołubowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1996-1997 the experiments were carried out on methods to investigate seed vigour of tassel flower (Amaranthus caudatus L., sand pink (Dianthus chinensis L., babies' breath (Gypsophila elegans M.B., sweet pea (Lathyrus odorathus L., African marigold (Tagetes erecta L. and zinnia (Zinnia elegans Jasq.. The main goals of this research were to specify conditions for accelerated ageing (AA of the seeds of a few selected ornamental plant species and to choose the most appropriate methods for their seed vigour evaluation in the laboratory and greenhouse conditions. All used in the experiments seeds came from the commercial seed lots from Polish seed company. Evaluation was carried out on the seed samples with high and low vigour. The latter ones were received through subjecting the seed samples to AA, i.e. by placing them in 100% relative humidity (RH at 44°C, except African marigold-at 42°C, in the darkness and keeping them for 144, 88, 100, 48, 72 and 72 hours, respectively. The tested seed vigour estimated methods included the Germ's method, the 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazoilum chloride (TTC method and the test of plant emergences in the greenhouse. The high vigour seeds samples were used as a check. The Germ's method was found to be useful to evaluate sand pink, babies' breath and African marigold seed vigour, whereas the TTC method was found to be suitable for vigour evaluation of sand pink, babies' breath and zinnia. At present stage of our knowledge about seed vigour, the plant emergences in the greenhouse method was found to be the best for evaluation of seed vigour of tassel flower, sand pink, babies' breath, sweet pea and zinnia. It is reasonable to combine a few methods of seed vigour evaluation for ornamental plant species.

  11. The economic impacts of the upstream activities after the reform of the Brazilian oil industry; Impactos economicos da exploracao e producao apos a abertura da industria petrolifera brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico]. E-mail: canelas@ppe.ufrj.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper analyzes the macroeconomic impacts of the investments in the oil and gas upstream, which took place after the reform of the Brazilian oil industry. The reason why I chose to analyze such a period of time was the institutional change which took place in the Brazilian oil industry after the Brazilian Parliament approved Law n. 9.478 in 1997. The law represented the new regulation of the activities related to the oil industry in Brazil. Since then, there has been a very large amount of capital spending in the oil and gas upstream, not only by PETROBRAS, the state-owned oil company, but also by the oil companies which entered the Brazilian oil industry after it was opened to foreign and private upstream investments. This paper analyses the economic impacts of these upstream investments by PETROBRAS and by the new players in Brazil, addressing the impacts of these investments on the generation of aggregate value and yield and the economic activity of other industries. This paper is dedicated, in its entirety, to Prof. Carmen Alveal, whose knowledge, support, encouragement and friendship were, for me, the most important of all, professionally and morally. (author)

  12. Company Strategy Determination in Food Company Using Swot Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingaldi Manuela

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Strategy is a high-level plan to achieve one or more goals under conditions of uncertainty. Strategy becomes necessary when it is known or suspected there are insufcient resources to achieve these goals. To choose a good strategy, it is important to check frst the strategic position of a company. The SWOT analysis is a very useful tool to do so. Everyone almost every day buys food to live. For people, it is very important to buy food with good quality at a low price. That is why the authors chose a food company to check its strategic position. In this paper, the strategic position of the chosen food company was specifed. This allowed assessing the current situation of the company and to determine the direction of its future activities. The company should use the maxi-maxi strategy.

  13. 17 CFR 256.01-2 - Application to service companies doing business with nonassociate companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... companies doing business with nonassociate companies. 256.01-2 Section 256.01-2 Commodity and Securities... COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-2 Application to service companies doing business with nonassociate companies. While...

  14. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongli He; Chao Han; Xiaojian Yin; Hui Zhang; Pingfang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Seed germination is a complex physiological which starts from the uptake of water by the dry seeds and ends at the protrusion of the radicle.In order to elucidate the mechanism of rice seed germination,we have conducted a systematic proteomic analyses combining with 1-D via LC MS/MS,comparative 2-DE and iTRAQ techniques using the whole seed or dissected embryos and endosperm.During rice seed germination,the embryo and endosperm played different roles.The seed weight increased and complied by a triphasic model.Phase I accompanied with rapid seed water-up-take,the embryo produced gibberellic acid (GA) and diffused to aleurone and then prepared to initiate a signaling cascade to drive the reserves degradation in the starchy endosperm.Phase II is the most important stage for metabolic reactions reactivation,the reserves mobilization,cell construction respiration,cell wall loosening and coleoptile elongation,most of the metabolism related proteins sorted to different pathways were identified at 24 h after imbibition,but the metabolism of nucleotides was not active at this stage for few related proteins have been involved.The degradation of seed maturation and desiccation-associated proteins seemed to be earlier than that of the storage proteins and starch.The glycolysis was the main pathway for energy and substance providing.Phase III is another rapid water-uptake stage accompanying with TCA and aerobic respiration strengthening,cell division initiation and the radical protrusion.Interesting,both biosynthesis and degradation of the same macromolecule were concurrence even in the dry seed,which implied the sequentially matabolic and regulatory events triggered by water uptake during rice seed germination have been programmed during seed maturation.

  15. Board interlocking in Brazil: Director participation in multiple companies and its effect on the value of firms

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Di Miceli da Silveira; Rafael Liza Santos

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the simultaneous participation of directors in different companies from 320 Brazilian listed firms in 2003 and 2005. We identify which firms are connected through a network of directors, which corporate characteristics contribute to this phenomenon, and if board interlocking influences firm value and operational performance. The results show that interlocking directorates are a common practice in Brazil. Besides, larger boards, more dispersed ownership structures, and ...

  16. Value Premium and Country Risk as Dimensions to Estimate Conditional Returns: a Study of the Brazilian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian de Castro Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Asset pricing is a widely explored theme in the financial literature. Nevertheless, the phenomenon of value premium is still controversial, since although easily detected in developed and emerging markets, little is know about the economic forces that explain its existence. In this context, this article examines value premium in the Brazilian market and investigates the influence of the country risk variable as an additional risk factor for estimating conditional returns in this market not captured by value premium. For that, we employ a five-factor model, formulated by adding the country risk factor to the model of Carhart (1997. We apply the statistical procedure adopted by Fama & French (1993 to the period between 1994 and 2012, with data on nonfinancial companies listed on the BM&FBovespa. The results confirm the existence of value premium in the Brazilian market, and country risk and value premium together are significant factors to explain conditional returns.

  17. Understanding organization and institutional changes for management of environmental affairs in the Brazilian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article analyzes how governments and an oil company adapted their institutional and organization frameworks to manage actual and potential environmental impacts of oil-related activities in Brazil. Two major factors are important for understanding these changes. First, the monopoly of the state to explore and produce oil is over. Foreign companies have entered Brazil and increased the competitiveness of the oil sector. Second, major oil spills into waterways in recent years resulted in severe fines and an increasing outcry from government and civil society representatives for greater control over oil activities. These two factors raised a debate about what are, or should be, the roles of various stakeholders involved in controlling oil activities and their impacts on the environment. Legislative changes assigned different roles to the state oil company, to a newly created regulatory agency, to the Navy and to federal and state environmental agencies. Because many of the legal changes were not well defined, accountability among institutional actors remained unclear and institutional conflicts about who is accountable for what were likely to occur. As well, government organizations, public prosecutors, media and civil society increasingly influenced the regulation of both government agencies and companies. As a result, these responded to regulatory change and market forces by changing their relations with external stakeholders and their organizational arrangements for environmental management. This article identifies some of the institutional conflicts in selected case studies from the oil industry, the difficulties in clarifying regulatory roles within the industry, and responses in terms of the environmental strategies of regulatory bodies and oil companies, specifically the Brazilian state company, Petrobas. (author)

  18. Role of Organizational Governance in Household Level Economic Indicators : Evidence from Community-Based Rice Seed Production of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Khanal, Narayan Prasad; Maharjan, Keshav Lall

    2014-01-01

    Organizations are the role-oriented institutions, and in economic sense they tend to contribute in generating benefit to their members by minimizing costs in input and output marketing. With this notion, development agencies have been strengthening local farmer-owned organizations in community-based rice seed production system in developing countries where private seed companies and government corporations have not been successful to supply diverse rice varieties in cheap price. In spite of t...

  19. Operational Practices and Financial Performance: an Empirical Analysis of Brazilian Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís de Castro Moura Duarte

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the operations management field, operational practices like total quality management or just in time have been seen as a way to improve operational performance and ultimately financial performance. Empirical support for this effect of operational practices in financial performance has been, however, limited due to research design and the inherent difficulties of using performance as a dependent variable. In this paper, we tested the relationship between selected operational practices (quality management, just in time, ISO certification and services outsourcing in financial performance outcomes of profitability and growth. A sample of 1200 firms, operating in São Paulo, Brazil, was used. Analysis using multiple regression explored the direct effect of practices and their interaction with industry dummies. Results did not support the existence of a positive relationship with financial performance. A negative relationship of outsourcing with both profitability and growth was found, supporting some critical views of the outsourcing practice. A weaker negative relationship between ISO certification and growth was also found. Some interactions between practices and industries were also significant, with mixed results, indicating that the effect of practices on performance might be context dependent.

  20. Efficient computation of spaced seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Silvana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most frequently used tools in bioinformatics are those searching for similarities, or local alignments, between biological sequences. Since the exact dynamic programming algorithm is quadratic, linear-time heuristics such as BLAST are used. Spaced seeds are much more sensitive than the consecutive seed of BLAST and using several seeds represents the current state of the art in approximate search for biological sequences. The most important aspect is computing highly sensitive seeds. Since the problem seems hard, heuristic algorithms are used. The leading software in the common Bernoulli model is the SpEED program. Findings SpEED uses a hill climbing method based on the overlap complexity heuristic. We propose a new algorithm for this heuristic that improves its speed by over one order of magnitude. We use the new implementation to compute improved seeds for several software programs. We compute as well multiple seeds of the same weight as MegaBLAST, that greatly improve its sensitivity. Conclusion Multiple spaced seeds are being successfully used in bioinformatics software programs. Enabling researchers to compute very fast high quality seeds will help expanding the range of their applications.