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Sample records for brazilian regions tecnicas

  1. Regionalization and political dynamics of Brazilian health federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Daniel de Araujo; Elias, Paulo Eduardo Mangeon

    2011-02-01

    The implications from the Brazilian federal structure on the regionalization of health actions and services in the National Unified Health System (SUS) were analyzed, considering that the regional health planning in Brazil takes place within the context of intergovernmental relations as an expression of cooperative federalism in health. The analysis was based on a historical approach to Brazilian health federalism, recognizing two development periods, decentralization and regionalization. Regional health planning of SUS was explored in light of the theoretical framework of federalism. It is concluded that relative centralization of the process is needed in intergovernmental committees to actualize federal coordination and that it is essential to consider formalizing opportunities for dissent, both in regional management boards and in the intergovernmental committees, so that the consensus decision-making can be accomplished in healthcare regionalization.

  2. Lunch quality and sociodemographic conditions between Brazilian regions

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    Bartira Mendes Gorgulho

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the quality of lunch consumed by adults in Brazil and its sociodemographic determinants in each Brazilian region. A cross-sectional study was carried out and a representative sample of regional populations was used. The sample comprised of 16,096 adults from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey, part of the Brazilian Household Budget Survey (POF. The lunch quality was evaluated by applying the main meal quality index (MMQI, comprised of 10 items of equal weights that resulted in a score that ranged from zero to 100 points. Linear regression models measured the association between lunch quality and sociodemographic factors. The average energy consumption at lunch was 704kcal (SD = 300, and the meal quality score mean was 57 points (SE = 0.30. The North Region had the worst MMQI score (56 points, SE = 0.07, while the Central had the best MMQI adjusted score (59 points, SE = 0.05. The MMQI final score was positively associated with male gender and ages between 20-39 years, and was inversely associated with having eight years or more of education, per capita income of at least three minimum wages, and with the consumption of meals prepared away from home. Despite differences among sociodemographic factors, all Brazilian regions had a lunch composed of foods rich in sugars and fats, with insufficient portions of fruits and vegetables, resulting in a low meal quality.

  3. Economic Loss to the Brazilian Regions Due to the Doha Round Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Matheus Wemerson Gomes; Teixeira, Erly Cardoso; Gurgel, Angelo Costa

    2009-01-01

    We build a database and model to develop general equilibrium analysis of the Brazilian economy at the level of the five macro regions. The model is multiregional at global level as also at the Brazilian level. The project is coupled to the GTAP model through disaggregation of the original Brazilian input-output matrix and trade flows and follows the GTAPinGAMS structure and syntax to generate the General Equilibrium Analysis Project for the Brazilian Economy (PAEG). The regional database is t...

  4. Energy policy and regional inequalities in the Brazilian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gervasio F.; Haddad, Eduardo A.; Hewings, Geoffrey J.D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the long-run regional impacts of the tariff policy of the Brazilian electric power sector. This sector has undergone a reform process that started in the 1990s. Since the beginning of the reform, two spatial trends of distribution of electric power tariffs have emerged among the Brazilian states, one of convergence and another of spatial divergence. These trends have been guided by the new electric power tariff policy and by the spatial features of the Brazilian economy, which is marked by a high degree of spatial concentration and hierarchical distribution of large markets. In addition, because of the presence of strong economies of scale, the recent electric power prices differentials might be caused by differentials in market size that provide better conditions for the achievement of economies of scale for electric power utility companies located in larger markets. Given the role of electric power as an important intermediate input in the production process and the interdependence between sectors, an Energy Interregional Computable General Equilibrium model was used to simulate the long-run regional impacts of electric power tariff policy in Brazil. The simulations showed that the heterogeneity of energy-intensity and the differentials of energy substitution drive the spatial impacts of changes in electric power prices. On the other hand, the recent trend of spatial dispersion of electric power prices might contribute to a decrease in the long-run economic growth and to an increase in the regional inequalities in Brazil. - Highlights: ► We model the regional impacts of tariff policy of the electric power sector in Brazil. ► High electric power tariffs increases in regions with higher electric-power-intensity. ► Heterogeneity of energy supply determines an unequal pattern of energy substitution. ► Low possibilities of energy substitution generate the most negative economic impacts

  5. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  6. Cooperation for Development, Brazilian Regional Leadership and Global Protagonism

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    Leticia Pinheiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze Brazil’s policy towards South America during Luiz Inácio "Lula" da Silva’s government by discussing what kind of leadership the country was able to perform in the region during this time. The authors examine the role played by the policy of International Cooperation for Development on such regional leadership. The central argument is that although Brazil has performed the role of a regional leader, there is a need for distinguishing leadership for regional matters – inwards regional leadership – from leadership for global issues – outwards regional leadership. We argue that inwards regional leadership was in fact successfully performed by Brazil in South America, mainly due to its role as a Development Leader. On the other hand, we also verified that such leadership for regional matters did not always allow Brazil to act on behalf of the entire region on the global arena. Nevertheless, we argue that Brazilian diplomacy left behind the belief that, in order to have global protagonism, the country should use South America as a regional launching platform. Instead, Brazil has been making use of global coalitions such as IBSA and BRICS to boost its global role.

  7. Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (a Brazilian regional center for nuclear sciences) - activities report - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    The annual activities report of 1999 of nuclear sciences regional center - Brazilian organization - introduces the next main topics: institutional relations; sectorial actions - logistic support and training, laboratory of radiation protection and dosimetry, laboratory of metrology, laboratory of chemical characterization; technical and scientific events; and financial resources and perspectives for 2000

  8. DETERMININGS OF FARM WORK ALLOCATION IN BRAZILIAN REGIONS

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    Filipe de Morais Cangussu Pessoa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the determinings of farm work allocation in Brazilian regions, based on micro data of National Household Sample Survey 2009. For that, the empirical procedure consisted in the use of two models: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and the Logit Model. The model Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed good fit and defined two latent variables: qualification and income. As to the Logit Model, the results showed that the fact of a man living in rural areas increases the likelihood of being allocated in farm work, however if he is white this probability decrease. Besides, the variables qualification and income have a negative relation with farm work allocation, being the Midwest region that contributed most for people being allocated in farm work.

  9. Leadership capacity in two Brazilian regional tourism organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Flavio Jose; Dredge, Dianne; Lohmann, Gui

    2014-01-01

    at the speed required by the private sector. The IER is a market-led governance structure and its leadership practices effectively mobilised the private sector. However, it was found to operate in isolation from government and other key tourism stakeholders. Originality/value – This paper draws together......Purpose – This paper examines the leadership practices of two Brazilian regional tourism organisations (RTOs) using an exploratory case study. Design/methodology/approach – The research adopts an embedded case study approach, permitting the comparison of the leadership phenomenon in the ‘‘Instituto....... Findings – Four leadership themes emerged: capacity to produce results, capacity to mobilise followers, articulation and communication of goals and actions, and articulation of roles and responsibilities. The findings are discussed in regards to the hierarchical and market governance structures of the two...

  10. Vermiculites of the Northeast Brazilian region: comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.S.; Hanken, R.B.L.; Raposo, C.M.O.

    2009-01-01

    Vermiculites are clay minerals similar to montmorillonites differing for crystalline structures. The product exfoliated is odorless, hydrophobic, not irritate the skin and not the lungs. These properties provide the modified thermally vermiculite a product of broad application in the sectors of construction, agriculture and industry. The aim this work is the comparative analysis between two vermiculites micron fractions from different localities of the northeastern Brazilian region, UBM/PB and EUCATEX/PI. Samples exfoliated to 950 deg C were leached for removal of organic matter by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. The spectroscopy in the infrared, FTIR and X-ray diffraction, XRD, were used to characterize the samples. Data from X-ray diffraction showed that the structural characteristics of the mineral samples were not significantly altered with the process of leaching and the IR spectra proved the efficiency of procedure for removal of organic impurities (author)

  11. Biotypology, regionalism, and the construction of a plural Brazilian bodily identity, 1930s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimieiro-Gomes, Ana Carolina

    2016-12-01

    This article investigates regional biotypological studies and the construction of biological deterministic discourses about the Brazilian identity in the 1930s. Biotypological research was undertaken to determine the normal body type of the Brazilian man, using its peculiar classificatory lexicon. Studies into the bodily profile of specific regions, like the northeast and São Paulo state, featured in this research. In the context of the contemporary debates about race, miscegenation, and national identity, these investigations were geared towards biological determinism and the influence of the environment and social and cultural aspects on the bodily development of Brazilians. It is shown how regional biotypological studies echoed racial, normalizing, exclusive viewpoints and contributed to the construction of a miscegenated Brazilian bodily identity.

  12. Regional integration and Brazilian Foreign Policy: Strategies in the South American space

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    Cristina Soreanu Pecequilo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present, based on theoretical studies of integration, the evolution of this process in Latin America and, most recently, in South America. Based on these studies, the goal is to analyze the role played by Brazil in the process, which defines as priorities of its foreign policy a regional and global framework for its international action that is based on both cooperation and power projection.The research has been conducted based on theories of integration, an historical background on Latin American integration and in Brazilian foreign policy, through its contemporary agenda. The answer was based on a comparative agenda and in a bibliographical critical analysis of the research material.The main findings of the paper point out that Latin American integration has specific features linked to the economic, political and stragetic realities of the continent that show the limitations of some theories applied to the European process, also that it depends on Brazilian foreign policy actions, that still sees the region as instrumental to its interests. So, Brazil sometimes fail to fulfill some requisites of integration that are essential to sustain its projects. Therefore, there is a cycle of enlargement and deepening of regional integration process in this political space that point out to the need of a more sustained compromise of Brazilian foreign policy towards these projects. If Brazil continues not to sustain these projects, they will lose momentum and significance once more, increasing power asymmetries in the region.

  13. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Barcellos, Christovam; Feitosa, Patrícia; Damacena, Giseli N; Andreazzi, Marco A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria ...

  14. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

    OpenAIRE

    Davi Felipe Farias; Terezinha Maria Souza; Martônio Ponte Viana; Bruno Marques Soares; Arcelina Pacheco Cunha; Ilka Maria Vasconcelos; Nágila Maria Pontes Silva Ricardo; Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira; Vânia Maria Maciel Melo; Ana Fontenele Urano Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (−) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardner...

  15. Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (a Brazilian regional center for nuclear sciences) - activities report - 1999; Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares - relatorio de atividades - 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    The annual activities report of 1999 of nuclear sciences regional center - Brazilian organization - introduces the next main topics: institutional relations; sectorial actions - logistic support and training, laboratory of radiation protection and dosimetry, laboratory of metrology, laboratory of chemical characterization; technical and scientific events; and financial resources and perspectives for 2000.

  16. Potential antioxidant of brazilian coffee from the region of Cerrado

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    Richtier Gonçalves da CRUZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Its chemical composition may have varied according to the planting site, degree of roasting, and method of preparation. This work aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of coffee from the region of Cerrado in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The evaluation was performed with samples roasted at two different levels (traditional and extra dark and using two different preparation methods (decoction and infusion that reflect the conditions of preparing coffee. In vitro antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH radical methods and the concentration of total phenolic compounds and caffeine were determined. Samples made by decoction showed a higher content of phenolic compounds and no significant difference was observed between the degrees of roasting. However, the antioxidant activity and caffeine concentration of the extra dark samples were higher than those of the traditional samples for both preparation methods. The decoction preparation method was better for extracting phenolic compounds and the extra dark roast showed a higher concentration of caffeine and antioxidant activity. The samples showed a high antioxidant activity, indicating the coffee from Cerrado is an important source of antioxidants.

  17. Economic Impact of Dengue: Multicenter Study across Four Brazilian Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Siqueira, Joao Bosco; Parente, Mirian Perpetua Palha Dias; Zara, Ana Laura de Sene Amancio; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Braga, Cynthia; Pimenta, Fabiano Geraldo; Cortes, Fanny; Lopez, Juan Guillermo; Bahia, Luciana Ribeiro; Mendes, Marcia Costa Ooteman; da Rosa, Michelle Quarti Machado; de Siqueira Filha, Noemia Teixeira; Constenla, Dagna; de Souza, Wayner Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue is an increasing public health concern in Brazil. There is a need for an updated evaluation of the economic impact of dengue within the country. We undertook this multicenter study to evaluate the economic burden of dengue in Brazil. Methods We estimated the economic burden of dengue in Brazil for the years 2009 to 2013 and for the epidemic season of August 2012- September 2013. We conducted a multicenter cohort study across four endemic regions: Midwest, Goiania; Southeast, Belo Horizonte and Rio de Janeiro; Northeast: Teresina and Recife; and the North, Belem. Ambulatory or hospitalized cases with suspected or laboratory-confirmed dengue treated in both the private and public sectors were recruited. Interviews were scheduled for the convalescent period to ascertain characteristics of the dengue episode, date of first symptoms/signs and recovery, use of medical services, work/school absence, household spending (out-of-pocket expense) and income lost using a questionnaire developed for a previous cost study. We also extracted data from the patients’ medical records for hospitalized cases. Overall costs per case and cumulative costs were calculated from the public payer and societal perspectives. National cost estimations took into account cases reported in the official notification system (SINAN) with adjustment for underreporting of cases. We applied a probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations with 90% certainty levels (CL). Results We screened 2,223 cases, of which 2,035 (91.5%) symptomatic dengue cases were included in our study. The estimated cost for dengue for the epidemic season (2012–2013) in the societal perspective was US$ 468 million (90% CL: 349–590) or US$ 1,212 million (90% CL: 904–1,526) after adjusting for under-reporting. Considering the time series of dengue (2009–2013) the estimated cost of dengue varied from US$ 371 million (2009) to US$ 1,228 million (2013). Conclusions The economic burden

  18. Fungi infection in honeybee hives in regions affected by Brazilian sac brood

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    K.M. Keller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Sac Brood is a disease that affects apiaries of Africanized bee hives in Brazil, thereby making them susceptible to high losses. This study investigated the pathogenicity of Africanized bee hives by the entomopathogenic fungi in a Brazilian Sac Brood endemic region. The degree of fungal contamination, presence of mycotoxins in beehive elements, and vulnerability of healthy beehives in environments subjected and not subjected to the disease were investigated. From the contaminating fungal load, species that are mycotoxin producers and pathogenic causing mortality in the bees have been isolated. The analysis of bee pollen and bee bread samples did not show the presence of the toxic pollen of Stryphnodendron (Fabaceae, which has been indicated as the causative agent of mortality in pre-pupal stage larvae. However, bee bread showed the highest correlation between substrate and fungal contamination.

  19. Urbanization of Brazilian spotted fever in a municipality of the southeastern region: epidemiology and spatial distribution

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    Jeanette Trigo Nasser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazilian spotted fever is an emerging zoonosis notified mainly in the Southeast of Brazil, especially due to its high level of lethality.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological and spatial pattern of the disease in the municipality of Valinhos (106,793 inhabitants, São Paulo, Southeastern region of Brazil, in the period between 2001 and 2012.METHODS: All laboratory-confirmed cases with likely site of infection in the city (n = 49 notified in the Brazilian Case Registry Database were studied. Sites were geocoded using the cartographic base of the city and Google Earth (geographic coordinates with correction according to the Brazilian Geodetic System. We used the Kernel estimator to analyze the density of the cases on the map. Land cover and distance to basins of all cases were analyzed. Information about tick species and primary hosts were obtained from reports of the Superintendence of Control of Endemic Diseases.RESULTS: Seasonality of the disease was observed with the highest incidence from June to November, and in 2005 and 2011. The most affected groups were men (79.6% aged 20-49 years old (49%. Lethality was found to be 42.9%. Maps showed the progressive registration of cases in the urban area. Capybaras were reported as the main primary host, and Amblyomma cajennense was identified in probable sites of infection during field investigation. The likely sites of infection were mostly located near basins, dirty pastures, and bordering woods.CONCLUSIONS: The transmission pattern of Brazilian spotted fever in Valinhos is similar to that in other cities in the region, where capybara is the main primary host and an amplifier of R. rickettsii. Over the years, a higher occurrence of cases has been identified in the urban area of the city.

  20. Bathymetric and regional changes in benthic macrofaunal assemblages on the deep Eastern Brazilian margin, SW Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardino, Angelo Fraga; Berenguer, Vanessa; Ribeiro-Ferreira, Venina P.

    2016-05-01

    Deep-sea continental slopes have valuable mineral and biological resources in close proximity to diverse, undersampled and fragile marine benthic ecosystems. The eastern Brazilian Continental Margin (19.01°S to 21.06°S, 37.88°W to 40.22°W) is an important economic region for both fishing and oil industries, but is poorly understood with respect to the structure of the soft-sediment benthic fauna, their regional distribution and their bathymetric patterns. To identify spatial and temporal patterns of benthic macrofaunal assemblages on the slope (400 to 3000 m), the Espirito Santo Basin Assessment Project (AMBES, coordinated by Cenpes-Petrobras) sampled 42 stations across the Brazilian Eastern Slope during both Summer 2012 and Winter 2013. We found a significant decrease in macrofaunal abundance at the 400 m isobath along the slope near the northern region of the Espirito Santo Basin, suggesting benthic responses to upwelling events towards the south in Campos Basin and southern Espirito Santo Basin. The taxonomic diversity and assemblage composition also changed significantly across depth zones with mid-slope peaks of diversity at 1000-1300 m. In general, macrofaunal assemblages were strongly related to slope depth, suggesting a strong influence of productivity gradients and water mass distribution on this oligotrophic margin. Sediment grain size was marginally important to macrofaunal composition on the upper slope. In general, macrofaunal assemblages on the slope of Espirito Santo Basin are similar to other areas of the SE Brazilian margin, but regional changes in response to productivity and depth need to be considered for management strategies in the face of increasing economic activities off-shore.

  1. Cardiorespiratory fitness of a Brazilian regional sample distributed in different tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Karlyse Claudino; Callegaro, Carine C; Calegaro, Carine; Richter, Cleusa Maria; Klafke, Jonatas Zeni; Stein, Ricardo; Viecili, Paulo Ricardo Nazario

    2012-09-01

    Most classification tables of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) used in clinical practice are international and have not been validated for the Brazilian population. That can result in important discrepancies when that classification is extrapolated to our population. To assess the use of major CRF tables available in a Brazilian population sample of the Central High Plan of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS). This study assessed the retrospective data of 2,930 individuals, living in 36 cities of the Central High Plan of the state of RS, and considered the following: presence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and estimated maximum oxygen consumption (VO2peak) values obtained through exercise test with Bruce protocol. To classify CRF, the individuals were distributed according to sex, inserted in their respective age groups in the Cooper, American Heart Association (AHA) and Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp) tables, and classified according to their VO2peak. Women had lower VO2peak values as compared with those of men (23.5 ± 8.5 vs. 31.7 ± 10.8 mL.kg-1.min-1, p Unifesp x AHA). Our findings indicate important discrepancy in the CRF classification levels of the tables assessed. Future studies could assess whether international tables could be used for the Brazilian population and populations of different regions of Brazil.

  2. Mortality due to Cardiovascular Diseases in Women and Men in the Five Brazilian Regions, 1980-2012

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    Antonio de Padua Mansur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Studies have shown different mortalities due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD, ischemic heart disease (IHD and cerebrovascular diseases (CbVD in the five Brazilian regions. Socioeconomic conditions of those regions are frequently used to justify differences in mortality due to those diseases. In addition, studies have shown a reduction in the differences between the mortality rates of the five Brazilian regions. Objective: To update CVD mortality data in women and men in the five Brazilian regions. Methods: Mortality and population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and Ministry of Health. Risk of death was adjusted by use of the direct method, with the 2000 world standard population as reference. We analyzed trends in mortality due to CVD, IHD and CbVD in women and men aged ≥ 30 years in the five Brazilian regions from 1980 to 2012. Results: Mortality due to: 1 CVD: showed reduction in the Northern, West-Central, Southern and Southeastern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; 2 IHD: reduction in the Southeastern and Southern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in the Northern and West-Central regions; 3 CbVD: reduction in the Southern, Southeastern and West-Central regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in Northern region. There was also a convergence in mortality trends due to CVD, IHD, and CbVD in the five regions. Conclusion: The West-Central, Northern and Northeastern regions had the worst trends in CVD mortality as compared to the Southeastern and Southern regions. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2016; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0

  3. CASE REPORT: CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PRODUCTION SYSTEM OF BEEF CATTLE, DEVELOPED BY BRAZILIANS IN THE REGION OF CHACO BOLIVIANO

    OpenAIRE

    Ronan Lopes Albino; Ricardo Marostegan de Paula; Virgílio Mesquita Gomes; Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino; Rogério de Paula Lana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe the characteristic of the beef cattle production system in Bolivia. From a scholarship that happened in a Brazilian company who provide management in livestock, during this time it was possible know a little bit about the characteristic on Bolivia livestock. In oriental region from Bolivia the Boviplan Consultoria Agropecuaria Ltda., Brazilian company with head office in Piracicaba-SP, built an office, to offer a bigger technical support for customer th...

  4. Quality control of radionuclide calibrators used in nuclear medicine services in the Brazilian northeast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, Maria C.F.; Albuquerque, Antonio M.S.; Oliveira, Mercia L.; Lima, Ricardo A.; Lima, Fabiana F.

    2011-01-01

    The radionuclide calibrators are essential instruments in nuclear medicine services in order to activity determination of radiopharmaceuticals which will be administered to the patients. Inappropriate performance of these equipment could provide underestimation or overestimation of the activity, compromising the success of diagnosis or therapeutic procedures. To ensure the satisfactory performance of the radionuclide calibrators, quality control tests are recommended by national and international guides. The aim of this work was evaluate the establishment of the quality control program in the radionuclide calibrators at medicine nuclear services in the Brazilian northeast region, highlighting the tests and their frequencies. (author)

  5. Pneumonia mortality trends in all Brazilian geographical regions between 1996 and 2012

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    Rosemeire de Olanda Ferraz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the temporal trends in pneumonia mortality rates (standardized by age, using the 2010 population of Brazil as the standard in all Brazilian geographical regions between 1996 and 2012. Methods: This was an ecological time-series study examining secondary data from the Mortality Database maintained by the Information Technology Department of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System. Polynomial and joinpoint regression models, and corresponding 95% CIs, were used for trend analysis. Results: The pneumonia mortality rates in the South, Southeast, and Central-West showed a decreasing behavior until 2000, followed by increases, whereas, in the North and Northeast, they showed increasing trends virtually throughout the period studied. There was variation in annual percent change in pneumonia mortality rates in all regions except the North. The Central-West had the greatest decrease in annual percent change between 1996 and 2000, followed by an increase of the same magnitude until 2005. The 80 years and over age group was the one most influencing the trend behavior of pneumonia mortality rates in all regions. Conclusions: In general, pneumonia mortality trends reversed, with an important increase occurring in the years after 2000.

  6. Trends in the risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in five Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996

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    Maria de Fátima Marinho de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To analyze the trends in risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases in the northern, northeastern, southern, southeastern, and central western Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996. METHODS - Data on mortality due to cardiovascular, cardiac ischemic, and cerebrovascular diseases in 5 Brazilian geographic regions were obtained from the Ministry of Health. Population estimates for the time period from 1978 to 1996 in the 5 Brazilian geographic regions were calculated by interpolation with the Lagrange method, based on the census data from 1970, 1980, 1991, and the population count of 1996, for each age bracket and sex. Trends were analyzed with the multiple linear regression model. RESULTS - Cardiovascular diseases showed a declining trend in the southern, southeastern, and northern Brazilian geographic regions in all age brackets and for both sexes. In the northeastern and central western regions, an increasing trend in the risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases occurred, except for the age bracket from 30 to 39 years, which showed a slight reduction. This resulted from the trends of cardiac ischemic and cerebrovascular diseases. The analysis of the trend in the northeastern and northern regions was impaired by the great proportion of poorly defined causes of death. CONCLUSION - The risk of death due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and cardiac ischemic diseases decreased in the southern and southeastern regions, which are the most developed regions in the country, and increased in the least developed regions, mainly in the central western region.

  7. Comparison of the physicochemical profiles of buriti from the Brazilian Cerrado and the Amazon region

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    Thalita Lin Netto CÂNDIDO

    Full Text Available Abstract Demand for native fruits has been expanding, due to the increasing interest in foods with possible health benefits. The buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. f. is a native Brazilian fruit, appreciated by local populations, and its products are already on the market. This study investigated the physical characteristics and nutritional composition of buriti pulp, obtained from typical Cerrado and Amazon regions in Brazil. These regions influenced physical parameters and chemical composition. The fruits originating in the Cerrado were bigger and heavier than the ones from the Amazon. Nevertheless, protein, fatty acid and carbohydrate contents were higher in fruits from the Amazon region. The analyzed buriti fruits presented high monounsaturated fatty acid concentration (73.03 to 79.43 g/100 g, with the predominance of oleic acid (72.21 to 78.57 g/100 g. Buriti fruits may be a promising source of good nutritional quality vegetable oil and dietary fiber.

  8. Obesity and Overweight Among Brazilian Early Adolescents: Variability Across Region, Socioeconomic Status, and Gender

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    Chris Fradkin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAs with most emerging nations, Brazil lacks up-to-date data on the prevalence of obesity and overweight among its children. Of particular concern is the lack of data on children in early adolescence, considered by many to be the crucial stage for weight-related healthcare.ObjectiveTo assess regional, socioeconomic, and gender differences in the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Brazilian early adolescents.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted on a racially diverse sample of students aged 10–13 years, from schools in three geographic regions (north, northeast, south (N = 1,738. Data on gender, age, race, socioeconomic status (SES, weight, and height were obtained. Weight class was calculated from age- and gender-adjusted body mass index, based on children’s weight and height. Bivariate and multivariable analyses, with post hoc tests, were conducted to estimate differences between groups and were corrected for multiple comparisons. Procedures were approved by institutional review boards at study sites.ResultsAnalyses revealed a higher prevalence of obesity and/or overweight among: (1 children of higher SES; (2 children in southern Brazil; (3 males; and (4 Black females.ConclusionThe most salient predictor of weight risk among Brazilian early adolescents is higher SES. This finding is consistent with previous findings of an inverse social gradient, in weight risk, among emerging-nation population groups.

  9. The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) as safeguard regional agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvim, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials - ABACC applies regional safeguards on nuclear materials in Brazil and Argentina. The framework of international agreements concerning ABACC is presented, and the characteristics and requirements that a regional nuclear safeguards organization must fulfill are discussed. (author). 2 refs, 1 tab

  10. Brazilian Policy and the Creation of a Regional Security Complex in the South Atlantic: Pax Brasiliana?

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    Beatriz Rodrigues Bessa Mattos

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past five years, the South Atlantic region has become a central element of Brazilian security policy, with Brazil actively supporting the notion of a trans-oceanic security consciousness involving African littoral states. It has invested in diplomatic initiatives such as the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic (ZPCSA, or ZOPACAS, and extensive military co-operation with West African states such as São Tomé e Príncipe, Namibia and Cape Verde. Its internal security and defence policy documents have repeatedly been updated to reflect this dimension, and now provide the foundation for advancing these initiatives. This policy thrust is directed at securing Brazil’s offshore oil assets, and limiting the influence of what it has termed ‘extra-regional powers’ such as the P-5. This article highlights these initiatives and reviews the prospects for this policy by examining the plausibility of the South Atlantic region as a regional security complex in the sense coined by Buzan and Wæver. The analysis is based on the role of geographical and linguistic proximity in international relations, and the impact of multilateral bodies on building support for a regional approach to security governance.

  11. [Pedagogical position adopted in nursing and health education in the Brazilian South Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Mônica Motta; Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; Ferraz, Fabiene; Reibnitz, Kenia Schmidt; Martini, Jussara Gue

    2011-01-01

    Literature review that aimed at analyzing the pedagogy positions in nursing education of the South Region of Brazil, through the means of production of scientific articles published in the last five years (2004-2008) by the research groups in Education of Nursing. The emerging categories were based on different pedagogical positions of the teaching-learning process. The research groups has designed the teaching-learning process while liberating/creative practice, which thematic side supports the question curriculum/formation and popular education. The intention and the transformation, in which exists interaction between individuals guided in the dialogue, the cooperation and participative form. In concentrating efforts in this perspective, it will be possible to give visibility to the sector in the scope Brazilian and Latin-American.

  12. Vermiculites of the Northeast Brazilian region: comparative analysis; Vermiculitas da regiao do nordeste brasileiro: analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P S; Hanken, R B.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Raposo, C M.O., [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAMG/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Mineracao e Geologia

    2009-07-01

    Vermiculites are clay minerals similar to montmorillonites differing for crystalline structures. The product exfoliated is odorless, hydrophobic, not irritate the skin and not the lungs. These properties provide the modified thermally vermiculite a product of broad application in the sectors of construction, agriculture and industry. The aim this work is the comparative analysis between two vermiculites micron fractions from different localities of the northeastern Brazilian region, UBM/PB and EUCATEX/PI. Samples exfoliated to 950 deg C were leached for removal of organic matter by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. The spectroscopy in the infrared, FTIR and X-ray diffraction, XRD, were used to characterize the samples. Data from X-ray diffraction showed that the structural characteristics of the mineral samples were not significantly altered with the process of leaching and the IR spectra proved the efficiency of procedure for removal of organic impurities (author)

  13. Generation of Unbiased Ionospheric Corrections in Brazilian Region for GNSS positioning based on SSR concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monico, J. F. G.; De Oliveira, P. S., Jr.; Morel, L.; Fund, F.; Durand, S.; Durand, F.

    2017-12-01

    Mitigation of ionospheric effects on GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) signals is very challenging, especially for GNSS positioning applications based on SSR (State Space Representation) concept, which requires the knowledge of spatial correlated errors with considerable accuracy level (centimeter). The presence of satellite and receiver hardware biases on GNSS measurements difficult the proper estimation of ionospheric corrections, reducing their physical meaning. This problematic can lead to ionospheric corrections biased of several meters and often presenting negative values, which is physically not possible. In this contribution, we discuss a strategy to obtain SSR ionospheric corrections based on GNSS measurements from CORS (Continuous Operation Reference Stations) Networks with minimal presence of hardware biases and consequently physical meaning. Preliminary results are presented on generation and application of such corrections for simulated users located in Brazilian region under high level of ionospheric activity.

  14. Physical activity and determinants of sedentary behavior in Brazilian adolescents from an underdeveloped region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Dartagnan P; Souza, Monica V; Ferreirinha, Jose E; Silva, Antonio Jose R M

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the physical activity and the determinants of sedentary behavior in 1,268 Brazilian adolescents (638 girls, 630 boys) between the ages of 15 and 18 years, randomly selected from a relatively underdeveloped region. Data were collected from a community-based survey in the city of João Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil. Information related to physical activity was derived on the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The prevalence of sedentary behavior was 28.2% for girls and 19.1% for boys, whilst 28.9% of the girls and 36.7% of the boys showed high physical activity. The sedentary behavior varied by sociodemographic and environmental determinants studied. Parents' education, socioeconomic status, school's characteristics, transport to school, paid work, smoking, alcohol use, and BMI scores were significantly related to sedentary behavior for boys and girls.

  15. New wine-growing regions of Brazil and their importance in the evolution of Brazilian wine

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    Wurz Douglas André

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to characterize the new Brazilian wine regions, describing their edaphoclimatic and productive characteristics, wine types, and their importance in the evolution of Brazilian wine industry. The Campanha Gaúcha is characterized by flat lands, presents a high number of hours of light, and dry summers, guaranteeing a complete maturation of the grapes. Including the locations The Southeastern Region of Rio Grande do Sul presents pronounced ripples, located in altitudes between 400 and 600 m, presenting dry and sunny summers with cold nights, stony soil; Merlot and Cabernet Franc are the outstanding varieties. In the northern plateau of Rio Grande do Sul, at 1000 m a.s.l., the region of Campos de Cima da Serra has a characteristic high solar incidence, and due to the low nocturnal temperatures. The Altitude Region of Santa Catarina State presents similar characteristics to those found in the Campos de Cima da Serra, with vineyards located between 900 and 1400 m, the slow maturation promotes the preservation of acidity and high levels of aromatic compounds, which confer freshness and typical white wines, respectively, especially those made from the Sauvignon Blanc. Located at medium elevations of 900 to 1100 m, the region of Greater Curitiba with hot days and mild nights, stands out for the production of varieties of short to medium cycle, because it presents humid summers favoring the occurrence of diseases fungal infections. The South of Minas Gerais State presents mean altitudes of 800 and 1000 m, in which the technique of double pruning was adopted, leading the grapes maturation to occur during the winter, when a dry season with mild temperatures is found, making it an ideal place to produce high quality Syrah wines. In São Paulo State, altitudes between 1,000 and 1,300 m a.s.l. are found, where cool nights and excellent sunshine during the day provide thermal amplitude of 10°C at the time of harvest

  16. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Pr...

  17. Combining remote sensing and household level data for regional scale analysis of land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza Soler, L.; Verburg, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon depends on the spatial variability of political, socioeconomic and biophysical factors, as well as on the land use history and its actors. A regional scale analysis was made in Rondônia State to identify possible differences in land cover change connected to

  18. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy by Brazilian geographic regions: findings from the National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Souza Júnior, Paulo Roberto Borges de; Marques, Aline Pinto; Almeida, Wanessa da Silva de; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero

    2016-11-17

    The demographic shift and epidemiologic transition in Brazil have drawn attention to ways of measuring population health that complement studies of mortality. In this paper, we investigate regional differences in healthy life expectancy based on information from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013. In the survey, a three-stage cluster sampling (census tracts, households and individuals) with stratification of the primary sampling units and random selection in all stages was used to select 60,202 Brazilian adults (18 years and over). Healthy life expectancies (HLE) were estimated by Sullivan's method according to sex, age and geographic region, using poor self-rated health for defining unhealthy status. Logistic regression models were used to investigate socioeconomic and regional inequalities in poor self-rated health, after controlling by sex and age. Wide disparities by geographic region were found with the worst indicators in the North and Northeast regions, whether considering educational attainment, material deprivation, or health care utilization. Life expectancy at birth for women and men living in the richest regions was 5 years longer than for those living in the less wealthy regions. Modeling the variation across regions for poor self-rated health, statistically significant effects (p < 0.001) were found for the North and Northeast when compared to the Southeast, even after controlling for age, sex, diagnosis of at least one non-communicable chronic disease, and schooling or socioeconomic class. Marked regional inequalities in HLE were found, with the loss of healthy life much higher among residents of the poorest regions, especially among the elderly. By combining data on self-rated health status and mortality in a single indicator, Healthy Life Expectancy, this study demonstrated the excess burden of poor health experienced by populations in the less wealthy regions of Brazil. To mitigate the effects of social exclusion, the development of strategies

  19. Regional food dishes in the Brazilian National School Food Program: Acceptability and nutritional composition

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    Diogo thimoteo da Cunha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition and describe the acceptability of regional culinary dishes served to students from public schools of rural and urban areas. Methods: Ten Brazilian regional dishes were evaluated for acceptability and nutritional composition. the survey was conducted in schools located in rural and urban areas of two cities in the state of São Paulo. Dish acceptability was evaluated using leftover analysis and a 5-point facial hedonic scale. the adherence index was calculated and used as an indirect measure of acceptance, and the nutritional composition was calculated based on the technical files of each dish. Results: A total of 2,384 students from 20 schools participated in the study and 1,174 tasted and evaluated the dishes. the test using the 5-point facial hedonic scale demonstrated that five dishes (Caldo verde soup, persimmon jelly, chicken with okra, puréed cornmeal with spinach, and arugula pizza had an acceptability rate above 85.0%. the mean adherence indices were 57.3% and 55.6% in urban and rural environments, respectively. Analysis of the nutritional composition of regional dishes indicates that these dishes can partially meet macronutrient recommendations. Conclusion: the tested dishes can become part of school menus as they were accepted or partly accepted by the students regardless of school location, whether rural or urban. the cultural heritage is an important resource for the food sovereignty of a country and should be constantly encouraged.

  20. Integrated solutions for urban runoff pollution control in Brazilian metropolitan regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morihama, A C D; Amaro, C; Tominaga, E N S; Yazaki, L F O L; Pereira, M C S; Porto, M F A; Mukai, P; Lucci, R M

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important causes for poor water quality in urban rivers in Brazil is the low collection efficiency of the sewer system due to unforeseen interconnections with the stormwater drainage system. Since the beginning of the 20th century, Brazilian cities have adopted separate systems for sanitary sewers and stormwater runoff. Gradually these two systems became interconnected. A major challenge faced today by water managers in Brazil is to find efficient and low cost solutions to deal with this mixed system. The current situation poses an important threat to the improvement of the water quality in urban rivers and lakes. This article presents an evaluation of the water quality parameters and the diffuse pollution loads during rain events in the Pinheiros River, a tributary of the Tietê River in São Paulo. It also presents different types of integrated solutions for reducing the pollution impact of combined systems, based on the European experience in urban water management. An evaluation of their performance and a comparison with the separate system used in most Brazilian cities is also presented. The study is based on an extensive water quality monitoring program that was developed for a special investigation in the Pinheiros River and lasted 2.5 years. Samples were collected on a daily basis and water quality variables were analyzed on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. Two hundred water quality variables were monitored at 53 sampling points. During rain events, additional monitoring was carried out using an automated sampler. Pinheiros River is one of the most important rivers in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region and it is also a heavily polluted one.

  1. Leaf anatomy of six species of Heliotropiaceae Schrad. from the Brazilian semi-arid region

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    Elisabeth Emília Augusta Dantas Tölke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Heliotropiaceae has more than 450 species, mainly distributed in the tropics and subtropics. In Brazil, it is represented by the genera Euploca Nutt., Heliotropium L., Myriopus Small and Tournefortia L. The aim of this study was to describe the leaf anatomy of six species of Heliotropiaceae recorded in the semi-arid region of Brazil: E. polyphylla (Lehm. J.I.M. Melo & Semir, E. procumbens (Mill. Diane & Hilger, H. angiospermum Murray, H. curassavicum L., M. rubicundus (Salzm. ex DC. Luebert and M. salzmannii (DC. Diane & Hilger. Besides contributing to the knowledge of the anatomy of the representatives of the family in the Caatinga (Brazilian savannah, we also sought to determine and highlight the anatomical features adaptive to the region and to identify features with potential diagnostic value. Leaf structures were analyzed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Additional tests were also carried out to detect starch and total lipids. The morphological variation and the distribution of trichomes were the most relevant features for species diagnosis. The distribution of stomata in M. salzmannii and H. angiospermum differed from that described in other papers, which demonstrates the anatomical plasticity of these species. This is the first report describing the leaf blade of M. rubicundus.

  2. Leaf anatomy of six species of Heliotropiaceae Schrad. from the Brazilian semi-arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Tölke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n3p1 The family Heliotropiaceae has more than 450 species, mainly distributed in the tropics and subtropics. In Brazil, it is represented by the genera Euploca Nutt., Heliotropium L., Myriopus Small and Tournefortia L. The aim of this study was to describe the leaf anatomy of six species of Heliotropiaceae recorded in the semi-arid region of Brazil: E. polyphylla (Lehm. J.I.M. Melo & Semir, E. procumbens (Mill. Diane & Hilger, H. angiospermum Murray, H. curassavicum L., M. rubicundus (Salzm. ex DC. Luebert and M. salzmannii (DC. Diane & Hilger. Besides contributing to the knowledge of the anatomy of the representatives of the family in the Caatinga (Brazilian savannah, we also sought to determine and highlight the anatomical features adaptive to the region and to identify features with potential diagnostic value. Leaf structures were analyzed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Additional tests were also carried out to detect starch and total lipids. The morphological variation and the distribution of trichomes were the most relevant features for species diagnosis. The distribution of stomata in M. salzmannii and H. angiospermum differed from that described in other papers, which demonstrates the anatomical plasticity of these species. This is the first report describing the leaf blade of M. rubicundus.

  3. Terrestrial Carbon Fluxes from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Regions Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klooster, S.; Potter, C.; Genovese, V.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate tropical forest and savanna (Cerrado) carbon pools for the Brazilian Amazon region over the period 2000-2004. Adjustments for mean age of forest stands were carried out across the region, resulting in a new mapping of aboveground biomass pools based on MODIS satellite data. Yearly maps of newly deforested lands from the Brazilian PRODES (Programa de calculo do desflorestamento da Amazonia ) project were combined with these NASA-CASA biomass predictions to generate seasonal budgets of potential carbon and nitrogen trace gas losses from biomass burning events. Simulations of plant residue and soil carbon decomposition were conducted in the NASA-CASA model during and following deforestation events to track the fate of aboveground biomass pools that were cut and burned each year across the region.

  4. Were equatorial regions less affected by the 2009 influenza pandemic? The Brazilian experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Schuck-Paim

    Full Text Available Although it is in the Tropics where nearly half of the world population lives and infectious disease burden is highest, little is known about the impact of influenza pandemics in this area. We investigated the mortality impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic relative to mortality rates from various outcomes in pre-pandemic years throughout a wide range of latitudes encompassing the entire tropical, and part of the subtropical, zone of the Southern Hemisphere (+5(°N to -35(°S by focusing on a country with relatively uniform health care, disease surveillance, immunization and mitigation policies: Brazil. To this end, we analyzed laboratory-confirmed deaths and vital statistics mortality beyond pre-pandemic levels for each Brazilian state. Pneumonia, influenza and respiratory mortality were significantly higher during the pandemic, affecting predominantly adults aged 25 to 65 years. Overall, there were 2,273 and 2,787 additional P&I- and respiratory deaths during the pandemic, corresponding to a 5.2% and 2.7% increase, respectively, over average pre-pandemic annual mortality. However, there was a marked spatial structure in mortality that was independent of socio-demographic indicators and inversely related with income: mortality was progressively lower towards equatorial regions, where low or no difference from pre-pandemic mortality levels was identified. Additionally, the onset of pandemic-associated mortality was progressively delayed in equatorial states. Unexpectedly, there was no additional mortality from circulatory causes. Comparing disease burden reliably across regions is critical in those areas marked by competing health priorities and limited resources. Our results suggest, however, that tropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere may have been disproportionally less affected by the pandemic, and that climate may have played a key role in this regard. These findings have a direct bearing on global estimates of pandemic burden and the

  5. TANNIN POTENCIAL EVALUATION OF SIX FOREST SPECIES OF BRAZILIAN SEMI-ARID REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The hide tanners of Brazil Northeast region have in Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan var. cebil (Gris. Alts. their only source of tannins. As the activity of exploration is extractiviste without the concern of recovery of explored trees and the absence of other tannin sources, exposes the specie to exhaustion and the tanners and extractivistes family to go bankruptcy. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the tanin potential of Prosopis juliflora, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, Anacardium occidentale, Mimosa tenuiflora, Mimosa arenosa and Croton sonderianus. These species, Anacardium occidentale, Mimosa arenosa and Mimosa temuiflora showed, respectively, 19.83%, 18.11% and 17.74% of tannins. The Anadenanthera colubrina showed 11.89% and was inferior them mentioned species. The Prosopis juliflora and Croton sonderianus showed 3.02% and 6.62%, respectively. The abundance of Mimosa arenosa and Mimosa tenuiflora in the Brazilian Semi-arid proposes them as potential of tannin production. However, there is need of researches to verify their technical viability for skins, as well as for other uses for tannins.

  6. Multi-Tracer Approach for Shelf Water Mixing Studies in Brazilian Regions under Different Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, L. D.; Marins, R. V.; Dias, F. J.S. [Instituto de Ciencias do Mar, Universidate Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Godoy, M. L.D.P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Godoy, J. M.; Souza, T. A. [Departamento de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rezende, C. E. [Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Fresh water and sediment supply at estuary and plume regions has dramatically changed due to land use changes, mostly damming, in river basins. The resulting impact, however, may vary significantly depending on climate and hydrology. The seasonal differences in shelf, plume, estuarine and river waters of two watersheds located under contrasting climates in the Brazilian coast are reported using a multi-tracer approach (salinity, barium, silica, uranium, deuterium and {sup 18}O) to characterize the mixing processes. At the Paraiba do Sul River, SE Brazil, in a wet tropical coast, all results showed similarity between dry and wet seasons; at the Jaguaribe river under semi arid climate in NE Brazil, the results showed a moving freshwater plume depending on season, with freshwater at the estuary in the rainy season and shelf water intrusion upstream in the estuary in the dry season. Most tracers used were able to consistently characterize water masses even in the wide range of latitudes studied, confirming their importance as a tool for modelling mixing processes at the continent-ocean boundary. Barium, however, still needs better studies on its seashore chemistry, since in the semi arid site, Ba distribution could not be directly related to conservative mixing behaviour, at least during the rainy season. (author)

  7. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

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    Davi Felipe Farias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (− organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+ organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μg/mL (T. gardneriana to 487.51 μg/mL (Licania rigida. For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL. Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay.

  8. Antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of plant seed extracts from Brazilian semiarid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (-) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μ g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 μ g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay.

  9. CASE REPORT: CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PRODUCTION SYSTEM OF BEEF CATTLE, DEVELOPED BY BRAZILIANS IN THE REGION OF CHACO BOLIVIANO

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    Ronan Lopes Albino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to describe the characteristic of the beef cattle production system in Bolivia. From a scholarship that happened in a Brazilian company who provide management in livestock, during this time it was possible know a little bit about the characteristic on Bolivia livestock. In oriental region from Bolivia the Boviplan Consultoria Agropecuaria Ltda., Brazilian company with head office in Piracicaba-SP, built an office, to offer a bigger technical support for customer that have farm in Bolivia. This region is inside on biome of Bolivian Chaco that is characterized by soil extremely fertile and cheap land. These factora help to explain the favorable scenario of beef cattle found on farms that are managed by Boviplan in Bolivia.

  10. Real Time Precise Point Positioning: Preliminary Results for the Brazilian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Haroldo; Monico, João.; Hirokazu Shimabukuro, Milton; Aquino, Marcio

    2010-05-01

    this paper our proposition is to present the mathematical models implemented in the PPP_RT software and some proposal to accomplish the PPP in real time as for example using tropospheric model from Brazilian Numerical Weather Forecast Model (BNWFM) and estimating the ionosphere using stochastic process. GPS data sample from the Brazilian region was processed using the PPP_RT software considering periods under low and high ionospheric activities and the results estimating the ionosphere were compared with the ion-free combination. The PPP results also were analyzed considering the strategy of the troposphere estimation, Hopfield model or using the BNWFM. For the troposphere case, the values from BNWFM can reach similar results when estimating the troposphere. For the ionosphere case, the results have shown that ionosphere estimation can improve the time convergence of the PPP processing what is very important for PPP in real time.

  11. Sistema regional de inovação: estudo das regiões brasileiras Regional innovation system: a study of brazilian regions

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    Giovana F. Rossi Casali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisou o processo de formação regional do Brasil, os desequilíbrios existentes entre as regiões e as perspectivas futuras. Teve como proposta básica analisar o possível processo de convergência de renda das regiões brasileiras, utilizando o conceito de gap tecnológico. Segundo esse conceito, os desequilíbrios regionais são o resultado de diferentes taxas de desenvolvimento econômico, que, por sua vez, resultam de diferentes níveis de desenvolvimento tecnológico, os quais, por fim, são consequências de condições históricas, sociais e culturais específicas de cada região. Dessa forma, pressupôs-se a existência de relação positiva entre nível de desenvolvimento tecnológico, dependência tecnológica, dependência econômica, nível de desenvolvimento econômico e convergência de renda. Os resultados mostram que, em relação à possibilidade de as regiões e os estados menos desenvolvidos realizarem o catching up com aqueles mais desenvolvidos, as variáveis que representam tanto a geração quanto a apropriação de novas tecnologias são significativas e diretamente relacionadas com o produto. Dessa forma, pode-se afirmar que o catching up seria possível caso houvesse um maior investimento no processo de desenvolvimento e apropriação de novas tecnologias por parte dos governos regionais.This research developed an analysis on the regional imbalances at the Brazilian economy, the historic formation of the regions and perspectives. As a result of the distinctive courses followed by each region, an economical concentration process occurs in the Southeast. In this sense, this study intended to analyze the possible process of the Brazilian regional formation, using the concept of technological gap. The result show that, in relation to the possibilities of the regions and states that are less developed to accomplish the catching up with those that are more developed, the variables that represent generation

  12. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damacena Giseli N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163, i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP, urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid

  13. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos, Christovam; Feitosa, Patrícia; Damacena, Giseli N; Andreazzi, Marco A

    2010-06-17

    Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163), i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP), urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers) were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid economic and demographic growth increases the risk of AIDS

  14. Chronology and ancient feeding ecology of two upper Pleistocene megamammals from the Brazilian Intertropical Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo França, Lucas; Trindade Dantas, Mário André; Bocchiglieri, Adriana; Cherckinsky, Alexander; de Souza Ribeiro, Adauto; Bocherens, Hervé

    2014-09-01

    In Brazilian Intertropical Region (BIR) fossil remains of the giant ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi (Lund, 1842) and of the proboscidean Notiomastodon platensis (Ameghino, 1888) are the most abundant among megaherbivores. However, the paleoecology of both species needs to be better understood to enlighten why these species disappear in the end of the Pleistocene, an issue that is still debated. During the last decades, the carbon and oxygen stable isotopes have been increasingly being used to obtain paleoecological information about extinct animals, although this information is in most cases dissociated from chronological data. Thus, the main objective of this study is to contribute to the knowledge about feeding ecology and chronology of E. laurillardi and N. platensis within BIR. For each fossil sample we performed stable isotopes analyses (δ13C/δ18O) and radiocarbon dating (14C with AMS). The results showed that N. platensis occurred between 12,125 and 19,594 cal yr BP and exhibited a grazer diet (δ13C = -1.1‰-1.3‰), while E. laurillardi lived between 11,084 and 27,690 cal yr BP, with a mixed feeder diet (C3/C4 plants; values ratio δ13C = -7.7‰ to -3.3‰). The δ18O values of N. platensis ranged between 2.20‰ and 3.60‰, while the values of E. laurillardi ranged between -3.10‰ and -1.10‰. Neither species did exhibit differences in its diet through time, which suggests that the vegetational composition of this locality did not vary in the late Pleistocene. Both species were living in an open environment, rich in herbaceous plants (C4 plants) and with tree and shrub with disjoint distribution, maybe similar to some parts of recent Caatinga, where they have partitioned the spatial and feeding niches.

  15. Relationship Between Edaphic Factors and Vegetation in Savannas of the Brazilian Midwest Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michellia Pereira Soares

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian savanna is a mosaic of phytophysiognomies influenced by edaphic and topographic factors that range from the occurrence of fires to anthropic disturbance. The goal of this study was a comparative analysis between two cerrado areas in southeastern Goiás, relating the floristic composition and structure of the vegetation to soil properties to better understand the physiognomic characteristics of the region. Twenty-five 20 × 20 m plots were used. All plants with circumference at breast height of more than 15 cm were measured. Soil samples collected at a depth of 0-20 cm were subjected to physical and chemical analyses. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA was used to detect possible correlations between the soil properties and species abundance and distribution. The density and total basal area were 1,647 ind/ha and 15.57 m2/ha, respectively, in Ouroana. At this site, 107 species were sampled. In Montes Claros de Goiás, the density and total basal area were 781 ind/ha and 17.62 m2/ha, and 120 species were sampled. The soil texture of Ouroana was sandy and significantly different from the medium to clayey texture of Montes Claros. The soils of both areas are dystrophic, however, more fertile in Montes Claros and aluminum-toxic in Ouroana. The species of vegetation were distributed according to soil fertility levels. The CCAs grouped species according to soil properties that defined location and abundance as well as the phytophysiognomies of the studied areas.

  16. Determination of mercury and selenium in hair samples of Brazilian Indian populations living in the Amazonic region by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Paletti, G.; Catharino, M.G.M.; Saiki, M.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Bode, P.; Ammerlaan, A.K.; Byrne, A.R.; Baruzzi, R.; Rodrigues, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Biomonitoring of mercury contamination of Brazilian Indian population groups living in the Xingu Park, a reservation situated in the Amazonic region, has revealed very high levels of mercury in hair samples as compared to controls. Total mercury was determined by INAA in most of the tribes living in the Park and methylmercury was determined by CVAAS in samples with total mercury above 10 mg/kg. Due to the fact that selenium seems to protect animals against the toxic effects of methylmercury, it was considered also of interest to determine its concentrations in the hair samples with very high mercury levels. Selenium was determined by INAA via the short-lived radionuclide 77m Se (T 1/2 = 17.45 s). The correlations between selenium and mercury concentrations in Brazilian controls and in the Indian population groups are discussed. (author)

  17. ESTABLISHING A PRIORITY HIERARCHICAL FOR REGIONAL AIRPORT INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENTS ACCORDING TO TOURISM DEVELOPMENT CRITERIA: A BRAZILIAN CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela A. M. Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian government stepped up investments in works related to improving access to cities, when it was announced as the venue for the 2014 Football World Cup. The difficulties observed to guide these investments were to select regional airports of greater relevance for the tourism sector. Given the unavailability of data that could serve this purpose, the present study sought to define, from secondary and qualitative information extracted from government documents, five indicators to allow a priority hierarchical. The methodology applied the hierarchical analysis method (AHP and standardization procedures, resulting in the selection of five airports in the North region, four airports in the Southeast, South and Northeast regions, and one in the Center-West region of Brazil. The main advantage of the methodology was the significant reduction of cost and time in the decision-making process. An important conclusion was the understanding of tourism as an option for regional economic diversification.

  18. The mental health care gap among children and adolescents: data from an epidemiological survey from four Brazilian regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane S Paula

    Full Text Available Worldwide, a minority of disordered children/adolescents receives mental health assistance. In order to improve service access, it is important to investigate factors that influence the process leading to receiving care. Data on frequency and barriers for mental health service use (MHSU among Brazilian children/adolescents are extremely scarce and are needed to guide public policy.To establish the frequency of MHSU among 6-to-16-year-old with psychiatric disorders from four Brazilian regions; and to identify structural/psychosocial/demographic barriers associated with child/adolescent MHSU.Multicenter cross-sectional-study involving four towns from four out of five Brazilian regions. In each town, a representative sample of elementary public school students was randomly selected (sample: 1,721. Child/adolescent MHSU was defined as being seen by a psychologist/psychiatrist/neurologist in the previous 12 months. Standardized instruments measured: (1 children/adolescent characteristics [(1.1 Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS-PL-psychiatric disorders; (1.2 Ten Questions Screen-neurodevelopment problems; (1.3 two subtests of WISC-III-estimated IQ; (1.4 Academic Performance Test-school performance], (2 factors related to mothers/main caregivers (Self-Reporting Questionnaire-anxiety/depression, (3 family (Brazilian Research-Companies-Association's Questionnaire-SES.Only 19.8% of children/adolescents with psychiatric disorder have used mental health services in the previous 12 months. Multiple logistic regression modeling identified five factors associated with lower rates of MHSU (female gender, adequate school performance, mother/main caregiver living with a partner, lower SES, residing in deprived Brazilian regions regardless of the presence of any psychiatric disorders/neurodevelopmental problems.Only a small proportion of children/adolescents with psychiatric disorders had been seen by a mental

  19. Amazon soils : a reconnaissance of the soils of the Brazilian Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sombroek, W.G.

    1966-01-01

    The study deals with soils of the Brazilian part of the Amazon basin. Most soils are Latosols, some with soft or hardened plinthite. The Latosols are characterized by a latosolic B horizon as defined in Brazil.

    Plinthite, its formation and morphology were extensively described. Five main

  20. Simulated Optimum Sowing Date for Forage Pearl Millet Cultivars in Multilocation Trials in Brazilian Semi-Arid Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rafael D; Boote, Kenneth J; Sollenberger, Lynn E; Neves, Andre L A; Pereira, Luiz G R; Scherer, Carolina B; Gonçalves, Lucio C

    2017-01-01

    Forage production is primarily limited by weather conditions under dryland production systems in Brazilian semi-arid regions, therefore sowing at the appropriate time is critical. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the CSM-CERES-Pearl Millet model from the DSSAT software suite for its ability to simulate growth, development, and forage accumulation of pearl millet [ Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.] at three Brazilian semi-arid locations, and to use the model to study the impact of different sowing dates on pearl millet performance for forage. Four pearl millet cultivars were grown during the 2011 rainy season in field experiments conducted at three Brazilian semi-arid locations, under rainfed conditions. The genetic coefficients of the four pearl millet cultivars were calibrated for the model, and the model performance was evaluated with experimental data. The model was run for 14 sowing dates using long-term historical weather data from three locations, to determine the optimum sowing window. Results showed that performance of the model was satisfactory as indicated by accurate simulation of crop phenology and forage accumulation against measured data. The optimum sowing window varied among locations depending on rainfall patterns, although showing the same trend for cultivars within the site. The best sowing windows were from 15 April to 15 May for the Bom Conselho location; 12 April to 02 May for Nossa Senhora da Gloria; and 17 April to 25 May for Sao Bento do Una. The model can be used as a tool to evaluate the effect of sowing date on forage pearl millet performance in Brazilian semi-arid conditions.

  1. Biomass burning emissions of reactive gases estimated from satellite data analysis and ecosystem modeling for the Brazilian Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks-Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2002-10-01

    To produce a new daily record of trace gas emissions from biomass burning events for the Brazilian Legal Amazon, we have combined satellite advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data on fire counts together for the first time with vegetation greenness imagery as inputs to an ecosystem biomass model at 8 km spatial resolution. This analysis goes beyond previous estimates for reactive gas emissions from Amazon fires, owing to a more detailed geographic distribution estimate of vegetation biomass, coupled with daily fire activity for the region (original 1 km resolution), and inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon (defined as the Brazilian states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, and Tocantins) covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. Results from our emissions model indicate that annual emissions from Amazon deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s total to 102 Tg yr-1 carbon monoxide (CO) and 3.5 Tg yr-1 nitrogen oxides (NOx). Peak daily burning emissions, which occurred in early September 1992, were estimated at slightly more than 3 Tg d-1for CO and 0.1 Tg d-1for NOx flux to the atmosphere. Other burning source fluxes of gases with relatively high emission factors are reported, including methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), in addition to total particulate matter (TPM). We estimate the Brazilian Amazon region to be a source of between one fifth and one third for each of these global emission fluxes to the atmosphere. The regional distribution of burning emissions appears to be highest in the Brazilian states of Maranhao and Tocantins, mainly from burning outside of moist forest areas, and in Pará and Mato Grosso, where we identify important contributions from primary forest cutting and burning. These new daily emission estimates of reactive gases from biomass burning fluxes are designed to be used as

  2. Role of a national system of accounting and control of nuclear material under ABACC's (Brazilian-Argentine Agency) regional system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Moreno, Sonia; Estrada Oyuela, Miguel E.

    2000-01-01

    The Brazilian-Argentine Agency (ABACC) and the 'Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials' (SCCC) are the result of a process started with nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil. The SCCC reflects a common policy of transparency established by a Bilateral Agreement. Its insertion in the global context was made through a Quadripartite Agreement (Argentina, Brazil, ABBAC, IAEA). This paper describes the role of the State System of Accounting and Control (SSAC) in the framework established in the Bilateral and the Quadripartite Safeguards Agreements and in the context of new trends and perspectives in international safeguards. It could also serve as a example for initiatives in other regions. (author)

  3. Beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes of Amerindian populations from the Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, J F; Figueiredo, M S; Zago, M A

    1994-01-01

    We have determined the beta-globin cluster haplotypes for 80 Indians from four Brazilian Amazon tribes: Kayapó, Wayampí, Wayana-Apalaí, and Arára. The results are analyzed together with 20 Yanomámi previously studied. From 2 to 4 different haplotypes were identified for each tribe, and 7 of the possible 32 haplotypes were found in a sample of 172 chromosomes for which the beta haplotypes were directly determined or derived from family studies. The haplotype distribution does not differ significantly among the five populations. The two most common haplotypes in all tribes were haplotypes 2 and 6, with average frequencies of 0.843 and 0.122, respectively. The genetic affinities between Brazilian Indians and other human populations were evaluated by estimates of genetic distance based on haplotype data. The lowest values were observed in relation to Asians, especially Chinese, Polynesians, and Micronesians.

  4. L'elettronica nella tecnica aerospaziale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. SALZA

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available L'elettronica reca un contributo essenziale alla tecnica
    aerospaziale in ogni fase di qualsiasi sua realizzazione.
    In fase di progetto è fondamentale l'impiego del calcolo analogico o
    digitale, di quello analogico-digitale e delle tecniche di simulazione.
    Nel volo spaziale la guida e la stabilizzazione si basano sull'uso di
    sistemi elettronici che sono anche impiegati largamente nella essenziale fase
    di preparazione al volo.
    Così pure le comunicazioni coi passeggeri e le telemisure sono possibili
    soltanto grazie all'impiego delle tecniche più avanzate delle telecomunicazioni.
    Si esamina infine la situazione attuale per ciò che si riferisce al grado
    di affidamento delle apparecchiature elettroniche in conseguenza della loro
    crescente complessità: l'impiego di elementi allo stato solido e di adeguate
    tecniche circuitali consente di conservarlo ad un valore accettabile nonostante
    la crescente complicazione degli apparati in conseguenza delle sempre più
    gravi esigenze.

  5. Secondary Metabolite Profile, Antioxidant Capacity, and Mosquito Repellent Activity of Bixa orellana from Brazilian Amazon Region

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgi, A.; De Marinis, P.; Granelli, G.; Chiesa, L.M.; Panseri, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian flora was widely used as source of food and natural remedies to treat various diseases. Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae), also known as annatto, urucù, or achiote, is a symbol for the Amazonian tribes that traditionally use its seeds as coloured ink to paint their bodies for religious ceremonies. The aim of this study was to investigate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profile of B. orellana fresh fruits (in vivo sampled), dried seeds, wood, bark, and leaves analyzed with Headsp...

  6. Normative evaluation of blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region in respect to the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Roberto Coradi Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region with regard to structure and procedures directed toward the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM.Methods:This was a normative evaluation based on the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA Resolution RDC No. 153/2004. Ten blood banks were included in the study and classified as 'adequate' (≥80 points, 'partially adequate' (from 50 to 80 points, or 'inadequate' (<50 points. The following components were evaluated: 'donor education' (5 points, 'clinical screening' (40 points, 'laboratory screening' (40 points and 'hemovigilance' (15 points.Results:The overall median score was 49.8 (minimum = 16; maximum = 78. Five blood banks were classified as 'inadequate' and five as 'partially adequate'. The median clinical screening score was 26 (minimum = 16; maximum = 32. The median laboratory screening score was 20 (minimum = 0; maximum = 32. Eight blood banks performed laboratory tests for malaria; six tested all donations. Seven used thick smears, but only one performed this procedure in accordance with Ministry of Health requirements. One service had a Program of External Quality Evaluation for malaria testing. With regard to hemovigilance, two institutions reported having procedures to detect cases of transfusion-transmitted malaria.Conclusion:Malaria is neglected as a blood–borne disease in the blood banks of the Brazilian Amazon region. None of the institutions were classified as 'adequate' in the overall classification or with regard to clinical screening and laboratory screening. Blood bank professionals, the Ministry of Health and Health Surveillance service managers need to pay more attention to this matter so that the safety procedures required by law are complied with.

  7. Equatorial 150 km echoes and daytime F region vertical plasma drifts in the Brazilian longitude sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Rodrigues

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that conventional coherent backscatter radar measurements of the Doppler velocity of the so-called 150 km echoes can provide an alternative way of estimating ionospheric vertical plasma drifts during daytime hours (Kudeki and Fawcett, 1993; Chau and Woodman, 2004. Using observations made by a small, low-power 30 MHz coherent backscatter radar located in the equatorial site of São Luís (2.59° S, 44.21° W; −2.35° dip lat, we were able to detect and monitor the occurrence of 150 km echoes in the Brazilian sector. Using these measurements we estimated the local time variation of daytime vertical ionospheric drifts in the eastern American sector. Here, we present a few interesting cases of 150 km-echoes observations made by the São Luís radar and estimates of the diurnal variation of vertical drifts. These cases exemplify the variability of the vertical drifts in the Brazilian sector. Using same-day 150 km-echoes measurements made at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory in Peru, we also demonstrate the variability of the equatorial vertical drifts across the American sector. In addition to first estimates of the absolute vertical plasma drifts in the eastern American (Brazilian sector, we also present observations of abnormal drifts detected by the São Luís radar associated with the 2009 major sudden stratospheric warming event.

  8. Biomass burning losses of carbon estimated from ecosystem modeling and satellite data analysis for the Brazilian Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Bobo, Matthew; Torregrosa, Alicia

    To produce a new daily record of gross carbon emissions from biomass burning events and post-burning decomposition fluxes in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), 1991. Anuario Estatistico do Brasil, Vol. 51. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil pp. 1-1024). We have used vegetation greenness estimates from satellite images as inputs to a terrestrial ecosystem production model. This carbon allocation model generates new estimates of regional aboveground vegetation biomass at 8-km resolution. The modeled biomass product is then combined for the first time with fire pixel counts from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) to overlay regional burning activities in the Amazon. Results from our analysis indicate that carbon emission estimates from annual region-wide sources of deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s are apparently three to five times higher than reported in previous studies for the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Houghton et al., 2000. Nature 403, 301-304; Fearnside, 1997. Climatic Change 35, 321-360), i.e., studies which implied that the Legal Amazon region tends toward a net-zero annual source of terrestrial carbon. In contrast, our analysis implies that the total source fluxes over the entire Legal Amazon region range from 0.2 to 1.2 Pg C yr -1, depending strongly on annual rainfall patterns. The reasons for our higher burning emission estimates are (1) use of combustion fractions typically measured during Amazon forest burning events for computing carbon losses, (2) more detailed geographic distribution of vegetation biomass and daily fire activity for the region, and (3) inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. The total area of rainforest estimated annually to be deforested did not differ substantially among the previous analyses cited and our own.

  9. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of biomass from dende oil for small communities of Brazilian northeast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Pacheco, Rafael R.; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2015-01-01

    The current environmental problems caused by human activity has been gaining attention in society, i.e., as it has influenced in the growth and development of the global economic. The availability of energy resources is central point to economic development and the generation of energy is responsible for a significant portion of the emissions causing the greenhouse effect nowadays. The Brazil, a developing country, still has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of individuals. In this context, it should think in the sustainable economic development, so the alternative energy sources emerge as an option for power generation. Can highlight biomass as a source in the Brazilian scenario by its wide availability and variety. Therefore, the objective of this work is to estimate the economic viability of the decentralized generation of electricity based on the use of biomass from dende oil in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast considering the environmental costs involved for the source in question. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic evaluation of environmental resources. The biomass from dende oil was adopted in this work by its characteristics and availability in the studied region. The results show that the generation of energy by biomass from dende oil, it will contribute significantly to the sustainable development of the region, already that it will bring gains environmental, social and financial to society. (author)

  10. ORGANIC MATTER FRACTIONS OF AN IRRIGATED OXISOL UNDER NO - TILL AND CONVENTIONAL TILLAGE IN THE BRAZILIAN SEMI - ARID REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL PEREIRA SALES

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of natural vegetation by crop systems directly impacts the soil organic matter fractions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the total organic carbon (TOC and nitrogen (TN contents in different fractions of the soil organic matter (SOM of an Oxisol of the Brazilian semiarid region under different irrigated crops and different soil management systems. Seven treatments were evaluated, which consisted of two soil management systems (no - till and conventional tillage and three crops (maize, sunflower and sorghum, using as reference the soil under a native forest (NF. The summer crops preceded common bean crops in the autumn - winter. The total organic carbon content, total nitrogen, carbon content in humic substances and their constituents (fulvic acids, humic acids and humin and labile, non - labile and water - soluble carbon contents were evaluated two years and three months after the experiment implementation to determine the carbon lability (L lability index (LI, partitioning index (CPI and management index (CMI. The greatest carbon, nitrogen and organic matter contents in the soil surface layer (0.00 - 0.05 m were found in crops under no - till system (NTS, especially maize. The crops under NTS presented greater carbon content in humic substances than the conventional tillage system (CTS ones in the layer 0.05 - 0.10 m. The crops under NTS presented greater sustainability in the Brazilian semiarid region compared with those under CTS, as shown by their higher CMI in the soil surface layer.

  11. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of biomass from dende oil for small communities of Brazilian northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Pacheco, Rafael R.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: luizastecher@usp.br, E-mail: rafaelrade@gmail.com, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The current environmental problems caused by human activity has been gaining attention in society, i.e., as it has influenced in the growth and development of the global economic. The availability of energy resources is central point to economic development and the generation of energy is responsible for a significant portion of the emissions causing the greenhouse effect nowadays. The Brazil, a developing country, still has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of individuals. In this context, it should think in the sustainable economic development, so the alternative energy sources emerge as an option for power generation. Can highlight biomass as a source in the Brazilian scenario by its wide availability and variety. Therefore, the objective of this work is to estimate the economic viability of the decentralized generation of electricity based on the use of biomass from dende oil in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast considering the environmental costs involved for the source in question. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic evaluation of environmental resources. The biomass from dende oil was adopted in this work by its characteristics and availability in the studied region. The results show that the generation of energy by biomass from dende oil, it will contribute significantly to the sustainable development of the region, already that it will bring gains environmental, social and financial to society. (author)

  12. Renewable energies and regional development. Photovoltaic energy, micro-grid systems in the Brazilian semi-arid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrais de Miranda Mousinho, Maria Candida

    2012-07-01

    This article tackles the issue of the development related to the insertion of new renewable energy technologies. It also presents the experience of the region of the Sao Francisco River Valley - named after the largest river genuinely Brazilian located in the semi-arid region -, focusing mainly on two municipalities: Xique-Xique and Barra. Its focus is the use of solar energy for rural communities. To present the results of that experience, the support of the Rio Sao Francisco Project: culture, identity and development, of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) and of Eurosolar was essential. The research on which this article is based was fruit of a volunteer research project linked to the Partners of the Americas Bahia-Pennsylvania Committee.

  13. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  14. Evolution in Intensity and Frequency of Extreme Events of Precipitation in Northeast Region and Brazilian Amazon in XXI Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, P. M.; Veiga, J. A.; Correia, F. S.; Brito, A. L.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research was evaluate changes in frequency and intensity of extreme events of precipitation in Brazilian Amazon and Northeast Region, doubling CO2 concentration in agreement of IPCC A2 emissions scenarios (Nakicenovic et al., 2001). For this evaluation was used ETA model (Chou et al., 2011), forced with CCSM3 Global model data (Meehl, 2006) to run 4 experiments, only for January, February and March: 1980-1990, 2000-2010, 2040-2050 and 2090-2100. Using the first decade as reference (1980-1990), was evaluated changes occurred in following decades, with a methodology to classify extremes events adapted from Frich (2002) and Gao (2006). Higher was the class, more intense is the event. An increase of 25% was observed in total precipitation in Brazilian Amazon for the end of XXI century and 12% for extreme events type 1, 9% for events type 2 and 10% for type 3. By the other hand, a 17% decrease of precipitation in Brazilian Northeast was observed, and a pronounced decay of 24% and 15% in extreme events contribution type 1 and 2 to total amount of precipitation, respectively. The difference between total normal type events was positive in this three decades compared with reference decade 1980-1990, varying positively from 4 to 6 thousand events included in normality by decade, these events was decreased in your majority of Class 1 events, which presented a decay of at least 3.500 events by each decade. This suggests an intensification of extreme events, considering that the amount of precipitation by class increased, and the number of events by class decreased. To Northeast region, an increasing in 9% of contribution to events type 3 class was observed, as well as in the frequency of this type of events (about of 700 more events). Major decreasing in number of classes extreme events occur in 2000-2010, to classes 1 and 3, with 7,2 and 5,6%, and by the end of century in class 3, with 4,5%. For the three analyzed decades a total decrease of 8.400 events was

  15. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of photovoltaic solar energy for the Brazilian Northeast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Menzel, Francine

    2013-01-01

    The availability of energy resources is a central point to economic development. The energy matrix of most countries is based on the consumption of fossil fuels, which adds annually over 5 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere. The energy consumption in developing countries has quadrupled since the 60s further aggravating global environmental conditions. The need to implement alternative energy sources to the energy matrix was proved. In addition, Brazil has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of these populations. In this context, it is necessary to think in economic development way, and then the sustainable and alternative sources appear as an option for its features and its availability in Brazil. The solar energy captured by photovoltaic cells can be highlighted in the Brazilian scenario because of its wide availability, especially in the Northeast. The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic feasibility of insertion of solar systems in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast, considering environmental costs involved in electricity generation. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic valuation of environmental resources. The results shows that solar power is becoming increasingly competitive due to reduced costs of components and due to the environmental costs reduced when compared with fossil fuels. (author)

  16. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of photovoltaic solar energy for the Brazilian Northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Sabundjian, Gaianes; Menzel, Francine, E-mail: luizastecher@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The availability of energy resources is a central point to economic development. The energy matrix of most countries is based on the consumption of fossil fuels, which adds annually over 5 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere. The energy consumption in developing countries has quadrupled since the 60s further aggravating global environmental conditions. The need to implement alternative energy sources to the energy matrix was proved. In addition, Brazil has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of these populations. In this context, it is necessary to think in economic development way, and then the sustainable and alternative sources appear as an option for its features and its availability in Brazil. The solar energy captured by photovoltaic cells can be highlighted in the Brazilian scenario because of its wide availability, especially in the Northeast. The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic feasibility of insertion of solar systems in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast, considering environmental costs involved in electricity generation. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic valuation of environmental resources. The results shows that solar power is becoming increasingly competitive due to reduced costs of components and due to the environmental costs reduced when compared with fossil fuels. (author)

  17. Risk assessment of PM2.5 to child residents in Brazilian Amazon region with biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Beatriz Fátima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to fine fractions of particulate matter (PM2.5 is associated with increased hospital admissions and mortality for respiratory and cardiovascular disease in children and the elderly. This study aims to estimate the toxicological risk of PM2.5 from biomass burning in children and adolescents between the age of 6 and 14 in Tangará da Serra, a municipality of Subequatorial Brazilian Amazon. Methods Risk assessment methodology was applied to estimate the risk quotient in two scenarios of exposure according to local seasonality. The potential dose of PM2.5 was estimated using the Monte Carlo simulation, stratifying the population by age, gender, asthma and Body Mass Index (BMI. Results Male asthmatic children under the age of 8 at normal body rate had the highest risk quotient among the subgroups. The general potential average dose of PM2.5 was 1.95 μg/kg.day (95% CI: 1.62 – 2.27 during the dry scenario and 0.32 μg/kg.day (95% CI: 0.29 – 0.34 in the rainy scenario. During the dry season, children and adolescents showed a toxicological risk to PM2.5 of 2.07 μg/kg.day (95% CI: 1.85 – 2 .30. Conclusions Children and adolescents living in the Subequatorial Brazilian Amazon region were exposed to high levels of PM2.5 resulting in toxicological risk for this multi-pollutant. The toxicological risk quotients of children in this region were comparable or higher to children living in metropolitan regions with PM2.5 air pollution above the recommended limits to human health.

  18. Practice of walking and its association with perceived environment among elderly Brazilians living in a region of low socioeconomic level

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    Reis Rodrigo S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was analyze associations between the practice of walking and environmental perception among elderly Brazilians in a region of low socioeconomic level. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 385 elderly people aged 60 years and over. To evaluate walking, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, long version (leisure and transport modules was used. The environment was evaluated by means of the Neighborhood Environmental Walkability Scale (NEWS (adapted Brazilian version. For the statistical analysis, multiple logistic regression models were created separately for men and women. The practice of at least 150 minutes a week of walking was the dependent variable, and the variables of environmental perception were the independent variables. All the models were controlled for schooling level and age. Results The proportion of elderly people active in walking was 56.9% for the men and 26.4% for the women. The perception of the presence of soccer fields (OR = 4.12 and their proximity, within ten minutes' walk from home (OR = 3.43, were associated with the practice of walking among the men. The perception of the presence of public squares (OR = 4.70 and the proximity of primary healthcare units, within ten minutes' walk from home (OR = 3.71, were associated with the practice of walking among the women. An association with adequate perception of vehicle traffic remained at the threshold of significance for the women. Conclusion Accessibility of leisure structures such as football fields and public squares and of health services such as primary healthcare units were important environmental variables associated with the practice of walking among elderly people living in a region of low socioeconomic level in Brazil. These variables need to be taken into consideration when aiming to promote the practice of walking among elderly people living in similar regions.

  19. Y-STR haplotypes of Native American populations from the Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palha, Teresinha Jesus Brabo Ferreira; Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins Ribeiro; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

    2010-10-01

    The allele and haplotype frequencies of nine Y-STRs (DYS19, DYS389 I, DYS389 II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385 I/II) were determined in a sample of six native tribes from the Brazilian Amazon (Tiriyó, Awa-Guajá, Waiãpi, Urubu-Kaapor, Zoé and Parakanã). Forty-eight different haplotypes were identified, 28 of which unique. Five haplotypes are very frequent and were shared by over 10 individuals. The estimated haplotype diversity (0.9114) was very low compared to other geographic groups, including Africans, Europeans and Asians. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-Term Observation of Small and Medium-Scale Gravity Waves over the Brazilian Equatorial Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essien, Patrick; Buriti, Ricardo; Wrasse, Cristiano M.; Medeiros, Amauri; Paulino, Igo; Takahashi, Hisao; Campos, Jose Andre

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the long term observations of small and medium-scale gravity waves over Brazilian equatorial region. Coordinated optical and radio measurements were made from OLAP at Sao Joao do Cariri (7.400S, 36.500W) to investigate the occurrences and properties and to characterize the regional mesospheric gravity wave field. All-sky imager measurements were made from the site. for almost 11 consecutive years (September 2000 to November 2010). Most of the waves propagated were characterized as small-scale gravity. The characteristics of the two waves events agreed well with previous gravity wave studies from Brazil and other sites. However, significant differences in the wave propagation headings indicate dissimilar source regions. The observed medium-scale gravity wave events constitute an important new dataset to study their mesospheric properties at equatorial latitudes. These data exhibited similar propagation headings to the short period events, suggesting they originated from the same source regions. It was also observed that some of the medium-scale were capable of propagating into the lower thermosphere where they may have acted directly as seeds for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability development. The wave events were primarily generated by meteorological processes since there was no correlation between the evolution of the wave events and solar cycle F10.7.

  1. Impact of Bolsa Família Program on the nutritional status of children and adolescents from two Brazilian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara SPERANDIO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess and compare the impact of the Bolsa Família Program (Family Allowance on the nutritional status of children and adolescents from the Brazilian Northeastern and Southeastern regions. Methods: The study used data from a database derived from a subsample of the Family Budget Survey conducted from 2008 to 2009. The ratios of underweight, stunted, and overweight children were calculated. Impact measurement analysis was preceded by propensity score matching, which matches beneficiary and non-beneficiary families in relation to a set of socioeconomic features. The nearest-neighbor matching algorithm estimated the program impact. Results: The ratio of underweight children and adolescents was, on average, 1.1% smaller in the beneficiary families than in the non-beneficiary families in the Northeastern region. As for the Southeastern region, the ratio of overweight children and adolescents was, on average, 4.2% smaller in the beneficiary families. The program did not affect stunting in either region. Conclusion: The results showed the positive impact and good focus of the program. Thus, once linked to structural actions, the program may help to improve the nutritional status and quality of life of its beneficiaries.

  2. Model for prioritization of regional strategies within the technical cooperation of the International Atomic Energy Agency; Modelo para priorizacao de estrategias regionais no ambito da cooperacao tecnica da Agencia Internacional de Energia Atomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Pedro Maffia da

    2017-11-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Cooperation Program is the main mechanism through which services are provided to its member states to help them build, strengthen and maintain their capabilities in the safe use of nuclear technology in support of socio-economic development. The technical cooperation program operates in four geographical regions, each regional program helps Member States to meet their specific needs, taking into account existing capacities and different operating conditions. The technical cooperation regions are Asia and the Pacific, Europe, Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean. Developing activities together with the technical cooperation program we have the Regional Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL), which involves the majority of the members of the International Atomic Energy Agency of that region, for Technical Cooperation. All ARCAL's work is guided by the Regional Strategic Profile, which identifies the needs and problems of the region that require support projects. In the technical meeting of the Regional Strategic Profile, the needs and problems that are analyzed through indexes associated with severity, urgency, extension, relevance and difficulty are listed by different thematic areas. To these indexes, values are established by the technical staff on a continuous scale between 1 and 5. From these values an expression is used to arrive at a priority number for the needs and problems. In the face of many criticisms associated with similar approaches, such as Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and Timing, Trend and Impact Matrix, the aim of this thesis is to propose a methodological approach that can assist in the prioritization of investments of technical cooperation projects and programs that take into account the budget available and the technical and strategic visions of the parties involved. For this, the Probabilistic

  3. Secondary Metabolite Profile, Antioxidant Capacity, and Mosquito Repellent Activity of Bixa orellana from Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Giorgi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian flora was widely used as source of food and natural remedies to treat various diseases. Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae, also known as annatto, urucù, or achiote, is a symbol for the Amazonian tribes that traditionally use its seeds as coloured ink to paint their bodies for religious ceremonies. The aim of this study was to investigate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs profile of B. orellana fresh fruits (in vivo sampled, dried seeds, wood, bark, and leaves analyzed with Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A screening on phenolic content (the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and antiradical activity (DPPH assay of seeds was also conducted. In addition, the repellent properties of seed extracts against Aedes aegypti L. were investigated. Volatile compounds detected in B. orellana samples consisted mainly of sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, and arenes: α-humulene is the major volatile compound present in seed extracts followed by D-germacrene, γ-elemene, and caryophyllene. B. orellana proved to be a good source of antioxidants. Preliminary data on repellency against A. aegypti of three different dried seed extracts (hexane, ethanol, and ethanol/water indicated a significant skin protection activity. A protection of 90% and 73% for hexane and ethanol/water extracts was recorded.

  4. ENVIRONMENT DEGRADING AGENTS AT THE BRAZILIAN NORTHEAST: A STUDY OF CASE AT THE SERIDÓ POTIGUAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fransualdo de Azevedo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The occupation and settlement of the Brazilian geographical space by the European settlers happened in a quite anachronic and heterogeneous way, in the historical and space point of view. In what it refers to the northeast of the Brazil, two settlement fronts stood out with base mainly on two primary economical activities: at the Atlantic forest zone the sugar-cane planters dropped the forest and there the farmers implanted the sugar plantations, totally linked to the economical market of the European metropolis, all this in the centuries XVI and XVII; in the backland central the cattle creators that ventured to penetrate the interiorsexpanding your flocks Caatinga biome inside were aiming at gives support to the animal driving force of the mills of sugar-cane at forest zone, as well as to provision with meat the population. Several conflicts were observed between the cane planters and the cattle creators because they disputed for lands for the development of your activities at the forest zone. After years of conflicts the delimitation behind space and territorial was established for the sameones. Now, Atlantic Forest remainder serve as ecological refuges for the fauna that still resists to the devastation caused by the man. The soil was indeed quite cultivated, in some cases in a disordered way, what provoked a considerable loss of your production potential, it’s presented a several focuses erosion and degradation, although the activity of sugar-cane is still strong at that area.

  5. Northeastern Brazilian margin: Regional tectonic evolution based on integrated analysis of seismic reflection and potential field data and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaich, Olav A.; Tsikalas, Filippos; Faleide, Jan Inge

    2008-10-01

    Integration of regional seismic reflection and potential field data along the northeastern Brazilian margin, complemented by crustal-scale gravity modelling, is used to reveal and illustrate onshore-offshore crustal structure correlation, the character of the continent-ocean boundary, and the relationship of crustal structure to regional variation of potential field anomalies. The study reveals distinct along-margin structural and magmatic changes that are spatially related to a number of conjugate Brazil-West Africa transfer systems, governing the margin segmentation and evolution. Several conceptual tectonic models are invoked to explain the structural evolution of the different margin segments in a conjugate margin context. Furthermore, the constructed transects, the observed and modelled Moho relief, and the potential field anomalies indicate that the Recôncavo, Tucano and Jatobá rift system may reflect a polyphase deformation rifting-mode associated with a complex time-dependent thermal structure of the lithosphere. The constructed transects and available seismic reflection profiles, indicate that the northern part of the study area lacks major breakup-related magmatic activity, suggesting a rifted non-volcanic margin affinity. In contrast, the southern part of the study area is characterized by abrupt crustal thinning and evidence for breakup magmatic activity, suggesting that this region evolved, partially, with a rifted volcanic margin affinity and character.

  6. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Huete, A.; Genovese, V.; Bustamante, M.; Ferreira, L. Guimaraes; deOliveira, R. C., Jr.; Zepp, R.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Net ecosystem production (NEP) flux for atmospheric CO2 in the region for these years was estimated. Consistently high carbon sink fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems on a yearly basis were found in the western portions of the states of Acre and Rondonia and the northern portions of the state of Par a. These areas were not significantly impacted by the 2002-2003 El Nino event in terms of net annual carbon gains. Areas of the region that show periodically high carbon source fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere on yearly basis were found throughout the state of Maranhao and the southern portions of the state of Amazonas. As demonstrated though tower site comparisons, NEP modeled with monthly MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) inputs closely resembles the measured seasonal carbon fluxes at the LBA Tapajos tower site. Modeling results suggest that the capacity for use of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data to predict seasonal uptake rates of CO2 in Amazon forests and Cerrado woodlands is strong.

  7. Tidal and sub-tidal sea level variability at the northern shelf of the Brazilian Northeast Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frota, Felipe F; Truccolo, Eliane C; Schettini, Carlos A F

    2016-09-01

    A characterization of the sea level variability at tidal and sub-tidal frequencies at the northern shore of the Brazilian Northeast shelf for the period 2009-2011 is presented. The sea level data used was obtained from the Permanent Geodetic Tide Network from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the Fortaleza gauge station. Local wind data was also used to assess its effects on the low-frequency sea level variability. The variability of the sea level was investigated by classical harmonic analysis and by morphology assessment over the tidal signal. The low frequencies were obtained by low-pass filtering. The tidal range oscillated with the highest value of 3.3 m during the equinox and the lowest value of 0.7 m during the solstice. Differences between the spring and neap tides were as high as 1 m. A total of 59 tidal constituents were obtained from harmonic analysis, and the regional tide was classified as semi-diurnal pure with a form number of 0.11. An assessment of the monthly variability of the main tidal constituents (M2, S2, N2, O1, and K1) indicated that the main semi-diurnal solar S2 presented the highest variability, ranging from 0.21 to 0.41 m; it was the main element altering the form number through the years. The low frequency sea-level variability is negligible, although there is a persistent signal with an energy peak in the 10-15 day period, and it cannot be explained by the effects of local winds.

  8. Brazilian energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil's natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  9. The influence of tidal winds in the formation of blanketing sporadic e-layer over equatorial Brazilian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Laysa Cristina Araujo; Batista, Inez Staciarini; Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Batista, Paulo Prado; Carrasco, Alexander José; Andrioli, Vânia Fátima; Moro, Juliano

    2018-06-01

    This work analysis the blanketing sporadic layers (Esb) behavior over São Luís, Brazil (2° 31‧ S, 44° 16‧ W, dip: -4.80) which is classified as a transition region between equatorial and low-latitude. Hence, some peculiarities can appear as Esb occurrence instead of the common Esq, which is a non-blanketing irregularity layer. The analysis presented here was obtained using a modified version of a theoretical model for the E region (MIRE), which computes the densities of the metallic ions (Fe+ and Mg+) and the densities of the main molecular ions (NO+, O2+, N2+) by solving the continuity and momentum equations for each one of them. In that model, the Es layer physics driven by both diurnal and semidiurnal tidal winds are taken into account and it was extended in height coverage by adding a novel neutral wind model derived from the all-sky meteor radar measurements. Thus, we provide more trustworthy results related to the Es layer formation in the equatorial region. We verified the contribution of each tidal wind component to the Esb layer formation in this equatorial region. Additionally, we compared the Es layer electron density computed by MIRE with the data obtained by using the blanketing frequency parameter (fbEs) deduced from ionograms. The results show that the diurnal component of the tidal wind is more important in the Esb layer formation whereas the semidiurnal component has a little contribution in our simulations. Finally, it was verified that the modified MIRE presented here can be used to study the Esb layers occurrence over the equatorial region in the Brazilian sector.

  10. Lean diesel technology and human health: a case study in six Brazilian metropolitan regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso de André

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Due to their toxicity, diesel emissions have been submitted to progressively more restrictive regulations in developed countries. However, in Brazil, the implementation of the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy (Euro IV standards for vehicles produced in 2009 and low-sulfur diesel with 50 ppm of sulfur was postponed until 2012 without a comprehensive analysis of the effect of this delay on public health parameters. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy on health indicators and monetary health costs in Brazil. METHODS: The primary estimator of exposure to air pollution was the concentration of ambient fine particulate matter (particles with aerodynamic diameters <2.5 μm, [PM2.5]. This parameter was measured daily in six Brazilian metropolitan areas during 2007-2008. We calculated 1 the projected reduction in the PM2.5 that would have been achieved if the Euro IV standards had been implemented in 2009 and 2 the expected reduction after implementation in 2012. The difference between these two time curves was transformed into health outcomes using previous dose-response curves. The economic valuation was performed based on the DALY (disability-adjusted life years method. RESULTS: The delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy will result in an estimated excess of 13,984 deaths up to 2040. Health expenditures are projected to be increased by nearly US$ 11.5 billion for the same period. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicate that a significant health burden will occur because of the postponement in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy. These results also reinforce the concept that health effects must be considered when revising fuel and emission policies.

  11. Soil, land use time, and sustainable intensification of agriculture in the Brazilian Cerrado region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabaquini, Kleber; Galvão, Lênio Soares; Formaggio, Antonio Roberto; de Aragão, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira E Cruz

    2017-02-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado area is in rapid decline because of the expansion of modern agriculture. In this study, we used extensive field data and a 30-year chronosequence of Landsat images (1980-2010) to assess the effects of time since conversion of Cerrado into agriculture upon soil chemical attributes and soybean/corn yield in the Alto do Rio Verde watershed. We determined the rates of vegetation conversion into agriculture, the agricultural land use time since conversion, and the temporal changes in topsoil (0-20 cm soil depth) and subsurface (20-40 cm) chemical attributes of the soils. In addition, we investigated possible associations between fertilization/over-fertilization and land use history detected from the satellites. The results showed that 61.8% of the native vegetation in the Alto do Rio Verde watershed was already converted into agriculture with 31% of soils being used in agriculture for more than 30 years. While other fertilizers in cultivated soils (e.g., Ca +2 , Mg +2 , and P) have been compensated over time by soil management practices to keep crop yield high, large reductions in C org (38%) and N tot (29%) were observed in old cultivated areas. Furthermore, soybean and cornfields having more than 10 years of farming presented higher values of P and Mg +2 than the ideal levels necessary for plant development. Therefore, increased risks of over-fertilization of the soils and environmental contamination with these macronutrients were associated with soybean and cornfields having more than 10 years of farming, especially those with more than 30 years of agricultural land use.

  12. Comprehensive Characterization of HIV-1 Molecular Epidemiology and Demographic History in the Brazilian Region Most Heavily Affected by AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräf, Tiago; Machado Fritsch, Hegger; de Medeiros, Rúbia Marília; Maletich Junqueira, Dennis; Esteves de Matos Almeida, Sabrina; Pinto, Aguinaldo Roberto

    2016-09-15

    The high incidence of AIDS cases and the dominance of HIV-1 subtype C infections are two features that distinguish the HIV-1 epidemic in the two southernmost Brazilian states (Rio Grande do Sul [RS] and Santa Catarina [SC]) from the epidemic in other parts of the country. Nevertheless, previous studies on HIV molecular epidemiology were conducted mainly in capital cities, and a more comprehensive understanding of factors driving this unique epidemic in Brazil is necessary. Blood samples were collected from individuals in 13 municipalities in the Brazilian southern region. HIV-1 env and pol genes were submitted to phylogenetic analyses for assignment of subtype, and viral population phylodynamics were reconstructed by applying Skygrid and logistic coalescent models in a Bayesian analysis. A high prevalence of subtype C was observed in all sampled locations; however, an increased frequency of recombinant strains was found in RS, with evidence for new circulating forms (CRFs). In the SC state, subtype B and C epidemics were associated with distinct exposure groups. Although logistic models estimated similar growth rates for HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) and HIV-1B, a Skygrid plot reveals that the former epidemic has been expanding for a longer time. Our results highlight a consistent expansion of HIV-1C in south Brazil, and we also discuss how heterosexual and men who have sex with men (MSM) transmission chains might have impacted the current prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes in this region. The AIDS epidemic in south Brazil is expanding rapidly, but the circumstances driving this condition are not well known. A high prevalence of HIV-1 subtype C was reported in the capital cities of this region, in contrast to the subtype B dominance in the rest of the country. This study sought to comparatively investigate the HIV-1 subtype B and C epidemics by sampling individuals from several cities in the two states with the highest AIDS incidences in Brazil. Our analyses showed distinct

  13. Homicides among women in the different Brazilian regions in the last 35 years: an analysis of age-period-birth cohort effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de; Meira, Karina Cardoso; Ribeiro, Adalgisa Peixoto; Santos, Juliano Dos; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Borges, Laiane Felix; Oliveira, Lannuzya Veríssimo E; Simões, Taynãna César

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the effects of age-period-birth cohort (APC) on female homicides. This is an ecological study which analyzed the violence-related death records of women aged 10 years and older, in the Brazilian geographic regions, between 1980 and 2014. Data on mortality were extracted from the Mortality Information System. The trend analysis was conducted using negative binomial regression and APC effects were analyzed using estimable functions. The average mortality rate for the period was 5.13 deaths per 100,000 women, with the highest rates observed in the Central-West (7.98 deaths), followed by the Southeast (4.78 deaths), North (4.77 deaths), Northeast (4.05 deaths) and South (3.82 deaths) regions. All regions presented a decrease in the risk of death in the period from 2010 to 2014, except for the Northeast region (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.10). There was a progressive increase in the homicide risk for women born from 1955 to 1959 in all Brazilian regions. Younger women are at higher risk of dying from homicides in all Brazilian geographic regions. The upward trend of homicide mortality rates according to birth cohort was significant and the highest risk was observed in women born between 2000 and 2004.

  14. LIF characterization of ancient umber ceramics and frescos; Applicazione della tecnica LIF alle antiche ceramiche umbre e agli affreschi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Borgia, I. [Perugia Univ., Perugia (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    The report shows the result carried out by the LIF (layer induced fluorescence) system developed for pigment analysis at ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) Frascati research centre (Rome) . The frescos and ceramics by Umbria region (Italy) are analysed. [Italian] Vengono riportati i risultati ottenuti dall'indagine della fluorescenza indotta da laser su antiche ceramiche umbre e su affreschi. La tecnica e' stata anche utilizzata per determinare la fluorescenza dei pigmenti contenuti in campioni di affresco.

  15. Brazilian, Chinese, and Indian exports: is the regional market really a source of learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Baumann

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In some Latin American countries the exporting activity starts at a regional level, with producers only later venturing into more competitive markets. The implicit risk is that a country might never progress from the regional stage to a more global market. This article compares the experiences of Brazil, China and India. It is shown that Brazil relied on the regional market far more intensely than these Asian countries. There were clear gains accruing to China and India for having exploited more sophisticated markets from the very beginning of their export drive.

  16. The Measurement of Reactivity In Multiregion Subcritical Systems by the Pulsed Neutron Technique; Mesure de la Reactivite dans les Systemes Sous-Critiques a Plusieurs Regions par la Methode des Neutrons Pulses; Izmerenie reaktivnosti v mnogozonnykh podkriticheskikh sistemakh metodom impul'snykh nejtronov; Mediciones de la Reactividad en Sistemas Subcriticos de Varias Regiones Mediante la Tecnica de los Neutrones Pulsados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwin, J.; Leng, J. H. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Windscale Works, Cumberland (United Kingdom)

    1965-10-15

    The prompt decay of a thermalized burst of neutrons in a multiregion subcritical system is examined using a two-group diffusion theory. It is shown that a relationship can be established between the prompt decay constant of the fundamental mode and the effective multiplication factor of the system in terms of two parameters, defined, for the purposes of this paper, as the reactor response coefficient and the prompt decay correction and which depend to a large extent on the spatial flux patterns within the system. For the uniform bare system, the response coefficient can be identified with the mean neutron lifetime in the system; for a multiregion system it represents a compound of the lifetimes in each region weighted by perturbation type integrals. The second parameter, the decay correction, can have no physical meaning in that it arises from an attempt to relate the two scales of reactivity involved; that is the scale using the prompt decay constant and the scale derived using the effective multiplication factor. The properties of these parameters are examined here with reference to an enriched uranium graphitemoderated reactor consisting of uniform core and reflector and it is shown that the two parameters are not uniquely defined by the reactivity of the system but depend on the method chosen to make the system subcritical. Two sets of measurements are treated by the theory. In one, the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor was shut down by a uniform poison. In the other the reactivity of a core in the zero-energy reactor HERO was varied by altering the loaded radius. The neutron pulse measurements are all shown to be in good agreement with more conventional methods of reactivity determination. Some discussion of the experimental techniques and the difficulties encountered in the graphite-moderated systems is presented. (author) [French] Les auteurs etudient la decroissance des neutrons instantanes d'une bouffee thermalisee de neutrons dans un systeme sous

  17. HLA-E regulatory and coding region variability and haplotypes in a Brazilian population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Jaqueline; Veiga-Castelli, Luciana C; Donadi, Eduardo A; Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Castelli, Erick C

    2017-11-01

    The HLA-E gene is characterized by low but wide expression on different tissues. HLA-E is considered a conserved gene, being one of the least polymorphic class I HLA genes. The HLA-E molecule interacts with Natural Killer cell receptors and T lymphocytes receptors, and might activate or inhibit immune responses depending on the peptide associated with HLA-E and with which receptors HLA-E interacts to. Variable sites within the HLA-E regulatory and coding segments may influence the gene function by modifying its expression pattern or encoded molecule, thus, influencing its interaction with receptors and the peptide. Here we propose an approach to evaluate the gene structure, haplotype pattern and the complete HLA-E variability, including regulatory (promoter and 3'UTR) and coding segments (with introns), by using massively parallel sequencing. We investigated the variability of 420 samples from a very admixed population such as Brazilians by using this approach. Considering a segment of about 7kb, 63 variable sites were detected, arranged into 75 extended haplotypes. We detected 37 different promoter sequences (but few frequent ones), 27 different coding sequences (15 representing new HLA-E alleles) and 12 haplotypes at the 3'UTR segment, two of them presenting a summed frequency of 90%. Despite the number of coding alleles, they encode mainly two different full-length molecules, known as E*01:01 and E*01:03, which corresponds to about 90% of all. In addition, differently from what has been previously observed for other non classical HLA genes, the relationship among the HLA-E promoter, coding and 3'UTR haplotypes is not straightforward because the same promoter and 3'UTR haplotypes were many times associated with different HLA-E coding haplotypes. This data reinforces the presence of only two main full-length HLA-E molecules encoded by the many HLA-E alleles detected in our population sample. In addition, this data does indicate that the distal HLA-E promoter is by

  18. Regional Markets for Non-timber Forest Products in Eastern Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Vuola, Matleena

    2013-01-01

    While export of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has been promoted as a sustainable development strategy, the literature suggests that local and regional markets are also potentially important, not only for producers but also for traders and consumers (Shackleton et al. 2007). For producers, regional markets are thought to offer more accessible and more stable markets, while for traders, these markets offer employment, and for consumers, reasonably priced, diverse, fresh food. Consumptio...

  19. Regional mapping for evaluation of energetic alternatives for isolated systems in the Amazon region: the Brazilian state of Amapa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Marcos V.G.; Pires, Silvia Helena M.; Lacorte, Ana Castro; Menezes, Paulo Cesar P.; Guimaraes, Ana Paula C.; Santos, Marco Aurelio dos; Nascimento, Jose A.S.; Borges, Jorge Luiz; La Rovere, Emilio

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology developed for the characterization of regional energy potentials, and evaluation of the utilization viability of the various alternative electric power generation, by using the analysis technology based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The paper also presents the first results obtained for the energy mapping of the State of Amapa, Brazil

  20. O efeito fronteira das regiões brasileiras: uma aplicação do modelo gravitacional The border effect in Brazilian regions: a gravity model approach

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    Sérgio Leusin Jr.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o efeito fronteira do Brasil e de suas regiões para o ano 1999. Esse efeito foi estimado empiricamente, utilizando-se dados de corte seccional, em um modelo gravitacional com os 26 estados brasileiros, mais o Distrito Federal e 40 países. Apesar de o Brasil ter se engajado em um processo de abertura comercial, como o ocorrido durante a década de 1990, e ter participado de Acordos Preferenciais de Comércio importantes como o Mercosul, constatou-se que o país e algumas de suas regiões apresentam elevados custos de fronteira. Os resultados encontrados indicam que o comércio entre estados brasileiros é 33 vezes superior ao comércio internacional desses estados. Para as regiões brasileiras, o efeito fronteira das regiões Norte e Nordeste é significativamente maior do que aquele observado nas regiões Sul e Sudeste.This paper analyzes the border effect for Brazilian goods market and its regions in 1999. This effect was quantified empirically by using cross-sectional data in a gravitational model for twenty-six Brazilian states plus the Federal District and forty other countries. Despite Brazil's involvement in commercial opening in the 90's, as well as important regional trade agreements such as Mercosul, we noticed that Brazil and some of its regions have high cross-border costs. The finding results of this equation suggest a trade 33 times higher between Brazilian states than the international trade of these states. Regarding each Brazilian region, the border effect found for intra-national trade among Northeast and North regions is significantly higher than the border effect for Southeast and Southern regions.

  1. Artificial intelligence techniques coupled with seasonality measures for hydrological regionalization of Q90 under Brazilian conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskow, Samuel; de Mello, Carlos Rogério; Vargas, Marcelle M.; Corrêa, Leonardo de L.; Caldeira, Tamara L.; Durães, Matheus F.; de Aguiar, Marilton S.

    2016-10-01

    Information on stream flows is essential for water resources management. The stream flow that is equaled or exceeded 90% of the time (Q90) is one the most used low stream flow indicators in many countries, and its determination is made from the frequency analysis of stream flows considering a historical series. However, stream flow gauging network is generally not spatially sufficient to meet the necessary demands of technicians, thus the most plausible alternative is the use of hydrological regionalization. The objective of this study was to couple the artificial intelligence techniques (AI) K-means, Partitioning Around Medoids (PAM), K-harmonic means (KHM), Fuzzy C-means (FCM) and Genetic K-means (GKA), with measures of low stream flow seasonality, for verification of its potential to delineate hydrologically homogeneous regions for the regionalization of Q90. For the performance analysis of the proposed methodology, location attributes from 108 watersheds situated in southern Brazil, and attributes associated with their seasonality of low stream flows were considered in this study. It was concluded that: (i) AI techniques have the potential to delineate hydrologically homogeneous regions in the context of Q90 in the study region, especially the FCM method based on fuzzy logic, and GKA, based on genetic algorithms; (ii) the attributes related to seasonality of low stream flows added important information that increased the accuracy of the grouping; and (iii) the adjusted mathematical models have excellent performance and can be used to estimate Q90 in locations lacking monitoring.

  2. An investigation of ionospheric F region response in the Brazilian sector to the super geomagnetic storm of May 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, A. J.; Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Pillat, V. G.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the responses of the ionospheric F region at equatorial and low latitude regions in the Brazilian sector during the super geomagnetic storm on 15-16 May 2005. The geomagnetic storm reached a minimum Dst of -263 nT at 0900 UT on 15 May. In this paper, we present vertical total electron content (vTEC) and phase fluctuations (in TECU/min) from Global Positioning System (GPS) observations obtained at Belém, Brasília, Presidente Prudente, and Porto Alegre, Brazil, during the period 14-17 May 2005. Also, we present ionospheric parameters h'F, hpF2, and foF2, using the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI) obtained at Palmas and São José dos Campos, Brazil, for the same period. The super geomagnetic storm has fast decrease in the Dst index soon after SSC at 0239 UT on 15 May. It is a good possibility of prompt penetration of electric field of magnetospheric origin resulting in uplifting of the F region. The vTEC observations show a trough at BELE and a crest above UEPP, soon after SSC, indicating strengthening of nighttime equatorial anomaly. During the daytime on 15 and 16 May, in the recovery phase, the variations in foF2 at SJC and the vTEC observations, particularly at BRAZ, UEPP, and POAL, show large positive ionospheric storm. There is ESF on the all nights at PAL, in the post-midnight (UT) sector, and phase fluctuations only on the night of 14-15 May at BRAZ, after the SSC. No phase fluctuations are observed at the equatorial station BELE and low latitude stations (BRAZ, UEPP, and POAL) at all other times. This indicates that the plasma bubbles are generated and confined on this magnetically disturbed night only up to the low magnetic latitude and drifted possibly to west.

  3. THE BRAZILIAN BIODIESEL PROGRAM AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: CASES FROM NORTHERN BRAZIL

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    Marcus Vinicius Alves Finco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production has been greatly discussed in Brazil. In 2004, these debates led the country to develop new policies and implement a national program for biodiesel use and production (PNPB with the intent to increase the share of renewable energy and foster regional development. In this context, the present study aims to assess the impacts of PNPB on regional development in Tocantins State, northern Brazil. For this purpose, ranges of socio-economic indicators were collected among national and regional stakeholders, as well as specific literature. The preliminary results point out that distribution logistics appears to be a considerable constraint to the success of the PNPB. The concentration of biodiesel industries in the central-west region of the country, and the large distances to deliver biodiesel in the northern Brazil make biodiesel prices non-competitive when compared to fossil diesel. The results also suggest that the PNPB is not succeeding in promoting the integration of family agriculture in the Tocantins state, especially due to the structural difficulty of the agricultural sector, as well as the technical and political shortcomings presented by the mechanism of incentives.

  4. Study of sporadic E layers based on GPS radio occultation measurements and digisonde data over the Brazilian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Laysa C. A.; Arras, Christina; Batista, Inez S.; Denardini, Clezio M.; Bertollotto, Thainá O.; Moro, Juliano

    2018-04-01

    This work presents new results about sporadic E-layers (Es layers) using GPS (global positioning system) radio occultation (RO) measurements obtained from the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites and digisonde data. The RO profiles are used to study the Es layer occurrence as well as its intensity of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the 50 Hz GPS L1 signal. The methodology was applied to identify the Es layer on RO measurements over Cachoeira Paulista, a low-latitude station in the Brazilian region, in which the Es layer development is not driven tidal winds only as it is at middle latitudes. The coincident events were analyzed using the RO technique and ionosonde observations during the year 2014 to 2016. We used the electron density obtained using the blanketing frequency parameter (fbEs) and the Es layer height (h'Es) acquired from the ionograms to validate the satellite measurements. The comparative results show that the Es layer characteristics extracted from the RO measurements are in good agreement with the Es layer parameters from the digisonde.

  5. Brasiguaio Identities: An outcome of the pursuit of land across the Brazilian and Paraguayan shared border region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Estrada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The movement of people between places is far from being a new or isolated phenomenon and is happening more often than before. This is also the case for individuals who moved from Brazil and Paraguay. Based on the existing literature as well as on data gathered in the landless camp Antônio Irmão, also known locally as the ‘Brasiguaios landless camp’ in Itaquiraí in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, this article explains how their search for a piece of land in either Brazil and Paraguay influenced the formation of the Brasiguaios identities. First, I briefly approach the foundation of transnationalism scholarship, which guided my research. Next, I demonstrate how land policies in Brazil and Paraguay, aimed at developing their respective border regions, played a role in the migration of Brazilians to Paraguayan and then the return of a number of them to Brazil. Last, I share the narrative of individuals in the Brasiguaio landless camp in the pursuit of land in either country. At the core of my argument is that the Brasiguaio identities of this landless group result from their pursuit of land rather than from migration processes.

  6. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular characterization of Meloidogyne spp. populations from Brazilian soybean production regions

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    Camilla Martins de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Soybean is a commodity of great economic importance worldwide, particularly in Brazil, world’s second largest producer. Nematodes, especially those of the Meloidogyne genus, severely limit productivity. Identification of nematode species is important for effective soybean management. Here, 26 populations of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp. from 15 municipalities in the states of Bahia, Mato Grosso, Goias, and Minas Gerais were characterized based on the morphology of the female perineal region, esterase profile, and identification based on amplification of specific regions of the population genome. Among the Meloidogyne spp. populations obtained, M. incognita and M. javanica, were identified. No mixed populations were present in the samples. Diagnosis based on molecular analysis was shown to be reliable and the fastest for characterization of nematode populations compared to other methods analyzed.

  7. A jungle of adventures and mysteries: expeditions to the Amazon region in Brazilian literature in the 1920s and 1930s

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    Luciana Murari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses five novels published in Brazil from 1925 to 1938, having in common the narration of fictional expeditions to the Amazon region. Aiming to understand its representation, we try to figure out how elites conceived its possibilities of wealth production, its integration into Brazilian society and its cultural and environmental grounds. Even taking into account the conceptual and political-ideological differences among these novels, we observed that the Amazon region was still considered as a special, unknown reality, like a scarcely exploited treasure where secrets were hidden and fantasies, horrors and wonders could be imagined. In conclusion, the modernization pleas of Brazilian nation embodied Amazonian life, and the predatory exploitation of the environment was still a well-accepted means to promote material prosperity.

  8. Ametryn Leaching in Soils from the Sugarcane Region in Northeastern Brazilian

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, K.S.; FREITAS, F.C.L.; BRAGA, D.F.; DOMBROSKI, J.L.D.; SANTOS, A.F.B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ametryn is one of the most widely used herbicides in the sugarcane culture. Little is known about the interactions between this herbicide and the attributes of soils in the sugarcane region of northeastern Brazil. This knowledge, before recommending herbicide, will minimize the negative effects on the environment, particularly on water resources, and will ensure weed control efficacy. In this work, ametryn leaching potential was estimated through bioassays and chromatography, in five...

  9. The diversity of the Brazilian regional Audit Courts on government auditing

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    André Feliciano Lino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, the 33 regional audit courts are responsible to monitor the public financial management cycle for states and municipalities and to judge the compliance of governors’ acts to the laws regarding procurement and civil servants’ employment from more than 20,000 governmental entities under their jurisdiction. This article aims to analyze the diversity of internal configuration of these regional audit courts and to discuss the potential associations with the financial auditing quality their teams usually run. We conducted interviews with external auditors and IT directors from 18 courts, followed by triangulation to official documents from the audit courts, such as audit manuals and activities reports. The audit quality drivers were identified within the governmental auditing literature, supporting the evidences collected by the interviews content analysis. Despite all regional auditing bodies in Brazil were based on the Napoleonic model, the analysis indicates the identified configurations vary according to the team’s organization and size, auditor rotation and use of data reporting systems. The discussion shows that dissimilarities on the courts’ configurations, as they are responsible to audit a specific country area, will contribute to a different coercion level on fiscal and accounting issues to state and municipalities, due a combination of characteristics which could mitigate or improve the audit quality. This paper additionally suggests some precautions, based on the organization alignment literature, for the use of proxies to control audit quality effects in the public finance studies in Brazil.

  10. Macro, minor and trace elements in bovine milk from two Brazilian dairy regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luis Gustavo Cofani dos Santos; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Simone Silveira Nery da Silva Cofani dos Santos; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Fernando Barbosa Junior

    2012-01-01

    Brazil started to export dairy products in the early 2000s and since then has slowly consolidated its position in the world dairy market. To ensure the position in the international market by improving the quality of milk produced in the country, the government created a national program and a network of laboratories for milk quality. The Normative Instruction 51 (Instrucao Normativa 51-IN51) was introduced within the national program establishing parameters for milk quality and safety. In spite of not being included in the IN51, chemical elements are under thorough discussion as quality parameters for their nutritional and toxicological relevance. This work aimed at evaluating the quality of milk from one of the major dairy regions in Brazil, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, by the determination of chemical elements, comparing the results with those previously obtained for milk samples from the main dairy region of the country, in the state of Minas Gerais. Samples were collected from cooling tanks in nineteen dairy farms. After freeze drying, chemical elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For ten out of sixteen chemical elements determined, there were significant differences between samples from both producing regions (p < 0.01). (author)

  11. Spatial distribution and temporal variation of microcrustaceans assembly (Cladocera and Copepoda) in different compartments of a reservoir in the brazilian semiarid region

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane Souza Santos; Nadson Ressyé Simões; Sérgio Luiz Sonoda

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial and temporal variation of microcrustacean assemblages of a reservoir in the Brazilian semiarid region. Methods Physical and chemical water variables and samples of microcrustaceans were collected at eight sites of the reservoir between July 2013 and November 2014, in a total of seven campaigns. For this study, the reservoir was categorized in two compartments: lateral and central. Results Limnological variables showe...

  12. Titanogryllus n. gen., the largest Gryllinae cricket from the Neotropical Region with three new species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Orthoptera, Grylloidea, Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswara, Ranjana; Souza-Dias, Pedro G B; De Campos, Lucas Denadai; RedÜ, Darlan R; De Mello, Francisco de A G; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure

    2018-03-29

    Titanogryllus, a new genus and three new species T. salgado n. gen. n. sp., T. oxossi n. gen. n. sp., and T. oxente n. gen. n. sp. from subfamily Gryllinae (Grylloidea, Gryllidae) are described from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. This genus is characterized by its very large size, and establishes a new record for the largest known cricket from Neotropical Region. The new taxa are characterized by their external morphology and male and female genitalia.

  13. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region of low economic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dartagnan Pinto Guedes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity in a representative sample of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region with low economic development. METHODS: A total of 982 girls and 986 boys, aged seven to 17 years old and assisted by Segundo Tempo Program, from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were included in the study. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass cut-off indexes recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. The prevalence of the nutritional status according to sex and age was compared by chi-square test. RESULTS: In girls, the frequency of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity was 4.1, 18.4 and 3.8%, respectively; in boys, these percentages were 6.3, 13.2 and 2.9%, respectively. The low body weight/thinness for girls raised from 2.7% (7-10 years old to 5.5% (15-17 years old; the body weight excess (overweight and obesity decreased from 30.1 to 16.2% for the same age groups. In boys, the corresponding trends were from 3.2 to 9.4% for low body weight/thinness, and from 23.4 to 9.2%, for body weight excess. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that, even in a region with low economic status, the body weight excess was the main problem associated with nutritional health. The high overweight and obesity prevalence rates indicate the need of public policies for promoting healthy feeding behaviors and physical activity.

  14. Effect of a Brazilian regional basic diet on the prevalence of caries in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, J.T.; Couto, G.B.L.; Vasconcelos, M.M.V.B.; Melo, M.M.D.C.; Guedes, R.C.A.; Cordeiro, M.A.C.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a regional basic diet (RBD) on the prevalence of caries in the molar teeth of rats of both sexes aged 23 days. The animals were divided into six groups of 10 rats each receiving the following diets for 30 and 60 days after weaning: RBD, a cariogenic diet, and a commercial diet. The prevalence and penetration of caries in the molar teeth of the rats was then analyzed. The RBD produced caries in 37.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 day...

  15. Occurrence and distribution of Perichaena (Trichiaceae, Myxomycetes in the Brazilian Northeastern Region

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    Laise de Holanda Cavalcanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The known distribution of Perichaena calongei, P. chrysosperma, P. corticalis, P. depressa, P. microspora, P. pedata and P. vermicularis in the nine states that comprise Brazil's Northeast Region (1,548,672 km2 is presented herein, enhancing our understanding of the distribution of the genusPerichaena (Trichiaceae, Myxomycetes in the Neotropics. This inventory encompasses a 100-year period (1914-2014, and analyzes material deposited in herbaria and collected by the authors. The collected material came from areas of thorny deciduous vegetation typical of the Caatinga biome and portions of savannah in the continent's interior, rainforests,restingas (tropical moist broadleaf forests found along Brazil's coastal spits and mangroves of the Atlantic Forest biome along a coastal zone of approximately 3,000 km. Descriptions, illustrations, vegetational environments, microhabitats and distribution maps are given for each species. New records include Perichaena chrysosperma andP. depressa in the state of Maranhão, P. corticalis in the states of Bahia, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte and Sergipe, P. calongei in the Northeast Region, and P. pedata in Brazil. This paper adds to the known types of macroclimates, elevation levels, vegetational environments and substrates for these species and provides a better understanding of their global distribution pattern.

  16. A survey of necrophagous blowflies (Diptera: Oestroidea in the Amazonas-Negro interfluvial region (Brazilian Amazon

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    Eduardo Amat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The fauna of blowflies (Calliphoridae and Mesembrinellidae in three localities of primary Amazon forest coverage in the Amazonas-Negro interfluvial region was assessed. A total of 5066 blowflies were collected, with Chloroprocta idiodea being the most abundant species (66.3%. A difference in species richness between the localities ZF2 and Novo Airão was observed. Comparison among sampled sites revealed no considerable variation in fauna composition, except for the species Eumesembrinella benoisti (Séguy 1925 and Hemilucilia sp., whose occurrence was observed only in a single locality. Apparently, Amazon rivers are not efficient geographical barriers to influence the current composition of necrophagous blowfly assemblages. Also, most of the blowfly species did not show a noticeable specificity for any specific forest among the interfluvial areas of the ombrophilous forest. Finally, an updated checklist of necrophagous blowfly species of the Amazonas state in Brazil is presented.

  17. Molecular bases of the ABO blood groups of Indians from the Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, R F; Simões, B P; Guerreiro, J F; Santos, S E; Zago, M A

    1994-01-01

    Phenotype studies of ABO blood groups in most Amerindian populations revealed the exclusive presence of group O. Since group O is the result of the absence of glycosyltransferase activity, its molecular bases may be heterogeneous. We carried out ABO blood group genotyping by analysis of DNA of 30 Indians from 2 Amazonian tribes (Yanomami and Arara), and compared the findings with other populations (Caucasians and Blacks). Two segments of the glycosyltransferase gene were amplified by PCR and digested with KpnI or AluI to detect deletion or base change at positions 258 and 700, respectively. For all subjects, the gene basis of blood group O is the deletion of a single nucleotide at position 258 of the glycosyltransferase A gene, similar to that observed in Caucasoids and Negroids. DNA sequencing of limited regions of the gene supports this conclusion. This finding does not exclude, however, that a heterogeneity of the O allele may be revealed by a more extensive analysis.

  18. Sedentary nestlings of Wood Stork as monitors of mercury contamination in the gold mining region of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassif Del Lama, Silvia, E-mail: dsdl@ufscar.br [Laboratorio Genetica de Aves, Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Dosualdo Rocha, Cristiano [Laboratorio Genetica de Aves, Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Figueiredo Jardim, Wilson [Institute of Chemistry, State University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tsai, Jo-Szu; Frederick, Peter Crawford [Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, P.O. Box 110430, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Sedentary organisms that are at top trophic levels allow inference about the level of local mercury contamination. We evaluated mercury contamination in feather tissue of nestling Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), sampled in different parts of the Brazilian Pantanal that were variably polluted by mercury releases from gold mining activities. Levels of mercury in feathers sampled in seven breeding colonies were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the mean value of mercury concentration was 0.557 {mu}g/g, dry weight (n=124), range 0.024-4.423 {mu}g/g. From this total sample, 21 feathers that represent 30% of nestlings collected in Porto da Fazenda and Tucum colonies, in the northern region, ranged from 1.0 to 4.43 {mu}g/g, dry weight (median value=1.87 {mu}g/g). We found significant differences among regions (H=57.342; p=0<0.05). Results suggest that permanently flooded areas, or along mainstream rivers are more contaminated by mercury than dry areas, regardless of the distance from the gold mining center, which is located in the northern Pantanal. Highest values found in nestlings feathers were similar to those found in feathers of adult birds and in tissues of adult mammals that are less sedentary and were captured in the same region of Pantanal. These findings indicate that mercury released has been biomagnified and it is present in high concentrations in tissues of top consumers. We suggest a program to monitor mercury availability in this ecosystem using sedentary life forms of top predators like Wood Storks or other piscivorous birds. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sedentary stork nestlings were used for the first time to show local mercury contamination of Pantanal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences were found among regions but they are not explained only by distance from the gold mining. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Permanently flooded areas and areas along mainstream rivers are more contaminated than dry areas. Black

  19. Brazilian environmental legislation and scenarios for carbon balance in Areas of Permanent Preservation (APP) in dairy livestock regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hott, M. C.; Fonseca, L. D.; Andrade, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    maintain a balance between conservation of natural resources, land suitability and demand for food, especially for milk in these regions, which provide inputs for the dairy industry. The brazilian environmental legislation faces a turbulent period of change, but certainly it can contribute to increase carbon sequestration.

  20. Sedentary nestlings of Wood Stork as monitors of mercury contamination in the gold mining region of the Brazilian Pantanal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassif Del Lama, Silvia; Dosualdo Rocha, Cristiano; Figueiredo Jardim, Wilson; Tsai, Jo-Szu; Frederick, Peter Crawford

    2011-01-01

    Sedentary organisms that are at top trophic levels allow inference about the level of local mercury contamination. We evaluated mercury contamination in feather tissue of nestling Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), sampled in different parts of the Brazilian Pantanal that were variably polluted by mercury releases from gold mining activities. Levels of mercury in feathers sampled in seven breeding colonies were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the mean value of mercury concentration was 0.557 μg/g, dry weight (n=124), range 0.024–4.423 μg/g. From this total sample, 21 feathers that represent 30% of nestlings collected in Porto da Fazenda and Tucum colonies, in the northern region, ranged from 1.0 to 4.43 μg/g, dry weight (median value=1.87 μg/g). We found significant differences among regions (H=57.342; p=0<0.05). Results suggest that permanently flooded areas, or along mainstream rivers are more contaminated by mercury than dry areas, regardless of the distance from the gold mining center, which is located in the northern Pantanal. Highest values found in nestlings feathers were similar to those found in feathers of adult birds and in tissues of adult mammals that are less sedentary and were captured in the same region of Pantanal. These findings indicate that mercury released has been biomagnified and it is present in high concentrations in tissues of top consumers. We suggest a program to monitor mercury availability in this ecosystem using sedentary life forms of top predators like Wood Storks or other piscivorous birds. - Highlights: ► Sedentary stork nestlings were used for the first time to show local mercury contamination of Pantanal. ► Differences were found among regions but they are not explained only by distance from the gold mining. ► Permanently flooded areas and areas along mainstream rivers are more contaminated than dry areas. ► Mercury has been biomagnified in Pantanal and it is found in high concentrations in top

  1. Effect of a Brazilian regional basic diet on the prevalence of caries in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, J T; Couto, G B L; Vasconcelos, M M V B; Melo, M M D C; Guedes, R C A; Cordeiro, M A C

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a regional basic diet (RBD) on the prevalence of caries in the molar teeth of rats of both sexes aged 23 days. The animals were divided into six groups of 10 rats each receiving the following diets for 30 and 60 days after weaning: RBD, a cariogenic diet, and a commercial diet. The prevalence and penetration of caries in the molar teeth of the rats was then analyzed. The RBD produced caries in 37.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 days, and in 83.4% of animals fed 60 days, while the cariogenic diet produced caries in 72.5% and 77.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 and 60 days, respectively. Rats fed the RBD for 30 days had caries in the enamel in 38% of their teeth, 48% had superficial dentin caries, and 7.5% moderate dentin caries. The effect of the RBD did not differ significantly from that of the cariogenic diet in terms of the presence of caries in rats fed 60 days. The penetration depth of the caries produced by the RBD was the same as that produced by the cariogenic diet. Our results show that the RBD has the same cariogenic potential as the cariogenic diet. Since the RBD is the only option for the low-income population, there should be a study of how to compensate for the cariogenicity of this diet.

  2. Effect of a Brazilian regional basic diet on the prevalence of caries in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. Pinheiro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a regional basic diet (RBD on the prevalence of caries in the molar teeth of rats of both sexes aged 23 days. The animals were divided into six groups of 10 rats each receiving the following diets for 30 and 60 days after weaning: RBD, a cariogenic diet, and a commercial diet. The prevalence and penetration of caries in the molar teeth of the rats was then analyzed. The RBD produced caries in 37.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 days, and in 83.4% of animals fed 60 days, while the cariogenic diet produced caries in 72.5% and 77.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 and 60 days, respectively. Rats fed the RBD for 30 days had caries in the enamel in 38% of their teeth, 48% had superficial dentin caries, and 7.5% moderate dentin caries. The effect of the RBD did not differ significantly from that of the cariogenic diet in terms of the presence of caries in rats fed 60 days. The penetration depth of the caries produced by the RBD was the same as that produced by the cariogenic diet. Our results show that the RBD has the same cariogenic potential as the cariogenic diet. Since the RBD is the only option for the low-income population, there should be a study of how to compensate for the cariogenicity of this diet.

  3. Pollen analysis in honey samples from the two main producing regions in the Brazilian northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodré, Geni da S; Marchini, Luís C; Carvalho, Carlos A L de; Moreti, Augusta C de C C

    2007-09-01

    Knowledge about the botanical source of honey is very important for the beekeeper while it indicates adequate and abundant supply sources of nectar and pollen for the bees, thus contributing toward improved yield. The present study means to identify the pollen types occurring in 58 samples of honey produced in two states of the northeastern region of Brazil, Piauí (38 samples) and Ceará (20 samples), and to verify the potential of the honey plants during the months of February to August. The samples were obtained directly from beekeepers in each state and analyzed at the Apiculture Laboratory of the Entomology Section of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The pollen analysis was performed using the acetolysis method. The samples were submitted to both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis. The dominant pollen in the State of Ceará is from Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Borreria verticillata, Serjania sp., and a Fabaceae pollen type, while in the State of Piauí it is from Piptadenia sp., M. caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Croton urucurana and Tibouchina sp.

  4. Determination of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Sb and Se concentrations by radiochemical neutron activation analysis in different Brazilian regional diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaro, D.I.T.; Maihara, V.A.; Armelin, M.J.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Cozzolino, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Radiochemical separation procedures developed for the determination of seven elements: As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Sb and Se in different Brazilian regional diets are described. In the case of the elements As, Hg, Sb and Se, the procedure was based on retention in inorganic exchanger TFO (tin dioxide) and determination of Hg by extraction with Ni(DDC) 2 . For determination of Cd, Cr, Cu and Se the procedure chosen was based on retention in inorganic exchanger HMD (hydrated manganese dioxide) and extraction of Cu and Cd as diethyldithiocarbamate compounds. The accuracy and precision of the methods studied were tested by means of analyses of different reference materials-Due to the lack of data on trace element levels in Brazilian foodstuffs and diets, these methods were applied to determination of these elements in different Brazilian regional diets. These s were supplied by the Food and Experimental Nutrition Department of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Sao Paulo. The daily intake values for these diets are presented for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Sb and Se. (author) 21 refs.; 6 tabs

  5. Deforestation and Forest Fires in Roraima and Their Relationship with Phytoclimatic Regions in the Northern Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Pereira, Vaneza Barreto; Manzi, Antonio Ocimar; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2015-05-01

    Deforestation and forest fires in the Brazilian Amazon are a regional-scale anthropogenic process related to biomass burning, which has a direct impact on global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions. Containment of this process requires characterizing its spatial distribution and that of the environmental factors related to its occurrence. The aim of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of deforested areas and forest fires in the State of Roraima from 2000 to 2010. We mapped deforested areas and forest fires using Landsat images and associated their occurrence with two phytoclimatic zones: zone with savanna influence (ZIS), and zone without savanna influence (ZOS). Total deforested area during the interval was estimated at 3.06 × 103 km2 (ZIS = 55 %; ZOS = 45 %) while total area affected by forest fires was estimated at 3.02 × 103 km2 (ZIS = 97.7 %; ZOS = 2.3 %). Magnitude of deforestation in Roraima was not related to the phytoclimatic zones, but small deforested areas (≤17.9 ha) predominated in ZOS while larger deforestation classes (>17.9 ha) predominated in ZIS, which is an area with a longer history of human activities. The largest occurrence of forest fires was observed in the ZIS in years with El Niño events. Our analysis indicates that the areas most affected by forest fires in Roraima during 2000-2010 were associated with strong climatic events and the occurrence these fires was amplified in ZIS, a sensitive phytoclimatic zone with a higher risk of anthropogenic fires given its drier climate and open forest structure.

  6. Deforestation and forest fires in Roraima and their relationship with phytoclimatic regions in the northern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Pereira, Vaneza Barreto; Manzi, Antonio Ocimar; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2015-05-01

    Deforestation and forest fires in the Brazilian Amazon are a regional-scale anthropogenic process related to biomass burning, which has a direct impact on global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions. Containment of this process requires characterizing its spatial distribution and that of the environmental factors related to its occurrence. The aim of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of deforested areas and forest fires in the State of Roraima from 2000 to 2010. We mapped deforested areas and forest fires using Landsat images and associated their occurrence with two phytoclimatic zones: zone with savanna influence (ZIS), and zone without savanna influence (ZOS). Total deforested area during the interval was estimated at 3.06 × 10(3) km(2) (ZIS = 55 %; ZOS = 45 %) while total area affected by forest fires was estimated at 3.02 × 10(3) km(2) (ZIS = 97.7 %; ZOS = 2.3 %). Magnitude of deforestation in Roraima was not related to the phytoclimatic zones, but small deforested areas (≤17.9 ha) predominated in ZOS while larger deforestation classes (>17.9 ha) predominated in ZIS, which is an area with a longer history of human activities. The largest occurrence of forest fires was observed in the ZIS in years with El Niño events. Our analysis indicates that the areas most affected by forest fires in Roraima during 2000-2010 were associated with strong climatic events and the occurrence these fires was amplified in ZIS, a sensitive phytoclimatic zone with a higher risk of anthropogenic fires given its drier climate and open forest structure.

  7. Drug abuse among workers in Brazilian regions Uso de drogas entre trabalhadores de regiões do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovandir Alves Silva

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Many business organizations in Brazil have adopted drug testing programs in the workplace since 1992. Rehabilitation, rather than layoff and disciplinary measures, has been offered as part of the Brazilian employee assistance programs. The purpose study is to profile drug abuse among company workers of different Brazilian geographical regions. METHODS: Urine samples of 12,700 workers from five geographical regions were tested for the most common illicit drugs of abuse in the country: marijuana, cocaine, and amphetamine. Enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS were the techniques utilized for urine testing. The distribution of collected urine samples according to geographical regions was: 72.0% southeast, 13.8% northeast, 7.9% south, 5.7% central west and 0.6% north. RESULTS: Of all samples analyzed, 1.8% was found to be positive for drugs: 0.5% from the south region, 1.1% from northeast, 1.2% from central west, 1.3% from north, and 2.2% from southeast. Of these, 59.9% was marijuana, 17.7% cocaine, 14.6% amphetamine, and 7.7% associated drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of drugs found in the samples shows a regional variation. Marijuana, however, was found in all regions. Cocaine was seen only in central west and southeast regions. Amphetamine was found in northeast, central west, and southeast regions.OBJETIVO: No Brasil, desde 1992, inúmeras empresas comerciais e industriais vêm adotando programas de controle do uso de drogas de abuso no ambiente de trabalho. Nenhuma medida disciplinar ou demissionária é tomada sem antes se tentar a reabilitação do funcionário. O objetivo do estudo é apresentar o perfil do uso de drogas de abuso entre trabalhadores de diferentes empresas brasileiras. MÉTODOS: Amostras de urina de 12.700 indivíduos provenientes das cinco regiões geográficas brasileiras foram analisadas visando à detecção das principais drogas de abuso

  8. Pollen analysis in honey samples from the two main producing regions in the Brazilian northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni da S. Sodré

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the botanical source of honey is very important for the beekeeper while it indicates adequate and abundant supply sources of nectar and pollen for the bees, thus contributing toward improved yield. The present study means to identify the pollen types occurring in 58 samples of honey produced in two states of the northeastern region of Brazil, Piauí (38 samples and Ceará (20 samples, and to verify the potential of the honey plants during the months of February to August. The samples were obtained directly from beekeepers in each state and analyzed at the Apiculture Laboratory of the Entomology Section of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The pollen analysis was performed using the acetolysis method. The samples were submitted to both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis. The dominant pollen in the State of Ceará is from Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Borreria verticillata, Serjania sp., and a Fabaceae pollen type, while in the State of Piauí it is from Piptadenia sp., M. caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Croton urucurana and Tibouchina sp.O conhecimento da origem botânica do mel é de grande importância para o apicultor por indicar fontes adequadas e de abundante suprimento de néctar e pólen para as abelhas, contribuindo, desta forma, para uma melhor produção. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar os tipos polínicos em 58 amostras de méis produzidos em dois estados da região nordeste do Brasil, Piauí (38 amostras e Ceará (20 amostras, verificando o potencial das plantas apícolas durante os meses de fevereiro a agosto. As amostras foram obtidas diretamente de apicultores de cada Estado e analisadas no Laboratório de Apicultura do Setor de Entomologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo. A análise polínica foi realizada utilizando-se o método da acetólise. As amostras foram

  9. Management of spent fuel from research reactors - Brazilian progress report (within the framework of Regional Project IAEA-RLA-4/018)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, A.J.; Silva, J.E.R.

    2005-01-01

    There are four research reactors in Brazil. For three of them, because of the low reactor power and low burn-up of the fuel, except for the concern about ageing, spent fuel storage is not a problem. However for one of the reactors, more specifically IEA-R1 research reactor, the storage of spent fuel is a major concern, because, according to the proposed operation schedule for the reactor, unless an action is taken, by the year 2009 there will be no more racks available to store its spent fuel. This paper gives a brief description of the type and amount of fuel elements utilized in each one of the Brazilian research reactors, with a short discussion about the storage capacity at each installation. It also gives a description of the activities developed by Brazilian engineers and researchers during the period between 2001 and 2004, within the framework of regional project 'RLA-4/018-Management of Spent Fuel from Research Reactors'. As a conclusion, we can say that the advances of the project, and the integration promoted among the engineers and researchers of the participant countries were of fundamental importance for Brazilian researchers and engineers to understand the problems related to the storage of spent fuel, and to make a clear definition about the most suitable alternatives for interim storage of the spent fuel from IEAR1 research reactor. (author)

  10. Individual tree detection in intact forest and degraded forest areas in the north region of Mato Grosso State, Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, E. G.; Jorge, A.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Gasparini, K.

    2017-12-01

    The State of Mato Grosso - MT has the second largest area with degraded forest among the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. Land use and land cover change processes that occur in this region cause the loss of forest biomass, releasing greenhouse gases that contribute to the increase of temperature on earth. These degraded forest areas lose biomass according to the intensity and magnitude of the degradation type. The estimate of forest biomass, commonly performed by forest inventory through sample plots, shows high variance in degraded forest areas. Due to this variance and complexity of tropical forests, the aim of this work was to estimate forest biomass using LiDAR point clouds in three distinct forest areas: one degraded by fire, another by selective logging and one area of intact forest. The approach applied in these areas was the Individual Tree Detection (ITD). To isolate the trees, we generated Canopy Height Models (CHM) images, which are obtained by subtracting the Digital Elevation Model (MDE) and the Digital Terrain Model (MDT), created by the cloud of LiDAR points. The trees in the CHM images are isolated by an algorithm provided by the Quantitative Ecology research group at the School of Forestry at Northern Arizona University (SILVA, 2015). With these points, metrics were calculated for some areas, which were used in the model of biomass estimation. The methodology used in this work was expected to reduce the error in biomass estimate in the study area. The cloud points of the most representative trees were analyzed, and thus field data was correlated with the individual trees found by the proposed algorithm. In a pilot study, the proposed methodology was applied generating the individual tree metrics: total height and area of the crown. When correlating 339 isolated trees, an unsatisfactory R² was obtained, as heights found by the algorithm were lower than those obtained in the field, with an average difference of 2.43 m. This shows that the

  11. Aquaculture investigations with nuclear energy techniques; Investigaciones acuicolas con tecnicas de energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heredia Salazar, Brunilda [Fondo Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (FONAIAP), (CIAE), Estacion Experimental Guanapito, Guarico (Venezuela)

    1997-07-01

    acuaticos y especialmente de peces bajo condiciones controladas hasta su cosecha, procesamiento, comercializacion y consumo ha sido senalado como una actividad que produce numerosos beneficios, entre los que destacan la obtencion de alimento de alto valor proteico, la incorporacion a la economia de tierras no aptas para la agricultura, el incremento de los recursos pesqueros, el reciclaje de materia organica producida en las unidades, el desarrollo regional, la generacion de empleos, tecnologias y divisas. Se identifican varias areas de investigacion que pueden ser desarrolladas, utilizando las tecnologias nucleares, como por ejemplo en la reproduccion, nutricion, diagnostico y control de enfermedades, monitoreo ambiental y certificacion de la calidad de productos. En lo concerniente a nuestra acuicultura, se requieren investigaciones que ameritan el uso de estas tecnicas. Por ejemplo: 1) Produccion de agentes inductores autoctonos, mediante radioinmunoensayos (RIA) para determinar la actividad de las gonadotropinas provenientes de las hipofisis de los peces cultivados con la finalidad de recolectar las glandulas en el momento optimo, desencadenantes de la maduracion final y desove en especies autoctonas. 2) Mejoramiento genetico de especies cultivadas a traves del conocimiento de la carga genetica de diferentes lineas y razas encontradas en el medio natural y lograr su mantenimiento para resolver los problemas de endogamia, tanto en especies autoctonas como exoticas, con el uso de tecnicas de marcaje del ADE, RFLA y tecnicas de microsatelites. 3) Estudios nutricionales y de alimentacion de las especies sometidas a cultivo comercial, especialmente sobre el efecto de las aflatoxinas sobre los insumos o la racion, sustancias que influyen negativamente en la nutricion acuicola. En este caso se usan inmunoensayos competitivos de enzimas ligadas (ELISA) y radioinmunoensayos. 4) Diagnostico de enfermedades, mediante el kit ELISA, especificamente de las enfermedades mas comunes

  12. Uranium producer region of Lagoa Real, Brazil. Guarantee of supply of uranium concentrated (DUA) for the brazilian needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Evandro Carele de; Franco, Jamyle Praxedes

    2008-01-01

    This work focus at the Uranium Province of Lagoa Real, notably considering the geological reserves of uranium already defined (100,000 tones of U 3 O 8 ) and the respective autonomy in providing raw material needed for making fuel elements. The province, based on geo economical parameters, supported by three main vectors (geological model/grade, mining/process route, investment/finance) has been elected to supply the required brazilian demand. Supplying of uranium for the brazilian power plants is in charge of Industrias Nucleares do Brasil - INB and is based on national production. Thus the Industrial Complex of Caetite has been implemented in the state of Bahia, aiming primarily to supply the needs of Angra 1 and Angra 2 power plants. This new production center has the capacity of producing up to 400 tones/yr. of U 3 O 8 . (author)

  13. Risk assessment of PM2.5 to child residents in Brazilian Amazon region with biofuel production

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Beatriz Fátima Alves; Ignotti, Eliane; Artaxo, Paulo; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; Junger, Washington Leite; Hacon, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Exposure to fine fractions of particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with increased hospital admissions and mortality for respiratory and cardiovascular disease in children and the elderly. This study aims to estimate the toxicological risk of PM2.5 from biomass burning in children and adolescents between the age of 6 and 14 in Tangará da Serra, a municipality of Subequatorial Brazilian Amazon. ...

  14. Bird diversity in the Serra do Aracá region, northwestern Brazilian Amazon: preliminary check-list with considerations on biogeography and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Borges

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We inventoried the birds from Serra do Aracá region, state of Amazonas. The region encompasses a high diversity of vegetation types, including white sand forests and campinas, terra firme and flooded forests, montane forests and tepuis. We recorded 416 bird taxa in 69 families through captures with mist nets, tape recording of bird voices, and collection of voucher specimens. A large proportion of them (61% were recorded in a single vegetation type. Qualitative estimates suggest that approximately 580 bird species occur in the region. The avifauna of the Aracá region has a mixed biogeographic composition, with species typical of both margins of the Rio Negro occurring sympatrically. Additionally, species whose distributions are restricted to three areas of endemism for Amazonian birds (Imeri, Guiana and Pantepui were recorded in the region. Rare landscapes in the Brazilian Amazon are found in the Serra do Aracá region. Additionally, we recorded endemic and rare birds, highlighting the value of the region for conservation. The Serra do Aracá State Park officially protects montane forests, terra firme forests and tepuis. We suggest that the large extension of white sand campinas and igapó forests at the southern portion of Serra do Aracá should be also preserved in order to improve the representation of the rich natural heritage of the region.

  15. Molecular findings from influenza A(H1N1pdm09 detected in patients from a Brazilian equatorial region during the pandemic period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Couto Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available After the World Health Organization officially declared the end of the first pandemic of the XXI century in August 2010, the influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus has been disseminated in the human population. In spite of its sustained circulation, very little on phylogenetic data or oseltamivir (OST resistance is available for the virus in equatorial regions of South America. In order to shed more light on this topic, we analysed the haemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 positive samples collected during the pandemic period in the Pernambuco (PE, a northeastern Brazilian state. Complete HA sequences were compared and amino acid changes were related to clinical outcome. In addition, the H275Y substitution in NA, associated with OST resistance, was investigated by pyrosequencing. Samples from PE were grouped in phylogenetic clades 6 and 7, being clustered together with sequences from South and Southeast Brazil. The D222N/G HA gene mutation, associated with severity, was found in one deceased patient that was pregnant. Additionally, the HA mutation K308E, which appeared in Brazil in 2010 and was only detected worldwide the following year, was identified in samples from hospitalised cases. The resistance marker H275Y was not identified in samples tested. However, broader studies are needed to establish the real frequency of resistance in this Brazilian region.

  16. Hydrological studies in Brazilian Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Studies carried on as a result of collaboration between the Federal University of Ceara, Brazil (research team) and the Brazilian Northeastern Bank (financing agency), aiming at a better knowledge of the hydrological problems of Brazilian Northeastern region, are described. (I.C.R.) [pt

  17. Thermoregulatory responses and blood parameters of locally adapted ewes under natural weather conditions of Brazilian semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirton Peixoto Costa

    2015-12-01

    of T3 was lower in the RMN than in the WMN (0.19±0.07 and 0.24±0.08 ?g dL-1, respectively, while T4 did not differ between them (6.53±1.51 and 6.52±1.46 ?g dL-1, respectively. The Morada Nova sheep showed positive physiological responses to the heat stress, notably an increase of respiratory rate and a reduction of T3 and T4 levels. All another hematologic parameters analyzed were within the normal range for all sheep, indicating a good ability to cope with the climatic changes of the Brazilian semiarid region. Both varieties were heat tolerant, but the red variety required major adjustments to maintain homeothermy.

  18. Personnel dosimetry of extremities by using Harshaw rings XD-100 at Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares, CRCN, Brazilian CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Ricardo de Andrade; Vilela, Eudice; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro; Ferreira Filho, Alfredo Lopes; Castro, Walber Amorim

    2000-01-01

    Data concerning calibration and type tests of an extremity system based on XD100 rings (Harshaw) are presented. Dosemeter used is a thermoluminescent chip inserted in a sealed pouch and was read out using a Harshaw 6600 reader. The dosimetric system complied with all ISO/DIS 12794-1 draft report suggested tests, in which this work was based on. This work obtained results point to the applicability of those recommendations to Brazilian institutes and suggest its adoption by the national regulatory commission. (author)

  19. Time trends and changes in the distribution of malaria cases in the Brazilian Amazon Region, 2004-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac da SF Lima

    Full Text Available Recent efforts to reduce malaria incidence have had some successes. Nevertheless, malaria persists as a significant public health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. The objective of this study was to describe changes in malaria case characteristics and to identify trends in malaria incidence in the Brazilian Amazon. This study used data from the Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance and Case Notification Information System from 2004 to 2013. The annual parasite incidence (API was calculated and joinpoint regression was used to assess the trends in API over time. There was a sharp increase in API in the state of Acre, followed by two periods of decrease. Pará also presented inconsistent decreases over the study period. Amapá, Amazonas, Rondônia, and Roraima showed statistically significant decreases over the period. The sharpest decrease occurred in Rondônia, with a reduction of 21.7% in the average annual percent change (AAPC (AAPC: -21.7%; 95% confidence interval: -25.4%, -17.8%; p < 0.05. This panorama of malaria incidence highlights the importance of integrating evidence-based malaria surveillance and control. Malaria is highly preventable, and eliminating its transmission should be a goal in coming decades.

  20. Potential of medicinal plants from the Brazilian semi-arid region (Caatinga) against Staphylococcus epidermidis planktonic and biofilm lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentin, Danielle da Silva; Giordani, Raquel Brandt; Zimmer, Karine Rigon; da Silva, Alexandre Gomes; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; Correia, Maria Tereza Dos Santos; Baumvol, Israel Jacob Rabin; Macedo, Alexandre José

    2011-09-01

    Medicinal plants from the Caatinga, a Brazilian xeric shrubland, are used in folk medicine to treat infections. These ethnopharmacological data can contribute to obtaining new antimicrobial/antibiofilm extracts and natural product prototypes for the development of new drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiofilm and antibacterial activities of 45 aqueous extracts from 24 Caatinga plant species. The effect of aqueous extracts on planktonic cells and on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis was studied by the OD(600) absorbance and by the crystal violet assay, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to generate comparative images of extract-treated and untreated biofilms. Chromatographic analyses were performed to characterize the active extracts. The in vitro screening, at 0.4 mg/mL and 4.0mg/mL, showed 20 plants effective in preventing biofilm formation and 13 plants able to inhibit planktonic bacterial growth. SEM images demonstrated distinct profiles of bacterial adhesion, matrix production and cell morphology according to different treatments and surfaces. The phytochemical analysis of the selected active extracts indicates the polyphenols, coumarins, steroids and terpenes as possible active compounds. This study describes the first antibiofilm and antibacterial screening of Caatinga plants against S. epidermidis. The evaluation presented in this study confirms several ethnopharmacological reports and can be utilized to identify new antibiofilm and antibacterial products against S. epidermidis from traditional Brazilian medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A influência da proximidade tecnológica e geográfica sobre a inovação regional no Brasil The influence of the technological proximity and the geographical proximity on Brazilian regional innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a influência da proximidade geográfica e da proximidade tecnológica sobre a inovação regional no Brasil, medida por depósitos de patentes no período 1999-2001 para mesorregiões geográficas. Para tanto, utilizaram-se técnicas de Análise Exploratória de Dados Espaciais (AEDE e de econometria espacial. Os dados de patentes foram organizados em quatro clusters tecnológicos segundo critérios de proximidade cognitiva, como biofarmacêutico, desenvolvimento de novos materiais, bens mecânicos e de consumo e tecnologias eletroeletrônicas, revelando um padrão de concentração da atividade tecnológica em poucas mesorregiões brasileiras. Além disso, foi calculada a medida de proximidade tecnológica de Jaffe para ponderar a vizinhança geográfica pelo grau de similaridade tecnológica das mesorregiões. Os resultados confirmam a hipótese de transbordamentos de conhecimento mediados tecnológica e geograficamente.The aim of this paper is to determine the influence of technological proximity and geographical proximity on Brazilian regional innovation, measured by patent applications over the period 1999-2001 for Brazilian geographical mesoregions. First, the paper undertakes an Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA and then uses spatial econometric techniques. According with procedures based on cognitive proximity the patent data are organized into four technological clusters such as chemical and bio-pharmaceutical, new materials, mechanical and process technologies and electrical and electronic technologies. The four aforementioned clusters exhibit a concentrated regional pattern of technological activity over few Brazilian mesoregions. Moreover, the paper uses a Jaffe's measure of technological distance in order to construct a matrix in which the technological similarity is weighted by the geographical proximity. The results corroborate the hypothesis of geographically and technologically

  2. Sensory and volatile profiles of monofloral honeys produced by native stingless bees of the brazilian semiarid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira da; Sousa, Janaína Maria Batista; da Silva, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira; Garruti, Deborah Dos Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely

    2018-03-01

    Monofloral honeys produced by stingless bees M. subnitida Ducke and M. scutellaris Latrelle in typical flowering of the Brazilian semi-arid Ziziphus juazeiro Mart (juazeiro), Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth (velame branco) and Mimosa arenosa willd Poir (jurema branca) were characterized in relation to volatile and sensorial profile. It identified 11 sensory descriptors and 96 volatile compounds. It was noticed a strong effect of flowering in sensorial profile and volatile of honeys. Juazeiro honey stood out with a higher characteristic aroma, taste sweet, caramel flavor and levels of aromatic aldehydes; jurema honey has been described with herb and beeswax aroma and the presence of sulfur compounds and ketones; volatile acids associated with acid taste, medicinal taste and clove aroma characterized the velame branco honey. These results demonstrate that the knowledge of the sensory and aroma profile of these honeys can contribute to characterization of its floral and geographical identity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic diversity of the captive Asian tapir population in Thailand, based on mitochondrial control region sequence data and the comparison of its nucleotide structure with Brazilian tapir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangkram, Yuttamol; Amano, Akira; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Pinyopummintr, Tanu; Thongtip, Nikorn; Kaolim, Nongnid; Sukmak, Manakorn; Kamolnorranath, Sumate; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Tipkantha, Wanlaya; Maikaew, Umaporn; Thomas, Warisara; Polsrila, Kanda; Dongsaard, Kwanreaun; Sanannu, Saowaphang; Wattananorrasate, Anuwat

    2017-07-01

    The Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) has been classified as Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2008). Genetic diversity data provide important information for the management of captive breeding and conservation of this species. We analyzed mitochondrial control region (CR) sequences from 37 captive Asian tapirs in Thailand. Multiple alignments of the full-length CR sequences sized 1268 bp comprised three domains as described in other mammal species. Analysis of 16 parsimony-informative variable sites revealed 11 haplotypes. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis using median-joining network clearly showed three clades correlated with our earlier cytochrome b gene study in this endangered species. The repetitive motif is located between first and second conserved sequence blocks, similar to the Brazilian tapir. The highest polymorphic site was located in the extended termination associated sequences domain. The results could be applied for future genetic management based in captivity and wild that shows stable populations.

  4. Molecular cloning and recombinant expression of the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region from a brazilian white spot syndrome virus isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Braunig

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fragment of the VP28 coding sequence from a Brazilian WSSV isolate (BrVP28 was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3 pLysS strain in order to produce the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region. The expression resulted in a protein of about 21 kDa, which was purified under denaturing conditions, resulting in a final highly purified BrVP28 preparation. The recombinant protein obtained can be used in several biotechnology applications, such as the production of monoclonal antibodies which could be used in the development of diagnostic tools as well as in the studies on the characterization of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV isolated in Brazil.

  5. Large-scale drivers of malaria and priority areas for prevention and control in the Brazilian Amazon region using a novel multi-pathogen geospatial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Denis; Lima, Joanna M Tucker

    2014-11-20

    Most of the malaria burden in the Americas is concentrated in the Brazilian Amazon but a detailed spatial characterization of malaria risk has yet to be undertaken. Utilizing 2004-2008 malaria incidence data collected from six Brazilian Amazon states, large-scale spatial patterns of malaria risk were characterized with a novel Bayesian multi-pathogen geospatial model. Data included 2.4 million malaria cases spread across 3.6 million sq km. Remotely sensed variables (deforestation rate, forest cover, rainfall, dry season length, and proximity to large water bodies), socio-economic variables (rural population size, income, and literacy rate, mortality rate for children age under five, and migration patterns), and GIS variables (proximity to roads, hydro-electric dams and gold mining operations) were incorporated as covariates. Borrowing information across pathogens allowed for better spatial predictions of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, as evidenced by a ten-fold cross-validation. Malaria incidence for both Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum tended to be higher in areas with greater forest cover. Proximity to gold mining operations was another important risk factor, corroborated by a positive association between migration rates and malaria incidence. Finally, areas with a longer dry season and areas with higher average rural income tended to have higher malaria risk. Risk maps reveal striking spatial heterogeneity in malaria risk across the region, yet these mean disease risk surface maps can be misleading if uncertainty is ignored. By combining mean spatial predictions with their associated uncertainty, several sites were consistently classified as hotspots, suggesting their importance as priority areas for malaria prevention and control. This article provides several contributions. From a methodological perspective, the benefits of jointly modelling multiple pathogens for spatial predictions were illustrated. In addition, maps of mean disease risk were

  6. Phylogeography of haplotypes of five microsatellites located in a low-recombination region of the X chromosome: studies worldwide and in Brazilian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rinaldo Wellerson; Pena, Sérgio D J

    2006-01-01

    We studied five microsatellites (DXS995, DXS8076, DXS8114, DXS1002 and DXS1050) located in a region of very low recombination rate in the long arm of the human X chromosome (Xq13.3-Xq21.3). No recombination was seen in 291 meioses in CEPH families. To test whether haplotypes composed of the five microsatellites could differentiate among distinct human continental populations, we studied an international panel containing 72 males from Africa, Europe, Asia and the America. Haplotypic diversity was very high within these groups and no haplotypes were shared among them. This led to the hope that we might be able to identify continent-specific lineages. However, in a median joining network there was no clear discrimination of the different continental groups. We then tested whether we could identify X chromosomal lineages from different continental origins in Brazilians. We typed 180 white Brazilians from four different geographical regions and examined their proportions of haplotype sharing with Africans, Asians, Europeans and Amerindians. No phylogeographical patterns emerged from the data. Moreover, there were several instances of the same haplotype being shared by many (and in one instance all) groups, suggesting that recombination might be occurring. We thus studied pairwise the level of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the microsatellites. No detectable linkage disequilibrium between the most external loci DXS995 and DXS1050 was observed. Thus, even though recombination may be absent on short time spans, as seen in the CEPH pedigrees, on a long term basis it occurs often enough to dissipate all linkage disequilibrium. On the other hand, we observed very strong linkage disequilibrium between the pairs DXS995/DXS8076 and DXS1002/DXS8114, raising the possibility of resequencing the segment between them to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in their intervals. The combination of X-linked microsatellites and SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium might

  7. Modelos nacionais e regionais de família no pensamento social brasileiro National and Regional Family Patterns in Brazilian Social Thought

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    CANDICE VIDAL E SOUZA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As revisões sobre os estudos clássicos de família no Brasil convergem na crítica ao patriarcalismo como modelo genérico e fixo de descrição dessa instituição, propondo que a família brasileira era uma pluralidade dispersa de experiências. Sugerimos que já nas narrativas ensaísticas sobre a identidade nacional existem modelos plurais de família brasileira, diversificados em termos da compreensão dos arranjos locais de relações familiares. Com esse objetivo, relemos, sob o eixo família-nação-região, dois conjuntos de ensaístas significativos para a construção de identidades regionais particulares (primeiro, Alfredo Ellis Jr. e Cassiano Ricardo; segundo, Alceu Amoroso Lima e Sylvio de Vasconcellos, pensadores/produtores de visões de São Paulo e de Minas Gerais, respectivamente, enquanto culturas e sociedades em grande parte caracterizadas por suas experiências de organização familiar própria.Revisions of classical studies of the family in Brazil agree in criticizing patriarchalism as a general and fixed model describing this institution, arguing that the Brazilian family was a plurality of dispersed experiences. We suggest that in the essay narratives of national identity there are already plural models of the Brazilian family, which are diversified according to local arrangements of family relations. Considering the themes family-nation-region, we review the work of two groups of important essayists on the construction of particular regional identities: Alfredo Ellis Jr. e Cassiano Ricardo; Alceu Amoroso Lima e Sylvio de Vasconcellos. We argue that these essayists articulated visions of São Paulo and Minas Gerais as cultures and societies characterized in a significant way by experiences of a proper family organization.

  8. Characterization of Aspergillus species on Brazil nut from the Brazilian Amazonian region and development of a PCR assay for identification at the genus level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Brazil nut is a protein-rich extractivist tree crop in the Amazon region. Fungal contamination of shells and kernel material frequently includes the presence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species from the section Flavi. Aflatoxins are polyketide secondary metabolites, which are hepatotoxic carcinogens in mammals. The objectives of this study were to identify Aspergillus species occurring on Brazil nut grown in different states in the Brazilian Amazon region and develop a specific PCR method for collective identification of member species of the genus Aspergillus. Results Polyphasic identification of 137 Aspergillus strains isolated from Brazil nut shell material from cooperatives across the Brazilian Amazon states of Acre, Amapá and Amazonas revealed five species, with Aspergillus section Flavi species A. nomius and A. flavus the most abundant. PCR primers ASP_GEN_MTSSU_F1 and ASP_GEN_MTSSU_R1 were designed for the genus Aspergillus, targeting a portion of the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Primer specificity was validated through both electronic PCR against target gene sequences at Genbank and in PCR reactions against DNA from Aspergillus species and other fungal genera common on Brazil nut. Collective differentiation of the observed section Flavi species A. flavus, A. nomius and A. tamarii from other Aspergillus species was possible on the basis of RFLP polymorphism. Conclusions Given the abundance of Aspergillus section Flavi species A. nomius and A. flavus observed on Brazil nut, and associated risk of mycotoxin accumulation, simple identification methods for such mycotoxigenic species are of importance for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system implementation. The assay for the genus Aspergillus represents progress towards specific PCR identification and detection of mycotoxigenic species. PMID:24885088

  9. Analysis of the CCR5 gene coding region diversity in five South American populations reveals two new non-synonymous alleles in Amerindians and high CCR5*D32 frequency in Euro-Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica B.W. Boldt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 molecule is an important co-receptor for HIV. The effect of the CCR5*D32 allele in susceptibility to HIV infection and AIDS disease is well known. Other alleles than CCR5*D32 have not been analysed before, neither in Amerindians nor in the majority of the populations all over the world. We investigated the distribution of the CCR5 coding region alleles in South Brazil and noticed a high CCR5*D32 frequency in the Euro-Brazilian population of the Paraná State (9.3%, which is the highest thus far reported for Latin America. The D32 frequency is even higher among the Euro-Brazilian Mennonites (14.2%. This allele is uncommon in Afro-Brazilians (2.0%, rare in the Guarani Amerindians (0.4% and absent in the Kaingang Amerindians and the Oriental-Brazilians. R223Q is common in the Oriental-Brazilians (7.7% and R60S in the Afro-Brazilians (5.0%. A29S and L55Q present an impaired response to b-chemokines and occurred in Afro- and Euro-Brazilians with cumulative frequencies of 4.4% and 2.7%, respectively. Two new non-synonymous alleles were found in Amerindians: C323F (g.3729G > T in Guarani (1.4% and Y68C (g.2964A > G in Kaingang (10.3%. The functional characteristics of these alleles should be defined and considered in epidemiological investigations about HIV-1 infection and AIDS incidence in Amerindian populations.

  10. [Epidemiology of hepatitis B, C and D viruses among indigenous Parakanã tribe in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, M C; Menezes, R C; Martins, S J; Bensabath, G

    1994-08-01

    This study sought to establish the prevalence of infection with the hepatitis B, C, and D viruses (HBV, HCV, and HDV) and to describe their transmission among the Parakanã, an indigenous tribe in Pará State, Brazil. This tribe's first contacts with broader Brazilian society occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. As of October 1992, the tribe consisted of 350 individuals, of whom 222 lived in the village of Paranatinga and 128 in the village of Maroxewara. Serum samples from 96.9% of this population were tested for markers of infection with the above-named viruses by means of enzyme immunoassays. Another 106 serum samples collected from Parakanã in the 1970s were also tested. The results obtained with the modern samples showed an overall prevalence of HBV infection of 84.7% among the residents of Paranatinga, 14.4% of whom were carriers. In Maroxewara, the overall prevalence of infection was only 17.7% and no carriers were detected in the study population. HBV carriers were negative for markers of HDV infection. The prevalence of HCV infection, confirmed by immunoblot, was 1.4% and 1.6% in Paranatinga and Maroxewara, respectively. Among the notable findings of this study were that horizontal transmission of HBV takes place at an early age in Paranatinga; that HBV infection prevalences differ greatly between two nearby villages belonging to the same tribe; that HCV infection was detected in both villages; and, from the historic sera, that the prevalence of HBV infection was low and HCV infection was absent during the first years in which the Parakanã people had outside contact.

  11. Technical Cooperation Report for 2004. Report by the Director General; Informe de Cooperacion Tecnica para 2004. Informe del Director General

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-15

    debidamente reglamentadas. En las actividades realizadas en 2004 se aprovecharon los buenos resultados logrados anteriormente en proyectos nacionales y regionales en muchas esferas tematicas. En el marco del programa se siguieron reforzando las capacidades relacionadas con el diagnostico y el tratamiento del cancer proporcionando capacitacion y conocimientos especializados y apoyando la adquisicion de equipo. El apoyo constante a las tecnicas de vigilancia que emplean tecnologia nuclear esta ayudando a combatir las enfermedades pecuarias transfronterizas y se esta traduciendo en la desaparicion de la peste bovina de algunos paises. La Secretaria siguio proporcionando conocimientos especializados y apoyo para ayudar en la devolucion al pais de origen de combustible de uranio muy enriquecido para reactores. La creacion de asociaciones con otras organizaciones de las Naciones Unidas, asi como con organizaciones no gubernamentales, sigue revistiendo gran importancia dentro del programa de cooperacion tecnica. En 2004, por ejemplo, se firmo un memorando de entendimiento con la Oficina Regional para Africa (AFRO) de la Organizacion Mundial de la Salud (OMS) para apoyar la mejora de la situacion sanitaria y elevar los niveles de salud de la region. Los recursos extrapresupuestarios ascendieron a mas de 10 millones de dolares por segundo ano consecutivo. De esta forma, el 17% de las actividades del programa aprobadas marcadas con la nota a/ para 2004 recibieron apoyo. Asimismo, la entrada en 2004 de 8,1 millones de dolares correspondientes a cifras objetivo de anos anteriores permitio a la Secretaria restablecer, durante el segundo trimestre del ano, presupuestos de programas que habia sido preciso reducir debido a la cuantia, inferior a los previsto, de los recursos recibidos en 2003. Durante el ano, la Secretaria ha participado intensivamente en el examen de los procesos de CT con miras a simplificarlos y fortalecerlos. Esta previsto que la parte mas importante del proceso de

  12. Technical cooperation for the pacific uses of nuclear technology in Latin America and Caribbean: the experience of regional agreement ARCAL; Cooperacao tecnica para os usos pacificos da tecnologia nuclear na America Latina e no Caribe: a experiencia do acordo regional ARCAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondinelli Junior, Francisco

    2017-11-01

    This thesis studies the international technical cooperation in the field of peaceful applications of the nuclear technology, focusing on the experience of Latin American countries, where the Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean, also known as ARCAL, is in force. The study adopts as theoretical approach the concept of state capacities, particularly with regard to the institutional capacities applicable to the ARCAL Agreement. Within this approach, three dimensions of analysis are adopted: the institutional dimension, the governance dimension and the focus on outcomes. The evaluation of the ARCAL Agreement is carried out in order to confirm if the intended role to promote regional technical cooperation in the nuclear sector is being implemented. The methodological approach adopted the case study model. It starts with the analysis of the institutional evolution of the Agreement, and identifies variables articulating with the three dimensions above mentioned. The empirical data were collected in two stages. In the first stage it were performed 29 interviews carried out by the author with the technical and staff members of the Department of Technical Cooperation of IAEA, in Vienna, Austria, headquarter of IAEA. The other stage involved an electronic questionnaire submitted to the national coordinator of ARCAL in 14 countries, in a universe of 21 member states. The conclusion of the research points to the fact that the ARCAL Agreement has incorporated, throughout its trajectory, elements of the institutional capacities which are still in the process of development. They give to the Agreement the potential to induce the development of the state capacities of the respective countries in the field of peaceful applications of nuclear technology. (author)

  13. The coexistence of traditional medicine and biomedicine: A study with local health experts in two Brazilian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, Sofia; Hanazaki, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the combined use of traditional medicine and biomedicine by local experts in Chapada do Araripe communities (Ceará State) and maroon communities (Santa Catarina State), Brazil. The objective was to understand the perception of local health specialists regarding the number of healers, demand for healers and use of medicinal plants, and the dependence of different environments to obtain such plants. We also aimed to understand the role of medicinal plants to treat different categories of diseases and if there is a complementary use of medicinal plants and allopathic biomedicine, according to the context of each group. The research was conducted with local health specialists that answered structured interviews, created free lists and participated in guided tours to collect cited plants. Sixty-six local health specialists were identified in the Araripe communities and 22 specialists in the maroon communities. In the maroon communities, a greater number of specialists thought there was a decrease in the number and demand for healers, as well as the use of medicinal plants, due to changes in traditional livelihoods, since they are located in a region where the effects of the modernization were more intense. In the Chapada do Araripe communities the specialists knew more plants extracted from native vegetation, whereas in the maroon communities cultivated plants were better known, which may reflect the environmental conditions and the history of each region. Medicinal plants are preferred to treat simpler health problems that do not require medical care, such as gastrointestinal problems, general pain, flues and colds. The biomedicine is used principally for problems with blood pressure, general pains and endocrine and nutritional diseases. Even with the particularities of each region, in general the use of medicinal plants and biomedicines occurred in a complementary form in both regions; however, this coexistence may result from these different

  14. The coexistence of traditional medicine and biomedicine: A study with local health experts in two Brazilian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, Sofia; Hanazaki, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the combined use of traditional medicine and biomedicine by local experts in Chapada do Araripe communities (Ceará State) and maroon communities (Santa Catarina State), Brazil. The objective was to understand the perception of local health specialists regarding the number of healers, demand for healers and use of medicinal plants, and the dependence of different environments to obtain such plants. We also aimed to understand the role of medicinal plants to treat different categories of diseases and if there is a complementary use of medicinal plants and allopathic biomedicine, according to the context of each group. The research was conducted with local health specialists that answered structured interviews, created free lists and participated in guided tours to collect cited plants. Sixty-six local health specialists were identified in the Araripe communities and 22 specialists in the maroon communities. In the maroon communities, a greater number of specialists thought there was a decrease in the number and demand for healers, as well as the use of medicinal plants, due to changes in traditional livelihoods, since they are located in a region where the effects of the modernization were more intense. In the Chapada do Araripe communities the specialists knew more plants extracted from native vegetation, whereas in the maroon communities cultivated plants were better known, which may reflect the environmental conditions and the history of each region. Medicinal plants are preferred to treat simpler health problems that do not require medical care, such as gastrointestinal problems, general pain, flues and colds. The biomedicine is used principally for problems with blood pressure, general pains and endocrine and nutritional diseases. Even with the particularities of each region, in general the use of medicinal plants and biomedicines occurred in a complementary form in both regions; however, this coexistence may result from these different

  15. International standards’ influence in brazilian milk production: a critical perspective about the good manufacturing practices for family farms in the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Fonseca Costa Corrêa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural changes imposed on Brazil’s dairy industry are influenced by the international market while it presses local industries and local producers. One of the main difficulties in the dairy sector is the standardization of milk based on the international standards of quality. So, to meet these requirements, standard operating procedures are established for the entire production chain, and they’re called '' Good dairy farming practices”. This paper addresses in a systemic way the influences of these standards in the Brazilian milk production, and the difficulties for adopting these procedure standards in family farming, especially in the Amazon region. The Amazonian family farmer is characterized by a peculiar diversity related to the ways they produce and live in society. In addition, there is at the same time a variety of local contexts very striking in the Amazon, which involve and influence the practices of farmers, making it difficult to join a homogenizing principle of good practices. The criticism of this paper does not report the need for sanitation improvements in milk production practices, but it wants to demonstrate as a leading line that the local context and the logic of producers are extremely necessary, so that the actions elaborated can value their practices and have them as a starting point. It should be noted in this study that the result of standard procedures for family farmers is the differentiation and social reunification in between them, where some are consolidated in milk production and others are excluded.

  16. In Situ and Satellite Observation of CDOM and Chlorophyll-a Dynamics in Small Water Surface Reservoirs in the Brazilian Semiarid Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Coelho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed chlorophyll-a and Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM dynamics from field measurements and assessed the potential of multispectral satellite data for retrieving water-quality parameters in three small surface reservoirs in the Brazilian semiarid region. More specifically, this work is comprised of: (i analysis of Chl-a and trophic dynamics; (ii characterization of CDOM; (iii estimation of Chl-a and CDOM from OLI/Landsat-8 and RapidEye imagery. The monitoring lasted 20 months within a multi-year drought, which contributed to water-quality deterioration. Chl-a and trophic state analysis showed a highly eutrophic status for the perennial reservoir during the entire study period, while the non-perennial reservoirs ranged from oligotrophic to eutrophic, with changes associated with the first events of the rainy season. CDOM characterization suggests that the perennial reservoir is mostly influenced by autochthonous sources, while allochthonous sources dominate the non-perennial ones. Spectral-group classification assigned the perennial reservoir as a CDOM-moderate and highly eutrophic reservoir, whereas the non-perennial ones were assigned as CDOM-rich and oligotrophic-dystrophic reservoirs. The remote sensing initiative was partially successful: the Chl-a was best modelled using RapidEye for the perennial one; whereas CDOM performed best with Landsat-8 for non-perennial reservoirs. This investigation showed potential for retrieving water quality parameters in dry areas with small reservoirs.

  17. Identification of soybean genotypes with high stability for the Brazilian macro-region 402 via biplot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, E U Ramos; Brogin, R L; Godinho, V P C; Botelho, F J E; Tardin, F D; Teodoro, P E

    2017-09-27

    Biplot analysis has often been used to recommend genotypes from different crops in the presence of the genotype x environment interaction (GxE). The objective of this study was to verify the association between the AMMI and GGE biplot methods and to select soybean genotypes that simultaneously meet high grain yield and stability to the environments belonging to the Edaphoclimatic Region 402, from Soybean Cultivation Region 4 (Mid-West), which comprises the Center North and West of Mato Grosso, and the southern region of Rondônia. Grain yield of 12 soybean genotypes was evaluated in seven competition trials of soybean cultivars in the 2014/2015 harvest. Significant GxE interaction revealed the need to use methods for recommending genotypes with adaptability and yield stability. The methods were complementary regarding the recommendation of the best genotypes. The AMMI analysis recommended MG/BR46 (Conquista) (G10) widely for all environments evaluated, whereas the BRY23-55012 (G9) and BRAS11-0149 (G2) were the most indicated genotypes by the GGE biplot method. However, the methods were concordant as to Porto Velho (PV1) environment that contributed least to the GxE interaction.

  18. Spatial distribution and temporal variation of microcrustaceans assembly (Cladocera and Copepoda in different compartments of a reservoir in the brazilian semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Souza Santos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial and temporal variation of microcrustacean assemblages of a reservoir in the Brazilian semiarid region. Methods Physical and chemical water variables and samples of microcrustaceans were collected at eight sites of the reservoir between July 2013 and November 2014, in a total of seven campaigns. For this study, the reservoir was categorized in two compartments: lateral and central. Results Limnological variables showed significant temporal variation (PERMANOVA, Pseudo-F = 19.51, p = 0.001. Higher turbidity values and suspended solids were observed in the rainiest months, while during the dry months, we measured higher values of transparency, dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll-a. It was not found significant spatial variation of limnological variables (PERMANOVA, Pseudo-F = 0.96; p = 0.394. During the study period, ten species were recorded: four Cladocera (Ceriodaphnia cornuta, Daphnia gessneri, Diaphanosoma birgei and Diaphanosoma spinulosum three Copepoda Calanoida (Argyrodiaptomus azevedoi, Notodiaptomus cearensis and Notodiaptomus iheringi and three Copepoda Cyclopoida (Macrocyclops albidus, Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens. The microcrustacean assemblages showed significant temporal variation (PERMANOVA, Pseudo-F = 4.34; p = 0.001 as well as significant spatial variation (PERMANOVA, Pseudo-F = 9.46; p = 0.001. The highest values of abundance and richness were observed in the lateral compartment, this result is mainly related to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in this region, because the analysis of partial RDA indicated that limnological variables explained only 11% of this variation (Pseudo-F = 2.08, p = 0.001. Conclusions The results suggest that the seasonality of the semiarid is an important factor in the temporal dynamics of the limnological variables, while the aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the spatial distribution of the

  19. Impact of forested fallows on fertility and mercury content in soils of the Tapajós River region, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patry, Cynthia; Davidson, Robert; Lucotte, Marc; Béliveau, Annie

    2013-08-01

    Recent research on slash-and-burn agriculture conducted in the Amazonian basin has suggested that soils must be left under forested fallows for at least 10 to 15 years to regain fertility levels comparable to non-disturbed forests in order to allow for short cycle crop cultivation. However, small scale farmers tend nowadays to re-burn secondary forests as soon as after 3 to 5 years, thus could contribute to further reduce soil fertility and could enhance the transfer of mercury (Hg) naturally present in soils of the region towards water courses. The present research project sets out to characterize the impact of forested fallows of differing age and land-use history on soils properties (fertility and Hg contents) in the region of the Tapajós River, an active pioneer front of the Brazilian Amazon. To do this, soil samples in forested fallows of variable age and in control primary forests were retrieved. In general, soil fertility of grouped forested fallows of different ages was similar to that of the primary forests. But when discriminating soils according to their texture, forested fallows on coarse grained soils still had much higher NH4/NO3 ratios, NH4 and Ca contents than primary forests, this even 15 years after burning. The impact of repeated burnings was also assessed. Fallows on coarse grained soils showed an impoverishment for all variables related to fertility when the number of burnings was 5 or more. For fallows on fine grained soils that underwent 5 or more burnings, NO3 contents were low although a cation enrichment was observed. Total soil Hg content was also sensitive to repeated burnings, showing similar losses for forested fallows established on both types of soil. However, Hg linked to coarse particles appeared to migrate back towards fine particles at the surface of coarse grained soils in fallows older than 7 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Agro-extractivist value chains and regional development: the case of the Lower Tocantins River in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Dürr, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    The Lower Tocantins river region offers a wide range of agricultural and extractive products like açaí palm fruits, pepper, oil palms and manioc, which are produced for local and national consumption and for exports. These products do not only generate value added in the agricultural sector, but also indirectly in other sectors like agro-industry and commerce. The value chains of agricultural and extractive products form the basis of the rural economy and hence for the development of the nine...

  1. Epidemiological characterization and risk factors associated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in dairy goats in the Brazilian semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theonys Diógenes Freitas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to conduct an epidemiological study and identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease in dairy goats within the semiarid region of Paraíba State. The study was done during the period of March 2009 to July 2011, during which 727 female goats from 86 flocks from the city of Monteiro, Paraíba were investigated. For the serological diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map infection indirect ELISA tests (screening and confirmatory were performed. Of the 727 animals used six (0.82% were seropositive at the confirmatory test after screening, and of the 86 flocks six (6.97% presented at least one seropositive animal. In positive flocks the frequency of reactive animals ranged from 5.26% to 16.60%. Risk factors identified were production system (weaning and reproduction (odds ratio = 36.0; 95% CI = 2.6 –486.1; p < 0,001 and absence of technical infrastructure (odds ratio = 54.0; 95% CI = 4.5 –642.9; p < 0,001. It was concluded that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is present in dairy goat flocks in the region; however, its influence on decrease productivity as well as the risk of transmission to humans through animal products must totally evaluated. Based on the analysis of risk factors, improvements are recommended for the technical infrastructure and the management of breeding goats.

  2. Isotope techniques in studies of paleontology environmental reconstruction (vegetation and climate) in the delayed quaternario of two Brazilian regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouveia, Susy E.M.; Pessenda, Luiz C.R.; Freitas, Hermes A.; Silva, Vanessa F.; Pellegrinotti, Thais C.; Aravena, Ramon; Scheel-Ybert, Rita; Bendassolli, Jose A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an attempt to reconstruct vegetation and climate changes in the central region of the state of Sao Paulo (Jaguariuna) and west of the state of Mato Grosso (Pontes e Lacerda) during the last 12,000 years BP, based on δ 13 C values of soil organic matter (SOM), 14 C dating and botanical identification of buried charcoal in the soil profiles. Sampling site in Sao Paulo was located under natural vegetation ('cerradao'), along the slope of small hills and in the top of slope under the semi-deciduous forest in Mato Grosso. Charcoal was found predominantly between 150 and 50 cm depth, indicating a period of greater frequency of fires in these regions, between 6,000 and 3,000 years BP. More enriched values of δ 13 C of SOM (predominance of C 4 plants) were observed from approximately 12,000 to 7,000 years BP in Jaguariuna, indicating drier climate when compared with nowadays conditions. The charcoal analyses indicated the predominance of cerrado species. In Pontes e Lacerda site, the δ 13 C profile suggests the presence of C 3 vegetation (forest) during the last 10,000 years and the most of identified charcoal fragments indicated the presence of semi-deciduous forest as well as cerrado species. (author)

  3. Cultura Organizacional na Perspectiva Cultural Regional BrasileiraOrganizational Culture under the Perspective of the Brazilian Regional CultureCultura Organizacional en la Perspectiva Cultural Regional Brasileña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUZZIO, Henrique

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEsse ensaio tem como objetivo analisar o contexto cultural brasileiro e a sua influência no universo organizacional a partir de uma perspectiva cultural regional que não se limite à visão funcionalista e avance por meio de conceitos contemporâneos como os fluxos culturais e os códigos culturais locais. Do ponto de vista internacional, os estudos comparativos que trabalham com a perspectiva de adaptação cultural já apresentam um volume significativo de pesquisas que enfatizam as distinções entre regiões ou nações. Mas, quando se trata dessa perspectiva dentro de países culturalmente diversos, parece ainda não haver no campo a mesma expressão. Em países em que é reconhecida a diversidade cultural, como o Brasil, análises que levem em conta as influências dessa variável podem contribuir para a eficiência das relações internas e externas da organização. Arguimos a necessidade das organizações contemplarem em suas ações o que chamamos de legitimidade cultural local, quando as organizações atuam em distintos contextos respeitando os valores e as práticas culturais locais. As diferentes culturas regionais encontradas no Brasil se refletem nos hábitos dos consumidores, no comportamento social e nas atitudes e desempenho das pessoas no trabalho, o que requer efetivamente diferentes e variadas práticas de gestão.ABSTRACTThis essay has the objective of analyzing the Brazilian cultural context and its influence on the organizations universe from a cultural regional perspective that goes beyond the functionalist paradigm and advances through contemporary concepts, like cultural flows and the local cultural codes. In an international perspective, in studies that consider the perspective of cultural adaptation, it is possible finding a significant volume of research that emphasizes the distinctions between regions or nations. On the other hand, when it these studies deal with this perspective inside each culturally

  4. Improvement of Leukemia diagnose with molecular techniques; Mejoran diagnostico de leucemias con tecnicas moleculares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Rudin, M E

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this study was to contribute with new techniques to the clinical diagnosis and to the monitoring of mycloid chronic leukemias in Costa Rica. The same one achieved to determine that is viable to apply radioactive and non reactive methodologies, for the molecular detection of the Philadelphia chromosome.It also found that the application of techniques of cellular biology, helps to classify better the mycloide leukemias and the chronic mycloproliferatives and miclodisplaced disorders. (S. Grainger) [Spanish] El objetivode este estudio fue el de aportar nuevas tecnicas al diagnostico clinico y monitoreo de las leucemias micloides cronicas en Costa Rica. El mismo logro determinar que es viable aplicar metodologias radioactivas y no radioactivas, para la deteccion molecular del cromosoma Filadelfia. Tambien encontro que la aplicacion de tecnicas de biologia celular, ayudan a clasificar mejor las leucemias mieloides y los desordenes cronicos micloproliferativos y myclodisplacicos. (S. Grainger)

  5. Myxobolus marajoensis sp. n. (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae, parasite of the freshwater catfish Rhamdia quelen from the Brazilian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Abrunhosa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study provides morphological and molecular data of a new parasite species found in the muscle layer of the intestinal tract of the South American silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen from Marajó Island region (Pará State, Brazil, an important fishery resource with recognized potential for fish farming. The morphology of these parasites was reanalyzed and phylogenetic analyses were run on their 18S rDNA gene sequences. The spores were morphologically distinct from those of other Myxobolus species described previously. The obtained partial sequence of the 18S rDNA gene sequences of the new species were compared to those of 24 other Myxobolus and Henneguya species available in GenBank. The results of morphological and molecular analyses indicated clearly the existence of a new species, Myxobolus marajoensis sp. n.

  6. Analytic techniques to quantify Tetrachlorohydroquinone and Chloranil; Tecnicas analiticas para cuantificar Tetraclorohidroquinona y Cloranilo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Escobedo, Ma. Teresa; Gutierrez de Gonzalez, Luz Ma; Gojon Zorrilla, Gabriel [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    1995-02-01

    Tetrachlorohydroquinone (TCHQ) was determined by two methods: iodometry and cerimetry. Tritation with aqueous ceric ammonium sulphate using potentiometric end-point detection proved to be the method of choice on account of its coefficient of variation (CV=0.475%) and its excellent accuracy. Chloranil (TCQ) was quantified by titration with aqueous ascorbic acid in acetone-water-hexamethylene tetramine (HMT), the golden-yellow color of the TCQ-HMT complex disappearing at the end point. This method is accurate and has CV=0.396%. [Spanish] Se cuantifico la tetraclorohidroquinona (TCHQ) mediante una tecnica yodometrica y un metodo potenciometrico, basado en el uso de sulfato cerico amoniacal. Se concluyo que el metodo potenciometrico es el mejor, ya que tiene un coeficiente de variacion (CV) de 0.475%, y una exactitud muy aceptable. Se desarrollo un tecnica para cuantificar el Cloranilo (TCQ) por titulacion con Acido Ascorbico en presencia de Hexametilentetramina (HMT) en medio acetona-agua; el punto final se determino por la separacion del color amarillo oro del complejo TCQ-HMT. Esta tecnica presenta un coeficiente de variacion (CV) de 0.396% y una exactitud aceptable. Se realizaron pruebas de hipotesis para verificar la exactitud de los metodos elegidos.

  7. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in beef cattle slaughtered in the metropolitan region of Belém, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediclei Lima do Carmo

    Full Text Available Abstract The relevance of consuming raw or undercooked beef in the transmission of toxoplasmosis is unclear due to the high resistance of cattle to infection. However, this possibility needs to be considered in endemic areas, such as the Amazon, where the consumption of beef is frequent. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in beef cattle slaughtered in the metropolitan region of Belem, Pará state, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 500 animals of both genders in a licensed slaughterhouse in Belém. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with a cut-off titer of 1:64. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were found in 203 animals (40.6%, with a titer of 64 in 112 animals (55.2%, 128 in 68 animals (33.5%, 256 in 15 animals (7.4%, 512 in 5 animals (2.5%, and 1,024 in 3 animals (1.4%. No significant difference was observed between males and females (p > 0.05. The high frequency of anti-T. gondii antibodies observed in beef cattle slaughtered in Belém indicates that the meat of these animals may be an important source of infection for humans and carnivorous domestic animals when inadequately cooked beef is consumed.

  8. Development and water requirements of cowpea under climate change conditions in the Brazilian semi-arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson G. Cavalcante Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the impacts that climate change may cause on the development and evapotranspiration of cowpea, in semi-arid climate region of Northeast Brazil. The study was conducted in the municipalities of Apodi, Ipanguaçu and Mossoró, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. In order to evaluate the influence of climate change on crop water consumption, changes in air temperature and relative humidity were simulated using the PRECIS climate model. Two scenarios of emissions were evaluated based on the report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: a pessimistic named A2 and an optimistic B2. The duration of the crop cycle showed an average reduction of 14 and 23 days for the optimistic and pessimistic scenarios, respectively. Temperatures will be well above the limit tolerated by crop, which could have a negative impact on its development and yield. There will be a decrease in total evapotranspiration of 4.8%, considering the optimistic scenario, and 8.7% in the pessimistic scenario.

  9. Improved regional-scale Brazilian cropping systems' mapping based on a semi-automatic object-based clustering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellón, Beatriz; Bégué, Agnès; Lo Seen, Danny; Lebourgeois, Valentine; Evangelista, Balbino Antônio; Simões, Margareth; Demonte Ferraz, Rodrigo Peçanha

    2018-06-01

    Cropping systems' maps at fine scale over large areas provide key information for further agricultural production and environmental impact assessments, and thus represent a valuable tool for effective land-use planning. There is, therefore, a growing interest in mapping cropping systems in an operational manner over large areas, and remote sensing approaches based on vegetation index time series analysis have proven to be an efficient tool. However, supervised pixel-based approaches are commonly adopted, requiring resource consuming field campaigns to gather training data. In this paper, we present a new object-based unsupervised classification approach tested on an annual MODIS 16-day composite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index time series and a Landsat 8 mosaic of the State of Tocantins, Brazil, for the 2014-2015 growing season. Two variants of the approach are compared: an hyperclustering approach, and a landscape-clustering approach involving a previous stratification of the study area into landscape units on which the clustering is then performed. The main cropping systems of Tocantins, characterized by the crop types and cropping patterns, were efficiently mapped with the landscape-clustering approach. Results show that stratification prior to clustering significantly improves the classification accuracies for underrepresented and sparsely distributed cropping systems. This study illustrates the potential of unsupervised classification for large area cropping systems' mapping and contributes to the development of generic tools for supporting large-scale agricultural monitoring across regions.

  10. The Brazilian Developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS 5.2): An Integrated Environmental Model Tuned for Tropical Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Saulo R.; Panetta, Jairo; Longo, Karla M.; Rodrigues, Luiz F.; Moreira, Demerval S.; Rosario, Nilton E.; Silva Dias, Pedro L.; Silva Dias, Maria A. F.; Souza, Enio P.; Freitas, Edmilson D.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present a new version of the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System where different previous versions for weather, chemistry and carbon cycle were unified in a single integrated software system. The new version also has a new set of state-of-the-art physical parameterizations and greater computational parallel and memory usage efficiency. Together with the description of the main features are examples of the quality of the transport scheme for scalars, radiative fluxes on surface and model simulation of rainfall systems over South America in different spatial resolutions using a scale-aware convective parameterization. Besides, the simulation of the diurnal cycle of the convection and carbon dioxide concentration over the Amazon Basin, as well as carbon dioxide fluxes from biogenic processes over a large portion of South America are shown. Atmospheric chemistry examples present model performance in simulating near-surface carbon monoxide and ozone in Amazon Basin and Rio de Janeiro megacity. For tracer transport and dispersion, it is demonstrated the model capabilities to simulate the volcanic ash 3-d redistribution associated with the eruption of a Chilean volcano. Then, the gain of computational efficiency is described with some details. BRAMS has been applied for research and operational forecasting mainly in South America. Model results from the operational weather forecast of BRAMS on 5 km grid spacing in the Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies, INPE/Brazil, since 2013 are used to quantify the model skill of near surface variables and rainfall. The scores show the reliability of BRAMS for the tropical and subtropical areas of South America. Requirements for keeping this modeling system competitive regarding on its functionalities and skills are discussed. At last, we highlight the relevant contribution of this work on the building up of a South American community of model developers.

  11. BRAZILIAN PINE NUTS’ PRODUCTION IN CAÇADOR’S REGION, SC: ASPECTS OF THE ATTAINMENT AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR LOCAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Vieira-da-Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study had as objective to characterize aspects of the attainment and commercialization of the Brazilian-pine nut, as a resource capable to contribute for attainment of income and conservation of FOM. For this, studies were carried out aiming at: checking Brazilian-pine production on a natural population (RGFC – Genetic and Forest Reserve of Caçador and on a reforestation with Brazilian-pine (Flona- Caçador’s National Florest; identifying the profile of the Brazilian-pine nut’s collectors in the District of Taquara Verde, Caçador-SC – its knowledge about the resource and the importance of this resource as an income source. For this, 36 female Brazilian-pines were target in Flona and 25 in RGFC. Brazilian-pine nut production was estimated based on the number of female plants, number of cones per plant, number of nut per cone and nut weight. To the other objectives, interviews with the nut’s collectors were made. The production found at RGFC was 44.3kg.ha-1 and at Flona was 24.6kg.ha-1, the difference was attributed to the higher density found at Flona. About the importance of Brazilian-pine nut to the community, it could be found out that this resource is very important both as an income source and food, allowing us to separate the collectors in four kinds of profile. The families which were more dependent on this resource as income, more often they collect and more people in the family are involved in the collection of the Brazilian-pine nut, but not necessary they know more about it. The results of this study indicate a good potential of this resource to increase the household of poor communities, emphasizing the importance of natural areas to the exploration of Brazilian-pine nut and bringing subsidies for the establishment of politics that can effectively join a valuation of the forest resources, the communities’ development together with nature conservation.

  12. Combined venomics, venom gland transcriptomics, bioactivities, and antivenomics of two Bothrops jararaca populations from geographic isolated regions within the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Machado, Larissa; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Jorge, Roberta Jeane B; Leitão-De-Araújo, Moema; Alves, Maria Lúcia M; Alvares, Diego Janisch; De Miranda, Joari; Nowatzki, Jenifer; de Morais-Zani, Karen; Fernandes, Wilson; Tanaka-Azevedo, Anita Mitico; Fernández, Julián; Zingali, Russolina B; Gutiérrez, José María; Corrêa-Netto, Carlos; Calvete, Juan J

    2016-03-01

    Bothrops jararaca is a slender and semi-arboreal medically relevant pit viper species endemic to tropical and subtropical forests in southern Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina (Misiones). Within its geographic range, it is often abundant and is an important cause of snakebite. Although no subspecies are currently recognized, geographic analyses have revealed the existence of two well-supported B. jararaca clades that diverged during the Pliocene ~3.8Mya and currently display a southeastern (SE) and a southern (S) Atlantic rainforest (Mata Atlântica) distribution. The spectrum, geographic variability, and ontogenetic changes of the venom proteomes of snakes from these two B. jararaca phylogroups were investigated applying a combined venom gland transcriptomic and venomic analysis. Comparisons of the venom proteomes and transcriptomes of B. jararaca from the SE and S geographic regions revealed notable interpopulational variability that may be due to the different levels of population-specific transcriptional regulation, including, in the case of the southern population, a marked ontogenetic venom compositional change involving the upregulation of the myotoxic PLA2 homolog, bothropstoxin-I. This population-specific marker can be used to estimate the proportion of venom from the southern population present in the B. jararaca venom pool used for the Brazilian soro antibotrópico (SAB) antivenom production. On the other hand, the southeastern population-specific D49-PLA2 molecules, BinTX-I and BinTX-II, lend support to the notion that the mainland ancestor of Bothrops insularis was originated within the same population that gave rise to the current SE B. jararaca phylogroup, and that this insular species endemic to Queimada Grande Island (Brazil) expresses a pedomorphic venom phenotype. Mirroring their compositional divergence, the two geographic B. jararaca venom pools showed distinct bioactivity profiles. However, the SAB antivenom manufactured in Vital Brazil

  13. Assessing temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton composition in a large reservoir in the Brazilian northeastern region under intense drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortência de Souza Barroso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Castanhão Reservoir, a large aquatic system in the Brazilian semi-arid region that serves multiples uses as water drinking supply and intensive fish-cage aquaculture site. In order to understand the effects of environmental conditions on the spatial and temporal variability of the phytoplankton functional groups (FG and the main ‘characterizing taxa’, sub-superficial water samples were collected from March 2012 to August 2013, a period distinguished by the continuous drop in reservoir volume due to rainfall shortage. Eighteen functional groups and 102 total phytoplankton taxa were found in the Castanhão reservoir during the study. No significant differences were observed relative to spatial variation of total phytoplankton composition throughout the reservoir (PERMANOVA, P>0.05. On the other hand, according to cluster analysis results, three temporal phases have been identified (Similarity Profile, P<0.05, based on 102 phytoplankton taxa. The ‘characterizing taxa’ was found using the Similarity Percentage procedure (cut-off 90%, being thus defined as those taxa that contributed the most to the similarity within each temporal phase. Nineteen ‘characterizing taxa’ described the Castanhão reservoir, with predominance of those typical of mixing and turbidity conditions. Cyanobacteria dominated through the three temporal phases. According to the redundancy analysis, nutrient availability and water transparency were found to influence the phytoplankton temporal dynamics. The phase I (rainy season was most represented by Planktolyngbya minor/Pl. limnetica (FG = S1, which reached best performance under strongly decreased phosphate-P concentrations and low water transparency. In phase II (dry season, Romeria victoriae (FG = ? outcompeted other cyanobacteria probably due the increase in water transparency and decrease in ammonium-N. Finally, in phase III (rainy season the decrease of water transparency

  14. Brazilian nuclear programme - energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, J.O.V.

    1988-01-01

    The brazilian energetic model, highly dependent of petroleum, have been changed in the sense to adopt diversified and regionalized solutions. This paper describes the role and the perspective of the nuclear energy in this context. (M.I.)

  15. Molecular analyses reveal an abundant diversity of ticks and rickettsial agents associated with wild birds in two regions of primary Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; McIntosh, Douglas

    2017-06-01

    Brazilian wild birds are recognized as frequent and important hosts for immature stages of more than half of the 32 recognized species of Amblyomma ticks recorded in that country. Several species of Amblyomma harbor rickettsial agents, including members of the spotted fever group (SFG). Most studies on this topic relied primarily on morphological characterization and reported large portions of the collected ticks at the genus rather than species level. Clearly, this factor may have contributed to an underestimation of tick diversity and distribution and makes comparisons between studies difficult. The current investigation combined morphological and molecular analyses to assess the diversity of ticks and rickettsial agents associated with wild birds, captured in two regions of native Atlantic rainforest, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 910 birds were captured, representing two orders, 34 families and 106 species, among which 93 specimens (10.2%), were parasitized by 138 immature ticks (60 larvae and 78 nymphs), representing 10 recognized species of the genus Amblyomma; together with two reasonably well classified haplotypes (Amblyomma sp. haplotype Nazaré and Amblyomma sp. strain USNTC 6792). Amplification by PCR and sequencing of rickettsial genes (htrA, gltA, ompA and ompB), demonstrated the presence of Rickettsia DNA in 48 (34%) of the ticks. Specifically, Rickettsia bellii was detected in a single larva and a single nymph of A. aureolatum; R. amblyomatis was found in 16 of 37 A. longirostre and was recorded for the first time in three nymphs of A. calcaratum; R. rhipicephali was detected in 9 (47%) of 19 Amblyomma sp. haplotype Nazaré ticks. The remaining ticks were infected with genetic variants of R. parkeri, namely strain ApPR in 12 A. parkeri and seven Amblyomma sp. haplotype Nazaré ticks, with the strain NOD found in two specimens of A. nodosum. Interestingly, a single larvae of A. ovale was shown to be infected with the emerging

  16. Technical Cooperation Report for 2007. Report by the Director General; Informe de Cooperacion Tecnica para 2007. Informe del Director General

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-08-15

    achievements in technical cooperation in each of the regions in 2007, describing regional emphases and responses to national priorities. As the Millennium Development Goals remain a key area of focus, the report demonstrates how the IAEA is making a contribution to global efforts to fight poverty, hunger and disease, as well as to support environmental sustainability and the health of mothers and children. Health in Asia was addressed in 2007, for example, through regional projects to train new medical staff, while in Europe, radiotherapy services were being upgraded in the Balkans. In Africa, projects on better animal health and improved crop productivity contributed to the fight against hunger, and in Latin America, activities in food fortification and the determination of vitamin deficiency helped to improve the health of mothers and children. Ensuring sustainable socioeconomic development in the future will depend on a reliable energy supply. Among the energy-related technical cooperation projects in Africa in 2007, support to energy planning helped to train national energy planning teams in Burkina Faso, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Mauritania and Niger. Assistance was also being provided to several African countries to help with the different stages of planning a nuclear power programme. In Asia and the Pacific, RCA Member States received support in the application of Agency-developed analytical tools for energy planning. In Latin America, energy security is seen as a priority issue. In 2007, the Agency provided assistance to the conversion of Europe's older research reactors from high to low enriched uranium. In Asia and the Pacific, the Agency provided advice on the development of nuclear power, based on the latest Agency guidelines and the document 'Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power'. (author) [Spanish] En la parte A de este documento se presenta una vision general de las actividades de cooperacion tecnica del 1 de abril de 2007 al

  17. THE DRAINAGE EFFICIENCY INDEX (DEI) AS AN MORPHOLOGIAL INDICATOR OF LANDSLIDE SPATIAL OCCURRENCE IN MOUNTAINOUS CATCHMENTS. A case of study applied in the mountainous region of Brazilian Southeastern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique Muniz Lima, Pedro; Luiza Coelho Netto, Ana; do Couto Fernandes, Manoel

    2016-04-01

    Morphometric parameters, acquired notoriety mainly after the Drainage Density proposition (Horton 1932, 1945) and after they were applied by geomorphologists on the perspective to understand landscape functionalities, quantifying their characteristics through parameters and indexes. After the drainage density, many other parameters which describe the basin characteristics, behavior and dynamics have been proposed. Among them, for example, the DEI was proposed by Coelho Netto and contributors during the 80's, while they were seek to understand the hydrological and erosive dynamics on Bananal river basin (Brazilian Southeastern). Through this investigations the DEI was created, revealing the importance of parameters as hollow and drainage density, conjugated to the topographic gradient (Meis et al. 1982) who prosecute controls on the water flow efficiency along the hollows in order to activate the regressive erosion of the main channel. Later on this index was applied on the basin scale in several works developed in mountainous regions, showing a remarkable correlation with the occurrence of landslides such as showed by Coelho Netto et al. (2007); that posteriorly use this index as one of the components of the landslide susceptibility map for the Tijuca Massif, located in Rio de Janeiro Municipality. This work aims to establish patterns of the DEI index values (applied to mountainous low order basins) and the relationship on the occurrence of Debriflows or shallow translational slides. For this, the DEI index was applied on 4 different study areas located on the Southeastern mountainous region of Brazil to address deeply the connection between the index and the occurrence of landslides of different types applied for first and second order basins. The major study area is the Córrego Dantas Basin, situated in Nova Friburgo municipality (RJ), which is a 53 km² basin was affected by 327 landslides caused by a heavy rainfall on January 2011; Coelho Netto et al. (in

  18. Strategic Planning for Institutions of Higher Education: A Content Analysis for the Universidad Tecnica del Estado Planning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadima, Oscar

    Ten-year development plans of each of the eight campuses of the Universidad de Santiago de Chile, formerly called Universidad Tecnica del Estado, are evaluated, using content analysis. In addition to narrative descriptions, diagrams illustrate the features of each plan, which covers the period 1983-1993. Topics covered by the plans were grouped…

  19. Características de identidade, qualidade e estabilidade da manteiga de garrafa. Parte II - estabilidade The stability of a Brazilian regional butter "Manteiga de Garrafa"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Lygia Burgos Ambrósio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com vistas a estabelecer o tempo de vida útil da manteiga de garrafa, duas marcas deste produto (A e B de ampla comercialização na cidade do Recife foram avaliadas quanto a estabilidade durante o armazenamento a 25ºC a intervalos de 0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias através da determinação do índice de peróxido, acidez, análise cromatográfica de ácidos graxos e análise sensorial. Segundo os resultados, a acidez apresentou uma elevação acentuada nos primeiros 30 dias de armazenamento estabilizando-se a seguir até 120 dias. O índice de peróxido aumentou ao longo do tempo sendo acompanhado pela intensificação do "flavour" de ranço para ambas amostras que a partir dos 90 dias de armazenamento foi referido como extremamente forte por 50% dos provadores. Quanto aos ácidos graxos, foi constatada diminuição do percentual do linoléico (18:2 na manteiga A embora nenhuma mudança tenha ocorrido no conteúdo de ácidos graxos trans para as duas manteigas. Os resultados demonstram que o tempo de armazenamento não exerce influência significativa e que a manteiga de garrafa apresenta uma curta vida-de-prateleira face a oxidação lipídica que a torna inadequada para consumo após 60 dias a partir da data de fabricação.Trying to establish the time of shelf-life of "manteiga de garrafa" (a kind of regional Brazilian butter, two brands of this product (A and B of wide commercialization in the city of Recife were analyzed as the stability during the storage at 25ºC to intervals of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days through the determination of the peroxide value,% free fattty acid, fatty acid composition and sensorial evaluation. According to the results, acidity increased in the first 30 days of storage being stabilized up to 120 days, the peroxide value increased along the time being accompanied by the intensification of the "flavour" of rancidity for both samples that it was referred as extremely strong for 50% of the panelists starting from the

  20. Alternatives for hydrogen production in Brazilian regions aiming the generation of distributed electric energy; Alternativas para a producao de hidrogenio nas regioes brasileiras visando a geracao de energia eletrica distribuida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi Junior, Paulo

    2009-07-01

    In this work possible sources of hydrogen production for the generation of electric energy in a distributed way, with the fuel cell use, had been selected and studied. Three renewable sources (biomass, photovoltaic and wind) have been studied for energy generation in Brazil. For the establishment of numerical values, the main regional agricultural cultures and the amount of biomass in various brazilian states had been evaluated, in the form of waste, capable to be used for future hydrogen production. It was also investigated and evaluated the numerical capacity of hydrogen production from wind and photovoltaic resources for each region in Brazil, considering the electrolytic process. Based on the results, it is possible to demonstrate the potentialities of Brazil for electric energy generation in a planned distributed way, with fossil fuel substitution, and consequently, decreasing the environmental impacts. (author)

  1. Some Observations on Gold in the Weathering Profile at Garimpo Porquinho, an Artisanal Mine in the Tapajós Region, Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Maria Barros de Oliveira; João Henrique Larizzatti

    2006-01-01

    At Garimpo Porquinho (Tapajós Province, Brazilian Amazon) gold-bearing quartz veins containing sulfides occur in anarrow zone affected by hydrothermal alteration. The artisanally mined veins are exposed in a saprolite zone extending downat least 9 m to the fresh rock and are covered by a 1 m thick residual soil. Lateral gold dispersion in the saprolite is notnoticeable whereas in the soil gold dispersion has been observed as far as 2 m from the vein. Trace metals associated with goldinclude A...

  2. Technical Cooperation Report for 2006. Report by the Director General; Informe de Cooperacion Tecnica para 2006. Informe del Director General

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    The period under review was one of considerable satisfaction for the TC programme. New resources reached a record high of $101.0 million with $76.8 million for the Technical Cooperation Fund, $22.3 million in extra budgetary resources and $1.9 million in in-kind contributions. Net new obligations during the year were $104.5 million, which represented an increase of more than 30% over 2005. The year 2007 marks the 50th anniversary of the IAEA and provides an opportunity to look back on the history of TC activities. In its early days, the technical assistance programme, as it was then called, was modest: in 1960 the Board of Governors approved 28 projects in 16 Member States. Over time, the demand for Agency assistance and expertise has grown steadily: the TC programme that was approved by the Board of Governors in 2006 featured more than 780 projects in 115 Member States. In recent years, there has been shift in attitudes towards nuclear power in a number of countries around the world. This trend can be traced to a fast growing global energy demand, increased emphasis on energy security and a heightened awareness of the risks of climate change. This has led to a rising number of requests for energy planning projects, which may include nuclear power as an option. In 2006, the Secretariat developed and finalized the TC programme for the 2007-2008 biennium using the Programme Cycle Management Framework in close collaboration with national authorities. The PCMF is supported by a dedicated website, which facilitates collaboration among stakeholders in the Member States and the Secretariat. In line with the TC Strategy, the Secretariat concentrated on building partnerships with national, regional and international development organizations. This includes, inter alia, support for the New Partnership for Africa's Development and partnership with the United Nations Environment Programme. A new challenge which could have an impact on the TC programme in the areas of resource

  3. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Oliveira B. Oriá

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches of Portuguese-language sources. Articles were organized and analyzed chronologically by comparing the evolution of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Program. The incomplete research output of the Brazilian nursing profession in regard to breastfeeding research needs to be addressed. In addition, specific cultural, sociological, and anthropological characteristics of Brazilian regional settings remain to be explored. Emphasis on potential confounders and critical interrelations is warranted.

  4. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc [pt

  5. Techniques for contact and contact with friction problems; Tecnicas para problemas de contacto y contacto con friccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velandia Arana, Gonzalo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    Different numerical techniques are presented based in the finite element method to obtain numerical solutions to contact and contact with friction problems between solid bodies, and compared between each other. [Espanol] Se presentan diferentes tecnicas numericas basadas en el metodo de elementos finitos para la obtencion de soluciones numericas de problemas de contacto y contacto con friccion entre cuerpos solidos, y se comparan entre si.

  6. Techniques for contact and contact with friction problems; Tecnicas para problemas de contacto y contacto con friccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velandia Arana, Gonzalo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    Different numerical techniques are presented based in the finite element method to obtain numerical solutions to contact and contact with friction problems between solid bodies, and compared between each other. [Espanol] Se presentan diferentes tecnicas numericas basadas en el metodo de elementos finitos para la obtencion de soluciones numericas de problemas de contacto y contacto con friccion entre cuerpos solidos, y se comparan entre si.

  7. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  8. Field and experimental symptomless infections support wandering donkeys as healthy carriers of Trypanosoma vivax in the Brazilian Semiarid, a region of outbreaks of high mortality in cattle and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carla M F; Batista, Jael S; Lima, Joseney M; Freitas, Francisco J C; Barros, Isabella O; Garcia, Herakles A; Rodrigues, Adriana C; Camargo, Erney P; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2015-10-28

    The Brazilian Semiarid is the home of the largest herd of donkeys in South America and of outbreaks of Trypanosoma vivax infection of high mortality in dairy cattle and sheep. For a comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these outbreaks and epidemiological role of donkeys, we surveyed for T. vivax in wandering donkeys and follow the experimental infection of donkeys and sheep with a highly virulent isolate from the Semiarid. Blood samples from 180 randomly selected wandering donkeys from the Brazilian Semiarid region were employed for PCV and parasitemia assessments and tested using the T. vivax-specific TviCATL-PCR assay. PCR-amplifed Cathepsin L (CATL) sequences were employed for genotyping and phylogenetic analysis. Four wandering donkeys were experimentally infected with a T. vivax isolate obtained during an outbreak of high mortality in the Semiarid; the control group consisted of two non-inoculated donkeys. We detected T. vivax in 30 of 180 wandering donkeys (16.6 %) using TviCATL-PCR. The prevalence was higher during the dry (15.5 %) than the wet season (1.1 %) and more females (23.1 %) than males (8.9 %) were infected. All the PCR-positive donkeys lacked patent parasitemia and showed normal values of body condition score (BCS) and packed cell volume (PCV). To evaluate the probable tolerance of donkeys to T. vivax, we inoculated five donkeys with a highly virulent isolate (TviBrRp) from the Semiarid. All inoculated donkeys became PCR-positive, but their parasitemia was always subpatent. A control goat inoculated with TviBrRp showed increasing parasitemia concurrently with fever, declining PCV, tachycardia, mucous membrane pallor, enlarged lymph nodes and anorexia. None of these signs were observed in donkeys. However, T. vivax from wandering donkeys shared identical or highly similar genotypes (identified by Cathepsin L sequences) with isolates from cattle and sheep outbreaks of acute disease in the Semiarid. This is the first

  9. Personnel dosimetry of extremities by using Harshaw rings XD-100 at Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares, CRCN, Brazilian CNEN; Dosimetria pessoal de extremidades utilizando aneis Harshaw XD-100 no Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Ricardo de Andrade; Vilela, Eudice; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro; Ferreira Filho, Alfredo Lopes; Castro, Walber Amorim [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN), Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: ral@elogica.com.br

    2000-07-01

    Data concerning calibration and type tests of an extremity system based on XD100 rings (Harshaw) are presented. Dosemeter used is a thermoluminescent chip inserted in a sealed pouch and was read out using a Harshaw 6600 reader. The dosimetric system complied with all ISO/DIS 12794-1 draft report suggested tests, in which this work was based on. This work obtained results point to the applicability of those recommendations to Brazilian institutes and suggest its adoption by the national regulatory commission. (author)

  10. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.R.; Serra, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  11. The impact of insecticide applications on the dynamics of resistance: The case of four Aedes aegypti populations from different Brazilian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ademir de Jesus; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Linss, Jutta Gerlinde Birggitt; Araújo, Simone Costa; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Valle, Denise

    2018-01-01

    Background In the tropics, the utilization of insecticides is still an important strategy for controlling Aedes aegypti, the principle vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. However, increasing insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti populations might hinder insecticide efficacy on a long-term basis. It will be important to understand the dynamics and evolution of insecticide resistance by assessing its frequency and the mechanisms by which it occurs. Methodology/Principal findings The insecticide resistance status of four Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations was monitored. Quantitative bioassays with the major insecticides employed in the country was performed: the adulticide deltamethrin (a pyrethroid—PY) and the larvicides, temephos (an organophosphate) and diflubenzuron (a chitin synthesis inhibitor). Temephos resistance was detected in all populations although exhibiting a slight decrease over time probably due to the interruption of field use. All vector populations were susceptible to diflubenzuron, recently introduced in the country to control Ae. aegypti. Resistance against deltamethrin was extremely high in three populations. Molecular assays investigated substitutions in the voltage gated sodium channel (NaV), the PY target site, at positions 1011, 1016 and 1534. Elevated frequencies of substitutions Val1016Ile and Phe1534Cys related to high PY resistance levels were identified. Biochemical assays detected alterations in the activities of two detoxifying enzyme classes related to metabolic resistance, glutathion-S-transferases and esterases. The results obtained were evaluated in the context of both recent insecticide use and the records of dengue incidence in each locality. Conclusions/Significance The four Ae. aegypti populations evaluated were resistant to the neurotoxic insecticides, temephos and deltamethrin. However, they were still susceptible to diflubenzuron. A probable correlation between adult insect resistance to PY and the domestic

  12. Mammography-based screening program: preliminary results from a first 2-year round in a Brazilian region using mobile and fixed units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haikel Raphael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide. The use of mobile mammography units to offer screening to women living in remote areas is a rational strategy to increase the number of women examined. This study aimed to evaluate results from the first 2 years of a government-organized mammography screening program implemented with a mobile unit (MU and a fixed unit (FU in a rural county in Brazil. The program offered breast cancer screening to women living in Barretos and the surrounding area. Methods Based on epidemiologic data, 54 238 women, aged 40 to 69 years, were eligible for breast cancer screening. The study included women examined from April 1, 2003 to March 31, 2005. The chi-square test and Bonferroni correction analyses were used to evaluate the frequencies of tumors and the importance of clinical parameters and tumor characteristics. Significance was set at p Results Overall, 17 964 women underwent mammography. This represented 33.1% of eligible women in the area. A mean of 18.6 and 26.3 women per day were examined in the FU and MU, respectively. Seventy six patients were diagnosed with breast cancer (41 (54% in the MU. This represented 4.2 cases of breast cancer per 1000 examinations. The number of cancers detected was significantly higher in women aged 60 to 69 years than in those aged 50 to 59 years (p Conclusions Preliminary results indicate that this mammography screening program is feasible for implementation in a rural Brazilian territory and favor program continuation.

  13. Neogene climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C.; Dino, R.; Garcia, M.J.; Antonioli, L.; da Costa Casado, F.; Hooghiemstra, H.; de Souza Carvalho, I.; Garcia, M.J.; Strohschoen, O.; Cunha Lana, C.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change follows from the interaction between global atmospheric and oceanic processes with regional processes. In this chapter we review which factors determined climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast and present a recompilation of Neogene palynological and paleobotanical

  14. Dinheiro no Brasil: um estudo comparativo do significado do dinheiro entre as regiões geográficas brasileiras Money in Brazil: a comparative study about the meaning of money among Brazilian geographic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice da Silva Moreira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo comparou o significado do dinheiro predominante nas regiões brasileiras usando a Escala de Significado do Dinheiro (ESD, composta pelos componentes Desigualdade, Progresso, Cultura, Poder, Desapego, Conflito, Estabilidade, Sofrimento e Prazer. O estudo foi conduzido com amostra de 760 sujeitos, 60% mulheres, com idades, ocupações e renda variadas, e mais de cinco anos de residência no local. Os resultados indicaram diferenças significativas em todos os componentes, exceto Prazer e Sofrimento, e padrões diferenciados: maior Estabilidade no Norte, maior Conflito e Desapego no Nordeste, menor Estabilidade e Poder no Distrito Federal, menor Conflito e Poder no Sul, e no Sudeste, maior Poder, Desigualdade, Cultura, Prazer e Sofrimento e menor Desapego. Exame separado da região Sudeste indicou maior diversidade interna do que entre as regiões do país. Estes resultados são discutidos a partir de diferenças histórico-culturais e estereótipos, indicando a sensibilidade da ESD para discriminar perfis de significado do dinheiro.This study compared the meaning of money that prevail in Brazilian Regions using the Money Meaning Scale (MMS, composed by Inequality, Culture, Power, Progress, Detachment, Conflict, Stability, Pain and Pleasure Factors. The study was carried out with a sample of 760 subjects, 60% women, with varied ages, occupation and income, and more than five years living in the place. Results indicated significant differences in all components, except Pleasure and Pain, and differential patterns: higher Stability in the North, higher Conflict and Detachment in the Northeast, lower Stability and Power in the Federal District, lower Power and Conflict in the South, and in the Southeast higher Power, Inequality, Culture, Pleasure and Pain, and lower Detachment. A separated exam of the Southeast showed a higher internal diversity than among Brazilian Regions. These results are discussed considering historic-cultural aspects

  15. A methodology for the data energy regional consumption consistency analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavarros, Otacilio Borges; Silva, Ennio Peres da

    1999-01-01

    The article introduces a methodology for data energy regional consumption consistency analysis. The work was going based on recent studies accomplished by several cited authors and boarded Brazilian matrices and Brazilian energetics regional balances. The results are compared and analyzed

  16. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm{sup 3} and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of {sup 23{sup 5}}U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive

  17. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lorel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  18. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U 3 Si 2 dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm 3 and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of 23 5 U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive facilities are

  19. Genetic diversity of the HLA-G coding region in Amerindian populations from the Brazilian Amazon: a possible role of natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Junior, C T; Castelli, E C; Meyer, D; Simões, A L; Donadi, E A

    2013-12-01

    HLA-G has an important role in the modulation of the maternal immune system during pregnancy, and evidence that balancing selection acts in the promoter and 3'UTR regions has been previously reported. To determine whether selection acts on the HLA-G coding region in the Amazon Rainforest, exons 2, 3 and 4 were analyzed in a sample of 142 Amerindians from nine villages of five isolated tribes that inhabit the Central Amazon. Six previously described single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified and the Expectation-Maximization (EM) and PHASE algorithms were used to computationally reconstruct SNP haplotypes (HLA-G alleles). A new HLA-G allele, which originated in Amerindian populations by a crossing-over event between two widespread HLA-G alleles, was identified in 18 individuals. Neutrality tests evidenced that natural selection has a complex part in the HLA-G coding region. Although balancing selection is the type of selection that shapes variability at a local level (Native American populations), we have also shown that purifying selection may occur on a worldwide scale. Moreover, the balancing selection does not seem to act on the coding region as strongly as it acts on the flanking regulatory regions, and such coding signature may actually reflect a hitchhiking effect.

  20. Modelling sustainable international tourism demand to the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Divino, Jose Angelo; McAleer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest is one of the world's greatest natural wonders and holds great importance and significance for the world's environmental balance. Around 60% of the Amazon rainforest is located in the Brazilian territory. The two biggest states of the Amazon region are Amazonas (the upper Amazon) and Para (the lower Amazon), which together account for around 73% of the Brazilian Legal Amazon, and are the only states that are serviced by international airports in Brazil's North region. Th...

  1. Diagnosis technique for the detection of mechanical faults in power breakers; Tecnica de diagnostico para la deteccion de fallas mecanicas en interruptores de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linan, Roberto; Perez, Marciano; Estrada, J. Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This article reports a non-invasive diagnosis technique for the detection of mechanical faults in power breakers, supporting it with the recording and analysis of vibration signals of the equipment under test. Also, an assessment of four breakers using this technique is presented. [Espanol] En el presente articulo se reporta una tecnica de diagnostico no invasiva para detectar fallas mecanicas en interruptores de potencia, apoyandose en el registro y analisis de senales de vibracion del equipo bajo prueba. Asimismo, se presenta la evaluacion de cuatro interruptores usando esta tecnica.

  2. Diagnosis technique for the detection of mechanical faults in power breakers; Tecnica de diagnostico para la deteccion de fallas mecanicas en interruptores de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linan, Roberto; Perez, Marciano; Estrada, J Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This article reports a non-invasive diagnosis technique for the detection of mechanical faults in power breakers, supporting it with the recording and analysis of vibration signals of the equipment under test. Also, an assessment of four breakers using this technique is presented. [Espanol] En el presente articulo se reporta una tecnica de diagnostico no invasiva para detectar fallas mecanicas en interruptores de potencia, apoyandose en el registro y analisis de senales de vibracion del equipo bajo prueba. Asimismo, se presenta la evaluacion de cuatro interruptores usando esta tecnica.

  3. Techniques of thermal energy conservation; Tecnicas de conservacion de la energia termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caltenco Estevez, Juan Luis; Roblez Lopez, Francisco; Ceballos Serna, Andres Alberto [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    In modern industry the thermal energy is the energy more intensely used, which implies that in the processes and equipment that operate based on it, rely the greatest opportunities for saving . In this paper some saving and conservation techniques of thermal energy, which nowadays have been developed, are presented, whose application has helped to the successful attainment of the objectives of increased productivity of industrial plants, with the additional benefit of reducing the environmental impact of the production activities. [Spanish] En la industria moderna la energia termica es la forma de energia mas intensamente utilizada, lo cual implica que en los procesos y equipos que operan basandose en esta, residan las mayores oportunidades de ahorro. En este trabajo se presentan algunas de las tecnicas de ahorro y conservacion de energia termica, que hoy en dia se han desarrollado, cuya aplicacion ha coadyuvado a la consecucion exitosa de los objetivos de incremento de la productividad de plantas industriales, con el beneficio adicional de reducir el impacto ambiental de las actividades productivas.

  4. Application techniques of coatings by thermal projection; Tecnicas de aplicacion de recubrimientos por proyeccion termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcayo Calderon, Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The coatings applied by thermal projection have an important number of applications in different industries (chemical, oil, electric, nuclear, etc.). The main purpose of the protection by means of coatings is to alter the surface characteristics of a component so as to resist corrosive environments, abrasion and erosion, among others. The coatings can be applied by different methods, but due to the fact that its characteristics appreciably differ from the base metal, it is important the knowledge of its properties when a coating is selected for a specific use. In this article the characteristics of the applied coatings by thermal projection, the factors that affect its performance and the principal application techniques, are described. [Espanol] Los recubrimientos aplicados por proyeccion termica tienen un numero importante de aplicaciones en diferentes industrias (quimica, petrolera, electrica, nuclear, etc.). El proposito principal de la proteccion por medio de recubrimientos es alterar las caracteristicas de la superficie de un componente de manera que resista ambientes corrosivos, abrasion y erosion, entre otros. Los recubrimientos pueden aplicarse por diferentes metodos, pero debido a que sus propiedades difieren apreciablemente de las del metal base, es importante el conocimiento de sus propiedades cuando se selecciona un recubrimiento para un uso especifico. En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas de los recubrimientos aplicados por proyeccion termica, los factores que afectan su desempeno y las principales tecnicas de aplicacion.

  5. Application techniques of coatings by thermal projection; Tecnicas de aplicacion de recubrimientos por proyeccion termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcayo Calderon, Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The coatings applied by thermal projection have an important number of applications in different industries (chemical, oil, electric, nuclear, etc.). The main purpose of the protection by means of coatings is to alter the surface characteristics of a component so as to resist corrosive environments, abrasion and erosion, among others. The coatings can be applied by different methods, but due to the fact that its characteristics appreciably differ from the base metal, it is important the knowledge of its properties when a coating is selected for a specific use. In this article the characteristics of the applied coatings by thermal projection, the factors that affect its performance and the principal application techniques, are described. [Espanol] Los recubrimientos aplicados por proyeccion termica tienen un numero importante de aplicaciones en diferentes industrias (quimica, petrolera, electrica, nuclear, etc.). El proposito principal de la proteccion por medio de recubrimientos es alterar las caracteristicas de la superficie de un componente de manera que resista ambientes corrosivos, abrasion y erosion, entre otros. Los recubrimientos pueden aplicarse por diferentes metodos, pero debido a que sus propiedades difieren apreciablemente de las del metal base, es importante el conocimiento de sus propiedades cuando se selecciona un recubrimiento para un uso especifico. En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas de los recubrimientos aplicados por proyeccion termica, los factores que afectan su desempeno y las principales tecnicas de aplicacion.

  6. Brazilian uranium exploration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    General information on Brazilian Uranium Exploration Program, are presented. The mineralization processes of uranium depoits are described and the economic power of Brazil uranium reserves is evaluated. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. The intraplate Maranhão earthquake of 2017 January 3, northern Brazil: evidence for uniform regional stresses along the Brazilian equatorial margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fábio L.; Assumpção, M.; Bianchi, Marcelo B.; Barros, Lucas V.; Carvalho, Juraci M.

    2018-04-01

    Lithospheric stresses in intraplate regions can be characterized by many different wavelengths. In some areas, stresses vary over short distances of less than ˜100 km, but in other regions uniform stresses can be recognized for more than ˜1000 km or so. However, not all intraplate regions are well sampled with stress measurements to allow a good characterization of the lithospheric stresses. On 2017 January 3, a magnitude mb 4 earthquake occurred near the equatorial coast of the Maranhão State, an aseismic area of northern Brazil. Despite the few permanent stations in northern Brazil, a well-constrained strike-slip mechanism was obtained from regional moment-tensor inversion. A detailed analysis of the backazimuths of aftershocks recorded by the closest station (˜40 km away) allowed the identification of the fault plane to be the NNW-SSE trending nodal plane. An estimate of the rupture length, about 2 km, was also possible. The strike-slip mechanism has coast-parallel P axis and coast-perpendicular T axis, in agreement with most of the focal mechanisms found further to the east. The coast parallel P axis is also similar to the SHmax orientations from breakouts measurements further along the coast. The Maranhão earthquake fills an important gap of stress indicators in northern Brazil and suggests that the intraplate stress field is uniform along the 2000 km long northern coast.

  8. Variabilidade genética do umbuzeiro no Semi-Árido brasileiro, por meio de marcadores AFLP Genetic variability of umbu trees in Brazilian Semi-Arid region, based on AFLP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição da variabilidade genética do umbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa, no Semi-Árido brasileiro, por meio de marcadores AFLP, para subsidiar estratégias de prospecção e conservação da espécie. Foram analisados 68 indivíduos de umbuzeiro de 15 ecorregiões, pelo dendrograma UPGMA e pela dispersão em escala multidimensional (MDS, com o coeficiente de Jaccard de 141 bandas polimórficas de AFLP. A análise da variância molecular foi realizada pela decomposição total entre e dentro das regiões ecogeográficas. O dendrograma apresentou valor cofenético de 0,96, e o gráfico MDS apresentou 0,25 para a falta de ajustamento. A variabilidade genética do umbuzeiro foi estimada em 0,3138, o que indica grande variação entre os grupos de indivíduos. Agrupamentos específicos foram observados em seis regiões ecogeográficas, enquanto nas demais regiões observaram-se pares entre alguns indivíduos, sem formação de agrupamentos específicos por local de amostragem, o que indica que a variabilidade genética do umbuzeironão está uniformemente distribuída no Semi-Árido. Sugerem-se estratégias para o estabelecimento de maior número de áreas para conservação in situ ou amostragens de menor número de indivíduos, em várias unidades de paisagens, para conservação ex situ da variabilidade genética do umbuzeiro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability distribution of umbu tree (Spondias tuberosa, within Brazilian Semi-Arid region, based on AFLP markers, in order to suggest prospecting and preservation strategies for this species. Sixty-eight umbu trees of 15 ecogeographic regions were analyzed for 141 polymorphic AFLP bands, through the UPGMA dendrogram and the multidimensional scaling (MDS, based on Jaccard's coefficient . Analysis of molecular variance was accomplished by total decomposition among and within ecogeographic regions. The dendrogram presented co

  9. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  10. Assessment of radioactivity level in granite stones sold to ornamental and building purposes in Brazilian Amazon region (Belem, PA, Brazil): a cross sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Y.M.; Santos, R.J.C.; Teixeira, C.E.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was evaluate the level of radioactivity in granite sold in the region of Belem (Para, Brazil) using a Geiger-Mueller detector. The results showed that only 5 from 57 samples of 35 types of granite evaluated had count rates above that measured in the background. However, the counting statistics suggests that the measured radiation values in these 5 samples are not due random fluctuations inherent in such measures. (author)

  11. Assessment of radioactivity level in granite stones sold to ornamental and building purposes in Brazilian Amazon region (Belem, PA, Brazil): a cross sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Y.M.; Santos, R.J.C.; Teixeira, C.E.C., E-mail: cecteixeira@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade da Amazonia (UNAMA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Radiologia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was evaluate the level of radioactivity in granite sold in the region of Belem (Para, Brazil) using a Geiger-Mueller detector. The results showed that only 5 from 57 samples of 35 types of granite evaluated had count rates above that measured in the background. However, the counting statistics suggests that the measured radiation values in these 5 samples are not due random fluctuations inherent in such measures. (author)

  12. Modern techniques for the emissions control in thermal electric stations; Tecnicas modernas para el control de emisiones en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romo Millares, C. A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the techniques and the control equipment for emissions in thermal stations that have the highest possibilities of being considered in the immediate future in the national energy panorama and the established frame for the environmental normativity. The pollutant compounds subject to revision are the nitrogen and sulfur oxides and unburned particles. [Espanol] Se presentan las tecnicas y equipos de control de emisiones para centrales termoelectricas que tienen mayores posibilidades de ser consideradas en el futuro inmediato dentro del panorama energetico nacional y el marco establecido por la normatividad ambiental. Los compuestos contaminantes sujetos a revision son los oxidos de nitrogeno y azufre y las particulas inquemadas.

  13. Modern techniques for the emissions control in thermal electric stations; Tecnicas modernas para el control de emisiones en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romo Millares, C A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the techniques and the control equipment for emissions in thermal stations that have the highest possibilities of being considered in the immediate future in the national energy panorama and the established frame for the environmental normativity. The pollutant compounds subject to revision are the nitrogen and sulfur oxides and unburned particles. [Espanol] Se presentan las tecnicas y equipos de control de emisiones para centrales termoelectricas que tienen mayores posibilidades de ser consideradas en el futuro inmediato dentro del panorama energetico nacional y el marco establecido por la normatividad ambiental. Los compuestos contaminantes sujetos a revision son los oxidos de nitrogeno y azufre y las particulas inquemadas.

  14. La scrittura è antiquata. Una prospettiva ermeneutica sulla genesi e destino del grafismo nell'epoca della tecnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo De Stefano

    2014-12-01

    Partendo dalle tesi di McLuhan e di André Leroi-Gourhan secondo cui la storia dell'evoluzione umana è la storia integrata delle tecniche e dei linguaggi rapportata alle prospettive filosofiche sulla tecnica di Günther Anders, Arnold Gehlen e Martin Heidegger, si analizzano i mutamenti antropologici in relazione alle rivoluzioni mass mediali dalla comparsa del grafismo ai “mass media della terza ondata”. Sulla scorta di tali analisi, si prova infine a indagare e delineare una prospettiva etica della civiltà tecnologica in relazione al corretto uso e comprensione dei nuovi mass media.

  15. Uso del modelo “Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System” (brams) en el análisis del huaico de Chosica en Lima Perú

    OpenAIRE

    García Villanueva, Jerónimo; Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Apartado postal 12-056 - La Molina, Lima, Perú.; Sutizal sánchez, Bremilda Andrea; Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología del Perú (SENAMHI), Lima, Perú.

    2017-01-01

    En la actualidad existen modelos numéricos que permiten disponer de informaciones para las investigaciones y análisis en lugares con escasez de datos meteorológicos observados. El modelo regional BRAMS cuenta con datos de pronóstico, procedentes del modelo global del CPTEC, que deberían usarse para el proceso de downscaling dinámico cuyos resultados son útiles en el análisis de las condiciones del tiempo pronosticado en zonas de eventos climáticos de alto riesgo para prevenir sus efectos nega...

  16. Ultrastructural, Antigenic and Physicochemical Characterization of the Mojuí dos Campos (Bunyavirus Isolated from Bat in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanzeller Ana LM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mojuí dos Campos virus (MDCV was isolated from the blood of an unidentified bat (Chiroptera captured in Mojuí dos Campos, Santarém, State of Pará, Brazil, in 1975 and considerated to be antigenically different from other 102 arboviruses belonging to several antigenic groups isolated in the Amazon region or another region by complement fixation tests. The objective of this work was to develop a morphologic, an antigenic and physicochemical characterization of this virus. MDCV produces cytopathic effect in Vero cells, 24 h post-infection (p.i, and the degree of cellular destruction increases after a few hours. Negative staining electron microscopy of the supernatant of Vero cell cultures showed the presence of coated viral particles with a diameter of around 98 nm. Ultrathin sections of Vero cells, and brain and liver of newborn mice infected with MDCV showed an assembly of the viral particles into the Golgi vesicles. The synthesis kinetics of the proteins for MDCV were similar to that observed for other bunyaviruses, and viral proteins could be detected as early as 6 h p.i. Our results reinforce the original studies which had classified MDCV in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus as an ungrouped virus, and it may represent the prototype of a new serogroup.

  17. Calibration of the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vcmax using data mining techniques and ecophysiological data from the Brazilian semiarid region, for use in Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. C. Rezende

    Full Text Available Abstract The semiarid region of northeastern Brazil, the Caatinga, is extremely important due to its biodiversity and endemism. Measurements of plant physiology are crucial to the calibration of Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs that are currently used to simulate the responses of vegetation in face of global changes. In a field work realized in an area of preserved Caatinga forest located in Petrolina, Pernambuco, measurements of carbon assimilation (in response to light and CO2 were performed on 11 individuals of Poincianella microphylla, a native species that is abundant in this region. These data were used to calibrate the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vcmax used in the INLAND model. The calibration techniques used were Multiple Linear Regression (MLR, and data mining techniques as the Classification And Regression Tree (CART and K-MEANS. The results were compared to the UNCALIBRATED model. It was found that simulated Gross Primary Productivity (GPP reached 72% of observed GPP when using the calibrated Vcmax values, whereas the UNCALIBRATED approach accounted for 42% of observed GPP. Thus, this work shows the benefits of calibrating DGVMs using field ecophysiological measurements, especially in areas where field data is scarce or non-existent, such as in the Caatinga.

  18. Brazilian sandy beaches: characteristics, ecosystem services, impacts, knowledge and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Cecília Zacagnini Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandy beaches constitute a key ecosystem and provide socioeconomic goods and services, thereby playing an important role in the maintenance of human populations and in biodiversity conservation. Despite the ecological and social importance of these ecosytems, Brazilian sandy beaches are significantly impacted by human interference, chemical and organic pollution and tourism, as well as global climate change. These factors drive the need to better understand the environmental change and its consequences for biota. To promote the implementation of integrated studies to detect the effects of regional and global environmental change on beaches and on other benthic habitats of the Brazilian coast, Brazilian marine researchers have established The Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network (ReBentos. In order to provide input for sample planning by ReBentos, we have conducted an intensive review of the studies conducted on Brazilian beaches and summarized the current knowledge about this environment. In this paper, we present the results of this review and describe the physical, biological and socioeconomics features of Brazilian beaches. We have used these results, our personal experience and worldwide literature to identify research projects that should be prioritized in the assessment of regional and global change on Brazilian sandy beaches. We trust that this paper will provide insights for future studies and represent a significant step towards the conservation of Brazilian beaches and their biodiversity.

  19. Genotype-environment interaction of maternal influence characteristics in Nellore cattle bred in the Brazilian humid tropical regions by reaction norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luís Ferreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reaction Norm (RN is the study of genotype-environment interaction (GxE that complies with alternative ways of genotypes within different environments. This study was carried out to verify GxE by a reaction norm model of weights at 120 (W120 and 210 (W210 days of age in Nellore cattle raised in the Humid Tropical Regions of Brazil. Environmental gradients were obtained by solutions of contemporary groups which were fitted as co-variables in the random regression model via reaction norms. Mean weight at 120 days of age was 127.97 kg, and environmental gradients ranged between -27 and +26 kg. Average was 185.60 kg at 210 days of age and gradients ranged from -54 to +55 kg. Scale changes in the breeding values and heritability estimates occurred along the gradients for the two weights; the genetic correlations between breeding value breeding values were also similar for both weights. These correlations were high between the close gradients, and low to even negative between extreme environments. Slopes representing the environmental sensitivity were high, with changes of scale and changes in classification of ten bulls with a great numbers of calves for the two traits. When regression slopes of the ten bulls with the highest breeding value breeding values were evaluated, these values were different in W120 from those in W210, perhaps due to the greater influence of maternal effect on W120. These results characterize the influence of GxE on the pre-weaning weights of animals in the humid tropical regions of Brazil. Due to this, it is possible to get greater precision on the predictions of the animals breeding values breeding value. A less biased selection and a greater genetic progress occurred.

  20. Microbiota and anthropic interference on antimicrobial resistance profile of bacteria isolated from Brazilian maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus)

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira-da-Motta, Olney; Eckhardt-de-Pontes, Luiz Antonio; Petrucci, Melissa Paes; dos Santos, Israel Pereira; da Cunha, Isabel Candia Nunes; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Both the study of Brazilian wild mammal fauna and the conditions that foster the preservation of endangered species, such as Brazilian Maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), in wild life are of extreme importance. In order to study the resistance profile of microbiota bacterial colonizing Brazilian Maned-wolf, this work investigated samples from eight male captive and free roaming animals originating from different Brazilian geographical regions. Samples for microbiological purposes were collect...

  1. Natural Leishmania (Viannia) spp. infections in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Brazilian Amazon region reveal new putative transmission cycles of American cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Adelson Alcimar Almeida; dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Jennings, Yara Lúcia Lins; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Yassui; Barata, Iorlando da Rocha; Silva, Maria das Graças Soares; Lima, José Aprígio Nunes; Shaw, Jeffrey; Lainson, Ralph; Silveira, Fernando Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In Amazonian Brazil the etiological agents of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) belong to at least seven Leishmania species but little is known about the putative phlebotomine sand fly vectors in different biomes. In 2002–2003 a survey of the phlebotomine fauna was undertaken in the “Floresta Nacional do Tapajós”, Belterra municipality, in the lower Amazon region, western Pará State, Brazil, where we recently confirmed the presence of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V.) guyanensis × L. (V.) shawi shawi. Sand flies were collected from Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, Shannon traps and by aspiration on tree bases. Females were dissected and attempts to isolate any flagellate infections were made by inoculating homogenized midguts into Difco B45 medium. Isolates were characterized by monoclonal antibodies and isoenzyme electrophoresis. A total of 9,704 sand flies, belonging to 68 species or subspecies, were collected. Infections were found in the following sand flies: L. (V.) naiffi with Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus (1) and Ps. davisi (2); and L. (V.) shawi shawi with Nyssomyia whitmani (3) and Lutzomyia gomezi (1). These results provide strong evidence of new putative transmission cycles for L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) s. shawi. PMID:27235194

  2. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, H.G. de

    1980-01-01

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed [pt

  3. Predictive Models of Primary Tropical Forest Structure from Geomorphometric Variables Based on SRTM in the Tapajós Region, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Polyanna da Conceição; Dos Santos, João Roberto; Valeriano, Márcio de Morisson; Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro; Balzter, Heiko; França, Helena; Bispo, Pitágoras da Conceição

    2016-01-01

    Surveying primary tropical forest over large regions is challenging. Indirect methods of relating terrain information or other external spatial datasets to forest biophysical parameters can provide forest structural maps at large scales but the inherent uncertainties need to be evaluated fully. The goal of the present study was to evaluate relief characteristics, measured through geomorphometric variables, as predictors of forest structural characteristics such as average tree basal area (BA) and height (H) and average percentage canopy openness (CO). Our hypothesis is that geomorphometric variables are good predictors of the structure of primary tropical forest, even in areas, with low altitude variation. The study was performed at the Tapajós National Forest, located in the Western State of Pará, Brazil. Forty-three plots were sampled. Predictive models for BA, H and CO were parameterized based on geomorphometric variables using multiple linear regression. Validation of the models with nine independent sample plots revealed a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 3.73 m2/ha (20%) for BA, 1.70 m (12%) for H, and 1.78% (21%) for CO. The coefficient of determination between observed and predicted values were r2 = 0.32 for CO, r2 = 0.26 for H and r2 = 0.52 for BA. The models obtained were able to adequately estimate BA and CO. In summary, it can be concluded that relief variables are good predictors of vegetation structure and enable the creation of forest structure maps in primary tropical rainforest with an acceptable uncertainty.

  4. Local health practices and the knowledge of medicinal plants in a Brazilian semi-arid region: environmental benefits to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, Sofia; Peroni, Nivaldo; de Araújo, Elcida Lima; Hanazaki, Natalia

    2015-02-23

    The concept of eco-cultural health considers the dynamic interaction between humans and ecosystems, emphasizing the implications of the health of the ecosystem for the health and well-being of human populations. Ethnobotanical studies focusing on folk medicine and medicinal plants can contribute to the field of eco-cultural health if they incorporate the perspective and local knowledge of communities. We investigated the local health practices in three rural communities living within the vicinity of a protected area of sustainable use in a semi-arid region of Brazil. We analyzed the opinions of local health experts on the elements that influence human health and on how the environment contributes to this influence. We also analyzed and compared the local knowledge of medicinal plants, as knowledge of this type is an important factor when considering the interaction between environmental and human health. We performed structured interviews and free-listings with 66 local health experts. We used content analysis to systematize the elements of the influences on human health. We compared the richness of the plants cited among communities and analyzed the differences among the three communities regarding the ways in which the plants were obtained and the environments in which plants were collected. The local experts identified several influences of the environment on human health. These influences can be associated with ecosystem services, such as climatic conditions, water and air quality, recreation and medicinal and food resources. We identified 192 medicinal plant species, most of which were gathered from wild ecosystems. The most important environments for the three communities were the plateau mountain and backyards. The informants had a broad and integrated view of health, perceiving the importance of conserving the environment within the National Forest of Araripe for the health and well-being of the local populations.

  5. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C markers among children and adolescents in the south brazilian region: metropolitan area of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Royer Voigt

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B and C are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Brazil, according to the Ministry of Health, about 15% of population is infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV and less than 1% by hepatitis C virus (HCV. Nevertheless, the age-specific prevalence of HBV and HCV markers remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV markers of infection and immunity in children and adolescents between 10 to 16 years old who live in the metropolitan area of Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, South of Brazil. Three hundred and eighty four individuals were enrolled in this study. Serological markers for HBV and HCV (HBsAg, total anti-HBc, anti-HBc IgM, anti-HBs and anti-HCV were determined through Microparticle Enzyme Immunosorbant Assay (MEIA - AxSYM System® - by using commercial diagnostic kits (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA. All 384 adolescents (100% were negative for HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM. Only two (0.52% were positive for total anti-HBc. Among the studied individuals, 226 (58.85% presented titers of anti-HBs > 10.0mIU/mL, 121 (31.51% presented anti HBs < 10.0mIU/mL, and 37 (9.64% did not present titers of anti-HBs. Regarding to anti-HCV, all 384 adolescents (100% presented negative results for this marker. In conclusion, this study showed a low prevalence of HBV and HCV infections. In addition, it was verified a great number of children and adolescents (89.84% who were positive for the immunity marker anti-HBs, implying that the National Immunization Program Protocol for hepatitis B has been effective in the studied region.

  6. Impact on human health of particulate matter emitted from burnings in the Brazilian Amazon region Impactos na saúde humana de partículas emitidas por queimadas na Amazônia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ignotti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact on human health of exposure to particulate matter emitted from burnings in the Brazilian Amazon region. METHODS: This was an ecological study using an environmental exposure indicator presented as the percentage of annual hours (AH% of PM2.5 above 80 μg/m3. The outcome variables were the rates of hospitalization due to respiratory disease among children, the elderly and the intermediate age group, and due to childbirth. Data were obtained from the National Space Research Institute and the Ministry of Health for all of the microregions of the Brazilian Amazon region, for the years 2004 and 2005. Multiple regression models for the outcome variables in relation to the predictive variable AH% of PM2.5 above 80 μg/m3 were analyzed. The Human Development Index (HDI and mean number of complete blood counts per 100 inhabitants in the Brazilian Amazon region were the control variables in the regression analyses. RESULTS: The association of the exposure indicator (AH% was higher for the elderly than for other age groups (β = 0.10. For each 1% increase in the exposure indicator there was an increase of 8% in child hospitalization, 10% in hospitalization of the elderly, and 5% for the intermediate age group, even after controlling for HDI and mean number of complete blood counts. No association was found between the AH% and hospitalization due to childbirth. CONCLUSIONS: The indicator of atmospheric pollution showed an association with occurrences of respiratory diseases in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially in the more vulnerable age groups. This indicator may be used to assess the effects of forest burning on human health.OBJETIVO: Analizar el impacto a la salud humana por la exposición al material particulado de las emisiones de incendios en el Amazonas brasilero. MÉTODOS: Estudio ecológico utilizando el indicador de exposición ambiental, presentado como porcentaje anual de horas (AH% de PM2,5 encima de 80 µg

  7. Ten years of Brazilian ballast water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maria Cecilia Trindade; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Poggian, Cecília Fonseca; Fileman, Timothy W.

    2018-03-01

    In 2005, Brazil addressed the environmental challenges posed by ballast water through a unilateral regulation, called the Maritime Standard N° 20 (NORMAM-20), applied to all shipping in her waters. This world-leading decision was the culmination of a process that started during the 1990‧s. Here, we summarize how these ballast water regulations were brought in and adopted and present the findings of 10 years of enforcement (2005-2015) in 39 ports along the Brazilian coast. We show that compliance with the Brazilian standard has increased significantly since the regulations were implemented (p < 0.001). After five years of implementation, non-compliance decreased probably reflecting an increase in awareness of the Brazilian Standard and a shift in the shipping industry commitment to minimize and control the spread of invasive species through ballast water. The Brazilian experience shows that very high levels (97%) of compliance with ballast water management regulations can be made to work in a region of global importance to the maritime industry. In the last decade, the rules governing ballast water in Brazil have evolved to address the demands from the maritime community and to provide updates such as imminent requirements for the use of ballast water management systems on board ships. These regulations are rarely cited when ballast water regulations are discussed internationally, yet there is much to learn from the proactive approach taken by Brazil such as what is feasible and enforceable.

  8. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Naturais; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  9. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  10. Brazilian women in politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  11. Influência da mídia em universitárias brasileiras de diferentes regiões Media influence in female university students in all Brazilian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marle dos Santos Alvarenga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A mídia tem impacto na satisfação com a imagem corporal e risco para o desenvolvimento de transtornos alimentares. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da mídia em universitárias e possíveis associações com idade, estado nutricional, renda e escolaridade do chefe da família. MÉTODOS: 2.489 estudantes do sexo feminino das cinco regiões do Brasil responderam à Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Scale (SATAQ-3. O escore na SATAQ foi comparado entre as regiões por meio de uma análise de variância. Uma análise de covariância foi utilizada para verificar a influência das variáveis estudadas no escore da SATAQ. Uma regressão logística foi realizada para verificar a interferência conjunta das variáveis em relação à influência da mídia. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças regionais na SATAQ total (p = 0,164 e subescalas Internalização atlética (p = 0,293 e Pressão (p = 0,150; houve diferença para as subescalas Internalização geral (p = 0,010 e Informação (p = 0,002. Idade, estado nutricional e renda influenciaram o resultado. CONCLUSÕES: O escore total na SATAQ foi similar entre as regiões, mas o Sul e o Nordeste apresentaram maiores pontuações para subescalas Internalização geral e Informação respectivamente. Estudantes com menos de 25 anos, com excesso de peso e maior renda foram em média mais influenciadas pela mídia.Media has been postulated to be a causal risk factor for body dissatisfaction and increases in eating disorder symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the media influence on Brazilian undergraduate students and possible associations with age, nutritional status, income and education of family head. METHODS: 2.489 female students from five regions of Brazil answered the "Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Scale" (SATAQ-3 and its scores among regions were compared by means of a variance analysis. A covariance analysis was performed to evaluate the possible effect of studied

  12. Sacral-neuromodulation CT-guided; Nuova tecnica di centraggio TC-assistista nella neuromodulazione sacrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, Lamberto; Ricci, Stefano [INRCA, Ancona (Italy). Dipartimento di radiologia e medicina nucleare; Pelliccioni, Giuseppe; Scarpino, Osvaldo [INRCA, Ancona (Italy). Unita' operativa di radiologia; Ghiselli, Roberto; Saba, Vittorio [INRCA, Ancona (Italy). Dipartimento di chirurgia

    2005-04-01

    in una stimolazione temporanea attraverso un elettrocatetere posizionato mediante puntura percutanea nella radice sacrale S3 al fine di testare l'integrite anatomica della radice. Il test PNE ? eseguito normalmente sotto guida fluoroscopica. Questa tecnica pue se valida, pui presentare alcuni inconvenienti, quali l'esposizione radiogena per gli operatori, la mancata visualizzazione del foro sacrale per gli artefatti da gas colico e l'impossibilite di valutare correttamente la profondita e la sede d'impianto dell'elettrodo-stimolatore. Scopo del lavoro e stato quello di perimentare una tecnica alternativa utilizzando la guida TC al fine di valutarne vantaggi e un possibile uso routinario. Materiale e metodi: Abbiamo testato con PNE test in guida TC 30 pazienti (16 maschi e 14 femmine) affetti da gravi disfunzioni pelviche refrattari agli usuali regimi terapeutici. Ventisette pazienti presentavano una relativa integrit? anatomica del bacino e del sacro, 3 pazienti invece erano portatori du anomalie morfologiche dei forami sacrali. Si e proceduto all'identificazione dei fori sacrali mediante scansioni TC volumetriche, a paziente prono, utilizzando un apparecchio TC spirale dotato di una seconda consolle per le ricostruzioni tridimensionali. Identificata la sede dei forami S3, viene preparato il campo sterile e s'introduce l'ago verificandone la corretta posizione con una scansione TC di controllo. Si passa successivamente all'introduzionedell'elettrodo dopo avere verificato la corretta risposta contrattile muscolare e la precisa posizione con una ulteriore scansione TC. Risultati: Trenta pazienti sono stati sottoposti a PNE test sotto guida TC, per un totale di 38 centraggi. In 8 pazienti e stata eseguito il PNE test su entrambi i fori S3. Il forame sacrale e stato centrato al primo tentativo in 36/38 casi. In due casi sono stati necessari pi? tentativi per centrare correttamente il forame. In 4/30 pazienti e stato

  13. Application of gamma irradiation technique for the preservation of propolis; Aplicacao da tecnica de irradiacao gama para preservacao de propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Andrea Harumi

    2002-07-01

    Irradiation has been recognized as an efficient method for the reduction of deteriorating and pathogenic microorganisms in foods. Propolis is a resinous product made by bees from material processed by the bee's own metabolism and resins from plants. The aim of this work was the application of gamma irradiation technique for the preservation of propolis, because of its efficiency in the reduction of the microbial load. The changes on the total flavonoids content, phenolic compounds and other characteristics required for the qualification and characterization of Brazilian propolis were also analysed. Propolis samples from Juiz de Fora region, Minas Gerais, were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co source, with doses from 0 to 10kGy for the microbiological analyses and 5.0, 7.0 and 10.0kGy for the physico-chemical analyses. The physico-chemical that have been made were: determination of total flavonoids content, semi-quantitative determination of phenolic compounds (artepelin-C, kempferol, chrysin, galangin and quercetin), dry matter analysis, humidity, ash content, mechanical mass and waxes. The ionizing radiation has shown to be efficient in the reduction of the microbial load. Total coliforms determination showed a great reduction with the dose of 3kGy and concerning mesophile aerobic bacteria a systematic reduction was observed, achieving values <10 UFC/g for the dose of 10kGy; similar results was obtained for molds and yeasts. Salmonella assays were negative for all samples. There was no significant alteration on total flavonoids contents nor on the composition of phenolic compounds as a consequence of radiation application at the assayed conditions. The complementary analyses of dry matter and humidity contents, ashes, mechanical mass and waxes did not shown changes after irradiation even with the maximum dose of 10kGy, remaining the results within the standards required by the Brazilian legislation. (author)

  14. Desempenho de ovelhas nativas em confinamento recebendo palma-forrageira na dieta na região do semiárido nordestino Performance of native ewes under feedlot system receiving spineless cactus in diet in Brazilian semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicília Maria Silva de Souza

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o ganho de peso, o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes de dieta à base de palma forrageira em ovelhas nativas confinadas na região do semiárido nordestino. Foram testadas duas formas de oferecimento da palma-forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica: separada da mistura feno de capim-tifton + concentrado e junto da mistura feno + concentrado. Utilizaram-se 40 fêmeas das raças nativas Barriga-preta, Cara-curta, Cariri e Morada Nova, com peso inicial médio de 36,76 kg, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 4 × 2, com quatro raças e duas estratégias de alimentação. Os genótipos e as estratégias de alimentação influenciaram os consumos médios de fibra em detergente neutro e nutrientes digestíveis totais e os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da fibra em detergente neutro. O genótipo influencia o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar em ovelhas alimentadas com palma forrageira na dieta, uma vez que animais das raças Cariri e Cara-curta apresentam maiores ganhos de peso.The experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating the weight gain, intake of nutrients, and the apparent digestibility of diets based on spineless cactus in native ewes in feedlot system in Brazilian semiarid region. Two spineless cactus feeding strategies were evaluated: spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica separated from the Tifton hay + concentrated mixture, and with Tifton hay mixture + concentrate. It was used forty native breed ewes (Barriga Preta, Cara Curta, Cariri and Morada Nova, with average initial body weight of 36.76 kg, distributed in a complete randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial scheme (four breed and two feeding strategies. The genotypes and feeding strategies neutral fiber detergent had effect on the average intake of neutral fiber detergent and total digestible nutrient, and on the coefficients of neutral fiber detergent

  15. Aceitação de cultivares de bananas resistentes à Sigatoka Negra junto ao consumidor da região Nordeste do Brasil Acceptance of banana cultivars resistant to Black Sigatoka by the consumer market of Northeast Brazilian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O Mal da Sigatoka Negra é devastador para as cultivares tradicionais de banana. No Brasil, cultivares resistentes estão sendo desenvolvidas, mas se a preferência do consumidor não for considerada, o programa de melhoramento pode falhar. Neste trabalho, a aceitabilidade de quatro cultivares resistentes foi acessada no Nordeste brasileiro e comparada a quatro variedades comerciais. Dois grupos de consumidores participaram: adultos jovens e donas de casa. Escala hedônica foi aplicada para aparência externa dos cachos, aceitação global e aceitação por atributos dos frutos (aparência sem a casca, aroma, sabor e textura, além de testes de preferência e intenção de compra. Os dados foram submetidos à ANOVA e Mapa de Preferência Interno. Mulheres e jovens mostraram opiniões semelhantes. As cultivares 'Preciosa' e 'Pacovan Ken' mostraram ser as mais promissoras, sendo que a primeira já pode substituir as cultivares comerciais 'Prata' e 'Pacovan' sem prejudicar a sua aceitabilidade, mas a 'Pacovan Ken' ainda precisa ser melhorada quanto à aparência.The Black Sigatoka Disease is devastating to traditional banana cultivars. In Brazil, resistant cultivars are being developed but if the consumer's preference is not taken into account, the breeding program may not succeed. In this research the acceptability of four resistant cultivars was accessed in the Northeastern Brazilian region and compared to four commercial varieties. Two groups of consumers participated: young adults and housewives. Hedonic scale was applied to external appearance of bunches, global acceptance and acceptance of fruits' attributes (appearance without peel, aroma, flavor and texture. Preference and purchase intent were also evaluated. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Preference Mapping. Women and young adults showed similar opinions. 'Preciosa' and 'Pacovan Ken' cultivars showed to be the most promising ones. 'Preciosa' can already substitute the commercial 'Prata

  16. Determinacion del N y P en abonos organicos mediante la tecnica del elemento faltante y un bioensayo microbiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Salas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la tecnica del elemento faltante en ferinvernadero y el uso de un bioensayo microbiano se determin6 la disponibilidad de N y P en 6 sus- greenhoutratos: suelo s6lo 0 en mezcla 9: 1 con diversos abo- nos organicos, a saber: pollinaza (CM, compost (C, bocashi (B, vermicompost (V 0 broza de ca- determife (Br. En ambos bioensayos y para cada sustrato se realiz6 un experimento factorial 2x2 (fertiliza- ci6n con P y N; las combinaciones resultantes fue- ron: +P, +N, +P+N y -P-N (testigo. En el bioensa- yo microbiano se utiliz6 un diseno de bloques al azar con 6 repeticiones y se midi6 el crecimiento microde la biomasa microbiana nativa (BM 2 dias des- pues de aplicar el tratamiento e incubar con gluco- sa. En la prueba de invernadero se utiliz6 un dise- no completamente al azar con 4 repeticiones, se utiliz6 sorgo (Sorghum vulgare como planta indi- cadora. Se midi6 el peso seco de la parte aerea de lasplantas a los 34 dias de la siembra (PS y el con- tenido foliar de nutrimentos. Ambos bioensayos in- sordicaron respuesta del suelo a la aplicaci6n de P y N. La mezcla del suelo con un 10% de CM, CoB mostraron los valores mas altos de BM y PS. La mezcla suelo:CM no respondi6 a ningun tratamien- to qufmico, mientras que en mezcla con el C 0 el B respondi6 a la aplicaci6n de N pero no al P. Con el Vola Br se obtuvo las menores respuestas de las variables y hubo respuesta ala adici6n de P y N. La tecnica del elemento faltante de invernadero

  17. The Brazilian Twin Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo H; Oliveira, Vinicius C; Junqueira, Daniela R; Cisneros, Lígia C; Ferreira, Lucas C; Murphy, Kate; Ordoñana, Juan R; Hopper, John L; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia. The collaboration includes the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil, the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne in Australia, the Australian Twin Registry, as well as the research foundations CNPq and CAPES in Brazil. The BTR is a member of the International Network of Twin Registries. Recruitment strategies used to register twins have been through participation in a longitudinal study investigating genetic and environmental factors for low back pain occurrence, and from a variety of sources including media campaigns and social networking. Currently, 291 twins are registered in the BTR, with data on demographics, zygosity, anthropometrics, and health history having been collected from 151 twins using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Future BTR plans include the registration of thousands of Brazilian twins identified from different sources and collaborate nationally and internationally with other research groups interested on twin studies.

  18. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  19. Analysis methodology for economic technical feasibility studies in offshore electrical generation systems; Metodologia de analisis para estudios de factibilidad tecnica economica en sistemas de generacion electrica costa fuera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscal Escalante, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    An analysis methodology followed in the development of technique-economic feasibility studies of systems of electrical generation in offshore electrical installations is presented, including the obtaining of the curves of the turbine and generator performance, the technical considerations for the formulation of the operation scenes and the calculations of the economic evaluation of a real scenario. [Spanish] Se muestra una metodologia de analisis seguida en el desarrollo de estudios de factibilidad tecnica-economica de sistemas de generacion electrica en instalaciones electricas costa fuera, incluyendo la obtencion de las curvas de comportamiento de la turbina y el generador, las consideraciones tecnicas para la formulacion de los escenarios de operacion y los calculos de la evaluacion economica de un escenario real.

  20. Foreseeing techniques and control of emissions in thermal power plants. Workshop Latin American. [Selected Papers]; Control y tecnicas de prevision de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R.; Morales, F.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This document contains the conference proceedings of the Latin-American Workshop ``Control and Prevision Techniques of Emissions in Power Plants`` carried out in Cuernavaca, Mexico on June 1996, with the participation of representatives of Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela, as well as specialists from the European Union. The core issue analyzed in this workshop was the control and the evaluation techniques of polluting emissions in Power Plants [Espanol] Este documento contiene las memorias de conferencia del Taller Latinoamericano ``Control y tecnicas de prevision de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas`` que se llevo a cabo en Cuernavaca, Mexico en junio de 1996. Participaron representantes de Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama y Venezuela, asi como especialistas de la Union Europea. El tema central tratado en este taller fue el control y tecnicas de evaluacion de las emisiones contaminantes en centrales termoelectricas

  1. Foreseeing techniques and control of emissions in thermal power plants. Workshop Latin American. [Selected Papers]; Control y tecnicas de prevision de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R; Morales, F; Urrutia, M [eds.; Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document contains the conference proceedings of the Latin-American Workshop ``Control and Prevision Techniques of Emissions in Power Plants`` carried out in Cuernavaca, Mexico on June 1996, with the participation of representatives of Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela, as well as specialists from the European Union. The core issue analyzed in this workshop was the control and the evaluation techniques of polluting emissions in Power Plants [Espanol] Este documento contiene las memorias de conferencia del Taller Latinoamericano ``Control y tecnicas de prevision de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas`` que se llevo a cabo en Cuernavaca, Mexico en junio de 1996. Participaron representantes de Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama y Venezuela, asi como especialistas de la Union Europea. El tema central tratado en este taller fue el control y tecnicas de evaluacion de las emisiones contaminantes en centrales termoelectricas

  2. Electrochemical techniques application in corrosion problems of fossil power plants; Aplicacion de tecnicas electroquimicas en problemas de corrosion en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Castillo, Ulises; Garcia Ochoa, Esteban Miguel; Martinez Villafane, Alberto; Mariaca Rodriguez, Liboria; Malo Tamayo, Jose Maria; Uruchurtu Chavarin, Jorge [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    Some aspects of the electrochemical techniques employed to evaluate the corrosion at low temperature in fossil power plants are commented, as well as the results obtained with the application of them in three power plants of this type. [Espanol] Se comentan algunos aspectos de tecnicas electroquimicas utilizadas para evaluar la corrosion en baja temperatura en centrales termoelectricas, asi como los resultados de la aplicacion de las mismas en tres centrales de este tipo.

  3. Electrochemical techniques application in corrosion problems of fossil power plants; Aplicacion de tecnicas electroquimicas en problemas de corrosion en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Castillo, Ulises; Garcia Ochoa, Esteban Miguel; Martinez Villafane, Alberto; Mariaca Rodriguez, Liboria; Malo Tamayo, Jose Maria; Uruchurtu Chavarin, Jorge [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    Some aspects of the electrochemical techniques employed to evaluate the corrosion at low temperature in fossil power plants are commented, as well as the results obtained with the application of them in three power plants of this type. [Espanol] Se comentan algunos aspectos de tecnicas electroquimicas utilizadas para evaluar la corrosion en baja temperatura en centrales termoelectricas, asi como los resultados de la aplicacion de las mismas en tres centrales de este tipo.

  4. Estratégias para o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares de mangueira para o semiárido brasileiro Mango strategies to develop new varieties to the Brazilian tropical semi-arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A mangueira é uma das principais fruteiras comerciais no Semiárido brasileiro, sendo que a cultivar Tommy Atkins ocupa 85% da área total cultivada com a cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o emprego de estratégias para reduzir o período juvenil e as trabalhosas polinizações manuais em mangueira, de forma a acelerar o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares da espécie para o Semiárido brasileiro. Foram identificadas plantas isoladas das cultivares Haden e Espada dentro de plantios comerciais da cultivar Tommy Atkins, numa fazenda exportadora de manga, em Petrolina-PE. Mudas das progênies foram transplantadas com seis meses de idade para o campo. O manejo para a indução floral foi realizado com poda, controle da irrigação e aplicação de Paclobutrazol e nitrato de potássio. O DNA extraído das progênies e parentais foi submetido a análises com marcadores microssatélites publicados para Mangifera indica L. O manejo combinado foi eficiente para induzir a floração e a frutificação em, aproximadamente, 70% das progênies após dois anos e meio de transplantio. Dos 94 indivíduos analisados com três microssatélites, 83% foram identificados como híbridos entre 'Haden' x 'T. Atkins'. Dos 401 indivíduos analisados com um microssatélite, 10% foram identificados como híbridos entre 'Espada' x 'T. Atkins'. A estratégia adotada foi eficiente para reduzir o período juvenil e evitar os trabalhosos cruzamentos manuais em mangueira, sendo que o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares da espécie para a região pode ser concluído com oito a dez anos, incluindo as rigorosas avaliações agronômicas.Mango is one of the most important fruit crop in the Brazilian Semi-Arid region. The cultivar Tommy Atkins has been grown in 85% of total area dedicated to this crop. The goal of this research was to evaluate strategies to reduce the juvenile period and to replace the laborious hand pollinization in order to accelerate the development

  5. Influência regional no consumo precoce de alimentos diferentes do leite materno em menores de seis meses residentes nas capitais brasileiras e Distrito Federal Regional influence on early consumption of foods other than breast milk in infants less than 6 months of age in Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina Dias Medici Saldiva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência regional no consumo precoce de alimentos diferentes do leite materno em menores de seis meses residentes nas capitais brasileiras. Analisaram-se dados de 18.929 crianças da II Pesquisa de Prevalência de Aleitamento Materno nas Capitais Brasileiras - 2008. As frequências do consumo de chá, sucos, leite artificial e mingau/papa foram calculadas para as capitais das cinco regiões brasileiras. Curvas do consumo foram obtidas pela análise de logitos e estimativas das razões de prevalência (RP por modelos de Poisson. O consumo de leite artificial foi maior quando comparado aos demais alimentos em todas as capitais. As capitais do Sul apresentaram a maior razão de prevalência para o consumo de chá (RP = 2,37 e as do Nordeste e Sudeste, para o consumo de outros tipos de leite (RP = 1,50 e 1,47 e de suco (RP = 1,57 e 1,55. Nas capitais do Nordeste, o consumo precoce de mingau/papa foi maior (RP = 3,0. A região tem influência no consumo precoce de alimentos, o que deve ser levado em consideração na elaboração de políticas públicas.The aim was to assess regional influences on food consumption in infants less than six months of age. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 18,929 infants participating in the Second Survey on Breastfeeding Prevalence in Brazilian State Capitals and the Federal District in 2008. Consumption rates for tea, fruit juices, formula milk, and porridge were calculated for the State capitals from the five geographic regions of the country. Food consumption was estimated by logit analyses and Poisson models. Differences in food consumption profile were observed between the different regions: tea was more common in State capitals in the South (RP = 2.37, while non-maternal milk (RP = 1.50 and 1.47 and juices (RP = 1.57 and 1.55 were more frequent in the Northeast and Southeast, respectively. Porridge was more common in the Northeast (RP = 3.0. Brazil's geographic regions

  6. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    Grande do Sul. Many were relatively small producers who were attracted to the Alto Parana region of Paraguay near the Brazilian border by its geographic proximity, extensive availability of land at low prices, and favorable credit and tax policies. Many small proprietors from Brazil were able to buy extensive tracts in Paraguay and to develop an economy based on cultivation of export crops on small and medium sized holdings. A serious and efficient plan for financial aid, together with technical assistance and intensive training programs, could have placed Paraguayan cultivators in a position similar to that of the Brazilians. Paraguayan colonists in the frontier areas could then have progressed rapidly beyond their current state of subsistence or semisubsistence agriculture to the kind of entrepreneurial agriculture practiced by the Brazilians.

  7. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  8. Managing migration: the Brazilian case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  9. Radioprotection in Brazilian universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, K.C.; Borges, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to obtain a broad knowledge of the circumstances under which activities involving ionizing radiations are held at brazilian academic institutions. Around 90 institutions (universities and isolated schools of both public and private sectors) were invited, by mail, to answer an inquiry with questions from technical to legal aspects of their activities with radiations. Information received from 2/3 of institutions contacted, permitted conclusions as: there is a wide ignorance about radioprotection procedures and legislation, although few universities maintain some efficient radioprotection staff; there is a need for the establishment of a standard radioprotection text dedicated to those specific activities of the sector. (author)

  10. Brazilian energy overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.A.M. de.

    1975-01-01

    The Brazilian energy overview compared with the rest of the world is presented, as well as the current situation and prospects for the future. In a first part, the evalution from the past through the present time is considered, and in a second part, attention is given on the future prospects for Brazil and the different countries in connection with the energy field. It is expected that the current per capita energy consumption in Brazil, in all of its various forms, now totalling 6 million kcal/inh, will reach at least 22 million kcal/inh toward the end of this century

  11. Dynamic of epigeous macrofauna under organic soil management in the Brazilian semi-arid regionDinâmica da macrofauna epígea sob manejo orgânico do solo no semi-árido brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Sampaio Pimentel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil macrofauna is responsible for soil fertility through cycling of nutrients, tillage and fragmentation of organic matter, as well as through the association between groups of fauna with conserved and/or degraded pedoenvironments. Nevertheless, under the conditions of the Brazilian semi-arid region, there is little information about this resource. The objective of this study was to evaluate the epigeous macrofauna in successive cropping using previous green manure and subsequent planting of melon (Cucumis melo L. in Juazeiro county, Bahia, Brazil. Sampling dates were undertaken in November 2007 and February, April and July 2008, using traps containing 4 % formaldehyde for seven days in plots of 64 m2. Results obtained indicate that there is no difference among the treatments with mixed cover crops, and epigeous macrofauna is influenced by the time of collection. Diversity and uniformity are inversely correlated with total density of epigeous macrofauna. Diversification of plant species favors the increase of diversity and uniformity of epigeous macrofauna. Formicidae, followed by Isopoda, Coleoptera and Oligochaeta are the groups of fauna most numerous in the areas. A macrofauna do solo é responsável pela melhoria da fertilidade do solo através da ciclagem de nutrientes, revolvimento e fragmentação da matéria orgânica, como também, pela associação entre grupos de fauna com pedoambientes conservados e/ou degradados. No entanto, nas condições de semi-árido brasileiro pouca informação se tem a respeito deste recurso. Neste sentido, na região do sub-médio do Rio São Francisco, pólo de desenvolvimento da agricultura irrigada objetivou-se avaliar a macrofauna epígea em sucessão cultural utilizando prévia adubação verde e subseqüente plantio de melão (Cucumis melo L.. As coletas foram realizadas em novembro de 2007 e fevereiro, abril e julho de 2008 no município de Juazeiro, BA, utilizando armadilhas contendo formol 4

  12. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  13. Technical and economic feasibility of distributed generation of electricity; Viabilidade tecnica e economica de geracao distribuida de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, Frederico Augusto Ornelas; Espirito Santo, Marcos Vinicius do; Leite, Leonardo Henrique de Melo; Silva, Arlete Vieira da [Centro Universitario de Belo Horizonte (UnBH), MG (Brazil)], e-mails: fred.aor@hotmail.com, marcos_ves@yahoo.com.br, leonardo.leite@prof.unibh.br, arlete.silva@prof.unibh.br

    2011-07-01

    This article focuses on the technical and economic feasibility of the design and implementation of energy micro nets distributed generation (GD). For this, a study was conducted in a rural area to assess the potential of generating electricity from renewable sources, and this has assisted the Brazilian network of conventional energy. We studied the renewable energy village, considered the conventional system of generation, transmission, distribution of electricity in this region and the technical and economic feasibility of implementing distributed generation and its interconnection to the basic network or not. The methodological procedures were used bibliographic and documentary research, interviews with standardized forms, and Case Study. This study was conducted in Minas Gerais assessing the current conditions of the electrification of the area surveyed and deployment of the types of electricity sources - biomass (biogas and burning eucalyptus), wind, solar photovoltaic. The calculations were made from it with companies and budgets. It is conceived, then, models of generating electricity through renewable sources constitutes a GD. Finally, they estimated the costs of implementation of the models studied in the community where they were cost estimates for electric power production through private investment, considering some possible scenarios to be created, namely: generation for own consumption, generation the sale of surplus and possible expansions. In this way demonstrated the high value of the investments required for the use of renewable sources in electricity generation small, given the current scenario. (author)

  14. The Brazilian Bolsa Escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cassidy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bolsa Escola (‘school stipend’ and its successor the Bolsa Familia (‘family stipend’ schemes have formed a crucial and successful part of Brazil’s welfare program. Bolsa Escola provided aid to Brazil’s poorest families on the condition that their children attended school, and Bolsa Familia has extended this idea, giving aid on the condition that children both attend school and receive vaccinations. Bolsa Familia is currently the largest Conditional Cash Transfer Program (CCTP in the world, costing roughly 0.5% of Brazilian GDP and helping around 11.2 million families (around 44 million Brazilians, constituting roughly one fifth of the population. Multilateral institutions have praised the schemes, and they are setting a leading example to other developing nations. In 2005, Paul Wolfowitz (former president of the World Bank said, ‘Bolsa Familia has already become a highly praised model of effective social policy. Countries around the world are drawing lessons from Brazil’s experience and are trying to produce the same results for their own people’.

  15. Life Expectancy of Brazilian Neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; Jardim Miranda, Bárbara Cristina; Nishikuni, Koshiro; Waisberg, Jaques

    2018-06-01

    Life expectancy (LE) refers to the number of years that an individual is expected to survive. Emphasis is frequently placed on the relationship between LE and the conditions under which a population lives, but fewer studies have investigated the relationship between stress factors associated with specific professions and their effects on LE. The aim of this study is to evaluate Brazilian neurosurgeons' life expectancies (BNLEs) and compare them with those of physicians (both Brazilian and foreign) from other fields, as well as with Brazilian nondoctors. The Brazilian Society of Neurosurgery death registry was used to obtain data that compared LEs from non-neurosurgeon physicians, as described in the national and international literature. BNLEs were also compared with the LEs of Brazilian citizens. Fifty-one neurosurgeons died between 2009 and 2016. All were males. The mean age at death was 68.31 ± 17.71 years. Among all-cause mortality, the breakdown was 20% cardiovascular diseases, 39% malignancies, 10% external factors, 6% gastrointestinal disorders, 12% neurologic illnesses, and 14% unknown causes. BNLE was shorter than LE of male Brazilian citizens. LE was similar among neurosurgeons and other doctors but shorter compared with Brazilian citizens. Further research is needed to provide data that can add to and confirm these results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical Photoscintillography: Technique and Applications; Photoscintigraphie Clinique: Methode et Applications; Klinicheskaya fotostsintillografiya: metodika i primenenie; Fotocentelleografia Clinica: Tecnicas y Aplicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ephraim, K. H. [Rotterdamsch Radio-Therapeutisch Instituut, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1964-10-15

    ' de exploracion. La intensidad luminosa y la frecuencia de los destellos de esta ultima varian con el indice de recuento, obteniendose asi una respuesta no lineal sin introducir la inercia de un circuito integrador. Los destellos 'secundarios' se registran sobre pelicula. Para impedir la perdida de datos debido a su registro en la region de saturacion de la curva de sensibilidad de la pe licu la, se utiliza una amplificacion de contraste moderada y la pelicula se examina en un circuito de television industrial. El autor subraya la necesidad de adaptar las condiciones de colimacion al problema clinico que haya de resolverse. En la memoria se examinan las aplicaciones clinicas de esta tecnica al estudio de enfermedades tiroideas, renales, hepaticas y oseas. (author) [Russian] Pri primenenii fotoscintillografii v klinike ogromnoe znachenie imejut kollimacija, u si l e nie kontrastnosti i nakoplenie dannyh. Dlja obnaruzhenija ogranichennyh uchastkov porazhenija v takih plotnyh organah, kak pechen' i mozg , byl razrabotan special'nyj 36-kanal'nyj mnogofokusnyj kollimator. Demonstrirujutsja izochuvstvitel'nye linii jet o go kollimator a . E go chuv stvitel'nost' malo m en ja et sja ot poverhnosti do glubiny, ravnoj naibol'shej tolshhine pecheni. Byl postr oen special'nyj usilitel' kontrastnosti: nebol'shaja ''pervichnaja'' lampa nakalivanija, soedinennaja cherez impul'snyj usilitel' na vyhode odnokanal'nogo an a l i za t or a upravlja etsja s pomoshh'ju za vi sim o go ot svetareostata (ZSR). Soprotovlenie 3 SR izmenja etsja v zavisimosti ot sk or o sti . Posledovatel'no po otnosheniju k ZSR s o edinena skennirujushhaja ''vtorichnaja'' lampa nakalivanija. Jarkost', a takzhe chastota vspyshek poslednej zavisit ot skorosti scheta i tem samym nelinejnaja chuvstviteltnost' dostigaetsja b e z vvedenija inercionnogo k on tura. ''Vtorichnye'' vspyshki re gi str i rujut sja na p lenk e. S cel'ju predotvrashhenija poteri informacii pri registracii v oblasti nasyshhenija krivoj chuv

  17. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  18. Modelling sustainable international tourism demand to the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Divino (Jose Angelo); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe Amazon rainforest is one of the world’s greatest natural wonders and holds great importance and significance for the world’s environmental balance. Around 60% of the Amazon rainforest is located in the Brazilian territory. The two biggest states of the Amazon region are Amazonas (the

  19. Quality control in radiotherapy: an assessment in the Brazilian Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, V.L.B.; Santos, C.D.A.; Rodrigues, K.R.G.; Melo, R.T.; Figueiredo, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of Fricke Xylenol Gel dosimeter (FXG) in Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares, and an study with this type of dosimeter in some hospitals of the Brazilian Northeast. It is demonstrated the applicability of the dosimeter for X-ray equipment and the values of the doses show the reality of the doses used in patients undergoing radiotherapy. (author)

  20. Brazilian energy balance 1999: calendar year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1983 to 1998; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  1. Brazilian energy balance 1995: calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1979 to 1994; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  2. Brazilian energy balance 1997: calendar year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1981 to 1996; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  3. Brazilian energy balance 2000: calendar year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1999. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1984 to 1999; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  4. Brazilian energy balance 1996: calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  5. Brazilian energy balance 1998: calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  6. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article......The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  7. Brazilian Cerrado soil Actinobacteria ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suela Silva, Monique; Naves Sales, Alenir; Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes, Karina; Ribeiro Dias, Disney; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah) soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora) and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry). The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  8. Brazilian Cerrado Soil Actinobacteria Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Suela Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry. The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  9. Satisfação dos usuários do sistema de saúde brasileiro: fatores associados e diferenças regionais User satisfaction in the Brazilian health system: associated factors and regional differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Campozana Gouveia

    2009-09-01

    strategies for the health sector. Objective: To evaluate regional variations related to the degree of user satisfaction with the Brazilian healthcare system, analyzing the results of the World Health Survey (WHS and World Health Survey Focusing on Primary Health Care (WHS-PHC. The evaluation was done, based on a cross-sectional study with a random sample. People over 18 years of age who used the health system in periods before data collection were included. There were 3,932 users of WHS and 591 of WHS-PHC that fit these criteria. A multivariate logistic model was applied using satisfaction as the dependent variable and as independent variables: sex, age, educational level, service payment type, marital status, self-perception of health, long-term illness, diagnosis of depression, sadness, number of residents per household, type of house building, geographical stratum, and household goods index. The results revealed that being young and an exclusive user of the public National Health System, having low schooling and poor self-perception of health increased the chances of lower user satisfaction. Residents of the Southern Region of the country were more satisfied with their healthcare, while in Pernambuco, chances of satisfaction were lower when evaluating the quality of health services. The residents of this state showed greater satisfaction in solving their health problems when inpatient care was needed.

  10. Brazilian readers and contextual reference Brazilian readers and contextual reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. O. Carioni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an experiment carried out using Brazilian university students at UFSC, the purpose being to check comprehension relationships between two types of contextual reference and two languages, Portuguese and English. A major stimulus for the research was the question: are Brazilian students' difficulties in reading English related more to English language difficulties or to difficulties in processing text in general?

  11. The complex network of the Brazilian Popular Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima e Silva, D.; Medeiros Soares, M.; Henriques, M. V. C.; Schivani Alves, M. T.; de Aguiar, S. G.; de Carvalho, T. P.; Corso, G.; Lucena, L. S.

    2004-02-01

    We study the Brazilian Popular Music in a network perspective. We call the Brazilian Popular Music Network, BPMN, the graph where the vertices are the song writers and the links are determined by the existence of at least a common singer. The linking degree distribution of such graph shows power law and exponential regions. The exponent of the power law is compatible with the values obtained by the evolving network algorithms seen in the literature. The average path length of the BPMN is similar to the correspondent random graph, its clustering coefficient, however, is significantly larger. These results indicate that the BPMN forms a small-world network.

  12. Measurement and control techniques for electric equipment development; Tecnicas de medicion y control para el desarrollo de equipos electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Neblina, Joaquin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    In broad outlines the measuring and control techniques that are used in the electric equipment development in the short circuit laboratories, are described. In this article the utilization criteria of the traditional and modern (analogical and digital) instruments are described as well as the tendency towards the system`s integration for the automation of the measurement and control processes. Also, mention is made of the systems currently being developed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) to be applied at the Short Circuit Laboratories of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and of the IIE. [Espanol] Se describen a grandes rasgos las tecnicas de medicion y control que se emplean para el desarrollo de equipos electricos en los laboratorios de corto circuito. En este articulo se describen los criterios de utilizacion de los instrumentos tradicionales y modernos (analogicos y digitales), asi como la tendencia hacia la integracion de sistemas para la automatizacion de los procesos de medicion y control. Tambien se mencionan los sistemas que actualmente se desarrollan en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) para aplicarlos en los Laboratorios de Corto Circuito de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y del Instituto.

  13. Measurement and control techniques for electric equipment development; Tecnicas de medicion y control para el desarrollo de equipos electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Neblina, Joaquin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    In broad outlines the measuring and control techniques that are used in the electric equipment development in the short circuit laboratories, are described. In this article the utilization criteria of the traditional and modern (analogical and digital) instruments are described as well as the tendency towards the system`s integration for the automation of the measurement and control processes. Also, mention is made of the systems currently being developed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) to be applied at the Short Circuit Laboratories of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and of the IIE. [Espanol] Se describen a grandes rasgos las tecnicas de medicion y control que se emplean para el desarrollo de equipos electricos en los laboratorios de corto circuito. En este articulo se describen los criterios de utilizacion de los instrumentos tradicionales y modernos (analogicos y digitales), asi como la tendencia hacia la integracion de sistemas para la automatizacion de los procesos de medicion y control. Tambien se mencionan los sistemas que actualmente se desarrollan en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) para aplicarlos en los Laboratorios de Corto Circuito de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y del Instituto.

  14. Organic Carbon Burial in Brazilian Mangrove Sediments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, C.; Smoak, J. M.; Sanders, L.; Patchineelam, S.

    2010-12-01

    This study reviews the organic carbon (OC) burial rates in mangrove forests, margins and mud flats in geographically distinct areas of the Brazilian coastline. We exam the burial rates, taking into account the geomorphology of each region. Our initial results indicate that the Northeastern region of Brazil is sequestering significantly more OC than in the Southeastern areas, being that the mass sediment accumulation rates remained consistent within the forests as opposed to large variations found in the mudflats. The other pertinent factor was OC content, which differed substantially in respect to region. Given that the mangrove forests of the Southeastern regions of Brazil may be more susceptible to a rising sea level, as these areas are constricted by vast mountain ranges, this work attempts to put in perspective the possible impacts of climate change on mangrove ecosystems and OC burial along the Brazilian coastal ocean. We also compare our result to global averages.

  15. Brazilian infectious diseases specialists: who and where are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Jones Flores Cassenote

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Our study shows that Brazilian infectious diseases specialists are predominantly young and female doctors. Most have concluded a medical residency training program. The absolute majority practice in the Southeastern region. However, some states from the Northern, Northeastern and Southeastern regions exhibit specialist rates above the national average. In these areas, nonetheless, there is a strong concentration of infectious diseases specialists in state capitals and in metropolitan areas.

  16. Ion nitriding post-oxidation as an alternative technique to electrolytic chromium; Nitruracion post-oxidacion ionica como tecnica alternativa al cromado electrolitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Guillen, J. C.; Granda-Gutierrez, E.E.; Campa-Castilla, A.; Perez-Aguilar, S.I.; Garza-Gomez, A.; Candelas-Ramirez, J.; Mendez-Mendez, R. [COMIMSA. Corporacion Mexicana de Investigacion en Materiales S.A. de C.V., Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)]. E-mail: jcarlos@comimsa.com

    2010-11-15

    The effect of temperature and processing time during post-oxidation on hardness and corrosion resistance of AISI 1045 samples treated through nitriding and post-oxidation in a pulsed plasma discharge is evaluated in this paper. Also, a comparative analysis of the mechanical properties obtained with the dual nitriding - post oxidation process versus those properties of typical hard chrome coatings was performed with an aim to propose an alternative technique to the processes of galvanic coatings. The latter revealed that the process of ion nitriding and post-oxidation provides similar properties in hardness and improves the corrosion resistance compared to the hard chrome case. It is conclude that the technique of ion nitriding and post-oxidation is a non environmental harmful technology with strong potential to replace highly polluting electroplating techniques for application of hard chrome coatings. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se evalua el efecto del tiempo y la temperatura de post-oxidacion sobre las propiedades de dureza y resistencia a la corrosion de muestras de acero AISI 1045 sometido al proceso de nitruracion post-oxidacion ionica en plasmas pulsados. Asi mismo, con el objetivo de fundamentar la propuesta de utilizacion de la nitruracion post-oxidacion ionica como una tecnica alternativa a los procesos galvanicos para aplicacion de recubrimientos de cromo duro, se realizo un analisis comparativo de propiedades, evidenciando que, mediante el proceso nitruracion postoxidacion ionica, es posible obtener caracteristicas similares en dureza y mejores en resistencia a la corrosion que las tipicas obtenidas para el cromo duro. Los resultados obtenidos permiten postular una tecnica que no dana al medio ambiente, como lo es la nitruracion post-oxidacion ionica, como candidata potencial para sustituir las tecnicas galvanicas altamente contaminantes para aplicacion de cromo duro.

  17. The Brazilian Pampa: A Fragile Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is one of the most fundamental properties of Nature. It underpins the stability of ecosystems, provides vast bioresources for economic use, and has important cultural significance for many people. The Pampa biome, located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, illustrates the direct and indirect interdependence of humans and biodiversity. The Brazilian Pampa lies within the South Temperate Zone where grasslands scattered with shrubs and trees are the dominant vegetation. The soil, originating from sedimentary rocks, often has an extremely sandy texture that makes them fragile—highly prone to water and wind erosion. Human activities have converted or degraded many areas of this biome. In this review we discuss our state-of-the-art knowledge of the diversity and the major biological features of this regions and the cultural factors that have shaped it. Our aim is to contribute toward a better understanding of the current status of this special biome and to describe how the interaction between human activities and environment affects the region, highlighting the fragility of the Brazilian Pampa.

  18. A high sensibility technique to detect the incipient defects in high tension bushings; Una tecnica de alta sensibilidad para detectar defectos incipientes en boquillas de alta tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles Pimentel, Edgar; Mestizo Rivera, Antolin; Romero Camberos, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this article a testing technique to locate incipient faults in transformer bushings is reported, specifically the one related to the internal disconnection of the capacitive tap, which is exemplified with a device having a problem of this kind. [Espanol] En el presente articulo se reporta una tecnica de prueba para localizar fallas incipientes en las boquillas de los transformadores, especificamente la relacionada con la desconexion interna del tap capacitivo, lo cual se ejemplifica con un dispositivo que padece un problema de ese tipo.

  19. A high sensibility technique to detect the incipient defects in high tension bushings; Una tecnica de alta sensibilidad para detectar defectos incipientes en boquillas de alta tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles Pimentel, Edgar; Mestizo Rivera, Antolin; Romero Camberos, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In this article a testing technique to locate incipient faults in transformer bushings is reported, specifically the one related to the internal disconnection of the capacitive tap, which is exemplified with a device having a problem of this kind. [Espanol] En el presente articulo se reporta una tecnica de prueba para localizar fallas incipientes en las boquillas de los transformadores, especificamente la relacionada con la desconexion interna del tap capacitivo, lo cual se ejemplifica con un dispositivo que padece un problema de ese tipo.

  20. Brazilian foreign affairs: social capital and the democratic discourse in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Duarte Villa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian elites as well as foreign policy-makers have long shared a common belief that the ideas of democracy and democratization should serve as some "road map" to foreign policy-making. In areas such as security, regional integration, and disarmament, the goal has been to generate a positive social capital as well as to build trusting relations with Brazilian neighbors in South America. Therefore, under the impact of ideas brought about by new world visions, Brazilian foreign policy has changed a domestic policy feature - the democratic rearrangement of the political system - into a condition and resource for foreign policy-making towards South America. The result has been a fine improvement of Brazilian image and credibility in the regional South American scenario. In other words, there has been a significant increment in "trust" towards Brazil. This argument has been developed based on extracts and transcripts from official diplomatic speeches from Brazilian foreign policy-makers as well as a historical reconstruction of Brazil's diplomatic relations with two South American countries. Our study was based on two cases: Brazilian-Venezuelan and Brazilian-Argentine relations in the 80's and the 90's.

  1. Who owns the Brazilian carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Flavio L M; Englund, Oskar; Sparovek, Gerd; Berndes, Göran; Guidotti, Vinicius; Pinto, Luís F G; Mörtberg, Ulla

    2018-05-01

    Brazil is one of the major contributors to land-use change emissions, mostly driven by agricultural expansion for food, feed, and bioenergy feedstock. Policies to avoid deforestation related to private commitments, economic incentives, and other support schemes are expected to improve the effectiveness of current command and control mechanisms increasingly. However, until recently, land tenure was unknown for much of the Brazilian territory, which has undermined the governance of native vegetation and challenged support and incentive mechanisms for avoiding deforestation. We assess the total extent of public governance mechanisms protecting aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks. We constructed a land tenure dataset for the entire nation and modeled the effects and uncertainties of major land-use acts on protecting AGC stocks. Roughly 70% of the AGC stock in Brazil is estimated to be under legal protection, and an additional 20% is expected to be protected after areas in the Amazon with currently undesignated land undergo a tenure regularization. About 30% of the AGC stock is on private land, of which roughly two-thirds are protected. The Cerrado, Amazon, and Caatinga biomes hold about 40%, 30%, and 20% of the unprotected AGC, respectively. Effective conservation of protected and unprotected carbon will depend on successful implementation of the Forest Act, and regularization of land tenure in the Amazon. Policy development that prioritizes unprotected AGC stocks is warranted to promote conservation of native vegetation beyond the legal requirements. However, different biomes and land tenure structures may require different policy settings considering local and regional specifics. Finally, the fate of current AGC stocks relies upon effective implementation of command and control mechanisms, considering that unprotected AGC in native vegetation on private land only accounts for 6.5% of the total AGC stock. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. VIII Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics (BMSP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, N. S.; Figueiredo, W.; Plascak, J. A.; Santos, M.

    2016-01-01

    This special issue includes invited and selected articles of the VIII Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics (BMSP), held in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, from 3rd to 8th August, 2015. This is the eighth such meeting, and the second one to have contributed papers published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series (the other was the VII BMSP). The previous meetings in the BMSP series took place in the mountains of Minas Gerais, in the region of the Brazilian Pantanal, and in the shores of Paraíba. Now, for the first time, the Meeting was held in Florianópolis, with its pleasing shores, the capital of Santa Catarina state. The VIII BMSP brought together about 50 researchers from all over the world for a vibrant and productive conference. As in the previous meetings, the talks and posters highlighted recent advances in applications, algorithms, and implementation of computer simulation methods for the study of condensed matter, materials, and out of equilibrium, quantum and biologically motivated systems. We are sure that this meeting series will continue to be an important occasion for people working in simulational physics to exchange ideas and discuss the state of the art of this always expanding field. We are very glad to put together this special issue, and are most appreciative of the efforts of the editors of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for making this publication possible. We are grateful for the outstanding work of the Florianopolis team, for the financial support of the Brazilian agencies CAPES and CNPq, and of the Federal Universities UFPB and UFSC. At last, but not least, we would like to acknowledge all of the authors for their written submissions. (paper)

  3. Brazilian research on extremophiles in the context of astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Nóbrega, Felipe; Nakayama, Cristina R.; Pellizari, Vivian H.

    2012-10-01

    Extremophiles are organisms adapted to grow at extreme ranges of environmental variables, such as high or low temperatures, acid or alkaline medium, high salt concentration, high pressures and so forth. Most extremophiles are micro-organisms that belong to the Archaea and Bacteria domains, and are widely spread across the world, which include the polar regions, volcanoes, deserts, deep oceanic sediments, hydrothermal vents, hypersaline lakes, acid and alkaline water bodies, and other extreme environments considered hostile to human life. Despite the tropical climate, Brazil has a wide range of ecosystems which include some permanent or seasonally extreme environments. For example, the Cerrado is a biome with very low soil pH with high Al+3 concentration, the mangroves in the Brazilian coast are anaerobic and saline, Pantanal has thousands of alkaline-saline lakes, the Caatinga arid and hot soils and the deep sea sediments in the Brazilian ocean shelf. These environments harbour extremophilic organisms that, coupled with the high natural biodiversity in Brazil, could be explored for different purposes. However, only a few projects in Brazil intended to study the extremophiles. In the frame of astrobiology, for example, these organisms could provide important models for defining the limits of life and hypothesize about life outside Earth. Brazilian microbiologists have, however, studied the extremophilic micro-organisms inhabiting non-Brazilian environments, such as the Antarctic continent. The experience and previous results obtained from the Brazilian Antarctic Program (PROANTAR) provide important results that are directly related to astrobiology. This article is a brief synopsis of the Brazilian experience in researching extremophiles, indicating the most important results related to astrobiology and some future perspectives in this area.

  4. Sports Injuries in Brazilian Blind Footballers

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, MPME; Morato, MP; Bilzon, JLJ; Duarte, E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes...

  5. Proceedings CORENDE: Regional congress on nondestructive and structural evaluation; Actas CORENDE: Congreso regional de ensayos no destructivos y estructurales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Works are presented at the CORENDE: Regional Congress on Nondestructive and Structural Evaluation organized by the National Atomic Energy Commission and the National Technological University (Mendoza). This congress wants to be the forum where people from research, industry and marketing might meet and discuss ideas towards the fostering of these new cultural habits. Papers covering all disciplines contributing to the evaluation of components, systems and structures are welcome: nondestructive evaluation methods and techniques (ultrasound, eddy currents and other electromagnetic methods, acoustic emission, radiography, thermography, leak testing, dye-penetrants, visual inspection, etc.), personnel certification, welding inspection, nondestructive metallography, optics and lasers, fluid-structure interaction, vibrations, extensometry, modelling of structures refs., ills. [Espanol] Se presentan trabajos de CORENDE: Congreso Regional de Ensayos no Destructivos y Estructurales organizado por la Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica y la Universidad Tecnologica Nacional (Mendoza). Este congreso se propone como un foro de discusion, donde, desde la investigacion hasta la produccion y comercializacion, se intercambien y discutan ideas que sirvan de guia para fomentar ese necesario cambio cultural. Los topicos de discusion incluyen a todas las disciplinas presentes en la evaluacion de componentes, sistemas y estructuras: tecnicas no destructivas (ultrasonido, corrientes inducidas, radiografia industrial, emision acustica, particulas magnetizables, termografia, liquidos penetrantes, ensayos de perdidas, inspeccion visual, etc.), certificacion de personal, inspeccion en soldaduras, replicas metalograficas, tecnicas opticas y laser, interaccion fluido-estructura, vibraciones, extensometria, modelado de estructuras

  6. Regionalização e dinâmica política do federalismo sanitário brasileiro Regionalización y dinámica política del federalismo sanitario brasileño Regionalization and political dynamics of Brazilian health federalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Araujo Dourado

    2011-02-01

    Intergestoras, para efectivar la construcción política consensual en la regionalización de la salud.The implications from the Brazilian federal structure on the regionalization of health actions and services in the National Unified Health System (SUS were analyzed, considering that the regional health planning in Brazil takes place within the context of intergovernmental relations as an expression of cooperative federalism in health. The analysis was based on a historical approach to Brazilian health federalism, recognizing two development periods, decentralization and regionalization. Regional health planning of SUS was explored in light of the theoretical framework of federalism. It is concluded that relative centralization of the process is needed in intergovernmental committees to actualize federal coordination and that it is essential to consider formalizing opportunities for dissent, both in regional management boards and in the intergovernmental committees, so that the consensus decision-making can be accomplished in healthcare regionalization.

  7. Technical Cooperation Report for 2005. Report by the Director General; Informe de Cooperacion Tecnica para 2005. Informe del Director General

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    identify how the changes in the structure of the Department and in the programming process will affect stakeholder satisfaction, the Department conducted surveys to establish a baseline for future assessments. The surveys targeted, inter alia, Member States, including National Liaison Officers, national coordinators, project counterparts and representatives at Missions in Vienna, and show that this grouping is satisfied overall with the programme. Financial indicators, including the value of the programme to be delivered, new resources, disbursements and new obligations for 2005 were all above 2004 levels. Extrabudgetary resources rose to a new record level of $14.9 million. Some $10.2 million of these resources were used to upgrade footnote-a/ projects or project components, providing funding for just under 25% of the approved footnote-a/ budgets. (author) [Spanish] En el Informe de cooperacion tecnica para 2005 se destacan las actividades y los logros del programa de cooperacion tecnica (CT) en el ultimo ano. En el documento tambien se exponen las novedades relacionadas con la gestion del programa y los asuntos financieros. La busqueda y el mantenimiento de asociados para el desarrollo siguio siendo una prioridad de la Secretaria. En 2005 la cooperacion con el Fondo para el Medio Ambiente Mundial del Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo prosiguio con un proyecto en Africa relacionado con la gestion del sistema de acuiferos de arenisca de Nubia. El programa de CT tambien esta desempenando una funcion importante en los programas financiados por conducto del Banco Mundial (proyecto del acuifero Guarani), el Banco Asiatico de Desarrollo (Iniciativa para un aire limpio en ciudades de Asia) y el Banco Africano de Desarrollo (proyecto de erradicacion de la mosca tsetse en la zona meridional del Valle del Rift, en Etiopia, y proyectos de lucha contra la mosca tsetse en otros paises). En las actividades del programa de CT durante 2005 se siguio prestando apoyo a los

  8. Genotype characterization of Haematobia irritans from different Brazilian geographic regions based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis Caracterização genotípica de Haematobia irritans procedentes de diferentes regiões geográficas brasileiras baseada na análise do DNA polimórfico amplificado ao acaso (RAPD-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana G. Brito

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood-sucking diptera are important parasites in bovine production systems, especially regarding confinement conditions. Haematobia irritans, the horn fly, is one of the most troublesome species within bovine production systems, due to the intense stress imposed to the animals. An important aspect while studying the variability within a species is the study of the geographic structure of its populations and, attempting to find out the genetic flow of Brazilian populations of horn fly, the RAPD technique, which is suited for this purpose, has been used. The use of molecular markers generated from RAPD made it possible to identify the geographic origin of samples from different Brazilian geographic regions, as well as to estimate the genotypic flow among the different Brazilian populations of the horn fly.Dípteras hematófagos são importantes parasitas dentro de sistemas de produção de bovinos, especialmente em confinamento. Haematobia irritans, a mosca-dos-chifres, é uma das espécies que maiores problemas causa em sistemas de produção de bovinos, dado ao intenso estresse que impõe aos animais. Um importante aspecto quando se estuda a variabilidade genética dentro das espécies é o estudo da estrutura geográfica destas populações. Buscando-se estimar a similaridade genotípica das diferentes populações brasileiras da mosca do chifre utilizou-se a técnica do DNA polimórfico amplificado ao acaso (RAPD-PCR, que mostrou-se eficiente para tal propósito. A utilização dos marcadores moleculares gerados através da técnica de RAPD-PCR tornou possível a identificação da origem geográfica das amostras das diferentes regiões geográficas brasileiras, assim como, estimar o fluxo genotípico entre as diferentes populações brasileiras da mosca-dos-chifres.

  9. Advantages of the synthetic technique for the conduction of short circuit tests to breakers; Ventajas de la tecnica sintetica para realizar pruebas de corto circuito a interruptores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibilski, Henry [Instituto Electrotecnico de Varsovia, Varsovia (Poland); Ochoa Vivanco, Ruben [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    In this article the operational principle of the synthetic test is described; specifically of the current injection circuit in parallel. Its utilization in the research and development of new breaker models and its wide possibilities regarding its testing characteristics is outlined. Likewise the different tests that can be performed by means of the synthetic technique are described. Finally the importance of the synthetic tests is outlined for the development of own technology in the area of interruption equipment and emphasis is made that in industrialized countries this technique is of common practice. [Espanol] En este articulo se describe el principio de operacion de la prueba sintetica; especificamente del circuito de inyeccion de corriente en paralelo. Se destaca su utilizacion en la investigacion y desarrollo de nuevos modelos de interruptores y sus amplias posibilidades en cuanto a caracteristicas de prueba. Asimismo, se describen las diferentes pruebas que pueden realizarse mediante la tecnica sintetica. Por ultimo, se destaca la importancia de las pruebas sinteticas para el desarrollo de tecnologia propia en el area de equipos de interrupcion, y se hace notar que en paises desarrollados, esta tecnica es practica comun.

  10. Advantages of the synthetic technique for the conduction of short circuit tests to breakers; Ventajas de la tecnica sintetica para realizar pruebas de corto circuito a interruptores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibilski, Henry [Instituto Electrotecnico de Varsovia, Varsovia (Poland); Ochoa Vivanco, Ruben [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    In this article the operational principle of the synthetic test is described; specifically of the current injection circuit in parallel. Its utilization in the research and development of new breaker models and its wide possibilities regarding its testing characteristics is outlined. Likewise the different tests that can be performed by means of the synthetic technique are described. Finally the importance of the synthetic tests is outlined for the development of own technology in the area of interruption equipment and emphasis is made that in industrialized countries this technique is of common practice. [Espanol] En este articulo se describe el principio de operacion de la prueba sintetica; especificamente del circuito de inyeccion de corriente en paralelo. Se destaca su utilizacion en la investigacion y desarrollo de nuevos modelos de interruptores y sus amplias posibilidades en cuanto a caracteristicas de prueba. Asimismo, se describen las diferentes pruebas que pueden realizarse mediante la tecnica sintetica. Por ultimo, se destaca la importancia de las pruebas sinteticas para el desarrollo de tecnologia propia en el area de equipos de interrupcion, y se hace notar que en paises desarrollados, esta tecnica es practica comun.

  11. Brazilian energy balance 2002: calendar year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    The Brazilian Energy Balance 2002, based on 2001 data, contains the information related to the supply and consumption of the primary and secondary energy sources, provided by data and information of responsible sectors. This version presents important differences in relation to the previous editions, new technical concepts were introduced for the treatment of calorific powers of energy sources in the composition and consolidation of data, and also in the structure of its contents. The Balance 2002 was structured in the same way of the last edition, divided in 8 chapters, as follows: summary of the relevant indicators of 2001 and consolidated data of production, consumption and external dependence on energy, and also the sectorial composition of the consumption of the different groups of energy sources - period 1970/2001; energy supply and demand by source - 1986/2001; energy consumption by sector - 1986/2001; energy foreign trading - 1986/2001; transformation centers balances - 1986/2001; energy resources and reserves - 1973/2001; energy and socio-economy - 1986/2001; regional parameters and appendices including: installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances - 1970/2001,in the 'kcal' unit, calculated in PCI- Inferior Calorific Power. This new model has the intention to approximate the Brazilian Energy Balance to the international methodologies, mainly to the OECD balances

  12. NASALIZATION IN BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE: AN AUTOSEGMENTAL (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Paiva Godinho COSTA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to make a brief review on nasalization phenomena studies in Portuguese, aiming the phonological process of nasal harmonization that occurs in the variety of Brazilian Portuguese spoken in Vitória da Conquista-BA and region, a phenomenon hitherto not described for any Portuguese dialect. To do so, we consider as fundamental, D’Angelis (2002 analysis, which incorporates relevant concepts presented by Trubetzkoy, from the Prague School, and some points of Camara Jr. propose. We also propose to update the discussion with the approaches along the lines of auto segmental phonology, incorporating some insights of Piggott (1992, discussing with other analyzes for nasalization phenomena in other languages, especially Guarani (language of Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family, as proposed by Costa (2010, which deals with the phonological processes involving nasality and nasal harmony in Brazilian indigenous languages , in order to verify if the researches on nasality phenomena in other languages can shed some light on the processes that occur in Portuguese.

  13. Brazilian and Cape Verdian literatures for Afro-Brazilian learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Sueli Rosa Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to examine the dialogue between the literary produc-tions from Brazil and Cape Verde from the point of view of the role and representation of orality (Creole / Brazilian Portuguese, colonial and post-colonial perspectives and their cultural and ethnic specificities.---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21881/abriluff.2016n17a385

  14. Systematic review on obesity in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Miranda Tassitano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to systematically review the Brazilian literature on the prevalence of obesity and associated factors in adolescents. The literature search was carried out in the electronic databases Pubmed and Bireme, using the keywords: obesity, overweight, BMI, adolescents and Brazil. The following inclusion criteria were considered: Brazilian adolescents, BMI-based obesity estimates, publication until 2007, and adequate methodology. After the examination of titles, abstracts and full texts, 27 papers fulfilled our inclusion criteria. For describing the studies, the following variables were used: type of survey, design, age range, sample size, place of data collection. For evaluating the evidence, the following indicators were used: methods used, independent variables studied, statistical analyses employed, and cut-off used for defining obesity. Most studies used cross-sectional designs (77.7% and were carried out through home interviews (51.7%. Only one study used a nationally-based sample and three used regional-based samples (Northeast and Southeast. Regardless the design, place, type of survey, age range and cut-off used, the prevalence of obesity tended to be higher in the following groups: adolescents living in the Southeast region, living in urban areas, from high socioeconomic level and from private schools. In terms of behavioral determinants of obesity, the paucity of prospective studies and the difficulties of adequately measuring physical activity and food consumption, make the results less clear. Although the number of studies has increased, it is still necessary to stimulate surveys in the North, Southeast and Mideast regions. Prospective studies are also necessary, in order to evaluate the association between obesity and behavioral exposures.

  15. Systematic review on obesity in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Miranda Tassitano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n4p449 The purpose of this study was to systematically review the Brazilian literature on the prevalence of obesity and associated factors in adolescents. The literature search was carried out in the electronic databases Pubmed and Bireme, using the keywords: obesity, overweight, BMI, adolescents and Brazil. The following inclusion criteria were considered: Brazilian adolescents, BMI-based obesity estimates, publication until 2007, and adequate methodology. After the examination of titles, abstracts and full texts, 27 papers fulfilled our inclusion criteria. For describing the studies, the following variables were used: type of survey, design, age range, sample size, place of data collection. For evaluating the evidence, the following indicators were used: methods used, independent variables studied, statistical analyses employed, and cut-off used for defining obesity. Most studies used cross-sectional designs (77.7% and were carried out through home interviews (51.7%. Only one study used a nationally-based sample and three used regional-based samples (Northeast and Southeast. Regardless the design, place, type of survey, age range and cut-off used, the prevalence of obesity tended to be higher in the following groups: adolescents living in the Southeast region, living in urban areas, from high socioeconomic level and from private schools. In terms of behavioral determinants of obesity, the paucity of prospective studies and the difficulties of adequately measuring physical activity and food consumption, make the results less clear. Although the number of studies has increased, it is still necessary to stimulate surveys in the North, Southeast and Mideast regions. Prospective studies are also necessary, in order to evaluate the association between obesity and behavioral exposures.

  16. Evaluating fire danger in Brazilian biomes: present and future patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia; Bastos, Ana; DaCamara, Carlos; Libonati, Renata

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is expected to have a significant impact on fire occurrence and activity, particularly in Brazil, a region known to be fire-prone [1]. The Brazilian savanna, commonly referred to as cerrado, is a fire-adapted biome covering more than 20% of the country's total area. It presents the highest numbers of fire events, making it particularly susceptible to changes in climate. It is thus essential to understand the present fire regimes in Brazilian biomes, in order to better evaluate future patterns. The CPTEC/INPE, the Brazilian Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Research at the Brazilian National Institute of Space Research developed a fire danger index based on the occurrence of hundreds of thousands of fire events in the main Brazilian biomes [2]: the Meteorological Fire Danger Index (MFDI). This index indicates the predisposition of vegetation to be burned on a given day, for given climate conditions preceding that day. It relies on daily values of air temperature, relative humidity, accumulated precipitation and vegetation cover. In this study we aim to access the capability of the MFDI to accurately replicate present fire conditions for different biomes, with a special focus on cerrado. To this end, we assess the link between the MFDI as calculated by three different reanalysis (ERA-Interim, NCEP/DOE Reanalysis 2 and MERRA-2) and the observed burned area. We further calculate the validated MFDI using a regional climate model, the RCA4 as forced by EC-Earth from CORDEX, to understand the ability of the model to characterize present fire danger. Finally, the need to calibrate the model to better characterize future fire danger was also evaluated. This work was developed within the framework of the Brazilian Fire-Land-Atmosphere System (BrFLAS) Project financed by the Portuguese and Brazilian science foundations, FCT and FAPESP (project references FAPESP/1389/2014 and 2014/20042-2). [1] KRAWCHUK, M.A.; MORITZ, M.A.; PARISIEN, M.A.; VAN DORN, J

  17. Integrating Ecosystem Management, Protected Areas, and Mammal Conservation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Azevedo-Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon forest has been converted to a matrix of pristine and modified habitats. Landscape-scale biodiversity conservation requires an understanding of species' distributions over this matrix to guarantee both effective protection and use for present and future generations. In this study, we evaluated how much of the existing and future planned protected areas (PAs would be contributing to the conservation of Brazilian Amazon mammals (N = 399, including threatened species (N = 51. Currently, almost 37% of Brazilian Amazon is protected and that may increase to 46% if planned PAs are implemented. In the current PA system, 22% are indigenous land and 11% are sustainable use units, e.g., production forests. Only one-fifth of the whole range of mammal species occurring in Brazilian Amazon is actually protected by Brazilian PAs. However, considering only the part of the ranges within the Brazilian Amazon, and therefore under the scope of Brazilian actions, Brazilian PAs assume an important role in the protection of 39% of mammal distribution ranges, particularly the threatened species (39%. These results suggest that an integrated network of protected areas among Amazon countries would be necessary to increase their efficiency in mammal conservation. The need for strengthening of the forest sector and good management practices in Brazil appears critical for the maintenance of large extents of forest and species conservation. Under such a scenario, the contribution of developed nations and international agencies must assume an important role for the maintenance and enlargement of the protected area network in Amazon region.

  18. STANDARDIZED TERMINOLOGY OF ADULT SPINE DEFORMITY FOR BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael de Rezende Pratali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To develop a consensus for translation of the most relevant terms used in the study of Adult Spinal Deformity, from their original languages into Brazilian Portuguese. Methods : A panel of 12 experts in spine surgery from the five Brazilian regions was constituted. To obtain the standardization of terminology, the Delphi method with an electronic questionnaire was administered to participants about their opinion on the translation of 13 relevant terms chosen by literature review. Each term was considered standard when there was consensus, that is, concordance higher than 80% among participants as to the suggestion to be adopted, and then on the acceptance of the term and its abbreviation in Portuguese. Results : Initially there was consensus (over 80% concordance on the translation of seven terms in the electronic questionnaire. The other six terms that have not reached consensus were discussed at a meeting among the participants, relying on the opinion of a specialized professional in simultaneous translation of orthopedic terms in Portuguese and other professional majored in Portuguese language. It was decided how these terms should be translated and there was a consensus among all participants regarding their acceptance. Finally, there was consensus among the participants, who agreed with the translation and abbreviation of the 13 propose terms, defining its standardization for Brazilian Portuguese. Conclusion : We present a standard terminology used in the study of Adult Spinal Deformity through consensus among experts, seeking uniformity in the use of these terms in Brazilian Portuguese.

  19. Climatically-mediated landcover change: impacts on Brazilian territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINA ZANIN

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the face of climate change threats, governments are drawing attention to policies for mitigating its effects on biodiversity. However, the lack of distribution data makes predictions at species level a difficult task, mainly in regions of higher biodiversity. To overcome this problem, we use native landcover as a surrogate biodiversity, because it can represent specialized habitat for species, and investigate the effects of future climate change on Brazilian biomes. We characterize the climatic niches of native landcover and use ecological niche modeling to predict the potential distribution under current and future climate scenarios. Our results highlight expansion of the distribution of open vegetation and the contraction of closed forests. Drier Brazilian biomes, like Caatinga and Cerrado, are predicted to expand their distributions, being the most resistant to climate change impacts. However, these would also be affected by losses of their closed forest enclaves and their habitat-specific or endemic species. Replacement by open vegetation and overall reductions are a considerable risk for closed forest, threatening Amazon and Atlantic forest biomes. Here, we evidence the impacts of climate change on Brazilian biomes, and draw attention to the necessity for management and attenuation plans to guarantee the future of Brazilian biodiversity.

  20. Climatically-mediated landcover change: impacts on Brazilian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Marina; Tessarolo, Geiziane; Machado, Nathália; Albernaz, Ana Luisa M

    2017-01-01

    In the face of climate change threats, governments are drawing attention to policies for mitigating its effects on biodiversity. However, the lack of distribution data makes predictions at species level a difficult task, mainly in regions of higher biodiversity. To overcome this problem, we use native landcover as a surrogate biodiversity, because it can represent specialized habitat for species, and investigate the effects of future climate change on Brazilian biomes. We characterize the climatic niches of native landcover and use ecological niche modeling to predict the potential distribution under current and future climate scenarios. Our results highlight expansion of the distribution of open vegetation and the contraction of closed forests. Drier Brazilian biomes, like Caatinga and Cerrado, are predicted to expand their distributions, being the most resistant to climate change impacts. However, these would also be affected by losses of their closed forest enclaves and their habitat-specific or endemic species. Replacement by open vegetation and overall reductions are a considerable risk for closed forest, threatening Amazon and Atlantic forest biomes. Here, we evidence the impacts of climate change on Brazilian biomes, and draw attention to the necessity for management and attenuation plans to guarantee the future of Brazilian biodiversity.

  1. Brazilian human resources in a polarized Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Fátima Rosa Veloso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of human resource strategies employed by Brazilian companies in a polarized region of Latin America. Firstly, we highlighted the concerns of Brazilian managers in respect to the coming years, and to identify the current strategic approach of prominent companies in the Brazilian market. Secondly, we identified possible strategies for internationalization, particularly in the context of Latin America. The results of two surveys were used: one prospecting management trends by 2015 and another consisting of a sample of 541 companies that participate in a national survey in which HR managers answered a questionnaire. Among the results, it is noteworthy that the main issues of concern for Brazilian managers in the coming years. We found most the companies concerned with these challenges in the industries of information technology, iron and steel, and health services. Forty-nine of a total of 541 companies intend to internationalize, 17 of them towards Latin American. Their profile characterization allowed us to divide them into two groups: those focusing on the local needs of Latin American, and those looking to meet the expanding needs of Brazil or the country of their parent company.

  2. Trace elements in brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Geraldo Cesar

    1995-01-01

    A literature revision on trace elements (Zn, B, Mn, Mo, Cu, Fe, and Cl) in Brazilian soils was prepared, with special attention to the chemical form and range in the soil, extraction methods and correlation of the amount in soils with soil properties

  3. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  4. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi Furtado, Andre; Gaya Scandiffio, Mirna Ivonne; Barbosa Cortez, Luis Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: → The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. → Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. → Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. → Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  5. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  6. An assessment of Brazilian conservation units – a second look

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond, José Augusto Leitão

    2012-01-01

    This is a second overview of the Brazilian conservation unit system for mid-2010. It updates author et al, 2009. It examines six dimensions of federal and state protected areas – age, numbers, types of units, absolute and average sizes, distribution by states and biomes, and degree of compliance with CBD-inspired goals. Major findings: (i) the system maintained a rapid growth rate; (ii) national parks and national forests are the most prominent units; (iii) distribution of units by region and...

  7. Calha Norte: Explaining Brazilian Army Presence in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    the Yanomami Indians.""’ The potential wealth present in the Calha Norte region has been estimated at over US$134 billion, enough to repay almost all...garimpeiros to remain on Yanomami land was essentially a military decision. The Army’s pro-miner position was highlighted by official statements made by the...Environmental Policy and Military Geopolitics in the Development of the Brazilian Amazon: The Case of the Yanomami ," Development and Change (1992

  8. Brazilian energy balance 2004: calendar year 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 2003. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1970 to 2003; energy supply and demand by source, from 1988 to 2003; energy consumption by sector from 1988 to 2003; energy foreign trading also from 1988 to 2003; transformation centers balances in the same period; energy resources and reserves from 1973 to 2003; energy and socio-economy from 1988 to 2003; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances. It also presents analytical texts on the main energy numbers for 2003 and also energy evolution in Brazil and energy expansion all over the world

  9. Progress toward Brazilian cesium fountain second generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Caio; Rodriguez Salas, Andrés; Torres Müller, Stella; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Varela Magalhães, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    The operation of a Cesium fountain primary frequency standard is strongly influenced by the characteristics of two important subsystems. The first is a stable frequency reference and the second is the frequency-transfer system. A stable standard frequency reference is key factor for experiments that require high accuracy and precision. The frequency stability of this reference has a significant impact on the procedures for evaluating certain systematic biases in frequency standards. This paper presents the second generation of the Brazilian Cesium Fountain (Br-CsF) through the opto-mechanical assembly and vacuum chamber to trap atoms. We used a squared section glass profile to build the region where the atoms are trapped and colled by magneto-optical technique. The opto-mechanical system was reduced to increase stability and robustness. This newest Atomic Fountain is essential to contribute with time and frequency development in metrology systems.

  10. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Chigres Kuschnir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA. The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9, being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0 when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2 in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7 when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4. It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1, and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7. The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5, and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1; higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2, and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3. It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8, and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9. We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in

  11. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  12. Heterogeneity of proteins expressed by Brazilian Sporothrix schenckii isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Do Amaral, Cristiane Candida; Sasaki, Alexandre; Godoy, Patrício Martinez; De Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2009-12-01

    The profiles of proteins present in the exoantigens of Brazilian Sporothrix schenckii isolates were studied and compared by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Thirteen isolates from five different regions of Brazil (1,000 to 2,000 km apart) and ten from a more limited region (200 to 400 km apart within the state of São Paulo) were cultured in Sabouraud, M199 and minimum (MM) media. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the expression of proteins, which varied according to the medium and the isolate, were observed. Fractions with the same MW but varying in intensity were detected, as well as fractions present in 1 isolate but absent in others. Dendrograms were constructed and isolates grouped based on the fractions obtained, irrespective of the intensity. The results showed that Brazilian S. schenckii isolates express different protein profiles, a feature also present in isolates from a more restricted region. The exoantigens were found to have a maximum of 15 protein fractions, ranging in MW from 19-220 KDaltons depending on the medium used for the cultures. These data show the great heterogeneity of Brazilian S. schenckii protein expression.

  13. Pharmacogenomic diversity among Brazilians: Influence of ancestry, self-reported Color and geographical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available By virtue of being the product of the genetic admixture of three ancestral roots: Europeans, Africans and Amerindians, the present day Brazilian population displays very high levels of genomic diversity, which have important pharmacogenetic/-genomic (PGx implications. Recognition of this fact has prompted the creation of the Brazilian Pharmacogenomics Network (Refargen, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population heath impact. Here, we present original data and review published results from a Refargen comprehensive study of the distribution of PGx polymorphisms in a representative cohort of the Brazilian people, comprising 1,034 healthy, unrelated adults, self-identified as white, brown or black, according to the Color categories adopted by the Brazilian Census. Multinomial log-linear regression analysis was applied to infer the statistical association between allele, genotype and haplotype distributions among Brazilians (response variables and self-reported Color, geographical region and biogeographical ancestry (explanatory variables, whereas Wright´s FST statistics was used to assess the extent of PGx divergence among different strata of the Brazilian population. Major PGx implications of these findings are: first, extrapolation of data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in several pharmacogenes of clinical relevance (e.g. ABCB1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, VKORC varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/Color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts.

  14. Mouldroom techniques for teletherapy; Tecnicas de cuarto de moldes para teleterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-14

    Mould room techniques are necessary to get the best from teletherapy treatment. They are directed at: Ensuring that the part of the patient being treated remains in the same position from start to end of a fraction of radiotherapy. Ensuring that the fields, as originally imaged and planned, can be accurately reproduced for each fraction. Ensuring that, if more than one planned volume is treated, these volumes maintain a constant, reproducible relationship to each other. Deriving contours for planning teletherapy. Facilitating accuracy of setting up individual fields with respect to position on the patient and treatment unit. Fabricating and mounting blocks or shields within any field that will adequately and reproducibly shield healthy tissue or sensitive organs. Fabricating and mounting compensators and bolus material within any field that will adequately and reproducibly modify the beam as required. Immobilisation is approached initially by assessing an anatomical region, the disease and the favoured treatment machine. The versatility of each technique to accomplish immobilisation for various purposes is addressed. Immobilisation is most commonly used in the head and neck region for the treatment of cancers of the oral and nasal passages and the treatment of brain tumours. As this part of the anatomy is very flexible, the immobilisation device must not only ensure that the head is kept in a symmetrical position, but also that the degree of flexion or extension of the neck (needed for treating a pituitary as opposed to a larynx) is maintained. Sensitive structures in that region are predominantly the eyes and spinal cord but on occasions a parotid salivary gland or part of the brain may require limitation of the dose. This may be achieved by planning the teletherapy beams with shielding blocks within selected fields.

  15. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Moura Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA. Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR. A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years. Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended ( 50.0%. Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar.

  16. The Brazilian emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Raul dos

    1997-01-01

    With the objective of improving the response actions to potential or real emergency situations generated by radiological or nuclear accidents, the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) installed an integrated response system on a 24 hours basis. All the natiowide notifications on events that may start an emergency situation are converged to this system. Established since July 1990, this system has received around 300 notifications in which 5% were classified as potential emergency situation. (author)

  17. Tribes and chiefdoms: An analytical study of some Brazilian ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabino, C.V.S.; Prous, A.P.; Wuest, I.; Guapindaia, V.

    2003-01-01

    There is no evidence of urban civilization in Brazilian prehistory; most inhabitants lived in tribal organizations, probably with regional economic integration among several independent tribes. There is little evidence of seasonal migrations between the coastal and inland areas of southern Brazil. Some specialized horticulturists competed among themselves but other groups lived more in isolation, and probably peacefully, in the upper interfluvial regions.The chiefdom system is supposed to have existed only along the river Amazon. In this region, some pottery makers may have been specialized craftsmen, and the finest ceramics that could have been exported from one village or region to another can be found. Outside this region, pottery was generally plain, except the tupiguarani, which was partly decorated. In this study some limited possibilities were tested, in three different cultural and regional contexts, to find out if the application of chemical analysis to economically and politically 'simple' societies can produce any results of additional archaeological relevance. (author)

  18. Organic carbon accumulation in Brazilian mangal sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Sanders, Luciana M.; Sathy Naidu, A.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.

    2010-12-01

    This study reviews the organic carbon (OC) accumulation rates in mangrove forests, margins and intertidal mudflats in geographically distinct areas along the Brazilian coastline (Northeastern to Southern). Our initial results indicate that the mangrove forests in the Northeastern region of Brazil are accumulating more OC (353 g/m 2/y) than in the Southeastern areas (192 g/m 2/y) being that the sediment accumulation rates, 2.8 and 2.5 mm/y, and OC content ˜7.1% and ˜5.8% (dry sediment weight) were contributing factors to the discrepancies between the forests. The intertidal mudflats on the other hand showed substantially greater OC accumulation rates, sedimentation rates and content 1129 g/m 2/y and 234 g/m 2/y; 7.3 and 3.4 mm/y; 10.3% and ˜2.7% (OC of dry sediment weight content), respectively, in the Northeastern compared to the Southeastern region. Mangrove forests in the South-Southeastern regions of Brazil may be more susceptible to the rising sea level, as they are geographically constricted by the vast mountain ranges along the coastline.

  19. Efficiency Determinants in Brazilian Football Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Machado de Freitas; Rafael Araújo Sousa Farias; Leonardo Flach

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of Brazilian football clubs in generating revenues and the reasons behind it. To achieve this goal, we applied quantitative methods including Data Envelopment Analysis and Tobit regression modeling to data on the best clubs from 2012 to 2014, according to the Brazilian Football Confederation ranking. The results allowed for the inference that the largest Brazilian clubs, such as Grêmio (RS), Palmeiras (SP) and Vasco (RJ), were not efficie...

  20. Chinese Competition and Brazilian Exports of Manufactures

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rhys

    2014-01-01

    In recent years concerns have been raised over the impact of Chinese competition on Latin American exports, particularly those from Mexico. This article shows that Brazilian manufactured exports too have been negatively affected, and that this has been reflected in the “primarization” of Brazilian exports and a declining share in the import markets of its major customers. A variety of different indicators were used to analyse the extent to which Brazilian exports have faced competition from C...

  1. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  2. A regionalização intramunicipal do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS: um estudo de caso do município de São Paulo-SP, Brasil The intramunicipal regionalization of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS: a case study in the city of São Paulo (SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Spedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A regionalização tem sido apontada como um dos principais desafios para viabilizar a equidade e a integralidade do SUS. Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar o processo de implementação de um projeto de organização de regiões de saúde no município de São Paulo. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo de caso em uma região selecionada desse município, a partir do referencial da análise de implantação, utilizando-se como fonte de dados documentos da gestão e entrevistas semiestruturadas com informantes-chave da gestão municipal 2005-2008. A análise temática evidenciou que o projeto de regionalização idealizado no início da gestão não foi efetivamente implementado. Dentre os fatores que interferiram nesse insucesso, destacam-se: a a Secretaria Municipal de Saúde (SMS, além de seu caráter centralizador, manteve estruturas político-administrativas independentes para a gestão da atenção básica e da assistência hospitalar; b a SMS não assumiu a gestão, de fato, de ambulatórios e hospitais estaduais; c o poder institucional e a resistência dos hospitais em se integrar ao sistema de saúde. Discute-se, ainda, a necessidade de avançar na descentralização intramunicipal do SUS e buscar novas estratégias para a construção de pactos que consigam superar as resistências e articular instituições historicamente consolidadas, visando uma regionalização cooperativa e solidária.Regionalization has been pointed out as one of the most important challenges concerning the achievement of integrality and equity in the Brazilian National Health System (SUS. This study aims to evaluate the implementation process of a regional health project in the city of São Paulo. A case study was carried out in a selected region in the city based on the implementation assessment methodology. The data sources were management reports and interviews with key informants, and the period of analysis was 2005-2008. The thematic analysis showed

  3. Laser induced spectroscopy breakdown (LIBS) application to heavy metal detection in soils; Applicazioni della tecnica Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) alla determinazione dei metalli pesanti nei suoli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbini, R.; Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S.; Colao, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Div. Fisica Applicata; Capitelli, F. [Bari, Univ., Bari (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia e Chimica Agroforestale ed Ambientale

    2000-07-01

    and the sample upon which the analytic use of LIBS technique relays. RSD % (Relative Standard Deviation) for LIBS and ICP data have been compared. LIBS values appeared systematically higher than the ICP ones. Also the correlation coefficients, calculated as the ratio between certified value and experimental one, both for LIBS and ICP, were considerably less close to one for LIBS than for ICP. In order to minimize the matrix effect, a model for correcting LIBS data by taking into account the plasma temperature experimentally determined both in the unknown and in the standard sample was introduced. Preliminary results showed a considerable improvement in the correlation coefficients for corrected LIBS data. Once the model validity is proven for different elements used in the plasma temperature determination, which is possible once known all the parameters of Boltzmann equation for experimental intensity spectral line, it is quite general and can be applied on all the samples and for all the elements. [Italian] Il LIBS (Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy) e' una tecnica spettroscopica sperimentale che trova applicazione nell'analisi di campioni di interesse ambientale, quali suoli e rocce, ed industriali, come leghe metalliche. In questo rapporto sono presentati i risultati dell'applicazione della tecnica a campioni eterogenei di suoli certificati dal Joint Research Centre di Ispra (Varese) per la valutazione delle concentrazioni di metalli pesanti di interesse agronomico (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). Nella tecnica LIBS, un impulso laser d'alta potenza e' focalizzato sul campione in modo da provocare sulla superficie dello stesso un piccolo volume di plasma. Le emissioni delle singole specie atomiche sono raccolte da fibra ottica e analizzate da un monocromatore e da un analizzatore ottico (iCCD). Il riconoscimento e l'assegnazione delle emissioni spettrali corrispondenti ai singoli elementi atomici permette di riconoscere la

  4. [Brazilian medical literature about the white plague: 1870-1940].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, D S

    2001-01-01

    The Darwinian theories compound the paradigm adopted by the physicians in Southern United States, when they turned to the subject of the differences in morbidity and mortality among the races after abolition. These physicians engaged in thoughts about the health crisis that assaulted the African-American population on that region. The Brazilian physicians, on the other hand, would not try to understand or explain the health crisis that overtook the population descended from Africans on their country. Actually, not a single Brazilian medical journal, since the end of abolition to the 1930s, published an article where a physician indicated the morbidity and mortality of his negro patients, or of negroes in general, as caused by any source related to the racial paradigm. The psychiatrists and eugenicist doctors were exceptions.

  5. Genetic relatedness among wild, domestic and Brazilian fighting roosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FP Rodrigues

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Except for the meat- and egg-type strains used in commercial poultry farms in Brazil, there are no scientific reports about the origin of birds from the genus Gallus that have been introduced in this country with domestication or fighting purposes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the position of the Brazilian Game Bird in the phylogenetic tree of the genus Gallus by nucleotide sequence analysis of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region. The results indicate that fighting roosters comprise two different clusters within the species Gallus gallus domesticus. One of the clusters is related to the wild ancestors, while the other one is more related to the birds raised by the poultry industry. In conclusion, Brazilian fighting roosters have originated from the red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus and belong to the subspecies Gallus gallus domesticus.

  6. Regional Analysis of Precipitation by Means of Bivariate Distribution Adjusted by Maximum Entropy; Analisis regional de precipitacion con base en una distribucion bivariada ajustada por maxima entropia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escalante Sandoval, Carlos A.; Dominguez Esquivel, Jose Y. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-09-01

    The principle of maximum entropy (POME) is used to derive an alternative method of parameter estimation for the bivariate Gumbel distribution. A simple algorithm for this parameter estimation technique is presented. This method is applied to analyze the precipitation in a region of Mexico. Design events are compered with those obtained by the maximum likelihood procedure. According to the results, the proposed technique is a suitable option to be considered when performing frequency analysis of precipitation with small samples. [Spanish] El principio de maxima entropia, conocido como POME, es utilizado para derivar un procedimiento alternativo de estimacion de parametros de la distribucion bivariada de valores extremos con marginales Gumbel. El modelo se aplica al analisis de la precipitacion maxima en 24 horas en una region de Mexico y los eventos de diseno obtenidos son comparados con los proporcionados por la tecnica de maxima verosimilitud. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, se concluye que la tecnica propuesta representa una buena opcion, sobre todo para el caso de muestras pequenas.

  7. The Brazilian nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, J.M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Developing an energy policy for a country the size of Brazil is a formidable task. Large differences between the regions in geography and economic development do not allow for a uniform plan. In the mid 1970s, Brazil started a nuclear energy programme to provide it with another option in its energy planning. The objective of the programme was gradually to build a technical and industrial base for nuclear power in the country, so that it would be available when it was needed. It was recognized that it would not be easy for a developing country to acquire the necessary high technology. The organization of the industry is outlined, demand projections are presented and domestic supplies of uranium assessed. (author)

  8. The Role of the Submarine Channel Pernambuco in the Brazilian Continental Margin East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L.; Villena, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian Continental Margin, which coastline measures more than 8,500km gives to Brazil continental dimensions. This huge region is conditioned by the action of process such as, sedimentals, tectonics, geomorphological and climatical, as example, which direct or in conjunction with other ones, since of continental break up between South America and Africa are going on and may be responsible for the current morphology of the margin. In accordance with this point of view, the Oriental part of the Brazilian Continental Margin, presents characteristics of a passive margin and fisiographically ''starved'', in which the continental break occur no more than 100km from de coastline and the sedimentary coverage is mainly carbonatic. The continental slope does not present great extension if compared with other parts of the Brazilian Margin and sharp gradient. The remark presence of the continental plateaus (Rio Grande Plateau and Pernambuco Plateau), which link with the continental rise and additionally the Paraiba, Pernambuco e Bahia seamounts, are the majors features in the morphology of the region between the slope and the continental rise. This paper will concentrate its focus on Bahia Seamount, with emphasis in the mainly erosive feature which cut transversally the seamounts, named Pernambuco Submarine Channel. It will be employed bathymetric multibeam and seismic data carried out by the Brazilian Continental Shelf Project (LEPLAC) in the current year and pieces of information from bibliographic researches in order to present a discussion by the hole of the Pernambuco Submarine Channel in the Occidental region of the Brazilian Continental Margin

  9. Brazilian Soil Science Society: brief history, achievements and challenges for the near future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Oliveira Camargo, Flávio A.; Bezerra de Oliveira, Luiz; Signorelli de Farias, Gonçalo

    2013-04-01

    The Brazilian Soil Science Society (SBCS) is one of the oldest scientific societies in Brazil. It was created in October 1947 during the 1st Brazilian Meeting of Soil Science held at the headquarters of the Agricultural Chemistry Institute of Rio de Janeiro, at present the Soils Institute of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Centre. Its origin lies within the Interamerican Conference of Agriculture, Caracas, 1945, the 2nd Pan American Congress of Mining and Geology, Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro, 1946 and the 5th Brazilian Congress of Chemistry, Porto Alegre, 1947. Its first president was Álvaro Barcelos Fagundes, who was the only Brazilian participant at the 1st International Congress of Soil Science and Transcontinental Excursion held in United States of America, in 1927. At that time he was engaged in research work at the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, at the Rutgers University where he did a doctorate under the guidance of Professor Selman Waksman. The society started with 47 members and presently has nearly 900 members. In its first phase the Brazilian Soil Science Society was housed at the Agricultural Chemistry Institute in Rio de Janeiro and its main activity was the biannual Brazilian Congress of Soil Science. In 1975 its headquarters moved to the Agronomic Institute of Campinas with the creation of its executive board and the start of publication of the Brazilian Journal of Soil Science (1977) as well as the society bulletin (1976). In 1997 its executive office moved to the Soils Department at the Federal University of Viçosa. Nowadays it has a structure similar to the one from the IUSS: the society is organized in four divisions (Soil in space and time, Soils properties and processes, Soil use and management and Soil, environment and society) which encompass 14 technical commissions and eight State or Regional nuclei. The Brazilian Congresses of Soil Science happen without interruption since 1947. The first one had had 72 participants that

  10. Competitiveness in the Brazilian oil industry. The Brazilian 'oil diamond'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamith, R.; Moutinho Dos Santos, E.

    2000-01-01

    It is recognized the economic benefits that might follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which shall experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private investors. However, we should not neglect the broader impact of this process on the future development of all that cluster of national agents that lived around and served the former national oil monopoly, managed by the Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras. This work focuses on this larger perspective, discussing about the capacity of Brazil to sustain and expand its competitiveness in the oil business as well as to obtain the maximum economic development from the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. We adopt the work of Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, about the Competitive Advantage of Nations, as a theoretical model to analyze the Competitive Advantage of Brazil in the global oil industry. By introducing the concept of ''oil diamond'', adapted from the notion introduced by this author, we develop a new understanding of national competitiveness in the oil sector. In this paper, we present the general model as well as a brief characterization of the results found for Brazil Subsequently, we focus on just one leg of the model, for which we discuss, with more detail, about the competitive condition of the country in the opening-up scenario. This leg regards the so-called supporting and supplementary industries that constitute what is denominated in the French tradition the ''para petroleum'' industry. We analyze the conditions for the Brazilian domestic ''para petroleum industry'' to survive and grow in the new competitive environment. (authors)

  11. Heat transfer coefficients obtainment by means of naphthalene sublimation in air; Obtencion de coeficientes de transferencia de calor por medio de la tecnica de sublimacion de naftalina en aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Galindo, Jose Arturo; Garcia Gutierrez, Alonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    This work describes the experimental technique for the sublimation of naphthalene in air which measures heat transfer coefficients through the use of the analogy between the transference phenomena of heat and mass. The technique used to substitute the experimental measurements of heat transfer, in which it is difficult to control the border thermal conditions, when they are dimmed by the omnipresent problem of heat conduction through the walls of the transference surfaces. Two examples are included of the application technique and its potential is outlined. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describe la tecnica experimental de la sublimacion de naftalina en aire mediante la que se miden coeficientes de transferencia de masa. Los datos asi obtenidos pueden convertirse en coeficientes de transferencia de calor a traves del uso de la analogia entre los fenomenos de transferencia de calor y masa. La tecnica se utiliza para substituir las mediciones experimentales de transferencia de calor, en las que es dificil controlar las condiciones termicas de frontera, cuando las empana el problema omnipresente de la conduccion de calor a traves de las paredes de las superficies de transferencia. Se incluyen dos ejemplos de la aplicacion de la tecnica y se destaca su potencial.

  12. Heat transfer coefficients obtainment by means of naphthalene sublimation in air; Obtencion de coeficientes de transferencia de calor por medio de la tecnica de sublimacion de naftalina en aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Galindo, Jose Arturo; Garcia Gutierrez, Alonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1985-12-31

    This work describes the experimental technique for the sublimation of naphthalene in air which measures heat transfer coefficients through the use of the analogy between the transference phenomena of heat and mass. The technique used to substitute the experimental measurements of heat transfer, in which it is difficult to control the border thermal conditions, when they are dimmed by the omnipresent problem of heat conduction through the walls of the transference surfaces. Two examples are included of the application technique and its potential is outlined. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describe la tecnica experimental de la sublimacion de naftalina en aire mediante la que se miden coeficientes de transferencia de masa. Los datos asi obtenidos pueden convertirse en coeficientes de transferencia de calor a traves del uso de la analogia entre los fenomenos de transferencia de calor y masa. La tecnica se utiliza para substituir las mediciones experimentales de transferencia de calor, en las que es dificil controlar las condiciones termicas de frontera, cuando las empana el problema omnipresente de la conduccion de calor a traves de las paredes de las superficies de transferencia. Se incluyen dos ejemplos de la aplicacion de la tecnica y se destaca su potencial.

  13. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Silvana Rossy; da Silva, Aleksandra do Socorro; Cruz, Adejard Gaia; Monteiro, Maurílio de Abreu; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi Lankalapalli; da Silva, Marcelino Silva; Costa, João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa

    2016-01-01

    This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i) with computers and Internet access, (ii) with mobile phones, and (iii) with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources.

  14. Sourcing Brazilian marijuana by applying IRMS analysis to seized samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Elisa K; Souza Sarkis, Jorge E; Neto, Osvaldo Negrini; Moreira, Marcelo Z; Victoria, Reynaldo L

    2006-06-27

    The stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios were measured in marijuana samples (Cannabis sativa L.) seized by the law enforcement officers in the three Brazilian production sites: Pernambuco and Bahia (the country's Northeast known as Marijuana Polygon), Pará (North or Amazon region) and Mato Grosso do Sul (Midwest). These regions are regarded as different with respect to climate and water availability, factors which impact upon the isotope fractionations of these elements within plants. It was possible to differentiate samples from the dry regions (Marijuana Polygon) from those from Mato Grosso do Sul and Pará, that present heavier rainfall. The results were in agreement with the climatic conditions of the suspected regions of origin and this demonstrates that seized samples can be used to identify the isotopic signatures of marijuana from the main producing regions in Brazil.

  15. REGIONALISM: THE TWILIGHT ZONE OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Borges Polesso

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article  intent to partially review the history of literature, focusing on regionalism, here understood as a literary category, in Rio Grande do Sul. The analysis is from the Brazilian romantic period to the Brazilian realism and it presents a discussion, in a historic and cultural panorama, about some changes in cultural perspective, as well as their implications in the Brazilian literature and its canon that occur in Brazil and specifically in Rio Grande do Sul, in the course of history and how these changes have affected literature as a cultural process.

  16. Brazilian Studies and Brazilianists: Conceptual remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Mariano de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of Brazilian Studies. It does not intend to outline a defence for a new discipline, or to propose paradigms for that elusive field called ‘area studies’. It will, bring some reflections on epistemological and methodological issues realted to what it is been called Brazilian Studies.

  17. Study of brazilian market of advanvced ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, M.M.; Soares, P.S.M.; SIlva, A.P. da; Alvarinho, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    The brazilian actual market survey of advanced ceramics, divided in sectors according to their function is described. The electroelectronics, magnetics, optics, mechanics and nuclears ceramics are presented. A forecasting of the brazilian market in advanced ceramics are also mentioned. (C.G.C.) [pt

  18. The new Brazilian national forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joberto V. de Freitas; Yeda M. M. de Oliveira; Doadi A. Brena; Guilherme L.A. Gomide; Jose Arimatea Silva; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The new Brazilian national forest inventory (NFI) is being planned to be carried out through five components: (1) general coordination, led by the Brazilian Forest Service; (2) vegetation mapping, which will serve as the basis for sample plot location; (3) field data collection; (4) landscape data collection of 10 x 10-km sample plots, based on high-resolution...

  19. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  20. Avaliação do perfil hematológico de portadores de talassemia alfa provenientes das regiões Sudeste e Nordeste do Brasil Evaluation of alpha thalassemia carriers hematologic profile from Southeast and Northeast Brazilian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislane L. V. Oliveira

    2006-06-01

    excess of beta chains which form tetramers identified as hemoglobin H (Hb H in adults. To diagnose this type of anaemia it is essential to analyze the erythrocytic values, electrophoresis in neutral pH and to study the Hb H inclusion bodies. The aim of this study was to determine the hematologic profile of alpha thalassemia carriers from the southeastern and northeastern regions of Brazil. Peripheral blood samples from 1010 patients were analyzed. The erythrogram values, including the red blood cell count (RBC, hemoglobin level (HGB, hematocrit (HCT, mean cell volume (MCV, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC were supplied by automatic devices. To diagnose alpha thalassemia, screening and complementary tests were performed, including electrophoresis in neutral pH and a study of the Hb H inclusion bodies with brilliant blue cresil staining. Comparing hematologic values obtained in both groups, the indices with discrepant values were related to HGB and HCT and the greatest variations in both regions were observed among women. In alpha thalassemic phenotypic carriers from the northeastern region, all the erythrocytic values were lower than normal. These results show the necessity of better evaluation of alpha thalassemia in different regions, considering the environmental factors in order to give an adequate diagnosis.

  1. The stochastic effects on the Brazilian Electrical Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Pedro Guilherme Costa; Oliveira, Fernando Luiz Cyrino; Souza, Reinaldo Castro

    2015-01-01

    The size and characteristics of the Brazilian Electrical Sector (BES) are unique. The system includes a large-scale hydrothermal power system with many hydroelectric plants and multiple owners. Due to the historical harnessing of natural resources, the National Interconnected System (NIS) was developed outside of the economic scale of the BES. The central components of the NIS enable energy generated in any part of Brazil to be consumed in distant regions, considering certain technical configurations. This interconnection results in a large-scale complex system and is controlled by robust computational models, used to support the planning and operation of the NIS. This study presents a different vision of the SEB, demonstrating the intrinsic relationship between hydrological stochasticity and the activities executed by the system, which is an important sector of the infrastructure in Brazil. The simulation of energy scenarios is crucial to the optimal manner to operate the sector and to supporting decisions about whether expansion is necessary, thus, avoiding unnecessary costs and/or losses. These scenarios are an imposing factor in the determination of the spot cost of electrical energy, given that the simulated quantities of water in the reservoirs are one of the determinants for the short-term energy price. - Highlights: • The relationship between the hydrological regimes and the energy policy and planning in Brazil; • An overview about the stochastic effects on the Brazilian Electrical Sector; • The stochasticity associated with the Brazilian electrical planning; • The importance of hydro resources management for energy generation in Brazil;

  2. Brazilian infant and preschool children feeding: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Santos Mello

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the feeding profile of Brazilian infants and preschool children aged 6 months to 6 years, based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of food and nutrient intake. Data source This review analyzed studies carried out in Brazil that had food survey data on infants and preschool children. The search was limited to publications from the last 10 years included in the LILACS and MEDLINE electronic databases. Data summary The initial search identified 1480 articles, of which 1411 were excluded after the analysis of abstracts, as they were repeated or did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 69 articles assessed in full, 31 articles contained data on food survey and were selected. Only three studies concurrently assessed children from different Brazilian geographical regions. Of the assessed articles, eight had qualitative data, with descriptive analysis of food consumption frequency, and 23 had predominantly quantitative data, with information on energy and nutrient consumption. Conclusions The articles assessed in this review showed very heterogeneous results, making it difficult to compare findings. Overall, the feeding of infants and preschool children is characterized by low consumption of meat, fruits, and vegetables; high consumption of cow's milk and inadequate preparation of bottles; as well as early and high intake of fried foods, candies/sweets, soft drinks, and salt. These results provide aid for the development of strategies that aim to achieve better quality feeding of Brazilian infants and preschoolers.

  3. How institutional voids influence Brazilian foreign direct investment in Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Virches

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available How do institutional voids influence emerging market multinationals (EMNEs foreign direct investment (FDI in developing countries? In this article we respond to this question by examining Brazilian FDI in Angola as our analytical setting. We focus on the host country’s institutions and its institutional voids as essential factors that attract the FDI of EMNES to developing countries. The research indicates that Brazilian companies fill in much of these voids within the market intermediaries, often creating a point of competitive advantage, and also creating advantages in relation to FDI from other economies that invest in Angola. The scarce literature on FDI in Africa has been largely dedicated to the analysis of Chinese investment in the region. We aim to complement recent research on the influence of the host country’s institutions on the behavior of FDI in developing countries, explaining how some EMNEs are able to use the institutional voids of developing countries as market opportunities. Our findings should provide also implications for EMNEs managers from other emerging markets by providing a better understanding of how Brazilian multinationals expand their business in less developed countries, handle institutional voids and manage relationships with local and foreign institutions in the host country.

  4. MARKET OF NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS FROM BRAZILIAN SAVANNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Afonso

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the main non-wood forest products from Brazilian savanna. We studied the behavior and the growth rates of production and prices of almond of babaçu, oil of copaiba, fiber of buriti, leaf of jaborandi, bark of barbatimão, bark of angico, fruit of mangaba, almonds of pequi, from 1982 to 2005. All the products exhibited decreasing production, with exception of the oil of copaiba and almonds of pequi, which showed positive growth rates: 12.9% and 8.5%, respectively. The analysis of prices for most products was not significant, except for barks of barbatimão and angico, and almonds of pequi, which showed positive trends: 10.9%, 6.7%, and 4.6%, respectively. We believe that results were not significant due to the severe variations of the Brazilian currency in the period. We conclude that pequi is the main product from savanna and that oil of copaiba has the biggest increase in the production because most of the production comes from the whole Brazilian Amazon region.

  5. Rural electrification of the Brazilian Amazon - Achievements and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Maria F.; Silveira, Semida

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian government has the ambition to provide complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to promote development and reduce inequalities. Full coverage implies the provision of electricity to 15 million people in the country by the end of 2010 through the program Luz para Todos (LPT - light for all) launched in 2003. So far, 11 million people have benefited, 2 million of which live in the Amazon. In this paper, we analyze the linkages between development and rural electrification through the Human Development Index (HDI) and within the context of the Amazon. We examine the suitability of the HDI as a planning and monitoring tool for improving energy access and development. We show that the recognition of electricity access as a driver for development has led to concrete goals for electrification, actual action and welfare improvement. Our study serves to highlight the role of LPT in the development of the Amazon region, and the specific features and achievements of the Brazilian policy for universal electrification. We conclude that some challenges related to the electrification of isolated areas still lie ahead. We finalize with a discussion on the relevance of the Brazilian experience to other developing countries.

  6. Management of pharmaceutical services in the Brazilian primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlack, Letícia Farias; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Areda, Camila Alves; Galato, Dayani; Oliveira, Aline Gomes de; Álvares, Juliana; Leite, Silvana Nair; Costa, Ediná Alves; Guibu, Ione Aquemi; Soeiro, Orlando Mario; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis

    2017-11-13

    To identify limiting factors in the management of pharmaceutical services in the primary health care provided by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). This study was based on the data from the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos no Brasil (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines), and it was conducted by interviews with professionals responsible for pharmaceutical services in Brazilian cities, in 2015. To identify the management limiting factors, we considered the organizational, operational, and sustainability indicators of the management. For the analyses, we included the weights and structure of analysis plan for complex samples. The results were expressed by frequencies and measures of central tendency with 95% confidence interval, considering the Brazilian geographic regions. We identified the following limiting factors: lack of pharmaceutical services in the Municipal Health Secretariat organization chart (24%) and in the health plan (18%); lack of participation of managers in the Health Board and the absence of reference to this topic in the agenda of meetings (58.4%); lack of financial autonomy (61.5%) and lack of knowledge on the available values (81.7%); lack of adoption of operational procedures (about 50%) for selection, scheduling, and acquisition; and the fact that most professionals evaluate the organization of pharmaceutical services as good and great (58.8%), despite the worrisome indicators. Pharmaceutical services management is currently supported by a legal and political framework that should guide and contribute to improve the pharmaceutical services in the Brazilian Unified Health System primary health care. However, there is a mismatch between the goals established by these guidelines and what is actually happening.

  7. Stranding Events of Kogia Whales along the Brazilian Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson F Moura

    Full Text Available The genus Kogia, which comprises only two extant species, Kogia sima and Kogia breviceps, represents one of the least known groups of cetaceans in the global ocean. In some coastal regions, however, stranding events of these species have been relatively common over the last decades. Stranding provides the opportunity to investigate the biology of these cetaceans and to explore the epidemiological aspects associated with the mortality of the organisms found on the beach. A number of disturbances (including pelagic fisheries, chemical pollution, boat strikes, and noise pollution have been confirmed to pose a particular threat to the Kogia species. However, no study has yet investigated potential relationships between environmental conditions and stranding events. Here we analyse how a collection of environmental, physical, and biological variables, such as wind, sea surface temperature (SST, water depth, and chlorophyll-a, correlate to Kogia stranding events along the Brazilian coast. The results of our statistical analyses suggest that K. sima is more likely found in warm tropical waters, which provide an explanation for the high frequency of stranding in northeastern Brazilian coast. In contrast, K. breviceps appears to have a preference for temperate and productive waters. Wind speed results to be also an important factor for predicting Kogia strandings in Brazilian coast. Additionally, literature information in combination with our own data and analyses of stomach contents confirms that oceanic cephalopods constitute the primary nutritional source of both Kogia species. By using the available information as a qualitative proxy for habitat preference and feeding ecology, our study provides a novel and comprehensive assessment of Kogia stranding data in relation to environmental conditions along the Brazilian coast.

  8. The brazilian midwest and its economic transformations from 1970 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, Marcos Bittar; Pastre, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The Midwest is the Brazilian region comprising the Central Highlands in the Country. It is the second least populated region of Brazil. Its vegetation is predominantly composed of the Cerrado ecosystem and the region holds important fresh water reserve and focuses the headwaters of rivers belonging to the main river basins of South America. Politically, the Midwest is the seat of the national political administrative decisions, housing the Federal District. Economically, after the decline of ...

  9. Publication in a Brazilian journal by Brazilian scientists whose papers have international impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, R

    2010-09-01

    Nine Brazilian scientists with an outstanding profile of international publications were invited to publish an original article in the same issue of a Brazilian Journal (Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências). The objective was to measure the impact of the papers on the number of citations to the articles, the assumption being that these authors would carry their international prestige to the Brazilian periodical. In a 2-year period there was a larger number of citations of these articles compared to others published in the same journal. Nevertheless, the number of citations in Brazilian journals did not equal the number of citations obtained by the other papers by the same authors in their international publications within the same 2-year period. The reasons for this difference in the number of citations could be either that less significant invited articles were submitted or that it was due to the intrinsic lack of visibility of the Brazilian journals, but this could not be fully determined with the present data. Also relevant was a comparison between the citations of Brazilian journals and the publication in Brazilian journals by these selected authors. A clear imbalance due to a remarkable under-citation of Brazilian authors by authors publishing in Brazilian journals raises the possibility that psychological factors may affect the decision of citing Brazilian journals.

  10. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  11. Genetic diversity among brazilian isolates of beauveria bassiana: comparisons with non-brazilian isolates and other beauveria species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, E.K.K.; Moraes, A.M.L.; Pacheco, R.S.; Rangel, D.E.N.; Miller, M.P.; Bittencourt, V.R.E.P.; Roberts, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The genetic diversity of Beauveria bassiana was investigated by comparing isolates of this species to each other (49 from different geographical regions of Brazil and 4 from USA) and to other Beauveria spp. Methods and Results: The isolates were examined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and rDNA sequencing. MLEE and AFLP revealed considerable genetic variability among B. bassiana isolates. Several isolates from South and Southeast Brazil had high similarity coefficients, providing evidence of at least one population with clonal structure. There were clear genomic differences between most Brazilian and USA B. bassiana isolates. A Mantel test using data generated by AFLP provided evidence that greater geographical distances were associated with higher genetic distances. AFLP and rDNA sequencing demonstrated notable genotypic variation between B. bassiana and other Beauveria spp. Conclusion: Geographical distance between populations apparently is an important factor influencing genotypic variability among B. bassiana populations in Brazil. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study characterized many B. bassiana isolates. The results indicate that certain Brazilian isolates are considerably different from others and possibly should be regarded as separate species from B. bassiana sensu latu. The information on genetic variation among the Brazilian isolates, therefore, will be important to comprehending the population structure of B. bassiana in Brazil. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. German-Brazilian nuclear deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krugmann, H.

    1981-01-01

    Examination of the arguments in favor of the nuclear deal with West Germany and the resulting program suggests that revisions of both are in order to make them more compatible with Brazil's national interests. The deficiencies of current policy appear to be too weighty and numerous to be ignored. Sooner or later the government will have to move toward adjusting its nuclear agreement with West Germany, if not for the reasons discussed here then for lack of capital. Current estimates of the nuclear package lie in the range of $25 to $30 billion, compared to an initial projection of about $5 billion. The deal has become so expensive that it would draw capital from the hydropower and alcohol programs essential for the short and medium-term energy needs of the country. Mr. Krugman feels the Brazilian government should hold off on further nuclear contracts. And it should thoroughly reassess what Brazil's nuclear energy and technology requirements are and how to meet them. There are indications that the reassessment process is already underway. As long as the German nuclear industry depends on the sale of technology to Brazil, the Brazilian government will have considerable bargaining power to enforce further changes in the deal. If this power is used wisely, the result could be cooperation between the two countries toward nuclear options that are consistent with Brazil's energy and development needs

  13. Análise combinada de fatores genéticos e ambientais na hipertensão essencial em um município da região Amazônica Combined analysis of genetic and environmental factors on essential hypertension in a brazilian rural population in the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina Sampaio Freitas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo avaliou a contribuição de seis polimorfismos genéticos presentes em genes do sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona (SRAA e fatores de risco clínicos para o desenvolvimento da hipertensão arterial essencial em um município da região Amazônica. MÉTODOS: Oitenta e dois indivíduos hipertensos e setenta e oito indivíduos normotensos foram genotipados quanto à presença de polimorfismos REN-G1051A (renina, AGT-M235T (angiotensinogênio, ECA-Alu I/D (enzima conversora de angiotensina I, AGTR1-A1166C (receptor tipo 1 da angiotensina II e CYP11B2-C344T (aldosterona sintetase pela técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR, com análise de restrição quando necessário. A influência de polimorfismos genéticos e fatores de risco clínicos na variação da pressão arterial foi avaliada por meio de regressão linear stepwise. RESULTADOS: Relatamos a co-ocorrência de fatores de risco clínicos e polimorfismo do gene da enzima conversora de angiotensina (ECA na população de um município da região amazônica. Nossos resultados mostram que a elevação da pressão arterial sistólica é favorecida pelo alelo D do polimorfismo de inserção/deleção do gene da ECA e pelo aumento da idade, enquanto consumo de bebida alcoólica e envelhecimento estão associados ao aumento da pressão arterial diastólica (PAD. CONCLUSÃO: Esses achados indicam que os moradores de Santa Isabel do Rio Negro que possuem o alelo D da ECA ou têm o hábito de beber apresentam valores mais elevados de PAS e PAD, respectivamente, com o passar dos anos.OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we evaluated the contribution of six genetic polymorphisms of the Renin-Angiotensis-Aldosterone system (RAAS and clinical risk factors in the development of essential hypertension in a Brazilian rural population in the Amazon region. METHODS: Eighty-two hypertensive patients and seventy-eight normotensive individuals were evaluated. Genotyping for renin

  14. Genetic characterization of Brazilian bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates by partial nucleotide sequencing of the 5'-UTR region Caracterização genética de amostras brasileiras do vírus da diarréia viral bovina através do seqüenciamento parcial da Região 5'UTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cortez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV from Brazil were genetically characterized through partial nucleotide sequencing and analysis of the 5'UTR region. The isolates were grouped as BVDV-1 (11/19, BVDV-2 (6/19 or "atypical" pestivirus (2/19. Among the BVDV-1, eight isolates were classified as subgenotype BVDV-1a, whereas most (4 out of 6 BVDV-2 belonged to subgenotype 2b. Two isolates from aborted fetuses were not classified into any genetic group, being considered atypical BVDVs. Genetic diversity among Brazilian BVDV isolates may be responsible for vaccination and diag-nostic failure and therefore may influence the control strategies for BVDV infection in the country.Dezenove amostras do vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV foram caracterizadas geneticamente através do seqüenciamento parcial de nucleotídeos da Região 5'UTR. As amostras foram agrupadas em BVDV-1 (11/19, BVDV-2 (6/19 e num terceiro grupo de amostras denominadas "atípicas" (2/19. Das onze amostras genotipadas como BVDV-1, oito amostras foram sub-genotipadas como BVDV-1a, enquanto que a maioria (4/6 das amostras de BVDV-2 foi agrupada como BVDV-2b. Duas amostras provenientes de fetos bovinos abortados foram classificadas como atípicas, não BVDV-1 e 2. A presença da diversidade genética de BVDV detectada nas amostras estudadas pode ser responsável por falhas vacinais e de diagnóstico e deve influenciar nas estratégias de controle do BVDV aplicadas nas diferentes regiões brasileiras.

  15. Comparison of three contrast radiographic techniques in the dog large intestine; Comparacion de tres tecnicas radiograficas de contraste en el intestino grueso del perro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, L.; Thibaut, J.; Olhaberry, E.; Born, R.; Deppe, R. [Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile)

    1994-07-01

    In order to compare three radiographic techniques -pneumocolon, barium enema and double contrast- in the large intestine of the dog, three radiographic series in ventrodorsal and right lateral projections were taken. Six healthy adult dogs of both sexes with an approximate weight between 5 to 10 kg were used. Three enemas were administered 24, 12 and 2 hrs. before the series of radiographs were taken. Then dogs were anaesthetized with sodium tiopental (20 mg/kg iv) and the contrast media were introduced. Pneumocolon was carried out in the first series introducing air (20 cc/kg) in the large intestine through a Foley rectal catheter. Radiographs were taken in both projections, after 5 and 15min. respectively. Barium enema was performed in the second series introducing barium sulfate (18%) in the large intestine through a Foley rectal catheter (25 cc/kg); 5 and 15 min. later, the radiographs were taken. In the third series -double contrast- the barium sulfate, which was obtained from each dog using a catheter, was substituted by a volume of air equal to that obtained from the contrast medium. Later the radiographs were taken in both projections. The radiographic plates of each series were analized comparing the characteristics of: radiographic density, outline and volume. With the pneumocolon barium enema and double contrast, the radiographic density was, in most cases, low, high and inter-mediate respectively. The radiographic outline was, in most cases, regular for the three techniques. Thee radiographic volume was similar in all of the series. From the results obtained, it is concluded that double contrast best outlines the intestinal mucosa and more information can be obtained from it [Spanish] Con la finalidad de comparar tres tecnicas radiograficas del intestino grueso del perro -neumocolon, enema baritado y doble contraste-, se tomaron tres series radiograficas en proyeccion ventrodorsal y lateral derecha en 6 perros adultos, de 5 a 10 kg de peso, que

  16. Brazilian sparkling wine: A successful trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurz Douglas André

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the evolution of internal and external commercialization of Brazilian sparkling wines during the period between 1986 and 2015, giving an overview of the current situation and its market trends, and highlighting the importance of Brazil in the world scenario for sparkling wines. This research is based on quantitative data sources provided by different institutions: International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV, Brazilian Union of Viticulture (UVIBRA, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA and Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA. Brazil is a promising country for the sparkling wine market. From 1986–2015, there was an increase of 465.6% in the sales of sparkling wine in the Brazilian domestic market, especially the last ten, which accounted for an increase of 215.7%. In 1998, Brazilian sparkling wines accounted for 70.5% of sparkling wines sold in Brazil. Today, they represent 82.1%of national market, and proved to be one of the most prestigious products from Brazilian viticulture when compared, for example, to non-sparkling wines, which 79% are imported wines. Of the imported sparkling wines consumed in Brazil, six countries account for 98.5% of the market (France: 32.7%; Italy: 24.8% and Spain: 21.9%. The volume exportation of Brazilian sparkling wine has grown significantly in recent years (4,210.2%, with Paraguay, China, Uruguay, the United States, France and the United Kingdom being the major buyers. The evolution of exports shows that Brazilian sparkling wine becomes an alternative to those produced in traditional countries, such as France, Italy and Spain, due to their quality and price. There is an increase in the commercialization of sparkling wines in the Brazilian domestic market, in addition to the growing participation of Brazil in the volume of exports in the world market, placing Brazil in a leading position in the production and sale of sparkling wines.

  17. Biodiversity and key ecosystem services in agroforestry coffee systems in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest Biome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, de H.N.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis reports the results of long-term experimentation (since 1993) of family farmers with agroforestry (AF) coffee systems in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest region, a highly fragmented and threatened biodiversity hotspot. The farmers used native trees from forest fragments during a

  18. Two decades of research in the Brazilian areas of high natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, T.L.; Paschoa, A.S.; Franca, E.P.; Costa-Ribeiro, C.; Barcinski, M.; Eisenbud, M.

    1980-01-01

    A review is made of the most important findings obtained in the decades 1960-1980 in the Brazilian regions of high natural radioactivity. The research was carried out by three university groups: Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro and New York Universisity. (Author) [pt

  19. Employing airborne multispectral digital imagery to map Brazilian pepper infestation in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in south Texas to determine the feasibility of using airborne multispectral digital imagery for differentiating the invasive plant Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) from other cover types. Imagery obtained in the visible, near infrared, and mid infrared regions of th...

  20. Off-Farm Work among Rural Households: A Case Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWey, Leah; Vithayathil, Trina

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes off-farm work among subsistence-level farmers in the Santarem region of the Brazilian Amazon. We build on the literature on rural livelihoods in the Global South by exploring how the opportunity to work off the farm is embedded in social relationships. We additionally differentiate our analysis by type of off-farm work, and…

  1. The Rise of International Relations Programs in the Brazilian Federal Universities: Curriculum Specificities and Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcos Alan S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this reflection is to study the new international relations (IR) programs introduced by Brazilian federal universities, looking comparatively at their curriculum specificities and current challenges. In recent years, Brazil has seen an increase of IR programs launched in several regions. Since 2003, the Ministry of Education is in the…

  2. Ozone concentrations in the Brazilian Amazonia during BASE-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setzer, A.W.; Kirchhoff, V.W.J.H.; Pereira, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    During the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment--Amazonia, thermal images of fires were made with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on board meteorological NOAA series satellites. The results of ozone measurements made on board the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (INPE) airplane during September of 1989 are presented and analyzed in relation to the temporal and geographical location of fires detected before and during the sampling. Results show that on a synoptic scale, concentrations of ozone rise sharply in regions of more intense burning

  3. Brazilian energy balance 1996: 1980 to 1995 period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the 1980 to 1995 period. It`s divided into nine chapters, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy import and export; transformation centers balances; energy sources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances 1 fig., 68 graphs., 145 tabs.

  4. SBR Brazilian organophilic/clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Thiago R.; Valenzuela-Diaz, Francisco R.; Morales, Ana Rita; Paiva, Lucilene B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is the obtaining of SBR composites using a Brazilian raw bentonite and the same bentonite treated with an organic salt. The clays were characterized by XRD. The clay addition in the composites was 10 pcr. The composites were characterized by XRD and had measured theirs tension strength (TS). The composite with Brazilian treated clay showed TS 233% higher than a composite with no clay, 133% higher than a composite with Cloisite 30B organophilic clay and 17% lower than a composite with Cloisite 20 A organophilic clay. XRD and TS data evidence that the composite with Brazilian treated clay is an intercalated nanocomposite. (author)

  5. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment.

  6. Background levels of some trace elements in weathered soils from the Brazilian Northern region Valores de referência de alguns elementos-traço em solos intemperizados da região Norte brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Souza Fadigas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Soils formed from the Barreiras Group sediments, located mainly along the coast of Brazil Northern and Northeastern regions, generally present low concentrations of iron oxides and total organic carbon, high quantities of quartz in the sand fraction, and kaolinitic clay mineralogy. The objective of the present study was to quantify the pseudo total concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn and Fe in Xhantic Udox and Xhantic Udult soils derived from these sediments. The reference sites were covered by native vegetation and located in the States of Pará and Amapá, Brazil. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine correlations between soil parameters and the levels of these metals. The best correlation was obtained between Fe, Mn, clay, and silt contents, and Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni. A correlation between pH and these metal levels was not found. Clay and sand contents showed a negative inverse correlation with the metal levels,of same magnitude but with a different sign; this was the reason for excluding one of the parameters in the regression model. In general, the contents of the elements were lower than those found in soils formed from other parent materials. The Mn content was included in the model of multiple linear regression for Cd and Co, due to its association with these last metals. Silt level showed to have a significant influence in the equations for Cr and Co, which is attributed to the presence of clay minerals and Fe and Mn oxides in ferruginous and clay aggregates of silt size. The equations obtained in this paper, are useful to predict, in general terms, the amounts of those heavy metals in an unknown soil sample, if the soil material were not contaminated or affected by land usage. Thus, they may be applied to evaluate soil contamination by the studied heavy metals.Solos formados a partir de sedimentos do Grupo Barreiras apresentam, em geral, baixos teores de ferro, mineralogia caulinítica, elevadas

  7. Weed community and growth under the canopy of trees adapted to the brazilian semi-arid region Comunidade e crescimento de plantas daninhas sob a copa de árvores adaptadas ao semi-árido brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.L. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to evaluate the floristic composition and dry biomass of weeds under the canopy of seven perennial species adapted to the Semi-Arid region of Brazil, and correlate these characteristics with growth traits of the perennial species. The following perennial species were evaluated in two experiments (E1 and E2: mesquite (Prosopis juliflora, jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea, white popinac (Leucaena leucocephala, mofumbo (Combretum leprosum, neem (Azadirachata indica, sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia and tamarind (Tamarindus indica. In E1, the seven species were evaluated in a random block design with four replicates and nine plants per plot. In E2, evaluation comprised four species (mesquite, jucá, white popinac, and tamarind in a random block design with eight replicates and nine plants per plot. A circle with an area of 1.77 m² was established around the trunk of each plant, two years after they were transplanted to the permanent location. The weeds collected within this circle were cut even with the ground, classified and weighed. At this time, plant height, and crown and stem diameters were evaluated in all trees of each plot. In E1 there were no differences between tree species as to weed frequency under their canopies; however, weed growth was smaller under the canopy of sabiá trees. Mesquite and sabiá had the greatest plant height and crown diameter means, but only sabiá had the greatest stem diameter. In E2, the perennial species were not different with regard to weed frequency and growth under their canopies, but mesquite had the greatest growth, as measured by plant height (with significant results for jucá as well and crown and stem diameter.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a composição florística e a biomassa de plantas daninhas sob a copa de sete espécies perenes adaptadas à região semi-árida do Brasil, e correlacionar essas características com características do crescimento das esp

  8. Distribution of QPY and RAH haplotypes of granzyme B gene in distinct Brazilian populations

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    Fernanda Bernadelli Garcia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The cytolysis mediated by granules is one of the most important effector functions of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Recently, three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified at exons 2, 3, and 5 of the granzyme B gene, resulting in a haplotype in which three amino acids of mature protein Q48P88Y245 are changed to R48A88H245, which leads to loss of cytotoxic activity of the protein. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of these polymorphisms in Brazilian populations. METHODS: We evaluated the frequency of these polymorphisms in Brazilian ethnic groups (white, Afro-Brazilian, and Asian by sequencing these regions. RESULTS: The allelic and genotypic frequencies of SNP 2364A/G at exon 2 in Afro-Brazilian individuals (42.3% and 17.3% were significantly higher when compared with those in whites and Asians (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0007, respectively. The polymorphisms 2933C/G and 4243C/T also were more frequent in Afro-Brazilians but without any significant difference regarding the other groups. The Afro-Brazilian group presented greater diversity of haplotypes, and the RAH haplotype seemed to be more frequent in this group (25%, followed by the whites (20.7% and by the Asians (11.9%, similar to the frequency presented in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: There is a higher frequency of polymorphisms in Afro-Brazilians, and the RAH haplotype was more frequent in these individuals. We believe that further studies should aim to investigate the correlation of this haplotype with diseases related to immunity mediated by cytotoxic lymphocytes, and if this correlation is confirmed, novel treatment strategies might be elaborated.

  9. Adaptation and Validation of the Brazilian Version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez, Ana Claudia Souza; Magnan, Emília dos Santos; Pacico, Juliana Cerentini; Hutz, Claudio Simon; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2015-01-01

    Engagement at work is a positive mental and dispositional state characterized by Vigor, Dedication and Concentration. The aim of this study was to adapt and get evidence of validity for the Brazilian version of the utrecht work engagement scale (UWES). Participated in the study 1167 workers between 18 and 70 years (M = 36.8, SD = 10.3) in the Brazilian regions. Studies to establish content and construct validity with the 17- item and the 9- item scales were performed. Exploratory and confirma...

  10. Estimating a theoretical model of state banking competition using a dynamic panel: the Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio A. Miessi Sanches

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we set up a model of regional banking competition based on Bresnahan (1982, Lau (1982 and Nakane (2002. The structural model is estimated using data from eight Brazilian states and a dynamic panel. The results show that on average the level of competition in the Brazilian banking system is high, even tough the null of perfect competition can be rejected at the usual significance levels. This result also prevails at the state level: Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Pernambuco and Minas Gerais have high degree of competition.

  11. Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalus Leach, 1815: First report of the genus for the Brazilian continental margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barboza, C. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gorgonocephalidae includes 38 genera, five of them reported for Brazilian waters. Gorgonocephalus chilensishas a wide distribution throughout Antartica and Subantartican regions and its northern limit was restricted to the coast ofUruguay. This work aims to report the first occurrence of the Gorgonocephalus genus for the Brazilian continental marginand extend the northern limit of distribution of G. chilensis to the coast of Santa Catarina. Tolerance to a large temperatureand bathimetric range are crucial to understand the distributions patterns of ophiuroids from the polar circle that alsooccur at southern South America.

  12. First report of Oxysternon silenus Castelnau (Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae, Phanaeini in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno K. C. Filgueiras

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of Oxysternon silenus Castelnau (Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae, Phanaeini in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. This is the first record of Oxysternon silenus in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Specimens were collected in the Serra Grande landscape, municipality of Ibateguara, in Alagoas State. The samples were done from August 17 to 19, 2007 with pitfall traps. Before the present study, Oxysternon silenus had been reported predominantly in Amazonian region. The finding of this species corroborates the hypothesis of the biogeographical relationships between the Amazon Rainforest and the Atlantic Forest.

  13. Associação entre material particulado de queimadas e doenças respiratórias na região sul da Amazônia brasileira Association between particulate matter from biomass burning and respiratory diseases in the southern region of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Nascimento do Carmo

    2010-01-01

    care clinics in the municipality of Alta Floresta, state of Mato Grosso, in the southern region of the Brazilian Amazon, between January 2004 and December 2005. Information on the daily levels of fine particulate matter was made available by the Brazilian National Institute for Spatial Research. To control for confounding factors (situations in which a non-causal association between exposure and disease is observed due to a third variable, variables related to time trends, seasonality, temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and calendar effects (such as occurrence of holidays and weekends were included in the model. Poisson regression with generalized additive models was used. RESULTS: A 10 μg/m³ increase in the level of exposure to particulate matter was associated with increases of 2.9% and 2.6% in outpatient consultations due to respiratory diseases in children on the 6th and 7th days following exposure. Significant associations were not observed for elderly individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the levels of particulate matter from biomass burning in the Amazon are associated with adverse effects on the respiratory health of children.

  14. Redução da desigualdade da distribuição de renda entre 2001 e 2006 nas macrorregiões brasileiras: tendência ou fenômeno transitório? 2001-2006 income distribution decreasing in the Brazilian regions: tendency or transitory phenomena?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Cacciamali

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é contribuir para o debate sobre a queda da desigualdade na distribuição domiciliar de renda no Brasil no início do século XXI. Assim, nessa diminuição, analisamos a participação relativa de três fontes de renda (trabalho, aposentadorias e pensões e transferências públicas nas cinco macrorregiões brasileiras - Norte (urbana, Nordeste, Centro-Oeste, Sudeste e Sul, entre os anos de 2001 e 2006. Para atingir os propósitos, estruturamos o texto em três seções. A primeira seção apresenta aspectos selecionados da literatura especializada brasileira sobre as causas da variação da desigualdade de renda. A segunda apresenta a técnica matemática de decomposição utilizada. Finalmente, na terceira seção, analisam-se os resultados empíricos para Brasil e cinco macrorregiões selecionadas. À guisa de conclusão, destacamos, dentre os resultados, a importância das transferências públicas de renda e, principalmente, as mudanças nos mercados de trabalho regionais para a diminuição do grau de desigualdade.The aim of this paper is to contribute to the debate on the decrease of the concentration degree of the family's income distribution in Brazil in the first five years of the XXI Century. On this purpose, we approach the phenomenon analyzing the importance of five types of income ( labor, property rents, donation, retirement and public cash transference in the five macro regions in Brazil - North, Northeast, Middle-West, Southeast, South, during the period 2001-2006.To reach the purposes, the text was structured in three parts. The first one highlights stylized facts on this decreasing from the Brazilian specialized literature. The second section presents the mathematical technique used to build the decomposition. Finally, in the third section we analyze the results obtained for the five macro regions. We detached, specially, the magnitude of the employment's creation and, secondarily, the public cash

  15. Elicited Imitation for Brazilian Portuguese

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    Lonsdale, Deryle W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elicited imitation (EI is an approach to measuring oral proficiency that consists of having test takers hear a sentence and repeat the sentence exactly as they heard it. Though indirect in nature, EI has successfully shown to correlate with previously established oral proficiency examinations, such as the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI (Lonsdale and Christensen 2014, Matsushita and Lonsdale 2014, Millard 2011, Thompson 2013. This paper discusses the development, administration, and evaluation of an EI test for the Brazilian Portuguese language. We first discuss the relevant background of oral proficiency examination and EI. After presenting the pertinent research questions, we explain the methodology used to develop the EI test, recruit participants, and administer the test. We present the results and analysis and then summarize the findings, limitations, and possible future work

  16. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  17. Lexicalization patterns in Brazilian Portuguese

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    Dorival Gonçalves Santos Filho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Neolatin languages belong to a lexicalization pattern in which the verbal root expresses semantic primitives of MOVE and PATH, leaving MANNER or CAUSE to be expressed by an adverb or the gerund form. In German origin languages, on the contrary, verbs lexicalize the semantic primitives of MOVE, MANNER or CAUSE; as for the PATH, it is expressed by a grammatical element that is associated to the verb. Taking into consideration some of the concepts of event of move, guided by Cognitive Semantics, and an analysis of examples extracted from The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings’ books, the present study aims at showing, at least, three lexicalization patterns in which Brazilian Portuguese fits in.

  18. Best Practices in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia dos Reis Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Competitive intelligence (CI is a systematic and ethical collection, analysis, dissemination and management of information about the external environment that may affect the plans, decisions and operations of the organization. Knowledge management (KM can be seen as a tool to promote organizational knowledge through the use of activities designed to identify, create, store, share and use knowledge. Companies face a challenge in the era of knowledge, it is the extraction and management of knowledge produced by people in the organization. CI and KM combined generates organizational intelligence. The exploratory study, based on literature and multicase study, we sought to identify best practices in processes of CI and KM in Brazilian companies. We identified practices related to the CI design process, the stages of the CI, the use of networks, and knowledge management. We also identified, points of attention on the internal/external organizational environment.

  19. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: report of two Brazilian brothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M.C.; Zetola, V.F.; Teive, H.; Scola, R.H.; Trentin, A.P.; Zavala, J.A.; Pereira, E.R.; Raskin, S.; Werneck, L.C.; Sistermans, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a treatable rare autossomal recessive disease characterized by lipid storage secondary to a sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency in the formation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. We describe two Brazilian brothers with cognitive impairement and chronic diarrhea.

  20. Eating patterns in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil: an exploratory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Oliveira Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The food consumption of 15,071 public employees was analyzed in six Brazilian cities participating in the baseline for Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, 2008-2010 with the aim of identifying eating patterns and their relationship to socio-demographic variables. Multiple correspondence and cluster analysis were applied. Four patterns were identified, with their respective frequencies: "traditional" (48%; "fruits and vegetables" (25%; "pastry shop" (24%; and "diet/light" (5% The "traditional" and "pastry shop" patterns were more frequent among men, younger individuals, and those with less schooling. "Fruits and vegetables" and "diet/light" were more frequent in women, older individuals, and those with more schooling. Our findings show the inclusion of new items in the "traditional" pattern and the appearance of the "low sugar/low fat" pattern among the eating habits of Brazilian workers, and signal socio-demographic and regional differences.

  1. Eating patterns in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Melere, Cristiane; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Faria, Carolina Perim de; Benseñor, Isabela M; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Griep, Rosane Harter; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    The food consumption of 15,071 public employees was analyzed in six Brazilian cities participating in the baseline for Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, 2008-2010) with the aim of identifying eating patterns and their relationship to socio-demographic variables. Multiple correspondence and cluster analysis were applied. Four patterns were identified, with their respective frequencies: "traditional" (48%); "fruits and vegetables" (25%); "pastry shop" (24%); and "diet/light" (5%) The "traditional" and "pastry shop" patterns were more frequent among men, younger individuals, and those with less schooling. "Fruits and vegetables" and "diet/light" were more frequent in women, older individuals, and those with more schooling. Our findings show the inclusion of new items in the "traditional" pattern and the appearance of the "low sugar/low fat" pattern among the eating habits of Brazilian workers, and signal socio-demographic and regional differences.

  2. Essential element contents in food groups from the second Brazilian total diet study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrogi, J.B.; Avegliano, R.P.; Maihara, V.A.

    2016-01-01

    Total diet study (TDS) has been considered as one of the most appropriate approaches to estimate dietary exposure of essential elements. This paper presents preliminary results of concentrations and average dietary daily intakes of Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn from the 2nd Brazilian TDS. Nineteen groups from a Food List which represents the daily intake of the population from the Brazilian southeastern region were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The dietary daily intake values for Ca (641 mg), Fe (19.6 mg), K (2738 mg), Na (2466 mg), Se (56.4 μg), and Zn (15.3 mg) were higher than the 1st Brazilian TDS. (author)

  3. LNG as a strategy to establish developing countries' gas markets: The Brazilian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberto Rechelo Neto, Carlos; Sauer, Ildo Luis

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate, from a Brazilian case study, if the natural gas trade can be viewed as a good opportunity for developing countries located geographically close to Western Europe and North America gas markets. Initially, the paper presents an overview of the Brazilian natural gas industry and evaluates the balance between supply and demand in each main region of Brazil. Then, it analyzes the evolution of the international gas trade, which is expected to increase rapidly (LNG particularly). Finally, the paper analyses the financial viability of the Brazilian LNG project in a context of high volatility of natural gas prices in the international market. To take this uncertainty into account, North-American natural gas prices are modelled according to the ORNSTEIN-UHLENBECK process (with EIA data over the period 1985-2003). By using an approach based on Monte-Carlo simulations and under the assumption that imports are guaranteed since the North American gas price would be higher than the breakeven of the Brazilian project, the model aims to test the hypothesis that export can promote the development of the Brazilian Northeastern gas market. LNG project is here compared to the Petrobras pipelines project, which is considered as the immediate solution for the Northeastern gas shortage. As a conclusion, this study shows that the LNG export will be vulnerable to the risks associated to the natural gas prices volatility observed on the international market

  4. Consensos sobre o papel do gestor estadual na regionalização da assistência à saúde no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS Consensus regarding the role of the State manager in the regionalization of health care in Brazilian National Health System (SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yluska Almeida Coelho dos Reis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar os consensos acerca do papel do gestor estadual na regionalização da assistência à saúde no SUS. MÉTODOS: foram elaborados um modelo teórico-lógico e uma matriz de avaliação acerca das atribuições do gestor estadual na condução da regionalização. Essa matriz foi submetida à apreciação de especialistas que julgaram a importância dos indicadores de análise definidos, estabelecendo-se o consenso ou o dissenso a partir de pontos de corte previamente definidos, utilizando-se como técnica a Conferência de Consenso. RESULTADOS: a matriz de avaliação resultante do consenso apresenta três níveis de análise (governo, gestão e assistência, que estão desmembrados em seis dimensões compostas de 14 critérios e 82 indicadores de avaliação que exploram as responsabilidades do gestor estadual do SUS frente à regionalização da saúde. Do total de indicadores, apenas quatro não apresentaram consenso, o que indica que a matriz se mostra um instrumento eficiente para avaliação da regionalização da assistência no SUS, abordando as diferentes dimensões dessa intervenção em saúde. CONCLUSÕES: apesar de provisório, o consenso ora estabelecido pode constituir um referencial de elevada utilidade para a realização de pesquisas, podendo servir de base para a realização de investigações avaliativas sobre a implantação dos processos de regionalização, de forma a permitir maior comparabilidade entre os estudos.OBJECTIVES: to identify points of agreement regarding the role of the State manager in the regionalization of health care in Brazilian National Health System (SUS. METHODS: a theoretical framework and evaluation grid were drawn up to evaluate the role of the State manager in regionalization. These were ratified by specialists, who confirmed the importance of the indicators chosen to establish the existence of consensus or the lack of it, on the basis of previously established cut

  5. Technical and economic feasibility study of low flow compressors; Estudo de viabilidade tecnica e economica de compressores de baixa vazao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Nagib F. da; Vieira, Francisco A. [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil); Campos, Michel F.; Moura, Newton R. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One of the main problems for the installation of new natural gas stations has been the high investment for compressor acquisition. Out of 900 thousand Reais, which is an average value for the construction of a supplying structure, 600 thousand are destined for the acquisition of the compression system (average outflow of 800 Nm{sup 3}/hour at 20 deg C, 1 atm), approach commonly used in Brazil. To be economically feasible, it is necessary that the fueling station has a supplying volume of at least 600 vehicles/day. Niches of NGV market have been identified to new potentials, where the compressed gas demand is lower, therefore not justifying an investment in compression systems of high capacity. A solution for reduction of this investment would be the introduction in the Brazilian market of compression systems of medium and low outflow and with lower cost. In this context, CTGAS has a project into RedeGasEnergia in partnership with PETROBRAS, funded by FINEP/CTPETRO, to develop, to acquire, and to mount prototypes of compression systems of small and medium capacities. To attend the objectives of this project, a compressor was developed in a partnership with a national manufacturer, MOVITEC, and participation of CENPES, with an outflow of 200 Nm{sup 3}/hour (at 20 deg C 1 atm.), for a demand of up to 200 vehicles/day. Another alternative, for the case of small consumers with supplying demand of up to 15 vehicles/day is being made possible by the introduction in the Brazilian market of two compression systems of outflow with up to 13,0 Nm{sup 3}/h (at 20 deg C 1 atm). The installation of these systems will assist in the economical and technical feasibility studies. At this moment, there are some companies interested in knowing this new technology for using the compressor in their installations, thus demonstrating the success of this project, as well as the wakening of a new consuming market. (author)

  6. Simulating SOC changes in 11 land use change chronosequences from the Brazilian Amazon with RothC and Century models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerri, C.E.P.; Easter, M.; Paustian, K.; Killian, K.; Coleman, K.; Bernoux, M.; Falloon, P.; Powlson, D.S.; Batjes, N.H.; Milne, E.; Cerri, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes in the Brazilian Amazon have major implications for regional and global carbon (C) cycling. Cattle pasture represents the largest single use (about 70%) of this once-forested land in most of the region. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of

  7. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  8. The profile of Brazilian agriculture as source of raw material to obtain organic cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila de Paula Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With one of the most notable floras in the world for sustainable research, the Brazilian Amazon region currently counts on financial incentives from the Brazilian Government for private national and foreign businesses. The ongoing implantation of a Biocosmetics Research and Development Network (REDEBIO aims to stimulate research involving natural resources from the Brazilian states that make up the zone defined as “Amazônia Legal”. The objective of this region, still under development in Brazil, is principally to aggregate value to products manufactured in small local industries through the use of sustainable technology currently being established. Certain certified raw materials already included in the country’s sustainability program, have also begun to be cultivated according to the requirements of organic cultivation (Neves, 2009. The majority are species of Amazonian vegetation: Euterpe oleracea (Açai, Orbignya martiana (Babaçu, Theobroma grandi-florum (Cupuaçu, Carapas guianensis (Andiroba, Pentaclethra macroloba (Pracaxi, Copaifera landesdorffi (Copaiba, Platonia insignis (Bacuri, Theobroma cacao (Cacao, Virola surinamensis (Ucuuba and Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut. These generate phytopreparations, such as oils, extracts, and dyes that are widely used in the manufacture of Brazilian organic cosmetics with scientifically proven topical and capillary benefits. In the final balance, Brazilian organic cosmetics should continue to gain force over the next few years, especially with the regulation of the organic cosmetics market that is being drafted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover, lines of ecologically aware products that provide quality of life for both for rural and metropolitan communities show a tendency to occupy greater space in the market.

  9. Photovoltaic energy supply in communities of the Xingo program: Case study: Gualte community-Brazilian Northeast Methodology for natural climatization of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Elielza M. de S; Tiba, Chigueru [Universidad Federal de Pernambuco-UFPE (Brazil); Silva, Junior, Ramiro; Ferreira, Fabiana M; Carvalho, Maria A. P [Xingo Program (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The Xingo Program is a multidisciplinary initiative, developed jointly by the CNPq-Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and CHESF- Hydroelectric Power Company of the Sao Francisco River. Its main objective is to promote the development of a semi-arid region through actions undertaken in different areas; more specifically, to seek energetic solutions on suitable techniques in the region and at the same time identify local demands and business opportunities that may lead to the introduction of enterprises in the region, principally focusing social and citizenship development. Eight rural communities located in the perimeter of Xingo program were selected for implementing the first pilot projects. This paper describes a technical and social diagnosis, and a conceptual project that were made for each community, considering the resources and the local available potentialities, prioritizing energy supply to schools, health centers and the supply of drinking water. In particular, the case study describes the process of energy supply to Guatle community, an old farm without any education/health infrastructure and water is supplied by means of trucks, in which there was a significant increase in the number of families after being occupied by activists of the Landless movement. In this community a school unit was built and electrified (school and park illuminated, TV, refrigerator), a 12 m{sup 3}/day water supply system was installed in and old and abandoned well, the water of which showed an excellent quality and quantity, 6 m{sup 3}/h, a very rare occurrence in that region. Later, literacy courses were given to young people and adults, the natural aptitude of the inhabitants. With the arrival of water, the first conflicts for the management of these resources emerged. The experience in Gualte, in spite of the successes and failures, could be considered as a lesson that should be learned. The feeling of citizenship of the needy community

  10. Efficiency of snake sampling methods in the Brazilian semiarid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Paula C M D; Passos, Daniel C; Cechin, Sonia Z

    2013-09-01

    The choice of sampling methods is a crucial step in every field survey in herpetology. In countries where time and financial support are limited, the choice of the methods is critical. The methods used to sample snakes often lack objective criteria, and the traditional methods have apparently been more important when making the choice. Consequently researches using not-standardized methods are frequently found in the literature. We have compared four commonly used methods for sampling snake assemblages in a semiarid area in Brazil. We compared the efficacy of each method based on the cost-benefit regarding the number of individuals and species captured, time, and financial investment. We found that pitfall traps were the less effective method in all aspects that were evaluated and it was not complementary to the other methods in terms of abundance of species and assemblage structure. We conclude that methods can only be considered complementary if they are standardized to the objectives of the study. The use of pitfall traps in short-term surveys of the snake fauna in areas with shrubby vegetation and stony soil is not recommended.

  11. Voltage stability evaluation facing small disturbances by means of the modal analysis technique; Evaluacion de la estabilidad de voltaje ante disturbios pequenos mediante la tecnica de analisis modal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon Rodriguez, Daniel

    2000-12-15

    . Estos aspectos han provocado que dichos sistemas operen con margenes de seguridad mas limitados y que su estabilidad tenga que ser analizada de una manera confiable y precisa. Tomando en cuenta los aspectos arriba mencionados, a medida que los sistemas electricos han tenido que operar en condiciones mas forzadas para satisfacer la demanda de la carga, los problemas de estabilidad de voltaje se han presentado con mayor frecuencia provocando serios disturbios y en algunos casos, hasta apagones totales. Ante la ocurrencia de estos problemas, el analisis de establidad de voltaje ha cobrado cada vez mayor importancia en los estudios de las companias suministradoras de energia electrica provocando con esto que se destinen mayores recursos para la investigacion de este fenomeno con el proposito de comprenderlo y desarrollar tecnicas y herramientas que permitan estudiarlo de una manera mas completa. El analisis modal es una de las mas recientes tecnicas en estado estable la cual, desde su aparicion ha tenido un gran auge debido a la valios y rapida informacion que proporciona, ademas de su facilidad de implementacion y el poco esfuerzo computacional que requiere. En este trabajo se realiza la evaluacion de la estabilidad de voltaje d eun sistema electrico real aplicando de manera conjunta la tecnica de analisis modal con otras tecnicas convencionales como las curvas P-V y V-Q. Se ilustra tambien la manera en que la distinta informacion obtenida de estas tecnicas se complementa para lograr un estudio de estabilidad de voltaje mas completo y representativo. Ademas de analizar la estabilidad de voltaje para las condiciones normales de operacion (caso base), se evaluan tambien tres distintas alternativas de compensacion reactiva capacitiva con objeto de mejorar el margen o distancia a la inestabilidad de voltaje del sistema. Los resultado obtenidos con cada una de las opciones de compensacion son analizados y comparados entre si para finalmente proponer la alternativa que presente

  12. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  13. Antioxidant intake among Brazilian adults - The Brazilian Osteoporosis Study (BRAZOS: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juzwiak Claudia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antioxidant nutrient intake and the lesser formation of free radicals seem to contribute to chronic diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intake profile of the main dietary antioxidants in a representative sample of the adult Brazilian population and discuss the main consequences of a low intake of these micronutrients on overall health. Methods The sample comprised 2344 individuals aged 40 years or older from 150 cities and was based on a probabilistic sample from official data. The research was conducted through in-home interviews administered by a team trained for this purpose. Dietary intake information was obtained through 24-h recall. The Nutrition Data System for Research software program was used to analyze data on the intake of vitamins A, C and E, selenium and zinc, which was compared to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs. Differences in intake according to sex, anthropometrics, socioeconomic status and region were also evaluated. The SPSS statistical package (version 13 was used for the statistical analysis. P-values Results Higher proportions of low intake in relation to recommended values were found for vitamin E (99.7%, vitamin A (92.4% and vitamin C (85.1% in both genders. Intake variations were found between different regions, which may reflect cultural habits. Conclusion These results should lead to the development of public health policies that encourage educational strategies for improving the intake of micronutrients, which are essential to overall health and prevention of non-communicable diseases.

  14. Minerals and trace elements determination in diets by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos minerais e tracos em dietas pela tecnica de ativacao neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiras, Maria Izabel O.; Favaro, Debora I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Ribeiro, Marisilda; Cozzolino, Silvia M.F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental. Lab. de Minerais

    2002-07-01

    In the present study 12 diets, each one consisting of a pool of seven day diets, composed by four meals: breakfast, lunch, dinner and snack, adequate in energy and macro nutrients according to the RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) recommendations, were elaborated and offered to a group of 12 men (19-42 years). The diets were collected by duplicate portion technique and dried by two different processes: freeze drying and 60 deg C ventilated oven drying. In the total, 24 diets were analyzed. The content of some minerals and trace elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn) were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The validation of methodology was made by analysis of the reference materials Typical Diet (NIST SRM 1548{sup a}), Orchard Leaves (NIST SRM 1541) and Peach Leaves (NIST SRM 1547). The results observed by two different drying processes used were statistically compared by test T of Student. It was possible to conclude that the concentration means can be considered as statistically equal, within a significance level of 0.05. The daily intake values calculated from the concentration results were: 712 ({+-} 59) mg Ca/day; 10.7 ({+-} 0.8) mg Fe/ day; 3387 ({+-} 16) mg K/ day; 275 ({+-} 6) mg Mg/ day; 3.0 ({+-} 0.5) mg Mn/ day; 3656 ({+-} 699) mg Na/ day; 42 ({+-} 6) {mu}g Se/ day e 11.6 ({+-} 2.4) mg Zn/ day. The calculated intake was compared to the new daily recommended values set by RDA (National Research Council-USA) for the range age of individuals studied. It was possible to conclude that the diets were adequate in Fe and Zn and inadequate for the other elements. Concerning the minerals Na and K we verified high daily intake levels and this was already observed in other Brazilian regional diets. (author)

  15. Sobrevivência de espécies arbóreas plantadas em clareiras causadas pela colheita de madeira em uma floresta de terra firme no município de Paragominas na Amazônia brasileira Survival of seedlings planted in gaps after harvesting in a terra firme rain forest in Paragominas region in the Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Macêdo Gomes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a sobrevivência de mudas plantadas em 400 clareiras causadas por exploração florestal de impacto reduzido, em floresta de terra firme na Amazônia Oriental. Foram plantadas 3.818 mudas de 17 espécies, das quais apenas Schizolobium amazonicum não ocorre na área de estudo. A distância entre as mudas plantadas foi de aproximadamente 5m. As avaliações ocorreram em 2005 e 2006. Com base na sobrevivência das mudas aos 11 meses após o plantio, as espécies indicadas para o enriquecimento de clareiras são: Schizolobium amazonicum, Cedrela odorata, Jacaranda copaia, Manilkara huberi, Astronium gracile, Pouteria bilocularis, Tabebuia impetiginosa,Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens, Cordia goeldiana, Parkia gigantocarpa, Simarouba amara, Sterculia pilosa, Laetia procera, Dinizia excelsa e Schefflera morototoni. Estudos sobre a taxa de crescimento, em períodos mais longos, são necessários para confirmar a utilização dessas espécies em plantios de enriquecimento de clareiras oriundas de exploração florestal, como alternativa para aumentar a produtividade e o valor econômico das florestas naturais manejadas na Amazônia brasileira.Survival of seedlings planted in 400 gaps created by reduced impact logging in a terra firme forest in the Eastern Amazonia was evaluated. 3,818 seedlings from 17 species occurring in the study area, except for Schizolobium amazonicum (paricá, which is rare in natural forests of Paragominas region, were planted in the gaps. Spacing of planted seedlings was 5m. According to survival of seedlings during 11 months after planting, the species Schizolobium amazonicum, Cedrela odorata, Jacaranda copaia, Manilkara huberi, Astronium gracile, Pouteria bilocularis, Tabebuia impetiginosa,Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens, Cordia goeldiana, Parkia gigantocarpa, Simarouba amara, Sterculia pilosa, Laetia procera, Dinizia excelsa and Schefflera morototoni can be suggested for enriching in gaps created by reduced impact logging

  16. Inadequate management of natural ecosystem in the Brazilian Amazon region results in the emergence and reemergence of arboviruses Gestão imprópria do ecossistema natural na Amazônia brasileira resulta na emergência e reemergência de arbovírus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 187 different species of arboviruses and other viruses in vertebrates were identified at the Evandro Chagas Institute (IEC from 1954 to 1998, among more than 10,000 arbovirus strains isolated from humans, hematophagous insects, and wild and sentinel vertebrates. Despite intensive studies in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially in Pará State, very little is known about most of these viruses, except for information on date, time, source, and method of isolation, as well as their capacity to infect laboratory animals. This paper reviews ecological and epidemiological data and analyzes the impact of vector and host population changes on various viruses as a result of profound changes in the natural environment. Deforestation, mining, dam and highway construction, human colonization, and urbanization were the main manmade environmental changes associated with the emergence and/or reemergence of relevant arboviruses, including some known pathogens for humans.Um total de 187 diferentes espécies de arbovírus, além de outros vírus de vertebrados, foram identificados pelo Instituto Evandro Chagas (IEC no período de 1954 a 1998, entre as mais de 10.000 cepas de vírus isoladas de seres humanos, insetos hematófagos e vertebrados-sentinela e silvestres. Apesar dos estudos intensivos realizados na Amazônia brasileira, sobretudo no Estado do Pará, pouco se sabe a respeito da maioria desses vírus, com exceção de dados a respeito de data, hora, fonte e método de isolamento, assim como a capacidade de infectar animais laboratoriais. Os autores fazem uma revisão dos dados ecológicos e epidemiológicos e procuram associar o impacto, sobre os diversos vírus, das mudanças populacionais dos vetores e hospedeiros induzidas por profundas alterações no meio ambiente. O desmatamento, o uso do subsolo, a construção de represas e de rodovias, a colonização humana e a urbanização foram as principais modificações ambientais

  17. Insights from Brazilian medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Caramelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This brand-new series of articles aims at delivering to national and international readers some of the cutting-edge contributions from the Brazilian medical literature. Recently papers published in the main Brazilian medical journals are carefully selected and analyzed by skilled medical editors. In addition we asked editors to choose keywords to be highlighted in order to claim for reader's attention. Articles are organized by area of interest to facilitate reading. To get the most of the limited available editorial space we did not include the names of the authors of the related articles in the text itself but a complete reference guide is provided at the end of the article. The result carries the most important messages from the original paper accompanied by a personal interpretation. Directed to the busy medical doctor we hope that this initiative may help in the successful translation of knowledge from scientific evidence to clinical practice.Esta nova série de artigos tem por objetivo levar aos leitores nacionais e internacionais algumas das mais importantes contribuições provenientes da literatura médica brasileira recente. Os artigos originais mais relevantes são selecionados por experientes editores a quem solicitamos que escolham palavras- chaves para que sejam destacadas para chamar a atenção do leitor. Para facilitar a leitura, os artigos são organizados por área de interesse. Para aproveitar ao máximo o limitado espaço editorial não são incluídos os nomes dos autores dos artigos. Entretanto, a referência completa é oferecida ao final do artigo. O resultado final traz o que há de melhor do artigo, seguido de uma sintética interpretação pessoal. Endereçado ao médico ocupado, esperamos que esta inciativa possa contribuir para o sucesso da translação do conhecimento da evidência científica para a prática clínica.

  18. Technical viability of nitric leaching in the desulphurisation of lignite from the Teruel region. La lixiviacion nitrica como posibilidad tecnica en la desulfuracion de los lignitos de Teruel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, R.; Clemente, C.; Gomez-Limon, D. (Esc. Tec. Sup. Ing. Min., Madrid (Spain))

    1989-11-01

    Studies of selective flocculation and sedimentation of Teruel lignite which is high in both pyritic and organic sulphur enabled the sulphur content to be reduced to just 4.25%. Tests have subsequently been carried out with nitric leaching and the sulphur content has been reduced to below the levels of organic sulphur in addition to reducing the ash content by 4 to 9%. The cost of the reagents was similar or lower than in other processes and practically all the coal was recovered. 11 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. The Brazilian electrical system reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, A.F.; Dahl, C.

    1999-01-01

    Although the Brazilian electrical system has been a public monopoly, the threat of electricity shortages from a lack of investment triggered a comprehensive reform. In 1993 the government began a series of laws, decrees and regulations reforming the tariff policy, allowing privatization of utilities, foreign investments and independent power producers, and creating an independent transmission grid and a new electricity regulatory agency (ANEEL). The new regulatory framework is not completely defined but the proposed model intends to transform bulk electricity supply into a competitive market similar to that adopted in England. Our objective is to evaluate whether the proposed reform will succeed in attracting the required private capital, will allow an unregulated wholesale electricity market and will require a strict regulatory framework. The reform has been quite successful in privatizing the distribution companies but is allowing monopolistic rents, and has failed until now to attract private investments to expand generation capacity. The risk of blackouts has increased, and the proposed wholesale electricity market may not be appropriate because of barriers to constructing new hydroelectric units, now 90% of the system. Therefore, a new regulatory framework and a strong regulatory agency with a well-defined tariff policy should have preceded the privatization. (author)

  20. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  1. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  2. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  3. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4 had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2 smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8 smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use

  4. I RBH - First Brazilian Hypertension Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga; Souza, Weimar Kunz Sebba Barroso de; Lopes, Renato Delascio; Brandão, Andréa Araújo; Malachias, Marcus V Bolívar; Gomes, Marco Mota; Moreno Júnior, Heitor; Barbosa, Eduardo Costa Duarte; Póvoa, Rui Manoel Dos Santos

    2016-08-01

    A registry assessing the care of hypertensive patients in daily clinical practice in public and private centers in various Brazilian regions has not been conducted to date. Such analysis is important to elucidate the effectiveness of this care. To document the current clinical practice for the treatment of hypertension with identification of the profile of requested tests, type of administered treatment, level of blood pressure (BP) control, and adherence to treatment. National, observational, prospective, and multicenter study that will include patients older than 18 years with hypertension for at least 4 weeks, following up in public and private centers and after signing a consent form. The study will exclude patients undergoing dialysis, hospitalized in the previous 30 days, with class III or IV heart failure, pregnant or nursing, with severe liver disease, stroke or acute myocardial infarction in the past 30 days, or with diseases with a survival prognosis crisis, cardiocirculatory events, and cardiovascular death, while secondary outcomes will be hospitalization for heart failure and requirement of dialysis. A subgroup analysis of 15% of the sample will include noninvasive central pressure evaluation at baseline and study end. The estimated sample size is 3,000 individuals for a prevalence of 5%, sample error of 2%, and 95% confidence interval. The results will be presented after the final evaluation, which will occur at the end of a 1-year follow-up. The analysis of this registry will improve the knowledge and optimize the treatment of hypertension in Brazil, as a way of modifying the prognosis of cardiovascular disease in the country.

  5. Brazilian union actions for workers' health protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolpho Repullo Junior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. OBJECTIVE: To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. TYPE OF STUDY: Qualitative study. SETTING: Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. DISCUSSION: Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. CONCLUSIONS: The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights

  6. Genetic diversity and structure of Brazilian ginger germplasm (Zingiber officinale) revealed by AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Eleonora Zambrano; Bajay, Miklos Maximiliano; Siqueira, Marcos Vinícius Bohrer Monteiro; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2016-12-01

    Ginger is a vegetable with medicinal and culinary properties widely cultivated in the Southern and Southeastern Brazil. The knowledge of ginger species' genetic variability is essential to direct correctly future studies of conservation and genetic improvement, but in Brazil, little is known about this species' genetic variability. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity and structure of 55 Brazilian accessions and 6 Colombian accessions of ginger, using AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) molecular markers. The molecular characterization was based on 13 primers combinations, which generated an average of 113.5 polymorphic loci. The genetic diversity estimates of Nei (Hj), Shannon-Weiner index (I) and an effective number of alleles (n e ) were greater in the Colombian accessions in relation to the Brazilian accessions. The analysis of molecular variance showed that most of the genetic variation occurred between the two countries while in the Brazilian populations there is no genetic structure and probably each region harbors 100 % of genetic variation found in the samples. The bayesian model-based clustering and the dendrogram using the dissimilarity's coefficient of Jaccard were congruent with each other and showed that the Brazilian accessions are highly similar between themselves, regardless of the geographic region of origin. We suggested that the exploration of the interspecific variability and the introduction of new varieties of Z.officinale are viable alternatives for generating diversity in breeding programs in Brazil. The introduction of new genetic materials will certainly contribute to a higher genetic basis of such crop.

  7. Citizenship and decoloniality in Brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Conceição Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the importance of multiculturalism in teaching process and observing the otherness are primarily a challenge. This enables us to rethink what we have within ourselves, also to reconstitute memories involving discriminatory and unethical attitudes, which takes place in social fellowship. Based on the studies of Walsh (2007, 2009, Gomes (2007 and Tavares (2011, this work relies on decoloniality studies, mainly on the relevance of the history of Africa and Africanness in Brazilian education. Our corpus of analysis is found in the "Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica" (DCN, 2013, the Brazilian Legislative Syllabus for Basic Education. Our focus is on the chapters concerning the Native-Brazilian and Quilomboa Education and ethnic-racial relations. Our most important aims are: to show the intercultural theoretical framework in which they are based on; to understand the immediate link established between the Native-Brazilian education and intercultural perspective; to clarify how the African diaspora was carried out in this particular case. Based on some Excel resources we were able to: 1 stablish the predominance of functional framework of interculturalism throughout these chapters, along with some critical features of interculturalism, as the issue of curricular decoloniality; 2 observe the established relationship between bilingualism and multiculturalism in the guidelines of Native-Brazilian education; and 3 identify a search for an effective inclusion of Africanness in curricula supported by the historical recognition and visibility of their sociocultural contribution.

  8. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metri, Paulo, E-mail: pmetri@terra.com.br [Clube de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  9. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  10. Efficiency Determinants in Brazilian Football Clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Machado de Freitas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of Brazilian football clubs in generating revenues and the reasons behind it. To achieve this goal, we applied quantitative methods including Data Envelopment Analysis and Tobit regression modeling to data on the best clubs from 2012 to 2014, according to the Brazilian Football Confederation ranking. The results allowed for the inference that the largest Brazilian clubs, such as Grêmio (RS, Palmeiras (SP and Vasco (RJ, were not efficient in any period under analysis. Others, such as Guarani (SP and Guaratinguetá (SP, were efficient in all of years under consideration. With the Tobit regression model, we were able to determine that winning titles and the elite status of a given club are decisive factors in achieving efficiency. Included among the strategies that allow for greater efficiency in Brazilian clubs are the better utilization of stadiums and club assets, maximization of the financial worth of player popularity, and joining these with titles and a place in the A Series. Finally, the results of this study contribute to the strategic development of the football business, highlighting the positive effects that efficiency yields for clubs, thus supporting the growing body of research on sports management in Brazilian academia.

  11. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metri, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  12. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero, María Celeste; Michalski, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international). The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%). Over half of the research study sites (52.91%) were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for improvement and the

  13. Brazilian infectious diseases specialists: who and where are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassenote, Alex Jones Flores; Scheffer, Mario César; Segurado, Aluísio Augusto Cotrim

    2016-01-01

    The infectious diseases specialist is a medical doctor dedicated to the management of infectious diseases in their individual and collective dimensions. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the current profile and distribution of infectious diseases specialists in Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study using secondary data obtained from institutions that register medical specialists in Brazil. Variables of interest included gender, age, type of medical school (public or private) the specialist graduated from, time since finishing residency training in infectious diseases, and the interval between M.D. graduation and residency completion. Maps are used to study the geographical distribution of infectious diseases specialists. A total of 3229 infectious diseases specialist registries were counted, with 94.3% (3045) of individual counts (heads) represented by primary registries. The mean age was 43.3 years (SD 10.5), and a higher proportion of females was observed (57%; 95% CI 55.3-58.8). Most Brazilian infectious diseases specialists (58.5%) practice in the Southeastern region. However, when distribution rates were calculated, several states exhibited high concentration of infectious diseases specialists, when compared to the national rate (16.06). Interestingly, among specialists working in the Northeastern region, those trained locally had completed their residency programs more recently (8.7yrs; 95% CI 7.9-9.5) than physicians trained elsewhere in the country (13.6yrs: 95% CI 11.8-15.5). Our study shows that Brazilian infectious diseases specialists are predominantly young and female doctors. Most have concluded a medical residency training program. The absolute majority practice in the Southeastern region. However, some states from the Northern, Northeastern and Southeastern regions exhibit specialist rates above the national average. In these areas, nonetheless, there is a strong concentration of infectious diseases specialists in state capitals and in

  14. Influence of lung parameter values for the Brazilian population on inhalation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Arlene A.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    The Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) proposed by the ICRP Publication 66 accounts for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The ICRP 66 presents deposition fraction in the respiratory tract regions considering reference values from Caucasian man. However, in order to obtain a more accurate assessment of intake and dose the ICRP recommends the use of specific information when they are available. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the influence in dose calculation to each region of the respiratory tract when physiological parameters from samples of Brazilian population, in different levels of exercise, are applied in the deposition model.The dosimetric model of HRTM was implemented in the software EXCEL for Windows and committed equivalent dose was determined for each respiratory tract region. First it was calculated the total number of nuclear transformations considering the fractional deposition of activity in each source tissue obtained by application of physiological and morphological Brazilian parameters in the deposition model and then it was calculated the total energy absorbed per unit mass in the target tissue.The variation in the fractional deposition in the compartments of the respiratory tract in changing the physiological parameters from Caucasian to Brazilian adult man causes variation in the number of total transformations and also in the equivalent dose in each region of the respiratory tract. The variations are not the same for all regions of the respiratory tract and depend on levels of exercise. (author)

  15. The Role of Agriculture on the Recent Brazilian Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Spolador, Humberto Francisco Silva; Roe, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the contribution of the Brazilian agriculture to economic growth of the Brazilian economy. It draws upon the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) data base, and other time series data to construct a multi-sector Ramsey model that shows the transition growth of the Brazilian agricultural sector and its effects on growth of the Brazilian economy, with particular emphasis given to the years 1994–2010.

  16. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Rossy de Brito

    Full Text Available This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i with computers and Internet access, (ii with mobile phones, and (iii with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources.

  17. The Brazilian national system of forest permanent plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeda Maria Malheiros de Oliveira; Maria Augusta Doetzer Rosot; Patricia Povoa de Mottos; Joberto Veloso de Freitas; Guilherme Luis Augusto Gomide; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian National System of Forest Permanent Plots (SisPP) is a governmental initiative designed and being implemented in partnership by the Ministry of Environment (MMA), represented by the National Forest Programme (PNF) and the Brazilian Forest Service (SFB) and the Embrapa Forestry (a research center of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa...

  18. Directions and deviations in the Brazilian nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The emergence of the Brazilian nuclear policy as a subject of interest to the Brazilian society, the conflicts characterizing its formulation and implementation between 1945 and 1958 and the political criteria for executing a Brazilian nuclear program are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Utilization of the computational technic for the promotion and diffusion of the energy conservation practice; Utilizacion de tecnicas computacionales para promocionar y difundir el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, N. [Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial, Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper are presented the developments obtained through the application of the new computational technologies in the diffusion and promotion tasks of energy efficient use and conservation. The most relevant aspects are described of three multimedia courses that were designed in order to increase the possibilities of offering personal training in efficient energy technic, as well as to have on hand totally open consulting and interactive tools. The courses that are described are: ``Design of Energy Conservation Programs for the Industry``, ``Energy Conservation in Combustion Equipment`` and ``Energy Cogeneration Technologies.`` On another subject, an analysis is also made of the possibilities for the development and application of expert systems that advise and give support to the work of technicians and engineers dedicated to energy conservation. The main characteristics of an expert system to give support to the energy analysis of lighting industrial systems, malls, buildings and hotels are also described. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los desarrollos obtenidos por la aplicacion de las tareas de difusion y promocion del uso eficiente y ahorro de energia. Se describen los aspectos mas relevantes de tres cursos multimedia que fueron disenados con el objeto de incrementar las posibilidades de brindar capacitacion individualizada en tecnicas energeticas eficientes, asi como de contar con herramientas de consulta totalmente abiertas e interactivas. Los cursos que se describen son: ``Diseno de Programas de Ahorro de Energia en la Industria,`` ``Ahorro de Energia en Equipos de Combustion`` y ``Tecnologias de Cogeneracion de Energia.`` Por otro lado, tambien se hace un analisis de las posibilidades para el desarrollo y aplicacion de sistemas expertos que asesoren y apoyen el trabajo de tecnicos e ingenieros dedicados al ahorro de energia. Se describen las caracteristicas principales de un sistema experto disenado para brindar apoyo en analisis energeticos

  20. Utilization of the computational technic for the promotion and diffusion of the energy conservation practice; Utilizacion de tecnicas computacionales para promocionar y difundir el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, N [Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial, Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the developments obtained through the application of the new computational technologies in the diffusion and promotion tasks of energy efficient use and conservation. The most relevant aspects are described of three multimedia courses that were designed in order to increase the possibilities of offering personal training in efficient energy technic, as well as to have on hand totally open consulting and interactive tools. The courses that are described are: ``Design of Energy Conservation Programs for the Industry``, ``Energy Conservation in Combustion Equipment`` and ``Energy Cogeneration Technologies.`` On another subject, an analysis is also made of the possibilities for the development and application of expert systems that advise and give support to the work of technicians and engineers dedicated to energy conservation. The main characteristics of an expert system to give support to the energy analysis of lighting industrial systems, malls, buildings and hotels are also described. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los desarrollos obtenidos por la aplicacion de las tareas de difusion y promocion del uso eficiente y ahorro de energia. Se describen los aspectos mas relevantes de tres cursos multimedia que fueron disenados con el objeto de incrementar las posibilidades de brindar capacitacion individualizada en tecnicas energeticas eficientes, asi como de contar con herramientas de consulta totalmente abiertas e interactivas. Los cursos que se describen son: ``Diseno de Programas de Ahorro de Energia en la Industria,`` ``Ahorro de Energia en Equipos de Combustion`` y ``Tecnologias de Cogeneracion de Energia.`` Por otro lado, tambien se hace un analisis de las posibilidades para el desarrollo y aplicacion de sistemas expertos que asesoren y apoyen el trabajo de tecnicos e ingenieros dedicados al ahorro de energia. Se describen las caracteristicas principales de un sistema experto disenado para brindar apoyo en analisis energeticos

  1. UNA TECNICA ESTADISTICA PARA MEDIR LA CONFLICTIVIDAD SOCIAL A TRAVES DEL REGISTRO ARQUEOLOGICO (A Statistical Technique to Measure Social Conflict through the Archaeological Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta aqui una tecnica estadistica para medir la conflictividad social a traves del registro mortuorio. Nace al amparo del metodo de valoracion contextual empleado en el analisis de los ajuares funerarios desde 1993. Se trata de una herramienta fundamental para el desarrollo de la arqueologia de los fenomenos sociales, cuyos relevantes resultados empiricos avalan su trascendencia teorica. Tras proceder a su conceptualizacion en funcion de la desigualdad social y la riqueza relativa, se explican las dos clases de conflictividad social definidas: estructural o estatica y coyuntural o dinamica. Finalmente, se incluyen sus conexiones con la ley demografica de Malthus a traves de sus dos parametros: poblacion y recursos. Todo este entramado teorico se ilustra con algunas aplicaciones referidas a las civilizaciones antiguas, abarcando la protohistoria iberica, la Mesoamerica prehispanica o la Roma altoimperial. ENGLISH: A statistical technique to measure social conflict through the mortuary record is presented here. It is born under the contextual valuation method used in the analysis of grave goods since 1993. This is a fundamental tool for the development of the archaeology of social phenomena, whose relevant empirical results support its theoretical significance. After conveying its conceptualization in terms of social inequality and relative wealth, the two classes of social conflict are explained: static or structural and dynamic or conjunctural. Finally, connections with the Malthusian demographic law through its two parameters—population and resources—are included. The synthesis of these theoretical frameworks is illustrated with applications to ancient civilizations, including Iberian protohistory, prehispanic Mesoamerica, and early imperial Rome.

  2. Brazilian energy balance 2006: calendar year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 2006. It is divided into nine chapters: energy analysis and aggregated data; energy supply and consumption by source 1990/2005; energy consumption by sector 1990/2005; energy import and export 1990/2005; transformation center balances 1990/2005; Brazilian energy resources and reserves 1974/2005; energy and socio-economic 1990/2005; federal states data and appendices including installed capacity; world energy data; general structure of the Brazilian Energy Balance; treatment of information; conversion units and consolidated Energy Balance 1970-2005

  3. Indoor air quality in Brazilian universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Sonia R; Bankoff, Antônia D P; Sanchez, Andrea

    2014-07-11

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  4. The optimization of electric motors repair techniques as a mean for electric energy saving; La optimizacion de las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos como un medio para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagal Leon, Juan Ruben [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents, in a very concise, which are the techniques to optimize the electric motors repair made by the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), the loss of efficiency that might exist after repairing an electric motor, as well as the procedures to perform an optimum reparation of the electric motors. Furthermore, some recommendations are given for the selection of an adequate rewinding shop to guarantee that the motor does not suffer efficiency losses after its repair. [Espanol] Este trabajo presenta, de manera muy concreta, cuales son las tecnicas para optimizar las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos realizado por el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), el nivel de perdida de eficiencia que puede existir despues de reparar un motor electrico, asi como los procedimientos para realizar una optima reparacion en motores electricos. Asimismo, se proporcionan algunas recomendaciones para seleccionar un taller de reembobinado adecuado para garantizar que el motor no sufra perdidas de eficiencia despues de su reparacion.

  5. The optimization of electric motors repair techniques as a mean for electric energy saving; La optimizacion de las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos como un medio para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagal Leon, Juan Ruben [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    This paper presents, in a very concise, which are the techniques to optimize the electric motors repair made by the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), the loss of efficiency that might exist after repairing an electric motor, as well as the procedures to perform an optimum reparation of the electric motors. Furthermore, some recommendations are given for the selection of an adequate rewinding shop to guarantee that the motor does not suffer efficiency losses after its repair. [Espanol] Este trabajo presenta, de manera muy concreta, cuales son las tecnicas para optimizar las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos realizado por el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), el nivel de perdida de eficiencia que puede existir despues de reparar un motor electrico, asi como los procedimientos para realizar una optima reparacion en motores electricos. Asimismo, se proporcionan algunas recomendaciones para seleccionar un taller de reembobinado adecuado para garantizar que el motor no sufra perdidas de eficiencia despues de su reparacion.

  6. Chromosome studies on Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Regina Forni-Martins

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerrado is the Brazilian name for the neotropical savanna, which occurs mainly in Brazilian Central Plateau, composed of herbaceous-subshrubby and shrubby-arboreal floras, both of which are heliophilous, highly diverse and regionally differentiated. Considering species distribution and chromosome numbers, some authors have proposed that the herbaceous-subshrubby flora of the neotropical savanna is quite old, while the shrubby-arboreal flora is derived from forests, a hypothesis that implies higher chromosome numbers in the savanna than in the forest. If, however, chromosome numbers are similar in the cerrado and in forests, both could be similarly old, indicating that bi-directional flow of flora occurred in the past. This paper presents data on chromosome numbers and microsporogenesis for 20 species in 13 families collected in the States of São Paulo, Goiás and Minas Gerais, providing previously unpublished data for Myrcia (Myrtaceae, Luxemburgia (Ochnaceae and Hortia (Rutaceae. Meiosis proved to be normal, indicating regularity in the sexual reproductive process. Chromosome numbers varied from 2n = 18 (Allamanda angustifolia: Apocynaceae to 2n = ca. 104 (Ouratea spectabilis: Ochnaceae, being low (20 Cerrado é a palavra que, no Brasil, designa a savana neotropical, com área nuclear no Planalto Central, constituída de uma flora herbáceo-subarbustiva e outra arbustivo-arbórea, ambas heliófilas, altamente diversificadas e regionalmente diferenciadas. Considerando a distribuição de espécies e de números cromossômicos, alguns autores propuseram que a flora herbáceo-subarbustiva da savanna neotropical seria bastante antiga, enquanto a flora arbustivo-arbórea seria derivada das florestas Atlântica e Amazônica, uma hipótese que implica na ocorrência de números cromossômicos mais altos no cerrado que nas florestas. Porém, se os números cromossômicos forem similares no cerrado e nas florestas, ambos os tipos de formação poderiam

  7. Profile of the Brazilian scientific production in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araujo C.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the profile of the Brazilian output in the field of multiple sclerosis from 1981 to 2004. The search was conducted through the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, selecting papers in which the term "multiple sclerosis" was defined as the main topic and "Brazil" or "Brasil" as others. The data were analyzed regarding the themes, the state in Brazil and institution where the papers were produced, the journals where the papers were published, journal's impact factor, and language. The search disclosed 141 documents (91 from MEDLINE and LILACS, and 50 from LILACS only published in 44 different journals (23 of them MEDLINE-indexed. A total of 111 documents were produced by 17 public universities, 29 by 3 private medical schools and 1 by a non-governmental organization. There were 65 original contributions, 37 case reports, 20 reviews, 6 PhD dissertations, 5 guidelines, 2 validation studies, 2 clinical trials, 2 chapters in textbooks, 1 Master of Science thesis, and 1 patient education handout. The journal impact factor ranged from 0.0217 to 6.039 (median 3.03. Of 91 papers from MEDLINE, 65 were published by Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. More than 90% of the papers were written in Portuguese. São Paulo was the most productive state in the country, followed by Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Paraná. Eighty-two percent of the Brazilian output came from the Southeastern region.

  8. Musical instruments of Brazilian capoeira: Historical roots, symbolism, and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz

    2002-11-01

    This paper describes the historical roots, symbolism, and uses of musical instruments in capoeira. A martial art form of Afro-Brazilian origin, capoeira is rhythmically performed to music in a roda (i.e., circle). Capoeira is at times defined as a martial art form disguised as dance because it is rooted in the struggles of African slaves. Elements of music, dance, fight, and ritual are part of this unique martial art form, which has two main styles: Angola and Regional. Capoeira styles are important as they determine rhythmic patterns, chant, movement, and musical instrumentation in a roda. The leading instrument in all capoeira styles is the berimbau. The instrument dictates the rhythm and movement of capoeira players in a roda (Ilari, 2001). Made out of a wooden stick, a wire, and a gourd and played with a stick and a coin, the berimbau is considered a sacred instrument due to its association with the cry of the slaves. Other instruments used in capoeira are pandeiros, agogo bells, reco-recos, and atabaques. A discussion regarding the use of these instruments within the context of capoeira will be presented at the conference. The incorporation of these instruments into contemporary Brazilian music will also be considered.

  9. Frequency of CCR5delta32 in Brazilian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Vargas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 103 randomly chosen healthy individuals from Alegrete, RS, Brazil, was tested for the CCR5delta32 allele, which is known to influence susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. The CCR5delta32 allele was identified by PCR amplification using specific primers flanking the region of deletion, followed by electrophoresis on a 3% agarose gel. The data obtained were compared to those reported for other populations and interpreted in terms of Brazilian history. The individuals studied came from a highly admixed population. Most of them were identified as white (N = 59, while blacks and browns (mulattoes were N = 13 and N = 31, respectively. The observed frequencies, considering the white, black and brown samples (6.8, 3.8, and 6.4%, respectively, suggest an important European parental contribution, even in populations identified as black and brown. However, in Brazil as a whole, this allele shows gradients indicating a relatively good correlation with the classification based on skin color and other physical traits, used here to define major Brazilian population groups.

  10. Brazilian agriculture and environmental legislation: status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparovek, Gerd; Berndes, Göran; Klug, Israel L F; Barretto, Alberto G O P

    2010-08-15

    Brazilian agriculture covers about one-third of the land area and is expected to expand further. We assessed the compliance of present Brazilian agriculture with environmental legislation and identified challenges for agricultural development connected to this legislation. We found (i) minor illegal land use in protected areas under public administration, (ii) a large deficit in legal reserves and protected riparian zones on private farmland, and (iii) large areas of unprotected natural vegetation in regions experiencing agriculture expansion. Achieving full compliance with the environmental laws as they presently stand would require drastic changes in agricultural land use, where large agricultural areas are taken out of production and converted back to natural vegetation. The outcome of a full compliance with environmental legislation might not be satisfactory due to leakage, where pristine unprotected areas become converted to compensate for lost production as current agricultural areas are reconverted to protected natural vegetation. Realizing the desired protection of biodiversity and natural vegetation, while expanding agriculture to meet food and biofuel demand, may require a new approach to environmental protection. New legal and regulatory instruments and the establishment of alternative development models should be considered.

  11. Estimate of consumption of phenolic compounds by Brazilian population

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    Vanesa Gesser Corrêa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the intake of phenolic compounds by the Brazilian population. METHODS: To estimate the average per capita food consumption, micro data from the National Dietary Survey and from the Household Budget Survey from 2008 to 2009 was analyzed. The phenolic content in food was estimated from the base of Phenol-Explorer. It was chosen according to compatibility and variety of food items and usual method of preparation. RESULTS: The Brazilian population consumed, on average, 460.15 mg/day of total phenolic compounds, derived mainly from beverages (48.9%, especially coffee and legumes (19.5%. Since this analysis of classes of phenolics it was possible to observe an intake of 314 mg/day of phenolic acids, 138.92 mg/day of flavonoids and 7.16 mg/ day of other kinds of phenolics. Regarding the variables studied this present study shows that those men who live in the countryside and in the northeastern region of the country had a higher consumption of phenolic compounds. Besides, consumption was higher by adults and the elderly, the medium income classes, the population with incomplete and complete primary education and those with adequate nutrition and also overweight status. CONCLUSION: The intake of phenolic compounds can be considered low, especially where consumption of fruit and vegetables is insufficient. We can conclude that coffee and black beans were the best contributors to phenolic intake.

  12. Key Features of Governance in Brazilian Science and Technology Parks

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    Milton Correia Sampaio Filho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The situation of Brazilian Science and Technology Parks (STPs operation led to the field research. Even with the public policy of stimulus and support of associations, nothing has been mapped on the dissemination of results (economic growth and regional development. This scenario instigates the question: What are the governance characteristics of Brazilian Science and Technology Parks? A empirical field research was developed, taking into consideration the possibility of replication trought the registration of the choice criteria in the multiple cases and trought research detalhes and data colection. Eight STPs (TECNOPUC - Porto Alegre, Valetec - Novo Hamburgo, Tecnosinos - Sao Leopoldo, Unicamp, CIATEC and TECHNOPARK - Campinas, Rio Park - Rio de Janeiro and SergipeTec participated in research. The results and considerations about the research question allows to infer the little effectiveness of governance (without qualitative or quantitative performance indicators is possibly caused by tensions characterized by elements such as heterogeneity in characteristics of organizations that are part of STPs, lack of consensus on common goals, pressure forces and influences affecting trusts, nonconformity standards and personal and organizational preferences. Leadership relations championed by the government and / or companies can negatively influence the STP's performance as a whole.

  13. Construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adami Fernando

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Figure rating scales were developed as a tool to determine body dissatisfaction in women, men, and children. However, it lacks in the literature the validation of the scale for body silhouettes previously adapted. We aimed to obtain evidence for construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents. Methods The study was carried out with adolescent students attending three public schools in an urban region of the municipality of Florianopolis in the State of Santa Catarina (SC. The sample comprised 232 10-19-year-old students, 106 of whom are boys and 126 girls, from the 5th "series" (i.e. year of Primary School to the 3rd year of Secondary School. Data-gathering involved the application of an instrument containing 8 body figure drawings representing a range of children's and adolescents' body shapes, ranging from very slim (contour 1 to obese (contour 8. Weights and heights were also collected, and body mass index (BMI was calculated later. BMI was analyzed as a continuous variable, using z-scores, and as a dichotomous categorical variable, representing a diagnosis of nutritional status (normal and overweight including obesity. Results Results showed that both males and females with larger BMI z-scores chose larger body contours. Girls with higher BMI z-scores also show higher values of body image dissatisfaction. Conclusion We provided the first evidence of validity for a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents.

  14. Clinical investigations for SUS, the Brazilian public health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Ana Patrícia de; Giozza, Silvana Pereira; Pereira, Michelle Zanon; Boaventura, Patrícia Souza; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Sachetti, Camile Giaretta; Tamayo, César Omar Carranza; Kowalski, Clarissa Campos Guaragna; Elias, Flavia Tavares Silva; Serruya, Suzanne Jacob; Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2012-01-01

    Scientific and technological development is crucial for advancing the Brazilian health system and for promoting quality of life. The way in which the Brazilian Ministry of Health has supported clinical research to provide autonomy, self-sufficiency, competitiveness and innovation for the healthcare industrial production complex, in accordance with the National Policy on Science, Technology and Innovation in Healthcare, was analyzed. Descriptive investigation, based on secondary data, conducted at the Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Health. The Ministry of Health's research management database, PesquisaSaúde, was analyzed from 2002 to 2009, using the key word "clinical research" in the fields "primary sub-agenda" or "secondary sub-agenda". The 368 projects retrieved were sorted into six categories: basic biomedical research, preclinical studies, expanded clinical research, clinical trials, infrastructure support and health technology assessment. From a structured review on "clinical research funding", results from selected countries are presented and discussed. The amount invested was R$ 140 million. The largest number of projects supported "basic biomedical research", while the highest amounts invested were in "clinical trials" and "infrastructure support". The southeastern region had the greatest proportion of projects and financial resources. In some respects, Brazil is ahead of other BRICS countries (Russia, India, China and South Africa), especially with regard to establishing a National Clinical Research Network. The Ministry of Health ensured investments to encourage clinical research in Brazil and contributed towards promoting cohesion between investigators, health policies and the healthcare industrial production complex.

  15. Body physique and proportionality of Brazilian female artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciotti, Sarita; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Gaya, Adroaldo; Maia, José

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to identify physique characteristics (anthropometry, somatotype, body proportionality) of Brazilian female artistic gymnasts, and to compare them across competitive levels (sub-elite versus non-elite) within competitive age-categories. Two hundred forty-nine female gymnasts (68 sub-elite; 181 non-elite) from 26 Brazilian gymnastics clubs, aged 9-20 years and split into four age-categories, were sampled. Gymnasts were assessed for 16 anthropometric traits (height, weight, lengths, widths, girths, and skinfolds); somatotype was determined according to Heath-Carter method, body fat was estimated by bioimpedance, and proportionality was computed based on the z-phantom strategy. Non-elite and sub-elite gymnasts had similar values in anthropometric characteristics, however non-elite had higher fat folds in all age-categories (P < 0.01). In general, mesomorphy was the salient somatotype component in all age-categories, and an increase in endomorphy, followed by a decrease in ectomorphy across age was observed. Regarding proportionality, profile similarity was found between sub-elite and non-elite within age-categories. In conclusion results suggest the presence of a typical gymnast's physical prototype across age and competitive level, which can be useful to coaches during their selection processes in clubs and regional/national teams.

  16. Spatial patterns of fish standing biomass across Brazilian reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, R A; Ferreira, C E L; Floeter, S R

    2017-12-01

    A large fish-count dataset from the Brazilian province was used to describe spatial patterns in standing biomass and test if total biomass, taxonomic and functional trophic structure vary across nested spatial scales. Taxonomic and functional structure varied more among localities and sites than among regions. Total biomass was generally higher at oceanic islands and remote or protected localities along the coast. Lower level carnivores comprised a large part of the biomass at almost all localities (mean of 44%), zooplanktivores never attained more than 14% and omnivores were more representative of subtropical reefs and oceanic islands (up to 66% of total biomass). Small and large herbivores and detritivores varied greatly in their contribution to total biomass, with no clear geographical patterns. Macrocarnivores comprised less than 12% of the biomass anywhere, except for two remote localities. Top predators, such as sharks and very large groupers, were rare and restricted to a few reefs, suggesting that their ecological function might have already been lost in many Brazilian reefs. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. TECHNOLOGY REPRESENTATION IN SOME BRAZILIAN POEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubel Maria Fanini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article analyses how the universe of technology and labour are depicted in literary terms in some Brazilian poems from the writers Castro Alves, Mario de Andrade and Oswald de Andrade. The poets portray this universe in the following approaches: modern technology dissociated from the Brazilian context painted as traditional and archaic; associated to industrial production and to workers’ exploitation; linked to high class entertainment and as an imported good subjected to central capitalistic economies, facing difficulties to be aggregated to local production.

  18. Brazilian emergency planning for radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Brazilian emergency planning for radiological accidents is organized to respond promptly to any emergency at nuclear power plants or other installations utilizing nuclear fuel. It consists of several committees: a general coordination committee with representatives from several federal departments, with final decision with the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), and the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (SEMA). Some committees conduct support activities. For example, the Operational Coordination Committee supervises the tasks undertaken by the Army, Navy, and Air Force in response to the needs and decisions of the general coordination committee

  19. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; dos Santos, Debora França; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Tavares, Bruno Mendes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students). Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6). Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old) who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits.

  20. The importance of financial institutions for the development of the Brazilian Amazon: An application of the social accounting matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Cutrim Carvalho, André; Ferreira Carvalho, David

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental purpose of this article is intended to measure the economic impacts that the regional financial institutions are providing along the chain of values of the productive activities located in the Brazilian Amazon and their impacts on economic activities through the Social Accounting Matrix. The main conclusion is that to break the status quo in the region, it is necessary to set a national regional development policy that favors the formation of vertically integrated production c...

  1. Genetic structure and natal origins of immature hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata in Brazilian waters.

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    Maira C Proietti

    Full Text Available Understanding the connections between sea turtle populations is fundamental for their effective conservation. Brazil hosts important hawksbill feeding areas, but few studies have focused on how they connect with nesting populations in the Atlantic. Here, we (1 characterized mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes of immature hawksbills feeding along the coast of Brazil (five areas ranging from equatorial to temperate latitudes, 157 skin samples, (2 analyzed genetic structure among Atlantic hawksbill feeding populations, and (3 inferred natal origins of hawksbills in Brazilian waters using genetic, oceanographic, and population size information. We report ten haplotypes for the sampled Brazilian sites, most of which were previously observed at other Atlantic feeding grounds and rookeries. Genetic profiles of Brazilian feeding areas were significantly different from those in other regions (Caribbean and Africa, and a significant structure was observed between Brazilian feeding grounds grouped into areas influenced by the South Equatorial/North Brazil Current and those influenced by the Brazil Current. Our genetic analysis estimates that the studied Brazilian feeding aggregations are mostly composed of animals originating from the domestic rookeries Bahia and Pipa, but some contributions from African and Caribbean rookeries were also observed. Oceanographic data corroborated the local origins, but showed higher connection with West Africa and none with the Caribbean. High correlation was observed between origins estimated through genetics/rookery size and oceanographic/rookery size data, demonstrating that ocean currents and population sizes influence haplotype distribution of Brazil's hawksbill populations. The information presented here highlights the importance of national conservation strategies and international cooperation for the recovery of endangered hawksbill turtle populations.

  2. Geochemistry of some Brazilian rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira-Nordemann, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Concentrations of the totality of the dissolved salts and sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and uranium were measured in ten rivers belonging to three hydrografic basins located in Northeastern Brazil. Activity ratios U 234 /U 238 were also measured. A correlation was done between the results obtained and the geological and climatic context of these regions. Sodium is the most abundant element in the waters, except for rivers flowing in callcareous regions for which calcium is predominant. The concentrations of the major cations are function of the regional lithology whereas water salinity depends on climatic factors. (Author) [pt

  3. Brazilian energy statistics - 1988. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane and some information about the Brazilian Action Plan for the petroleum sector, nuclear energy, ecology and Chernobyl. Graphs, annual statistics and long range data of electric power, petroleum and derivates, natural gas, coal and alcohol are also included. 19 figs., 15 tabs

  4. 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology and 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Immunology, virology, bacteriology, genetics and protozoology are some of the subjects treated in the 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology. Studies using radioisotopic techniques and ultrastructural cytological studies are presented. Use of optical - and electron microscopy in some of these studies is discussed. In the 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy, the application of this technique to materials science is discussed (failure analysis in metallurgy, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, etc). (I.C.R.) [pt

  5. Pitiose eqüina no Pantanal brasileiro: aspectos clínico-patológicos de casos típicos e atípicos Equine pythiosis in the Brazilian Pantanal region: clinical and pathological findings of typical and atypical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana B. Monteiro Leal

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A pitiose eqüina é doença endêmica no Pantanal Brasileiro e causa prejuízos significativos a eqüinocultura. Neste trabalho são relatados 16 casos de pitiose subcutânea em eqüinos no Pantanal Sul-Matogrossense, que foram divididos em onze casos típicos e cinco casos atípicos, de acordo com o quadro clínico e o tempo de duração das lesões. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pela detecção de anticorpos específicos pelo teste ELISA, isolamento do agente e histopato-lógico. A duração da doença variou entre 1 e 6 meses nos casos típicos e superior a 12 meses nos casos atípicos. As lesões dos casos típicos caracterizavam-se por granulomas subcutâneos, ulcerados, com abundante secreção serossangui-nolenta e prurido. Nos casos atípicos foram observadas lesões subcutâneas caracterizadas por grandes massas "tumorais" circunscritas, recobertas por pele escura, sem ulcerações e com pouca secreção. Os animais estavam em bom estado nutricional e as lesões apresentavam-se de aspecto organizado, às vezes pedunculadas. Histologicamente, foi observado tecido de granulação com muitos eosinófilos nos casos típicos, enquanto os atípicos, se caracterizaram por hiperplasia pseudo-epiteliomatosa da epiderme e infiltrado eosinofílico. As características clínicas e histopato-lógicas completas das duas formas clínicas e os possíveis fatores responsáveis pelas diferenças entre as duas formas são apresentados e discutidos.Equine pythiosis is an endemic disease of horses and causes significant economic losses to equine breeding in the Brazilian Pantanal. This article describes 16 cases of subcutaneous pythiosis in horses from that region. The clinical cases were divided in typical (11 and atypical (5, according to the clinical features and duration of the disease. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by detection of specific antibodies by ELISA, isolation of the agent and histopathology. The duration of the disease varied from 1

  6. Resistência natural de nove madeiras do semiárido brasileiro a fungos xilófagos em simulares de campo Natural resistance of nine woods from the Brazilian semi-arid region to wood-destroying fungi in field simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram avaliar a resistência de nove madeiras de ocorrência no semiárido brasileiro a fungos xilófagos em simuladores de campo e relacionar a resistência natural com a densidade e teor de substâncias extraídas em água quente. As madeiras estudadas foram algaroba (Prosopis juliflora, angico-vermelho (Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva, braúna (Schinopsis brasiliensis, cássia (Senna siamea, craibeira (Tabebuia aurea, cumaru (Amburana cearensis, pau-d'arco (Tabebuia impetiginosa e pereiro (Aspidosperma pyrifolium. De cada espécie foram retirados corpos-de-prova de 0,5 x 1,5 x 15,0 cm, com a maior dimensão na direção das fibras, em quatro posições na direção medula-casca do tronco. As amostras permaneceram por 180 dias sob ação da microflora natural existente em três tipos de solos: de floresta, de uso agrícola e com gramíneas. Em todas as madeiras ensaiadas, a resistência ao apodrecimento foi afetada pela posição na direção medula-casca. Apenas na aroeira a resistência da madeira esteve associada à sua densidade e à quantidade de extrativos solúveis em água quente. A resistência das madeiras de algaroba, angico, craibeira e pau-d'arco não esteve associada à densidade nem ao teor de extrativos. O alburno foi a posição mais atacada em todos os solos analisados. Entre os solos testados, o de uso agrícola apresentou menos atividade biológica, deteriorando menos as madeiras testadas.The objectives of this research were to evaluate the natural resistance of nine woods from the Brazilian semi-arid region to fungi under field simulator condition and to correlate the wood natural resistance with the wood density and the content of extractives soluble in hot water. The studied woods were Prosopis juliflora, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Senna siamea, Tabebuia aurea, Amburana cearensis, Tabebuia

  7. Resistência natural de nove madeiras do semi-árido brasileiro a fungos xilófagos em condições de laboratório Natural resistance of nine woods of Brazilian semi-arid region to wood-destroying fungi under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a resistência natural de nove madeiras do semi-árido brasileiro a fungos xilófagos, em condições de laboratório. As madeiras estudadas foram a algaroba (Prosopis juliflora, o angico (Anadenanthera macrocarpa, a aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva, a braúna (Schinopsis brasiliensis, a cássia (Senna siamea, a craibeira (Tabebuia aurea, o cumaru (Amburana cearensis, o ipê (Tabebuia impetiginosa e o pereiro (Aspidosperma pyrifolium. De cada espécie foram retirados corpos-de-prova de 2,54 x 2,00 x 1,00 cm, com a maior dimensão na direção das fibras, em quatro posições na direção medula-casca. As amostras foram submetidas, por 14 semanas, à ação dos fungos Postia placenta e Neolentinus lepideus. A resistência natural, com exceção da algaroba e do angico (P. placenta, da craibeira (N. lepideus e da cássia (P. placenta e N. lepideus, foi afetada pela posição na direção medula-casca, sem estar relacionada à densidade das madeiras ensaiadas. A madeira de ipê e a madeira de cerne da aroeira e braúna foram as mais resistentes aos fungos testados. As diferenças entre a resistência natural, exceto para a aroeira e braúna, não estavam associadas à concentração de extrativos solúveis em água quente.The objective of this research was to evaluate the natural resistance of nine semi arid region Brazilian woods to wood-destroying fungi under laboratory conditions. The studied woods were the Prosopis juliflora, Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Senna siamea, Tabebuia aurea, Amburana cearensis, Tabebuia impetiginosa and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. Test samples measuring 2.54 x 2.00 x 1.00 cm, with the largest measure taken fiber-wise were obtained from four pith-to-bark positions. The samples were submitted to action of the Postia placenta and Neolentinus lepideus fungi for 14 weeks. Species resistance, with exception of those of Prosopis juliflora and Anadenanthera

  8. Profile of Brazilian scientific production on A/H1N1 pandemic influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchs, Adriana

    2012-06-01

    In the last few years, bibliometric studies have proliferated, seeking to provide data on world research. This study analyzes the profile of the Brazilian scientific production in the A (H1N1) influenza field between 2009 and 2011. The research was conducted in MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS databases, selecting papers in which the term "H1N1" and "Brazil" were defined as the main topics. The data were analyzed taking into consideration the Brazilian state and institution in which the articles were produced, the impact factor of the journal and the language. The research revealed 40 documents (27 from MEDLINE, 16 from SciELO and 24 from LILACS). The journal impact factor ranged from 0.0977 to 8.1230. A similar amount of articles were written in English and Portuguese and São Paulo was the most productive state in the country, with 95% of the Brazilian production originating from the Southern and Southeastern regions. Linguistic data indicate that previous efforts made in order to improve the scientific production of Brazilian researchers making their observations attain a broader scientific audience produced results. It is necessary to assess the scientific studies, especially those conducted with public funds, in order to ensure that the results will benefit society.

  9. Structure and genetic diversity of natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvares-Carvalho, S V; Duarte, J F; Santos, T C; Santos, R M; Silva-Mann, R; Carvalho, D

    2016-06-17

    In the face of a possible loss of genetic diversity in plants due the environmental changes, actions to ensure the genetic variability are an urgent necessity. The extraction of Brazilian pepper fruits is a cause of concern because it results in the lack of seeds in soil, hindering its distribution in space and time. It is important to address this concern and explore the species, used by riparian communities and agro-factories without considering the need for keeping the seeds for natural seed banks and for species sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure and the genetic diversity in natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi). Twenty-two alleles in 223 individuals were identified from eight forest remnants located in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, and Sergipe. All populations presented loci in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviation. Four populations presented six combinations of loci in linkage disequilibrium. Six exclusive alleles were detected in four populations. Analysis of molecular variance showed the absence of diversity between regions and that between the populations (GST) was 41%. Genetic diversity was structured in seven clusters (ΔK7). Brazilian pepper populations were not structured in a pattern of isolation by distance and present genetic bottleneck. The populations São Mateus, Canastra, Barbacena, and Ilha das Flores were identified as management units and may support conservation projects, ecological restoration and in implementation of management plans for Brazilian pepper in the State of Sergipe.

  10. Acromioclavicular dislocation: treatment and rehabilitation. Current perspectives and trends among Brazilian orthopedists☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Utino, Artur Yudi; Nishimura, Eduardo Misao; Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Astur, Diego Costa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the approaches and procedures used by Brazilian orthopedic surgeons in treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation of the shoulder. Methods A questionnaire comprising eight closed questions that addressed topics relating to treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation was applied to Brazilian orthopedic surgeons over the three days of the 45th Brazilian Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in 2013. Results A total of 122 surgeons completely filled out the questionnaire and formed part of the sample analyzed. Most of them came from the southeastern region of the country. In this sample, 67% of the participants would choose surgical treatment for patients with grade 3 acromioclavicular dislocation. Regarding the preferred technique for surgical treatment of acute acromioclavicular dislocation, a majority of the surgeons used subcoracoid ligature with acromioclavicular fixation and transfer of the coracoacromial ligament (25.4%). Regarding complications found after surgery had been performed, 43.4% and 32.8% of the participants, respectively, stated that residual deformity of the operated joint and pain were the complications most seen during the postoperative period. Conclusions Although there was no consensus regarding the treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation, evolution had occurred in some of the topics analyzed in this questionnaire applied to Brazilian orthopedists. However, further controlled prospective studies are needed in order to evaluate the clinical and scientific benefit of these trends. PMID:26535196

  11. Acromioclavicular dislocation: treatment and rehabilitation. Current perspectives and trends among Brazilian orthopedists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Utino, Artur Yudi; Nishimura, Eduardo Misao; Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Astur, Diego Costa

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the approaches and procedures used by Brazilian orthopedic surgeons in treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation of the shoulder. A questionnaire comprising eight closed questions that addressed topics relating to treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation was applied to Brazilian orthopedic surgeons over the three days of the 45th Brazilian Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in 2013. A total of 122 surgeons completely filled out the questionnaire and formed part of the sample analyzed. Most of them came from the southeastern region of the country. In this sample, 67% of the participants would choose surgical treatment for patients with grade 3 acromioclavicular dislocation. Regarding the preferred technique for surgical treatment of acute acromioclavicular dislocation, a majority of the surgeons used subcoracoid ligature with acromioclavicular fixation and transfer of the coracoacromial ligament (25.4%). Regarding complications found after surgery had been performed, 43.4% and 32.8% of the participants, respectively, stated that residual deformity of the operated joint and pain were the complications most seen during the postoperative period. Although there was no consensus regarding the treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation, evolution had occurred in some of the topics analyzed in this questionnaire applied to Brazilian orthopedists. However, further controlled prospective studies are needed in order to evaluate the clinical and scientific benefit of these trends.

  12. Cultural diversity in Brazilian children’s literature: The project Literatura em Minha Casa in question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Ferreira de Paula

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to search for representations of Brazilian cultural diversity in children’s literature of the Programa Nacional Biblioteca da Escola [National Program of School Library] (PNBE, in the editions of 2001, 2002, and 2003, years of the project Literatura em Minha Casa [Literature in My House], especially those addressed to fourth and fifth grades of Elementary School. The selection criteria of works claimed that the collections should “[…] present a small picture of the Brazilian culture […]” (Brasil, 2001; 2002; 2003, p. 12, understanding that culture as characterized by diversity. Therefore, the analysis was divided into two phases: the first dealt with ethnic plurality and the second with culture and regionalism. In general, the results showed that among 120 works analyzed, 15 had ethnic-racial diversity and 12 works presented aspects of regionalism and culture from different parts of Brazil.

  13. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, R; Costa, C H; Lopes, A J; Maiworm, A I; Maynard, K; Silva, L M R A; Dias, R M

    2017-03-02

    The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%), 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%), and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT). This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index). From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method). Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9). The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5), and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used.

  14. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  15. National Bioethics Council: a Brazilian proposal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrafa, V.; Have, H.A.M.J. ten

    2010-01-01

    The number of national bioethics commissions has burgeoned since the establishment of the first one in 1983. They provide an arena in which stakeholders with widely differing moral views can discuss, interact and negotiate about controversial matters. The establishment of the Brazilian committee is

  16. The new Brazilian legislation on nuclear protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Denise

    1981-10-01

    This paper considers the new system on nuclear protection in Brazil which was established to integrate all government agencies and private bodies involved in nuclear activities. The role of each organisation is analysed in relation to the Brazilian political and administrative structure, in particular that of the Nuclear Energy Commission. (NEA) [fr

  17. The Brazilian investment in science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro-Machado R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999. In contrast, a great increase in private investments in research was acknowledged both by industry and by the government during the same period, from US$ 2.12 to US$ 4.64 billion. However, this investment did not result in an increase in invention patents granted to residents (492 in 1990 and only 232 in 1997 or in a reduction of patent costs. Despite this unfavorable scenario, the number of graduate programs in the country has increased two-fold in the last decade and the contribution of Brazilians to the database of the Institute for Scientific Information has increased 4.7-fold from 1990 (2,725 scientific publications to 2000 (12,686 scientific publications. Unstable federal resources for science, together with the poor returns of private resources in terms of developing new technologies, may jeopardize the future of Brazilian technological development.

  18. Analogies in high school Brazilian chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária Justi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an analysis of the analogies presented by Brazilian chemistry textbooks for the medium level. The main aim of the analysis is to discuss whether such analogies can be said good teaching models. From the results, some aspects concerning with teachers' role are discussed. Finally, some new research questions are emphasised.

  19. Land Use Dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Walker

    1996-01-01

    The articles presented in this special issue of Ecological Economics address the important theme of land use dynamics as it pertains to the Brazilian Amazon. Much environmental change is an ecological artifact of human agency, and such agency is often manifested in land use impacts, particularly in tropical areas. The critical problem of tropical deforestation is but...

  20. Sports injuries in Brazilian blind footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno e Silva, M P; Morato, M P; Bilzon, J L J; Duarte, E

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes, 11 succumbed to some form of injury during the 5 competitions, which incorporated 23 matches, representing a prevalence of 84.6%. A total of 35 sports injuries were recorded, giving a clinical incidence of 2.7 injuries per athlete and an injury risk of 0.85 and an incidence rate of 0.12 injuries per match. Traumatic injuries (80%) were more common than overuse injuries (20%) (psports-related injuries in 5-a-side football in blind athletes. The results are important in guiding strategies to inform the implementation of preventive pathways and provide a strong rationale for the compulsory use of additional protective equipment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Brazilian Development vs. the Amazonian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    We may be involved in a replay of the Indian genocide and dislocation characteristic of early U.S. history through the workings of international economics. This historical account briefly outlines the recent economic developments in the Brazilian Amazon, the effects that those policies have on the natives, and the United States' involvement in…

  2. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna

  3. Earning management in Brazilian financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aims to study earnings management in a significant sample of 123 banks in the Brazilian market between 2001 and 2012. Given the important role that banks play in a country's economy, it is important to understand that there are discretionary factors involved in the reporting of a financial institution's profitability. Credit provisioning guidelines for Brazilian financial institutions are described in Resolution 2682/99 of the National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional. Because of the discretion allowed in this resolution, loan loss provision is used as instrument of earnings management, which is not an illegal practice, but this behavior does affect the risk perception of agents and analysts, and they should be aware of it and understand it. We found that credit provisioning is used as an earnings management mechanism to smooth the net income of Brazilian financial institutions. Brazilian banks tend to avoid not only negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes, but also negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes in relation to the previous period. Contrary to the previous studies, it is not clear if banks avoid lower net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes than a given peer group.

  4. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L.

  5. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The Plan of Action on Science, Technology and Innovation (PACT 2007-2010) of the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI), aligned to the governmental strategies for the Brazilian Nuclear Program, established as a goal the study and definition of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). The RMB research reactor is designed to perform three main functions: radioisotope production for medicine, industry, agriculture and environmental applications; fuel and material irradiation testing in support to the Brazilian nuclear energy program; and to provide neutron beams for scientific and applied research. The main project facilities are: nuclear pool type reactor with a flux level compatible to the multipurpose uses; hot cells laboratory for Mo-99 and I-131 processing; hot cells laboratory for radioisotope processing; hot cells laboratory for irradiated material post irradiation analysis; neutron beams laboratory building with scientific equipment and instrumentation for researching; radiochemistry laboratory; radioactive waste treatment facility; support laboratories for operation and researching; and buildings for researchers and operators. This speech presents the RMB project status, giving some technical and management details on its development and its future perspectives for new jobs in research activities for the Brazilian technical and scientific community. (author)

  6. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The Plan of Action on Science, Technology and Innovation (PACT 2007-2010) of the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI), aligned to the governmental strategies for the Brazilian Nuclear Program, established as a goal the study and definition of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). The RMB research reactor is designed to perform three main functions: radioisotope production for medicine, industry, agriculture and environmental applications; fuel and material irradiation testing in support to the Brazilian nuclear energy program; and to provide neutron beams for scientific and applied research. The main project facilities are: nuclear pool type reactor with a flux level compatible to the multipurpose uses; hot cells laboratory for Mo-99 and I-131 processing; hot cells laboratory for radioisotope processing; hot cells laboratory for irradiated material post irradiation analysis; neutron beams laboratory building with scientific equipment and instrumentation for researching; radiochemistry laboratory; radioactive waste treatment facility; support laboratories for operation and researching; and buildings for researchers and operators. This speech presents the RMB project status, giving some technical and management details on its development and its future perspectives for new jobs in research activities for the Brazilian technical and scientific community. (author)

  7. CNEN activities and brazilian nuclear power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, E.M. da

    1989-01-01

    The goal of the brazilian policy in nuclear power is to provide its use in a pacific way to promote the well being of our people. It is intended, as well, to finish the construction of Angra II and III and proceed with the implementation of the nuclear fuel cycle, progressively fomenting its nationalization. (A.C.A.S.)

  8. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy and regular physical activity (structured exercise represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  9. Uranium enrichment : global view and Brazilian perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, D.M.; Sakamoto, L.H.

    1981-12-01

    A global view of isotope enrichment involving a general description of process (technical-economical aspects and policy) and status in developing countries is done. An enrichment demand in function of the Brazilian Nuclear Program is evaluated, analyzing a probable market and a low market. The perspectives to attend this demand, are studied. (E.G.) [pt

  10. A Grammar of Spoken Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Earl W.

    This is a first-year text of Portuguese grammar based on the Portuguese of moderately educated Brazilians from the area around Rio de Janeiro. Spoken idiomatic usage is emphasized. An important innovation is found in the presentation of verb tenses; they are presented in the order in which the native speaker learns them. The text is intended to…

  11. The Brazilian business and growth cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauvet Marcelle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses several produceres to date and analyse the Brazilian business and growth cycles. In particular, a Markov switching model is fitted to quarterly and annual real production data. The smoothed probabilities of the Markov states are used as predictive rules to define different phases of cyclical fluctuations of real Brazilian production. The results are compared with different non-parametric rules. All methods implemented yield similar dating and reveal asymmetries across the different states of the Brazilian business and growth cycles, in which slowdowns and recessions are short and abrupt, while high growth phases and expansions are longer and less steep. The resulting dating of the Brazilian economic cycles can be used as a reference point for construction and evaluation of the predictive performance of coincident, leading, or lagging indicators of economic activity. In addition, the filtered probabilities obtained from the Markov switching model allow early recognition of the transition to a new business cycle phase, wich can be used, for example, for evaluation of the adequate strength and timing of countercyclical policies, for reassessment of projected sales or profits by businesses and investors, or for monitoring of inflation pressures.

  12. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Soares, Adalberto Jose

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also presents the

  13. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Soares, Adalberto Jose [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also

  14. Techniques Which Aid in Quantitative Interpretation of Scan Data; Methodes Facilitant l'Interpretation Quantitative des Scintigrammes; Metody, oblegchayushchie kolichestvennuyu interpretatsiyu dannykh skennirovaniya; Tecnicas Que Facilitan la Interpretacion Cuantitativa de los Datos Centelleograficos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charleston, D. B.; Beck, R. N.; Eidelberg, P.; Schuh, M. W. [Argonne Cancer Research Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1964-10-15

    correspondant a un degre de densite de l'echelle. Ces courbes permettent la visualisation du taux de comptage pour la region consideree ou retablissement d'une carte en profil. Des scintigrammes avec ou sans accentuation du contraste et avec ou sans ' retard ' du au circuit d'integration, et des scintigrammes a traces de dimensions et de formes differentes ont e te obtenus dans les conditions statistiques identiques, au moyen de releves multiples, lors de l'exploration d'un fantome a l'aide d'un systeme a un seul detecteur. La comparaison directe de scintigrammes, associee a la representation cartographique des coups par unite de surface, fa c ilite l 'interpretation des resultats. Les positions exactes des appareils doivent etre indiquees dans les enregistrements. La difference relative (exprimee en pourcentage) de l'a c tiv ite qu'accusent les regions a examiner sur les faces opposees de la te te est calculee a partir des donnees accumulees grace a la multi-e che lle dont est muni le dispositif de scintigraphie du cerveau du Cancer Research Hospital d'Argonne. (author) [Spanish] La memoria trata de diversas tecnicas que facilitan la evaluacion e interpretacion de los datos centelleograficos. La mas sencilla es la simple calibracion interna de representaciones fotograficas; en las mas complicadas se emplea un equipo auxiliar bastante complejo para alimentar una calculadora electronica con los datos numericos acumulados durante la exploracion. Un metodo directo y sumamente u til consiste en em p le ar un generador de impulsos a leatorios para producir una cuna escalonada y calibrada de puntos que se proyecta sobre una pelicula por medio de la misma fuente luminosa empleada durante la exploracion. Ese metodo permite comparar las densidades de exposicion en las regiones de interes del centelleograma con regiones similares de la cuna, directamente calibradas en unidades de indice de recuento. El equipo auxiliar, entre el que figura un analizador multicanal empleado en forma de

  15. A source of methane from upland forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaina Braga do Carmo; Michael Keller; Jadson Dezincourt Dias; Plinio Barbosa de Camargo; Patrick Crill

    2006-01-01

    We sampled air in the canopy layer of undisturbed upland forests during wet and dry seasons at three sites in the Brazilian Amazon region and found that both methane(CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios increased at night. Such increases were consistent across sites and seasons. A canopy layer budget model based on measured soil-atmosphere fluxes of CO2 was...

  16. Ten-Year Landsat Classification of Deforestation and Forest Degradation in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Jr, Carlos Souza,; Siqueira, João; Sales, Marcio; Fonseca, Antônio; Ribeiro, Júlia; Numata, Izaya; Cochrane, Mark; Barber, Christopher; Roberts, Dar; Barlow, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Forest degradation in the Brazilian Amazon due to selective logging and forest fires may greatly increase the human footprint beyond outright deforestation. We demonstrate a method to quantify annual deforestation and degradation simultaneously across the entire region for the years 2000–2010 using high-resolution Landsat satellite imagery. Combining spectral mixture analysis, normalized difference fraction index, and knowledge-based decision tree classification, we mapped and assessed the ac...

  17. Pequi: a Brazilian fruit with potential uses for the fat industry

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes Andréa Madalena Maciel; Antoniassi Rosemar; de Faria-Machado Adelia Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Pequi is a native fruit from Brazil, found in the Amazon, Caatinga, Cerrado and Atlantic Rain Forest regions. It is one of the main plants with great potential for sustainable use in Central Brazil. Among 16 species comprising Caryocar genus, three are highlighted: C. brasiliense, C. villosum, and C. coriaceum, of economic importance for families in small communities of Brazilian Cerrado. They are generally organized in cooperatives and use the leaves for preparing medicinal extracts, and the...

  18. Screening brazilian macrophomina phaseolina isolates for alkaline lipases and other extracellular hydrolases

    OpenAIRE

    Schinke, Cláudia; Germani, Jose Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina, phylum Ascomycota, is a phytopathogenic fungus distributed worldwide in hot dry areas. There are few studies on its secreted lipases and none on its colony radial growth rate, an indicator of fungal ability to use nutrients for growth, on media other than potato-dextrose agar. In this study, 13 M. phaseolina isolates collected in different Brazilian regions were screened for fast-growth and the production of hydrolases of industrial interest, especially alkaline lipas...

  19. Hygienic, sanitary, physical, and functional conditions of Brazilian public school food services

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,Kênia Machado de; André,Maria Cláudia Porfirio; Campos,Maria Raquel Hidalgo; Díaz,Mário Ernesto Piscoya

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify the physical, functional, hygienic, and sanitary conditions of the food services of municipal schools located in the Brazilian Midwest region. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 296 school food services conducted from February to June 2012. The food services were assessed by a semi-structured check list divided into the following sections: physical conditions, available equipment, food handlers' conduct, and food service cleaning processes and procedures. Th...

  20. Trichosporon inkin: an uncommon agent of scalp white piedra. Report of four cases in Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Olga; Bezerra, Fabiane Castilho; Francisco, Elaine Cristina; da Silva, Flávia Cristina; Nishikaku, Angela Satie; Cavalcanti, Sarah Desirée Barbosa; de Azevedo Melo, Analy Salles; Bentubo, Henri Donnarumma Levy; Petri, Valéria

    2014-08-01

    We report four cases of scalp white piedra (SWP) in Brazilian female children. Morphological and physiological approaches gave inconsistent results for identifying Trichosporon to species level, while the sequencing of the intergenic spacer 1 region of ribosomal DNA accurately identified the agent of SWP as T. inkin. These cases emphasize the occurrence of this species causing this type of infection. The molecular identification of the suspected agent is needed for appropriate epidemiological surveillance of superficial mycoses caused by Trichosporon species.

  1. The Roles and Movements of Actors in the Deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Philip M. Fearnside

    2008-01-01

    Containing the advance of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia requires understanding the roles and movements of the actors involved. The importance of different actors varies widely among locations within the region, and also evolves at any particular site over the course of frontier establishment and consolidation. Landless migrants have significant roles in clearing the land they occupy and in motivating landholders to clear as a defense against invasion or expropriation. Colonists in offic...

  2. Brazilian Biodiesel Policy: Social and environmental considerations of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcez, Catherine Aliana Gucciardi; Vianna, Joao Nildo de Souza

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyze the Brazilian Biodiesel Policy (PNPB) and to identify the social and environmental aspects of sustainability that are present or absent within it. Biofuels, namely alcohol and biodiesel, have been increasing in popularity on a global scale due to their potential as alternative and renewable energy sources. Brazil, a vast country blessed with abundant natural resources and agricultural land, has emerged as a global leader in the production of biofuels. This article includes a brief analysis of the concept of sustainable development, which served as a basis to evaluate the Policy documents. Although PNPB's implementation, which began in 2004, is still within its initial stage, it was possible to identify and elaborate on the environmental and social aspects of the Policy, namely: the social inclusion of family farmers; regional development; food security; influencing the carbon and energy balance of biodiesel; promoting sustainable agricultural practices and a diversity of feedstock. (author)

  3. Pythium insidiosum: morphological and molecular identification of Brazilian isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel de Azevedo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum is an oomycete belonging to the kingdom Stramenipila and it is the etiologic agent of pythiosis. Pythiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease characterized by the development of chronic lesions on cutaneous and subcutaneous, intestinal, and bone tissues in humans and many species of animals. The identification of P. insidiosum is important in order to implement a rapid and definitive diagnosis and an effective treatment. This study reports the identification of 54 isolates of P. insidiosum of horses, dogs and sheep that presented suspicious clinical lesions of pythiosis from different regions in Brazil, by using morphological and molecular assays. Throughout the PCR it was possible to confirm the identity of all Brazilian isolates as being P. insidiosum.

  4. Trichuris trichiura in a post-Colonial Brazilian mummy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Bianucci

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Trichuris trichiura is a soil-transmitted helminth which is prevalent in warm, moist, tropical and subtropical regions of the world with poor sanitation. Heavy whipworm can result either in Trichuris dysenteric syndrome - especially in children - or in a chronic colitis. In heavy infections, worms can spread proximally and may cause ileitis. Here we provide first microscopic evidence for a T. trichiura adult worm embedded in the rectum of a post-Colonial Brazilian adult mummy. During Colonial and post-Colonial times, many European chroniclers described a parasitic disease named Maculo whose symptomatology coincides with heavy helminthiasis. Based on our findings and on comparison of ancient textual evidence with modern description of heavy whipworm, we feel confident in considering that the two syndromes are expressions of the same pathological condition.