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Sample records for brazilian peat analysis

  1. Peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    The article looks at the U.S. peat market as of July 2013. Peat is produced from deposits of plant organic materials in wetlands and includes varieties such as reed-sedge, sphagnum moss, and humus. Use for peat include horticultural soil additives, filtration, and adsorbents. Other topics include effects of environmental protection regulations on peat extraction, competition from products such as coir, composted organic waste, and wood products, and peatland carbon sinks.

  2. A Study on Factors Affecting Strength of Solidified Peat through XRD and FESEM Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, J. A.; Napia, A. M. A.; Nazri, M. A. A.; Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Al-Geethi, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    Peat is soft soil that often causes multiple problems to construction. Peat has low shear strength and high deformation characteristics. Thus, peat soil needs to be stabilized or treated. Study on peat stabilization has been conducted for decades with various admixtures and mixing formulations. This project intends to provide an overview of the solidification of peat soil and the factors that affecting the strength of solidified peat soil. Three types of peats which are fabric, hemic and sapric were used in this study to understand the differences on the effect. The understanding of the factors affecting strength of solidified peat in this study is limited to XRD and FESEM analysis only. Peat samples were collected at Pontian, Johor and Parit Raja, Johor. Peat soil was solidified using fly ash, bottom ash and Portland cement with two mixing formulation following literature review. The solidified peat were cured for 7 days, 14 days, 28 days and 56 days. All samples were tested using Unconfined Compressive Strength Test (UCS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The compressive strength test of solidified peat had shown consistently increase of sheer strength, qu for Mixing 1 while decrease of its compressive strength value for Mixing 2. All samples were tested and compared for each curing days. Through XRD, it is found that all solidified peat are dominated with pargasite and richterite. The highest qu is Fabric Mixing 1(FM1) with the value of 105.94 kPa. This sample were proven contain pargasite. Samples with high qu were observed to be having fly ash and bottom ash bound together with the help of pargasite. Sample with decreasing strength showed less amount of pargasite in it. In can be concluded that XRD and FESEM findings are in line with UCS values.

  3. The analysis of charcoal in peat and organic sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Mooney

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of charcoal in sediments has been interpreted as a ‘fire history’ at about 1,000 sites across the globe. This research effort reflects the importance of fire in many ecosystems, and the diversity of processes that can be affected by fire in many landscapes. Fire appears to reflect climate through the intermediary of vegetation, but arguably responds faster than vegetation to climate change or variability. Fire and humans are also intricately linked, meaning that the activity of fire in the past is also of relevance to prehistoric and historic human transitions and to contemporary natural resource management. This article describes recent advances in the analysis of charcoal in peat and other sediments, and offers a simple method for the quantification of larger charcoal fragments (>100 µm and a standardised method for the quantification of microscopic charcoal on pollen slides. We also comment on the challenges that the discipline still faces.

  4. Distribution of 35 Elements in Peat Cores from Ombrotrophic Bogs Studied by Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V

    2004-01-01

    In ombrotrophic bogs the surface peat layer is supplied with chemical substances only from the atmosphere. Peat cores from these bogs therefore can be used to study temporal trends in atmospheric deposition of pollutants. In this work epithermal neutron activation analysis was applied for the first time to study the distribution of 35 elements in peat profiles from ombrotrophic bogs. The selected examples were from Finnmark county in northern Norway: one pristine site far from any local pollution source, and another strongly affected by long-term operation of Russian copper-nickel smelters located close to the border. The elements are classified with respect to their behavior in the uppermost 40 cm of the peat, and similarities and differences between the two profiles are discussed. As compared with other more commonly used analytical techniques based on acid decomposition of the sample ENAA has the advantage of providing the total concentrations of the elements.

  5. The climate impact of energy peat utilisation - comparison and sensitivity analysis of Finnish and Swedish results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Kirkinen, Johanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2006-06-15

    The climate impact of energy peat utilisation have been studied both in Finland by VTT Technical Research Centre and in Sweden by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of earlier studies by VTT and IVL and to perform a sensitivity analysis of previous and new results. The scientific approach of the two studies is very similar. The climate impact of peat utilisation is considered from a life-cycle point of view by taking into account all phases of the peat utilisation chain. Peat reserves can be both sinks and sources of greenhouse gas emissions as well as there are both uptake and emissions of greenhouse gases during the utilisation chain. The net impact of the utilisation chain is assessed as the climate impact due to the utilisation chain minus the climate impact of non-utilisation chain. The instantaneous radiative forcing and accumulated radiative forcing are used in both studies as the indicator of the climate impact. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes due to emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases. The differences in the models for calculating concentrations and radiative forcing are minor. There are some differences in the definitions and boundaries of the considered peat utilisation chains, although the differences in the results due to differences in the chain definitions are small. The main reason for the differences in results between the two studies is differences in emission (and uptake) estimates for the after-treatment phase and the non-utilisation chain. Both Swedish and Finnish studies show that the use of cultivated peatland for energy peat utilisation results in lower climate impact than using coal (within 100 years). Both studies show that the use of pristine mires for peat production will result in larger climate impact than the use of already drained peatlands. The climate impact of peat utilisation chains where fens and forestry

  6. The climate impact of energy peat utilisation - comparison and sensitivity analysis of Finnish and Swedish results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Kirkinen, Johanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2006-06-01

    The climate impact of energy peat utilisation have been studied both in Finland by VTT Technical Research Centre and in Sweden by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of earlier studies by VTT and IVL and to perform a sensitivity analysis of previous and new results. The scientific approach of the two studies is very similar. The climate impact of peat utilisation is considered from a life-cycle point of view by taking into account all phases of the peat utilisation chain. Peat reserves can be both sinks and sources of greenhouse gas emissions as well as there are both uptake and emissions of greenhouse gases during the utilisation chain. The net impact of the utilisation chain is assessed as the climate impact due to the utilisation chain minus the climate impact of non-utilisation chain. The instantaneous radiative forcing and accumulated radiative forcing are used in both studies as the indicator of the climate impact. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes due to emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases. The differences in the models for calculating concentrations and radiative forcing are minor. There are some differences in the definitions and boundaries of the considered peat utilisation chains, although the differences in the results due to differences in the chain definitions are small. The main reason for the differences in results between the two studies is differences in emission (and uptake) estimates for the after-treatment phase and the non-utilisation chain. Both Swedish and Finnish studies show that the use of cultivated peatland for energy peat utilisation results in lower climate impact than using coal (within 100 years). Both studies show that the use of pristine mires for peat production will result in larger climate impact than the use of already drained peatlands. The climate impact of peat utilisation chains where fens and forestry

  7. Growing peat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harpenslager, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Peat formation is a slow process and the formation of thick peat layers in large parts of e.g. Russia, Canada and Indonesia has generally taken thousands of years. Due to degradation of peatlands throughout the world, as a result of changed land use and pollution, many ecosystem services provided by

  8. Peat Research Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The VTT Seminar on Peat Research was held in Espoo, Finland, on April 14-15, 1993. The programme consisted of technical session on Peat in Energy Production, Peat Research Programs, Peat Production and Harvesting Technology

  9. Peat 1999. Resources, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    impact of peat harvesting represents a total destruction of the vegetation where all orig inal plants and animal life disappear. The quality of the drainage water changes as the transport of suspended materials increases in connection with the peat ditching. The pH-value and alkalinity also increase during this phase of preparation, but afterwards they often return to normal values. The concentration of sulphates increases in relation to the sulphur content in the peat during the drainage phase. The stream biota of algae and animals decreases or disappears totally. There is a risk in combustion that rather large quantities of sulphur (depending on the concentration in the peat) is emitted together with nitrogen oxides, all of which are acidifying. Radioactive substances exist naturally in the peat and are released during combustion and are also found together with heavy metals in the ashes. Research and development regarding peat has been initiated by the state and by peat producers. The state financed research is distributed among several universities. The development of methods and techniques by The Foundation of Swedish Peat Research has been financed by peat producers and other actors. The emphasis has been on machine development, but presently water analysis data for peat mines and other environmental issues are also covered. The Swedish National Energy Administration provided SEK 0.4 million out of a total budget of SEK 1 million for 1999. The general trend is to develop traditional peat harvesting methods and make them more efficient. In the future, peat will probably be mixed with other fuels, such as sawdust and other renewable energy sources. This may eventually improve combustion and emission

  10. Peat 2000. Resources, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    impact of peat harvesting represents a total destruction of the vegetation where all original plants and animal life disappear. The quality of the drainage water changes as the transport of suspended materials increases in connection with the peat ditching. The pH-value and alkalinity also increase during this phase of preparation, but afterwards they often return to normal values. The concentration of sulphates increases in relation to the sulphur content in the peat during the drainage phase. The stream biota of algae and animals decreases or disappears totally. There is a risk in combustion that rather large quantities of sulphur (depending on the concentration in the peat) is emitted together with nitrogen oxides, all of which are acidifying. Radioactive substances exist naturally in the peat and are released during combustion and are also found together with heavy metals in the ashes. Research and development regarding peat has been initiated by the state and by peat producers. The state financed research is distributed among several universities. The development of methods and techniques by The Foundation of Swedish Peat Research has been financed by peat producers and other actors. The emphasis has been on machine development, but presently water analysis data for peat mines and other environmental issues are also covered. The general trend is to develop traditional peat harvesting methods and make them more efficient. In the future, peat will probably be mixed with other fuels, such as sawdust and other renewable energy sources. This may eventually improve combustion and reduce emissions

  11. An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Codas in Brazilian Portuguese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese allows only /s, N, l, r/ syllable finally, and of these, only /s/ is realized faithfully (as well as /r/ for some speakers). In order to avoid unacceptable codas, dialects of Brazilian Portuguese employ such strategies as epenthesis, nasal absorption, debucalization, and gliding. The current analysis argues that codas in…

  12. Environmental effects of fuel peat use in Finland. An LCA-based Decision Analysis Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijting, J.

    1998-02-01

    Finland is a country where the main domestic energy sources are restricted to hydroelectric power, wood and peat from which hydropower is practically utilized fully. The use of peat as energy source has increased drastically since the oil crisis in the beginning of the seventies and the peat exploitation industry is nowadays a significant supplier of labour in Finland. Peat is, in contrast to fossil energy sources, exploited and used as an energy source within the country's borderline. Therefore, all direct extractions and emissions takes place in Finland.The influence of the processes, which occur during the life cycle of fuel peat, on the environment as a whole is yet somewhat unclear. The aim of the study is to map and assess the overall environmental impacts of production and use of fuel peat in Finland and to bring these impacts in relation with total environmental impacts in Finland caused by anthropogenic emissions. The results should be comparable with the impacts of other product life cycles (for instance other fuels). Furthermore, the detection of data gaps which are present is an important element of the study. Research questions are (1) What are the contributions of the different stressors which are emitted during the life cycle of fuel peat in Finland to global and regional environmental impacts? The environmental impacts involved are global impacts like the greenhouse effect as well as regional environmental impacts, e.g.acidification, eutrophication, toxic effects, ozone formation and effects on biodiversity; and (2) What are the contributions expressed per functional unit? Emissions released during the life cycle of fuel peat were inventorized. The emissions were characterized into the various impact categories and a valuation of the various impacts was performed, based on the Decision Analyses Impact Assessment (DAIA). In DAIA, country specific values were applied for estimating the potential of the stressors to cause adverse environmental effects

  13. Mangrove peat analysis and reconstruction of vegetation history at the Pelican Cays, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.; Faulkner, P.L.

    2000-01-01

    The substrate beneath mangrove forests in the Pelican Cays complex is predominately peat composed mainly of mangrove roots. Leaves and wood account for less than 20% of the peat mass. At Cat Cay, the depth of the peat ranges from 0.2 m along the shoreline to 1.65 m in the island center, indicating that the island has expanded horizontally as well as vertically through below-ground, biogenic processes. Mangrove roots thus play a critical role in the soil formation, vertical accretion, and stability of these mangrove cays. The species composition of fossil roots changes markedly with depth: Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) was the initial colonizer on a coral base, followed by Avicennia germinans (black mangrove), which increased in abundance and expanded radially from the center of the island. The center of the Avicennia stand ultimately died, leaving an unvegetated, shallow pond. The peat thus retains a record of mangrove development, succession, and deterioration in response to sea-level change and concomitant hydroedaphic conditions controlling dispersal, establishment, growth, and mortality of mangroves on oceanic islands in Belize.

  14. Radionuclides in peat bogs and energy peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helariutta, K.; Rantavaara, A.; Lehtovaara, J.

    2000-06-01

    The study was aimed at improving the general view on radionuclides contents in energy peat produced in Finland. The annual harvest of fuel peat in 1994 was studied extensively. Also thirteen peat bogs used for peat production and one bog in natural condition were analysed for vertical distributions of several radionuclides. These distributions demonstrate the future change in radioactivity of energy peat. Both natural nuclides emitting gamma radiation ( 238 U, 235 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 40 K) and radiocaesium ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs) origin in fallout from a nuclear power plant accident (1986) and in atmospheric nuclear weapon tests were analysed. The beta and alpha active natural nuclides of lead and polonium ( 210 Pb, 210 Po) were determined on a set of peat samples. These nuclides potentially contribute to radiation exposure through inhalation when partially released to atmosphere during combustion of peat. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides often increased towards the deepest peat bog layers whereas the radioactive caesium deposited from atmosphere was missing in the deep layers. In undisturbed surface layers of a natural bog and peat production bogs the contents of 210 Pb and 210 Po exceeded those of the deeper peat layers. The nuclides of the uranium series in the samples were generally not in radioactive equilibrium, as different environmental processes change their activity ratios in peat. Radiation exposure from handling and utilisation of peat ash was estimated with activity indices derived from the data for energy peat harvested in 1994. Intervention doses were exceeded in a minor selection of samples due to 137 Cs, whereas natural radionuclides contributed very little to the doses. (orig.)

  15. Testing peat humification analysis in an Australian context: identifying wet shifts in regional climate over the past 4000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Burrows

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Peat humification analysis is presented as a robust palaeoclimatic proxy, suitable for use on mid–late Holocene peat sequences situated in the Southern Hemisphere. The proxy is shown to permit the identification of wet and dry shifts in a peat sequence from the humid tropics of north-eastern Australia. A significant correlation is found between the humification record and other proxies indicative of past climate conditions such as pollen, δ13C, C/N and macrocharcoal. Sixteen wet shifts detected in the humification record for Bromfield Swamp occur at the following dates (with 2σ range: 3830 (3920–3740, 3560 (3640–3480, 3490 (3560–3420, 3380 (3450–3300, 3120 (3250–2970, 2950 (3100–2790, 2560 (2710–2450, 2430 (2600–2260, 2120 (2330–1910, 1750 (1980–1520, 1430 (1660–1200, 1170 (1390–960, 1010 (1220–820, 620 (770–500, 300 (400–200 and 100 (200–10 cal. yr BP. Eleven dry shifts are also identified in the record at 4220 (4330–4110, 3670 (3750–3590, 3330 (3420–3220, 3020 (3170–2870, 2350 (2530–2160, 2020 (2230–1800, 1730 (1980–1510, 1290 (1510–1070, 700 (870–560, 400 (470–300 and 260 (360–150 cal yr BP. Blechnum and Poaceae are identified by pollen analysis to be the dominant plants of the swamp surface over the past 4000 years. The ratio of these two plant taxa in the pollen record correlates well with identified wet and dry shifts. It is suggested that a ratio ≤1 possibly indicates dry conditions, a ratio of >1–3 indicates wet or dry conditions, and a ratio >3 implies wet conditions. Large macrocharcoal peaks are recorded during the initiation phase of the peat sequence at approximately 4090 cal. yr BP, and at 3700–3620 cal. yr BP, both of these time periods being coincident with dry phases. Isolated minor macrocharcoal peaks at ca. 2860, 2820, 2620, 2560, 2130, 1930, 1740 and 200 cal. yr BP are found to coincide with periods of average effective precipitation (based on the humification

  16. lon beam analysis of Brazilian coffee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Ramos, M.M.; Souza, V.S.; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande so Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages worldwide. Consumers can make the beverage from different types of coffee such as ground coffee, instant coffee or grinding roasted coffee beans. Each type of coffee leads to different characteristics in flavor and scent. The aim of this work is to perform an elemental analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. To that end, eight popular Brazilian ground coffee brands have been chosen to make a comparative study among brands. One of these brands was selected for a complete study of the beverage preparation process. This same brand offers packages of roasted coffee beans, which allowed the elemental comparison between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. Roasted coffee beans were ground with a pestle and mortar. The beverage was prepared using a typical coffee pot. The spent and liquid coffees were submitted to a heat treatment and subsequently homogenized and pressed into pellets. The filters used in the coffee pot were analyzed as well. For micro-PIXE studies, coffee beans were cut in different parts for analysis. Samples of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans (grind) were analyzed by PIXE, while light elements like C, O and N were analyzed by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry). The roasted coffee beans were analyzed by micro-PIXE to check the elemental distribution in the beans. The elements found in powder coffee were Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. Potassium is the element with higher concentration, while Ti and Zn are trace elements. AI, Si and Ti showed the same concentration for all brands. Potassium and chlorine have high solubility, and about 80% of their concentration is transferred from the powder to the beverage during the infusion. Mg, P, CI, K, Mn, Fe, Zn and Rb showed significant variation between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. The elemental maps show that potassium and phosphorus are correlated, and iron appears in particular

  17. lon beam analysis of Brazilian coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Ramos, M.M.; Souza, V.S.; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages worldwide. Consumers can make the beverage from different types of coffee such as ground coffee, instant coffee or grinding roasted coffee beans. Each type of coffee leads to different characteristics in flavor and scent. The aim of this work is to perform an elemental analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. To that end, eight popular Brazilian ground coffee brands have been chosen to make a comparative study among brands. One of these brands was selected for a complete study of the beverage preparation process. This same brand offers packages of roasted coffee beans, which allowed the elemental comparison between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. Roasted coffee beans were ground with a pestle and mortar. The beverage was prepared using a typical coffee pot. The spent and liquid coffees were submitted to a heat treatment and subsequently homogenized and pressed into pellets. The filters used in the coffee pot were analyzed as well. For micro-PIXE studies, coffee beans were cut in different parts for analysis. Samples of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans (grind) were analyzed by PIXE, while light elements like C, O and N were analyzed by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry). The roasted coffee beans were analyzed by micro-PIXE to check the elemental distribution in the beans. The elements found in powder coffee were Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. Potassium is the element with higher concentration, while Ti and Zn are trace elements. AI, Si and Ti showed the same concentration for all brands. Potassium and chlorine have high solubility, and about 80% of their concentration is transferred from the powder to the beverage during the infusion. Mg, P, CI, K, Mn, Fe, Zn and Rb showed significant variation between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. The elemental maps show that potassium and phosphorus are correlated, and iron appears in particular

  18. Excavating and loading equipment for peat mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Zhigulskaya, A. I.; Yakonovskaya, T. B.

    2017-10-01

    Recently, the issues of sustainable development of Russian regions, related to ensuring energy security, are more urgent than ever. To achieve sustainable development, an integrated approach to the use of local natural resources is needed. Practically in all north regions of the Russian Federation, peat as a local natural resource is widespread, which has a practical application in the area of housing services. The paper presents the evaluation of technologies for open-pit peat mining, as well as analysis of technological equipment for peat production. Special attention is paid to a question of peat materials excavating and loading. The problem of equipment selection in a peat surface mine is complex. Many features, restrictions and criteria need to be considered. Use of low and ultra-low ground pressure excavators and low ground pressure front-end loaders with full-range tires to provide the necessary floatation in the peat bog environment is offered.

  19. International trade with peat and peat products - a challenge to international standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmilewski, G; Guenther, J [Institut fuer Torf- und Humusforschung GmbH (ITH), Bad Zwischenahn (Germany, F.R.)

    1990-01-01

    On a worldwide scale raised bog peat is the most important basic material for the production of growing media. Peat has greatly contributed to the realization of modern, standardized and even computer-controlled growing techniques in commercial horticulture. No other material can truly compete with the outstanding physical, chemical and biological properties of peat. All present and future substitutes will have to stand comparison with peat. Nonetheless, many other organic, mineral and synthetic materials are use in horticulture mainly to adjust the physical properties of growing media to new growing methods. As a direct or indirect consequence thereof, the spared raw material peat is a fact which is considered progressive in industrial countries strongly characterized by nature conservational ideas also. Some peat consuming countries do not have any indigenous peat resources and meet their demands with imports. Other countries, such as the Fed. Rep. of Germany, the Scandinavian countries and the USSR export considerable amounts of peat and peat products. International transactions have not only increased for big industries, but also for the peat industry. For the grower and for the producer of growing media alike, the knowledge of growing media properties are of fundamental importance. Various standard methods for the analysis of peat and growing media have been developed by national organizations and are being used just as manifold. In some cases national standards have derived from these.

  20. Peat in environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinttilae, R.

    1998-01-01

    Peat is the largest natural resource of Finland. The DS-reserves of peat are more than seven times larger than those of wood. Peat is known as a domestic source of energy. Peat is, however, more than an energy source. The most significant problem of water protection in Finland is the eutrophication of the water courses. The reduction of concentrated loads and large emissions sources has up to now been the target for the water protection. The control of diffuse loads has been more difficult. The environmental use of peat can reduce the loads on watercourses, and especially the diffuse emissions. The natural and unique properties of peat can be utilized in several targets: agriculture, pisciculture, fur farming, in small and medium sized industry, and in processing of waste waters of both municipalities and rural areas, as well as in different environmental hazards. The present use of environmental peat is just a small fragment of the annual growth of peat reserves in Finland. The amount of protected mires is about ten times larger than the amount of peatlands taken into peat production. The use of environmental peat makes it possible to reduce the diffuse loads significantly in the future. This, however, requires willingness of cooperation and development by the entrepreneurs, authorities, and peat producers. The present use of agricultural peat binds about three times more phosphor and nearly one and a half fold nitrogen fertilizers compare to the emissions caused by peat production. It has to be noticed that the utilization of peat in reduction of environmental loads does not cause any secondary waste problem. The final product formed can usually be composted and used e.g. in soil remediation or in construction of green areas. The tightening environmental regulations and international agreements increase the utilization of peat. As the demand of peat increased the quality requirements for peat will be increased. Certain grain size and the restoration of the

  1. Holocene climate variability in the western Mediterranean through a multiproxy analysis from Padul peat bog (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Román, María J.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Camuera, Jon; García-Alix, Antonio; Anderson, R. Scott; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Sachse, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    The Iberian Peninsula, located in the Mediterranean area, is an interesting location for paleoclimate studies due to its geographic situation between arid and humid climates. Sediments from peat bogs and lakes from Sierra Nevada, in southeastern Iberian Peninsula, have been very informative in terms of how vegetation and wetland environments were impacted by Holocene climate change. These studies are essential if we want to understand the past climate change in the area, which is the key to identify the possible environmental response of the Sierra Nevada ecosystems to future climate scenarios. Padul basin, located in the southwest of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, contains a ca. 100 m-thick peat bog sedimentary sequence that was deposited during the past 1 Ma making this area interesting for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstructions. A new 43 m-long sedimentary record has recently been retrieved from the Padul peat bog. In this study we have developed a multiproxy analysis of the Holocene part of the Padul-15-05 core including pollen analysis, XRF-core scanner, magnetic susceptibility and organic geochemistry, supported by an age control based on AMS radiocarbon dates, providing with information about vegetation and climate variability during the past 9.9 cal ka BP. This multiproxy reconstruction of the Padul-15-05 evidences the Mediterranean as a sensitive area with respect to global-scale climate system, showing relevant climate episodes such as the ca. 8, 7.5, 6.5 and 5.5 cal ka BP events during the early and middle Holocene. The trend to aridification to the late Holocene is interrupted by more arid and humid periods as the Iberian Roman Humid Period (from ca. 3 to 1.6 cal ka BP), the Dark Ages (from ca. 1.5 to 1.1 cal ka BP), the Medieval Climate Anomaly (from ca. 1.1 to 1.3 cal ka BP) and the Little Ice Age period (from ca. 500 to 100 cal yr BP).

  2. Tense Usage Analysis in Verb Distribution in Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Henry W., Comp.

    This section of a four-part research project investigating the syntax of Brazilian Portuguese presents data concerning tense usage in verb distribution. The data are derived from the analysis of selected literary samples from representative and contemporary writers. The selection of authors and tabulation of data are also described. Materials…

  3. Analysis of Brazilian snake venoms by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Rogero, J.R.; Cruz, M.C.G.

    1991-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determinations of Brazilian snake venoms from the species: Bothrops jararacussu, Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bothrops jararaca. Concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, K, Mg, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn have been determined in lyophilized venoms by using short and long irradiations in the IEA-RI nuclear reactor under a thermal neutron flux of 10 11 to 10 13 n · cm -2 · s -1 . The reference materials NIST Bovine Liver 1577 and IUPAC Bowen's Kale were also analyzed simultaneously with the venoms to evaluate the accuracy and the reproducibility of the method. The concentrations of the elements found in snake venoms from different species were compared. The Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms presented high concentration of Se but low concentrations of Zn when these results are compared with those obtained from genera Bothrops venoms. (author) 9 refs.; 2 tabs

  4. Analysis of undergraduate cell biology contents in Brazilian public universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermelstein, Claudia; Costa, Manoel Luis

    2017-04-01

    The enormous amount of information available in cell biology has created a challenge in selecting the core concepts we should be teaching our undergraduates. One way to define a set of essential core ideas in cell biology is to analyze what a specific cell biology community is teaching their students. Our main objective was to analyze the cell biology content currently being taught in Brazilian universities. We collected the syllabi of cell biology courses from public universities in Brazil and analyzed the frequency of cell biology topics in each course. We also compared the Brazilian data with the contents of a major cell biology textbook. Our analysis showed that while some cell biology topics such as plasma membrane and cytoskeleton was present in ∼100% of the Brazilian curricula analyzed others such as cell signaling and cell differentiation were present in only ∼35%. The average cell biology content taught in the Brazilian universities is quite different from what is presented in the textbook. We discuss several possible explanations for these observations. We also suggest a list with essential cell biology topics for any biological or biomedical undergraduate course. The comparative discussion of cell biology topics presented here could be valuable in other educational contexts. © 2017 The Authors. Cell Biology International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Cell Biology.

  5. ANALYSIS OF GINGER FARMING BUSINESS IN PEAT LAND IN WEST KALIMANTAN (Case study: Ginger Farmer in Pasir Palembang Village, Mempawah Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Carolina Kilmanun

    2016-07-01

    Peat land potential as agricultural land in Indonesia is quite large of about 6 million hectaresout of 21 million hectares or 11% of land area in Indonesia. The utilization of peat land as agricultural land requires accurate and careful planning, appropriate technological application, and proper management because of its marginal and fragile ecosystem. Peat land has a big potential as agricultural land because this land contains high organic material. Theproblem is that the pH is very low so that it is not good for agricultural land. However, the research in Pasir Palembang Village, Mempawah Regency proved that doing ginger farming business in peat land could increase the farmers’ income and welfare. The research aims to: 1 study problems faced in doing ginger farming business, 2 know ginger farmer’s income. Data collection was done by using Focus Group Discussion method and R/C Ratio analysis. The research result found out that the main problem in ginger farming business was that of rotten tuber. Based on the analysis result it was found that R/C ratio obtained in ginger farming business was 3.4. Total revenue obtained was Rp75,000,000with the profit over cash expense was Rp53,620,000 and the profit over total expense was Rp53,470,000. Theresearch concluded that: 1 there need be a serious handling of rotten tuber disease in ginger plant, 2 doing ginger farming business could increase income and welfare of the peat land farmers in Pasir Palembang Village, Mempawah Regency.

  6. A sustainability analysis of the Brazilian multipurpose reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obadia, I.J.; Perrotta, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The project of a new research reactor in Brazil for radioisotope production, support of the nuclear energy program and scientific research has received a positive sign of the government and is starting to be developed by the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy. International Atomic Energy Agency points out that the implementation of a new research reactor is a major undertaking for a country, requiring an analysis to identify to which extent the conditions of the national nuclear program are proper and adequate to lead to a sustainable research reactor life cycle. This paper introduces the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor Project (RMB) and describes the sustainability analysis performed, which has shown that the national nuclear infrastructure presents a very favourable condition to the implementation of the RMB project as well as to provide a sustainable life cycle for this new research reactor. (author)

  7. Earning management: analysis of publications in brazilian accounting journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Gomes Machado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to identify characteristics, from the perspective of social networks, of the scientific literature on earning management in Brazilian accounting journals. Specifically, were identified: a authors and their social networks of scientific production; b researched topics, models for accruals detection, authors’ networks and the period studied; c methodological procedures used. A bibliometric survey, with a quantitative approach was performed through the analysis of 17 Brazilian accounting journals, since their first edition until the year 2010. Out of them, 10 published articles having the theme earning management in the title, abstract or keywords. The 32 identified articles were submitted to content analysis and then the data were presented from the perspective of social networks. The survey results show that: the authors and their social networks of production originates mostly from Universidade de São Paulo (USP; the most researched theme was the methods or means to conduct earnings management, and accruals measurement models, with emphasis on Kang and Sivaramakrishnan Model; the descriptive research, based on document and quantitative approach were the most commonly used forms in the articles researched. It is noteworthy that structural gaps are the topics, such as compensation plans, political costs and earnings management in different contractual environments. The research results can contribute to academia to highlight some features of the earnings management theme and its researchers, in the field of publications in Brazilian accounting journals.

  8. Analysis Brazilian preference shares: financial liabilities or equity instruments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lucia de Almeida

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian preference shares, in general, except when they present specific features, such as mandatory redemption and cumulative dividends, meet the accounting definition of equity instruments. However, the scientific literature believes that those shares that do not have discretion to avoid the delivery of cash must be classified as financial liabilities. In a context in which remain differences of understanding of their proper accounting treatment, the following question arises: preferred shares of Brazilian companies are being recognized in the financial statements in accordance with the theoretical and normative precepts? Thus, the aim of this study is to verify if the preference shares of Brazilian companies have been recognized in the financial statements for according to the scientific literature and accounting standards. Through content analysis, we analyzed the information of 157 companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA. The results show that 155 companies classify its preference shares as equity instruments and two as financial liabilities. These two companies, as well as 149 of those which qualify as equity instruments, are treating them properly in its accounting. The other six companies should present its preference shares as liabilities, given the absence of discretion to avoid cash delivery, feature present in financial liabilities, unlike equity instruments. It is noticed that, unlike what happens, for instance, in the US market, it is not possible to classify all Brazilian preference shares as a financial liability, since, in Brazil , they are used in different legal format of those widely found in that market. Moreover, almost all of the analyzed shares have essential features for classification as equity instruments. Hence, the importance of analysis of the economic essence of each instrument, thus, enabling the appropriate accounting treatment in the financial statements.

  9. PDF -- new peat technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myreen, P B

    1982-12-01

    The impact of a large-scale utilization of peat must be assessed in each region separately. As it is completely impractical to transport wet peat over long distances, a PDF plant must be built in the peatland region. Such regions often need economic stimulation. The PDF process can be run independent of season and weather, and thus offers permanent jobs. Dredging the peat layer all at once in a wet state is an operation concentrated on a very small land area. If this area can be drained, it can soon afterwards be forested or used for agricultural purposes. Even if the area from which the peat is removed is left as a wetland, when cleverly done, the ecological effects may be favourable. Peat is a significant energy source in many countries now looking for domestic alternatives to expensive imported fuels. The main constraint on large-scale utilization of peat is its ability to retain moisture. The wet-carbonization process, utilized in a PDF plant and yielding a high-quality peat-derived fuel, is believed to be a technically feasible and economically attractive industrial method of dewatering native peat.

  10. Trend Analysis of the Brazilian Scientific Production in Computer Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRUCOLO, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of scientific information volume and diversity brings new challenges in order to understand the reasons, the process and the real essence that propel this growth. This information can be used as the basis for the development of strategies and public politics to improve the education and innovation services. Trend analysis is one of the steps in this way. In this work, trend analysis of Brazilian scientific production of graduate programs in the computer science area is made to identify the main subjects being studied by these programs in general and individual ways.

  11. Testate amoebae analysis in the peat deposits of the swamp Dolgon’koye in the south of Western Siberia and peatland paleohydrology for last 3100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurina, Irina V.; Blyakharchuk, Tatiana A.

    2018-03-01

    Our research is devoted to paleohydrological reconstruction in the swamp located in the river valley on the piedmont of the Altai Mountains in the south of Western Siberia. The reconstruction was carried out based on rhizopod analysis for the last 3100 cal yr. A large amount of different testate amoebae was found in the peat. Total 64 testate amoebae taxa were recorded in the peat core with the most abundant being: Trinema lineare, Centropyxis aculeata, C. aerophila, Euglypha rotunda, Cryptodifflugia sp. Decrease of surface wetness in the swamp are observed 2280, 2140, 1900–600 cal yr BP and increase – in 2700, 2500–1900, 230–215 cal yr BP. The results of our reconstruction of the swamp paleohydrology agrees well with the paleoclimatic data obtained earlier for the central area of the south of Western Siberia Plain. It indicates a high sensitivity of the swamp to climatic changes in the Holocene. The rhizopod analysis proved to be very effective when used for paleohydrology reconstruction in minerotrophic peat.

  12. Elemental characterization of Brazilian beans using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilian Seiko Kato; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. De; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Gabriel Adrian Sarries; Andres Enrique Lai Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Beans are important for many developing countries as a source of protein and mineral nutrients. Here, ten commercial types of Brazilian beans, from the species Phaseolus vulgaris (common beans) and Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas), were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. There were statistical differences (p/0.05) amongst the commercial types, except for Br, Rb and Sc. In general, non-essential elements showed high variability, indicating that the origin of beans had a strong influence on the mass fraction of such elements. (author)

  13. Analysis of exports of the brazilian mineral sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Geovani Schwingel Franck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to analyze the pattern of specialization of exports of brazilian mineral sector, identifying the most dynamic productive sectors in the period between 1999 and 2015. For this purpose, the Import Coverage Ratio was calculated, as well as the Intra-industry Trade rate (IIT, and the Sector Concentration of Exports. Data were collected from the Foreign Trade Information Analysis System (Alice Web. The results indicated that Brazil has a few competitive mineral groups in its export basket, and that it is concentrated in a few sectors. It was found that the most competitive sectors were Niobium ore, iron, manganese, gold, aluminum, other semimanufaturado and copper.

  14. Radioactivity of peat mud used in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska, Maria; Mnich, Krystian; Kapała, Jacek; Bielawska, Agnieszka; Kulesza, Grzegorz; Mnich, Stanisław

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contents of natural and artificial isotopes in peat mud and to estimate the radiation dose absorbed via skin in patients during standard peat mud treatment. The analysis included 37 samples collected from 8 spas in Poland. The measurements of isotope concentration activity were conducted with the use of gamma spectrometry methods. The skin dose in a standard peat mud bath therapy is approximately 300 nSv. The effective dose of such therapy is considered to be 22 nSv. The doses absorbed during peat mud therapy are 5 orders of magnitude lower than effective annual dose absorbed from the natural radiation background by a statistical Pole (3.5 mSv). Neither therapeutic nor harmful effect is probable in case of such a small dose of ionising radiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Peat soils stabilization using Effective Microorganisms (EM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, N. Z.; Samsuddin, N. S.; Hanif, M. F.; Syed Osman, S. B.

    2018-04-01

    Peat soil is known as geotechnical problematic soil since it is the softest soil having highly organic and moisture content which led to high compressibility, low shear strength and long-term settlement. The aim of this study was to obtain the stabilized peat soils using the Effective Microorganisms (EM). The volume of EM added and mixed with peat soils varied with 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% and then were cured for 7, 14 and 21 days. The experiment was done for uncontrolled and controlled moisture content. Prior conducting the main experiments, the physical properties such as moisture content, liquid limit, specific gravity, and plastic limit etc. were measure for raw peat samples. The Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) test was performed followed by regression analysis to check the effect of EM on the soil strength. Obtained results have shown that the mix design for controlled moisture contents showed the promising improvement in their compressive strength. The peat soil samples with 10% of EM shows the highest increment in UCS value and the percentage of increments are in the range of 44% to 65% after curing for 21 days. The regression analysis of the EM with the soil compressive strength showed that in controlled moisture conditions, EM significantly improved the soil stability as the value of R2 ranged between 0.97 – 0.78. The results have indicated that the addition of EM in peat soils provides significant improving in the strength of the soil as well as the other engineering properties.

  16. Economic analysis of Brazilian policies for energy efficient electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Cássio Tersandro de Castro; Pontes, Ricardo Silva Thé

    2017-01-01

    Brazil is leading several energy efficiency initiatives and has ambitious goals for 2030, according to the Brazilian National Energy Plan 2030. One of the main initiatives is the minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) program for energy-driven equipment and the electric motors appear as the most significant one (49% share of the total electricity consumption). The MEPS levels set new grades for efficiency, and then manufacturers and consumers have to conform to the new products and costs. Policy makers have to economically assess the effects of these MEPS in order to maintain the market stability. Since the benefits of this program come from future energy savings, this cost-effective analysis has to consider the parameters uncertainty and the results should reinforce the market players’ confidence. Thus, the goal of this work is, first, to analyze the economic viability of the MEPS transitions in Brazil considering the uncertainty of the parameters involved and then, to estimate the effects of this program on the energy savings goals for 2030. At the end, we also verify whether this investment in energy efficiency is competitive with other forms of investments in energy. - Highlights: • A cost-effectiveness method with uncertainty for efficiency program is presented. • Savings from electric motors MEPS program makes the 2030 Brazilian goals possible. • Electric motors MEPS program cost-effectiveness in Brazil is confirmed. • Saved energy cost from efficiency improvement is a competitive energy investment.

  17. The sustainable use of peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallas, Rein

    1997-01-01

    The article gives information about the critical and usable reserves of peat, its annual consumption and production allowance, as well as the output in 1996. It is seen from the Table that no increase in peat production is possible in the counties of Paernu and Rapla, as well as in western Estonia unless the exhausted peat fields have been reclaimed, so, after the limit has been released. However, conditions for peat production in southern Estonia are favourable. The low peat production capacity, 1 million t, while the production quota is 2.78 million t, is indicative of the depression of Estonian peat industry. (author)

  18. The Brazilian Experience with Agroecological Extension: A Critical Analysis of Reform in a Pluralistic Extension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Vivien; Miná Dias, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the Brazilian experience in designing and implementing a recent extension policy reform based on agroecology, and reflect on its wider theoretical implications for extension reform literature. Design/methodology/approach: Using a critical public analysis we characterize the evolution of Brazilian federal extension policy…

  19. Vermiculites of the Northeast Brazilian region: comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.S.; Hanken, R.B.L.; Raposo, C.M.O.

    2009-01-01

    Vermiculites are clay minerals similar to montmorillonites differing for crystalline structures. The product exfoliated is odorless, hydrophobic, not irritate the skin and not the lungs. These properties provide the modified thermally vermiculite a product of broad application in the sectors of construction, agriculture and industry. The aim this work is the comparative analysis between two vermiculites micron fractions from different localities of the northeastern Brazilian region, UBM/PB and EUCATEX/PI. Samples exfoliated to 950 deg C were leached for removal of organic matter by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. The spectroscopy in the infrared, FTIR and X-ray diffraction, XRD, were used to characterize the samples. Data from X-ray diffraction showed that the structural characteristics of the mineral samples were not significantly altered with the process of leaching and the IR spectra proved the efficiency of procedure for removal of organic impurities (author)

  20. Global peat resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappalainen, E. [ed.] [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The book provides a detailed review of the world`s peat and peatland resources and their role in the biosphere. It was compiled by 68 peat experts. Reports present the valuable mire ecosystem, its characteristics, and the use of peatlands. Maps and photographs illustrate the distribution of mines and their special characteristics, including raised bogs, aapa mires, blanket bogs, mangrove swamps, swamp forests etc. The book contains a total of 57 chapters, the bulk of then giving surveys of peat resources and use in individual countries. They are grouped under the headings: peatlands in biosphere; general review; Europe; Asia; Africa; North America; Central and South America; Australia (and New Zealand); and use of peatlands. One chapter has been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM. 7 apps.

  1. Radiocarbon dating of lowbog peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trettin, R.; Hiller, A.; Mundel, G.

    1982-01-01

    Owing to complex formation conditions, the age determination of lowbog peat is generally considered difficult. Within the framework of peat profile investigations of the Havellaendisches Luch, factors that may exercise an influence on the radiocarbon concentration and disturb an ordered age sequence are discussed. With regard to lowbog peat, the interpretation of the sample material to be measured is of particular importance. (author)

  2. Experience of Brazilian safeguards analytical laboratory in DA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, J.H.B.; Araujo, R.M.S.; Pereira, J.C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Brazilian Safeguards Analytical Laboratory, inaugurated in September 1983, performs uranium analysis in samples of nuclear materials taken during national safeguards inspections as well as in samples taken during ABACC's inspections performed in Argentina. The Laboratory analyzes Intercomparison samples provided by IAEA, NBL, ABACC, CEN and EQRAIN. The method used to perform uranium analysis is the Davies and Gray/NBL. All the steps of the analytical procedures, such as chemical kinetics of the reactions and instrumental parameters, are rigorously controlled. An internal Quality Control of the measurements is made by means of analysis of Certified Reference Materials and the performance of the results meets the ESARDA's Target Values for Random and Systematic Components both in Intercomparison Samples and in samples taken during inspections. The typical precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, and accuracy obtained in a routine basis for nuclear grade materials is 0.1% and 0.14% respectively. The performance of the results obtained are comparable to the best international laboratories which perform uranium analysis in nuclear materials for safeguards purposes. (author)

  3. New record in peat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Increment of peat utilization that started in 1990 continued also in 1991, due to which new record was achieved. Peat delivery increased 11.2 % from 16.1 million m 3 in 1990 to 17.9 million m 3 in 1991. The portion of energy peat was 16.4 million m 3 , and the portion of peat for other purposes 1.5 million m 3 . The energy content of fuel peat was 15.8 TWh, of which 13.8 TWh was milled peat and 2.0 TWh sod peat. The main portion of energy peat was used in communal back-pressure power plants for production of electricity and district heat. The second largest utilizer was industry. The rests 0.3 TWh (2 %) was delivered to private small scale utilization and export. About 88 000 MWh of sod peat was exported to Sweden. The portion of horticultural peat of the peat delivered for other purposes than energy production was 662 000 m 3 , of which only 260 000 m 3 was used in Finland and 408 000 m 3 was exported. Agriculture is the main user of peat outside the energy production. Weakly humified peat was used as litter and as absorber for slurrified manure about 286 000 m 3 . The value of the deliveries of peat industry exeeded 800 million FIM, of which the portion of milled peat was about 650 million FIM, the portion of sod peat about 95 million FIM, and the portion of domestic deliveries of horticultural peat 30 million FIM. The export of peat was 36 million FIM. Peat production in 1991 was 10.605 million m 3 , which is nearly a half of the production of 1990. The decrease was caused by both poor weather of may-june 1991 and the large peat supplies from the year 1990. About 60 % of the production target of 1991 was achieved. The production of sod peat increased by over 50 % from 736 000 m 3 in 1990 to 1 147 000 m 3 in 1991

  4. Peat resources in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova Casanova, E.

    1996-01-01

    During the last few years the drastic cut in oil supply provoked a critical situation in Cuba. The shortage of domestic oil production and the absence of alternative energy sources, such as wide rivers and coal deposits, drove us to decide that the most promising option was to develop our huge peat deposits. However, there are problems concerning skills and finance. This report reviews the potential for peat development to date in the Cuban territory. The figures and characteristics are partly taken from the surveys done by the Russian and Cuban specialists during the 60's. There is some new data compiled from the work done more recently in some of the Cuban peat deposits. The conditions for draining and harvesting are very challenging and difficult if the peat deposits are to be developed without doing any unnecessary damage to the fragile environment of Cuban wetlands. However, if the required financing and skills are available, the work can be carried out and significant risks avoided

  5. Peat in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambak, K. [MARDI - Integrated Peat Research Station, Johor (Malaysia); Ah Chye, L. [MARDI Jalan Kebun, Selangor (Malaysia). Vegetable Research Centre

    1996-12-31

    Malaysian peatlands occur mostly in the water-saturated basins of the coastal lowlands. They are approximately 25 000 km{sup 2} in extent, of which about 10 000 km{sup 2} are in Peninsular Malaysia and another 15 000 km{sup 2} are distributed in Sarawak and Sabah. In Peninsular Malaysia, peatland classification is based mainly on peat depth and loss on ignition. In Sarawak, a more comprehensive approach is adopted, based on peat depth and the type of underlying mineral materials. As for Sabah, the classification follows FAD/UNESCO guidelines. Malaysian peatland is utilised mainly for agriculture. At present, about 32 % of the peatland area in Peninsular Malaysia is used for this purpose. In Sarawak, a much smaller percentage is used for agriculture. The main crops grown are oil-palm, rubber, coconut, padi and pineapple. Based on {sup 14}C datings, it has been estimated that peat in this region began to form between 4 000 and 5 000 years ago. The overall rate of accumulation of the peat since its initial formation has been about 2.81 mm ye` whereas the average rate during the early stages of formation ( 12-10 m) was 4.76 mm ye. In the intermediate stage (10-5 m), the average annual accumulation rate decreased to 3.14 mm, and to 2.22 mm in the final phase (5 m to the surface). (orig.) (17 refs.)

  6. Cupriferous peat: embryonic copper ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, D C

    1961-07-01

    A Canadian peat was found to contain up to 10% (dry weight) Cu, and a mechanism for Cu accumulation in peat was discussed. Wet chemical techniques and x-ray diffraction were utilized to identify Cu compounds. Copper was organically bound in peat as a chelate complex and did not occur as an oxide, sulfide, or as elemental Cu. Because of the low S content of peat the Cu was assumed to be bound to nitrogen or oxygen-containing components. Copper, having a greater affinity for N, tended to form the more stable Cu-N chelate. The element was concentrated as circulating cupriferous ground waters filtered through the peat.

  7. A Financial Analysis of Brazilian Hospitals Between 2006 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Artur de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research that aimed at developing a financial analysis of a sample of Brazilian hospitals between 2006 and 2011. The data were collected from financial statements of 23 hospitals and from the Database of United Health System. These secondary data were analyzed through the following techniques: descriptive statistics, Spearman’s correlation, Kolmogorov-Smirnov’s test, Kruskal-Wallis’ test and Chi-square’s test. It was verified that the sample presents unsatisfactory general results about financial performance, especially when related to financial ratios of profitability and return. However, the analysis of different categories of hospitals displays relevant and significant divergences, especially about the type of hospitals: publics and voluntaries ones. The voluntary hospitals present higher liquidity ratios and the best profitability and their capital structure usually focus on long term financing obtained from external agents. These evidences suggest that those organizations focus on financial leverage to achieve better results without deteriorate their liquidity. On the other hand, the public hospitals present lower liquidity as well as worse profitability and return ratios. It was verified that the large-sized hospitals usually present lower financial ratios (liquidity, profitability and return than the medium-sized hospitals.

  8. [Bioethical analysis of the Brazilian Dentistry Code of Ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrrho, Monique; do Prado, Mauro Machado; Cordón, Jorge; Garrafa, Volnei

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian Dentistry Code of Ethics (DCE), Resolution CFO-71 from May 2006, is an instrument created to guide dentists' behavior in relation to the ethical aspects of professional practice. The purpose of the study is to analyze the above mentioned code comparing the deontological and bioethical focuses. In order to do so, an interpretative analysis of the code and of twelve selected texts was made. Six of the texts were about bioethics and six on deontology, and the analysis was made through the methodological classification of the context units, textual paragraphs and items from the code in the following categories: the referentials of bioethical principlism--autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice -, technical aspects and moral virtues related to the profession. Together the four principles represented 22.9%, 39.8% and 54.2% of the content of the DCE, of the deontological texts and of the bioethical texts respectively. In the DCE, 42% of the items referred to virtues, 40.2% were associated to technical aspects and just 22.9% referred to principles. The virtues related to the professionals and the technical aspects together amounted to 70.1% of the code. Instead of focusing on the patient as the subject of the process of oral health care, the DCE focuses on the professional, and it is predominantly turned to legalistic and corporate aspects.

  9. Chemical properties of peat used in balneology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajdak, L.; Hładoń, T.

    2009-04-01

    The physiological activity of peats is observed in human peat-bath therapy and in the promotion of growth in some plants. Balneological peat as an ecologically clean and natural substance is perceived as being more 'human friendly' than synthetic compounds. Poland has a long tradition of using balneological peat for therapeutic purposes. Balneological peat reveals a physical effect by altering temperature and biochemical effects through biologically active substances. It is mainly used for the treatment of rheumatic diseases that are quite common in Poland. Peat represents natural product. Physico-chemical properties of peat in particular surface-active, sorption and ion exchanges, defining their biological function, depend mainly on the chemical composition and molecular structure of humic substances representing the major constituent of organic soil (peat). The carbon of organic matter of peats is composed of 10 to 20% carbohydrates, primarily of microbial origin; 20% nitrogen-containing constituents, such as amino acids and amino sugars; 10 to 20% aliphatic fatty acids, alkanes, etc.; with the rest of carbon being aromatic. For balneology peat should be highly decomposed (preferably H8), natural and clean. The content of humic acids should exceed 20% of dry weight, ash content will be less than 15 15% of dry weight, sulphur content less than 0.3% of dry weight and the amount of water more than 85%. It will not contain harmful bacteria and heavy metals. Humic substances (HS) of peat are known to be macromolecular polydisperse biphyllic systems including both hydrophobic domains (saturated hydrocarbon chains, aromatic structural units) and hydrophilic functional groups, i. e having amphiphilic character. Amphiphilic properties of FA are responsible for their solubility, viscosity, conformation, surfactant-like character and a variety of physicochemical properties of considerable biologically practical significance. The chemical composition of peats depends

  10. The Analysis of Management and Timber Trade System of Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi From Peat Swamp Forest in South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Firmanul Ariffin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Until now the raw material of wood especially Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi available for supporting the construction of housing and other infrastructures is increasingly large in Indonesia. On the Island of Borneo that partly consists of swamps needs Gelam very large and continuous, particularly for residential development. However, areas of peat swamp forest habitat of this plant from year to year are degradation and shrinkage. This situation is a very big influence on the population of Gelam, while the management and timber trade systems are not well regulated. This study aims to analyze the management and timber trade systems of Gelam particularly in South Kalimantan to provide input to the policy holder in the preservation of Gelam. The method was used a field survey and interviews with traders and policy holders related regulations. The results showed in South Kalimantan the potency of Gelam is only 2,9-7,1 m3/ha and decreasing yearly. Normally Gelam with a diameter <4 cm have been cut down, as well as > 30 cm. These dimensions should not be cut because of <4 cm too young and > 30 cm can be used as seed sources. Gelam derived from peat swamp forest, which mostly comes from the Batola District and some came from Kapuas District of Central Kalimantan. Distributions of Gelam were starting gatherers logging in the forest then sold to small gatherers, next to the large gatherers and distributed to all districts/cities in South Kalimantan, wood processing industries, and some of them were sent to Java. The silviculture system of Gelam was using selective cutting. Classification of wood sizes traded by the diameter divided into 3-4cm, 5-6cm, 7-8cm, 9-10cm, 11-12cm, 13-14cm, 15-19cm and > 20cm to 4m long. Its use consists of a small diameter (3-10cm for foundry building and firewood, while the large diameter (10-20cm for the construction of houses in swampy areas, and waste as well as the stems are bent and deformed used for firewood. Until now Gelam

  11. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Microbiota on Brazilian Currency Note Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tairacan Augusto Pereira da Fonseca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currency notes have been implicated as a vehicle for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial population residing on banknotes is still unknown in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population from 150 different Brazilian Rial (R$ notes in circulation using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were randomly collected from three different street markets or “feiras” in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Proteobacteria phyla, followed by Firmicutes and Streptophyta, with a total of 1193 bacterial families and 3310 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human, animal, and environmental origins. Also, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella. The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens. One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene. Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food.

  12. Characterization of Brazilian commercial milks by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.G.C.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.; Bacchi, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at the determination of toxic and essential elements in Brazilian commercial bovine milk, 25 ultra high temperature (UHT) milk samples were acquired in the local market of Piracicaba, SP. The samples were freeze-dried and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) allowing the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn. When the results were expressed as concentration (mg x l -1 ) no significant differences were found. However, considering the dry matter, results showed a clear difference between the mass fractions (mg x kg -1 d.w.) of skim milk and whole milk for the elements Br, Ca, K, Na, Rb and Zn, indicating that the removal of fat caused a concentration effect in the dry matter of skim milks. Discrepancies were found between the concentrations of Ca and Na measured by INAA and the values informed in the labels. Ca showed variations within 30% for most samples, while concentrations of Na were up to 190% higher than informed values. The sample preparation and the INAA procedure were appropriate for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn in milk samples. (author)

  13. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Microbiota on Brazilian Currency Note Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira da Fonseca, Tairacan Augusto; Pessôa, Rodrigo; Sanabani, Sabri Saeed

    2015-10-22

    Currency notes have been implicated as a vehicle for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial population residing on banknotes is still unknown in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population from 150 different Brazilian Rial (R$) notes in circulation using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were randomly collected from three different street markets or "feiras" in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Proteobacteria phyla, followed by Firmicutes and Streptophyta, with a total of 1193 bacterial families and 3310 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human, animal, and environmental origins. Also, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella. The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens. One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene. Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food.

  14. Ditch network maintenance in peat-dominated boreal forests: Review and analysis of water quality management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Mika; Piirainen, Sirpa; Sikström, Ulf; Löfgren, Stefan; Marttila, Hannu; Sarkkola, Sakari; Laurén, Ari; Finér, Leena

    2018-03-27

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of different water management options to mitigate sediment and nutrient exports from ditch network maintenance (DNM) areas in boreal peatland forests. Available literature was reviewed, past data reanalyzed, effects of drainage intensity modeled, and major research gaps identified. The results indicate that excess downstream loads may be difficult to prevent. Water protection structures constructed to capture eroded matter are either inefficient (sedimentation ponds) or difficult to apply (wetland buffers). It may be more efficient to decrease erosion, either by limiting peak water velocity (dam structures) or by adjusting ditch depth and spacing to enable satisfactory drainage without exposing the mineral soil below peat. Future research should be directed towards the effects of ditch breaks and adjusted ditch depth and spacing in managing water quality in DNM areas.

  15. Comparative genomic analysis of Brazilian Leptospira kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Z Moreno

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptospira kirschneri is one of the pathogenic species of the Leptospira genus. Human and animal infection from L. kirschneri gained further attention over the last few decades. Here we present the isolation and characterisation of Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok strain M36/05 and the comparative genomic analysis with Brazilian human strain 61H. The M36/05 strain caused pulmonary hemorrhagic lesions in the hamster model, showing high virulence. The studied genomes presented high symmetrical identity and the in silico multilocus sequence typing analysis resulted in a new allelic profile (ST101 that so far has only been associated with the Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok strains. Considering the environmental conditions and high genomic similarity observed between strains, we suggest the existence of a Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok lineage that could represent a high public health risk; further studies are necessary to confirm the lineage significance and distribution.

  16. Analysis of Brazilian SHP policy and its regulation scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lucio; Rocha Galhardo, Camila; Cassia Barbosa, Adriana de; Mambeli Barros, Regina; Gracas Braga da Silva, Fernando das

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the main regulatory changes that occurred in the Brazilian power sector in 2009, along with the impacts these changes caused on the market, especially related to small hydropower (<30 MW). This study addresses regulatory issues based on inventory studies and records of basic projects, changes related to the compensation of the assured energy of SHPs in the Brazilian energy reallocation market, the socio-economic impact resulting from the construction of SHPs, SHPs in alternative resource auctions and finally the general outlook for the growth scenario for SHPs in Brazil according to the ten-year plan (2010-2019). The overall conclusions of this investigation were that the 2008/2009 biennium was a period of great changes in the regulation of small hydropower plants in Brazil, and the SHP market has shown maturity. Additionally, despite SHP being a type of technology that is completely dominated by domestic industry, in recent years, they have experienced policy disincentives caused by changes to rules that inhibit their growth. - Highlights: → Main regulatory changes in Brazilian Power Sector that have occurred in 2009. → The impact of these changes caused on market, especially about SHPs (<30 MW). → The Brazilian growth scenario for SHPs according to the ten-year plan (2010-2019). → 2008/2009 biennium was a period of changes in the Brazilian regulation of SHPs. → SHP is a type of technology that is completely dominated by domestic industry.

  17. The Challenge of Peat Substitution in Organic Seedling Production: Optimization of Growing Media Formulation through Mixture Design and Response Surface Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Giovanni Ceglie

    Full Text Available Peat replacement is an increasing demand in containerized and transplant production, due to the environmental constraints associated to peat use. However, despite the wide information concerning the use of alternative materials as substrates, it is very complex to establish the best materials and mixtures. This work evaluates the use of mixture design and surface response methodology in a peat substitution experiment using two alternative materials (green compost and palm fibre trunk waste for transplant production of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.; melon, (Cucumis melo L.; and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. in organic farming conditions. In general, the substrates showed suitable properties for their use in seedling production, showing the best plant response the mixture of 20% green compost, 39% palm fibre and 31% peat. The mixture design and applied response surface methodology has shown to be an useful approach to optimize substrate formulations in peat substitution experiments to standardize plant responses.

  18. Applied risk analysis to the future Brazilian electricity generation matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maues, Jair; Fernandez, Eloi; Correa, Antonio

    2010-09-15

    This study compares energy conversion systems for the generation of electrical power, with an emphasis on the Brazilian energy matrix. The financial model applied in this comparison is based on the Portfolio Theory, developed by Harry Markowitz. The risk-return ratio related to the electrical generation mix predicted in the National Energy Plan - 2030, published in 2006 by the Brazilian Energy Research Office, is evaluated. The increase of non-traditional renewable energy in this expected electrical generating mix, specifically, residues of sugar cane plantations and wind energy, reduce not only the risk but also the average cost of the kilowatt-hour generated.

  19. Life cycle assessment of peat utilisation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maelkki, H.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental issues related to the production of peat and its use in energy generation have been the subject of public debate and research over the past few years in Finland. Peat is both an indigenous and a locally utilised fuel. Finland has no fossil fuel resources, and the transportation distances of imported fuels into Finland are normally long. In Finland the large peat resources can be utilised locally and peat-burning power plants are situated near the peatlands. Peat production and energy conversion methods are being continuously developed to make use of the environmentally and technically best available technology. In Finland peat formation exceeds peat utilisation and an increase in peat utilisation is therefore sustainable. The life cycle assessment concept gives an opportunity to evaluate and improve the environmental quality of peat utilisation options. The study focuses on an inventory analysis, but some of the most common methods of impact assessment with valuation are also included. The study also includes a comparison of fossil fuels and a discussion part. All the calculated results are based on net emissions. The background emissions of natural peatland are subtracted from the emissions of the utilisation phases. Milled peat and sod peat are reported in this study. Horticultural peat is studied simultaneously, but it will be reported later. The Sod Wave, Haku and Tehoturve methods are studied for the production of peat. The power plants of the study are Kempele heating plant and Rauhalahti cogeneration plant. The functional unit is 1 MWh produced total energy. The temporal boundaries vary from 112 to 128 years, depending on the peat production methods used. The restoration time is 100 years in all options. The emissions of greenhouse gases are based on the reports of The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change. The water emissions are based on control monitoring reports from 1994 and 1995. The water emissions of the restoration phase are

  20. adsorption, eosin, humic, peat

    OpenAIRE

    anshar, andi muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Eosin is one of the dyes commonly used in the industry and has the potential to cause pollution of the water environment. The Eosin pollution treatment methods used in this study was the adsorption method using humin fraction obtained from the peat land comes from Kalimantan. From the research data showed that the adsorption of eosin in humin result of washing with HCl / HF optimum at pH 4 and a contact time of 60 minutes with the adsorption-order rate was 8,4 x 10-3 min-1

  1. Cash Holdings Policy: a Dynamic Analysis of Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadwa Muhieddine Dahrouge

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how corporate cash holdings were adjusted over time for Brazilian companies during the crisis of 2008-2009. We adopt a dynamic model of corporate cash holdings to evaluate the main determinants for the speed of adjustment of cash holdings at the optimum level. We find evidence that: a the adjustment costs of Brazilian companies are high implying a delay in reaching the optimum level of cash; b the low speed adjustment to the optimum level is due to the limited availability of credit and the high cost of bank debt; c during crisis, the changes in working capital are positively related to the level of cash holdings providing evidence that companies prefer finance to growth with liquidity; d companies have looked for long-term financing to secure liquidity rather than investing on fixed assets, implying a negative relationship between investment and cash holding.

  2. Analysis Brazilian preference shares: financial liabilities or equity instruments?

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Lucia de Almeida; Patricia de Souza Costa; Eliseu Martins

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian preference shares, in general, except when they present specific features, such as mandatory redemption and cumulative dividends, meet the accounting definition of equity instruments. However, the scientific literature believes that those shares that do not have discretion to avoid the delivery of cash must be classified as financial liabilities. In a context in which remain differences of understanding of their proper accounting treatment, the following question arises: pre...

  3. International analysis of the countries where Brazilian franchise chains operate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate which external environment factors are involved in the international commitment of Brazilian franchise chains. Our objectives herein are to understand which external country characteristics lead to international franchising operations and to ascertain the influence of such characteristics in the commitment of franchise chains in each country they operate in. The database has 54 Brazilian franchise chains with international operations in 26 countries, which implies in 157 franchises operating abroad. Regarding external environment factors, the independent variables form a group divided into market opportunity and business efficiency – trust and ease to doing business. The result of the three distinct clusters show how the market opportunity and the business efficiency (trust and ease in doing business work as drivers to the international operation of Brazilian franchises. The paper shows that the franchise chains operating in the USA (cluster 3 have an inferior international commitment in comparison with the franchises which operate in developed countries and in small Latin American countries (cluster 2. It is also possible to notice a large number of franchises that operate in underdeveloped countries from Latin America and Africa (cluster 1 with worse business efficiency due to the advantage of learning how to operate in a country that could have some similarities with Brazil

  4. Multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmazio, Ilza; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: id@cdtn.b, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Reator e Tecnicas Analiticas. Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica

    2011-07-01

    Recent works have shown that analysis in cosmetics and beauty products from the European and Asian markets indicate the presence of U, Th and rare earths besides other trace elements. Considering these previous findings and health issues, it would be valuable to obtain information on elements in cosmetics available in the Brazilian market. The purpose of this study was to acquire a multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products of diverse brands. Samples of eye shadow, liquid base, facial concealer, lipstick, and compact face powder were analyzed applying neutron activation analysis, k{sub 0}-standardization method at CDTN/CNEN, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 research reactor. Concentrations of more than 30 elements in samples are presented and it was found elements included in Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency prohibitive list, rare earths, Th and U in a minimum of two cosmetic samples. (author)

  5. Multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmazio, Ilza; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent works have shown that analysis in cosmetics and beauty products from the European and Asian markets indicate the presence of U, Th and rare earths besides other trace elements. Considering these previous findings and health issues, it would be valuable to obtain information on elements in cosmetics available in the Brazilian market. The purpose of this study was to acquire a multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products of diverse brands. Samples of eye shadow, liquid base, facial concealer, lipstick, and compact face powder were analyzed applying neutron activation analysis, k 0 -standardization method at CDTN/CNEN, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 research reactor. Concentrations of more than 30 elements in samples are presented and it was found elements included in Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency prohibitive list, rare earths, Th and U in a minimum of two cosmetic samples. (author)

  6. Agriculture, exportation and energy: a brazilian situation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, S.M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this article aims at verifying if according to the point of view of Final Energy Consumption in the agricultural sector, the Brazilian exports were beneficial to the country or not. Stimulated by a series of incentives it has been made a great effort with the purpose of mainly exporting primary products, and this effort may have been in conflict with the ever increasing indirect costs. And, it is in this point that there is the doubt as to the validity of energy consumption in the sector. (author)

  7. Performance analysis: a study using data envelopment analysis in 26 Brazilian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Mariana; de Souza, Antônio Artur; Moreira, Douglas Rafael

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a proposal for analyzing the performance of public Brazilian hospitals using financial and non-financial rates (i.e., operational rates), and thereby highlights the effectiveness (or otherwise) of the financial management of organizations in this study. A total of 72 hospitals in the Brazilian Unified Health Care System (in Portuguese, Sistema Unico de Saúde-SUS), were selected for accessibility and completeness of their data. Twenty-six organizations were used for the study sample, consisting of entities that had publicly disclosed financial statements for the period from 2008 (in particular, via the Internet) and whose operational data could be found in the SUS database. Our proposal, based on models using the method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), was the construction of six initial models that were later compiled into a standard model. The relations between the rates that comprised the models were based on the variables and the notes of: Schuhmann, McCue and Nayar, Barnum and Kutzin, Younis, Younies, and Okojie, Marinho, Moreno, and Cavalini, and Ersoy, Kavuncubasi, Ozcan, and Harris II. We put forward an enhanced grant proposal applicable to Brazil aiming to (i) confirm or refute the rates that show the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of financial management of national hospitals; and (ii) determine the best performances, which could be used as a reference for future studies. Obtained results: (i) for all financial indicators considered, only one showed no significance in all models; and (ii) for operational indicators, the results were not relevant when the number of occupied beds was considered. Though the analysis was related to only services provided by SUS, we conclude that our study has great potential for analyzing the financial management performance of Brazilian hospitals in general, for the following reasons: (i) it shows the relationship of financial and operational rates that can be used to analyze the performance of

  8. Experience of a Brazilian A/E in seismic analysis of nuclear structures components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venancio Filho, F.; Leal, M.R.L.V.; Bevilacqua, L.

    1980-01-01

    The experience of Promon Engenharia S.A., a Brazilian A/E which participated in the civil and mechanical engineering projects of the first Nuclear Power Plant in Brazil, is presented. In these projects the aspects of input for seismic analysis, seismic analysis in nuclear structures founded on piles, dynamic analysis for airplane crash, and piping analysis had to be faced for the first time in the country. The solution of these problems and some case examples are presented. (Author) [pt

  9. Green supply chain management: analysis of brazilian academic publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Barbieri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with environmental issues from the perspective of Supply Chain Management. With the incorporation of environmental concerns in a systematic manner the concept of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM has emerged. The subject GSCM interests not only to academics but also to professional audience especially with regard to new legal obligations, and social pressures of various types of stakeholders, as well as issues related to the competitiveness of enterprises and their supply chains. However, the way in which this knowledge is being produced in Brazil is not clear, hence the need for a mapping which areas and sub-areas of GSCM has been studied most frequently. Thus, this work can be characterized as a desk research that aims to analyze the Brazilian academic publications on green supply chain management. In order to delimit the scope of the research, we collected articles published from 2006 to 2010 in specific Brazilian congresses of Management and Production Engineering, as EnANPAD, SIMPOI and SIMPEP. 110 papers were collected and analyzed.The area of Green Operations represents 81% of published articles and 45% of these focus on Reverse Logistics. 70% of total papers are empirical and 77% use a qualitative approach, while 57% of the total are case studies

  10. Eating patterns in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil: an exploratory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Oliveira Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The food consumption of 15,071 public employees was analyzed in six Brazilian cities participating in the baseline for Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, 2008-2010 with the aim of identifying eating patterns and their relationship to socio-demographic variables. Multiple correspondence and cluster analysis were applied. Four patterns were identified, with their respective frequencies: "traditional" (48%; "fruits and vegetables" (25%; "pastry shop" (24%; and "diet/light" (5% The "traditional" and "pastry shop" patterns were more frequent among men, younger individuals, and those with less schooling. "Fruits and vegetables" and "diet/light" were more frequent in women, older individuals, and those with more schooling. Our findings show the inclusion of new items in the "traditional" pattern and the appearance of the "low sugar/low fat" pattern among the eating habits of Brazilian workers, and signal socio-demographic and regional differences.

  11. Eating patterns in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Melere, Cristiane; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Faria, Carolina Perim de; Benseñor, Isabela M; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Griep, Rosane Harter; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    The food consumption of 15,071 public employees was analyzed in six Brazilian cities participating in the baseline for Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, 2008-2010) with the aim of identifying eating patterns and their relationship to socio-demographic variables. Multiple correspondence and cluster analysis were applied. Four patterns were identified, with their respective frequencies: "traditional" (48%); "fruits and vegetables" (25%); "pastry shop" (24%); and "diet/light" (5%) The "traditional" and "pastry shop" patterns were more frequent among men, younger individuals, and those with less schooling. "Fruits and vegetables" and "diet/light" were more frequent in women, older individuals, and those with more schooling. Our findings show the inclusion of new items in the "traditional" pattern and the appearance of the "low sugar/low fat" pattern among the eating habits of Brazilian workers, and signal socio-demographic and regional differences.

  12. The Brazilian energy matrix: Evolution analysis and its impact on farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamas, Wendell de Queiroz; Giacaglia, Giorgio Eugenio Oscare

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes a technical and economic analysis of the Brazilian matrix energy evaluation, aiming at the evaluation of impacts inherent to technological innovation involved on energy matrix and the sectoral development. Particular attention is given to biomass energy, natural gas, and conventional fuels, considering their impacts on agricultural activity, identifying the highest potential for investment in this sector. As a result, a clear view of the importance of agricultural sector participation in the context of the Brazilian energy is obtained, not only as a consumer, but mainly through self-production energy policy of waste reuse as biomass and of biofuels. - Highlights: • We analyze the impact of Brazilian energy matrix on farming. • We highlight the socio-political-economic impact on the agricultural sector. • We highlight the biofuels potential

  13. Thesis Abstract Morphological and phylogeographic analysis of Brazilian tortoises (Testudinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T L; Venancio, L P R; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2015-12-29

    The discriminative potentials of biogeography, vocalization, morphology, cytogenetics, hemoglobin, and molecular profiling of cytochrome b as taxonomic techniques for differentiating Brazilian tortoises were evaluated in this study. In Brazil, two species of tortoises are described, Chelonoidis carbonarius and Chelonoidis denticulatus. However, in the present study, some animals that were initially recognized based on morphological characters and coloring did not correspond to the typical pattern of C. carbonarius; these animals were classified as morphotypes 1 and 2. It was proposed that these morphotypes are differentiated species, and they should not be considered as a single taxonomic unit with C. carbonarius. Tortoises analyzed were provided by the National Institute for Amazonian Research (INPA); the Emilio Goeldi Museum, PA; municipal zoos in São José do Rio Preto, SP, and Araçatuba, SP; and the Reginaldo Uvo Leone breeding farm for Wild and Exotic Animals, Tabapuã, SP. Based on the data obtained using biogeographic evaluation of specimens in the literature, it was found that C. carbonarius is distributed in the Northeast Region of Brazil, and no animal of this pattern was observed in the investigated collections. On the other hand, C. denticulatus is found in all the states of the Legal Amazonia. In addition, isolated individual records of this species exist in the Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro and in the Midwest Region composed of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, and Mato Grosso do Sul. In the Northeast Region, C. denticulatus occurs in the State of Bahia. Morphotype 1 has a wider geographical distribution than C. carbonarius, possibly because of several distribution reports associated with C. carbonarius, indicating erroneous association of morphotype 1 as a single taxonomic unit with C. carbonarius. Morphotype 2 is found only in the states of Pará, Maranhão, and Piauí. These biogeographic data indicate that the

  14. Preliminary analysis of geothermal aspects of Brazilian thermal spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurter, S.J.; Hamza, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    Information on more than 400 geothermal springs in Brazil has been assembled. On the basis of the data colected the temperatures at the maximum depths of circulation of spring waters are calculated using the quality of silica dissolved in water. For some thermal springs temperatures are calculated on the basis of silica determination carrried out by us. Applying linear relations between silica temperature and geothermal flux the average depths of water circulation in the Parana Basin and the Brazilian folded belts surrounding the San Francisco craton are calculated. The radioactivity of the water, derived mainly from the dissolved radon can be correlated with the temperature of the spring. An inverse correlation, as was observed for thermal springs of Pocos de Caldas, can be used to calculate the ascent velocity of thermal waters, where as, a positive correlations could be interpreted as due to the mixing of thermal with surface waters. (Author) [pt

  15. SUPPLY CHAIN RESILIENCE ANALYSIS: A BRAZILIAN AUTOMOTIVE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Scavarda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain (SC resilience and flexibility are important research topics receiving growing attention. However, the academic literature needs empirical studies on SC resilience capable of investigating the inter-organizational components of flexibility along different tiers. Therefore, this paper analyzes the main lack of flexibilities in three Brazilian automotive SCs that limit their resilience and therefore their capacity to better support and meet the demand changes in the marketplace. A multi-tier case study approach is adopted. Research findings identify lack of flexibilities in different tiers that inhibit the SC resilience as well as manufacturing and SC flexibilities that build SC resilience. The findings also highlight that the same SC may have the flexibility to be resilient for one of its products but not for another product, what sheds new lights on the academic literature. Finally, flexible SCs should be designed to increase SC resilience to cope with mishaps as significant demand changes.

  16. Statistical analysis of Brazilian electoral campaigns via Benford's law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamermann, Daniel; Antunes, Felipe Leite

    2018-04-01

    The principle of democracy is that the people govern through elected representatives. Therefore, a democracy is healthy as long as the elected politicians do represent the people. We have analyzed data from the Brazilian electoral court (Tribunal Superior Eleitoral, TSE) concerning money donations for the electoral campaigns and the election results. Our work points to two conclusions that combined may be in conflict with the democratic principle: money is the determining factor on whether a candidate is elected or not (opposed to representativeness); secondly, the use of Benford's Law to analyze the declared donations received by the parties and electoral campaigns shows either possible manipulations in the declarations or a significant number of donations that might not have been spontaneous from the donors. The better term that describes Brazil's government system is plutocracy (govern by the wealthy).

  17. Housing Policy. A Critical Analysis on the Brazilian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nascimento Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has revealed significant advancements on social housing in Brazil. Along with the implementation of the National Housing Policy (2004, the National Housing System (2005, and the National Housing Plan (2008, a consistent model to face the Brazilian housing deficiency was created. The prime period of the actions and resources taken by the various government levels and private agents took place during the implementation of Minha Casa Minha Vida [My Home My Life] program (PMCMV, whose goal was to build a million houses. Based on the outlined context, this paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between National Housing Policy and PMCMV, discussing its implications on housing outlook in the country. A bibliographical and documentary research showed theoretical and conceptual unbalance between these two policies, allowing speculation on the prevalence of the economic component over the social one.

  18. Sourcing Brazilian marijuana by applying IRMS analysis to seized samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Elisa K; Souza Sarkis, Jorge E; Neto, Osvaldo Negrini; Moreira, Marcelo Z; Victoria, Reynaldo L

    2006-06-27

    The stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios were measured in marijuana samples (Cannabis sativa L.) seized by the law enforcement officers in the three Brazilian production sites: Pernambuco and Bahia (the country's Northeast known as Marijuana Polygon), Pará (North or Amazon region) and Mato Grosso do Sul (Midwest). These regions are regarded as different with respect to climate and water availability, factors which impact upon the isotope fractionations of these elements within plants. It was possible to differentiate samples from the dry regions (Marijuana Polygon) from those from Mato Grosso do Sul and Pará, that present heavier rainfall. The results were in agreement with the climatic conditions of the suspected regions of origin and this demonstrates that seized samples can be used to identify the isotopic signatures of marijuana from the main producing regions in Brazil.

  19. Telenovela in Multimedia Platforms: analysis of a Brazilian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Machado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyzing the strategies of a Brazilian television broadcasting corporation when it promotes the interaction between a fictional product and the social networks that are weaved around its plot and characters, including its actors, screenwriters and directors. The topic was the Brazilian telenovela Viver a Vida broadcast by Rede Globo de Televisão in 2010, and which, in the current context of convergence, has its storytelling overflowing into a multiplatform scenario, fed both by the producers’ strategies and by the audience’s behavior. Following the trend of expanding the storytelling by using the Internet, Viver a Vida used several publicity strategies for its plot, and narrative events often merged with extra-narrative events in the production of content about the narrative, pervading various media: official and unofficial websites, social networking websites, and blogs, as well as the traditional media. The result is a dialogue between media and society, which was triggered also by other companies and journalistic content, generating news not only about the plot and its characters but also about the themes approached within the narrative. The telenovela producers have thus invested in crossmedia strategies to expand the fictional narrative beyond television and its consumers produce their own content and exchanging their impressions about the telenovela via Twitter, which has generated a great real-time conversation. Online social networks have therefore become an important stage for the interaction among the spheres of audience and production, thus enabling the former to have a direct channel through which they can expose their opinions about the narrative, whereas the latter has obtained a “thermometer” about how the plot has been consumed.

  20. Three-dimensional distribution of organic matter in coastal-deltaic peat : Implications for subsidence and carbon dioxide emissions by human-induced peat oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, K.; Stafleu, J.; Cohen, K. M.; Stouthamer, E.; Busschers, Freek S.; Middelkoop, H.

    2018-01-01

    Human-induced groundwater level lowering in the Holocene coastal-deltaic plain of the Netherlands causes oxidation of peat organic matter, resulting in land subsidence and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Here, a three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the distribution of the remaining peat organic matter

  1. Fishery impacts of peat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, A.; Heikkinen, K.

    1991-01-01

    The total area of Finland's peat mining areas is approx. 60 000 ha. Increase in runoff from peat mining areas and changes in the quality of the runoff water, such as rises in solid matter, humus and nutrient content, result in a higher load on the lakes and rivers downstream peat mining areas. Loading from peat mining areas has been found to increase the bacterioplankton densities and change the species composition of phytoplankton in watercourses. Periphytic biomass has increased but zooplankton biomass and diversity have decreased. Corresponding changes and decreases in the number of species have also been observed in the bottom fauna of flowing waters. The loading caused by peat mining affects the fish stocks either directly or via changes in reproduct conditions and the availability of food organisms. Direct effects can be revealed as withdrawal of fish, their weakened condition and increased susceptibility to diseases, tainting or, in the worst case, even fish kills. Both organic and inorganic solid matter loading which deposits on the bottom have the most pronounced effects on fish reproduction and bottom fauna used as their food. Soiling of nets and changes in the condition of the fishing areas have a detrimental effect on fisheries. The changes that take place in the fish stocks are affected by the nature of the water system, the size of the peat mining areas and their location within the catchment area, as well as the quantity and timing of load coming from the peat mining areas. These can be influenced through technical water protection measures

  2. Genetic analysis of aluminum tolerance in Brazilian barleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minella Euclydes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major factor limiting barley growth in acid soils, and genotypes with adequate level of tolerance are needed for improving barley adaptation in Brazil. To study the inheritance of Al tolerance in Brazilian barleys, cultivars Antarctica 1, BR 1 and FM 404 were crossed to sensitive Kearney and PFC 8026, and intercrossed. Parental, F1, F2 and F6 generations were grown in nutrient solution containing 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07 mM of Al and classified for tolerance by the root tip hematoxylin staining assay. Tolerant by sensitive F2 progenies segregated three tolerant to one sensitive, fitting the 3:1 ratio expected for a single gene. The F6 populations segregated one tolerant to one sensitive also fitting a monogenic ratio. The F2 seedlings from crosses among tolerant genotypes scored the same as the parents. Since the population size used would allow detection of recombination as low as 7%, the complete absence of Al sensitive recombinants suggests that tolerance in these cultivars is most probably, controlled by the same gene. Thus, the potential for improving Al tolerance through recombination of these genotypes is very low and different gene sources should be evaluated.

  3. Third technical contractors' conference on peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The conference dealt with the estimation of US peat reserves, methods for the gasification of peat, including biogasification, techniques for dewatering peat, and the harvesting of peat. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers. (CKK)

  4. Life-cycle of fuel peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijting, J.; Silvo, K.

    1998-01-01

    The share of peat in the primary energy supply in Finland in 1996 was about 6.5 % and the area used for peat production was about 535 km 2 , corresponding to about 0.5 % of the original peatland area of Finland. Fuel peat production is hence a significant form of using natural resources. About 1.4 % of the total peatland area has been reserved for peat production. Approximately 95 % of the peat excavated in Finland is used as fuel peat, and 5 % as horticultural peat. As raw material and fuel peat can be considered to be slowly renewable material. The environmental impacts of fuel peat production, transportation and peat combustion were evaluated in this research by methods used in life-cycle assessment. Preparation and production phases of peat production areas, fuel peat transportation to power plants, combustion of peat in power plants, and disposal of the ashes formed the basis for the investigation. Data collected in 1994-1996 was used as the basic material in the research. Special attention was paid to the estimation of greenhouse gas balance when using a virgin bog and the forest drained peatland areas as starting points. Post-production use of peatlands were not inspected in the life-cycle assessment. The work was carried out in 1997 in cooperation with Vapo Oy. The regional environmental centers, VTT and Helsinki and Joensuu Universities assisted significantly in acquisition of the material and planning of the work 3 refs

  5. Water fluoridation in 40 Brazilian cities: 7 year analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzely Adas Saliba MOIMAZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Fluoride levels in the public water supplies of 40 Brazilian cities were analyzed and classified on the basis of risk/benefit balance. Material and Methods Samples were collected monthly over a seven-year period from three sites for each water supply source. The samples were analyzed in duplicate in the laboratory of the Center for Research in Public Health - UNESP using an ion analyzer coupled to a fluoride-specific electrode. Results A total of 19,533 samples were analyzed, of which 18,847 were artificially fluoridated and 686 were not artificially fluoridated. In samples from cities performing water fluoridation, 51.57% (n=9,720 had fluoride levels in the range of 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L; 30.53% (n=5,754 were below 0.55 mg F/L and 17.90% (n=3,373 were above 0.84 mg F/L (maximum concentration=6.96 mg F/L. Most of the cities performing fluoridation that had a majority of samples with fluoride levels above the recommended parameter had deep wells and more than one source of water supply. There was some variability in the fluoride levels of samples from the same site and between collection sites in the same city. Conclusions The majority of samples from cities performing fluoridation had fluoride levels within the range that provides the best combination of risks and benefits, minimizing the risk of dental fluorosis while preventing dental caries. The conduction of studies about water distribution systems is suggested in cities with high natural fluoride concentrations in order to optimize the use of natural fluoride for fluoridation costs and avoid the risk of dental fluorosis.

  6. Time series analysis of the behavior of brazilian natural rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Donizette de Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The natural rubber is a non-wood product obtained of the coagulation of some lattices of forest species, being Hevea brasiliensis the main one. Native from the Amazon Region, this species was already known by the Indians before the discovery of America. The natural rubber became a product globally valued due to its multiple applications in the economy, being its almost perfect substitute the synthetic rubber derived from the petroleum. Similarly to what happens with other countless products the forecast of future prices of the natural rubber has been object of many studies. The use of models of forecast of univariate timeseries stands out as the more accurate and useful to reduce the uncertainty in the economic decision making process. This studyanalyzed the historical series of prices of the Brazilian natural rubber (R$/kg, in the Jan/99 - Jun/2006 period, in order tocharacterize the rubber price behavior in the domestic market; estimated a model for the time series of monthly natural rubberprices; and foresaw the domestic prices of the natural rubber, in the Jul/2006 - Jun/2007 period, based on the estimated models.The studied models were the ones belonging to the ARIMA family. The main results were: the domestic market of the natural rubberis expanding due to the growth of the world economy; among the adjusted models, the ARIMA (1,1,1 model provided the bestadjustment of the time series of prices of the natural rubber (R$/kg; the prognosis accomplished for the series supplied statistically adequate fittings.

  7. Peat 2003. Production, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report discusses the use of peat for energy production and other purposes, laws and other regulations affecting peat production and use, environmental impact, market situation and international statistics regarding peat production. In Sweden, the extraction and use of peat for energy production is regulated by several laws. Harvesting concessions must be approved by the county council. All combustion plants must be reported, or verified by regional or central authorities, depending on the size of the plant. Most important in this process is to verify the maximum emission levels permitted for sulphur, nitrogen oxides, particles, etc. Since 1991, a law on municipal energy planning requires descriptions of environmental consequences. Thus, environmental considerations must govern energy planning. Energy taxation in Sweden was changed in 1993. At present, the sulphur tax on fuel peat amounts to SEK 30 per kg of sulphur. Nitrogen oxides are also subject to a tax of SEK 40 per emitted kg. For peat, energy and environmental taxes total SEK 0.02 per kWh, excluding VAT. Peat harvesting for the production of energy aroused interest in the early 1980s as a consequence of the increased energy prices. In 2003, about 2,628,000 cubic metres of fuel peat were harvested in Sweden. The fuel peat is used mainly for production of hot water in district heating plants. In 2003, the total use of fuel peat amounted to 4,0 TWh. In addition to fuel peat, about 1,825,000 cubic metres of peat litter (mainly for horticultural use) was produced. In 2003, imports amounted to 382,3000 metric tons or 1.3 million cubic metres of peat. Exports amounted to 103,000 metric tons, consisting primarily of peat for horticultural use. The peat market in Sweden is divided into the energy market and the cultivation market. Political decisions regarding combustion taxes have a great impact on the competitive advantages of different fuels. The major competitors to peat are coal, oil, and renewable energy

  8. Fourth technical contractors' conference on peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This conference reported the status of the US Department of Energy Peat Program. The papers presented dealt with peat dewatering, international peat programs, environmental and socio-economic factors, peat gasification, peat harvesting, and the state peat surveys for 14 states. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers. (CKK)

  9. The history of the peat manufacturing industry in The Netherlands : peat moss litter and active carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karel, Erwin; Gerding, Michiel; De Vries, Gerben

    This article describes the development of three major forms of peat processing by the manufacturing industry in The Netherlands since the last quarter of the 19th century. At a time when peat as a fuel was gradually being replaced by coal, the first form was the peat moss litter industry. Peat moss

  10. Peat - a slowly renewable biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The international investigation group of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry suggest that peat should be classified as a slowly renewable energy source. Regeneration of peat can take up to thousands of years. Hence peat differs from wood energy, classified as renewable energy, and on the other hand from fossil fuels, such as coal. The report of the investigation group includes all the present research information on greenhouse gas balances of Finnish peatlands, i.e. how much greenhouse gases are liberated from Finnish mires, and on the other hand how much greenhouse gases they absorb. The net emissions of greenhouse gases of Finnish mires are over 10 million tons per year, and those of combustion of peat, mainly CO 2 , are over 8 million tons. The total greenhouse gas emissions of peat combustion and Finnish mire are estimated to be 19 (+- 9) % per year. This corresponds to about 25% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in Finland. The objective of the report was also to study the effects of the utilization of cutaway peat production areas (reforestation, returning the areas back to mires, agricultural utilization) on the greenhouse gas emission balances. The precise investigation of the effects of the greenhouse gas balances and the utilization of cutaway areas require further investigation and measurements at Finnish mires. The group consisted of Patrick Crill (USA), Ken Hargraves (GB) and Atte Korhola (FIN). The report of the group will be published in the Studies and Reports Serie of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry both in English and in Finnish

  11. Development of peat-oil (POM) and peat-alcohol (PAM) slurries as alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D F

    1983-11-01

    The preparation and evaluation of peat/No. 2 fuel oil mixtures (POM) and peat/methanol mixtures (PAM) is described. POM and PAM prepared using North Carolina peat and having varied peat loadings, peat moisture contents and peat particle sizes have been studied by measuring slurry sedimentation ratios and drain times from sedimentation tubes. The peat moisture content was particularly crucial in forming stable slurries. The effect of a variety of additives at 0.5-1.0 wt% on sedimentation ratios, drain times and viscosities was studied. Calorimetric studies of several PAM and POM slurries as well as preliminary combustion tests of POM slurries in a salamander burner are also reported.

  12. The development of peat-oil (POM) and peat-alcohol (PAM) slurries as alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D F; Evans, G O; Harrell, P A; Whitehurst, B M

    1983-11-01

    The preparation and evaluation of peat/No. 2 fuel oil mixtures (POM) and peat/methanol mixtures (PAM) is described. POM and PAM prepared using North Carolina peat and having varied peat loadings, peat moisture contents, and peat particle sizes have been studied by measuring slurry sedimentation ratios and drain times from sedimentation tubes. The peat moisture content was particularly crucial in forming stable slurries. The effect of a variety of additives at 0.5-1.0 wt.% on sedimentation ratios, drain times, and viscosities was studied. Calorimetric studies of several PAM and POM slurries as well as preliminary combustion tests of POM slurries in a salamander burner are also reported.

  13. Measurement of natural activity in peat ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomela, J.

    1985-01-01

    High proportions of radioactive materials in peat ashes may involve radiation hazards during handling and deposition of these waste materials. Measurements have been performed to determine the content of radioactive materials in ashes from peat burning. The activities in fly ash and ''solid'' ash in seven peat-fired power plants in Sweden are presented. The methods of analysing and measuring peat ashes for activity from different radionuclides are described. The activity levels in ash samples are given

  14. Analysis of the cephalometric pattern of Brazilian achondroplastic adult subjects

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    Renato Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the position of the cranial base, maxilla, and mandible of Brazilian achondroplastic adult subjects through cephalometric measurements of the cranio-dento-facial complex, and to compare the results to normal patterns established in literature. METHODS: Fourteen achondroplastic adult subjects were evaluated based on their radiographic cephalometric measurements, which were obtained using the tracings proposed by Downs, Steinner, Bjork, Ricketts and McNamara. Statistical comparison of the means was performed with Student's t test. RESULTS: When compared to normal patterns, the cranial base presented a smaller size in both its anterior and posterior portions, the cranial base angle was acute and there was an anterior projection of the porion; the maxilla was found to be smaller in size in both the anteroposterior and transversal directions, it was inclined anteriorly with anterior vertical excess, and retropositioned in relation to the cranial base and to the mandible; the mandible presented a normal-sized ramus, a decreased body and transverse dimension, a tendency towards vertical growth and clockwise rotation, and it was slightly protruded in relation to the cranial base and maxilla. CONCLUSION: Although we observed wide individual variation in some parameters, it was possible to identify significant differences responsible for the phenotypical characteristics of achondroplastic patients.OBJETIVO: avaliar o tamanho e o posicionamento da base do crânio, da maxila e da mandíbula de indivíduos acondroplásicos brasileiros adultos, a partir de medidas cefalométricas do complexo dentoesqueletofacial. Confrontar os dados obtidos aos padrões de normalidade estabelecidos na literatura. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 14 indivíduos acondroplásicos adultos, utilizando algumas grandezas cefalométricas radiográficas obtidas a partir dos traçados preconizados por Downs, Steinner, Björk, Ricketts e Mc

  15. Multielemental analysis in Brazilian cigarettes using total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Moreira, Silvana

    2005-01-01

    In order to identify major and trace elements in conventional and light Brazilian cigarettes, Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SR-TXRF) was used. The fluorescence measurements were carried out at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas - Sao Paulo. This technique enables detection limit is in the ngg -1 range, which is very useful in elemental tobacco smoke analysis, since it presents most of its elements at a trace level. The major elements identified in tobacco samples were: S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe and Cd, and the trace elements were: Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Ba. However in tobacco smoke samples, there were only two major elements: K and Ca, the others were present a trace level. The rate transfer of tobacco to tobacco smoke was about 2.5 % for all elements studied. (author)

  16. Health research networks on the web: an analysis of the Brazilian presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Barreto Lang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to map Brazilian institutions’ web presence in an international network of health research institutions, a study was conducted in 2009, including 190 institutions from 42 countries. The sample was based on WHO (World Health Organization collaborating centers, and the methodology used webometric analyses and techniques, especially interlinks, and social network analysis. The results showed the presence of five Brazilian institutions, featuring the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz, showing links to 20 countries and 42 institutions. Through the interface between the health field and the web, the study aims to contribute to future analyses and a plan for strategic repositioning of these institutions in the virtual world, as well as to the elaboration of public policies and recognition of webometrics as an area to be explored and applied to various other fields of knowledge.

  17. Reconstruction of postglacial landscape evolution within the eastern periphery of Chuya depression on the basis of multidisciplinary analysis of peats in Boguty river basin, SE Altai, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatova, A. R.; Khazina, I. V.; Bronnikova, M. A.; Uspenskaya, O. N.; Nepop, R. K.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the results of multidisciplinary investigations of the peat-bed under hummocky permafrosted boggy meadow within the Boguty basin. For the last 7600 years 4 evolutionary phases of peatbog formation within the drained part of Low Boguty Lake bottom were established and corresponding 4 pollen complexes were described. 18 radiocarbon dates suggest some chronological bench marks of postglacial landscape evolution in the region. After degradation of Sartan glaciation about 14000 BP, trees grew in now forestless areas at 11000 BP and 8500-7800 BP. The climate in the first half of the Holocene was warmer and more humid. Accumulation of lacustrine loams within the studied peatbog occurred before 7600 BP with predominated algae Pediastrum, Zygnemataceae and Botryococcus. After the lake level lowered in the result of destructing moraine dam, two lower peat horizons were developed about 7600 – 7200 BP. An episode of significant lake desiccation (later than 7200 BP) was recorded in all proxy archives. Further rise of water supply led to increasing the number of water-bog plants, diatomaceous, euglenic and green algae. At the same time, the pollen of xerophytes began to predominate in the pollen complexes, indicating aridization. The final stage reflects stable peatbog drying and its transformation into boggy meadow, decomposition and mineralization of peat.

  18. Peat - The sustainable energy resource in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In Finland the level of energy consumption for heating, transportation and industry is higher than in many other European countries. This is due to the northern position of the country and also to the fact that Finland is sparsely inhabited. Peat is one of the Finnish domestic energy resources. This brochure provides a compact package of background information on fuel peat. All the data presented concerning the production and use of peat, employment, investments in the peat industry, emission levels resulting from the production and use of peat, new combustion technologies and peatland resources, have been collected from documents and other sources that are accessible to the general public

  19. Peat is regarded as slowly renewable biomass fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllylae, I.

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry commissioned an investigation on the role of peat in Finnish greenhouse gas balance in 1999. An international scientist group, consisting of Dr. Patrick Crill from USA, Dr. Ken Hargreaves from United Kingdom and docent Atte Korhola from Finland conducted the investigation. The scientist group made the proposition that peat should be classified as a slowly renewable biomass fuel, which is significant from the peat industry's point of view. An interesting detail of the investigation was the calculations, which showed that ditching of peatlands, have decreased the methane emissions from peatlands. Virgin peatlands bind carbon dioxide from the air, but simultaneously they emit methane, which is more harmful than CO 2 emissions. The carbon sink effect of Finnish peatlands is based on the CO 2 binding of virgin and ditched peatlands in Finland. The CO 2 emissions of peat production and combustion are smaller than the CO 2 binding. Virgin peatlands form a relative large source of methane. The investigation shows that when reviewing the effects of all the greenhouse gases on climate, the virgin peatlands may accelerate the greenhouse effect due to the methane emissions. The final conclusion is that ditching of virgin peatlands has reduced the radiation enforcement in Finland in some extent. When a virgin peatland is ditched the methane emissions from it are reduced significantly, and simultaneously more CO 2 is bound into vegetation. According to the investigation the net emissions of greenhouse gases in Finland exceed 10 million tonnes calculated as CO 2 . Of this the share of virgin peatlands is 8.4 million tonnes, which is of the same magnitude as the emissions from peat combustion. The life cycle analysis has shown that peat production should be directed to swampy fields removed from agricultural production. In most of the cases the combination of reforestation and repaludification into a functional peatland ecosystem could

  20. Analysis of efficiency of the Brazilian international airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rodriguez Brochado

    2008-07-01

    Brazil. Analysis of correlations was used to select the 0 variable most representative of this system and after that, it was calculated efficiency of the system for classic and inverted the borders by means of model BCC guided for output. Finally, it was possible to identify which improvements are necessary for the inefficient airports, in way to identify which improvements are necessary to operational level to reach the efficiency. Key-words: Data Envelopment Analysis, Efficiency, Airports.

  1. Estonian horticultural peat marketing: sales promotion and price formation. 2. part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, Hele

    1999-01-01

    When forming prices, Estonian peat companies' decisions should be based on marginal cost analysis. Unfortunately most Estonian companies sell peat to intermediaries and cannot influence its price. Estonian peat producers have to choose between either selling peat directly or selling through a central marketing organization. Both systems have their pros and cons. Direct selling gives more freedom to individual producers but is more risky. Central marketing makes cost saving possible and is more effective and stable, but may alienate producers from clients and markets. Whichever marketing system Estonian peat companies choose, the most important elements in their marketing strategy should be: careful market analysis, personal sales, attending trade shows, catalogues, quality service and offering transportation services. (author)

  2. Analysis of the brazilian scientific production about information flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielly Oliveira Inomata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This paper presents and discuss the concepts, contexts and applications involving information flows in organizations. Method. Systematic review, followed by a bibliometric analysis and system analysis. The systematic review aimed to search for, evaluate and review evidence about the research topic. The systematic review process comprised the following steps: 1 definition of keywords, 2 systematic review, 3 exploration and analysis of articles and 4 comparison and consolidation of results. Results. A bibliometric analysis aimed to provide a statement of the relevance of articles where the authors, dates of publications, citation index, and periodic keywords with higher occurrence. Conclusions. As survey results confirms the emphasis on information featured in the knowledge management process, and advancing years, it seems that the emphasis is on networks, ie, studies are turning to the operationalization and analysis of flows information networks. The literature produced demonstrates the relationship of information flow with its management, applied to different organizational contexts, including showing new trends in information science as the study and analysis of information flow in networks.

  3. Distribution of sulphur and trace elements in peat. A literature survey with some additional sulphur analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S; Karhu, M

    1981-01-01

    A survey on the literature and contemporary research was made on peat sulphur and trace element studies. Marked variance between different peatlands and peat types has been noted. The available information is still inadequate for generalizations or statistical analysis mainly due to methodological variations and temporal and spatial variations in results. At the moment, the criteria applied in peatland inventories and evaluations are inadequate with respect to peat quality determinations. To some extent the quality of fuel peat should be determined in a mire inventory prior to peatland utilization. The areas over sulphide clay and some sulphate depositions may considerably increase the peat sulphur content. A proposal has been made to include the sulphur content monitoring in the cases where it exceeds 0.3 per cent. The trace elements may also bring about an increase in peat emissions if the deepest peat layers or polluted layers are burnt. The most important elements in this respect are Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, V, Ni, Hg, Cu, Cr, as well as As and U. The first ten because of the relatively high concentrations and last two because of pollution or toxocity and ore deposit factors. The peat hydrogen ion concentration has a positive correlation with copper and vanadium. The correlation is positive with the cobalt and nickel contents when the pH is low, and negative at a higher pH. A general peat type correlation shows maximum trace element contents in basal Carex peats with subsoil effects. The peat ash content and the Ti, Pb, V, Cr, Ni, and S contents have positive correlations. (Refs. 290).

  4. Distribution of sulphur and trace elements in peat. [Literature survey with some additional sulphur analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S; Karhu, M

    1981-01-01

    A survey on the literature and contemporary research was made on peat sulphur and trace element studies. Marked variance between different peatlands and peat types has been noted. The available information is still inadequate for generalizations or statistical analysis mainly due to methodological variations and temporal and spatial variations in results. At the moment, the criteria applied in peatland inventories and evaluations are inadequate with respect to peat quality determinations. To some extent the quality of fuel peat should be determined in a mire inventory prior to peatland utilization. The areas over sulphide clay and some sulphate depositions may considerably increase the peat sulphur content. A proposal has been made to include the sulphur content monitoring in the cases where it exceeds 0.3 per cent. The trace elements may also bring about an increase in peat emissions if the deepest peat layers or polluted layers are burnt. The most important elements in this respect are Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, V, Ni, Hg, Cu, Cr, as well as As and U. The first ten because of the relatively high concentrations and last two because of pollution or toxocity and ore deposit factors. The peat hydrogen ion concentration has a positive correlation with copper and vanadium. The correlation is positive with the cobalt and nickel contents when the pH is low, and negative at a higher pH. A general peat type correlation shows maximum trace element contents in basal Carex peats with subsoil effects. The peat ash content and the Ti, Pb, V, Cr, Ni and S contents have positive correlations.

  5. Proposal of a Methodology of Stakeholder Analysis for the Brazilian Satellite Space Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Elizabeth Rocha de Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the continuity and growth of space activities in Brazil, it is fundamental to persuade the Brazilian society and its representatives in Government about the importance of investments in space activities. Also, it is important to convince talented professionals to place space activities as an object of their interest; the best schools should also be convinced to offer courses related to the space sector; finally, innovative companies should be convinced to take part in space sector activities, looking to returns, mainly in terms of market differentiation and qualification, as a path to take part in high-technology and high-complexity projects. On the one hand, this process of convincing or, more importantly, committing these actors to space activities, implies a thorough understanding of their expectations and needs, in order to plan how the system/organization can meet them. On the other hand, if stakeholders understand how much they can benefit from this relationship, their consequent commitment will very much strengthen the action of the system/organization. With this framework in perspective, this paper proposes a methodology of stakeholder analysis for the Brazilian satellite space program. In the exercise developed in the article, stakeholders have been identified from a study of the legal framework of the Brazilian space program. Subsequently, the proposed methodology has been applied to the planning of actions by a public organization.

  6. Analysis of Aspects of Innovation in a Brazilian Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Valélia Saraceni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Innovation through clustering has become very important on the increased significance that interaction represents on innovation and learning process concept. This study aims to identify whereas a case analysis on innovation process in a cluster represents on the learning process. Therefore, this study is developed in two stages. First, we used a preliminary case study verifying a cluster innovation analysis and it Innovation Index, for further, exploring a combined body of theory and practice. Further, the second stage is developed by exploring the learning process concept. Both stages allowed us building a theory model for the learning process development in clusters. The main results of the model development come up with a mechanism of improvement implementation on clusters when case studies are applied.

  7. Climate mitigation scenarios of drained peat soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Åsa; Coria, Jessica; He, Hongxing; Liu, Xiangping; Nordén, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The national inventory reports (NIR) submitted to the UNFCCC show Sweden - which as many other countries has wetlands where parts have been drained for agriculture and forestry purposes, - to annually emit 12 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents, which is more GHG'es than industrial energy use release in Sweden. Similar conditions can be found in other northern countries, having cool and wet conditions, naturally promoting peat accumulation, and where land use management over the last centuries have promoted draining activities. These drained peatland, though covering only 2% of the land area, have emissions corresponding to 20% of the total reported NIR emissions. This substantial emission contribution, however, is hidden within the Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF) where the forest Carbon uptake is even larger, which causes the peat soil emissions become invisible. The only drained soil emission accounted in the Swedish Kyoto reporting is the N2O emission from agricultural drained organic soils of the size 0.5 million tonnes CO2e yr-1. This lack of visibility has made incentives for land use change and management neither implemented nor suggested, however with large potential. Rewetting has the potential to decrease soil mineralization, why CO2 and N2O emissions are mitigated. However if the soil becomes very wet CH4 emission will increase together with hampered plant growth. By ecological modeling, using the CoupModel the climate change mitigation potential have been estimated for four different land use scenarios; 1, Drained peat soil with Spruce (business as usual scenario), 2, raised ground water level to 20 cm depth and Willow plantation, 3, raised ground water level to 10 cm depth and Reed Canary Grass, and 4, rewetting to an average water level in the soil surface with recolonizing wetland plants and mosses. We calculate the volume of biomass production per year, peat decomposition, N2O emission together with nitrate and DOC

  8. Three-dimensional analysis of facial morphology in Brazilian population with Caucasian, Asian, and Black ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Bettoni Rodrigues da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare facial features related to the nose, lips and face between the Caucasian, Asian, and Black ethnicity in the Brazilian population by means of linear measurements and proportion indices obtained from the analysis of three-dimensional (3D images taken by 3D stereophotogrammetry. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy subjects, being 10 Caucasians, 10 Blacks and 10 Asians had reference points (landmarks demarcated on their faces, 3D images were obtained (Vectra M3 and the following measurements were calculated: Facial proportion indices relative to the nose, lips and face. The statistical analysis was performed comparing the ethnic groups (one-way analysis of variance. Results: The Blacks and Asians showed the greatest difference in the face analysis (width, height of the lower face, upper face index and lower face index – P < 0.05. In the comparisons between groups, differences were verified to the mouth width and lower lip vermilion height. In the nose analysis, the biggest differences were obtained for the proportion indices, being that Caucasians versus Asians and Caucasians versus Blacks have showed the largest differences. Conclusion: This study found the presence of some similarities in the proportion indices of nose, lips and face between the ethnic groups of the Brazilian population, as well as some important differences that should be known to guide surgical and forensics procedures, among others.

  9. Multi-element neutron activation analysis of Brazilian coal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalla, L.T.; Requejo, C.S.

    1982-09-01

    The elements U, Th, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Tb, Yb, Lu, Sc, Ta, Hf, Co, Ni, Cr, Mo, Ti, V, W, In, Ga, Mn, Ba, Sr, Mg, Rb, Cs, K, Cl, Br, As, Sb, Au, Ca, Al and Fe were determined in coal samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis, by using both thermal and epithermal neutron irradiations. The irradiation times were 10 minutes and 8 or 16 hours in a position where the thermal neutron flux was about 10 12 n.cm - 2 .s - 1 and 72 non-consecutive hours for epithermal irradiation at a flux of about 10 11 n.Cm - 2 .s - 1 . After the instrumental analysis of the above mentioned elements, Zn and Se were determined with chemical separation. The relative standard deviation of, at least, 4 determinations was about + - 10% for the majority of the results. The coal samples analysed were supplied by: Cia. Estadual da Tecnologia e Saneamento Basico (CETESB-SP), Cia. de Pesquisas e Lavras Minerais (COPELMI-RS), Cia. Carbonifera Urussunga (SC), Cia. Carbonifera Prospera (SC), Cia. Carbonifera Treviso (SC), Cia. Nacional de Mineracao de Carvao do Barro Branco (SC) and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ). (Author) [pt

  10. Peat 2002. Resources, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses the use of peat for energy production and other purposes, laws and other regulations affecting peat production and use, environmental impact, market situation and international statistics regarding peat production. In Sweden, the extraction and use of peat for energy production is regulated by several laws. A company planning peat extraction must first apply for an examination concession. Then a harvesting concession must be approved by the county council. All combustion plants must be reported, or verified by regional or central authorities, depending on the size of the plant. Most important in this process is to verify the maximum emission levels permitted for sulphur, nitrogen oxides, particles, etc. At present, the sulphur tax on fuel peat amounts to SEK 30 per kg of sulphur (1 USD approx. 7.8 SEK). Nitrogen oxides are also subject to a tax of SEK 40 per emitted kg. For peat, energy and environmental taxes total SEK 0.02 per kWh, excluding VAT. Peat harvesting for the production of energy aroused interest in the early 1980s as a consequence of the energy crises. In 2002, about 2,885,000 cubic metres of fuel peat were harvested in Sweden. The fuel peat is used mainly for production of hot water in heating plants. In 2001, the total use of fuel peat amounted to 4.1 TWh. In addition to fuel peat, about 1,800,000 cubic metres of peat litter (mainly for horticultural use) was produced. In 2001, imports amounted to 329,311 metric tons or 1.1 million cubic metres of peat. Exports amounted to 91,000 metric tons, consisting primarily of peat for horticultural use. Fuel peat is used at district heating power plants. Political decisions regarding combustion taxes have a great impact on the competitive advantages of different fuels. The major competitors to peat are coal, oil, and renewable energy sources. Some companies are privately owned, while others are owned by municipalities, which also manage district heating plants and thereby integrate

  11. Wilson's disease: an analysis of 28 Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolpho Truffa Kleine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Clinical-laboratory and evolutionary analysis of twenty-eight patients with Wilson's disease. METHODS: Twenty-eight children (twelve females and sixteen males with Wilson's disease were evaluated retrospectively between 1987 and 2009, with a follow-up of 72 months (1 - 240 months. The clinical, laboratory, and histologic features at diagnosis were recorded at the end of the study. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 11 years (2 - 18 years. Twelve patients were asymptomatic, seven had hepatitis symptoms, five had raised aminotransferase levels, three had hepatomegaly associated with neurological disorders, one had fulminant hepatitis with hemolytic anemia, and six patients presented with a Kayser-Fleischer ring. A histological analysis revealed that six children had chronic hepatitis, seven had cirrhosis, two had steatosis, one had portal fibrosis, and one had massive necrosis. The treatment consisted of D-penicillamine associated with pyridoxine for 26 patients. Adverse effects were observed in the other two patients: one presented with uncontrollable vomiting and the other demonstrated elastosis perforans serpiginosa. At the end of the study, all 26 treated patients were asymptomatic. Twenty-four of the patients were treated with D-penicillamine and pyridoxine, and two were treated with trientine and zinc sulfate. A liver transplant was performed in one patient with fulminant hepatitis, but the final patient died 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit. CONCLUSIONS: Family screenings associated with early treatment are important in preventing Wilson's disease symptoms and potentially fatal disease progression. The study suggests that Wilson's disease must be ruled out in children older than two years presenting with abnormal levels of hepatic enzymes because of the heterogeneity of symptoms and the encouraging treatment results obtained so far.

  12. Genetic relatedness of Brazilian Colletotrichum truncatum isolates assessed by vegetative compatibility groups and RAPD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Juliane R; Miyamoto, Cláudia T; Rosada, Lúcia J; Franco, Claudinéia C S; Kaneshima, Edilson N; Castro-Prado, Marialba A A

    2010-01-01

    The genetic variation among nine soybean-originating isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum from different Brazilian states was studied. Nitrate non-utilizing (nit) mutants were obtained with potassium chlorate and used to characterize vegetative compatibility reactions, heterokaryosis and RAPD profile. Based on pairings of nit mutants from the different isolates, five vegetative complementation groups (VCG) were identified, and barriers to the formation of heterokaryons were observed among isolates derived from the same geographic area. No complementation was observed among any of the nit mutants recovered from the isolate A, which was designed heterokaryon-self-incompatible. Based on RAPD analysis, a polymorphism was detected among the wild isolate C and their nit1 and NitM mutants. RAPD amplification, with five different primers, also showed polymorphic profiles among Brazilian C. truncatum isolates. Dendrogram analysis resulted in a similarity degree ranging between 0.331 and 0.882 among isolates and identified three RAPD groups. Despite the lack of a correlation between the RAPD analysis and the vegetative compatibility grouping, results demonstrated the potential of VCG analysis to differentiate C. truncatum isolates genotypically similar when compared by RAPD.

  13. Genetic relatedness of Brazilian Colletotrichum truncatum isolates assessed by vegetative compatibility groups and RAPD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANE R SANT’ANNA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variation among nine soybean-originating isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum from different Brazilian states was studied. Nitrate non-utilizing (nit mutants were obtained with potassium chlorate and used to characterize vegetative compatibility reactions, heterokaryosis and RAPD profile. Based on pairings of nit mutants from the different isolates, five vegetative complementation groups (VCG were identified, and barriers to the formation of heterokaryons were observed among isolates derived from the same geographic area. No complementation was observed among any of the nit mutants recovered from the isolate A, which was designed heterokaryon-self-incompatible. Based on RAPD analysis, a polymorphism was detected among the wild isolate C and their nit1 and NitM mutants. RAPD amplification, with five different primers, also showed polymorphic profiles among Brazilian C. truncatum isolates. Dendrogram analysis resulted in a similarity degree ranging between 0.331 and 0.882 among isolates and identified three RAPD groups. Despite the lack of a correlation between the RAPD analysis and the vegetative compatibility grouping, results demonstrated the potential of VCG analysis to differentiate C. truncatum isolates genotypically similar when compared by RAPD.

  14. Health and Safety at Work: Analysis from the Brazilian Documentary Film Flesh and Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Luciano; Dos Santos, Heliani Berlato; Ichikawa, Elisa Yoshie

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this article is to make some analysis on the process of work and accidents occurring in slaughterhouses, evidenced in the Brazilian documentary film called Flesh and Bone . As such, it was necessary to discuss an alternative theoretical concept in relation to theories about health and safety at work. This alternative discussion focuses on the concepts of biopower and biopolitics. The use of audiovisual elements in research is not new, and there is already a branch of studies with methodological and epistemological variations. The Brazilian documentary Flesh and Bone was the basis for the research. The analysis of this documentary will be carried out from two complementary perspectives: "textual analysis" and "discourse analysis." Flesh and Bone presents problems related to health and safety at work in slaughterhouses because of the constant exposure of workers to knives, saws, and other sharp instruments in the workplace. The results show that in favor of higher production levels, increased overseas market sales, and stricter quality controls, some manufacturers resort to various practices that often result in serious injuries, disposal, and health damages to workers. Flesh and Bone , by itself, makes this explicit in the form of denunciation based on the situation of these workers. What it does not make clear is that, in the context of biopolitics, the actions aimed at solving these problems or even reducing the negative impacts for this group of workers, are not efficient enough to change such practices.

  15. Regulation of solid waste management at Brazilian ports: Analysis and proposals for Brazil in light of the European experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaccoud, Cristiane; Magrini, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of the regulatory framework relating to solid waste management in Brazilian ports. • Comparison between European best practices and Brazilian structure. • Initiatives are suggested in order to improve Brazilian ports solid waste management regulation. - Abstract: With a coastline of 8500 km, Brazil has 34 public ports and various private terminals, which together in 2012 handled 809 million tonnes of goods. The solid wastes produced (from port activities, ships and cargoes) pose a highly relevant problem, both due to the quantity and diversity, requiring a complex and integrated set of practices resulting from legal requirements and proactive initiatives. The main Brazilian law on solid waste management is recent (Law 12,305/2010) and the specific rules on solid waste in ports are badly in need of revision to meet the challenges caused by expansion of the sector and to harmonize them with the best global practices. This paper analyzes the current legal/regulatory framework for solid waste management at Brazilian ports and compares this structure with the practice in Europe. At the end, we suggest initiatives to improve the regulation of solid wastes at Brazilian ports

  16. Peat swamp forest of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niyomdham, C.; Urapeepatanapong, C.; Pitayakajornwute, P. [Pikoolthong Royal Development Study Center, Bangkok (Thailand). Royal Forest Department

    1996-12-31

    Peat swamp forest in Thailand occurs extensively along coastal flatlands in the central and southern parts of the country and some small patches of topogenous peatland are present locally on several mountain tops of the northern region. Many have been deteriorated by recent extensive development programs. However, one large area, about 347.04 km{sup 2}, of ombrogenous peatland is still left intact in the Pru Toh Dang area where conservation activities are being strictly enforced under one of the Royal Initiative Projects. Pru Toh Dang peat consists of 5 metres of fibrous organic soil overlying pyritic marine clay. Despite an inhospitable, submerged and unstable forest floor, the floristic composition of the peat swamp forest is extremely complicated, consisting of 124 families and 470 species of which 109 families and 437 species of flowering plants, and 15 families and 33 species of ferns recorded between 1983-1989 by a team from the Forest Herbarium of the Royal Forest Department of Thailand. (orig.) (4 refs.)

  17. Microbial activity and biomass of peats in relation to the intrinsic organic matter composition, pH, moisture, and C and N inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amha Amde, Yosef

    2011-03-25

    Excessive decomposition of organic matter (OM) from the potting media (e.g. peat) is known to influence plant growth by decreasing the total porosity, altering the chemical properties (pH, electrical conductivity), and releasing organic compounds that might have phytotoxic or stimulating effects. When peats are used as constitutes of the potting media, they should, therefore, maintain stability during plant production. In this study, twenty peat samples from Estonia, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania and Sweden were evaluated for their microbial activity (measured as CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions) and biomass with a special emphasis to the intrinsic organic matter composition, pH, moisture, and C and N inputs as such information on a wide range of peat samples is largely missing from published literature. Overall, the whole peat samples were broadly classified into three distinct groups using the hierarchical cluster analysis: the Irish and two of German peats produced the lowest CO{sub 2} while most peats from Finland produced the highest CO{sub 2}. With few exceptions, peats from the Baltic States occupied the middle ranges. Excessive decomposition of organic matter in the Finish peats might have unintended consequences if these peats are used for long-term pot plant production. With regard to botanical composition, peats containing Sphagnum imbricatum produced the lowest CO{sub 2} and S. angustifolium dominated peats mostly produced the highest CO{sub 2}. (orig.)

  18. Classifying and mapping wetlands and peat resources using digital cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Cornelia C.; Emery, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Digital cartography allows the portrayal of spatial associations among diverse data types and is ideally suited for land use and resource analysis. We have developed methodology that uses digital cartography for the classification of wetlands and their associated peat resources and applied it to a 1:24 000 scale map area in New Hampshire. Classifying and mapping wetlands involves integrating the spatial distribution of wetlands types with depth variations in associated peat quality and character. A hierarchically structured classification that integrates the spatial distribution of variations in (1) vegetation, (2) soil type, (3) hydrology, (4) geologic aspects, and (5) peat characteristics has been developed and can be used to build digital cartographic files for resource and land use analysis. The first three parameters are the bases used by the National Wetlands Inventory to classify wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. The fourth parameter, geological aspects, includes slope, relief, depth of wetland (from surface to underlying rock or substrate), wetland stratigraphy, and the type and structure of solid and unconsolidated rock surrounding and underlying the wetland. The fifth parameter, peat characteristics, includes the subsurface variation in ash, acidity, moisture, heating value (Btu), sulfur content, and other chemical properties as shown in specimens obtained from core holes. These parameters can be shown as a series of map data overlays with tables that can be integrated for resource or land use analysis.

  19. Application of neutron activation analysis to the monitoring of trace elements in Brazilian foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Maihara, V.A.; Munita, C.J.A.S.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Armelin, M.J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Due to lack of data on trace element levels in Brazilian foodstuffs, nuclear analytical techniques were used to determine about twenty elements in foods samples collected from local markets of the city of Sao Paulo. Drinking water was also analyzed. The methods employed were mainly instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. In the case of the analysis of toxic elements, such as mercury, selenium, arsenic and antimony, the purely instrumental approach failed in yielding results for very low concentrations of these elements. For INAA, samples and multielemental synthetic standards were irradiated in the IEA R1 research reactor for periods of time ranging from minutes to several hours, under thermal neutron fluxes from 10 11 to 10 13 n·cm -2 ·s -1 ; after suitable cooling times, γ-ray spectra were measured using a Ge(Li) or Ge solid state detector. The RNAA approach involved the distillation of mercury and selenium in HBr medium; selenium was then reduced to the metal form with sodium metabisulphide and mercury was precipitated as sulphide with thioacetamide. For water analysis, a preconcentration procedure based on retention of several elements in a Chelex-100 resin was employed. The elements retained were Hg, Cr, Zn, Fe, Co while Se was measured in the effluent after absorption on active charcoal. The levels of the trace inorganic elements determined in the Brazilian foodstuffs analyzed were always below the levels established by the existing regulations in our country. (author). 16 refs, 18 tabs

  20. Safety indicators for the peat industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezhnoy, S A; Sedov, Yu I; Yenoshevskiy, B A

    1981-01-01

    Members of the inter-institutional department of 'Labor Protection' of the KPI, in cooperation with members of the peat industry, have developed safety indicators for the peat industry in accordance with the requirements of GOST 12.4.026-76 SSBT, and established the range and order for their use. The safety indicators for the peat industry are divided into four groups (prohibiting, warning, regulating, and indicating), depending on the function.

  1. Application of the neutron activation analysis method for determing trace elements in Brazilian food sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Recently there has been an increase of consciousness about the importance of trace elements in human health and disease as well as rising concern about food contamination. The development of sensitive, accurate and price methods is one of the most important of the knowledge of trace elements contents in foods and in biological samples. Neutron activation analysis is one of the most suitable tecniques because a great number of elements can be determined in concentrations in the range of μg/g to ng/g. The present work is a part of an AIEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the applications of nuclear techniques for toxic elements in foodstuffs. Neutron activation analysis is applied to analysis of bread, milk powder and rice that are considered essential foods in the Brazilian diet. Some aspects of the activation analysis of biological matrices are discussed. (author) [pt

  2. Aerial photography in peat production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tervo, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this project, possibilities of using aerial photography in peat technology were studied experimentally, the frequency of self-heating in peat stockpiles was surveyed and the effect of compacting on the inner temperature in a self-heated milled peat stockpile was studied. Air photographs can be used in several sub-fields of the peat production. On the basis of these photos it is possible to draw conclusions from the environmental impacts of peat production, from conditions in the peat field, and from qualitative and moisture differences of surface peat. In addition, aerial photography can be utilised in updating bog maps. On the basis of aerial thermal photography in autumns 1987 - 1993, 29 % of milled peat stockpiles, and 4 % of sod peat stockpiles were found to be self-heated. The susceptibility to self-heating varied at different peatlands. The effect of compacting with a bulldozer was studied at three self-heated test stock-piles, two of which were compacted. The inner temperatures in the test stockpiles decreased significantly over the three-month monitoring period. The falls in the inner temperature of all three stockpiles were identical. Compacting did not have any significant effect on the temperature fall or on the rate of fall. The number of test stockpiles (3) is insufficient to give any statistical reliability. (orig.)

  3. Peat Soil Stabilization using Lime and Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zambri Nadhirah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the comparison between two additive Lime and Cement for treating peat soil in term of stabilization. Peat and organic soils are commonly known for their high compressibility, extremely soft, and low strength. The aim of this paper is to determine the drained shear strength of treated peat soil from Perlis for comparison purposes. Direct Shear Box Test was conducted to obtain the shear strength for all the disturbed peat soil samples. The quick lime and cement was mixed with peat soil in proportions of 10% and 20% of the dry weight peat soil. The experiment results showed that the addition of additives had improved the strength characteristics of peat soil by 14% increment in shear strength. In addition, the mixture of lime with peat soil yield higher result in shear strength compared to cement by 14.07% and 13.5% respectively. These findings indicate that the lime and cement is a good stabilizer for peat soil, which often experienced high amount of moisture content.

  4. Peat Soil Stabilization using Lime and Cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambri, Nadhirah Mohd; Ghazaly, Zuhayr Md.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a study of the comparison between two additive Lime and Cement for treating peat soil in term of stabilization. Peat and organic soils are commonly known for their high compressibility, extremely soft, and low strength. The aim of this paper is to determine the drained shear strength of treated peat soil from Perlis for comparison purposes. Direct Shear Box Test was conducted to obtain the shear strength for all the disturbed peat soil samples. The quick lime and cement was mixed with peat soil in proportions of 10% and 20% of the dry weight peat soil. The experiment results showed that the addition of additives had improved the strength characteristics of peat soil by 14% increment in shear strength. In addition, the mixture of lime with peat soil yield higher result in shear strength compared to cement by 14.07% and 13.5% respectively. These findings indicate that the lime and cement is a good stabilizer for peat soil, which often experienced high amount of moisture content.

  5. Hidden costs of a typical embodied energy analysis: Brazilian sugarcane ethanol as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostinho, Feni; Siche, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide human production systems are tightly coupled to fossil-based energy, the source of which will not be available at low cost in the foreseeable future. Alternative energy sources are being sought for, among which those derived from biomass are considered to have great potential. Brazilian ethanol sugarcane produced at a large scale is being classified in scientific papers and politics as a renewable energy source. However, only the energy return on investment (EROI) and/or the amount of CO 2 released to atmosphere have been considered as indicators of renewability. This work aims to discuss some theoretical points, within an embodied energy analysis, that make its use inappropriate for answering all issues related to the concept of renewability. Emergy accounting (with an “m”) is used as a comparative tool and the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol is evaluated as case study. An EROI of 6.7 for ethanol was obtained, showing that for each unit of “commercial energy” invested within the process, 6.7 units of another kind of energy is obtained – this index shows an excellent value for energy efficiency, but it does not reflect the renewability of ethanol. On the other hand, emergy accounting shows a renewability index of 19%, indicating a low rating for sugarcane ethanol. All scientific methodologies available to assess potential energy sources have their pros and cons, but the analyst must be aware that each methodology supplies different indicators with different meanings. Energy analysts should use methodologies appropriately, avoiding wider conclusions not actually represented by indices calculated. - Highlights: • The renewability discourse of biofuels is discussed focusing on the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol. • Both energy efficiency and CO 2 emitted hardly indicate the renewability of biofuels. • Emergy evaluation is introduced as a potential tool when assessing renewability. • Analysts must use methodologies accordingly and avoid general

  6. Brazilian energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil's natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  7. Physical prerequisites for the development of technological systems for draining a peat bed. [Peat; USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazin, Ye T

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that at the present time, the basic peat reserve is made up primarily of the upper type of peat deposits, which are exceedingly complex for industrial development. In this regard, the development and introduction of new progressive methods for studying peat deposits, which provide for the acquisition of broad and reliable information about the composition and properties of the peat have great practical meaning. Cited in brief form are the conclusions and recommendations produced as a result of comprehensive systematic studies of the composition and properties of peat beds located in different regions of the country which were fulfilled in the KPI since 1970.

  8. Import of biofuels and peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertsson, N.

    1993-06-01

    In areas neighbouring Sweden, i.e., foremost the Baltic States, it is probable that a large part of the available amounts will be consumed on the domestic market. Studies of the possible use of wood fuel in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are being made by the World Bank. Considerable investments will probably be made in the near future to replace existing coal- and oil-fired boiler plants with plants burning wood fuel. Consequently, the opportunities for exports of wood fuel will probably be small. In a global perspective, peat is used only to a limited extent as fuel. In the former Soviet Union alone it is estimated that the amount of peat that is economically feasible to extract is about 166x10 9 tonnes at a moisture content of 40%. Among the most interesting bio products that can be used in energy production from different food processing industries are nut-shells and fruit stones. Some stones, such as those in olives, plums and peaches, are excellent as fuels. The advantage with olive stones, in comparison with chips is that the bulk weight is high and the moisture content is low. Olive stones are thus similar to processed biofuels such as pellets. Due to their high energy content the olive stones can replace coal, which cannot be done by unprocessed fuels without expensive investments in materials handling equipment. Our survey shows that processed forest fuels and crushed olive stones are the products of greatest interest for the Swedish market. It also shows that both chips and peat-based products from the Baltic States are competitive

  9. Estimating the efficiency from Brazilian banks: a bootstrapped Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Périco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brazilian banking sector went through several changes in its structure over the past few years. Such changes are related to fusions and acquisitions, as well as the largest market opening to foreign banks. The objective of this paper is to analyze, by applying the bootstrap DEA, the efficiency of banks in Brazil in 2010-2013. The methodology was applied to 30 largest banking organizations in a financial intermediation approach. In that model, the resources entering a bank in the form of deposits and total assets are classified as inputs and besides these manual labor is also considered as a resource capable of generating results. For the output variable, credit operations represent the most appropriate alternative, considering the role of the bank as a financial intermediary. In this work, the matter of the best classification among retail banks and banks specialized in credit has little relevance. The low relevance in this type of comparison is a result of analysis by segments (segments were analyzed separately. The results presented here point to an average level of efficiency for the large Brazilian banks in the period. This scenario requires efforts to reduce expenses but also to increase revenues.

  10. Genome-wide analysis in Brazilian Xavante Indians reveals low degree of admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Patricia C; Horimoto, Andréa R V Russo; Sanches, José Maurício; Vieira Filho, João Paulo B; Franco, Luciana; Fabbro, Amaury Dal; Franco, Laercio Joel; Pereira, Alexandre C; Moises, Regina S

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of population genetic variation and structure can be used as tools for research in human genetics and population isolates are of great interest. The aim of the present study was to characterize the genetic structure of Xavante Indians and compare it with other populations. The Xavante, an indigenous population living in Brazilian Central Plateau, is one of the largest native groups in Brazil. A subset of 53 unrelated subjects was selected from the initial sample of 300 Xavante Indians. Using 86,197 markers, Xavante were compared with all populations of HapMap Phase III and HGDP-CEPH projects and with a Southeast Brazilian population sample to establish its population structure. Principal Components Analysis showed that the Xavante Indians are concentrated in the Amerindian axis near other populations of known Amerindian ancestry such as Karitiana, Pima, Surui and Maya and a low degree of genetic admixture was observed. This is consistent with the historical records of bottlenecks experience and cultural isolation. By calculating pair-wise F(st) statistics we characterized the genetic differentiation between Xavante Indians and representative populations of the HapMap and from HGDP-CEPH project. We found that the genetic differentiation between Xavante Indians and populations of Ameridian, Asian, European, and African ancestry increased progressively. Our results indicate that the Xavante is a population that remained genetically isolated over the past decades and can offer advantages for genome-wide mapping studies of inherited disorders.

  11. Right to try? Phosphoethanolamine, di Bella and Stamina cases: an Italo-Brazilian analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBOSA, Elina Magnan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an analysis of court orders that determine experimental therapies and provides a comparative study of the Italian Di Bella and Stamina cases and the Brazilian Phosphoethanolamine case. The judicial sentences on the three cases were considered, along with their medical outcome and media repercussion. As a result of the comparison, it was observed that the Brazilian Constitutional Court is tending towards the non-recognition of a “right to try”, even though the Court’s official opinion remains to be seen. In Italy, on the other hand, after the negative judicial and medical experience concerning two emblematic cases, the opinion of the Italian Constitutional Court seems to have changed, indicating that the State is no longer forced to provide experimental therapies through the public health system. In the scope of these judicial lawsuits that claim compassionate cures, the technical framework, represented by the good clinical practices guidelines, comes about as the “zipper” that binds together law, science and ethics.

  12. Analysis of the workload of bank tellers of a Brazilian public institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serikawa, Simoni S; Albieri, Ana Carolina S; Bonugli, Gustavo P; Greghi, Marina F

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades there have been many changes in the banking sector organization. It has been also observed the mutual growing of musculoskeletal and mental disorders. This study investigated the workload of bank tellers at a Brazilian public institution. It was performed the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). Three employees participated in this study. During the analysis process, three research instruments were applied: Inventory of Work and Risk of Illness, Yoshitake Fatigue Questionnaire and Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, beyond the realization of footage recordings and the self-confrontation. The results indicated the existence of an excess of workload on the evaluated workstations, mainly in relation to mental order constraints, that overlaps the physical aspects. Thereby it was found that the employees tend to adopt strategies trying to reduce the impacts of the excess of workload, in order to regulate it.

  13. Citation analysis of the Brazilian tourism journals: subsidies for the es-timation of impact factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Eduardo de Oliveira Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of all references made by articles published at the four major Brazilian tourism journals. A total of 28,767 references in the 1,254 articles published since the first volume of each journal until the end of 2014. References were analyzed with respect to their type (journal, book, thesis, conference paper and others, place of publishing (Brazil or other countries and authorship. For the references of scientific articles, the names of these specific vehicles were identified. The results indicate the most cited authors, books, articles and journals. Impact factors of journals and the h-index of Hirsch (2005 of authors were also estimated. Moreover, techniques of social network analysis were applied to the representation of the relationships between authors and journals, besides estimating complex centrality indexes for these agents. The results also indicate some tendencies of change in the actual scenario arising from the strengthening of new authors and journals.

  14. Neutron activation analysis of the distribution of inorganic elements among five varieties of Brazilian corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, M.J.; Maihara, V.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.; Favaro, D.I.; Nascimento, V.F.

    1992-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to determine the elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, S, V, Zn in five varieties of Brazilian corn, resulting from the studies carried out in order to increase their protein contents. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by means of reference material analysis. In general, the precision of the method was lower than 15%, except for Cu, I and S. Sensitivity and detection limit were also determined. Besides, tryptophan contents were determined. It was observed that the tryptophan content in improved corn samples was twice as large as in the normal samples. However, the same ratio was not observed in the inorganic element contents. (author) 11 refs.; 3 tabs

  15. Analysis of Brazilian publications on distance education in nursing: integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Ana Paula Cardoso; Leite, Bruna Silva; Silveira, Isabelle Andrade; Santos, Thayane Dias Dos; Brito, Willian de Andrade Pereira de; Camacho, Alessandra Conceição Leite Funchal

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the publications that focus on distance education in nursing in Brazil from 2010 to 2016. Integrative review of the literature with data collection in June 2016 in the following databases: LILACS, MEDLINE via PUBMED, CINAHL and SCOPUS. For the data analysis and interpretation, the thematic categorization was chosen. We selected 18 articles for discussion, whose textual analysis permitted the construction of three thematic categories: use of virtual technologies for distance education in nursing; construction of virtual learning environments with the aid of virtual technologies for distance education in nursing; and evaluation of the learning process through virtual technologies for distance education of nurses. Distance Education stands out as an effective teaching-learning strategy in this type of education in Brazilian nursing, focused mainly on the improvement and complement of traditional teaching.

  16. Physical and chemical characteristics of fibrous peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutejo, Yulindasari; Saggaff, Anis; Rahayu, Wiwik; Hanafiah

    2017-11-01

    Banyuasin is one of the regency in South Sumatera which has an area of 200.000 Ha of peat land. Peat soil are characterized by high compressibility parameters and low initial shear strength. Block sampling method was used to obtain undisturbed sample. The results of this paper describe the characteristics of peat soil from physical and chemical testing. The physical and chemical characteristics of peat include water content (ω), specific gravity (Gs), Acidity (pH), unit weight (γ), and ignition loss tests. SEM and EDS test was done to determine the differences in fiber content and to analyze chemical elements of the specimen. The average results ω, Gs, and pH are 263.538 %, 1.847, and 3.353. Peat is classified in H4 (by Von Post). The results of organic content (OC), ash content (AC), and fiber content (FC) are found 78.693 %, 21.310 %, and 73.703 %. From the results of physical and chemical tests, the peat in Banyuasin is classified as fibrous peat. All the results of the characteristics and classification of fibrous peat compared with published data were close.

  17. Spatial variation of peat soil properties in the oil-producing region of northeastern Sakhalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, D. N.; Shcheglov, A. I.; Manakhov, D. V.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Rozanova, M. S.; Brekhov, P. T.

    2017-07-01

    Morphology and properties of medium-deep oligotrophic peat, oligotrophic peat gley, pyrogenic oligotrophic peat gley, and peat gley soils on subshrub-cotton grass-sphagnum bogs and in swampy larch forests of northeastern Sakhalin have been studied. Variation in the thickness and reserves of litters in the studied bog and forest biogeocenoses has been analyzed. The profile distribution and spatial variability of moisture, density, ash, and pHKCl in separate groups of peat soils have been described. The content and spatial variability of petroleum hydrocarbons have been considered in relation to the accumulation of natural bitumoids by peat soils and the technogenic pressing in the oil-producing region. Variation of each parameter at different distances (10, 50, and 1000 m) has been estimated using a hierarchical sampling scheme. The spatial conjugation of soil parameters has been studied by factor analysis using the principal components method and Spearman correlation coefficients. Regression equations have been proposed to describe relationships of ash content with soil density and content of petroleum hydrocarbons in peat horizons.

  18. Markers of Soil Organic Matter Transformation in Permafrost Peat Mounds of Northeastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, A. V.; Knoblauch, C.; Yakovleva, E. V.; Kaverin, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    For the paleoreconstruction of permafrost peat mounds and the identification of plant communities participating in the formation of peat, the contents of n-alkanes (C20-C33) have been determined, and relative changes in the stable isotope compositions of carbon and nitrogen and the C/N ratio have been analysed. Several indices ( CPI alkanes, P aq, P wax) have been calculated to assess the degree of decomposition of the peats studied and the contributions of different plant species to their formation. It has been found that shortand long-chain n-alkanes are concentrated in high-moor peat, while medium-chain alkanes are typical for transitional peat. Integrated analysis of the studied markers has shown that the botanical and material composition of peat, anaerobic conditions of bog formation, and permafrost play an important role in the preservation of organic carbon in permafrost peat mounds. Alternation of plant associations is the main reason for changes in n-alkane concentrations, C/N ratios, and δ13C values.

  19. VIIRS Product Evaluation at the Ocean PEATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Frederick S.; Feldman, Gene C.

    2010-01-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) mission will support the continuation of climate records generated from NASA missions. The NASA Science Data Segment (SDS) relies upon discipline-specific centers of expertise to evaluate the NPP data products for suitability as climate data records, The Ocean Product Evaluation and Analysis Tool Element (PEATE) will build upon Well established NASA capabilities within the Ocean Color program in order to evaluate the NPP Visible and Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Ocean Color and Chlorophyll data products. The specific evaluation methods will support not only the evaluation of product quality but also the sources of differences with existing data records.

  20. A rapid and reliable method for Pb isotopic analysis of peat and lichens by laser ablation-quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for biomonitoring and sample screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kylander, M.E.; Weiss, D.J.; Jeffries, T.E.; Kober, B.; Dolgopolova, A.; Garcia-Sanchez, R.; Coles, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    An analytical protocol for rapid and reliable laser ablation-quadrupole (LA-Q)- and multi-collector (MC-) inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of Pb isotope ratios ( 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb) in peats and lichens is developed. This technique is applicable to source tracing atmospheric Pb deposition in biomonitoring studies and sample screening. Reference materials and environmental samples were dry ashed and pressed into pellets for introduction by laser ablation. No binder was used to reduce contamination. LA-MC-ICP-MS internal and external precisions were 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios. LA-Q-ICP-MS internal precisions on 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios were lower with values for the different sample sets 208 Pb by Q-ICP-MS are identified as sources of reduced analytical performance

  1. The Brazilian exports of labor-intensive goods in the 2000s: An analysis using the Constant Market Share Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Benevett Fligenspan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing international trade in labor-intensive sectors in the 2000s, with a special reference to the Brazilian case. Therefore, we use the constant market share analysis to compare several countries’ export performance. It was observed that Asian countries emerged strengthened from this period. Brazil had a mediocre performance, losing market-share in global markets. Moreover, competition from Asian economies and even from the small Central American countries, such as Guatemala and El Salvador, has undermined the penetration of Brazilian exports in its major trade partners, which are North America and South America.

  2. Potential Phosphorus Mobilisation in Peat Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsmann, Ditte M.; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Re-establishment of wetlands on peat soils containing phosphorus bound to iron(III)-oxides can lead to an undesirable phosphorus loss to the aquatic environment due to the reductive dissolution of iron(III)-oxides. Thus it is important to be able to assess the potential phosphorus mobilisation from...... peat soils before a re-establishment takes place. The potential phosphorus mobilisation from a peat soil depends not only on the geochemical characteristics but also on the redox conditions, the hydrological regime in the area as well as the hydro-physical properties of the soil. The hypothesis...... for this study is (i) the release of phosphorus in peat is controlled by the geochemistry; (ii) the mobilisation of phosphorus is controlled by both geochemistry and hydro-physics of the soil. For this study, 10 Danish riparian lowland areas with peat soil were selected based on their geochemical characteristics...

  3. Combining remote sensing and household level data for regional scale analysis of land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza Soler, L.; Verburg, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon depends on the spatial variability of political, socioeconomic and biophysical factors, as well as on the land use history and its actors. A regional scale analysis was made in Rondônia State to identify possible differences in land cover change connected to

  4. Vermiculites of the Northeast Brazilian region: comparative analysis; Vermiculitas da regiao do nordeste brasileiro: analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P S; Hanken, R B.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Raposo, C M.O., [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAMG/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Mineracao e Geologia

    2009-07-01

    Vermiculites are clay minerals similar to montmorillonites differing for crystalline structures. The product exfoliated is odorless, hydrophobic, not irritate the skin and not the lungs. These properties provide the modified thermally vermiculite a product of broad application in the sectors of construction, agriculture and industry. The aim this work is the comparative analysis between two vermiculites micron fractions from different localities of the northeastern Brazilian region, UBM/PB and EUCATEX/PI. Samples exfoliated to 950 deg C were leached for removal of organic matter by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. The spectroscopy in the infrared, FTIR and X-ray diffraction, XRD, were used to characterize the samples. Data from X-ray diffraction showed that the structural characteristics of the mineral samples were not significantly altered with the process of leaching and the IR spectra proved the efficiency of procedure for removal of organic impurities (author)

  5. The Future of Sociambiental Management: A Critical Analysis on Brazilian Environmental Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Leandro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the social and environmental management and its relation to the issue of government management, social demands and market requirements. The study carries out a critical analysis of the topic and its relationship from the perspective of a theoretical essay. Although governments and companies have been buying the idea that the environment is a variable that may be considered for the development of strategies and public and private policies, these actors have not much knowledge yet on how to proceed in this matter.  Despite the Brazilian government's efforts to promote environmental management , the literature shows that in depth studies are necessary on the issues surrounding the management on social and environmental perspective, as government , social and corporate interests overall are increasingly focused on the environment as a strategic resource.

  6. Formation of hydrocarbons in irradiated Brazilian beans: gas chromatographic analysis to detect radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Hartmann, M.; Ammon, J.; Delincee, H.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation processing of beans, which are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil, is a valuable alternative to chemical fumigation to combat postharvest losses due to insect infestation. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labeled as such, and to enforce labeling, analytical methods to detect the irradiation treatment in the food product itself are desirable. In two varieties of Brazilian beans, Carioca and Macacar beans, the radiolytic formation of hydrocarbons formed after alpha and beta cleavage, with regard to the carbonyl group in triglycerides, have been studied. Using gas chromatographic analysis of these radiolytic hydrocarbons, different yields per precursor fatty acid are observed for the two types of beans. However, the typical degradation pattern allows the identification of the irradiation treatment in both bean varieties, even after 6 months of storage

  7. Performance analysis of Brazilian highways under concession through the capacity and level of service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira Santos, T.; Martins Ribeiro, P.C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes the development of a methodology to analyze the performance of highways under concession through the capacity and level of service, with special attention to Brazilian highways. The trajectory of transport infrastructure provision in Brazil and its performance assessment framework are mentioned, as well as an approach of the level of service concept and the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM). An inventory of the highway with the necessary data to the model is proposed. This database should incorporate information from multiple data sources and its use will be important for the processing and compilation of raw data in order to structure a full informational basis. Then, it is developed a method for segmentation of homogeneous road sections, as conceptualized by HCM, and proposed a way of level of service measurement. Finally, there are analysis of the use of HCM in some highways concession programs in Brazil. (Author)

  8. Radionuclides in peat bogs and energy peat; Turvesoiden ja polttoturpeen radionuklidit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helariutta, K.; Rantavaara, A. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Lehtovaara, J. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2000-06-01

    The study was aimed at improving the general view on radionuclides contents in energy peat produced in Finland. The annual harvest of fuel peat in 1994 was studied extensively. Also thirteen peat bogs used for peat production and one bog in natural condition were analysed for vertical distributions of several radionuclides. These distributions demonstrate the future change in radioactivity of energy peat. Both natural nuclides emitting gamma radiation ({sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 40}K) and radiocaesium ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs) origin in fallout from a nuclear power plant accident (1986) and in atmospheric nuclear weapon tests were analysed. The beta and alpha active natural nuclides of lead and polonium ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po) were determined on a set of peat samples. These nuclides potentially contribute to radiation exposure through inhalation when partially released to atmosphere during combustion of peat. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides often increased towards the deepest peat bog layers whereas the radioactive caesium deposited from atmosphere was missing in the deep layers. In undisturbed surface layers of a natural bog and peat production bogs the contents of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po exceeded those of the deeper peat layers. The nuclides of the uranium series in the samples were generally not in radioactive equilibrium, as different environmental processes change their activity ratios in peat. Radiation exposure from handling and utilisation of peat ash was estimated with activity indices derived from the data for energy peat harvested in 1994. Intervention doses were exceeded in a minor selection of samples due to {sup 137}Cs, whereas natural radionuclides contributed very little to the doses. (orig.)

  9. Applications of scanning electron microscopy to the study of mineral matter in peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, R. Jr.; Andrejko, M.J.; Bardin, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) have been used for in situ analysis of minerals in peats by combining methods for producing oriented microtome sections of peat with methods for critical point drying. The combined technique allows SEM analysis of the inorganic components and their associated botanical constituents, along with petrographic identification of the botanical constituents. In peat deposits with abundant fluvial- or marine-derived minerals, one may use the above technique and/or medium- or low-temperature ashing followed by x-ray diffraction to readily identify the various mineral components. However, in some freshwater environments the scarcity of non-silica minerals makes the above techniques impractical. By separating the inorganic residues from the peat, one can isolate the non-silica mineral matter in the SEM for analysis by EDS. Furthermore, such separation allows SEM analysis of features and textures of both silica and non-silica mineral particles that might otherwise be unidentifiable. Results indicate the occurrence of detritial minerals in both Okefenokee and Snuggedy Swamp peats, the presence of authigenic or diagenetic minerals growing within peats, and dissolution features on freshwater sponge spicules that may account for the absence of spicules in Tertiary lignites.

  10. Polyphenols as enzyme inhibitors in different degraded peat soils: Implication for microbial metabolism in rewetted peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Dominik; Roth, Cyril; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Fenner, Nathalie; Reuter, Hendrik

    2015-04-01

    Recently, more than 30,000 ha of drained minerotrophic peatlands (= fens) in NE Germany were rewetted to restore their ecological functions. Due to an extended drainage history, a re-establishment of their original state is not expected in the short-term. Elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, ammonium and phosphate have been measured in the soil porewater of the upper degraded peat layers of rewetted fens at levels of one to three orders higher than the values in pristine systems; an indicator of increased microbial activity in the upper degraded soil layers. On the other hand there is evidence that the substrate availability within the degraded peat layer is lowered since the organic matter has formerly been subject to intense decomposition over the decades of drainage and intense agricultural use of the areas. Previously however, it was suggested that inhibition of hydrolytic enzymes by polyphenolic substances is suspended during aeration of peat soils mainly due to the decomposition of the inhibiting polyphenols by oxidising enzymes such as phenol oxidase. Accordingly we hypothesised a lack of enzyme inhibiting polyphenols in degraded peat soils of rewetted fens compared to less decomposed peat of more natural fens. We collected both peat samples at the soil surface (0-20 cm) and fresh roots of dominating vascular plants and mosses (as peat parent material) from five formerly drained rewetted sites and five more natural sites of NE Germany and NW Poland. Less decomposed peat and living roots were used to obtain an internal standard for polyphenol analysis and to run enzyme inhibition tests. For all samples we determined the total phenolic contents and in addition we distinguished between the contents of hydrolysable and condensed tannic substances. From a methodical perspective the advantage of internal standards compared to the commercially available standards cyanidin chloride and tannic acid became apparent. Quantification with cyanidin or

  11. Second technical contractors' conference on peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This conference reported the status of the US Department of Energy Peat Program. The program includes peat resource surveys of eleven states, peat gasification process and equipment studies, dewatering studies, and environmental and socioeconomic factors in the development of peat technology. Separate abstracts were prepared for selected papers. (CKK)

  12. Factor Analysis of the Brazilian Version of UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediyama, Cristina Y. N.; Moura, Ricardo; Garcia, Marina S.; da Silva, Antonio G.; Soraggi, Carolina; Neves, Fernando S.; Albuquerque, Maicon R.; Whiteside, Setephen P.; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine the internal consistency and factor structure of the Brazilian adaptation of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Methods: UPPS is a self-report scale composed by 40 items assessing four factors of impulsivity: (a) urgency, (b) lack of premeditation; (c) lack of perseverance; (d) sensation seeking. In the present study 384 participants (278 women and 106 men), who were recruited from schools, universities, leisure centers and workplaces fulfilled the UPPS scale. An exploratory factor analysis was performed by using Varimax factor rotation and Kaiser Normalization, and we also conducted two confirmatory analyses to test the independency of the UPPS components found in previous analysis. Results: Results showed a decrease in mean UPPS total scores with age and this analysis showed that the youngest participants (below 30 years) scored significantly higher than the other groups over 30 years. No difference in gender was found. Cronbach’s alpha, results indicated satisfactory values for all subscales, with similar high values for the subscales and confirmatory factor analysis indexes also indicated a poor model fit. The results of two exploratory factor analysis were satisfactory. Conclusion: Our results showed that the Portuguese version has the same four-factor structure of the original and previous translations of the UPPS. PMID:28484414

  13. Factor Analysis of the Brazilian Version of UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro F. Malloy-Diniz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the internal consistency and factor structure of the Brazilian adaptation of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale.Methods: UPPS is a self-report scale composed by 40 items assessing four factors of impulsivity: (a urgency, (b lack of premeditation; (c lack of perseverance; (d sensation seeking. In the present study 384 participants (278 women and 106 men, who were recruited from schools, universities, leisure centers and workplaces fulfilled the UPPS scale. An exploratory factor analysis was performed by using Varimax factor rotation and Kaiser Normalization, and we also conducted two confirmatory analyses to test the independency of the UPPS components found in previous analysis.Results: Results showed a decrease in mean UPPS total scores with age and this analysis showed that the youngest participants (below 30 years scored significantly higher than the other groups over 30 years. No difference in gender was found. Cronbach’s alpha, results indicated satisfactory values for all subscales, with similar high values for the subscales and confirmatory factor analysis indexes also indicated a poor model fit. The results of two exploratory factor analysis were satisfactory.Conclusion: Our results showed that the Portuguese version has the same four-factor structure of the original and previous translations of the UPPS.

  14. Factor Analysis of the Brazilian Version of UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediyama, Cristina Y N; Moura, Ricardo; Garcia, Marina S; da Silva, Antonio G; Soraggi, Carolina; Neves, Fernando S; Albuquerque, Maicon R; Whiteside, Setephen P; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine the internal consistency and factor structure of the Brazilian adaptation of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Methods: UPPS is a self-report scale composed by 40 items assessing four factors of impulsivity: (a) urgency, (b) lack of premeditation; (c) lack of perseverance; (d) sensation seeking. In the present study 384 participants (278 women and 106 men), who were recruited from schools, universities, leisure centers and workplaces fulfilled the UPPS scale. An exploratory factor analysis was performed by using Varimax factor rotation and Kaiser Normalization, and we also conducted two confirmatory analyses to test the independency of the UPPS components found in previous analysis. Results: Results showed a decrease in mean UPPS total scores with age and this analysis showed that the youngest participants (below 30 years) scored significantly higher than the other groups over 30 years. No difference in gender was found. Cronbach's alpha, results indicated satisfactory values for all subscales, with similar high values for the subscales and confirmatory factor analysis indexes also indicated a poor model fit. The results of two exploratory factor analysis were satisfactory. Conclusion: Our results showed that the Portuguese version has the same four-factor structure of the original and previous translations of the UPPS.

  15. The history of the peat manufacturing industry in The Netherlands: Peat moss litter and active carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.W. Gerding

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of three major forms of peat processing by the manufacturing industry in The Netherlands since the last quarter of the 19th century. At a time when peat as a fuel was gradually being replaced by coal, the first form was the peat moss litter industry. Peat moss litter was made from white peat that was ground and sieved in factories which were located mainly in bog areas in the south-east of the province of Drenthe. It served as excellent bedding for horses and cattle. The second form of industrial peat processing was the manufacture, from 1921 onwards, of active carbon made from black peat. The Purit (Norit factory, now part of the Cabot Corporation, is still the only active carbon factory using peat as a raw material. The third form of peat processing was the production of garden peat and potting soil. This is still a widespread activity in peat areas all over the world. The peat moss litter industry thrived from the 1880s until shortly after the First World War. The arrival of the horse-drawn tram in all of the major cities of Europe created a great demand for animal bedding to be used in the vast stables of the tramway companies. Peat moss litter was cleaner, healthier and easier to handle than straw. There was similar demand from the armies, which used millions of horses during the First World War. Owing to the development of motorised vehicles, the peat market collapsed after the war and this plunged the industry into a prolonged crisis which was not overcome until peat was found to be a suitable growing medium for horticulture in the 1950s. Living and working conditions in peatlands were harsh, earnings irregular and labourers’ rights limited. The peat manufacturing industry was the first to introduce collective labour agreements, medical benefits and pension plans. Nonetheless massive unemployment, poverty and the necessity to migrate to other parts of the country were clear signs that the era of

  16. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis infection in swine associated with peat used for bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Agdestein, Angelika; Lium, Bjørn; Jørgensen, Anne; Djønne, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is an environmental bacterium causing opportunistic infections in swine, resulting in economic losses. Additionally, the zoonotic aspect of such infections is of concern. In the southeastern region of Norway in 2009 and 2010, an increase in condemnation of pig carcasses with tuberculous lesions was seen at the meat inspection. The use of peat as bedding in the herds was suspected to be a common factor, and a project examining pigs and environmental samples from the herds was initiated. Lesions detected at meat inspection in pigs originating from 15 herds were sampled. Environmental samples including peat from six of the herds and from three peat production facilities were additionally collected. Samples were analysed by culture and isolates genotyped by MLVA analysis. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis was detected in 35 out of 46 pigs, in 16 out of 20 samples of peat, and in one sample of sawdust. MLVA analysis demonstrated identical isolates from peat and pigs within the same farms. Polyclonal infection was demonstrated by analysis of multiple isolates from the same pig. To conclude, the increase in condemnation of porcine carcasses at slaughter due to mycobacteriosis seemed to be related to untreated peat used as bedding.

  17. Regulation strategies of contemporary school life: an analysis of the 8th brazilian teacher prize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Salete Traversini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze some regulation strategies of contemporary school life taking place under the neoliberal governmentality in Brazil according to authors such as Foucault (2008, Veiga-Neto & Saraiva (2011 and Young (2011, and researchers of teacher education and contemporary teaching, such as Nóvoa (2009, 2012 and Silva (2014. The publication of the 8th Brazilian Teacher Prize, 2014 edition, with 39 teachers awarded, and the syntheses of the winning projects were selected for analysis. The question raised is which regulation strategies of contemporary school life are present in the set of projects in the 8th edition of the Brazilian Teacher Prize? Two regulation strategies of contemporary school life have been identified. In one of them, called pedagogy of protections, according to Silva (2014, knowledge related to social issues is central. The other one concerns the emphasis given on full-time education, which takes place by extending school hours, as a means for the early intervention of students in social issues. Based on Nóvoa (2013, the authors have proposed the refocusing of school roles by considering the appropriation of school knowledge as central to school. An intersectoral coordination is needed so that the political pedagogical project and school daily actions can be planned along with other social agencies that assist to the community. This enables the partner sectors to perform protection roles, and both the school and the teachers are able to focus on their specific functions, i.e. teaching and educating in the full sense of education.

  18. The Fallacious Ressocializing Ideology of Imprisonment: An Analysis of the Brazilian Correctional System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Kazmierczak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ideological significance in Brazilian prison system reality, usually, fulfills a purpose only expected in criminal conviction sentencing according to deprivation of freedom. Thus, there is a misunderstandig of the rehabilitation concept withspace not your discourse of application. Because of that, the current research based on literature review method aims to achieve a constitutional reinterpretation of Brazilian criminal system andof its ideological significance, as well as analyzing a review and election of legal goods (bem jurídico that are under the protection of criminal law. The overcrowding and the lack of minimal conditions are clearly shown in INFOPENs numbers, astounding numbers, which provides us an overview of this unfortunate reality. Restructuring this system is only one of the possible solutions to this problem, and, in addition to it, a constitutional review over the entire Criminal Justice is imperious to avoid a sort of segregation that, unfortunately, might be originated by the pacifying instrument itself (the criminal law, with a critical analysis about valuating and electing the legal interests that are legally protected, as well as a new interpretation of the wrongdoing, rejecting the mere comparison between the facts and the cold text of the law once taught by the classical formalistic doctrine, bringing up a constitutional perspective, so that the criminal standards can be examined in a way that takes evaluative aspects into consideration (in a materialistic and guarantistic ways, presuming that although there is, implicitly or explicitly, an attack to the law (wrongdoing, we cant move away from the idea that the agreement must be privileged as a possibility in a matter of solving criminal issues.

  19. Some peat deposits in Penobscot County, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Cornelia Clermont; Anderson, Walter A.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty of the peat deposits in Penobscot County, Maine contain an estimated 29,282,000 short tons air-dried peat. The peat is chiefly sphagnum moss and reed-sedge of high quality according to ASTM standards for agricultural and horticultural use. Analyses show that this same volume has high fuel value, low sulfur and high hydrogen contents compared with lignite and sub-bituminous coal, which may indicate that it also has potential for fuel use. On the basis of the metallic trace element content, one area within the region containing the 20 deposits has been delineated for further bedrock studies.

  20. Peat classified as slowly renewable biomass fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The expert group, appointed by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry, consisting of Dr. Patrick Crill from USA, Dr. Ken Hargreaves from UK and college lecturer Atte Korhola from Finland, studied the role of peat in Finnish greenhouse gas emissions. The group did not produce new research information, the report of the group based on the present research data available in Finland on greenhouse gas balances of Finnish mires and peat utilization, how much greenhouse gases, e.g. methane, CO 2 and N 2 O are liberated and bound by the mires. All the virgin peatlands in Finland (4.0 million ha), forest drained peatlands (5.7 million ha), peatlands used as fields in agriculture (0.25 million ha), peat harvesting and storage, as well as the actual peat production areas (0.063 million ha) are reviewed. The main factor intensifying the greenhouse effect, so called radiate forcing, is estimated to be the methane emissions from virgin peatlands, 11 million CO 2 equivalent tons per year. The next largest sources of emissions are estimated to be the CO 2 emissions of peat (8 million t/a), CO 2 emissions from peatlands in agricultural use (3.2 - 7.8 million t/a), the N 2 O emissions (over 2 million t/a) and methane emissions (less than 2 million t/a) of forest ditched peatlands. Other emission sources such as actual peat production and transportation are minimal. Largest carbon sinks are clearly forest-drained peatlands (9.4 - 14.9 million t/a) and virgin peatlands (more than 3 million t/a). Main conclusions of the experts group is that peat is formed continuously via photosynthesis of mosses, sedges and under-shrub vegetation and via forest litter formation. The report discovers that the basics of the formation of peat biomass is similar to that of other plant-based biomasses, such as wood, but the time required by stratification is different. Forests in Southern Finland become ready for harvesting in about 100 years, but the formation of commercially viable peat layers takes

  1. Investigating Responses to Compliments by Brazilian Portuguese Speaking EFL Learners: A Contrastive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa de Lima Zanella

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study on politeness strategies of Brazilian Portuguese speakers and American English speakers regarding their responses to compliments. The aim of this research is to gain an insight into the politeness characteristics of Brazilian Portuguese speakers by analyzing how Brazilian students react when receiving compliments. It also aims to investigate how politeness from Brazilian Portuguese speakers differs from politeness of American English speakers when receiving compliments. The population for this research consists of 12 students with intermediate and upper-intermediate levels of EFL from the Cooperative de Trabalho Magna, a private school in Brazil. The study followed a descriptive and interpretive qualitative research method, where 133 answers were analyzed and then contrasted with Chen’s (1993 study of politeness strategies between American English and Chinese speakers. This study shows that, unlike American English speakers, Brazilian Portuguese speakers need to justify and give reasons for the compliment received.

  2. INVESTOR’S PREFERENCE MODEL FOR DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS MID (DEA IN BRAZILIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Vogt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study had aimed to analyze the preferred model investor through data envelopment analysis (DEA in Brazilian companies. We conducted a descriptive research with quantitative approach and through document analysis with secondary data. The study population comprised 50 companies listed on the BM&Bovespa IBrX50 and the sample had been composed of 46 companies that presented all the necessary data for analysis of data from 2013 to 2015. To analyze the results we used the method DEA to identify companies that are efficient to in connection to risk and expected return on the stock market, these serving as the preferred model. The results have indicated that the best option for investor would be Ambev companies, BRF, Cetip, Cosan, Itausa, Klabin, Multiplan, Telefonica Brazil and Ultrapar Participações, as these companies had maximum efficiency scores, that is, the score value 1.0.Each company who has that score have expected return that none in the sample managed to overcome with less risk and even equal. The results also indicate that several companies have been above average efficiency score and below average, indicating that there are significant differences in efficiency between the companies analyzed. It is concluded that the efficiency of the sample front companies the capital market is considered satisfactory, since the existence of inefficiencies in many companies prevents IBrX50 index reaches its maximum potential over the actions and the risk and return expected by investors.

  3. Meta-analysis of scientific publications hei with brazilian environmental management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre André Feil

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Higher Education Institutions (HEIs are being pressured by changes towards sustainability and thus awakening to environmental management, they are considered as a leader in promoting sustainability through actions and environmental management practices. Following this logic, this study aims to identify the environmental management practices used in Brazilian HEIs and correlations exist that influence the implementation of Environmental Management Systems (EMS. The quantitative approach is applied through documentary research with secondary data published in proceedings, journals, books and portal Scientific Electronic Library (SciELO. The data analysis occurred through meta-analysis using descriptive statistics and Spearman correlation. The results of 34 scientific studies 23 IES referencing models and practices of waste management published from 2001 to 2012 were identified. The Spearman correlation analysis expressed that HEIs with programs in environmental education performed better ranking General Index of Courses. It is recommended that HEIs that have a waste management deployed, share your experience through scientific publications to disseminate their adaptation practices regarding the SGA.

  4. Computer-assisted analysis of cervical vertebral bone age using cephalometric radiographs in Brazilian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Maria de Paula; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Haiter Neto, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a computerized program for objectively evaluating skeletal maturation on cephalometric radiographs, and to apply the new method to Brazilian subjects. The samples were taken from the patient files of Oral Radiological Clinics from the North, Northeast, Midwest and South regions of the country. A total of 717 subjects aged 7.0 to 15.9 years who had lateral cephalometric radiographs and hand-wrist radiographs were selected. A cervical vertebral computerized analysis was created in the Radiocef Studio 2 computer software for digital cephalometric analysis, and cervical vertebral bone age was calculated using the formulas developed by Caldas et al.17 (2007). Hand-wrist bone age was evaluated by the TW3 method. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey test were used to compare cervical vertebral bone age, hand-wrist bone age and chronological age (P cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age in all regions studied. When analyzing bone age, it was possible to observe a statistically significant difference between cervical vertebral bone age and hand-wrist bone age for female and male subjects in the North and Northeast regions, as well as for male subjects in the Midwest region. No significant difference was observed between bone age and chronological age in all regions except for male subjects in the North and female subjects in the Northeast. Using cervical vertebral bone age, it might be possible to evaluate skeletal maturation in an objective manner using cephalometric radiographs.

  5. Peat exploitation - Environment. Effects and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenbeck, G.

    1996-01-01

    This report gives a detailed description of the influence of peat exploitation on the land-, water- and atmospheric environments. Proposals for mitigatory measures to minimize damage to the environment are also given

  6. Distilling peat and other carbonaceous matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stones, W B

    1850-03-07

    Improvements in treating peat and other carbonaceous and ligneous matters, so as to obtain products therefrom are disclosed. These improvements consist, first, of a machine for compressing and partially drying peat. The unpressed peat is put into boxes and these into frames which are passed through between the bowls of a machine resembling a pair of squeezers. Secondly, consists in distilling, at a temperature of, say 700/sup 0/F, the compressed peat, with or without the addition of tar or fatty matter in retorts, and condensing the vapors in a series of vessels, arranged after the manner of Wolfe's bottles. The resulting charcoal may be extinguished by passing carbonic acid through it while in an air-tight box or chamber, and it may then be compressed into bricks, and used for locomotives and other purposes.

  7. Active Pore Volume in Danish Peat Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsmann, Ditte M.; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus release within the soil matrix caused by the changed redox conditions due to re-establishment of a riparian wetland can be critical for the aquatic environment. However, phosphorous released in the soil will not always result in an immediate contribution to this loss to the aquatic...... environment. Lowland soils are primarily peat soils, and only a minor part of the total soil volume of peat soils is occupied by macropores (>30 µm). Since water primarily flows in these macropores, the majority of the soil matrix is bypassed (the immobile domain). Phosphorus released in the immobile domain...... is not actively transported out of the system, but is only transported via diffusion, which is a very slow process. Thus it is interesting to investigate the size of the active pore volume in peat soils. The hypothesis of this study is that the active pores volume of a peat soil can be expressed using bulk...

  8. Environmental organizations say no to peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    A group of environmental protection oriented organizations published in June 10th 1999 in Helsinki a target program for energy solutions in Finland. According to the scenarios, published in 'The Recurrent Energy Policy' (Uusiutuva energiapolitiikka) publication, it would be possible to reduce the CO 2 emissions in Finland by 40 % by the year 2030 by increasing the use of renewable energy sources, and by intensifying the use of energy. The use of peat as energy source is denied in the scenarios. According to the energy scenarios of the environmental organizations the construction of new peat condensing power plants would be denied by political decision and no such plant would be allowed to be constructed after the year 2001. The generation of condensing power by peat would be finished in 2010 as the plants become out of operation. The use of peat as a fuel in back-pressure power generation and in heating plant would diminish gradually, and it would finish totally in 2025-2030. This means that the life-cycle of fuel peat in Finland would remain to 60 years. The adequacy of industrially usable peat reserves has been estimated to be 350 - 500 years. The publication defines the power or heat generated by e.g. wood, energy-willow, biogas and peat as bioenergy, but on the other hand in the program the peat is considered to be fossil fuel, and in the table presenting the carbon dioxide emissions, the emissions of peat have been presented, as characteristic in these connections, as maximum values. The scenario study suggests the heavy increase of the use of wood, natural gas, wind power, solar energy and ground heating. The energy conservation has also high priority, as well as the increasing of the industrial back-pressure power generation based on wood fuels. According to the environmental organizations the power production based on nuclear power, coal, peat and oil, as well as the import of electric power, should be stopped in Finland. New hydroelectric power would not

  9. Phosphorus in virgin peat soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armi Kaila

    1956-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the total and organic P content of virgin peat soils is studied on the basis of 217 peat samples mostly collected from Northern Finland and consisting of 32 Sp, 34 CSp, 62 SCp, 12 EuSCp, 36 BCp, and 41 Cp samples. The material was found to be satisfactorily typical for a study of Finnish peat soils as to the pH, ash and N contents. Only the BCp samples were, in some respect, of a poorer quality than in general. The total P content of the 217 samples ranged from 190 to 2350 ppm or from 30 to 2440 kg/ha. In the Sp and BCp groups the mean P content was equal, 580 ± 80 ppm and 560 ± 90 ppm resp., and significantly lower than the corresponding value in all the other groups which was 950 ±120 ppm in the Cp-group, 980 ± 290 in the EuSCp-group, 800 ± 60 in the SCp-group, and 800 ± 120 ppm in the CSp-group. A low but significant correlation was found to exist between the degree of land quality estimated on the basis of the surface vegetation and the P content of the surface samples: r = 0.361***. When the BCp samples were excluded an even closer correlation was detected: r = 0.481***. The correlation coefficient between the total P content and the degree of humification was r = 0.317***, that between the total P and the ash contents r = 0.289**, and that between the total P and N contents r = 0.206*. The organic P content of the 217 samples ranged from 130 to 1950 ppm with an average of 600 ± 40 ppm. The Sp and BCp groups showed significantly lower means, 430 ± 60 ppm and 440 ±7O ppm resp., than the other groups with averages of 630 ± 120 ppm in the CSp-group, 620 ± 50 ppm in the SCp-group, 770 ± 100 ppm in the Cp-group and 820 ± 280 in the EuSCp-group. The organic P content was very closely correlated with the total P content; the total correlation coefficient was r = 0.934***. The connection with the degree of humification was not distinct: the total correlation coefficient was r = 0.336***, but the partial correlation

  10. Horticultural peat markets of the world. Finnish export possibilities increasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuutinen, O.

    2000-01-01

    The statistics of 1997, collected by Turveruukki Oy, show that the horticultural peat production in Europe and Northern America is about 32.6 million m 3 /a. About 20.2 million m 3 of horticultural peat was produced in 1997 in Western Europe and about 9.5 million m 3 in Northern America. The share of Eastern Europe was 2.9 million m 3 . Production of fuel peat and horticultural peat in Europe are nearly equal, but most of the countries produce only horticultural peat. Finland, Russia, Ireland, Belorussia and Sweden are countries where the share of fuel peat is high. The largest producers of horticultural peat are Germany, Canada and Estonia. The share of these countries is about 60% of the production in Europe and Northern America. Germany and Canada do not produce fuel peat at all, and in Estonia the main portion of peat production area is aimed at horticultural production. About 1.6 million m 3 of horticultural peat was produced in Finland in 1997, corresponding to about 8% of the horticultural peat production in Europe. The share of horticultural peat has been low also in Ireland and Sweden. The main portion of the horticultural peat production in Finland is produced side by side with the fuel peat production. Horticultural peat is exported mainly as processed and sacked peat. The horticultural peat production in Western Europe is about 20 million m 3 /s. The Netherlands is a were large consumer of horticultural peat, but it has no horticultural peat production of its own. Other possible countries for export are Spain and France in Europe, and Japan

  11. The frost peat production; Routapalaturpeen tuotantoketjun tekniikka, talous ja ympaeristoevaikutukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyroenen, T. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Leiviskae, V. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Thule Inst.

    1997-12-01

    The frost peat production means the cutting of frozen peat in the winter time. The aim of this study is to test the possibilities to prolong the peat production season and to produce peat pieces for the horticultural peat industry. In the frost peat production method the frozen peat field is sawed throughout the length and breadth of by a circle saw. The sawed peat pieces are loosened from the field by a so-called `splitter`. The circle saw is equipped with the five circle saw blades (diameter 90 cm). The distance of the blades is adjustable. The splitter is equipped with a horizontal position blade (width 35 cm). The dimensions of the peat pieces are changeable, but from the point of drying the upper limit of the side of the peat cube can be 15-20 cm. The frost peat production method is technically suitable for production of slightly decomposed (H1-5) energy and horticultural peat. The energy peat pieces are allowed to dry up 70-75 % moisture content on the cutting field and then the pieces can be ridged by the screening ridger. If necessary, the ridges can be turned over. In the frost peat production, the conventional sod peat winning machines can be used in the following stages of the working tasks: harrowing, ridging, loading, turning of ridges and stockpiling. The measured output of the circle saw was about 45-50 m{sup 3}/h of energy peat and 58-63 m{sup 3}/h of horticultural peat. The output of the splitter was 120-150 m{sup 3}/h. Theoretically, the output of circle saw and the splitter can easily be doubled. Thereafter the production costs will be about 19 FIM/MWh of energy peat and 18,6 FIM/m{sup 3} of horticultural peat

  12. Waste water from dewatering of peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringqvist, L.; Bergner, K.; Olsson, Tommy; Bystroem, P.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of waste water from mechanical dewatering of peat was tested on two species of stream invertebrates. We compared the effects of waste water from peat without any chemical treatment, and waste water from peat where one of the following treatments of the peat had preceded dewatering; a: acidification combined with addition of the cationic polymer Zetag 78 FS40, b: addition of aluminium in combination with the anionic polymer Magnafloc E10, c: polymerisation of the peat by acidification and addition of ferrous chloride and hydrogen peroxide. Waste water from Al/Magnafloc and from the polymerisation treatments had a higher content of suspended matter and a higher oxygen demand than those of other treatments. Total metal content of the water from all treatments was higher than in water from non-treated peat. Survival and growth of nymphs of the mayfly Heptagenia fuscogrisa and the stonefly Nemoura cinerea were compared in waste water from the different treatments. In all tests, the waste water was diluted to 5% (volume) with unchlorinated tapwater and pH was between 7.0-8.0 in all treatments during the experiment. The nymphs were fed with birch leaves that had been incubated in natural stream water for one month. Under these conditions, we did not find any significant effect of waste water on either survival or growth of these two species

  13. Canadian peat harvesting and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keys, D.

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, ca 749,000 tonnes of peat were sold by Canadian producers, a small volume in comparison to the estimated 50 million tonnes or more that accumulate naturally each year in Canada. Most of the harvested peat was used for horticultural purposes. The relationship between peatlands and the peat industry is examined, and issues related to the environment and sustainable resource use are discussed. Case studies are used to examine several specific situations where peatland development proposals have undergone environmental assessments. The present status of peatland conservation in Canada is reviewed. To date, developed peatlands are primarily situated in the boreal wetland regions and consist mainly of the bog wetland class. Environmental issues related to peatland development include the need for conservation of flora, fauna, and other ecological values or functions. The potential for release of carbon gases due to Canadian peat harvesting is considered to be insignificant in relation to other uses of carbon sources such as the combustion of fossil fuel, and is unlikely to influence global warming at the present or projected levels of peatland development in Canada. The influence and mitigation of the effects of drainage of peatlands for peat production on water quality and flow regime are being addressed on a site-specific basis through existing regulatory procedures and research. Reclamation and restoration options are being incorporated during design and operational development of new peat harvesting areas. 39 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Origins of mineral matter in peat marsh and peat bog deposits, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Buendia, A.M. [Unidad Tecnica del Marmol, AIDICO, Cami de Castella, 4, 03660 Novelda, Alicante (Spain); Whateley, M.K.G. [Rio Tinto Technical Services, Castlemead, Lower Castlemead, BS99 7YR Bristol (United Kingdom); Bastida, J.; Urquiola, M.M. [Dpto. Geologia, Univ. Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50. 46100 Burjasot, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-07-02

    The mineralogy of three back-barrier peat marshes (Torreblanca, Benicasim and Moncofar marshes) from Eastern Spain and one peat bog (Orihuela del Tremedal bog) from central east Spain have been investigated, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) techniques. A combination of XRD methods was used to quantify the mineralogy of dried bulk peat samples. The water source in the peat marshes is both continental and marine. Water is highly mineralised. Water flow is both low and slow (accumulative system). The water source in the peat bog is continental, draining from the hill. The higher concentration of ions in the water of the back-barrier peat marshes leads to a higher concentration of authigenic minerals in the peat marshes compared to the peat bog. Three main mineral origins have been recognized, namely: detrital, syngenetic-epigenetic and biogenic. The more important contribution comes from the detrital system. Biogenic and bio-influenced minerals are the main non-detrital minerals in the peatlands. This paper discusses the biogenic origin of halite (and other minor halides and sulphates, such as, sylvite, carnalite, epsomite, glauberite, mirabilite and anhydrite?) from halophytic plants, as well as amorphous silica (opal-A) from sponge spicules and phytoliths of several plants. Pyrite in the peat bog has both syngenetic and epigenetic origins from plant decomposition and sulphur release. In the peat marsh the pyrite has a syngenetic origin from sulphate reduction (S{sub sulphate} {yields} S{sub pyritic}), and an epigenetic origin in the older peat, from plant decomposition (S{sub organic} {yields} S{sub pyritic}). (author)

  15. A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CONTRIBUTIONS MADE BY BRAZILIAN THESES ON THE TOPIC OF NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Jorge Branco Vieira Barcelos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Research into Management Networks is not a dominant paradigm, which leaves it open for discussions on its statements, models and theories. This paper analyzes the contributions made by Brazilian theses on networks in the area of management, from 2004 to 2013. For this purpose, criteria that define contribution are used, for both national and international literature, resulting in a chart of 12 originality and 8 significance indicators. 23 theses were identified as dealing with the subject of networks. Content analysis was employed on explicit contributing texts and a search of the keywords for each of the 20 indicators. As the subject of networks presents multifaceted concepts, research methodologies and management models, it is beneficial to discuss and develop new approaches and contributions were expected at all three levels. The results indicate, however, that theoretical contributions were practically non-existent, methodological contributions were limited, focusing on improvements, and managerial contributions were most common, especially when focused on local networks. The results and analysis show that more research and a deeper discussion on this subject are needed. These could include coordinators and supervisors due to the pre-paradigmatic nature of the topic.

  16. CFD aided analysis of a scaled down model of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, Fernando L.A.; Lima, Claubia P.B.; Costa, Antonella L.; Veloso, Maria A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Research reactors are commonly built inside deep pools that provide radiological and thermal protection and easy access to its core. Reactors with thermal power in the order of MW usually use an auxiliary thermal-hydraulic circuit at the top of its pool to create a purified hot water layer (HWL). Thermal-hydraulic analysis of the flow configuration in the pool and HWL is paramount to insure radiological protection. A useful tool for these analyses is the application of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). To obtain satisfactory results using CFD it is necessary the verification and validation of the CFD numerical model. Verification is divided in code and solution verifications. In the first one establishes the correctness of the CFD code implementation and in the former estimates the numerical accuracy of a particular calculation. Validation is performed through comparison of numerical and experimental results. This paper presents a dimensional analysis of the RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) pool to determine a scaled down experimental installation able to aid in the HWL numerical investigation. Two CFD models were created one with the same dimensions and boundary conditions of the reactor prototype and the other with 1/10 proportion size and boundary conditions set to achieve the same inertial and buoyant forces proportions represented by Froude Number between the two models. Results comparing the HWL thickness show consistence between the prototype and the scaled down model behavior. (author)

  17. A socio-historical approach to policy analysis: the case of the Brazilian Workers' Food Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Souza, Jamacy; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria; Pinell, Patrice

    2018-02-05

    Policy analyses based on traditional or structuralist definitions of the state are important, but they have some limitations for explaining processes related to policymaking, implementation, and results. Bourdieusian sociology links the analysis to objective and subjective dimensions of social practices and can help elucidate these phenomena. This article provides such empirical evidence by analyzing the social genesis of a Brazilian policy that currently serves 18 million workers and was established by the state in 1976 through the Fiscal Incentives Program for Workers' Nutrition (PIFAT/PAT). The study linked the analysis of the trajectory of social agents involved in the policy's formulation to the historical conditions that allowed the policy to exist in the first place. Although the literature treats the policy as a workers' food program (PAT), the current study showed that it actually represented a new model for paying financial subsidies to companies that provided food to their employees, meanwhile upgrading the commercial market for collective meals. The study further showed that the program emerged as an administrative policy, but linked to economic agents. The program became a specific social space in which issues related to workers' nutrition became secondary, but useful for disguising what had been an explicit side of its genesis, namely its essentially fiscal nature.

  18. Spatiotemporal analysis of land use and land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dengsheng; Li, Guiying; Moran, Emilio; Hetrick, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative analysis of land use and land cover (LULC) changes among three study areas with different biophysical environments in the Brazilian Amazon at multiple scales, from per-pixel, polygon, census sector, to study area. Landsat images acquired in the years of 1990/1991, 1999/2000, and 2008/2010 were used to examine LULC change trajectories with the post-classification comparison approach. A classification system composed of six classes - forest, savanna, other-vegetation (secondary succession and plantations), agro-pasture, impervious surface, and water, was designed for this study. A hierarchical-based classification method was used to classify Landsat images into thematic maps. This research shows different spatiotemporal change patterns, composition and rates among the three study areas and indicates the importance of analyzing LULC change at multiple scales. The LULC change analysis over time for entire study areas provides an overall picture of change trends, but detailed change trajectories and their spatial distributions can be better examined at a per-pixel scale. The LULC change at the polygon scale provides the information of the changes in patch sizes over time, while the LULC change at census sector scale gives new insights on how human-induced activities (e.g., urban expansion, roads, and land use history) affect LULC change patterns and rates. This research indicates the necessity to implement change detection at multiple scales for better understanding the mechanisms of LULC change patterns and rates.

  19. Spatial pattern analysis and demography of two tropical trees in the Brazilian Caatinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Fontes Manzan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspidosperma pyrifolium (Apocynaceae and Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Fabaceae share the same habitat in the Brazilian Caatinga domain. In this paper, we investigate the intra and inter-species interactions between these two plants using spatial pattern analysis among cohorts. The results showed that the adult trees of each species present higher densities at distances shorter than 9 m to 12 m. However, due to seed dispersal via autochory, we expected a more aggregate density for C. pyramidalis than A. pyrifolium as the later disperses seeds through anemochory. Difference in spatial aggregation among cohorts was not observed and therefore the results contradict the expectations of the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. It is likely that this is associated with anthropogenic factors in the past such as fire, animal husbandry and logging. Using a bivariate analysis of the neighborhood density, we also confirmed the significant coexistence between the two species. This coexistence could be explained by the process of positive interspecific interactions, such as facilitation, which is common in semi-arid regions under stressful conditions.

  20. Peat growth and carbon accumulation rates during the holocene in boreal mires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klarqvist, M.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis is based on accumulation processes in northern mires. In the first study, problems concerning carbon 14 dating of peat were examined by fractionation of bulk peat samples and 14 C AMS dating of the separate fractions. In the following studies, peat cores from twelve Swedish mire sites were investigated. Macrofossil analysis was performed on the sampled cores to describe and classify the plant communities during mire development. Between 6 to 18 14 C AMS datings were performed on one core from each mire in order to estimate the peat growth and carbon accumulation rates for the identified plant communities. Different fractions within single peat bulk samples gave considerably differing 14 C ages. The range in age differed between mire types and depth. For accurate 14 C dating, moss-stems, preferably of Sphagnum spp. are recommended. Both autogenic and allogenic factors, e.g. climate and developmental stage, respectively, were identified as important influences on carbon accumulation. Both peat growth and carbon accumulation rates differed between plant communities. The major factors explaining the variations in accumulation rates of the different plant communities were the amount of Carex and Sphagnum remains and the geographical position of the mire. Carbon accumulation rates decrease along with development in most mires. The results indicate that some mires may have alternated between being carbon sinks and sources, at least over the last several hundred years. The inter-annual variation in carbon accumulation is probably explained by climatic variations

  1. Rice husk ash (RHA) as a partial cement replacement in modifying peat soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Nik Norsyahariati Nik; Daud, Mohd Nazrin Mohd; Muhammed, Abubakar Sadiq

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes the effect of rice husk ash (RHA) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as a potential binder for modifying the properties of peat soil. The amounts RHA and OPC added to the peat soil sample, as percentage of the dry soil mass were in the range of 10-15% and 15%, respectively. Observations were made for the changes in the properties of the soil such as maximum dry density (MDD), optimum moisture content (OMC) and shear strength. Scanning Electron Micrograph-Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX) test were also conducted to observe the microstructure of treated and untreated peat soil. The results show that the modified soil of MDD and OMC values are increased due to the increment amount of binder material. Shear strength values of modified peat showing a good result by assuming that it is relative to the formation of major reaction products such as calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H). The presence of C-S-H formation is indicated by the results produced from microstructural analysis of peat before and after modification process. This depicts the potential usage of RHA as a partial cement replacement in peat soil which is also improving its engineering properties.

  2. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in vertical peat profiles of natural and drained boreal peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykänen, Hannu; Mpamah, Promise; Rissanen, Antti; Pitkänen, Aki; Turunen, Jukka; Simola, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    Peatlands form a significant carbon pool in the global carbon cycle. Change in peat hydrology, due to global warming is projected to change microbiological processes and peat carbon pool. We tested if bulk stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes serve as indicators of severe long term drying in peatlands drained for forestry. Depth profile analysis of peat, for their carbon and nitrogen content as well as their carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures, were conducted for peatlands in southern and eastern Finland, having ombrotrophic and minerotrophic natural and corresponding drained pairs or separate drained sites. The selection of sites allowed us to compare changes due to different fertility and changes due to long term artificial drying. Drainage lasting over 40 years has led to changes in hydrology, vegetation, nutrient mineralization and respiration. Furthermore, increased nutrient uptake and possible recycling of peat nitrogen and carbon trough vegetation back to the peat surface, also possibly has an effect on the stable isotopic composition of peat carbon and nitrogen. We think that drainage induced changes somehow correspond to those caused by changed hydrology due to climate change. We will present data from these measurements and discuss their implications for carbon and nitrogen flows in peatlands.

  3. Flood Frequency Analysis Under Non-stationarity Conditions: the Case of Southern Brazilian Hydroelectric Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartiko, Daniel; Chaffe, Pedro; Bonumá, Nadia

    2017-04-01

    Floods may be strongly affected by climate, land-use, land-cover and water infrastructure changes. However, it is common to model this process as stationary. This approach has been questioned, especially when it involves estimate of the frequency and magnitude of extreme events for designing and maintaining hydraulic structures, as those responsible for flood control and dams safety. Brazil is the third largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world and many of the country's dams are located in the Southern Region. So, it seems appropriate to investigate the presence of non-stationarity in the affluence in these plants. In our study, we used historical flood data from the Brazilian National Grid Operator (ONS) to explore trends in annual maxima in river flow of the 38 main rivers flowing to Southern Brazilian reservoirs (records range from 43 to 84 years). In the analysis, we assumed a two-parameter log-normal distribution a linear regression model was applied in order to allow for the mean to vary with time. We computed recurrence reduction factors to characterize changes in the return period of an initially estimated 100 year-flood by a log-normal stationary model. To evaluate whether or not a particular site exhibits positive trend, we only considered data series with linear regression slope coefficients that exhibit significance levels (p<0,05). The significance level was calculated using the one-sided Student's test. The trend model residuals were analyzed using the Anderson-Darling normality test, the Durbin-Watson test for the independence and the Breusch-Pagan test for heteroscedasticity. Our results showed that 22 of the 38 data series analyzed have a significant positive trend. The trends were mainly in three large basins: Iguazu, Uruguay and Paranapanema, which suffered changes in land use and flow regularization in the last years. The calculated return period for the series that presented positive trend varied from 50 to 77 years for a 100 year

  4. Precipitation-induced runoff and leaching from milled peat mining mires by peat types : a comparative method for estimating the loading of water bodies during peat pruduction

    OpenAIRE

    Svahnbäck, Lasse

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation-induced runoff and leaching from milled peat mining mires by peat types: a comparative method for estimating the loading of water bodies during peat production. This research project in environmental geology has arisen out of an observed need to be able to predict more accurately the loading of watercourses with detrimental organic substances and nutrients from already existing and planned peat production areas, since the authorities capacity for insisting on such predicti...

  5. Diminishing peat oxidation of agricultural peat soils by infiltration via submerged drains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, van den J.J.H.; Hendriks, R.F.A.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidation of peat soils used in dairy farming in the western peat area of The Netherlands causes subsidence rates up to 13 mm.y and emissions of CO2 to about 27 t.ha.y. In 2003 experiments started with subsurface irrigation by submerged drains to raise groundwater levels to reduce oxidation and so

  6. Documental analysis of Brazilian academic production about evolution teaching (1990-2010: characterization and proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Samuel Franciscati da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative and qualitative increasing of researches in Science teaching imposes the periodical mapping need of scientific production about the subject, with a view to identify its own characteristics and tendencies. In this context, researches such as “State of art”, given his executrix character, constitute in modality inquiring that allow us to outline historical scenes for a given area (or subarea of knowledge. In this light, this work aims to outline the panorama of Brazilian academic production, represented by dissertations and thesis, in evolution teaching between 1990- 2010. The documents susceptible of analysis were raised in three online data basis and its selection happened from the reading of titles, abstracts and key-words with views to identify the dissertations and thesis that truly approached the Evolution Teaching. The found results evidence the predominance of dissertations related to the number of thesis and the concentration of academic production in Evolution Teaching in Brazil south-east region, especially in São Paulo state. In researches trends we verified the prevalence of investigations related to the previous conceptions of students and professors (in all teaching levels and to teacher training.

  7. Science as a production device of parenthood: analysis of Brazilian scientific production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Barra Valente

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding science as a device for producing ways of being and truth regimes, this literature review aimed to develop a critical reading of the Brazilian scientific production about parenthood, inspired by the post-constructionist approach to social psychology. The survey was conducted from the Bank of theses and dissertations for the Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES, from parenting descriptor, comprising the period 1987-2009. The analysis reveals that the paternity of this literature appears linked to the sex-gender dichotomy, and its rupture associated with crises and changes which reiterate gender norms and sexuality. The paternity produces scientific knowledge; outlines strategies and hidden knowledge-power that produce the subject man-father-universal ways of being a father and agreementco-penis-rationality- heterosexuality procreation, enables the visualization of the limits of (in effectiveness of such inscriptions, making room for production of cracks and changes.

  8. [Media and drugs: a documental analysis of the Brazilian writing media between 1999 and 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzani, Telmo Mota; Fernandes, Ameli Gabriele Batista; Gebara, Carla Ferreira de Paula; Oliveira, Samia Abreu; Scoralick, Natália Nunes; Lourenço, Lélio Moura

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the kind of information published by the Brazilian 'written media' about drugs. It was examined articles about drugs in a national circulation magazine between 1999 and 2003, through an analysis of content. A total of 481 articles were found. 'Consumption' was the most appeared topic. The most quoted drugs were: cocaine (21%), marijuana (19%), alcoholic beverages (12%) and cigarettes (12%). This research also showed that 57% of the articles were related to cigarettes, its harmful effects, whereas alcohol had the same amount of articles showing it as a good or a bad substance for the human being and considered the most addictive drug (23%). On the other hand, cocaine was related to drug dealing (30%). In general, cocaine and marijuana were in focus in the media while alcohol and solvents had less prominence considering the epidemiologic data of use. We can notice that there is an incompatibility between the media focus and the profile of drug consumption in Brazil, that could influence the person's beliefs about certain substances and public politics about drugs in Brazil.

  9. Comparison of body fat in Brazilian adult females by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altamir, Vaz; Frère, Slaets Annie France; Leonardo, López Ramírez

    2012-01-01

    Body-fat is essential for human body, provided that its amount is at healthy levels. If in-excess body-fat is deleterious, its lack is otherwise also harmful. Estimated percent body-fat performed with commercially available devices measuring bioimpedance have many advantages, such as easy measurement and low cost. However, these measurements are based on standard models and equations that are not disclosed by manufacturers, and this leads to questioning the validity of these estimates for Brazilian females. The aim of this study was to compare electrical tetrapolar and octapolar impedance results obtained with commercially available equipment: Maltron BF-906 and OMRON 510-W. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Devices used in this study to estimate body fat quantity have not shown any significant differences in results; this is a major issue when selecting equipment based on three factors: study focus, available financial resources, and target population. Results obtained from the two devices have not shown any significant differences, which lead to the conclusion that either device may be reliably used.

  10. Droughts and governance impacts on water scarcity: an~analysis in the Brazilian semi-arid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. S. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Extreme events are part of climate variability. Dealing with variability is still a challenge that might be increased due to climate change. However, impacts of extreme events are not only dependent on their variability, but also on management and governance. In Brazil, its semi-arid region is vulnerable to extreme events, especially droughts, for centuries. Actually, other Brazilian regions that have been mostly concerned with floods are currently also experiencing droughts. This article evaluates how a combination between climate variability and water governance might affect water scarcity and increase the impacts of extreme events on some regions. For this evaluation, Ostrom's framework for analyzing social-ecological systems (SES was applied. Ostrom's framework is useful for understanding interactions between resource systems, governance systems and resource users. This study focuses on social-ecological systems located in a drought-prone region of Brazil. Two extreme events were selected, one in 1997–2000, when Brazil's new water policy was very young, and the other one in 2012–2015. The analysis of SES considering Ostrom's principle "Clearly defined boundaries" showed that deficiencies in water management cause the intensification of drought's impacts for the water users. The reasons are more related to water management and governance problems than to drought event magnitude or climate change. This is a problem that holdup advances in dealing with extreme events.

  11. Droughts and governance impacts on water scarcity: an~analysis in the Brazilian semi-arid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. C. S.; Galvão, C. O.; Silva, G. N. S.

    2015-06-01

    Extreme events are part of climate variability. Dealing with variability is still a challenge that might be increased due to climate change. However, impacts of extreme events are not only dependent on their variability, but also on management and governance. In Brazil, its semi-arid region is vulnerable to extreme events, especially droughts, for centuries. Actually, other Brazilian regions that have been mostly concerned with floods are currently also experiencing droughts. This article evaluates how a combination between climate variability and water governance might affect water scarcity and increase the impacts of extreme events on some regions. For this evaluation, Ostrom's framework for analyzing social-ecological systems (SES) was applied. Ostrom's framework is useful for understanding interactions between resource systems, governance systems and resource users. This study focuses on social-ecological systems located in a drought-prone region of Brazil. Two extreme events were selected, one in 1997-2000, when Brazil's new water policy was very young, and the other one in 2012-2015. The analysis of SES considering Ostrom's principle "Clearly defined boundaries" showed that deficiencies in water management cause the intensification of drought's impacts for the water users. The reasons are more related to water management and governance problems than to drought event magnitude or climate change. This is a problem that holdup advances in dealing with extreme events.

  12. FISH REPRODUCTION: BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF WORLDWIDE AND BRAZILIAN PUBLICATIONS IN SCOPUS DATABASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Costa RADAEL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction is a fundamental part of life being and studies related to fish reproduction have been much accessed. The aim of this study was to perform a bibliometric analysis in intend to identify trends in this kind of publication. During June 2013, were performed searches on Scopus Database, using the term “fish reproduction”, being compiled and presented information related to the number of publications per year, number of publications by country, publications by author, by journal, by institution and most used keywords. Based on the study, it was possible to obtain the following results: Brazil occupies a highlight position in number of papers, being that the Brazilian participation compared to worldwide publishing production is having an exponential increase; in Brazil, there is a high concentration of articles when concerning the top 10 authors and institutions. The present study allows verifying that the term “fish reproduction” has been focused by many scientific papers, being that in Brazil there is a special research effort related to this subject, especially in the last few years. The main contribution concerns to the use of bibliometric methods to describe the growth and concentration of researches in the area of fishfarm and reproduction.

  13. Cost-benefit analysis of a socio-technical intervention in a Brazilian footwear company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, L B de M; Ribeiro, J L D; Renner, J S

    2012-09-01

    This article presents a costs-benefits analysis of a macroergonomic intervention in a Brazilian footwear company. Comparing results of a pilot line (composed by 100 multiskilled workers organized in teams) with eight traditional lines (still working in a one human being/one task model) the intervention showed to be worth pursuing since achieved gains were higher than intervention costs: there was a reduction in human resource costs (80% reduction in industrial accidents, 100% reduction in work-related musculoskeletal disorders or WMSD, medical consultations and turnover, and a 45.65% reduction in absenteeism) and production improvement (productivity increased in 3% and production waste decrease to less than 1%). The net intervention value of the intervention was around U$ 430,000 with a benefit-to-cost ratio of 7.2. Moreover, employees who worked in the pilot line understood that their quality of work life improved, compensating the anxiety brought up by the radical changes implemented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. A spectral analysis of team dynamics and tactics in Brazilian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Felipe Arruda; Martins, Luiz Eduardo Barreto; Anido, Ricardo O; Ruffino, Paulo Régis C; Barros, Ricardo M L; Cunha, Sergio Augusto

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to characterise the total space covered and the distances between players within teams over ten Brazilian First Division Championship matches. Filmed recordings, combined with a tracking system, were used to obtain the trajectories of the players (n = 277), before and after half-time. The team surface area (the area of the convex hull formed by the positions of the players) and spread (the Frobenius norm of the distance-between-player matrix) were calculated as functions of time. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) was applied to each time series. The median frequency was then calculated. The results of the surface area time series median frequencies for the first half (0.63 ± 0.10 cycles · min⁻¹) were significantly greater (P < 0.01) than the second-half values (0.47 ± 0.14 cycles · min⁻¹). Similarly, the spread variable median frequencies for the first half (0.60 ± 0.14 cycles · min⁻¹) were significantly greater (P < 0.01) than the second-half values (0.46 ± 0.16 cycles · min⁻¹). The median frequencies allowed the characterisation of the time series oscillations that represent the speed at which players distribute and then compact their team formation during a match. This analysis can provide insights that allow coaches to better control the team organisation on the pitch.

  15. Low-frequency electrical properties of peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Xavier; Slater, Lee

    2004-12-01

    Electrical resistivity/induced polarization (0.1-1000 Hz) and vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) measurements of peat samples extracted from different depths (0-11 m) in a peatland in Maine were obtained as a function of pore fluid conductivity (σw) between 0.001 and 2 S/m. Hydraulic conductivity increased with σw (Kv ∝ σw0.3 between 0.001 and 2 S/m), indicating that pore dilation occurs due to the reaction of NaCl with organic functional groups as postulated by previous workers. Electrical measurements were modeled by assuming that "bulk" electrolytic conduction through the interconnected pore space and surface conduction in the electrical double layer (EDL) at the organic sediment-fluid interface act in parallel. This analysis suggests that pore space dilation causes a nonlinear relationship between the "bulk" electrolytic conductivity (σel) and σw (σel ∝ σw1.3). The Archie equation predicts a linear dependence of σel on σw and thus appears inappropriate for organic sediments. Induced polarization (IP) measurements of the imaginary part (σ″surf) of the surface conductivity (σ*surf) show that σ″surf is greater and more strongly σw-dependent (σ″surf ∝ σw0.5 between 0.001 and 2 S/m) than observed for inorganic sediments. By assuming a linear relationship between the real (σ'surf) and the imaginary part (σ″surf) of the surface conductivity, we develop an empirical model relating the resistivity and induced polarization measurements to σw in peat. We demonstrate the use of this model to predict (a) σw and (b) the change in Kv due to an incremental change in σw from resistivity and induced polarization measurements on organic sediments. Our study has implications for noninvasive geophysical characterization of σw and Kv with potential to benefit studies of carbon cycling and greenhouse gas fluxes as well as nutrient supply dynamics in peatlands.

  16. Computer-assisted analysis of cervical vertebral bone age using cephalometric radiographs in Brazilian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Paula Caldas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to develop a computerized program for objectively evaluating skeletal maturation on cephalometric radiographs, and to apply the new method to Brazilian subjects. The samples were taken from the patient files of Oral Radiological Clinics from the North, Northeast, Midwest and South regions of the country. A total of 717 subjects aged 7.0 to 15.9 years who had lateral cephalometric radiographs and hand-wrist radiographs were selected. A cervical vertebral computerized analysis was created in the Radiocef Studio 2 computer software for digital cephalometric analysis, and cervical vertebral bone age was calculated using the formulas developed by Caldas et al.17 (2007. Hand-wrist bone age was evaluated by the TW3 method. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and the Tukey test were used to compare cervical vertebral bone age, hand-wrist bone age and chronological age (P < 0.05. No significant difference was found between cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age in all regions studied. When analyzing bone age, it was possible to observe a statistically significant difference between cervical vertebral bone age and hand-wrist bone age for female and male subjects in the North and Northeast regions, as well as for male subjects in the Midwest region. No significant difference was observed between bone age and chronological age in all regions except for male subjects in the North and female subjects in the Northeast. Using cervical vertebral bone age, it might be possible to evaluate skeletal maturation in an objective manner using cephalometric radiographs.

  17. Legitimising Emerging Power Diplomacy: an Analysis of Government and Media Discourses on Brazilian Foreign Policy under Lula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mesquita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyses whether Brazilian foreign policy under Lula successfully legitimised the country's international identity as a rising power in the eyes of the domestic and international media. Based on a constructivist framework, we have applied French Discourse Analysis to a corpus of 36 official addresses by the President of the Republic and the Minister of Foreign Relations and 137 news articles from four news outlets, two Brazilian and two international, concerning two diplomatic episodes deemed representative of Brazil's quest for greater pre-eminence: the leadership of MINUSTAH (2004 and the Nuclear Deal signed with Iran and Turkey (2010. Results show that official discourse characterises Brazil's identity as a rising power chiefly by South-South diplomacy, while media discourse was more heterogeneous, being the discursive formation of each news outlet determinant in explaining their interpretation of Brazil's international identity.

  18. The relevance of the capital structure in firm performance: a multivariate analysis of Brazilian publicly traded companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Kennedy Cruz Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic changes in recent years have made the dynamics of the Brazilian market more complex, which directly impacts the administration of large organizations, particularly in management tasks, such as decisions concerning the definition of the capital structure. The literature in this theoretical field is polarized in two seminal works: the first, by Durand (1952, 1959, discusses the existence of an optimal capital structure that maximizes the value of the firm; and, at the other end, the work by Modigliani and Miller (1958, 1963 considers that it is irrelevant how firms are financed. In this sense, the objective was to verify the effective interference of the capital structure in the performance of Brazilian firms listed on BM&FBOVESPA. The sample consisted of cross-sectional data that were selected from the most recent balance sheets of all companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA, available in the Economática® database. The techniques used were the analysis of variance (ANOVA and discriminant analysis. Among the indicators used, it was observed that only general liquidity, the degree of immobilization, Tobin’s Q, and the opportunity for growth were significant at 1%. The results indicate that the capital structure is not directly related to the performance of Brazilian companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA. In the meantime, the results point to the consolidation of the financial theories expounded by Modigliani and Miller (1958, 1963, as opposed to the traditionalist current started in Durand’s studies (1952.

  19. Cultural adaptation and analysis of the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Spiritual Distress Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Talita Prado; Lopes Chaves, Erika de Cássia; Campos de Carvalho, Emília; Nogueira, Denismar Alves; Carvalho, Camila Csizmar; Ku, Ya-Li; Iunes, Denise Hollanda

    2016-01-01

    To culturally adapt and test the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Spiritual Distress Scale. In Brazil, there is currently a lack of validated instruments that assess the spiritual dimension, which includes the spiritual distress phenomenon that can be experienced at different moments in a person's life. This can include times when a person is affected by a disease such as cancer, which occurs suddenly and causes significant life changes. Methodological and cross-sectional study. Cultural adaptation of the Spiritual Distress Scale was performed using translation and back-translation stages, evaluation of cultural equivalence, committee review and pretesting. An interview using the Brazilian version of the scale was conducted with 170 patients in a cancer treatment unit of a charitable general hospital (not state funded). The following psychometric properties were evaluated: construct validity (divergence and factor analysis) and internal consistency/reliability (Cronbach's α and Kappa). Reliability analysis in the intra- and inter-rater phase showed that more than half of the items had Kappa values > 0·75. A correlation between the Spiritual Well-Being Scale and the Spiritual Distress Scale was found. Overall, the Spiritual Distress Scale showed a Cronbach's α of 0·87, with three of its four domains showing significant parameters. The Brazilian version of the Spiritual Distress Scale proved to be a reliable, valid and efficient instrument that is capable of assessing spiritual distress. The Brazilian Spiritual Distress Scale presented reliability and validity parameters that correspond to the original English version of the scale. The existence of an internationally validated instrument that assesses spiritual distress will assist healthcare professionals and researchers in recognising this phenomenon in clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Genetic analysis of the porcine group B rotavirus NSP2 gene from wild-type Brazilian strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Médici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Group B rotaviruses (RV-B were first identified in piglet feces, being later associated with diarrhea in humans, cattle, lambs, and rats. In human beings, the virus was only described in China, India, and Bangladesh, especially infecting adults. Only a few studies concerning molecular analysis of the RV-B NSP2 gene have been conducted, and porcine RV-B has not been characterized. In the present study, three porcine wild-type RV-B strains from piglet stool samples collected from Brazilian pig herds were used for analysis. PAGE results were inconclusive for those samples, but specific amplicons of the RV-B NSP2 gene (segment 8 were obtained in a semi-nested PCR assay. The three porcine RV-B strains showed the highest nucleotide identity with the human WH1 strain and the alignments with other published sequences resulted in three groups of strains divided according to host species. The group of human strains showed 92.4 to 99.7% nucleotide identity while the porcine strains of the Brazilian RV-B group showed 90.4 to 91.8% identity to each other. The identity of the Brazilian porcine RV-B strains with outer sequences consisting of group A and C rotaviruses was only 35.3 to 38.8%. A dendrogram was also constructed to group the strains into clusters according to host species: human, rat, and a distinct third cluster consisting exclusively of the Brazilian porcine RV-B strains. This is the first study of the porcine RV-B NSP2 gene that contributes to the partial characterization of this virus and demonstrates the relationship among RV-B strains from different host species.

  1. Agricultural management impact on physical and chemical functions of European peat soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piayda, Arndt; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Dettmann, Ullrich; Bechtold, Michel; Buschmann, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Peat soils offer numerous functions from the global to the local scale: they constitute the biggest terrestrial carbon storage on the globe, form important nutrient filters for catchments and provide hydrological buffer capacities for local ecosystems. Peat soils represent a large share of soils suitable for agriculture in temperate and boreal Europe, pressurized by increasing demands for production. Cultivated peat soils, however, show extreme mineralization rates of the organic substance and turn into hotspots for green house gas emissions, are highly vulnerable to land surface subsidence, soil and water quality deterioration and thus crop failure. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of past agricultural management on soil physical and chemical functions of peat soils in six European countries. We conducted standardized soil mapping, soil physical/chemical analysis, ground water table monitoring and farm business surveys across 7 to 10 sites in Germany, The Netherlands, Denmark, Estonia, Finland and Sweden. The results show a strong impact of past agricultural management on peat soil functions across Europe. Peat soil under intensive arable land use consistently offer lowest bearing capacities in the upper 10 cm compared to extensive and intensive grassland use, which is a major limiting factor for successful agricultural practice on peat soils. The difference can be explained by root mat stabilization solely, since soil compaction in the upper 25cm is highest under arable land use. A strong decrease of available water capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity is consequently observed under arable land use, further intensifying hydrological problems like ponding, drought stress and reductions of hydrological buffer capacities frequently present on cultivated peat soils. Soil carbon stocks clearly decrease with increasing land use intensity, showing highest carbon stocks on extensive grassland. This is supported by the degree of decomposition, which

  2. The paths of reception: an analysis of the Brazilian scientific production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janara Sousa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to reflect about the contours that the discussion about the audience on the webjournalism is gaining. Our search is for the perception of brazilian researchers regarding this topic. How is the experience of the audience in the world wide web observed, analyzed and reported by brazilian researchers? To answer this question, we seek scientific studies published from 2005 to 2011 in the seven top journals evaluated by Qualis, a system of the Brazilian institution Capes. A sample of 30 papers led us to conclude that most of the analyzed scientific productions were dedicated to effectively discuss the theme of the audience. Other aspects about journalism that could arouse interest are relegated to the background while the prevailing discussion is bout the new scenery of audience, which, according to the authors studied, changed deeply with the advent of the Internet.

  3. Carbohydrates and phenols as quantitative molecular vegetation proxies in peats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, K.; Benner, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    Vegetation in peatlands is intricately linked to local environmental conditions and climate. Here we use chemical analyses of carbohydrates and phenols to reconstruct paleovegetation in peat cores collected from 56.8°N (SIB04), 58.4°N (SIB06), 63.8°N (G137) and 66.5°N (E113) in the Western Siberian Lowland. Lignin phenols (vanillyl and syringyl phenols) were sensitive biomarkers for vascular plant contributions and provided additional information on the relative contributions of angiosperm and gymnosperm plants. Specific neutral sugar compositions allowed identification of sphagnum mosses, sedges (Cyperaceae) and lichens. Hydroxyphenols released by CuO oxidation were useful tracers of sphagnum moss contributions. The three independent molecular proxies were calibrated with a diverse group of peat-forming plants to yield quantitative estimates (%C) of vascular plant, sphagnum moss and lichen contributions in peat core samples. Correlation analysis indicated the three molecular proxies produced fairly similar results for paleovegetation compositions, generally within the error interval of each approach (≤26%). The lignin-based method generally lead to higher estimates of vascular plant vegetation. Several significant deviations were also observed due to different reactivities of carbohydrate and phenolic polymers during peat decomposition. Rapid vegetation changes on timescales of 50-200 years were observed in the southern cores SIB04 and SIB06 over the last 2000 years. Vanillyl and syringyl phenol ratios indicated these vegetation changes were largely due to varying inputs of angiosperm and gymnosperm plants. The northern permafrost cores G137 and E113 showed a more stable development. Lichens briefly replaced sphagnum mosses and vascular plants in both of these cores. Shifts in vegetation did not correlate well with Northern hemisphere climate variability over the last 2000 years. This suggested that direct climate forcing of peatland dynamics was overridden

  4. Influence of the Chernobyl accident on radioactivity of fuel peat and peat ash in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.; Salonen, S.; Itkonen, A.

    1988-04-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in April 1986 caused very uneven deposition of radionuclides in Finland. The deposited radionuclides were measured in relative high concentrations in fuel peat and especially in peat ash. The radionuclide concentrations were measured at six peat-fired power plants in different parts of Finland throughout the heating season 1986-87. Also evaporation of different radionuclides in peat combustion and their condensation on fly ash particles were studied at four power plants. The 137 Cs-concentrations in compiled peat samples varied between 30 and 3600 Bq kg -1 dry weight and in ash samples between 600 and 68000 Bq kg -1 . Differences in radionuclide concentrations between the power plants were great and also the radionuclide composition in fuel peat varied regionally. The 137 Cs-concentrations of the fly ash after the ash precipitators varied between 12000 and 120000 Bq kg -1 and fly ash emissions varied from 17 to 1100 mg m -3 , depending on the power plant and the load of the boiler. High radioactivity concentrations in precipitator ash caused some restrictions to the utilization of peat ash for various purposes

  5. Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in laboratory peat fire emissions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supporting information Tables S3 and S4 list emission factors in g/kg of speciated volatile and particulate organic compounds emitted from peat burning. Peat samples...

  6. Optimizing outlays for transporting agricultural peat to the consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dem' yanov, Ye S; Prisadkov, V I; Silant' yeza, G P

    1979-01-01

    An economic-mathematical model is described for supplying the consumers with agricultural peat and the corresponding computer program. Certain results are presented of calculating the optimal plans for transporting peat from the enterprises of the association Kalinintorf.

  7. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m{sup 2} of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation.

  8. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m 2 of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation

  9. Determination of trace elements in Brazilian rice grains and in biological reference materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Na, K, Br, As, Rb, Zn, Co, Fe and Sc in Brazilian rice samples and in biological standards. Hg and Se concentrations were determined by using a simple radiochemical separation. The chemical procedure was carried out by means of distillation of Hg and Se in HBr medium and subsequent precipitation of selenium by sodium methabissulfide and mercury by thioacetamide. The accuracy of the instrumental and radiochemical methods was evaluated by means of analysis of the Reference Materials NBS-Bovine Liver, Bowen's Kale and NBS-Rice Flour. (author) [pt

  10. Occurrence and origin of carbohydrates in peat samples from a red mangrove environment as reflected by abundances of neutral monosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moers, M. E. C.; Baas, M.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Boon, J. J.; Schenck, P. A.

    1990-09-01

    Acid hydrolysates of fractionated red mangrove peat samples and handpicked roots and rootlets of Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) from Jewfish Key in the Florida Everglades were analysed for neutral monosaccharides. In the peat samples two major sources of carbohydrates could be determined: (1) vascular plant carbohydrates derived from Rhizophora mangle and (2) microbially derived carbohydrates. Significant correlations exist between the relative contributions of most neutral monosaccharides and the total carbohydrate concentration. The fine-grained peat fractions yielded low total neutral monosaccharides whose distributions indicate contributions of microbial carbohydrates. The coarse-grained peat samples yielded high total neutral monosaccharides with distributions indicating major contributions of vascular plant carbohydrates. It is estimated that a substantial part of the sugars analysed in the finegrained samples originates from microorganisms ([cyano] bacteria, algae).The absence of a trend in total neutral monosaccharide concentrations with depth suggests that microbial degradation is limited to the upper levels of the peat and that the microbial sugars determined at lower peat levels are derived from nonviable or dormant microorganisms. Results from factor analysis may suggest differences in microbial populations in the various peat samples.

  11. Neglected tropical diseases in Brazilian children and adolescents: data analysis from 2009 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Eduardo; Romero, Sebastián; da Silva, Maria Almerice Lopes; Santos, Fred Luciano Neves

    2017-11-03

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevail in conditions of poverty and contribute to the maintenance of social inequality. Out of the NTDs prioritized by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, four parasitic infections require mandatory notification: acute Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, malaria, and schistosomiasis. Data on the behaviour of these NTDs in the young population are currently limited. This study seeks to analyse the epidemiological aspects of these parasitic infections in children and adolescents in Brazil. A retrospective exploratory ecological study was conducted. A spatial analysis of the cases reported between 2009 and 2013 in individuals aged between 0 and 19 years that were notified through the Health Notification Aggravation Information System (SINAN) was performed. In total, 64,567 cases of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, malaria, schistosomiasis, and acute Chagas disease were recorded in the SINAN database, representing a rate of 20.15 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The average age of the cases was 12.2 years and 62.32% were male. Four hundred and three deaths related to these obligatorily reported parasites were recorded, indicating a case fatality rate of 0.62%. Visceral leishmaniasis and acute Chagas disease had the highest rates of lethality. A heterogeneous spatial distribution of the studied parasites was observed. The number of cases and the lethality rate described in this study show that these diseases still represent a serious problem for public health in Brazil. This points to the need to encourage new research and the reformulation of social, economic, and public health policies aimed at ensuring better health and living conditions for all individuals, especially those among the populations considered vulnerable, as is the case of the young.

  12. Analysis of HFE gene mutations and HLA-A alleles in Brazilian patients with iron overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Delfini Cançado

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Hemochromatosis is a common inherited disorder of iron metabolism and one of the most important causes of iron overload. The objective was to analyze the presence of C282Y, H63D and S65C mutations in the HFE gene and HLA-A alleles for a group of Brazilian patients with iron overload, and to correlate genotype with clinical and laboratory variables. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study, in Discipline of Hematology and Oncology, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. METHODS: We studied 35 patients with iron overload seen at our outpatient unit between January 2001 and December 2003. Fasting levels of serum iron and ferritin, and total iron-binding capacity, were assayed using standard techniques. Determinations of C282Y, H63D and S65C mutations in the HFE gene and of HLA-A alleles were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: Twenty-six out of 35 patients (74% presented at least one of the HFE gene mutations analyzed. Among these, five (14% were C282Y/C282Y, four (11% C282Y/H63D, one (3% H63D/H63D, six (17% C282Y/WT and ten (29% H63D/WT. No patients had the S65C mutation and nine (25% did not present any of the three HFE mutations. Four out of five patients with C282Y/C282Y genotype (80% and three out of four patients with C282Y/H63D genotype (75% were HLA A*03. CONCLUSION: Analysis of HFE gene mutations constitutes an important procedure in identifying patients with hereditary hemochromatosis, particularly for patients with iron overload.

  13. Analysis of psychometric properties of the brazilian portuguese version of the community attitudes towards the mentally ill (CAMI-BR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelha, Lucia; Gonçalves Siqueira, Silvia Rosa; Legay, Leticia; Yang, Lawrence Hsin; Valencia, Eliecer; Rodrigues Sarução, Keli; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos

    2015-01-01

    To perform an analysis of the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the COMMUNITY ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE MENTALLY ILL (CAMI-BR), a 40-item scale divided into four sub-scales. The study was conducted in a non-probability sample of 230 households located close to therapeutic residences in the west area of Rio de Janeiro. Reliability was assessed by test-retest and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to test the internal structure of the questionnaire. Most participants were women, married, with children aged 18 years or over. The overall score was 27.72 (SD = 3.31), showing attitudes ranging from neutral to positive stereotypes. The scale showed a high internal consistency (? = 0.842), consistent with other international studies. In the factor analysis, the sample was adequate (KMO = 0.800). The strength of the correlations among subscales and the factors of factor analysis were highly satisfactory. The version in Brazilian Portuguese suggests a better distinction among sub-scales through the lower correlation among them (between 0.336 and 0.441) as compared to higher values (between 0.630 and 0.770) found in the original scale. The community mental health ideology sub-scale showed a strong relation to factor 1 (? = 0.910). Benevolence had a strong relationship with factor 2 (? = 0.847); Authoritarianism and Social Restrictiveness had the highest correlation with factor 3 (? = 0.631 and 0.577 respectively). The scale psychometric properties were maintained after adjustment. Having registered a lower correlation between the scales the factor analysis further suggests that the Brazilian Portuguese version conveys more clearly the differences between the sub-scales.

  14. Presence of carotinoids in peat wax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurkevich, E.A.; Dolidovich, E.F.; Bel' kevich, P.I.; Sheremet, L.S.; Drozdovskaya, S.V.

    1986-05-01

    Discusses biologically active substances present in peat which have various pharmacological properties. Describes separation of fractions rich in carotinoids from extracts of wax tar obtained by benzine treatment of highly decomposed pine-cotton grass peat. Extraction was carried out using hot ethanol. States that although identification of individual carotinoid in the fractions separated is very difficult due to complicity of composition, the tests carried out made it possible to infer that fractions studied contain not only xanthophylls but also fucoxanthains (formed in small amounts in nature) with fairly stable structure. Ultraviolet and infrared spectra of the carotinoid containing fraction in ethanol extracts are given. 6 refs.

  15. Approaches to estimating humification indicators for peat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Klavins

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Degree of decomposition is an important property of the organic matter in soils and other deposits which contain fossil carbon. It describes the intensity of transformation, or the humification degree (HD, of the original living organic matter. In this article, approaches to the determination of HD are thoroughly described and 14C dated peat columns extracted from several bogs in Latvia are investigated and compared. A new humification indicator is suggested, namely the quantity of humic substances as a fraction of the total amount of organic matter in the peat.

  16. Life cycle assessment of climate impact of Fischer-Tropsch diesel based on peat and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Hagberg, Linus

    2009-02-15

    By combining biomass gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis it is possible to produce biodiesel. Vapo is investigating the possibilities for a plant where a mixture of different biomass fractions and peat would be used as raw material. In this study the climate impact of such synthetic diesel is calculated in terms of radiative forcing. The calculations show that the following parameters have large impact on the results: the emission factors associated with external power demand (purchased electricity) the use of carbon capture and storage the time perspective used in the analysis the raw material mix (amount of peat vs. amount of forest residues) the reference scenario for the peat production (type of peatland) All the FT-diesel scenarios with a peat input of 90% will have higher climate impact than fossil diesel after 100 years, except when CCS is applied and Swedish electricity mix is assumed for the external power demand. In order to have lower climate impact than conventional diesel after 100 years, the peat input must be significantly lower than the biomass input. Substantial reductions of the climate impact can be achieved by applying CCS. With CCS, all peat based FT-diesel scenarios (except the ones based on 90% peat) result in lower climate impact than fossil diesel after both 100 and 300 years. For scenarios with marginal electricity, the reductions are 50-84% after 100 years compared to conventional diesel. For scenarios with Swedish electricity mix the reductions are 100-135% (i.e. zero or negative radiative forcing). The scenarios in this study are based on the assumption that the biodiesel refinery is located close to a harbour so that transportation of captured CO{sub 2} to a storage site can be made by ship. An inland location would require truck transport or pipelines and the cost, infrastructure and logistics for this might not be feasible

  17. Experience of Milled Peat Burning at Thermal Electric Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Zhikhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents extensive knowledge and practical experience on burning of milled peat in the boilers of thermal electric power plants in Belarus and Russia. The accumulated experience can be used for solution of problems pertaining to substitution of some types of fuel imported to Belarus by milled peat which is extracted at many fuel effective peat enterprises of the Republic.

  18. Peat compaction in deltas : implications for Holocene delta evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselen, S.

    2010-01-01

    Many deltas contain substantial amounts of peat, which is the most compressible soil type. Therefore, peat compaction potentially leads to high amounts of subsidence in deltas. The main objective of this research was to quantify subsidence due to peat compaction in Holocene fluvial-deltaic settings

  19. Thermal properties of degraded lowland peat-moorsh soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnatowski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    has decreased in a non-linear manner. Thermal parameters of the dry mass of the studied soils (Kdry, Cdry) were characterised by the mean value of approximately 0.11±0.028 W.m-1.K-1 and 0.781±0.220 MJ.m-3.K-1. The application of the correlation analysis showed that the most significant predictor of these properties of soils is the soil bulk density which, respectively explains: 54.6% and 67.1% of their variation. The increase of the accuracy in determining Kdry and Cdry was obtained by developing regression models, which apart from the bulk density also include the chemical properties of the peat soils. In the fully saturated soil the Ksat value ranged from 0.47 to 0.63 W.m-1.K-1, and the Csat varied from 3.200 to 3.995 MJ.m-3.K-1. The variation coefficients of these soil thermal features are at the level of approx. 5%. The obtained results allowed to conclude that the significant diversity of studied soils doesn't cause the significant differences in thermal soil parameters in fully saturated soils. The developed statistical relationships indicate that parameters Ksat and Csat were poorly correlated with saturated moisture content.

  20. Analysis of body composition and nutritional status in Brazilian phenylketonuria patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Nicolao Mazzola

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Brazilian PKU patients do not show differences in body composition and nutritional status in comparison with controls, regardless metabolic control. Although similar to controls, PKU patients may be in risk of disturbed nutritional and metabolic markers as seen for the general population.

  1. An Analysis of the Sources of Earnings Variation among Brazilian Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabos, Marcelo, Psacharopoulos, George

    1991-01-01

    Uses 1980 Brazilian census data to analyze sources of earnings variations, emphasizing the role of education, labor segmentation, geographic location, and sector of economic activity. Results indicate a sizable rate of return to investment in education across labor market segments, especially among rural and self-employed workers. Internal…

  2. Cephalometric analysis for the diagnosis of sleep apnea: a comparative study between reference values and measurements obtained for Brazilian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Superbi Lemos Maschtakow

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify if the reference values of Sleep Apnea cephalometric analysis of North American individuals are similar to the ones of Brazilian individuals presenting no craniofacial anomalies. The study also aimed to identify craniofacial alterations in Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS patients in relation to individuals without clinical characteristics of the disease through this cephalometric analysis. METHOD: It were used 55 lateral cephalograms consisting of 29 for the control group of adult individuals without clinical characteristics of OSAHS and 26 apneic adults. All radiographs were submitted to Sleep Apnea cephalometric analysis through Radiocef Studio 2.0. The standard values of this analysis were compared, by means of z test, to the ones obtained from the control group and these were compared to values from apneic group through Student's t test. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between values obtained from control group and standard values. On the group of OSAHS patients it was observed a decrease on the dimensions of upper airways and an increase on the soft palate length. CONCLUSIONS: The standard values of Sleep Apnea analysis can be used as reference in Brazilian individuals. Besides, through lateral cephalograms it was possible to identify craniofacial alterations in OSAHS patients.

  3. Groundwater and quaternary geological studies of potential peat production areas - useful tool for sustainable peat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valpola, S.E.; Paalijaervi, M. (Geological Survey of Finland, Kokkola (Finland)), Email: samu.valpola@gtk.fi, Email: miikka.paalijarvi@gtk.fi

    2009-07-01

    Potential peat production areas in Finland are often situated in vicinity of eskers or other quaternary (glaciofluvial) formations. Frequently these formations are also important groundwater resources and it is essential for sustainable peat production to assure that these resources will not be endangered. The Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) has concluded several quaternary geological studies on potential peat production areas, which are connected to locally important groundwater areas. These studies have been made using mainly ground penetrating radar (GPR) and light drilling equipment. The main objective of these studies has been to establish the local groundwater flow directions and the quality and extent of quaternary deposits. The increasing need of peat production areas has created an evident demand of cost-effective and fast research methods which can be used for providing reliable information for planning of new production areas. (orig.)

  4. A prospective analysis of Brazilian biofuel economy: Land use, infrastructure development and fuel pricing policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez Amortegui, Hector Mauricio

    Being the two largest ethanol producers in the world, transportation fuel policies in Brazil and the U.S. affect not only their domestic markets but also the global food and biofuel economy. Hence, the complex biofuel policy climate in these countries leaves the public with unclear conclusions about the prospects for supply and trade of agricultural commodities and biofuels. In this dissertation I develop a price endogenous mathematical programming model to simulate and analyze the impacts of biofuel policies in Brazil and the U.S. on land use in these countries, agricultural commodity and transportation fuel markets, trade, and global environment. The model maximizes the social surplus represented by the sum of producers' and consumers' surpluses, including selected agricultural commodity markets and fuel markets in the U.S., Brazil, Argentina, China, and the Rest-of-the-World (ROW), subject to resource limitations, material balances, technical constraints, and policy restrictions. Consumers' surplus is derived from consumption of agricultural commodities and transportation fuels by vehicles that generate vehicle-kilometers-traveled (VKT). While in the other regional components aggregate supply and demand functions are assumed for the commodities included in the analysis, the agricultural supply component is regionally disaggregated for Brazil and the U.S., and the transportation fuel sector is regionally disaggregated for Brazil. The U.S. agricultural supply component includes production of fourteen major food/feed crops, including soybeans, corn and wheat, and cellulosic biofuel feedstocks. The Brazil component includes eight major annual crops, including soybeans, corn, wheat, and rice, and sugarcane as the energy crop. A particular emphasis is given to the beef-cattle production in Brazil and the potential for livestock semi-intensification in Brazilian pasture grazing systems as a prospective pathway for releasing new croplands. In the fuel sector of both

  5. Changes in vegetation, peat properties and peat accumulation in Swedish peatlands as revealed by archive data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoning, Kristian; Sohlenius, Gustav

    2016-04-01

    In this investigation we have studied patterns in peat accumulation and changes in mire status since the early 1900s for two areas in Sweden. In the early 1900s the Geological Survey of Sweden collected a vast amount of peat and peatland data, including information on vegetation and land-use. We have used this archive data to evaluate changes in mire vegetation, mire wetness and surface peat properties, rates of peat accumulation, succession in young wetlands and the effects of cultivation on peatlands. In total 156 mires in an uplift area of eastern middle Sweden were included in the data-set, including both pristine mires and peatlands used for agricultural purposes. In this area new peatlands have continuously been formed during the past 7 000 years making it possible to evaluate changes in peat accumulation over time. The other study area is situated in the south Swedish Uplands where we have revisited some larger bogs. The results from our investigation show that many of the peatlands have underwent major changes since the early 1900s. In most of the small peatlands we have found important changes in vegetation where mire vegetation has been replaced by nutrient demanding and/or dry species flora while the tree stand on large mires in south Sweden have increased. In some mires humification has increased in the uppermost peat-layers and the mire surface have become drier compared to the early 1900s. In eastern middle Sweden there are indications that the peat accumulation is lower 0,5 mm/year in older peatlands compared with younger ones 1,2 mm/year, although the mire vegetation in the older peatlands is dominated by sphagnum. The peat depth of the cultivated mires in this area shows a mean decrease of 40 cm since the early 1900s.

  6. Elevator for a peat-harvesting machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunitskiy, M.M.; Usoshin, V.G.; Vasilevskiy, A.A.

    1981-10-23

    An addition to certificate of authorship USSR No 623972 is proposed. In order to guarantee the possibility of collecting large inclusions of peat which can be removed from the housing, the latter is equipped with a bin attached opposite the window.

  7. Important physical properties of peat materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. Boelter

    1968-01-01

    Peat materials from 12 bogs in northern Minnesota, U.S.A., showed significant differences in physical properties. It is pointed out that 1) these properties can be related to the hydrology of organic soils only if the soils represent undisturbed field conditions, and 2) volumetric expressions of water content are necessary to correctly evaluate the amount of water in a...

  8. Treatment of peat, brown coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francke, F C

    1917-11-02

    Treatment of peat, brown coal, lignite, sapropel, oil shale, wood and the like, characterized by the fact, that the material is dried in a drum having side gas-entrance and gas-exit pipes, and is provided in the known way with ledges under slow turning and then is distilled at a temperature below 550/sup 0/ C.

  9. CO2 efflux from cleared mangrove peat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available CO(2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils.We measured CO(2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO(2 efflux. CO(2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10,600 tonnes km(-2 year(-1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km(2 year(-1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO(2 efflux (27 umol m(-2 s(-1, but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days.Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO(2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks.

  10. New approaches to estimation of peat deposits for production of biologically active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepchenko, L. M.; Yurchenko, V. I.; Krasnik, V. G.; Syedykh, N. J.

    2009-04-01

    It is known, that biologically active preparations from peat increase animals productivity as well as resistance against stress-factors and have adaptogeneous, antioxidant, immunomodulative properties. Optymal choice of peat deposits for the production of biologically active preparations supposes the detailed comparative analysis of peat properties from different deposits. For this the cadastre of peat of Ukraine is developed in the humic substances laboratory named after prof. Khristeva L.A. (Dnipropetrovsk Agrarian University, Ukraine). It based on the research of its physical and chemical properties, toxicity and biological activity, and called Biocadastre. The Biocadastre is based on the set of parameters, including the descriptions of physical and chemical properties (active acidity, degree of decomposition, botanical composition etc.), toxicity estimation (by parabyotyc, infusorial, inhibitor and other tests), biological activity indexes (growth-promoting, antioxidative, adaptogeneous, immunomodulative antistress and other actions). The blocks of Biocadastre indexes are differentiated, taking into account their use for creation the preparations for vegetable, animals and microorganisms. The Biocadastre will allow to choose the peat deposits, most suitable for the production of different biologically active preparations, both wide directed and narrow spectrum of action, depending on application fields (medicine, agriculture, veterinary medicine, microbiological industry, balneology, cosmetology).

  11. Smouldering peat fires in polluted landscapes and their impact on heavy metal mobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Gareth; Rothwell, James; Shuttleworth, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Whilst wildfires are commonly viewed as a threat confined to Southern Europe, Australia, and North America, recognition of wildfire hazard in the UK has been growing in recent years. UK wildfires often occur on heathland vegetation underlain by peat. These areas can contain industrially-derived legacy pollutants, such as mercury, lead, and arsenic. Ignition of the peat can lead to long-term smouldering fires that are difficult to extinguish, leading to large-scale damage. While work on assessing post-fire damage of peatlands has focussed on carbon and nutrient dynamics, there has been little attention on the release of heavy metals following wildfires. This paper presents initial data from a preliminary study to assess heavy metal release from smouldering peat fires. A homogenised sample of peat from the Peak District National Park, UK was ignited, monitored using thermocouples and an IR camera, and left to smoulder until self-extinguished (~9 hours). Total mass loss was 61%. Samples of pre- and post-burn peat were analysed for their heavy metal concentrations using XRF, ICP-MS, and CVAFS. Sample analysis is ongoing, but initial data shows that there is a substantial (3x) relative enrichment in heavy metal concentrations in post-fire ash. This has important implications for subsequent mobilisation in the aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as consequences for human health risk through atmospheric redistribution.

  12. So different, yet so similar: meta-analysis and policy modeling of willingness to participate in clinical trials among Brazilians and Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammar, Guilherme; Meister, Henrique; Shah, Jatin; Phadtare, Amruta; Cofiel, Luciana; Pietrobon, Ricardo

    2010-12-16

    With the global expansion of clinical trials and the expectations of the rise of the emerging economies known as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India and China), the understanding of factors that affect the willingness to participate in clinical trials of patients from those countries assumes a central role in the future of health research. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (SRMA) of willingness to participate in clinical trials among Brazilian patients and then we compared it with Indian patients (with results of another SRMA previously conducted by our group) through a system dynamics model. Five studies were included in the SRMA of Brazilian patients. Our main findings are 1) the major motivation for Brazilian patients to participate in clinical trials is altruism, 2) monetary reimbursement is the least important factor motivating Brazilian patients, 3) the major barrier for Brazilian patients to not participate in clinical trials is the fear of side effects, and 4) Brazilian patients are more likely willing to participate in clinical trials than Indians. Our study provides important insights for investigators and sponsors for planning trials in Brazil (and India) in the future. Ignoring these results may lead to unnecessary fund/time spending. More studies are needed to validate our results and for better understanding of this poorly studied theme.

  13. Development of small-scale peat production; Pienturvetuotannon kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkkilae, A.; Kallio, E. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the project is to develop production conditions, methods and technology of small-scale peat production to such a level that the productivity is improved and competitivity maintained. The aim in 1996 was to survey the present status of small-scale peat production, and research and development needs and to prepare a development plan for small-scale peat production for a continued project in 1997 and for the longer term. A questionnaire was sent to producers by mail, and its results were completed by phone interviews. Response was obtained from 164 producers, i.e. from about 75 - 85 % of small-scale peat producers. The quantity of energy peat produced by these amounted to 3.3 TWh and that of other peat to 265 000 m{sup 3}. The total production of energy peat (large- scale producers Vapo Oy and Turveruukki Oy included) amounted to 25.0 TWh in 1996 in Finland, of which 91 % (22.8 TWh) was milled peat and 9 % (2.2 TWh) of sod peat. The total production of peat other than energy peat amounted to 1.4 million m{sup 3}. The proportion of small-scale peat production was 13 % of energy peat, 11 % of milled peat and 38 % of sod peat. The proportion of small-scale producers was 18 % of other peat production. The results deviate clearly from those obtained in a study of small-scale production in the 1980s. The amount of small-scale production is clearly larger than generally assessed. Small-scale production focuses more on milled peat than on sod peat. The work will be continued in 1997. Based on development needs appeared in the questionnaire, the aim is to reduce environmental impacts and runoff effluents from small- scale production, to increase the efficiency of peat deliveries and to reduce peat production costs by improving the service value of machines by increasing co-operative use. (orig.)

  14. Analysis of carbon stable isotope to determine the origin and migration of gaseous hydrocarbon in the Brazilian sedimentary basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, T.; Rodrigues, R.

    1986-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of natural gases to determine the origin and gaseous hydrocarbon migration of Brazilian sedimentar basins is analysed. The carbon isotopic ratio of methane from natural gases depends on the process of gas formation and stage of organic matter maturation. In the geochemical surface exploration the biogenic gases are differentiated from thermogenic gases, because the last one is isotopically heavier. As the isotopic composition of methane has not changed during migration, the migrated gases from deeper and more mature source rocks are identified by its relative 13 C enrichment. The methane was separated from chromatography and and the isotopic analysis was done with mass spectrometer. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Determination of trace elements in Brazilian rice grains and in biological reference materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    1989-01-01

    INAA was applied to the determination of the elements Na, K, Br, As, Rb, Zn, Co, Fe and Sc in Brazilian rice samples and in biological standards. Hg and Se concentrations were determined using a simple radiochemical separation. The chemical procedure was carried out by means of distillation of Hg and Se in HBr medium and subsequent precipitation of Se by sodium metabisulfite and Hg by thioacetamide. The accuracy of the instrumental and radiochemical methods was evaluated by means of analysis of the Reference Materials NBS-Bovine Liver, Bowen's Kale and NBS-Rice Flour. (author) 15 refs.; 5 tabs

  16. Geophysical surveying in the Sacramento Delta for earthquake hazard assessment and measurement of peat thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, M. S.; Kundariya, N.; Hayashi, K.; Srinivas, A.; Burnham, M.; Oikawa, P.

    2017-12-01

    Near surface geophysical surveys were conducted in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta for earthquake hazard assessment and to provide estimates of peat thickness for use in carbon models. Delta islands have experienced 3-8 meters of subsidence during the past century due to oxidation and compaction of peat. Projected sea level rise over the next century will contribute to an ongoing landward shift of the freshwater-saltwater interface, and increase the risk of flooding due to levee failure or overtopping. Seismic shear wave velocity (VS) was measured in the upper 30 meters to determine Uniform Building Code (UBC)/ National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) site class. Both seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were employed to estimate peat thickness. Seismic surface wave surveys were conducted at eight sites on three islands and GPR surveys were conducted at two of the sites. Combined with sites surveyed in 2015, the new work brings the total number of sites surveyed in the Delta to twenty.Soil boreholes were made at several locations using a hand auger, and peat thickness ranged from 2.1 to 5.5 meters. Seismic surveys were conducted using the multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method and the microtremor array method (MAM). On Bouldin Island, VS of the surficial peat layer was 32 m/s at a site with pure peat and 63 m/s at a site peat with higher clay and silt content. Velocities at these sites reached a similar value, about 125 m/s, at a depth of 10 m. GPR surveys were performed at two sites on Sherman Island using 100 MHz antennas, and indicated the base of the peat layer at a depth of about 4 meters, consistent with nearby auger holes.The results of this work include VS depth profiles and UBC/NEHRP site classifications. Seismic and GPR methods may be used in a complementary fashion to estimate peat thickness. The seismic surface wave method is a relatively robust method and more effective than GPR in many areas with high clay

  17. The composition and character of DOM from an upland peat catchment - sources, roles and fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, F.; Moody, C.; Clay, G.; Boothroyd, I.; Burt, T. P.

    2017-12-01

    The fluvial fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from peatlands form an important part of that ecosystem's carbon cycle, contributing approximately 35% of the overall peatland carbon budget. The source, role and fate of this component of the carbon cycle was explored for a peat covered catchment in the north east of England with dissolved organic matter (DOM) being sampled from both a first-order peat-hosted stream and soil water at two depths within the peat profile. All DOM samples were analysed within the context of analysing the particulate organic matter (POM) from the catchment; the peat profile; and biomass. All samples were analysed using: elemental analysis (C, H, N, O, P and S); bomb calorimetry; thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); 13C solid state NMR; and S isotopes. Furthermore, the degradation of fresh DOC was examined over periods of 70 hours every month for 23 months. The analysis has shown that: DOM is highly oxidised compared to all other organic in the ecosystem and DOM did not exist until [C]/[O] lignin breakdown and not the processing of proteins or carbohydrates, i.e. it was not an intermediate of oxidation to CO2. DOM could only be sourced from high in the peat profile at most above 41 cm depth. Thermodynamic inhibition shows that only DOM from the surface layers could be reactive in the catotelmic layers of the peat. There was a significant role for the composition of the DOM in controlling degradation with degradation rates significantly increasing with the proportion of aldehyde and carboxylic acid functional groups but decreasing with the proportion of N-alkyl functional groups. The study meant that is was possible to consider the behaviour of DOM in terms of its thermodynamic properties (DH, DS & DG) for both formation and reaction.

  18. Phosphorus migration analysis using synchrotron radiation in soil treated with Brazilian granular fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Robson C. de; Melo Benites, Vinícius de; César Teixeira, Paulo; Anjos, Marcelino José dos; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the phosphorus (P) mobility in a tropical Brazilian soil type red Oxisol treated with three different forms of granular fertilizer. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) was applied to determine the concentration of P at different distances from granular fertilizer application point. The results showed that most of the P from fertilizers tends to concentrate in a region of up to 10 mm around the place of the fertilizer deposition. - Highlights: • Phosphorus (P) mobility in a tropical Brazilian soil. • Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence was applied to determine the concentration of P. • Fertilizers used monoammonium phosphate and polymer coated monoammonium phosphate.

  19. Strategic Implications of Water Usage: an Analysis in Brazilian Mining Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Schoproni Bichueti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the practices of water use management and the business performance in industries in the Brazilian mineral sector. To this end, a descriptive and quantitative study was developed, using the survey method, in industries associated with the Brazilian Mining Institute – IBRAM. The water use management practices were identified based in a model addressing the following aspects: water accounting, risk assessment, direct operations, supply chain, and stakeholders engagement. The business performance was measured from a model involving the following dimensions: economic, environmental and social. Among the results, the risks assessment involved and the direct operations practices stand out, in order to reduce the amount of water used and waste discharges. The need for greater engagement of industries with the stakeholders and the supply chain, through a more integrated and collaborative management, was also evident.

  20. Prevalence and morphometric analysis of three-rooted mandibular first molars in a Brazilian subpopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Clarissa Teles; de Oliveira-Santos, Christiano; Bernardineli, Norberti; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Minotti-Bonfante, Paloma Gagliardi; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The knowledge of the internal anatomy of three-rooted mandibular molars may help clinicians to diagnose and plan the root canal treatment in order to provide adequate therapy when this variation is present. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of three-rooted mandibular molars in a Brazilian population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to analyze the anatomy of mandibular first molars with three roots through micro-CT. Material and Methods: CBCT images of 116 patien...

  1. Determination of the elementary composition in Brazilian cigarettes by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Helder de; Fernandes, Elisabete A.N.; Mortatti, Jefferson; Sarries, Gabriel Adrian

    2000-01-01

    The present work characterised the inorganic compounds of some brazilian cigarette tobacco by the use of INAA. Sixteen different brands were taken from the consumer market and analyzed for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc, Sm, Sr and Zn. Comparisons between the results from this work and those originated from several cigarette tobacco producing countries, indicate significant variation in the levels of some elements. (author)

  2. Sizing for the apparel industry using statistical analysis - a Brazilian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelassi, C. H.; Carvalho, M. A.; El Kattel, C.; Xu, B.

    2017-10-01

    The study of the body measurements of Brazilian women used the Kinect Body Imaging system for 3D body scanning. The result of the study aims to meet the needs of the apparel industry for accurate measurements. Data was statistically treated using the IBM SPSS 23 system, with 95% confidence (P 0,58) and from the Hip-to-Height Ratio - HHR (bottom portion): Small (HHR 0,68).

  3. Institutions and deforestation in the Brazilian amazon: a geographic regression discontinuity analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bogetvedt, Ingvild Engen; Hauge, Mari Johnsrud

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the impact of institutional quality at the municipal level on deforestation in the Legal Amazon. We add to this insufficiently understood topic by implementing a geographic regression discontinuity design. By taking advantage of high-resolution spatial data on deforestation combined with an objective measure of corruption used as a proxy for institutional quality, we analyse 138 Brazilian municipalities in the period of 2002-2004. Our empirical findings show...

  4. The physical properties of peat: a key factor for modern growing media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-C. Michel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies criteria for assessing the physical properties (water retention characteristics, wettability and physical stability of growing media which influence the availability of air and water to plant roots. The various materials that are currently in use are assessed for these properties. The analysis of physical properties indicates that weakly decomposed (H1–H5, generally referred to as white Sphagnum peat is still indispensable for soil-less horticulture. Whilst a number of materials can be used as peat additives, especially to improve aeration, no alternative products with equivalent physical properties are available at present.

  5. Covering of milled peat stockpile with wood chips; Jyrsinturveauman peittaeminen hakkeella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franssila, T.; Leinonen, A.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this project is to research the applicability of wooden materials for protection of milled peat stockpile against losses during storaging. Water transmission features of sawdust, wastewood chip and whole tree chip were investigated in laboratory with raining experiments. The plan for raining experiments was made with experiment planning program and results were analysed with multivariate analysis. Freezing features were investigated thorough breaking tests with hydraulic piston vice. Laboratory experiments were completed with field tests in Laakasuo near Sotkamo. On the basis of results covering peat stockpiles with sawdust is fully competitive comparing to present covering methods. Chip materials are technically not as good covering materials as sawdust

  6. Preliminary stable isotope results from the Mohos peat bog, East-Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Túri, Marianna; Palcsu, László; Futó, István; Hubay, Katalin; Molnár, Mihály; Rinyu, László; Braun, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    This work provides preliminary results of an isotope investigation carried out on a peat core drilled in the ombrotrophic Mohos peat bog, Ciomadul Mountain, (46°8'3.60"N, 25°54'19.43"E, 1050 m.a.s.l.), East Carpathians, Romania. The Ciomadul is a single dacitic volcano with two craters: the younger Saint Ana and the older Mohos which is a peat bog, and surrounded by a number of individual lava domes as well as a narrow volcaniclastic ring plain volcano. A 10 m long peat core has been taken previously, and is available for stable oxygen and carbon isotope analysis. It is known from our previous work (Hubay et al., 2015) that it covers a period from 11.500 cal year B.P. to present. The peat bog is composed mainly of Sphagnum, which has a direct relationship with the environment, making it suitable for examine the changes in the surrounding circumstances. Isotopic analysis of the prepared cellulose from Sphagnum moss has the attribute to provide such high resolution quantitative estimates of the past climate and there is no such climate studies in this area where the past climate investigations based on oxygen isotope analysis of the Sphagnum. Oxygen and carbon stable isotope analysis were carried out on the hemicellulose samples, which were chemically prepared for 14C dating and taken from every 30 cm of the 10 m long peat core. The oxygen isotope composition of the precipitation can be revealed from the δ18O values of the prepared cellulose samples, since, while carbon isotope ratio tells more about the wet and dry periods of the past. Studying both oxygen and carbon isotope signatures, slight fluctuations can be seen during the Holocene like some of the six periods of significant climate changes can be seen in this resolution during the time periods of 9000-8000, 6000-5000, 4200-3800, 3500-2500, 1200-1000, and 600-150 cal yr B.P. Additionally, the late Pleistocene - early Holocene environmental changes can be clearly observed as Pleistocene peat samples have

  7. Interaction of Peat Soil and Sulphidic Material Substratum: Role of Peat Layer and Groundwater Level Fluctuations on Phosphorus Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Heru Purwanto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P often becomes limiting factor for plants growth. Phosphorus geochemistry in peatland soil is associated with the presence of peat layer and groundwater level fluctuations. The research was conducted to study the role of peat layer and groundwater level fluctuations on P concentration in peatland. The research was conducted on deep, moderate and shallow peat with sulphidic material as substratum, peaty acid sulphate soil, and potential acid sulphate soil. While P concentration was observed in wet season, in transition from wet to dry season, and in dry season. Soil samples were collected by using peat borer according to interlayer and soil horizon. The results showed that peat layer might act as the main source of P in peatland with sulphidic material substratum. The upper peat layer on sulphidic material caused by groundwater level fluctuations had no directly effect on P concentration in the peat layers. Increased of P concentration in the lowest sulphidic layer might relate to redox reaction of iron in the sulphidic layer and precipitation process. Phosphorus concentration in peatland with sulphidic material as substratum was not influenced by peat thickness. However, depletion or disappearance of peat layer decreased P concentration in soil solution. Disappearance of peat layer means loss of a natural source of P for peatland with sulphidic material as substratum, therefore peat layer must be kept in order to maintain of peatlands.

  8. Biomass burning emissions of reactive gases estimated from satellite data analysis and ecosystem modeling for the Brazilian Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks-Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2002-10-01

    To produce a new daily record of trace gas emissions from biomass burning events for the Brazilian Legal Amazon, we have combined satellite advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data on fire counts together for the first time with vegetation greenness imagery as inputs to an ecosystem biomass model at 8 km spatial resolution. This analysis goes beyond previous estimates for reactive gas emissions from Amazon fires, owing to a more detailed geographic distribution estimate of vegetation biomass, coupled with daily fire activity for the region (original 1 km resolution), and inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon (defined as the Brazilian states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, and Tocantins) covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. Results from our emissions model indicate that annual emissions from Amazon deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s total to 102 Tg yr-1 carbon monoxide (CO) and 3.5 Tg yr-1 nitrogen oxides (NOx). Peak daily burning emissions, which occurred in early September 1992, were estimated at slightly more than 3 Tg d-1for CO and 0.1 Tg d-1for NOx flux to the atmosphere. Other burning source fluxes of gases with relatively high emission factors are reported, including methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), in addition to total particulate matter (TPM). We estimate the Brazilian Amazon region to be a source of between one fifth and one third for each of these global emission fluxes to the atmosphere. The regional distribution of burning emissions appears to be highest in the Brazilian states of Maranhao and Tocantins, mainly from burning outside of moist forest areas, and in Pará and Mato Grosso, where we identify important contributions from primary forest cutting and burning. These new daily emission estimates of reactive gases from biomass burning fluxes are designed to be used as

  9. Assessment and Evaluation of Higher Education in Business Management: An Analysis of the Brazilian Case in the Light of Social Learning Theory for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstein, Janette; Jaime, Pedro; Curi, Denise Pereira; d'Angelo, Marcia Juliana; Mainardes, Emerson Wagner

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of Brazilian National System of Higher Education Assessment (SINAES) in the light of social learning for sustainability theory. The aim is to contribute to the advancement of debates surrounding education for sustainability and the improvement of public policy evaluation in higher education. The analysis is…

  10. Predictive Power and Value Relevance of Comprehensive Income Statement: an analysis of Brazilian companies listed on the BM&FBovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Angotti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze if the information about comprehensive income (CI and its individual components have predictive power to determine the Operating Cash Flow of the subsequent period (OCFt+1 at the Brazilian capital market companies. The research methodology has used financial data collected from Economatica® and CVM databases. The sample selection was performed considering the availability of variables: OCFt+1 and share prices. The period analyzed comprehended the years 2012-2014. It were used quantitative valuation techniques, establishing two moments of study: the first moment by testing the hypothesis that CI has greater predictive power than Net Income (NI for forecasting OCFt+1 (528 firms/years; and the second moment by testing the hypothesis that CI and its components have a value relevance at the Brazilian capital market (605 firms/years. The results suggest that the analysis of the consolidated CI individually would not be incremental for forecasting OCFt+1. However, an increase was observed in the predictive capacity for OCFt+1, with the inclusion of Other Comprehensive Income (OCI. Could not be verified, with aggregate disruption of the individual items of OCI, incremental capacity to determine the OCFt+1. It was observed that the Equity and NI have value relevance, but that is not confirmed to consolidated CI. Added to that, only the cash flow hedge was significant to explain the market value of the company, indicating there is informational benefit to stakeholders that employ the CI in their analysis.

  11. The role of peat in finnish greenhouse gas balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crill, P.; Hargreaves, K.; Korhola, A.

    2000-06-01

    Over the past, total annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Finland, not considering land use change, forestry or peatlands, have remained between 70 000 and 80 000 Gg of CO 2 equivalents. A large portion of which (84% in 1998) is from energy and energy related sources. Signatory members to the 1997 Kyoto protocol of the United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change convention, which includes Finland, are compelled to assess their emissions at the national level. This study was undertaken to examine the issues of the role of Finnish peatlands in the national greenhouse gas inventory specifically within the context of the utilization of peatlands for energy production. Our analysis is essentially a literature review and assessment of what has been measured from Finnish peatlands. We are particularly fortunate that there have been a series of recent Ph.D. theses published at the Universities of Helsinki and Joensuu and graduate work at the University of Kuopio on carbon dynamics and greenhouse gas exchange in Finnish peatlands that have both expanded our database and our understanding of peatland processes. Chapter 1 provides a background of the role of peatlands in carbon cycling within the context of changing climate and land use. In Finland about 56 x 103 ha of peatland area were being harvested in 1997, 94% for energy. Even though this is a relatively small area, the implications, on a national scale, for GHG fluxes and carbon balance can be significant The magnitude of GHG fluxes and a qualitative assessment of extant data quality and quantity under different Finnish land use forms and activities is considered in chapter 2. CO 2 fluxes derived from long term C accumulation rates indicate that 3 010 Gg CON and 9 400 Gg CO 2 are sequestered annually from the atmosphere into undrained and peatlands drained for forestry, respectively. Peatlands drained for agriculture emit CO 2 at a rate of 3 200-7 800 Gg annually. Peat harvesting activities and

  12. Applying a food processing-based classification system to a food guide: a qualitative analysis of the Brazilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Vanessa Fernandes; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Medeiros, Kharla Janinny; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2018-01-01

    The present paper aimed to identify the stakeholders, as well as their arguments and recommendations, in the debate on the application of a food processing-based classification system to the new Brazilian Food Guide. Qualitative approach; an analysis was made of documents resulting from the consultation conducted for the development of the new Brazilian Food Guide, which uses the NOVA classification for its dietary recommendations. A thematic matrix was constructed and the resulting themes represented the main points for discussion raised during the consultation. Brazil. Actors from academia, government and associations/unions/professional bodies/organizations related to the area of nutrition and food security; non-profit institutions linked to consumer interests and civil society organizations; organizations, associations and food unions linked to the food industry; and individuals. Four themes were identified: (i) conflicting paradigms; (ii) different perceptions about the role and need of individuals; (iii) we want more from the new food guide; and (iv) a sustainable guide. There was extensive participation from different sectors of society. The debate generated by the consultation revealed two main conflicting opinions: a view aligned with the interests of the food industry and a view of healthy eating which serves the interests of the population. The first group was against the adoption of a food processing-based classification system in a public policy such as the new Brazilian Food Guide. The second group, although mostly agreeing with the new food guide, argued that it failed to address some important issues related to the food and nutrition agenda in Brazil.

  13. Proposed systematic methodology for analysis of Pb-210 radioactivity in residues produced in Brazilian natural gas pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Aloisio Cordilha

    2003-11-01

    Since the 80's, the potential radiological hazards due to the handling of solid wastes contaminated with Rn-222 long-lived progeny - Pb-210 in special - produced in gas pipes and removed by pig operations have been subject of growing concern abroad our country. Nevertheless, little or no attention has been paid to this matter in the Brazilian plants up to now, being these hazards frequently underestimated or even ignored. The main purpose of this work was to propose a systematic methodology for analysis of Pb-210 radioactivity in black powder samples from some Brazilian plants, through the evaluation of direct Pb-210 gamma spectrometry and Bi-210 beta counting technical viabilities. In both cases, one in five samples of black powder analysed showed relevant activity (above 1Bq/kg) of Pb-210, being these results probably related to particular features of each specific plant (production levels, reservoir geochemical profile, etc.), in such a way that a single pattern is not observed. For the proposed methodology, gamma spectrometry proved to be the most reliable technique, showing a 3.5% standard deviation, and, for a 95% confidence level, overall fitness in the range of Pb-210 concentration of activity presented in the standard sample reference sheet, provided by IAEA for intercomparison purposes. In the Brazilian scene, however, the availability of statistically supported evidences is insufficient to allow the potential radiological hazard due to the management of black powder to be discarded. Thus, further research efforts are recommended in order to detect the eventually critical regions or plants where gas exploration, production and processing practices will require a regular program of radiological surveillance, in the near future. (author)

  14. Peat or no peat: Why do the Rajang and Mahakam Deltas differ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastaldo, Robert A. [Department of Geology, Colby College, 5807 Mayflower Hill Drive, Waterville, ME 04901 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Coastal and deltaic Holocene peat accumulations around the equatorial island of Borneo, Southeast Asia, have served as models for economic coal-bearing sequences in the stratigraphic record. Although climatic conditions, vegetational communities, and sedimentary regimes are comparable, peat accumulations are not found on both the western and eastern sides of the island. The Rajang River delta and coastal plain, Sarawak, East Malaysia, are covered in areally extensive, thick peat deposits that have attained at least a thickness of > 13 m in ombrogenous peat domes (Marudi, Baram River). Peat-swamp biomass began to accumulate over Pleistocene podzols when sea level stabilized {proportional_to} 7.5 ka and delta progradation was initiated. The Mahakam River delta and coastal plain, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, also began progradation at this time, but there is no evidence in any part of the coastal region for peat accumulation. Rather, poorly developed organic-rich gleysols occur throughout the delta plain. Both the Rajang River and Mahakam River deltas are tidally influenced, fine-grained systems, with a sediment provenance in the Central Massif. Sediment transported through the Rajang River delta differs in that as much as 60% of the clay minerals deposited in the system are mixed layer (I/S) and expandable (K/E) clays that act to restrict pore water flow in the tidal and overbank deposits that comprise the delta plain. These result in the development of an aquiclude above which paludal conditions develop, promoting accumulation of organic matter. In contrast, there is a low proportion of mixed layer and expandable clays transported in the Mahakam River system. This precludes the development of a stilted water table within the delta, allowing for organic matter recycling without peat accumulation. The presence of a high proportion of expandable clay minerals on the western side of Borneo is a reflection of the weathering and eroding source rocks on this side of the

  15. Impact of a commercial peat moss operation on water quality and biota in a small tributary of the Richibucto River, Kent County, New Brunswick, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surette, C; Brun, G L; Mallet, V N

    2002-05-01

    The St-Charles Plain (Kent County, New Brunswick, Canada) commercial peat moss operation has been ongoing since 1983. To process the peat, a dry extraction method is used that requires extensive drainage of the peat bog. The water is directed toward sedimentation ponds, where it drains into a small brook, which feeds into a river affected by tidal salt water. Water discharge from the bog contains large amounts of peat particles that deposit in the surrounding watershed. As a result, the pH of the freshwater sites that receive the drainage water from the commercial operation, is fairly acidic (pH 3.9-4.7). Water samples from or near the peat moss operation have a higher concentration of total phosphorous and total organic carbon. The peat particles contain relatively high levels of total mercury, as reflected by analysis of peat sediments. However, the water samples contained low levels of dissolved mercury. Indigenous samples of biota-namely, sand shrimps (Crangon septemspinosa) and mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus)-did not contain mercury levels higher in the impacted sites than in the reference sites. Introduced blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) did not accumulate significant amounts of mercury during a 62-day exposure in the study area. Overall, the data suggest that although relatively large amounts of mercury-containing peat particles are discharged into the ecosystem, bioaccumulation of mercury in the biota does not occur.

  16. Burning peat in Ireland: An electricity market dispatch perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuohy, Aidan; Bazilian, Morgan; Doherty, Ronan; Gallachoir, Brian O; O'Malley, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines peat power production in Ireland under the three pillars of energy policy-security, competitiveness and environment. Peat contributes to energy security-as an indigenous fuel, it reduces dependency on imports. During a period of low capacity margins, the operation of the peat plants is useful from a system security perspective. Peat generation is being financially supported by consumers through an electricity levy. The fuel also has high carbon intensity. It is not politically viable to consider peat on equal economic criteria to other plant types because of history and location. This paper reviews electricity generation through combustion of peat in Ireland, and quantifies the costs of supporting peat utilising economic dispatch tools, finding the subsidy is not insignificant from a cost or carbon perspective. It shows that while peat is beneficial for one pillar of energy policy (security), the current usage of peat is not optimal from a competitiveness or environmental perspective. By switching from the current 'must-run' mode of operation for peat to the 'dispatched' mode used for the other generation, significant societal savings (in the range Euro 21 m per annum) can be achieved, as well as reducing system emissions by approximately 5% per year.

  17. The Role of Peat Layers on Iron Dynamics in Peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifin Fahmi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to study the effect of peat thickness and humification stage of the peat material on Fe solubility at the peatlands with sulfidic material as substratum. The research was conducted at three conditionals of ombrogen peatlands ie ; deep, moderate and shallow peat. Soil samples were collected by using peat borer according to interlayer (the border layer of peat and mineral layer and conditional of soil horizons. The sample point depth were (cm G.s2 : 25, G.s1 : 50, Int.s : 70, M.s1 : 90 and M.s2 : 100 for shallow peat, G.m2 : 47, G.m1 : 100, Int.m : 120 and M.m1 : 135 for moderate peat and G.d3 : 50, G.d2 : 150, G.d1 : 200, Int.d : 220 and M.d1 : 235 for deep peat respectively. The results showed that most of Fe on the tested soils was found in organic forms. The peat layers above the sulfidic material decreased the Fe2+ solubility at peatlands. Fe2+ concentration in peat layer decreased with its increasing distance from sulfidic material. There was any other processes beside complexation and chelation of Fe2+ by humic material and its processes was reduction of Fe3+ and this conditions was reflected in redox potential values (Eh.

  18. Study of the production of compacted peat; Tiivistetyn turpeen tuotantotutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkkilae, A [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The so-called Compeat method developed at VTT Energy is applied by field experiments to peat production. The aim of the two-year project (1996 - 1997) is to achieve an increase of 20 % in hectare yield with this new production method of compacted peat in pilot scale in field conditions without any increase in production costs. The aim of the 1996 study was to construct a prototype mining machine for compacted peat and to produce compacted peat from Carex and Sphagnum peat fields in test runs. The operation of the mining machine was studied and drying of compacted peat with that of milled peat were compared at peat production sites of Vapo Oy and Turveruukki Oy. The results of the drying studies were along the same lines with previous laboratory drying tests. The dry matter yield of Compeat was more than twice that of milled peat in the Carex peat field and 1.1-1.5-fold in the Sphagnum field. Compeat moistened significantly less in the rain than normally milled peat. Compeat was ridged with a scraper-ridger. The mining machine produced sufficiently compacted and well-drying peat, but its power demand was too high. The aim is to reduce the power consumption of the mining machine significantly to make it possible to use a wheel- tractor for pulling and to reduce the production costs of the method lower than those of the milled peat method. The drying results of Compeat were so promising that the development of the field machine will be continued. (orig.)

  19. The representation of love among Brazilians, Russians and Central Africans: A comparative analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyanongo E.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the cultural specificities of three typical collective groups with respect to the representation of love. The research subject focuses on the cross-cultural similarities and differences in how love is conceptualized among highly educated citizens of Brazil (50, Russia (50, and Central Africa (50 (age range 21–60; M = 34. We used “The Classical ideas of love: acceptance and distancing” questionnaire (I.A. Djidaryan, E.V. Belovol, & O.V. Maslova and the “Directed associations with ‘love’ as the wordstimulus” technique (on the basis of C.G. Jung’s associative experiment and P. Vergès’s methodology. The results show similarities and differences in how love is represented among the groups. The following similarities were found: Love is seen as all that is good and kind about a person, a way to become better. At the peripheral level, the social representation of love includes friendship, patience, and passion. At the point of cross-cultural differences, it was found that: a The main emotion reflecting how love is represented for Brazilians is honesty, for Russians — suffering, for Central Africans — tenderness; b Brazilians understand love as a sensual, personal moral choice; Russians perceive love as an obstacle, a problem in itself; Central Africans conceptualize love as God-given and ennobling of the person; c love is conceptualized as something inherent and family-oriented among Russians, intrapersonal and intimate among Brazilians, and divine among Central Africans. The results mean that within peripheral confines, the notion of love among the groups matches to a certain extent R. Sternberg’s triangle of love, while its core zone is culturally specific.

  20. The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological analysis on commercial functional Brazilian green banana flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Lamardo, Leda C.A.; Santos, Josefina S.; Silva Junior, Eneo A. da; Balian, Simone C.

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil, although it is qualified as a major world producers, however, the production losses are high. Nevertheless, these losses can be reduced by processing the fruit 'unsuitable' for consumption into products based on green banana (pulp, rind and flour). The green banana flour shows enhanced nutrition value, with higher contents of mineral, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and total phenolics, for use in Brazilian irradiated ready - to eat foods, such as bread, macaroni, among others. Food irradiation has been identified as safe technology to reduce risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling and preparation. Food irradiation utilizes a source of ionizing energy that passes through food to destroy harmful bacteria and other organisms. Often referred to as 'cold pasteurization', food irradiation offers negligible loss of nutrients or sensory qualities in food as it does not substantially raise the temperature of the food during processing. The object of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological analyses of the: the number of mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliforms at 45 deg C, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp of the green banana flour, commercially found in the Brazilian market. The microbiological analyses were carried out in conformity with the methodologies described at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, according to the current legislation. Irradiation was performed in a 60 Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) source, with dose of 3kGy at IPEN/CNEN-SP. In samples of Brazilian green banana flour, irradiated at 3 kGy, the growth of all microorganisms (mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliform at 45 deg C and Staphylococcus coagulase positive) were reduced. As a result, the application of the irradiation technique may be recommended to enhance the food safety. (author)

  1. Contextual and individual factors associated with dental services utilisation by Brazilian adults: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkrath, Fernando José; Vettore, Mario Vianna; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro

    2018-01-01

    Inequalities in the utilisation of dental services in Brazil are remarkable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of contextual and individual factors with the utilisation of dental services by Brazilian adults using the Andersen's behavioural model. Individual-level data from 27,017 adults residents in the State capitals who were interviewed in the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey were pooled with contextual city-level data. The outcomes were non-utilisation of dental services and last dental visit over 12 months ago. Individual predisposing variables were age, sex, race/skin colour, schooling and social network. Individual enabling variables included income, health insurance and registration in primary health care. Individual need variables were self-perceived dental health and self-reported missing teeth. Multilevel logistic regression models were performed to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of the association of contextual and individual predisposing, enabling and need-related variables with dental services outcomes. Predisposing (OR = 0.89; 95% CI 0.81-0.97) and enabling (OR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.85-0.96) contextual factors were associated with non-utilisation of dental services. Individual predisposing (sex, race/skin colour, schooling), enabling (income, health insurance) and need (self-perceived oral health, missing teeth) were associated with non-utilisation of dental services and last dental visit over 12 months ago. The latter was also associated with other individual predisposing (age, social network) and need (eating difficulties due to oral problems) characteristics. Individual and contextual determinants influenced dental services utilisation in Brazilian adults. These factors should be on the policy agenda and considered in the organisation of health services aiming to reduce oral health inequalities related to access and utilisation of dental services.

  2. Analysis of HFE and non-HFE gene mutations in Brazilian patients with hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Paulo Lisboa; Marin, Maria Lúcia Carnevale; Couto, Cláudia Alves; Cançado, Eduardo Luiz Rachid; Carrilho, Flair José; Goldberg, Anna Carla

    2009-01-01

    Approximately one-half of Brazilian patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) are neither homozygous for the C282Y mutation nor compound heterozygous for the H63D and C282Y mutations that are associated with HH in Caucasians. Other mutations have been described in the HFE gene as well as in genes involved in iron metabolism, such as transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) and ferroportin 1 (SCL40A1). To evaluate the role of HFE, TfR2 and SCL40A1 mutations in Brazilian subjects with HH. Nineteen male subjects (median age 42 [range: 20-72] years) with HH were evaluated using the Haemochromatosis StripAssay A. This assay is capable of detecting twelve HFE mutations, which are V53M, V59M, H63D, H63H, S65C, Q127H, P160delC, E168Q, E168X, W169X, C282Y and Q283, four TfR2 mutations, which are E60X, M172K, Y250X, AVAQ594-597del, and two SCL40A1 mutations, which are N144H and V162del. In our cohort, nine (47%) patients were homozygous for the C282Y mutation, two (11%) were heterozygous for the H63D mutation, and one each (5%) was either heterozygous for C282Y or compound heterozygous for C282Y and H63D. No other mutations in the HFE, TfR2 or SCL40A1 genes were observed in the studied patients. One-third of Brazilian subjects with the classical phenotype of HH do not carry HFE or other mutations that are currently associated with the disease in Caucasians. This observation suggests a role for other yet unknown mutations in the aforementioned genes or in other genes involved in iron homeostasis in the pathogenesis of HH in Brazil.

  3. The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological analysis on commercial functional Brazilian green banana flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Lamardo, Leda C.A.; Santos, Josefina S.; Silva Junior, Eneo A. da [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Balian, Simone C., E-mail: balian@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    2011-07-01

    In Brazil, although it is qualified as a major world producers, however, the production losses are high. Nevertheless, these losses can be reduced by processing the fruit 'unsuitable' for consumption into products based on green banana (pulp, rind and flour). The green banana flour shows enhanced nutrition value, with higher contents of mineral, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and total phenolics, for use in Brazilian irradiated ready - to eat foods, such as bread, macaroni, among others. Food irradiation has been identified as safe technology to reduce risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling and preparation. Food irradiation utilizes a source of ionizing energy that passes through food to destroy harmful bacteria and other organisms. Often referred to as 'cold pasteurization', food irradiation offers negligible loss of nutrients or sensory qualities in food as it does not substantially raise the temperature of the food during processing. The object of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological analyses of the: the number of mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliforms at 45 deg C, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp of the green banana flour, commercially found in the Brazilian market. The microbiological analyses were carried out in conformity with the methodologies described at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, according to the current legislation. Irradiation was performed in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) source, with dose of 3kGy at IPEN/CNEN-SP. In samples of Brazilian green banana flour, irradiated at 3 kGy, the growth of all microorganisms (mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliform at 45 deg C and Staphylococcus coagulase positive) were reduced. As a result, the application of the irradiation technique may be recommended to enhance the food safety. (author)

  4. Reference serving sizes for the Brazilian population: An analysis of processed food labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Kliemann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare serving sizes reported on processed food labels with reference serving sizes according to nutrition labeling legislation and the "Food Guide for the Brazilian Population". METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed the labels of 2,072 processed foods in a supermarket of Florianópolis, Santa Caratina, Brazil. The foods were classified according to the Brazilian food labeling legislation. Central tendency and variability values were calculated for the serving sizes and energy values reported on the labels, as well as the ratio between the reported and reference energy value. The Spearman correlation test was performed between the reference serving size and the reference energy density, and also between the reference serving size and energy density of each study food. RESULTS: Nutrition labeling and the Food Guide presented reference servings with different sizes and energy values. The serving sizes reported on the labels did not follow either of the references and presented heterogeneous values, with a maximum range of 55-240 g among ready and semi-ready pre-prepared dishes. The reported energy values were between 0.1 times smaller and 2.4 times larger than the reference values. The reference serving sizes presented a highly inverse correlation with the reference energy density (Spearman coefficient= 0.9 and a very low inverse correlation with the energy density of the foods analyzed (Spearman coefficient= 0.2. CONCLUSION: This study showed the need for standardizing reference serving size information for the Brazilian population as well as reviewing nutrition labeling legislation in order to standardize the serving sizes reported on labels and to update the reference energy density used to calculate serving sizes.

  5. Geochemical evidence for different peat sources in the Siak estuary and along the east coast of Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wöstmann

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The distribution pattern of selected biomarkers extracted from samples of outcropping peat from the Siak river, its estuary, the coast around Dumai and the island of Bengkalis have been investigated by gas chromatography (GC and combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS, and compared with samples of eroded peat washed ashore (re-deposited on the coastline of Sumatra. Geochemical analyses of n-alkanes, n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, steroids and triterpenoids show that outcropping and re-deposited peats have different chemical compositions. The outcropping peats around Dumai, Bengkalis and in the Siak River estuary contain high concentrations of the pentacyclic triterpenoid taraxerol, a typical constituent of the mangrove species Rhizophora. A comparison with the lipid composition of leaves from the fringing mangrove species (Avicennia alba, Sonneratia alba and Rhizophora apiculata showed that only R. apiculata contains significant amounts of taraxerol. Taraxerol was completely absent from the leaves of A. alba and S. alba. This suggests that the peats outcropping around Dumai, Bengkalis and in the Siak estuary must be formed by a dominant input of mangroves of the Rhizophora family. The n-alkane distribution patterns of the outcropping peats near Dumai and the Siak estuary are similar to those of the surrounding mangrove vegetation with a maximum at C31 and a strong predominance of odd over even carbon numbers in all samples. Biomarker analysis of eroded peats washed ashore along the coastline around Dumai and the Siak estuary shows a different lipid composition with high amounts of the triterpenoids friedelin, α-amyrin and β-amyrin. These compounds are typical biomarkers for tropical forest vegetation as found along the Siak River and for peats eroding at upstream river banks. The n-alkanol distribution patterns of re-deposited peats also indicate a different origin for their organic matter. Peats re-deposited in the Siak estuary

  6. Relevant factors for the voting decision in the 2002 presidential election: An analysis of the ESEB (Brazilian Electoral Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Carreirão

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates some of the most relevant factors for the voting de- cision in the 2002 presidential election by testing some of the main hypotheses about electoral behaviour in the country by means of logistic regression analyses based on data from the ESEB (Brazilian Electoral Study, a post-electoral survey conducted on a national sample of voters. In the models, taken as a whole, politi- cal opinions did not have much weight in the voting decision. Furthermore, they are unable to “explain” a very large share of voters’ positioning on a left-right scale or on a scale of voters’ “party sentiments”. All these “political” variables taken as a whole, in turn, “explain” only part of the evaluations that voters make of the government’s performance. The analysis shows that Brazilian voters’ voting deci- sion seems rather varied, since some variables were shown to be relevant to “ex- plain” the vote for a candidate, but not for the others. The variables shown to be more frequent (for all four candidates analysed and with more considerable weight were: voters’ religion, their “party sentiments”, their positioning on a left-right scale, the evaluations made of the then current government (in actual fact impor- tant only for the vote for Serra, the government’s candidate and the candidates’ attributes (especially “reliability” and “preparedness/competence”.

  7. MEASURES OF EFFICIENCY AND INVESTMENTS RETURN: AN STUDY OF BRAZILIAN ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTORS WITH DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS, MALMQUIST INDEX AND ROI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Saurin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine, in a group of companies from the Brazilian electric sector, if there is a relationship between the return on investment (ROI and the concept of efficiency estimated by the method Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, as well as evaluating the growth of productivity based on Malmquist Index (Fare et al, 1996. The hypothesis is that firms that had return on investment higher during certain period of time are those employed their resources efficiently in getting their outputs (DEA efficient. The input (1 Products (5 DEA model correspond to the operating cost (I, the network length (km, the number of consumers and the market billed high, medium and low voltage, respectively. The sample consisted of 31 companies of Brazilian electricity distribution and timing of the study was from 2007 to 2009. We calculated the Malmquist index (M0, represented by the change in total factor productivity (TFPC, which is composed by the evolution of technical efficiency (EC and the change in the technological frontier (TC of the companies were also determined ROI for each period. We calculated the correlation between the TFPC, TC, EC, score the DEA and the ROI for the period 2007 to 2009. The results showed a positive correlation, although weak, between efficiency change and the indexes mentioned above, rejecting the initial hypothesis

  8. BEHAVIOR OF THE TEN LARGEST BRAZILIAN BANKS DURING THE SUBPRIME CRISIS: AN ANALYSIS BASED ON FINANCIAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Maria Pio da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the behavior of the ten largest Brazilian banks between June 2008 and September 2009, based on the analysis of financial indicators. Therefore, 16 three-monthly indices were calculated, extracted from financial statement information, which characterizes a documentary research. The indices were separated in five categories: liquidity, capital, profitability, income and market. The obtained results appointed that most financial institutions in the sample were able to manage their resources so as to gain conditions to maintain credit initially. Then, as from the first term of 2009, driven by public banks, they increased their credit operations. In addition, most banks revealed an anti-cyclical trend to encourage productive activities, preferably activities with higher liquidity levels, to the detriment of profitability, which reveals a more conservative attitude. Finally, it was verified that government initiatives, the Brazilian economic balance and the resources the banks offered helped to produce an environment to reactivate business activities during the most acute period of the subprime crisis.

  9. On the crack propagation analysis of rock like Brazilian disc specimens containing cracks under compressive line loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Haeri

    Full Text Available The pre-existing cracks in the brittle substances seem to be the main cause of their failure under various loading conditions. In this study, a simultaneous analytical, experimental and numerical analysis of crack propagation, cracks coalescence and failure process of brittle materials has been performed. Brazilian disc tests are being carried out to evaluate the cracks propagation paths in rock-like Brazilian disc specimens containing single and double cracks (using rock-like specimens which are specially prepared from Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC, fine sands and water in a rock mechanics laboratory. The failure load of the pre-cracked disc specimens are measured showing the decreasing effects of the cracks and their orientation on the final failure load. The same specimens are numerically simulated by a higher order indirect boundary element method known as displacement discontinuity method. These numerical results are compared with the existing analytical and experimental results proving the accuracy and validity of the proposed numerical method. The numerical and experimental results obtained from the tested specimens are in good agreement and demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. New Mechanisms of Mercury Binding to Peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, K. L.; Manceau, A.; Gasper, J. D.; Ryan, J. N.; Aiken, G. R.

    2007-12-01

    Mercury can be immobilized in the aquatic environment by binding to peat, a solid form of natural organic matter. Binding mechanisms can vary in strength and reversibility, and therefore will control concentrations of bioreactive mercury, may explain rates of mercury methylation, and are important for designing approaches to improve water quality using natural wetlands or engineered phytoremediation schemes. In addition, strong binding between mercury and peat is likely to result in the fixation of mercury that ultimately resides in coal. The mechanisms by which aqueous mercury at low concentrations reacts with both dissolved and solid natural organic matter remain incompletely understood, despite recent efforts. We have identified three distinct binding mechanisms of divalent cationic mercury to solid peats from the Florida Everglades using EXAFS spectroscopic data (FAME beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF)) obtained on experimental samples as compared to relevant references including mercury-bearing solids and mercury bound to various organic molecules. The proportions of the three molecular configurations vary with Hg concentration, and two new configurations that involve sulfur ligands occur at Hg concentrations up to about 4000 ppm. The binding mechanism at the lowest experimental Hg concentration (60-80 ppm) elucidates published reports on the inhibition of metacinnabar formation in the presence of Hg-bearing solutions and dissolved natural organic matter, and also, the differences in extent of mercury methylation in distinct areas of the Florida Everglades.

  11. The evolution and main determinants of productivity in Brazilian electricity distribution 1998-2005. An empirical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Real, Francisco Javier [Fac. CC. Economicas y Empresariales e IUDR - Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Programa de investigacion Energia y Cambio Climatico Fedea-Abengoa (Spain); Tovar, Beatriz [Dpto. de Analisis Economico Aplicado y EIT - Universidad las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Iootty, Mariana [UFRRJ Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); De Almeida, Edmar Fagundes; Pinto, Helder Queiroz Jr. [IE-UFRJ Instituto de Economia - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    This paper estimates changes in the productivity of the Brazilian electricity distribution sector using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) on a panel of 18 firms from 1998 to 2005. The study decomposes the productivity change of these distribution firms in terms of technical efficiency, scale-efficiency and technical progress. This exercise aims to help the understanding of the main determinants of the evolution of productivity, focusing its relationship with the restructuring process implemented in the 1990s. TFP index records a yearly positive growth rate of 1.3% in the whole period under analysis for all firms. Technical change was the main component behind this evolution, with an average growth of 2.1% per year, while technical efficiency presented a yearly negative performance of - 0.8%. The results prove that, in general terms, the incentives generated in the reform process do not seem to have led the firms to behave in a more efficient manner. (author)

  12. Additives for cement compositions based on modified peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopanitsa, Natalya, E-mail: kopanitsa@mail.ru; Sarkisov, Yurij, E-mail: sarkisov@tsuab.ru; Gorshkova, Aleksandra, E-mail: kasatkina.alexandra@gmail.com; Demyanenko, Olga, E-mail: angel-n@sibmail.com [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya sq., Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    High quality competitive dry building mixes require modifying additives for various purposes to be included in their composition. There is insufficient amount of quality additives having stable properties for controlling the properties of cement compositions produced in Russia. Using of foreign modifying additives leads to significant increasing of the final cost of the product. The cost of imported modifiers in the composition of the dry building mixes can be up to 90% of the material cost, depending on the composition complexity. Thus, the problem of import substitution becomes relevant, especially in recent years, due to difficult economic situation. The article discusses the possibility of using local raw materials as a basis for obtaining dry building mixtures components. The properties of organo-mineral additives for cement compositions based on thermally modified peat raw materials are studied. Studies of the structure and composition of the additives are carried out by physicochemical research methods: electron microscopy and X-ray analysis. Results of experimental research showed that the peat additives contribute to improving of cement-sand mortar strength and hydrophysical properties.

  13. Long-term disturbance dynamics and resilience of tropical peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Lydia E S; Bhagwat, Shonil A; Willis, Katherine J

    2015-01-01

    1. The coastal peat swamp forests of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, are undergoing rapid conversion, predominantly into oil palm plantations. This wetland ecosystem is assumed to have experienced insignificant disturbance in the past, persisting under a single ecologically-stable regime. However, there is limited knowledge of the past disturbance regime, long-term functioning and fundamentally the resilience of this ecosystem to changing natural and anthropogenic perturbations through time. 2. In this study, long-term ecological data sets from three degraded peatlands in Sarawak were collected to shed light on peat swamp forest dynamics. Fossil pollen and charcoal were counted in each sedimentary sequence to reconstruct vegetation and investigate responses to past environmental disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic. 3. Results demonstrate that peat swamp forest taxa have dominated these vegetation profiles throughout the last c . 2000-year period despite the presence of various drivers of disturbance. Evidence for episodes of climatic variability, predominantly linked to ENSO events, and wildfires is present throughout. However, in the last c . 500 years, burning and indicators of human disturbance have elevated beyond past levels at these sites, concurrent with a reduction in peat swamp forest pollen. 4. Two key insights have been gained through this palaeoecological analysis: (i) peat swamp forest vegetation has demonstrated resilience to disturbance caused by burning and climatic variability in Sarawak in the late Holocene, however (ii) coincident with increased fire combined with human impact c . 500 years ago, these communities started to decline. 5. Synthesis . Sarawak's coastal peat swamps have demonstrated resilience to past natural disturbances, with forest vegetation persisting through episodes of fire and climatic variability. However, palaeoecological data presented here suggest that recent, anthropogenic disturbances are of a greater magnitude

  14. Decadal changes in peat carbon accrual rates in bogs in Northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissore, C.; Nater, E. A.; McFarlane, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    Throughout the Holocene, peatland ecosystems have accumulated substantial amounts of carbon (C) and currently store about one third of all soil organic carbon (SOC) worldwide. Large uncertainty still persists on whether peatland ecosystems located in northern latitudes will continue to act as C sinks, or if the effects of global warming will have greater effects on decomposition processes than on net ecosystem production. We investigated decadal C accrual rates of the top 25 cm of peats in three Sphagnum-rich peatlands located in Northern Minnesota (two ombrotrophic bogs and one fen). We used radiocarbon analysis of Sphagnum cellulose and model fitting to determine peat ages, and peat FTIR spectroscopy to determine humification indices and relative decomposition of peat samples with depth. We had the scope to detect whether recent warming has had an effect on peat decomposition and C accumulation rates. Modeled C accumulation rates in the three peatlands during the past five decades ranged between 78 and 107 g C m-2 yr-1 in the top 25 cm analyzed in this study, values that are higher than the 22 to 29 g C m-2 yr-1 obtained for long-term (millennial) accumulations for the entire bog profiles. Peat IR spectra and C:N ratios confirm low levels of decomposition across the bog sites, especially in the uppermost parts of the peat. The fen site showed very limited decomposition across the entire sampled profile. Higher rates of C accumulation, combined with low decomposition rates close to the surface provide a good estimate of net primary productivity. As substrate decomposition progresses over time, net rates of accumulation decrease. Peat decomposition was more pronounced in the lower depths of the sampled cores in the two ombrotrophic bogs than in the fen, likely an effect of larger temporal variation in water table depth in the bogs than in the fen. Some of the variation in C accumulation and decomposition observed in our bogs and fen suggests that future C

  15. OSPW contamination transport through peat soils : laboratory and greenhouse study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezanezhad, F.; Price, J.S. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Rochefort, L.; Pouliot, R. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Phytology; Andersen, R. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Phytology; Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Daly, C. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Large portions of northern Canada are covered by peatlands, and the majority of post-mined landscapes have increased salinity, heavy metals and naphthenic acids (NA). This PowerPoint presentation discussed laboratory and greenhouse studies conducted to determine oil sands process water (OSPW) contamination transport through peat soils. Peat is a highly complex porous media. The presence of sodium and NA has a toxic effect on aquatic life. Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the changes caused by OSPW in the microbial community of a peat matrix over 2 growing seasons. The study showed that peat has an exceptional ability to absorb the contaminants in OSPW water. NA and sodium transport through peat was significantly delayed by sorption, and by diffusion into immobile water contained in the peat matrix. The vegetation in the study was healthy and tolerant to the contaminants in the OSPW. tabs., figs.

  16. Demystifying "oxi" cocaine: Chemical profiling analysis of a "new Brazilian drug" from Acre State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Junior, Ronaldo C; Gomes, Cezar S; Goulart Júnior, Saulo S; Almeida, Fernanda V; Grobério, Tatiane S; Braga, Jez W B; Zacca, Jorge J; Vieira, Maurício L; Botelho, Elvio D; Maldaner, Adriano O

    2012-09-10

    Recent information from various sources suggests that a new illicit drug, called "oxi", is being spread across Brazil. It would be used in the smoked form and it would look like to crack cocaine: usually small yellowish or light brown stones. As fully released in the media, "oxi" would differ from crack cocaine in the sense that crack would contain carbonate or bicarbonate salts whereas "oxi" would include the addition of calcium oxide and kerosene (or gasoline). In this context, this work presents a chemical profiling comparative study between "oxi" street samples seized by the Civil Police of the State of Acre (CP/AC) and samples associated with both international and interstate drug trafficking seized by the Brazilian Federal Police in Acre (FP/AC). The outcome of this work assisted Brazilian authorities to stop inaccurate and alarmist releases on this issue. It may be of good use by the forensic community in order to better understand matters in their efforts to guide local law enforcement agencies in case such claims reach the international illicit market. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The innovative process of Brazilian and US orange juice processors: a comparison using patent analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Ribeiro Rossi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, Brazil is the world´s leading producer of orange juice, and since that time has been followed by the United States (US. Over 90% of all orange juice produced in Brazil is exported, while US production is basically dedicated to internal consumption. The objective of this study was to compare the patenting dynamics of the orange juice processing industries in both Brazil and the US between 1978 and 2012. This was done by conducting a search in the Derwent Innovations Index (DII and analyzing the patent applications exclusively related to orange juice processing. For this period, a total of 45 patent applications were found, 43 filed by US processors and two by Brazilian processors. It was seen that brand ownership on the part of US processors may have led to a greater need for more innovation in their end products, compared to Brazilian processors that mainly produce and export commodities while acquiring foreign technology in the form of machinery and inputs.

  18. Do Transparency and Open Data Walk Together? An Analysis of Initiatives in Five Brazilian Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Araújo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, Brazilian municipal governments have launched their open data web portals. These initiatives have been taking place as part of the implementation of the Transparency Act, which sets forth deadlines and punishments concerning the adoption and performance of steps that focus on government transparency, such as the presence of transparency portals. Accordingly, this paper aims to check whether municipalities that keep portals with higher a Digital Transparency Index (DTI will also prove to have the strongest open data initiatives. In order to achieve this goal we assess the official portals and open data initiatives in five Brazilian capitals by using the methodologies proposed by Paula Amorim (2012, and the prerequisites pointed out by the Open Knowledge Foundation (OKF, 2011, and Tim Berners-Lee (2010. The results indicate that there is no direct relationship between the Digital Transparency Index and the strength of open data actions in each municipality. The discussion of the results points to the absence of a concise public policy on digital democracy that is able to promote transparency and government data simultaneously.

  19. Disclosure Level of CPC 29 Biological Assets: Analysis of Determining Factors in Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ramos Nogueira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The research question guiding this research is "What are the Determining Factors of CPC 29 Disclosure in Brazilian Companies?". In this aspect, the research objective was to evaluate the main factors that affect the disclosure of information related to biological assets. For this, 5 variables highlighted in the literature were selected as evidence influencers. The sample was composed of Brazilian companies with biological assets in the Balance Sheet. From this list, financial statements, explanatory notes, corporate management level and independent auditing company for the 6 years (2010 to 2015 were collected. With the collected information, the dependent variable (Disclosure level of CPC 29 and the independent variables of each year were verified. At the end (after exclusions, 100 observations were analyzed. The results indicated that the variables Size, Representativeness of Biological Assets and Effectiveness of OCPC 07 positively impacted the level of Disclosure. The first two confirmed the predicted hypothesis and OCPC 07 presented a relation that was different from what was expected, showing an increase and not a reduction in the number of disclosures in the years 2014 and 2015.

  20. PERFORMANCE IN CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE BRAZILIAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the cross-border acquisitions made by Brazilian companies over the past 15 years have improved their financial performance. Drawing on institutional, sociocultural, and organizational learning theories, this study develops and empirically tests several hypotheses on the determinants of M&A performance. The results demonstrate that the cross-border acquisition moves by Brazilian companies actually improve their financial performance. Financial performance tends to be positive when the cultural distance between the countries of the acquiring and acquired companies is low to medium and when the institutional context of the acquired company is a developed one. We also found an inverted-U shape relationship between acquiring companies’ previous international M&A experience and the performance of a new cross-border operation. These findings suggest that research on international M&As should include acquirers’ M&A experience as well as the institutional characteristics of their target countries.

  1. [The flexibilization of the Brazilian legislation on pesticides and the risks to human health: analysis of Bill of Law 3,200/2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mirella Dias; Cavendish, Thais Araújo; Bueno, Priscila Campos; Ervilha, Iara Campos; Gregório, Luisa De Sordi; Kanashiro, Natiela Beatriz de Oliveira; Rohlfs, Daniela Buosi; Carmo, Thenille Faria Machado do

    2017-07-27

    This article aims to contribute to a reflection on pesticides, based on the Brazilian legal framework, from the perspective of protecting human health and the environment. This initiative is due to successive attempts to flexibilize the regulation of pesticides in Brazil, through bills of law in progress in the Brazilian National Congress. An analysis of Bill of Law 3,200/2015 was carried out. This bill of law represents a major setback to the legislative achievements for the regulation of pesticides, in order to alert to the risks to human health from exposure to these products and aggravated by other similar proposals.

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the Brazilian public health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ribeiro Bahia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH under Brazilian public health system perspective (Unified Health System - "Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS". MATERIAL AND METHODS: A revision of the literature of the medical treatment of BPH using alpha-blockers, 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors and combinations was carried out. A panel of specialists defined the use of public health resources during episodes of acute urinary retention (AUR, the treatment and the evolution of these patients in public hospitals. A model of economic analysis(Markov predicted the number of episodes of AUR and surgeries (open prostatectomy and transurethral resection of the prostate related to BPH according to stages of evolution of the disease. Brazilian currency was converted to American dollars according to the theory of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP 2010: US$ 1 = R$ 1.70. RESULTS: The use of finasteride reduced 59.6% of AUR episodes and 57.9% the need of surgery compared to placebo, in a period of six years and taking into account a treatment discontinuity rate of 34%. The mean cost of treatment was R$ 764.11 (US$449.78 and R$ 579.57 (US$ 340.92 per patient in the finasteride and placebo groups, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICERs was R$ 4.130 (US$ 2.429 per episode of AUR avoided and R$ 2.735 (US$ 1.609 per episode of surgery avoided. The comparison of finasteride + doxazosine to placebo showed a reduction of 75.7% of AUR episodes and 66.8% of surgeries in a 4 year time horizon, with a ICERs of R$ 21.191 (US$ 12.918 per AUR episodes avoided and R$ 11.980 (US$ 7.047 per surgery avoided. In the sensitivity analysis the adhesion rate to treatment and the cost of finasteride were the main variables that influenced the results. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the treatment of BPH with finasteride is cost-effective compared to placebo in the Brazilian public health system

  3. Rapid diagnostic test for G6PD deficiency in Plasmodium vivax-infected men: a budget impact analysis based in Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Henry Maia; Brito, Marcelo Augusto Mota; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; de Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; de Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the incremental budget impact (IBI) of a rapid diagnostic test to detect G6PDd in male patients infected with Plasmodium vivax in the Brazilian Amazon, as compared with the routine protocol recommended in Brazil which does not include G6PDd testing. The budget impact analysis was performed from the perspective of the Brazilian health system, in the Brazilian Amazon for the years 2013, 2014 and 2015. The analysis used a decision model to compare two scenarios: the first consisting of the routine recommended in Brazil which does not include prior diagnosis of dG6PD, and the second based on the use of RDT CareStart™ G6PD (CS-G6PD) in all male subjects diagnosed with vivax malaria. The expected implementation of the diagnostic test was 30% in the first year, 70% the second year and 100% in the third year. The analysis identified negative IBIs which were progressively smaller in the 3 years evaluated. The sensitivity analysis showed that the uncertainties associated with the analytical model did not significantly affect the results. A strategy based on the use of CS-G6PD would result in better use of public resources in the Brazilian Amazon. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Prevalence and associated factors for early interruption of exclusive breastfeeding: meta-analysis on Brazilian epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pereira-Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to summarize Brazilian studies that analyzed the risk factors for Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF interruption before the child's six months of life. Methods: systematic review and meta-analysis indexed articles from Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed databases published in the period of January 2000 to December 2015. Results: 22 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The factors related to newborns were observed, such as birth weight (OR= 1.17; CI 95%: 1.05-1.29, female gender (OR= 1,09; CI 95%: 1.04-1.13 and the use of pacifier (OR= 2.29; CI 95%: 1.68-2.91 were the main factors responsible for the increase in the occurrence of EBF interruption. The factors were related to the mother, maternal age below twenty years old (OR= 1.22; CI 95%: 1.12-1.33 low schooling level (OR=1.28; CI 95%: 1.11-1.45, primiparity (OR= 1.17; CI 95%: 1.02-1.32 maternal employment during the postpartum period (OR= 1.26; CI 95%: 1.11-1.41, and low family income (OR= 1.22; CI 95%: 1.08-1.37 contributed significantly to the EBF interruption . Conclusions: the meta-analysis of Brazilian epidemiological studies demonstrated evidences to conclude that below the age of twenty, low schooling, primiparity, maternal employment in the postpartum period and low family income are associated to the interruption of exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age. Children with low birth weight, female gender and used a pacifier had greater vulnerability to not be exclusively breastfed. In conclusion, most of these factors can be modified through appropriate public policies throughout the adequate prenatal period to promote exclusive breastfeeding.

  5. Peat production. Review of research projects; Turvetuotanto. Tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, A. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The development target in the research area of peat production is to improve the competitiveness of peat by reducing production costs by 20 % (by FIM 5 - 6/MWh) from the level of the year 1992 and to reduce environmental impacts. The most important research objects by which the target in peat production technology will be achieved are drawing and preparation technology, drying technology, mechanical technology, method technology, integration of wood harvesting and peat production, and the application of the results of the OPTIMITURVE Research Programme in practice. (orig.)

  6. Effects of carbon dioxide on pyrolysis of peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jechan; Yang, Xiao; Song, Hocheol; Ok, Yong Sik; Kwon, Eilhann E.

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the mechanistic understanding of effects of CO 2 on pyrolysis of peat. To do this, three pyrolytic products (i.e., syngas: H 2 and CO, pyrolytic oil (tar), and biochar) were characterized. Thermal cracking of volatile organic carbons (VOCs) generated from pyrolysis of peat was enhanced in the presence of CO 2 . Besides the enhanced thermal cracking of VOCs, unknown reaction between CO 2 and VOCs was also identified. Accordingly, CO 2 played a role in enhancing syngas production and in reducing tar formation in pyrolysis of peat. This study also reveals that peat-biochar produced in CO 2 exhibited a larger surface area than that produced in N 2 . The results shown in this paper would be used for various applications such as energy recovery from peat using a potent greenhouse gas (for example, CO 2 ). - Highlights: • More CO can be produced from pyrolysis of peat in CO 2 than in N 2 . • Less amount of tar produced from pyrolysis of peat in CO 2 than in N 2 . • Surface area of peat-biochar made in CO 2 is larger than that made in N 2 . • CO 2 can modify the quantity/quality of pyrolytic products from peat.

  7. Relationship between peat geochemistry and depositional environments, Cranberry Island, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, R.; Cameron, C.C.; Cohen, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Heath, Great Cranberry Island, Maine, offers a unique locality for studying lateral and vertical relationships between radically different peat types within 1 km2. The majority of The Heath is a Sphagnum moss-dominated raised bog. Surrounding the raised bog is a swamp/marsh complex containing grass, sedge, Sphagnum moss, alder, tamarack, and skunk cabbage. Swamp/ marsh-deposited peat occurs both around the margins of The Heath and under Sphagnum-dominated peat, which was deposited within the raised bog. A third peat type, dominated by herbaceous aquatics, is present underlying the swamp/marsh-dominated peat but is not present as a dominant botanical community of The Heath. The three peat types have major differences in petrographic characteristics, ash contents, and associated minerals. Sulfur contents range from a low of 0.19 wt.% (dry) within the raised bog to a high of 4.44 wt% (dry) near the west end of The Heath, where swamp/marsh peat occurring directly behind a storm beach berm has been influenced by marine waters. The presence of major geochemical variations within a 1-km2 peat deposit suggests the need for in-depth characterization of potential peat resources prior to use. ?? 1987.

  8. Market study on the potential for peat as a fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A report is given on the market potential for peat as a fuel in Scotland. It is concluded that there are two distinct market segments, domestic and industrial/commercial. There is no potential for peat as a fuel in the industrial/commercial segment but there is opportunity for increased peat usage in the domestic sector. The greatest potential for market development is conversion of existing solid fuel users to peat. Pro-active input is required to realise this market potential. The market is constrained by demand. (UK)

  9. Analysis of HFE and non-HFE gene mutations in Brazilian patients with hemochromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Lisboa Bittencourt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately one-half of Brazilian patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH are neither homozygous for the C282Y mutation nor compound heterozygous for the H63D and C282Y mutations that are associated with HH in Caucasians. Other mutations have been described in the HFE gene as well as in genes involved in iron metabolism, such as transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2 and ferroportin 1 (SCL40A1. AIMS: To evaluate the role of HFE, TfR2 and SCL40A1 mutations in Brazilian subjects with HH. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nineteen male subjects (median age 42 [range: 20-72] years with HH were evaluated using the Haemochromatosis StripAssay A®. This assay is capable of detecting twelve HFE mutations, which are V53M, V59M, H63D, H63H, S65C, Q127H, P160delC, E168Q, E168X, W169X, C282Y and Q283, four TfR2 mutations, which are E60X, M172K, Y250X, AVAQ594-597del, and two SCL40A1 mutations, which are N144H and V162del. RESULTS: In our cohort, nine (47% patients were homozygous for the C282Y mutation, two (11% were heterozygous for the H63D mutation, and one each (5% was either heterozygous for C282Y or compound heterozygous for C282Y and H63D. No other mutations in the HFE, TfR2 or SCL40A1 genes were observed in the studied patients. CONCLUSIONS: One-third of Brazilian subjects with the classical phenotype of HH do not carry HFE or other mutations that are currently associated with the disease in Caucasians. This observation suggests a role for other yet unknown mutations in the aforementioned genes or in other genes involved in iron homeostasis in the pathogenesis of HH in Brazil.

  10. Application of electron beam radiation for peat sterilization and suppression of microbe contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, David

    2006-01-01

    Inoculation of root nodule bacteria into legume seeds such as soybean [Glycine max. (L.)], common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and forage pasture has been effective and convenient as this simple procedure may introduce effective strains of Bradyrhizobium/Rhizobium into agricultural soils without a past history of successful cropping systems with the legume hosts. Peat-based substrates previously sterilized have been used for decades as bacteria carrier, protecting them from the prevailing harsh conditions in tropical soils and ensuring their survival with nutrient and protection against the soil antagonists. The Brazilian Government requires that all peat-based substrates must be gamma-sterilized from a cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) source, prior the introduction of the root nodule bacteria into the package. The recommendation is for a dose up to 50 kGy for an effective suppression of pathogens and saprophytes, in order to avoid competition among the substrate microbiota. Recently, the use of the electron beam (EB) accelerator has shown to be a new alternative for peat pre-sterilization, as this technique may promote reactive free-radicals which are efficient to suppress microbial contaminants. This fast technology is considered more environment and ecology friendly-sound than gamma radiation (γ). The disadvantage of not reaching higher depth than gamma rays from 60 Co must be considered, and attempts of optimizing the technique are crucial. This study compared both methods by using increasing rates of radiation by 60 Co by the EB method - O, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 kGy in a commercial peat used for inoculants. Experimental data from days 7, 14, 21 and 28 days (growth period) and 150, 180 and 210 days (storage period) indicated high numbers of the strain Rhizobium tropici CM-01, labelled with gusA + (Study 1) and celB + (Study 2) from both eat-sterilizing techniques, reaching values above the minimum of 1x10 8 cells g -1 peat. At high rates, above 40 kGy, and after long

  11. Peat origin and land use effects on microbial activity, respiration dynamics and exo-enzyme activities in drained peat soils in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, Karlijn; Keuskamp, Joost; Potkamp, Gerrit; Verhoeven, J.T.A.; Hefting, Mariet M.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the risk of decomposition-driven soil subsidence in drained peat soils in the Netherlands, contrasting in peat origin and current land use. In a full factorial design, fen peat and bog peat were sampled from sites in use for nature conservation and for dairy farming, which

  12. Peat filtration, field ditches and sedimentation basins for the purification of runoff water from peat mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihme, R.; Heikkinen, K.; Lakso, E.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop new methods and to improve those already in use to reduce the loading of watercourses from peat excavation areas. Factors examined were the use of peat filtration for the purification of the runoff water, load retention by the means of field ditches and improvement of the practicability and dredging of the settling ponds. Field research was carried out in peat production areas in the province of Oulu in 1987-1989

  13. Halogens in pore water of peat bogs – the role of peat decomposition and dissolved organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Biester

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Halogens are strongly enriched in peat and peatlands and such they are one of their largest active terrestrial reservoir. The enrichment of halogens in peat is mainly attributed to the formation of organohalogens and climatically controlled humification processes. However, little is known about release of halogens from the peat substrate and the distribution of halogens in the peat pore water. In this study we have investigated the distribution of chlorine, bromine and iodine in pore water of three pristine peat bogs located in the Magellanic Moorlands, southern Chile. Peat pore waters were collected using a sipping technique, which allows in situ sampling down to a depth greater than 6m. Halogens and halogen species in pore water were determined by ion-chromatography (IC (chlorine and IC-ICP-MS (bromine and iodine. Results show that halogen concentrations in pore water are 15–30 times higher than in rainwater. Mean concentrations of chlorine, bromine and iodine in pore water were 7–15 mg l−1, 56–123 μg l−1, and 10–20 μg l−1, which correspond to mean proportions of 10–15%, 1–2.3% and 0.5–2.2% of total concentrations in peat, respectively. Organobromine and organoiodine were the predominant species in pore waters, whereas chlorine in pore water was mostly chloride. Advection and diffusion of halogens were found to be generally low and halogen concentrations appear to reflect release from the peat substrate. Release of bromine and iodine from peat depend on the degree of peat degradation, whereas this relationship is weak for chlorine. Relatively higher release of bromine and iodine was observed in less degraded peat sections, where the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC was also the most intensive. It has been concluded that the release of halogenated dissolved organic matter (DOM is the predominant mechanism of iodine and bromine release from peat.

  14. Tensions between approach paradigms in public policies on drugs: an analysis of Brazilian legislation in 2000-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Mirna Barros; Ramôa, Marise de Leão; Engstrom, Elyne; Ribeiro, José Mendes

    2017-05-01

    Brazilian public policy on drugs has been permeated by two diametrically opposing approaches: one focusing on prohibition and the other on non- prohibition. Similarly, there have been two opposing approaches to mental healthcare, one centered on hospitalization and the other psychosocial care and development. In the context of these different paradigms, this article presents an analysis of twenty-two documents sourced by the legislative rules over the last sixteen years. After the year 2000, a renewed focus by healthcare community on drugs was noticeable as was the immersion of a harm reducing approach. Following international trends, although there are still considerable divergencies between (a) psychosocial care and(b) residential care in the therapeutic communities there seems to be an alignment to anti- prohibition approaches.

  15. Global value chains: an analysis of the overflow effect of the Brazilian auto industry for the years 2000 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique Leite de Castro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to map, analyze and compare the production multipliers and the overflow effect related to the manufacturing sector of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers to 43 countries plus the rest of the world - focusing on Brazil - for the years of 2000 and 2014. For this purpose, a theoretical and empirical discussion was held that contemplates theories about the Global Value Chains and a retrospective of the Brazilian automobile industry. The work used the global input-output analysis to estimate the production multipliers based on data available from WIOD (2017. As the main result the research indicates an increase of the multipliers of global production, occurring the same for this sector in Brazil. Another important result was the reduction of the overflow effect for Brazil going against the global effect, that is, this sector, which is supported by the State, decreased its external dependence

  16. Is it Possible to Teach Entrepreneurship? Comparative Analysis with Brazilian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Fernandes De Muylder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2013v15n37p82 Is it possible to teach someone to become an entrepreneur? It is this question that motivated this field survey in a Brazilian entrepreneurial training high school. A quantitative survey was carried out with a population of 313 students of the chosen school, being that 175 students were freshmen and 138 graduates. It was possible to observe that the freshmen and the graduate students confirm that the education and training that they received in the school, did contribute to become entrepreneurs, although a few divergences were described.  The students considered that innovating capacity, dealing with risks and gain professional maturity was important factors to achieve success within organizations or businesses. It was suggested new study comparing schools that do not have, as also to carry out studies in other countries with different cultural characteristics.

  17. An Analysis of the Interdisciplinarity Theme in the Main Brazilian Journals on Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme do Amaral Carneiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on interdisciplinarity has been present in the scope of Education for over 30 years and has had repercussions in the area of Science Education. Despite the many works in the main Brazilian journals in the area, there are still gaps about complementary information on research that relates interdisciplinarity and Science Education. In order to fill some of this gap, we carried out a study whose objective was to identify these approaches in articles of the main national science education journals. We use the terms interdisciplinarity and interdisciplinary as descriptors in the titles, abstracts, and keywords to select the articles analyzed. It was found that studies focus on basic education and deal mainly with curriculum issues. The areas of physics and biology education stand out, as well as the science environment technology society and Environmental Education approaches. Data also point to a contrasting panorama, of diversification and decrease of the research that relates Science Teaching and Interdisciplinarity.

  18. Genetic structure analysis of Eufriesea violacea (Hymenoptera, Apidae populations from southern Brazilian Atlantic rainforest remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia H. Sofia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to analyze the genetic structure of Eufriesea violacea populations in three fragments (85.47, 832.58 and 2800 ha of Atlantic rainforest located in the north of the Brazilian state of Paraná. A total of twelve primers produced 206 loci, of which 129 were polymorphic (95% criterion. The proportions of polymorphic loci in each population ranged from 57.28% to 59.2%, revealing very similar levels of genetic variability in the groups of bees from each fragment. Unbiased genetic distances between groups ranged from 0.0171 to 0.0284, the smallest genetic distance occurring between bees from the two larger fragments. These results suggest that the E. violacea populations from the three fragments have maintained themselves genetically similar to native populations of this species originally present in northern Paraná.

  19. Performance of the Brazilian laboratories on radionuclide analysis in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianna, Maria Elizabeth; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Josue P.; Oliveira, Antonio E.; Clain, Almir F.; Garcia, Luiz Carlos; Conceicao, Cirilo C. da

    1995-01-01

    The performance of fifteen Brazilian environmental radioanalytical laboratories was evaluated after their participation in nine intercomparison runs of the National Intercomparison Program, PNI, offered by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, CNEN. A total of 549 radionuclide determinations in environmental samples were evaluated. The results classified as Good ranged from 56.4% for Alpha and Beta Gross determinations up to 84.9% for Gamma spectrometry determinations. These results shows that the best performance in radionuclide determination is reached in gamma spectrometry analyses and the worst in Alpha and Beta Gross determinations. This general behavior is similar to the one reached by other laboratories in international intercomparison programs. (author). 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Analysis of factors associated with traffic accidents of cyclists attended in Brazilian state capitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Carlos Augusto Moreira de; Bahia, Camila Alves; Constantino, Patrícia

    2016-12-01

    Brazil has the sixth largest bicycles fleet in the world and bicycle is the most used individual transport vehicle in the country. Few studies address the issue of cyclists' accidents and factors that contribute to or prevent this event. VIVA is a cross-sectional survey and is part of the Violence and Accidents Surveillance System, Brazilian Ministry of Health. We used complex sampling and subsequent data review through multivariate logistic regression and calculation of the respective odds ratios. Odds ratios showed greater likelihood of cyclists' accidents in males, people with less schooling and living in urban and periurban areas. People who were not using the bike to go to work were more likely to suffer an accident. The profile found in this study corroborates findings of other studies. They claim that the coexistence of cyclists and other means of transportation in the same urban space increases the likelihood of accidents. The construction of bicycle-exclusive spaces and educational campaigns are required.

  1. Biomass burning losses of carbon estimated from ecosystem modeling and satellite data analysis for the Brazilian Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Bobo, Matthew; Torregrosa, Alicia

    To produce a new daily record of gross carbon emissions from biomass burning events and post-burning decomposition fluxes in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), 1991. Anuario Estatistico do Brasil, Vol. 51. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil pp. 1-1024). We have used vegetation greenness estimates from satellite images as inputs to a terrestrial ecosystem production model. This carbon allocation model generates new estimates of regional aboveground vegetation biomass at 8-km resolution. The modeled biomass product is then combined for the first time with fire pixel counts from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) to overlay regional burning activities in the Amazon. Results from our analysis indicate that carbon emission estimates from annual region-wide sources of deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s are apparently three to five times higher than reported in previous studies for the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Houghton et al., 2000. Nature 403, 301-304; Fearnside, 1997. Climatic Change 35, 321-360), i.e., studies which implied that the Legal Amazon region tends toward a net-zero annual source of terrestrial carbon. In contrast, our analysis implies that the total source fluxes over the entire Legal Amazon region range from 0.2 to 1.2 Pg C yr -1, depending strongly on annual rainfall patterns. The reasons for our higher burning emission estimates are (1) use of combustion fractions typically measured during Amazon forest burning events for computing carbon losses, (2) more detailed geographic distribution of vegetation biomass and daily fire activity for the region, and (3) inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. The total area of rainforest estimated annually to be deforested did not differ substantially among the previous analyses cited and our own.

  2. Prevalence and morphometric analysis of three-rooted mandibular first molars in a Brazilian subpopulation

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    Clarissa Teles Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The knowledge of the internal anatomy of three-rooted mandibular molars may help clinicians to diagnose and plan the root canal treatment in order to provide adequate therapy when this variation is present. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of three-rooted mandibular molars in a Brazilian population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT and to analyze the anatomy of mandibular first molars with three roots through micro-CT. Material and Methods: CBCT images of 116 patients were reviewed to determine the prevalence of three-rooted first mandibular molars in a Brazilian subpopulation. Furthermore, with the use of micro-CT, 55 extracted three-rooted mandibular first molars were scanned and reconstructed to assess root length, distance between canal orifices, apical diameter, Vertucci's classification, presence of apical delta, number of foramina and furcations, lateral and accessory canals. The distance between the orifice on the pulp chamber floor and the beginning of the curvature and the angle of canal curvature were analyzed in the distolingual root. Data were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05. Results: The prevalence of three-rooted mandibular first molars was of 2.58%. Mesial roots showed complex distribution of the root canal system in comparison to the distal roots. The median of major diameters of mesiobuccal, mesiolingual and single mesial canals were: 0.34, 0.41 and 0.60 mm, respectively. The higher values of major diameters were found in the distobuccal canals (0.56 mm and the lower diameters in the distolingual canals (0.29 mm. The lowest orifice distance was found between the mesial canals (MB-ML and the highest distance between the distal root canals (DB-DL. Almost all distal roots had one root canal and one apical foramen with few accessory canals. Conclusions: Distolingual root generally has short length, severe curvature and a single root canal with low apical diameter.

  3. Prevalence and morphometric analysis of three-rooted mandibular first molars in a Brazilian subpopulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Clarissa Teles; de Oliveira-Santos, Christiano; Bernardineli, Norberti; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Minotti-Bonfante, Paloma Gagliardi; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The knowledge of the internal anatomy of three-rooted mandibular molars may help clinicians to diagnose and plan the root canal treatment in order to provide adequate therapy when this variation is present. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of three-rooted mandibular molars in a Brazilian population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to analyze the anatomy of mandibular first molars with three roots through micro-CT. Material and Methods: CBCT images of 116 patients were reviewed to determine the prevalence of three-rooted first mandibular molars in a Brazilian subpopulation. Furthermore, with the use of micro-CT, 55 extracted three-rooted mandibular first molars were scanned and reconstructed to assess root length, distance between canal orifices, apical diameter, Vertucci's classification, presence of apical delta, number of foramina and furcations, lateral and accessory canals. The distance between the orifice on the pulp chamber floor and the beginning of the curvature and the angle of canal curvature were analyzed in the distolingual root. Data were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05). Results: The prevalence of three-rooted mandibular first molars was of 2.58%. Mesial roots showed complex distribution of the root canal system in comparison to the distal roots. The median of major diameters of mesiobuccal, mesiolingual and single mesial canals were: 0.34, 0.41 and 0.60 mm, respectively. The higher values of major diameters were found in the distobuccal canals (0.56 mm) and the lower diameters in the distolingual canals (0.29 mm). The lowest orifice distance was found between the mesial canals (MB-ML) and the highest distance between the distal root canals (DB-DL). Almost all distal roots had one root canal and one apical foramen with few accessory canals. Conclusions: Distolingual root generally has short length, severe curvature and a single root canal with low apical diameter. PMID:27812625

  4. [Dental and gingival pain and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents: an analysis of the Brazilian Oral Health Survey 2002-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Carolina Marques; Cascaes, Andreia Morales; Fischer, Tatiana Konrad; Boing, Antonio Fernando; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dental and gingival pain and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents (15-19 years of age). Data from 16,126 adolescents who participated in the Brazilian Oral Health Survey SB-Brazil 2002-2003 were used. The outcome measured was dental and gingival pain in the last six months. Independent variables were per capita income, schooling, school enrollment, gender, skin color, age, area of residence, time since last dental appointment, type of dental service, DMFT index and its components, dental calculus, and Dental Aesthetic Index. Simple and multiple Poisson regression analyses were performed. Prevalence of dental and gingival pain was 35.6% (95%CI: 34.8-36.4). Increased prevalence of pain was associated with: female gender, low income, non-students, students enrolled in public schools, and grade-for-age lag. In addition, adolescents with high levels of dental caries and dental calculus also reported higher prevalence of dental pain. Dental and gingival pain can be considered a relevant public health problem, suggesting the need for preventive measures.

  5. Utilization of peat procurement network for purchase of energy wood. Subproject

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiukaanniemi, E.; Tervo, M.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the project is to investigate and develop the energy wood procurement to the mire-terminals for production of mixed fuels, carried out by the peat contractors and forest machine entrepreneurs. The investigation of the costs of the chips produced for mixed fuels, the deviation of them and the possibilities to reduce them form the main part of the project. The duration of the project is two years, and it started in the summer 1997. Procurement of energy wood, carried out by forest machine and peat entrepreneurs, to the bog terminals for production of mixed fuels by the side of peat, will be studied in the project both experimentally and calculationally. The utilization of peat procurement network for energy wood procurement will mainly be studied. Costs and the harvesting logistics will be estimated using the software developed in the research. The project is divided into five sub-tasks: (1) survey on the contractor and machine needs of the experimental work; (2) selection of entrepreneurs and the harvesting sites; (3) practical harvesting experiments; (4) development of the cost calculation software; (5) analysis and reporting of the results

  6. Peat in the mountains of New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Hope

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are common in montane areas above 1,000 m in New Guinea and become extensive above 3,000 m in the subalpine zone. In the montane mires, swamp forests and grass or sedge fens predominate on swampy valley bottoms. These mires may be 4–8 m in depth and up to 30,000 years in age. In Papua New Guinea (PNG there is about 2,250 km2 of montane peatland, and Papua Province (the Indonesian western half of the island probably contains much more. Above 3,000 m, peat soils form under blanket bog on slopes as well as on valley floors. Vegetation types include cushion bog, grass bog and sedge fen. Typical peat depths are 0.5‒1 m on slopes, but valley floors and hollows contain up to 10 m of peat. The estimated total extent of mountain peatland is 14,800 km2 with 5,965 km2 in PNG and about 8,800 km2 in Papua Province. The stratigraphy, age structure and vegetation histories of 45 peatland or organic limnic sites above 750 m have been investigated since 1965. These record major vegetation shifts at 28,000, 17,000‒14,000 and 9,000 years ago and a variable history of human disturbance from 14,000 years ago with extensive clearance by the mid-Holocene at some sites. While montane peatlands were important agricultural centres in the Holocene, the introduction of new dryland crops has resulted in the abandonment of some peatlands in the last few centuries. Despite several decades of research, detailed knowledge of the mountain peatlands is poor and this is an obstacle to scientific management.

  7. Distillation of coal, wood, peat, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhrer, J; Price, A P

    1867-02-01

    The production of permanent gas for the purposes of illumination or for heating purposes, and also to the production of oils and other distillatory products from coal, shale, wood, peat, and other bituminous or carbonaceous substances, consists in subjecting the before-mentioned materials, previously reduced to a fine state, to a process of distillation causing the same to pass or fall through the interior of a heated vertical tube, chamber, or retort, or series of the same, in such a manner that the particles in their descent or passage shall be subjected to the action of heat in order that the desired products may be obtained.

  8. Industrial peat utilization and its importance to the Irish economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Over the centuries peat has been used as a valuable source of fuel for domestic heating and cooking. In contrast to earlier times when all peat extraction and harvesting was carried out by hand, peat production in Ireland to-day has become a highly mechanised, large scale commercial industry, making a significant contribution to the Irish economy. Bord na Mona, the state agency assigned the responsibility for peatland development in Ireland, has developed 88,000 hectares of Ireland's 1.2 million hectares of peatlands. Over 5.2 million tonnes of fuel peat are currently sold each year for electricity generation and for the manufacture of peat briquettes for heating installations. With the introduction of a new 120 MW peat fired power station, the overall sales for fuel peat will be increased by 1.0 million tonnes per annum. On the horticultural front, Bord na Mona produces and sells over 1.5 million cubic metres of horticultural peat products to the domestic and international markets. (author)

  9. Np-237 in peat and lichen in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salminen, S.; Paatero, J.; Roos, Per

    2009-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 237Np in peat and lichen samples in Finland were determined and contributions from nuclear weapons testing in 1950–1960s and the Chernobyl accident were estimated. 237Np was determined with ICP-MS using 235Np as a tracer. Activity concentrations of 237Np in peat samples...

  10. Simulation Model of Automated Peat Briquetting Press Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marozka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the developed fully functional simulation model of an automated peat briquetting press drive. The given model makes it possible to reduce financial and time costs while developing, designing and operating a double-stamp peat briquetting press drive.

  11. Peat resource estimation in South Carolina. Final report, Year 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, M.; Andrejko, M.; Corvinus, D.; Tisdale, M.

    1982-01-01

    South Carolina has few indigenous energy resources. Most widely known and utilized are hydropower, wood, and solar. Peat is a material composed of partially decomposed organic matter that, after burial for long periods of time, may eventually become coal. Peat is utilized as an energy resource for the production of electricity and for home heating in Europe and the Soviet Union. There are peat deposits in South Carolina, but peat has never been used as an energy resource within the state. This report presents the results of the two years of a planned four-year study of the quantity and energy potential of peat in South Carolina. In this year's survey two activities were undertaken. The first was to visit highly probable peat deposits to confirm the presence of fuel-grade peat. The second was to survey and characterize in more detail the areas judged to be of highest potential as major resources. The factors carrying the greatest weight in our determination of priority areas were: (1) a description of peat deposits in the scientific literature or from discussions with state and federal soil scientists; (2) mention of organic soils on soil maps or in the literature; and (3) information from farmers and other local citizens.

  12. Study of settling of peat on channel banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaryan, L S; Bazin, Ye T; Stepanichev, V G

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented of studies of settling of the peat formation of the upper type on banks of drying channels. A technique is presented for forecasting evaluation in the decrease in depth of the channels because of packing of the peat on the sides of the dryers.

  13. Seasonal methane dynamics in three temperate grasslands on peat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Carolyn; Elsgaard, Lars; Hoffmann, Carl Christian

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Drained peatlands are considered to be insignificant CH4 sources, but the effect of drainage on CH4 dynamics has not been extensively studied. We investigated seasonal dynamics of CH4 in two fen peat soils and one bog peat soil under permanent grassland in Denmark. Methods Soil......, even though soil CH4 concentrations of up to 155 and 1000 μmol CH4 dm−3 were measured in one of the fen peats and in the bog peat, respectively. Significant CH4 concentrations were observed above the water table. Methane production assays confirmed the presence of viable methanogens in the upper parts...... of the bog peat soil. The aerenchymous plant Juncus effusus L. liberated CH4 from the peat at rates of up to 3.3 mg CH4 m−2 h−1. No CH4 dynamics were observed in the second fen peat which, in contrast to the other two sites, had high sulfate concentrations. Conclusions Peat type and the distribution...

  14. The use of kragten spreadsheets for uncertainty evaluation of uranium potentiometric analysis by the Brazilian Safeguards Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Wanderley S. da; Barros, Pedro Dionisio de; Araujo, Radier Mario S. de

    2009-01-01

    In safeguards, independent analysis of uranium content and enrichment of nuclear materials to verify operator's declarations is an important tool to evaluate the accountability system applied by nuclear installations. This determination may be performed by nondestructive (NDA) methods, generally done in the field using portable radiation detection systems, or destructive (DA) methods by chemical analysis when more accurate and precise results are necessary. Samples for DA analysis are collected by inspectors during safeguards inspections and sent to Safeguards Laboratory (LASAL) of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - (CNEN), where the analysis take place. The method used by LASAL for determination of uranium in different physical and chemical forms is the Davies and Gray/NBL using an automatic potentiometric titrator, which performs the titration of uranium IV by a standard solution of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 . Uncertainty budgets have been determined based on the concepts of the ISO 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement' (GUM). In order to simplify the calculation of the uncertainty, a computational tool named Kragten Spreadsheet was used. Such spreadsheet uses the concepts established by the GUM and provides results that numerically approximates to those obtained by propagation of uncertainty with analytically determined sensitivity coefficients. The main parameters (input quantities) interfering on the uncertainty were studied. In order to evaluate their contribution in the final uncertainty, the uncertainties of all steps of the analytical method were estimated and compiled. (author)

  15. Prospects for using peat and products of its processing in municipal power engineering in rural and remote areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, E. A.; Zhenikhov, Yu. N.; Urvantsev, I. V.; Tsyba, V. E.

    2017-06-01

    This article presents a detailed analysis of the economic efficiency of peat utilization for generating electricity and heat in Russian rural areas and decentralized power consumption areas on the basis of the comparison of power tariffs (prices) and full costs of peat-based electricity and heat production. The research was performed using the model-information complex detailed with respect to municipal areas and major peat deposits that was developed at the Energy Institute, National Research University Higher School of Economics. It is shown that the firing of lignin helium fuel (LHF) granules that are made from peat extracted by the excavating method according to the new, patented technology is considered most efficient. In nongasified areas, the total cost of heat power that is generated in new boiler houses on the basis of LHF granules is often lower than the total heat cost for the gasification of the area and construction of gas boiler houses. In some cases, the heat cost in gasified areas is lower when using a boiler house based on LHF granules than that provided by the conversion of a boiler house to gas fuel. It is also shown that the construction of peat-based heat sources with the overall power of up to 27600 GJ/h that generate a heat power of up to 167.5 million GJ/year will be economically efficient in the coming years, provided that the tariffs for energy sources remain the same. Taking into account the supportive measures that were accepted on a legislative basis in July 2016, sources with the total power of up to 70 GW may be effective for peat-based plants with combined heat-andpower generation. To stimulate the utilization of peat in decentralized power consumption areas and rural areas located in the vicinity of deposits of this fuel type, it is also suggested to make amendments in the normative legal base.

  16. Radioactive fallout nuclides in a peat-bog ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pausch, G.; Hofmann, W.; Steger, F.; Tuerk, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Province of Salzburg belongs to the regions with the highest contamination from the Chernobyl-fallout outside the former USSR. The peat-bog investigated in this study is situated in Koppl, east of Salzburg. A peat-bog is a special example of an ecosystem, which is generally not disturbed by human activities because it is under strict nature-conservation and whose soil structure is not affected by animal activities from moles and earthworms. Peat-bogs are characterized by acidic soils which are high in organic material and low in clay mineral content. A number of previous studies have demonstrated that especially in peat-bogs and especially in the Koppl-peat-bog very high amounts of radioactive fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl accident and from the bomb-testings could be found

  17. Investigation of metal ions sorption of brown peat moss powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelus, Nadezhda; Blokhina, Elena; Novikov, Dmitry; Novikova, Yaroslavna; Chuchalin, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    For regularities research of sorptive extraction of heavy metal ions by cellulose and its derivates from aquatic solution of electrolytes it is necessary to find possible mechanism of sorption process and to choice a model describing this process. The present article investigates the regularities of aliovalent metals sorption on brown peat moss powder. The results show that sorption isotherm of Al3+ ions is described by Freundlich isotherm and sorption isotherms of Na+ i Ni2+ are described by Langmuir isotherm. To identify the mechanisms of brown peat moss powder sorption the IR-spectra of the initial brown peat moss powder samples and brown peat moss powder samples after Ni (II) sorption were studied. Metal ion binding mechanisms by brown peat moss powder points to ion exchange, physical adsorption, and complex formation with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups.

  18. Assessing the Impact of Land Management on Organic Matter Composition in Peat Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, A.; Holden, J.; Wainwright, J.

    2010-05-01

    to gaseous carbon emissions data collected during fortnightly monitoring. R. Laiho (2006) Decomposition in peatlands: Reconciling seemingly contrasting results on the impacts of lowered water levels Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 38, 2011-2024. R.K. Wieder & S.T. Starr (1998) Quantitative determination of organic fractions in highly organic, Sphagnum peat soils Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 29, 847-857.

  19. Peat humification and climate change: a multi-site comparison from mires in south-east Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Payne

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Peatland records of Holocene palaeoclimate have been widely used in Europe. Their potential in western North America remains largely unexploited despite an abundance of candidate sites. Peat humification analysis is a widely used technique for palaeoclimatic inference from peatlands. This study attempts to demonstrate a climatic role in determining peat humification by comparing low-resolution peat humification records from five mires in south-east Alaska. Humification was determined by alkali extraction and colorimetry and records dated by radiocarbon and tephrochronology. Testate amoebae analysis was carried out across a major humification-inferred wet shift in three of the sites. The humification results show variability down the length of the cores but there is only limited agreement between records from different sites. Many general trends in the data appear to be out of phase and periods of proxy 'complacency' are shown. This study does not provide strong evidence for climatic forcing of humification in these sites. Methodological issues including possible problems with the age-depth models and the role of a peat-forming plant species signal in the humification data are discussed. The results support previous studies in suggesting the value of employing a multi-proxy, multi-site, and possibly multi-core approach in peat-based palaeoclimatology.

  20. Knowledge Transfer in Product Development: an Analysis of Brazilian Subsidiaries of Multinational Corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Schreiber

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies about knowledge transfer in multinational corporations have found that the process is influenced by factors such as absorptive capacity, tacit knowledge and power relations, all of which impact knowledge sharing strategies between corporate headquarters and foreign subsidiaries. A multiple case study of Brazilian subsidiaries of three multinational corporations using in-depth interviews, based on a conceptual model consisting of four propositions, was conducted to identify factors linked to the knowledge transfer process and to assess their influence on that transfer. The first proposition tries to assess explicit knowledge, primarily through the use of IT tools; the second analyzes the role of the subsidiary within the corporate network and how it influences the degree of knowledge sharing. The third assesses the influence of subsidiary absorptive capacity and the fourth analyzes the impact of worker exchange programs on knowledge sharing between headquarters and foreign subsidiaries. Study results confirm the four propositions and enable the identification of relationships between factors, especially explicit knowledge and worker expatriation as complementary factors in knowledge transfer strategies.

  1. [Self-owned versus accredited network: comparative cost analysis in a Brazilian health insurance provider].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcos Antônio de; Salvalaio, Dalva

    2010-10-01

    to analyze the cost of a self-owned network maintained by a Brazilian health insurance provider as compared to the price charged by accredited service providers, so as to identify whether or not the self-owned network is economically advantageous. for this exploratory study, the company's management reports were reviewed. The cost associated with the self-owned network was calculated based on medical and dental office visits and diagnostic/laboratory tests performed at one of the company's most representative facilities. The costs associated with third parties were derived from price tables used by the accredited network for the same services analyzed in the self-owned network. The full-cost method was used for cost quantification. Costs are presented as absolute values (in R$) and percent comparisons between self-owned network costs versus accredited network costs. overall, the self-owned network was advantageous for medical and dental consultations as well as diagnostic and laboratory tests. Pediatric and labor medicine consultations and x-rays were less costly in the accredited network. the choice of verticalization has economic advantages for the health care insurance operator in comparison with services provided by third parties.

  2. Individual analysis of creatine kinase concentration in Brazilian elite soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Lima Alves

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to determine the individual profile of blood concentration of creatine kinase CK in elite soccer players as well as to analyze the CK concentrations in different periods during the Professional Brazilian Championship. METHODS: resting CK of 17 soccer players was evaluated before the competition pre-season and after the matches 36 and 46 hours after the games CKGame for the individual blood CK. The Chi-square test was used to analyze the individual CK during the season. The competitive season was divided into three periods: initial, intermediate and final. The one-way ANOVA with repeated measurements followed by post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test was used to compare the individual CK of each soccer player in each competitive period. The significance level was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: the highest frequency of individual CK was found in the second quartile 71 observations and the lowest frequency in the first 26 observations and the fourth quartile 40 observations compared to the expected number of 45.8 x2=22.21. CK concentrations were lower in the intermediate mean=66.99% and final mean=60.21% periods than in the initial period mean=89.33%. CONCLUSION: soccer players did not show elevated muscle damage and probably a muscle adaptation occurred in the competition, due to the reduction of CK concentrations observed.

  3. An Analysis of Brazilian Academic Production in Sports Marketing as a Multidisciplinary Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Mazzei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sport Industry has considerable numbers and its social, cultural, and economic impacts are significant in Brazil and worldwide. Marketing performs actions of creation, promotion, and delivery of products and services and applies techniques to influence the level, speed, and composition of consumption demand. Strategically, marketing can be critical to the growth of organizations. The purpose of this article was to evaluate the scientific production in Sports Marketing in Brazil, using a comprehensive database and considering this field in a multidisciplinary context of Sport Management. We concluded a low number of articles were published in Brazilian journals and identified primary or descriptive approaches. There are a predominance of "Essays" and issues related to the Promotion segment of the Sport Industry. This fact opens great prospects for the development of future research with Sports Marketing. Regardless of the current context, the need to apply marketing concepts in sport is effective mainly through the pressure for good sporting and economic results of sports’ organizations. This paper presented a frame of scientific production in Sports Marketing in Brazil, and identified some gaps that can be explored by researchers interested in this topic.

  4. Genetic analysis of patients with familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a Brazilian Research Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadi, Gerson; Maximino, Jessica Ruivo; Jorge, Frederico Mennucci de Haidar; Borba, Fabrício Castro de; Gilio, Joyce Meire; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Lopes, Camila Galvão; Santos, Samantha Nakamura Dos; Rebelo, Gabriela Natania Sales

    2017-05-01

    To investigate gene mutations in familial form (FALS) and sporadic form (SALS) of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a highly miscegenated population. Frequencies of mutations in the C9orfF72, TARDBP, SOD1, FUS and VAPB genes were investigated in a cohort of FALS (n = 39) and SALS (n = 189) subjects from the Research Centre of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine. All patients were subjected to C9orf72 and TARDBP analyses. SOD1, FUS and VAPB were also evaluated in FALS subjects. Mutations were identified in FALS (61.3%) and SALS (5.3%) patients. Mutations in C9orf72 (12.8%, >45 GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeats), VAPB (43.6%, P56S) and SOD1 (7.7%, L145S) were identified in FALS subjects. Pathogenic C9orf72 expansions (2.64%) were identified in some SALS patients. Similar changes of TARDBP were found in SALS (2.64%) but not in FALS subjects. No FUS mutations were seen in any FALS subjects. TARDBP and C9orf72 mutations in this cohort were similar to those found in other centres worldwide. VAPB mutation (P56S) was highly prevalent in Brazilian FALS patients.

  5. Floristic and phytosociological analysis of palm swamps in the central part of the Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Lucia de Morais Resende

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the floristics and phytosociology of three palm swamps in the municipality of Bela Vista de Goiás, located in the state of Goiás, Brazil, in the central part of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado. The floristic surveys were conducted monthly from May 2008 to April 2009, and 310 species were recorded (seven bryophytes, 15 ferns and 288 angiosperms. Bryophytes belonged to five genera and five families; ferns belonged to nine genera and nine families; and angiosperms belonged to 134 genera and 45 families. The angiosperm families with the highest species richness were Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Asteraceae, Eriocaulaceae, Xyridaceae, Lentibulariaceae, Melastomataceae, Rubiaceae and Fabaceae. The palm swamps were divided into three zones of increasing humidity: edge, middle and core. The number of species was higher in the middle than at the edge and the core. The families with the highest cover values were Cyperaceae, Melastomataceae, Arecaceae and Poaceae. Although the palm swamps had been disturbed to varying degrees, those disturbances did not affect the flora in the middle or the core. Floristic similarity was high between these two zones within a given palm swamp and low between the edges of different palm swamps.

  6. Analysis of loss of flow events on Brazilian multipurpose reactor by RELAP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Humberto V.; Costa, Antonella L.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Aronne, Ivan D.; Rezende, Guilherme P.

    2011-01-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (BMR) is currently being projected and analyzed. It will be a 30 MW open pool multipurpose research reactor with a compact core using Materials Testing Reactor (MTR) type fuel assembly, with planar plates. BMR will be cooled by light water and moderated by beryllium and heavy water. This work presents the calculations of steady state operation of BMR using the RELAP5 model and also three transient cases of loss of flow accident (LOFA), in the primary cooling system. A LOFA may arise through failures associated with the primary cooling system pumps or through events resulting in a decrease in the primary coolant flow with the primary cooling system pumps functioning normally. The cases presented in this paper are: primary cooling system pump shaft seizure, failure of one primary cooling system pump motor and failure of both primary cooling system pump motors. In the shaft seizure case, the flow reduction is sudden, with the blocking of the flow coast down The motor failure cases, deal with the failure of one or two pump motor due to, for example, malfunction or interruption of power and differently of the shaft seizure it can be observed the flow coast down provided by the pump inertia. It is shown that after all initiating events the reactor reaches a safe new steady state keeping the integrity of the fuel elements. (author)

  7. SAR data for the analysis of forest features: current Brazilian experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Guimarães Gonçalves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some applications of airborne polarimetric and/or interferometric microwave data to improve the knowledge of forest structures. Three airborne SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar experiments were done in the Amazon tropical forest: (a to study the spatial distribution of very large trees (VLTs in the primary forest using local maximum filtering and a series of Markov processes; (b to model the estimation of biomass variations in primary and secondary forests; (c to analyze the retrieval timber volume over selective logging areas. Another experiment (d was to investigate the relation among SAR data and the volumetric configuration in stands of Eucalyptus sp done by an airborne SAR imaging mission in SE-Brazil. To perform the objectives (b, (c and (d we carry out regression techniques, using variables got from multipolarimetric and/or interferometric SAR attributes and biophysical parameters from the forest cover. All data from the experiments were calibrated radiometrically to extract information during digital processing, besides an exhaustive field survey which was done simultaneously to SAR imaging, to know the physiognomy/structure of forest typology and to support the models produced for each case. The results of this series of experiments show advances at the techniques to treat SAR data, focusing on models of stand architecture and forest stock density. This will be helpful to increase the regional inventory and surveying procedures of forest conversion in the Brazilian territory in the near future.

  8. SAR data for the analysis of forest features: current Brazilian experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Guimarães Gonçalves

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some applications of airborne polarimetric and/or interferometric microwave data to improve the knowledge of forest structures. Three airborne SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar experiments were done in the Amazon tropical forest: (a to study the spatial distribution of very large trees (VLTs in the primary forest using local maximum filtering and a series of Markov processes; (b to model the estimation of biomass variations in primary and secondary forests; (c to analyze the retrieval of timber volume over selective logging areas. Another experiment (d was to investigate the relation among SAR data and the volumetric configuration in stands of Eucalyptus sp. done by an airborne SAR imaging mission in SE-Brazil. To perform the objectives (b, (c and (d we carry out regression techniques, using variables got from multipolarimetric and/or interferometric SAR attributes and biophysical parameters from the forest cover. All data from the experiments were calibrated radiometrically to extract information during digital processing, besides an exhaustive field survey which was done simultaneously to SAR imaging, to know the physiognomy/structure of forest typology and to support the models produced for each case. The results of this series of experiments show advances at the techniques to treat SAR data, focusing on models of stand architecture and forest stock density. This will be helpful to increase the regional inventory and surveying procedures of forest conversion in the Brazilian territory in the near future.

  9. Analysis of the value recommended by the NCRP 151 and its relationship with Brazilian parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groppo, Daniela P.; Martins, Homero L.

    2009-01-01

    The methodology proposed by the National Council on Radiation Protection 151 (NCRP 151), relates technical information necessary to structural shielding design and evaluation for megavoltage X- and gamma- ray radiotherapy facilities. However, many parameters used to calculate the shield are based on estimates, and may not be adequate to the Brazilian reality. Thus, the central idea of this study is to obtain parameters and is to outline a profile closer to the treatments carried out in facilities in Brazil, through a data collection routine of the Department of Radiotherapy Service of the Real e Benemerita Associacao Portuguesa de Beneficencia, in particular the cobalt therapy Theratron 780 (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.) and the linear accelerator Varian Clinac 2100C for measurement of workload, use factor, number of patients, fields, dose and anatomic region treated. So, the work did not draw definite values of the parameters, but indicative values were obtained which showed the importance to carry out more detailed studies of the recommended values. (author)

  10. Analysis of Long-Term Performance of Initial Public Offerings in the brazilian stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Elaine Moreira Teixeira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2012v14n33p79 This paper describes the results of a twofold study that compared the performance of Initial Public Offering (IPOs in the Brazilian stock market with that of incorporated company in 2004 and 2005 and also checked if these IPOs were included in the Bovespa Index (IBOV in this period. We first collected data on stock price variations every year subsequent to the public offering. Thereafter, we compared the IPOs’ rates with those of the public corporations. The results show that 81.25% of the IPOs had positive returns in the first and the second years of anniversary, and only 50% of them had positive return in the third year. The youngest companies had the highest returns, and 45% of them were included in the IBOV in the period under scrutiny. The comparison of the ratios showed that IPOs of any age are more valued than the comparison companies. As a conclusion, we can say that the IPOs’ performance was significantly better than that of the comparison companies in the period studied.

  11. Crowdfunding as an Alternative in Tourism: Analysis of Modus Operandi of Brazilian Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Martins

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The crowdfunding system is a collective financing form in which people can contribute with money to projects they consider relevant, receiving or not compensation for this contribution. This paper aimed to analyze Brazilian situated crowdfunding platforms as an alternative to projects in tourism area. The research shows itself actual, faced to the recent growth of these platforms in the country. Also, it is relevant in a lack of resources scenario, once the method could interest by favoring credit access at the same time it promotes the targeted public involvement. By means of a descriptive, the existing platforms were verified: sixteen were found, twelve of which were analyzed, due to errors in the sites during the research period. Then, they were analyzed according to their modus operandi (existence of taxes, commission, “all-or-nothing system”, reward to the contributors, etc. and classified according to which enable the insertion of tourism projects. Half of the platforms contemplate several projects and, of these six, four consider Tourism. The most used model is “all-or-nothing” and the costs of this type of financing can reach more than thirty percent of the contributions, as they are charged management fees, transaction fees and even percentage for sales of the resulting product from crowdfunding. Thus, the system may be interesting to the entrepreneur, although it is necessary to consider operating costs.

  12. Informational Self-Determination and Data Protection: A Critical Analysis of the Brazilian Jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Copetti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study, from the hypothetical-deductive method, aims to perform a rereading of the way that the Brazilian jurisprudence has been interpreting the concept of privacy in the storage and sharing of citizens information in the current technological stage of society. Initially, it is studied the origin of personal data protection and the definition of the term privacy. Next, it is conducted a case study based on two decisions of the Court of Justice of Rio Grande do Sul, as well as a decision of the Superior Court of Justice which served as the paradigm for issues related to credit scoring system. Then, are analyzed the foundations that served as motivation for the decisions in comparison to conceptions that give support for the protection of personal data. At the end, it is possible to realize that the Courts have a mistaken view concerning the possibility of storage and commercialization of consumers database, being necessary a review of the positions mentioned.

  13. Analysis of conditions to safety and radiological protection of Brazilian research particle accelerators facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, Manuel Jacinto Martins

    2010-01-01

    Eleven institutions of education and research in Brazil use particle accelerators, which fulfill different functions and activities. Currently, these institutions employ a total of fifteen accelerators. In this paper, the object of study is the radiological protection of occupationally exposed individuals, the general public and the radiation safety of particle accelerators. Research facilities with accelerators are classified in categories I and II according to the International Atomic Energy Agency or groups IX and X in accordance with the Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy. Of the 15 accelerators in use for research in Brazil, four belong to category I or group X and eleven belong to category II or group IX. The methodology presented and developed in this work was made through the inspection and assessment of safety and radiological protection of thirteen particle accelerators facilities, and its main purpose was to promote safer use of this practice by following established guidelines for safety and radiological protection. The results presented in this work showed the need to create a program, in our country, for the control of safety and radiological protection of this ionizing radiation practice. (author)

  14. Analysis of loss of flow events on Brazilian multipurpose reactor by RELAP5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Humberto V.; Costa, Antonella L.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F., E-mail: antonella@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: laubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: dora@nuclear.ufmg.br [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores, CNPq (Brazil); Aronne, Ivan D.; Rezende, Guilherme P., E-mail: aroneid@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil).

    2011-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (BMR) is currently being projected and analyzed. It will be a 30 MW open pool multipurpose research reactor with a compact core using Materials Testing Reactor (MTR) type fuel assembly, with planar plates. BMR will be cooled by light water and moderated by beryllium and heavy water. This work presents the calculations of steady state operation of BMR using the RELAP5 model and also three transient cases of loss of flow accident (LOFA), in the primary cooling system. A LOFA may arise through failures associated with the primary cooling system pumps or through events resulting in a decrease in the primary coolant flow with the primary cooling system pumps functioning normally. The cases presented in this paper are: primary cooling system pump shaft seizure, failure of one primary cooling system pump motor and failure of both primary cooling system pump motors. In the shaft seizure case, the flow reduction is sudden, with the blocking of the flow coast down The motor failure cases, deal with the failure of one or two pump motor due to, for example, malfunction or interruption of power and differently of the shaft seizure it can be observed the flow coast down provided by the pump inertia. It is shown that after all initiating events the reactor reaches a safe new steady state keeping the integrity of the fuel elements. (author)

  15. Forecasting of exported volume for brazilian fruits by time series analysis: an arima/garch approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdinardo Moreira Barreto de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to offer econometric forecasting models to the Brazilian exported volume fruits, with a view to assisting the planning and production control, also motivated by the existence of a few published papers dealing with this issue. In this sense, it was used the ARIMA/GARCH models, considering, likewise, the occurrence of a multiplicative stochastic seasonality in these series. They were collected 300 observations of exported net weight (kg between Jan/1989 and Dec/2013 of the following fruits: pineapple, banana, orange, lemon, apple, papaya, mango, watermelon, melon and grape, which selection criteria was its importance in the exported basket fruit, because they represented 97% of total received dollars, and 99% of total volume sold in 2010, of a population about 28 kinds of exported fruits. The results showed that it was not only observed the existence of a 12 month multiplicative seasonality in banana and mango. On the other hand, they were identified two fruits groups: (1 those which are continuously exported, and (2 those which have export peaks. On the quality of the models, they were considered satisfactory for six of the ten fruits analyzed. On the volatility, it was seen a high persistence in banana and papaya series, pointing to the existence of a structural break in time series, which could be linked to the economic crises happened in the last 17 years.

  16. Sterilization of peat by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, F E; Vincent, J M [New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). School of Microbiology

    1981-01-01

    The effect of gamma-radiation on the survival of microorganisms has been quantified for the natural population of two types of peat. Data for several microbial types have been separately determined by regular plating and by indirect statistical probability estimates including, a wholly enclosed 'inverted-bottle' technique for higher dose levels to exclude any possibility of post-treatment contamination. The most persistent microorganisms at intermediate dosage (2.5-3.5 Mrad) were commonly a micrococcus (which closely resembled Micrococcus radiodurans) arthrobacter-like rods, myxobacteria and amoeboid forms. The persistent organisms all survived because of high resistance to ..gamma..-irradiation, not because of high initial numbers. The most numerous true bacteria (including spore-formers), actinomycetes, filamentous fungi and yeasts were all readily destroyed. Although the safety margin with the commercially recommended dose of 5 Mrad is low for some of the more resistant organisms, no change is justified at this stage since the organisms most likely to survive such a dose do not seem to seriously affect the subsequent growth and survival of rhizobia. Moreover there would be some risk of radiation-induced peat toxicity if higher doses were applied and some post-irradiation contamination will be difficult to avoid in commercial production.

  17. Site Simulation of Solidified Peat: Lab Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durahim, N. H. Ab; Rahman, J. Abd; Tajuddin, S. F. Mohd; Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Kassim, A. H. Mohd

    2018-04-01

    In the present research, the solidified peat on site simulation is conducted to obtain soil leaching from soil column study. Few raw materials used in testing such as Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Fly ash (FA) and bottom ash (BA) which containing in solidified peat (SP), fertilizer (F), and rainwater (RW) are also admixed in soil column in order to assess their effects. This research was conducted in two conditions which dry and wet condition. Distilled water used to represent rainfall during flushing process while rainwater used to gain leaching during dry and wet condition. The first testing made after leaching process done was Moisture Content (MC). Secondly, Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) will be conducted on SP to know the ability of SP strength. These MC and UCS were made before and after SP were applied in soil column. Hence, the both results were compared to see the reliability occur on SP. All leachate samples were tested using Absorption Atomic Spectroscopy (AAS), Ion Chromatography (IC) and Inductively-Coupled Plasma Spectrophotometry (ICP-MS) testing to know the anion and cation present in it.

  18. Peat drainage conditions assessment in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Laura; Artz, Rebekka; Donaldson-Selby, Gillian; Aitkenhead, Matt; Donnelly, David; Gimona, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Large areas of Scotland are covered in peat, providing an important sink of carbon but also a notable source of emission where peatlands are not in good condition. However, despite data from designated sites that peat degradation is common, a detailed spatial assessment of the condition of most peatlands across the whole of Scotland is missing. An assessment of peatland drainage was carried out at >600 random sampling locations with an expert-based estimation of presence or absence of drainage ditches within a 500 metre block using 25 cm resolution aerial imagery. The resulting dataset was modelled using a scorpan-kriging approach, in particular using Generalised Additive Models for the description of the trend. Remote sensing images from different sensors (i.e. MODIS, Landsat and Sentinel 1 and 2) were used. In particular we used indices describing vegetation greenness (Enhanced Vegetation Index), water availability (Normalised Water Difference index), Land Surface Temperature and vegetation productivity. When considering MODIS indices we used time series and phenological summaries. The model provides also uncertainty of the estimations. The derived dataset can then be used in the decision making process for the selection of sites for restoration, emissions estimation and accounting.

  19. Mitigating Settlement of Structures founded on Peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Numbikannu, L.; Ismail, T. N. H. T.; Bakar, I.

    2016-07-01

    Observations made of two common failures of structures founded on peat/organic soil in Johor, Malaysia is presented. Critical evaluation of current lightweight fill technology to mitigate such settlement is also discussed. Lightweight technology, such as Expanded Polystyrene (EPS), has been used in construction on soft yielding ground for decades. Regrettably, some published information of EPS failures to perform on construction sites are also cited in this paper. This paper outlines some concepts leading to the development of an alternative innovative lightweight fill is that the idealised cellular structure of the GCM permit free flow of water and complemented by the mat structure which evens out any differential settlement A further highlight of this paper is the monitoring of the field performance of this lightweight fill (GCM) as a feasible alternative to fill weight reduction on yielding ground.. Hence, a prime research objective was to compare the fill settlements observed with 1m high fill of surcharge loading on peat ground (comparison of the case of using a partial 0.6m high GCM and that of a total of 1m of conventional sand backfill).

  20. Water and peat chemistry comparisons of natural and peat-harvested peatlands across Canada and their relevance to peatland restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windmulder, H.L.; Rochefort, L.; Vitt, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Water and peat chemistry comparisons of four post-harvested and neighbouring, undisturbed peatlands across Canada show that harvesting alters chemical conditions. Commercial harvesting removes the surface peat and exposes layers farther down the peat deposit. The newly exposed peat layers that were formed in earlier developmental stages of the peatland can be more minerotrophic and/or more variable in chemical composition than undisturbed bog peat. All the harvested sites were originally bogs. Only one site, which had minimal peat removed, presently has chemical conditions somewhat similar to the original surface, with low elemental levels typical of bogs. Two sites are now chemically similar to poor fens and one site is similar to a moderate-rich fen. Levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphate and chloride in three of the harvested sites are higher than normal values found in natural, unharvested bogs, and result from the exposure of fen peat. Higher levels of ammonium-nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen in the peat and water of all the harvested sites are present, with higher ammonium associated with wetter sites and higher nitrate levels associated with drier sites

  1. Budget impact analysis of the percutaneous septal occluder for treatment of ostium secundum atrial septal defects in the Brazilian Unified National Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, Kátia Marie Simões e; Sarti, Flavia Mori; Costa, Márcia Gisele Santos da; Nita, Marcelo Eidi; Santos, Marisa da Silva; Tura, Bernardo Rangel; Correia, Marcelo Goulart

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a budget impact analysis on the adoption of percutaneous occlusion of ostium secundum atrial septal defects in the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Costs were collected using micro-costing technique from medical records for each treatment technique (conventional surgery versus percutaneous septal occluder) at a public federal hospital specialized in high-complexity cardiology. The analysis showed that expenditures associated with percutaneous occlusion were lower than with conventional surgery, and sensitivity analysis confirmed the cost reduction in several scenarios, showing a significant budget impact with a 30% adoption rate for the percutaneous occluder (savings of approximately 1.5 million dollars per year). The study indicates that the adoption of the percutaneous septal occluder would mean cost savings of approximately 3.5 million dollars for the Brazilian public health system.

  2. Brazilian underutilised species to promote dietary diversity, local food procurement, and biodiversity conservation: a food composition gap analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Moura de Oliveira Beltrame, PhD

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brazil is home to a large portion of the world's biodiversity, but, paradoxically, the country's agriculture and food security are very reliant on exotic or introduced crops or species. Native species are being neglected and forgotten with natural landscapes and traditional foods being replaced by monocultures of commodity crops and pasture for livestock, causing habitat and biodiversity loss. At the same time, Brazil faces dietary simplification and high levels of malnutrition. Much of the neglected native biodiversity is highly nutritious and exploring these food sources could help provide sustainable solutions to diversifying diets, tackling malnutrition problems, and promoting agricultural development through local food procurement, while also promoting biodiversity conservation and climate change adaptation and resilience. However, notable knowledge and evidence gaps still need to be addressed to better integrate biodiversity for enhancing food and nutrition security, including scientific data on the nutritional value and composition of native underutilised species. In Brazil, the Biodiversity for Food and Nutrition (BFN project generated food composition data, developed recipes, and increased appreciation and awareness of the value of underutilised, nutrient-rich biodiversity through strategic research partnerships with universities and research institutes. Methods: For this food composition gap analysis of native Brazilian biodiversity, the BFN project established partnerships with universities and research institutes for the generation of food composition data (macronutrients, vitamins, and minerals and the development of recipes for 70 native underutilised species of fruits and vegetables of economic potential. Food composition data was gathered by doing a literature review, using compilation methods developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Network for Food Data Systems

  3. Breakfast eating among Brazilian adolescents: Analysis of the National Dietary Survey 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Silva MONTEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize breakfast eating among Brazilian adolescents. Methods: Food intake was estimated based on a 1-day food record of adolescents aged 10-19 years, according to the first National Diet Survey (2008-2009. Breakfast was considered as the first meal of the day eaten between 4 and 11 am. Results: Ninety-three percent of adolescents reported eating breakfast. This meal contributed to 17.7% of the daily energy intake. The most commonly consumed food groups were: coffee and tea, breads, butter/margarine, milk, cakes and cookies, packaged snacks, corn-based dishes, cheese, processed meats, and fruit juice. In the Northern region there was a higher frequency of coffee and tea and roots and tubers intake and lower frequency of milk intake than that in the other regions in the country. In the Northeastern region, the intake of corn and eggs was high; in the Southern region, there was high intake of processed meats and fruits. Adolescents from families in the first income quartile reported higher intake of coffee and tea, packaged snacks, corn, and roots and tubers intake, and lower intake of milk and dairy products. Adolescents from families in the highest income quartile reported higher intake of milk, fruit juice, cheese, and sugar-added beverages. Conclusion: In Brazil, the contribution of breakfast to daily energy intake among adolescents is low. The nutritional quality of breakfast improved with increased income. The three most frequently consumed items were coffee and tea, breads, and butter/margarine.

  4. Aged anthropogenic iodine in a boreal peat bog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillant, S.; Sheppard, M.I.; Denys, S.; Leclerc Cessac, E.

    2004-01-01

    Iodine-129 is a radionuclide of major concern in the international safety assessments for deep geological storage and disposal of nuclear waste because it migrates quickly through the geosphere to the biosphere and then from the soil to humans through the food-chain. However, in organic soils the 129 I may be immobilized over a long time period, and so these soils represent a potential accumulation point in the biosphere. Effects of long residence times of iodine in soils are scarce. The present paper gives some insight on the aging of stable iodine, under natural conditions. Stable iodine was introduced as KI in 1987 at the base of a small natural sphagnum bog to simulate arrival of iodine via a groundwater discharge from the geosphere. Previous data revealed the spread of the iodine outwards spatially from the basal spike and also recorded its rise towards the bog surface. Fifteen years later, the groundwater, the soil and the vegetation have been sampled and analyzed for iodine. The results we will present give insight on the mobility of 'aged' iodine with time, the retention properties of the peat, and provide iodine transfer factors for native boreal plant species. The data show iodine: - continues to slowly spread from the spike after 15 years, - is more strongly retained on the solid phase at the surface than at depth, - the chemical structure of the peat may influence the retention of iodine as shown by NMR analysis, - iodine retention has become greater with time, and - herbaceous species are the greatest accumulators. This study demonstrates bogs present good sinks for iodine and limit the transfer of iodine to some of the 'wildlife' food-chains. (author)

  5. Cephalometric-radiographic study, in lateral norm, considering the established standards of white Brazilian teenagers who presented normal occlusions and mal-occlusions of Class I and Class II, 1st Division and the ones from Ricketts' analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bismarck, V.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the present work, our purpose was make a cephalometric-radiographic study, comparing white Brazilian teenagers who presented normal occlusion and the ones who presented malocclusions of Class I and Class II, according to RICKETT'S analysis (1960). (author) [pt

  6. Efficiency Determinants in Brazilian Football Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Machado de Freitas; Rafael Araújo Sousa Farias; Leonardo Flach

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of Brazilian football clubs in generating revenues and the reasons behind it. To achieve this goal, we applied quantitative methods including Data Envelopment Analysis and Tobit regression modeling to data on the best clubs from 2012 to 2014, according to the Brazilian Football Confederation ranking. The results allowed for the inference that the largest Brazilian clubs, such as Grêmio (RS), Palmeiras (SP) and Vasco (RJ), were not efficie...

  7. Changes of plant cover of the raised peat-bog Baligówka under the influence of human activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malec Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the work was to determine the scope and degree of the influence of exploitation on changes of plant cover of the raised peat-bog Baligówka, located in the Orawsko- Nowotarska Valley. The analysis was carried out based on 47 phytosociological surveys using the Braun-Blanquet method. Results of investigations allow to state that excessive drying and fires that took place on the examined object caused wastage of many precious species of plants, especially from the Oxycocco- Sphagnetea class. Their place occupied species belonging to other classes, such as Nardo-Callunetea and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea. The basic cause of drying of the peat-bog and, in consequence, dying of peat formation species is intensified exploitation and connected with this drainage, carried out in the half of the 20th century. Unfortunately, local people up to now illegally have harvested the peat on the investigated object. Decrease in groundwater level leads to accelerated decay of peat, changes in physical and chemical properties of a substratum and, in consequence, changes in trophic values of habitat, what causes great changes in species composition of plant communities.

  8. GC-MS quantitative analysis of black market pharmaceutical products containing anabolic androgenic steroids seized by the Brazilian Federal Police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diana Brito da Justa; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2017-06-01

    The use of counterfeit or substandard medicines can have an important health impact, resulting in therapeutic failure, be toxic or even cause death. Anabolic steroids are a frequent target for counterfeiters worldwide, being the second most frequent counterfeited class in Brazil. The aims of this work were to optimize and validate a GC-MS method for the quantitative determination of anabolic steroids in tablet, aqueous suspension and oil solution forms, and to analyze pharmaceutical products sent to Brazilian Federal Police (BFP) for forensic analysis. Sample preparation included extraction with methanol in ultrasonic bath followed by centrifugation. The method was successfully validated and 345 samples of pharmaceutical products were analyzed (328 medicines and 17 dietary supplements). About 42% of the medicines were counterfeits, 28.7% of tablets, 12.0% of suspensions and 65.2% of oil solutions; 11% were considered substandards. Five dietary supplements contained undeclared anabolic steroids, including two containing methandrostenolone at 5.4 and 5.8mg/capsule, equivalent to levels found in medicines. The proposed method is suitable for implementation in routine analysis for identification of counterfeits and substandard products. The analytical results show the need to raise awareness of consumers over the risks from the consumption of anabolic steroids from the clandestine market and for more incisive actions from government agencies aiming at decreasing the availability of these products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Vegetation stability in the Southeastern Brazilian coastal area from 5500 to 1400 14C yr BP deduced from charcoal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel-Ybert

    2000-06-01

    Charcoal analysis of six shell mounds showed that no major changes of the mainland vegetation ecosystem have taken place along the southeastern Brazilian coast (22 degrees 53'-22 degrees 57'S, 42 degrees 03'-42 degrees 33'W) from 5500 to 1400 14C yr BP. These shell mounds have been occupied by sedentary fisher-gatherer-hunters. Charcoal fragments retrieved from vertical profiles in the archaeological sites were examined; taxonomic determinations were based on a reference collection of charred woods and a program for computer-aided identification. Charcoal assemblages of all the studied sites present taxa from various restinga vegetation types, mangroves, xeromorphic coastal forest, and inland Atlantic Forest. The restinga ecosystem, characteristic of the Brazilian coast, is associated with sandy beach ridges; the restinga forest was much more abundant during the studied period than nowadays. The charcoal assemblages represent mainly the local vegetation; a regional reconstruction depends on the study of numerous sites. In the Cabo Frio region, open restinga taxa are more abundant in the Sambaqui do Forte, while forest elements are more important in the Sambaquis Salinas Peroano and Boca da Barra. The sites studied in the Arraial do Cabo (Sambaqui da Ponta da Cabeça) and in the Saquarema regions (Sambaquis da Pontinha and da Beirada) show that open restinga formations were locally predominant. A comparison of multivariate analysis applied to both charcoal assemblages and to phytosociological data of the extant vegetation showed a good correspondence between the charcoal spectra and the present vegetation. The high taxonomic diversity of archaeological charcoal samples and numerous fragments showing traces of decay before charring suggests that aleatory gathering of dead wood constituted the main source of firewood for fisher-gatherer-hunters populations. Condalia sp. was probably selected for cultural reasons.The only significant fluctuations on the charcoal

  10. Construction of Infrastructure on Peat: Case Studies and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Ling Jen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction of infrastructures on peat land is a very challenging task due to its properties of low shear strength, high compressibility and high water content. This paper summarizes various solutions which could be adopted for the construction of infrastructure on peat, as reviewed by the experts and panels during IConCEES International Workshop 2015. Engineers could (a avoid peat, such as to transfer the load to the hard layers through end bearing piles or to replace the peat with the other soils, or (b construct on peat with special precautions, such as by reducing the weight of the construction materials and dewatering the peat to improve the engineering properties. This paper serves to generate new ideas and give insights of the problems commonly encountered by the industry. Some of the proposed solutions might never be tested on peat. This would rely on the researchers to take up the challenge to further investigate and address the technical issues outlined in this paper.

  11. Peat development in Newfoundland: an historic overview. [Canada - Newfoundland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayment, A.F. (Newfoundland and Labrador Peat Association, St. John' s, NF (Canada))

    1994-02-01

    The aboriginal people and early white settlers doubtless had many uses for peat, although we have few specifics. A concerted effort was made in the 1930s to drain and develop certain peat bogs for growing forages, but interest in the agricultural use of peat waned during World War II and did not return until after Confederation in 1949. The Royal Commission Report on Agriculture (1956) recommended investigation of the feasibility of peat moss for agricultural purposes. From this point, research was conducted chiefly by the federal Experimental Farm near St. John's and by the provincial government, with some input from Memorial University. All peat moss developments must be preceded by drainage, which in turn should be preceded by a contour and depth survey. Mechanical aspects for drainage have evolved considerably. About 1,300 acres were drained by the Cuthbertson plow up to 1960 and another 2500 acres drained by the Healy ditcher between then and 1967; no subsequent reports have been obtained. Research has been conducted into fertilizer requirements for forages. Experiments on the grazing of sheep and/or cattle were also conducted and some problems were encountered, particularly with the grazing of sheep. Also studied was the potential of peat moss production for poultry litter, and the use of peat, kelp and fish offal to produce a high value compost. 28 refs.

  12. Biosorption of mercury from aqueous solutions using highly characterised peats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Rizzuti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the biosorption of mercury from aqueous solutions by six highly characterised peats. Samples of the peats were tested both in unaltered condition and after being treated with hydrochloric acid (HCl to free up any occupied exchange sites. Other variables tested were sample dose, contact time, mixing temperature, and the concentration and pH of the mercury solution. Desorption studies were also performed, and tests were done to determine whether the peats could be re-used for mercury biosorption. The results indicate that all six peat types biosorb mercury from aqueous solutions extremely well (92−100 % removal and that their mercury removal capacities are not significantly affected by manipulation of the various factors tested. The factor that had the greatest impact on the mercury removal capacities of the peats was the pH of the mercury solution. The optimal mercury solution pH for mercury removal was in the range 5−7 for four of the peats and in the range 2−3 for the other two. The desorption results indicate that it may be possible to recover up to 41 % of the removed mercury. All of the peat types tested can be repeatedly re-used for additional mercury biosorption cycles. Hence, their disposal should not become a hazardous waste problem.

  13. Why are there few gas bubbles in deep peat in British raised and blanket peat bogs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Clymo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available (1 There is evidence of gas-filled voids - ‘bubbles’ - in deep (> 50–100 cm peat in North America. (2 I used corers, designed to collect samples of accurately known volume, to sample peat profiles down to maximum depth 700 cm at five varied bog sites in northern England and southern Scotland, and measured the proportion of space apparently occupied by bubbles. (3 Of 126 samples in peat below 50 cm depth, three had bubbles occupying 12–15 % of the volume (and one of these was at only 55 cm depth. The other 123 had apparent bubbles distributed in Gaussian fashion, positively and negatively, about zero proportion of total volume and with standard deviation less than 2 %, consistent with these ‘bubbles’ being measurement error. (4 In northern England and southern Scotland, compared with North America, less variable temperature and cooler summers may lead to concentrations of dissolved gas that are generally too low to allow bubbles to form. Even where bubbles do form in summer, they may re-dissolve at winter temperatures.

  14. Growing Tomato Plantlets on Various Mixtures of Peat and Sand or Peat and Perlite. Note 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Patruno

    Full Text Available Given the considerable interest in use of substrates derived from various mixtures in the nursery sector and in light of the enormous variety of possibilities offered by this technique, in contrast with the still small number of researches dedicated to this theme, this study was set out to examine in-depth the growing of tomato plantlets on peat-based substrates. Two series of peat mixtures were produced, one with sand and the other with perlite, with a volume ratio of the other two components with respect to the peat of 1:0, 2.5:1, 1:1 and 1:2.5. Tomato seedlings were cultivated for 30 or 25 days in small perforated pots containing these mixtures. The irrigation was calculated by weighing each pot daily, measuring the water lost by evaporation-transpiration, then just past an established lower threshold value bringing the water back up to a defined upper threshold. Two water regimes were compared in the sand series and three in the perlite series.

  15. Organic matter loss from cultivated peat soils in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Örjan; Berglund, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of drained peat soils in agricultural use is an underestimated source of loss of organic matter. Oxidation (biological degradation) of agricultural peat soils causes a loss of organic matter (OM) of 11 - 22 t ha-1 y-1 causing a CO2 emission of 20 - 40 t ha-1 y-1. Together with the associated N2O emissions from mineralized N this totals in the EU to about 98.5 Mton CO2 eq per year. Peat soils are very prone to climate change and it is expected that at the end of this century these values are doubled. The degradation products pollute surface waters. Wind erosion of peat soils in arable agriculture can cause losses of 3 - 30 t ha-1 y-1 peat also causing air pollution (fine organic particles). Subsidence rates are 1 - 2 cm per year which leads to deteriorating drainage effect and make peat soils below sea or inland water levels prone to flooding. Flooding agricultural peat soils is in many cases not possible without high costs, high GHG emissions and severe water pollution. Moreover sometimes cultural and historic landscapes are lost and meadow birds areas are lost. In areas where the possibility to regulate the water table is limited the mitigation options are either to increase biomass production that can be used as bioenergy to substitute some fossil fuel, try to slow down the break-down of the peat by different amendments that inhibit microbial activity, or permanent flooding. The negative effects of wind erosion can be mitigated by reducing wind speed or different ways to protect the soil by crops or fiber sheets. In a newly started project in Sweden a typical peat soil with and without amendment of foundry sand is cropped with reed canary grass, tall fescue and timothy to investigate the yield and greenhouse gas emissions from the different crops and how the sand effect the trafficability and GHG emissions.

  16. Contagion in the Brazilian interbank currency exchange market: an empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tannuri-Pianto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The risk of contagion is the possibility that the failure of a financial institution affected by an exogenous shock generates the failure of other institutions not initially affected by the shock. As pointed out by Upper and Worms (2002 and others, the domino effect in the payment system depends on the precise pattern of interbank linkages. This paper studies the occurrence of financial contagion after the exogenous failure of an institution authorized to operate in the Brazilian interbank currency market. The data contain information about all the actual transactions that occurred in this market from August 1st, 2000 to October 31st, 2002. The adopted methodology shows the occurrence of contagion propagation in several subsequent rounds after the initial failure. We quantify the number of institutions that breakdown and the financial losses of the market. There is a large increase in the number of failed institutions during the period of the presidential elections in 2002.O risco de contágio é a possibilidade de que a falência de uma instituição financeira afetada por algum choque exógeno gere a falência de outras instituições não afetadas pelo choque inicialmente. Como salienta Upper e Worms (2002 e outros, o efeito dominó no sistema de pagamentos depende do padrão das interligações bancárias. Este artigo estuda a ocorrência de contágio financeiro após a falência exógena de uma instituição autorizada a operar no mercado interbancário de câmbio no Brasil. Os dados contêm informações sobre todas as transações efetivamente realizadas no período 01/08/2000 a 31/10/2002. A metodologia adotada mostra a ocorrência da propagação do contágio após várias rodadas subseqüentes à falência inicial. O artigo quantifica o número de instituições que quebrariam e as perdas financeiras do mercado. Existe um aumento substancial no número de falências durante o período pré-eleitoral em 2002.

  17. Treatment of waste waters with peat moss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coupal, B; Lalancette, J M

    1976-01-01

    Waste waters containing heavy metals such as Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Ni, Cr/sup 6 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Ag, Pb, Sb or cyanide, phosphates and organic matters such as oil, detergents and dyes can be treated efficiently after a crude settling by contacting with peat moss. Chromium, as Cr/sup 6 +/, can be eliminated in one step from a starting solution of low turbidity to give effluent containing less than 10 ppb of Cr/sup 6 +/ and less than 40 ppb of Cr/sup 3 +/. The characteristics and performances of a contacting machine of 20,000 gal/day capacity for the treatment of industrial waste waters are reported.

  18. IR-spectroscopy as an analytical method for identification of horticultural peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtovaara, J.; Herranen, M.; Nyroenen, T.; MacDonald, A.

    1988-01-01

    The process of selecting different peat types for horticultural purposes involves many physical and chemical determinations. Infrared spectroscopy could be used together with the usual methods for the evaluation of peat quality. Due to the fact that different peats contain different amounts of infrared absorbing functional groups, each peat produces a characteristic spectrum. From the spectrum, one may determine the botanical composition, degree of humification, ash content, cation exchange capacity, nitrogen content and carbon content, of the natural peat. The spectrum also shows whether the peat has been fertilized and limed and in some cases the presence of mineral soil or wetting agent mixed in the peat may be detected

  19. Proceedings: 7th international peat congress. Vols. 1, 2, 3, and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Proceedings from a conference on peat published in four volumes. These comprise six different sections: survey, classification, ecology and conservation of peatlands; winning, harvesting, storage, transportation and processing of peat and sapropel for industrial, agricultural and horticultural purposes; bog cultivation and peatland forestry - the use of peat, peat products, and sapropel in agriculture and horticulture; chemistry, physics, biochemistry and microbiology of peat and sapropel - production and utilization of physiologically active substances, growth stimulators, medical preparations and related material; terminology, notation, and standardization of peat products; and peat balneology and therapeutics.

  20. Relation of peat to oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linker, S

    1924-01-01

    Samples of oil shale from the Green River formation and from Elko (Nev.), Brazil, Austria, and South Africa were examined, and several varieties of shale were found. Green River oil shale represents three of the more common types plus one less common type. These were: contorted shale with a velvety appearance, thin paper shale resembling the curled-up leaves of a book, massive black shale resembling a piece of rubber, and a less common type, which showed the bedding planes very clearly. The Elko (Nev.) shale was a light buff color; the shale from Brazil resembled a piece of petrified peat. When the shales were cut very thin, their colors ranged from yellow to reddish-brown. The composition, as seen under the microscope, was of well-preserved plant material such as spores, pollen grains, fragments of cell tissues, algae, fungi, bacteria, macerated organic residue, small pieces of resin, animal fossils, and translucent bodies. Oil shale was produced from organic material that accumulated in peat bogs, marshes, or swamps in fresh or salt waters. The organic matter was decomposed by bacterial action. Certain parts of the plants decayed more readily than others. Before lithification occurred, a chemical action took place that changed the softer tissues of the plant debris into a gel. This collodial matter penetrated and surrounded the more resistant fragments and preserved them from further decay. Certain bog waters contain a high percentage of humic acids in solution or collodial suspension and produce insoluble humates when neutralized. These humates are probably the so-called kerogen bodies.

  1. Geochemical characteristics of peat from two raised bogs of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhibor, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Peat has a wide range of applications in different spheres of human activity, and this is a reason for a comprehensive study. This research represents the results of an ICP-MS study of moss and peat samples from two raised bogs of Germany. Because of the wide use of sphagnum moss and peat, determining their geochemical characteristics is an important issue. According to the results obtained, we can resume that the moss samples from Germany are rich in Cu, As, Y, Zr, Nb, and REE. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the regional environmental features and anthropogenic influence.

  2. Regulations for the peat production water pollution control; Turvetuotannon vesiensuojeluohjeisto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, M.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R. [ed.] [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The regulations for peat production water pollution control include the latest information on anti-pollution constructions applicable to peat production including field ditches, sedimentation basins, overland flow areas, forest soil saturation, evaporation basins, chemicalization, detention of runoff and artificial flood plains. Information on subsurface drainage in peat mining is also given. The regulations deal with environmental viewpoints, planning of water protection and information on how to build, use and maintain anti-pollution constructions. Special attention is given to the soil conditions, because they play an important role in the building of different constructions. (orig.) (48 refs.)

  3. Regulations for the peat production water pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, M.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R.

    1996-01-01

    The regulations for peat production water pollution control include the latest information on anti-pollution constructions applicable to peat production including field ditches, sedimentation basins, overland flow areas, forest soil saturation, evaporation basins, chemicalization, detention of runoff and artificial flood plains. Information on subsurface drainage in peat mining is also given. The regulations deal with environmental viewpoints, planning of water protection and information on how to build, use and maintain anti-pollution constructions. Special attention is given to the soil conditions, because they play an important role in the building of different constructions. (orig.) (48 refs.)

  4. Considerations for the preparation of peat samples for palynology, and for the counting of pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Chambers

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Peat deposits are valuable archives for studying palaeoclimate, the history of local and regional vegetation, and human impact. The most widely applied laboratory analytical technique has been palynology (pollen analysis, which is often limited to the study of pollen and a few easily recognisable spores; however, a variety of other microfossils can be studied in peat deposits and can provide information on past environmental conditions. Among the so-called non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs are fungal and algal spores that can be used as indicators for local hydrological changes and trophic conditions. This article provides an overview of aspects to consider and sample preparation methods for pollen, spores and other non-pollen palynomorph microfossils in peat deposits; advice on aids to pollen identification and counting; and a brief guide to the range of NPPs that can be counted from prepared subfossil-pollen microslides.

  5. Biochemical processes of oligotrophic peat deposits of Vasyugan Mire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inisheva, L. I.; Sergeeva, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    The problem of peat and mire ecosystems functioning and their rational use is the main problem of biosphere study. This problem also refers to forecasting of biosphere changes results which are global and anthropogenic. According to many scientists' research the portion of mires in earth carbon balance is about 15% of world's stock. The aim of this study is to investigate biochemical processes in oligotrophic deposits in North-eastern part of Vasyugan Mire. The investigations were made on the territory of scientific-research ground (56˚ 03´ and 56˚ 57´ NL, 82˚ 22´ and 82˚ 42´ EL). It is situated between two rivers Bakchar and Iksa (in outskirts of the village Polynyanka, Bakchar region, Tomsk oblast). Evolution of investigated mire massif began with the domination of eutrophic phytocenosis - Filicinae, then sedge. Later transfer into oligotrophic phase was accompanied by formation of meter high-moor peat deposit. The age of three-meter peat deposit reaches four thousand years. Biochemical processes of carbon cycle cover the whole peat deposit, but the process activity and its direction in different layers are defined by genesis and duration of peat formation. So, the number of cellulose-fermenting aerobes in researched peat deposits ranges from 16.8 to 75.5 million CFU/g, and anaerobic bacteria from 9.6 to 48.6 million CFU/g. The high number of aerobes is characteristic for high water levels, organizing by raised bog peats. Their number decreases along the profile in 1.7 - 2 times. The number of microflora in peat deposit is defined by the position in the landscape profile (different geneses), by the depth, by hydrothermic conditions of years and individual months. But microflora activity shows along all depth of peat deposit. We found the same in the process of studying of micromycete complex structure. There was revealed either active component micromycete complex - mycelium, or inert one - spores in a meter layer of peat deposit. If mushrooms

  6. Polyancora globosa gen. sp. nov., an aeroaquatic fungus from Malaysian peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Yule, Catherine M

    2006-10-01

    During an investigation of submerged leaves and twigs sampled from tropical peat swamp forests located in Peninsular Malaysia, an anamorphic fungus not attributable to a described genus was detected and isolated in pure culture. Conidial ontogeny was thoroughly studied and illustrated using both light and SEM, which revealed a unique conidial morphology. Analysis of partial nuLSU rDNA and ITS data revealed a phylogenetic position within the Xylariales (Ascomycota), but family affiliation remained unclear.

  7. The impact of asthma in Brazil: a longitudinal analysis of data from a Brazilian national database system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Araujo Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To present official longitudinal data on the impact of asthma in Brazil between 2008 and 2013. Methods: This was a descriptive study of data collected between 2008 and 2013 from an official Brazilian national database, including data on asthma-related number of hospitalizations, mortality, and hospitalization costs. A geographical subanalysis was also performed. Results: In 2013, 2,047 people died from asthma in Brazil (5 deaths/day, with more than 120,000 asthma-related hospitalizations. During the whole study period, the absolute number of asthma-related deaths and of hospitalizations decreased by 10% and 36%, respectively. However, the in-hospital mortality rate increased by approximately 25% in that period. The geographic subanalysis showed that the northern/northeastern and southeastern regions had the highest asthma-related hospitalization and in-hospital mortality rates, respectively. An analysis of the states representative of the regions of Brazil revealed discrepancies between the numbers of asthma-related hospitalizations and asthma-related in-hospital mortality rates. During the study period, the cost of asthma-related hospitalizations to the public health care system was US$ 170 million. Conclusions: Although the numbers of asthma-related deaths and hospital admissions in Brazil have been decreasing since 2009, the absolute numbers are still high, resulting in elevated direct and indirect costs for the society. This shows the relevance of the burden of asthma in middle-income countries.

  8. Numerical analysis and scale experiment design of the hot water layer system of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, Fernando Lage Araújo

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) consists in a 30 MW open pool research reactor and its design is currently in development. The RMB is intended to produce a neutron flux applied at material irradiation for radioisotope production and materials and nuclear fuel tests. The reactor is immersed in a deep water pool needed for radiation shielding and thermal protection. A heating and purifying system is applied in research reactors with high thermal power in order to create a Hot Water Layer (HWL) on the pool top preventing that contaminated water from the reactor core neighboring reaches its surface reducing the room radiation dose rate. This dissertation presents a study of the HWL behavior during the reactor operation first hours where perturbations due to the cooling system and pool heating induce a mixing flow in the HWL reducing its protection. Numerical simulations using the CFD code CFX 14.0 have been performed for theoretical dose rate estimation during reactor operation, for a 1/10 scaled down model using dimensional analysis and mesh testing as an initial verification of the commercial code application. Equipment and sensor needed for an experimental bench project were defined by the CFD numerical simulation. (author)

  9. Exploratory factor analysis of Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI in a Brazilian musician sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Medeiros Barbar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI is very significant among the available instruments which measures Musical Performance Anxiety (MPA. Objective The aim of this study is to find evidence of validity of the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI, in its translated and adapted Brazilian version, through the study of its factor structure. Methods A convenience sample of 230 amateur musicians completed the K-MPAI. Results The initial factor analysis yielded eight factors, explaining 62.4% of variance. However, due to the factors’ composition and internal consistency values lower than 0.50, the number of factors was later set at three, considering the internal consistency of those, the theoretical propositions and symptomatology aspects that supported the construction of scale. They were named “Worries and insecurity” (α = 0.82, “Depression and hopelessness” (α = 0.77 and “Early parental relationships” (α = 0.57. Discussion/Conclusions These results point to the scale’s construct validity, since they support the theoretical basis used for the development of the K-MPAI and the clinical manifestations of the MPA.

  10. Analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and count-rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian southern space observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigo, Everton; Savian, Jairo Francisco; Silva, Marlos Rockenbach da; Lago, Alisson dal; Trivedi, Nalin Babulal; Schuch, Nelson Jorge

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and the count rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory -OES/CRS/INPE-MCT, in Sao Martinho da Serra, RS during the month of November 2004, is presented in this paper. The geomagnetic measurements are done by a three component low noise fluxgate magnetometer and the count rates of cosmic ray muons are recorded by a muon scintillator telescope - MST, both instruments installed at the Observatory. The fluxgate magnetometer measures variations in the three orthogonal components of Earth magnetic field, H (North-South), D (East-West) and Z (Vertical), with data sampling rate of 0.5 Hz. The muon scintillator telescope records hourly count rates. The arrival of a solar disturbance can be identified by observing the decrease in the muon count rate. The goal of this work is to describe the physical morphology and phenomenology observed during the geomagnetic storm of November 2004, using the H component of the geomagnetic field and vertical channel V of the multi-directional muon detector in South of Brazil. (author)

  11. Analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and count-rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian southern space observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Everton [University of Sao Paulo, USP, Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences, IAG/USP, Department of Geophysics, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Savian, Jairo Francisco [Space Science Laboratory of Santa Maria, LACESM/CT, Southern Regional Space Research Center, CRS/INPE, MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Silva, Marlos Rockenbach da; Lago, Alisson dal; Trivedi, Nalin Babulal [National Institute for Space Research, INPE/MCT, Division of Space Geophysics, DGE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Schuch, Nelson Jorge, E-mail: efrigo@iag.usp.br, E-mail: savian@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: njschuch@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: marlos@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: dallago@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: trivedi@dge.inpe.br [Southern Regional Space Research Center, CRS/INPE, MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    An analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and the count rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory -OES/CRS/INPE-MCT, in Sao Martinho da Serra, RS during the month of November 2004, is presented in this paper. The geomagnetic measurements are done by a three component low noise fluxgate magnetometer and the count rates of cosmic ray muons are recorded by a muon scintillator telescope - MST, both instruments installed at the Observatory. The fluxgate magnetometer measures variations in the three orthogonal components of Earth magnetic field, H (North-South), D (East-West) and Z (Vertical), with data sampling rate of 0.5 Hz. The muon scintillator telescope records hourly count rates. The arrival of a solar disturbance can be identified by observing the decrease in the muon count rate. The goal of this work is to describe the physical morphology and phenomenology observed during the geomagnetic storm of November 2004, using the H component of the geomagnetic field and vertical channel V of the multi-directional muon detector in South of Brazil. (author)

  12. Analysis of self-fertilization and meiotic behavior of eleven Brazilian triticale cultivars at two sowing dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divanilde Guerra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven Brazilian hexaploid triticale cultivars (2n = 6x = 42, from three breeding programs, were evaluated for theirability of self-fertilization in 2006 and for meiotic behavior, meiotic index and pollen viability at two sowing dates in 2007. Highpotential of self-fertilization was observed, with values up to 89.52 %. Many irregularities were found in the meiotic analysis, suchas the presence of univalents, laggard chromosomes and micronuclei in tetrads, which compromised both meiotic behavior andmeiotic index. At the first sowing date, more suitable for normal plant development, overall mean values of 52.68 % for normal cellsand 64.95 % for meiotic index were observed. At the second sowing date, less appropriate for the crop, overall means of 52.23 %for normal cells and 58.24 % for meiotic index were obtained. Despite all the irregularities, considerable pollen viability wasobserved, reaching overall means of 92.08 % and 91.07 % for the first and second sowing dates, respectively.

  13. Precipitation-induced runoff and leaching from milled peat mining mires by peat types: A comparative method for estimating the loading of water bodies during peat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svahnbaeck, L.

    2007-07-01

    Finland has some 10 million hectares of peatland, accounting for almost a third of its total area. Macroclimatic conditions have varied in the course of the Holocene growth and development of this peatland, and with them the habitats of the peat-forming plants. Temperatures and moisture conditions have played a significant role in determining the dominant species of mire plants growing there at any particular time, the resulting mire types and the accumulation and deposition of plant remains to form the peat. While in a natural state the mires of Finland have functioned as carbon dioxide sinks throughout the post-glacial period, but the ditching of peatland for forestry and agriculture, amounting to some 5,7 million hectares in Finland, has affected their water balance, especially over the last hundred years, and has thereby altered the quantity and species composition of the mire vegetation. The invasion of trees and woody plants to replace the typical mire plants following ditching for forestry purposes has stimulated the decomposition of the already accumulated peat and promoted the humification of the microbiologically active root system layer. The above climatic, environmental and mire development factors, together with ditching, have contributed, and continue to contribute, to the existence of peat horizons that differ in their physical and chemical properties, leading to differences in material transport between peatlands in a natural state and mires that have been ditched or prepared for forestry and peat production. Watercourse loading from the ditching of mires or their use for peat production can have detrimental effects on river and lake environments and their recreational use, especially where oxygen-consuming organic solids and soluble organic substances and nutrients are concerned. It has not previously been possible, however, to estimate in advance the watercourse loading likely to arise from ditching and peat production on the basis of the

  14. Overview of the Sustainable Uses of Peat Soil in Malaysia with Some Relevant Geotechnical Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Rashidah Adon; Ismail Bakar; Devapriya Chitral Wijeyesekera; Adnan Zainorabidin

    2013-01-01

    Peat soil is an important ecosystem that provides a significant contribution to the global climate stability. In Malaysia, peat soils are considered as a soil with little economic benefit, apart from it being used for agricultural activity. The total world coverage of peat soil is about thirty million hectares with Canada and Russia having the largest distribution of peat (Zainorabiddin,2010). More than sixty percent of the world’s tropical peat lands are found in South-East Asia (Lette,2006...

  15. Self-Organizing Maps: A Data Mining Tool for the Analysis of Airborne Geophysical Data Collected over the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, C.; Fraser, S. J.; Crosta, A. P.; Silva, A.; Barros, C.

    2011-12-01

    Regional airborne geophysical data sets are being collected worldwide to promote mineral exploration and resource development. These data sets often are collected over highly prospective terranes, where access is limited or there are environmental concerns. Such regional surveys typically consist of two or more sensor packages being flown in an aircraft over the survey area and vast amounts of near-continuous data can be acquired in a relatively short time. Increasingly, there is also a need to process such data in a timely fashion to demonstrate the data's value and indicate the potential return or value of the survey to the funding agency. To assist in the timely analysis of such regional data sets, we have used an exploratory data mining approach: the Self Organizing Map (SOM). Because SOM is based on vector quantization and measures of vector similarity, it is an ideal tool to analyze a data set consisting of disparate geophysical input parameters to look for relationships and trends. We report on our use of SOM to analyze part of a regional airborne geophysical survey collected over the prospective Anapu-Tuere region of the Brazilian Amazon. Magnetic and spectrometric gamma ray data were used as input to our SOM analysis, and the results used to discriminate and identify various rock types and produce a "pseudo" geological map over the study area. The ability of SOM to define discrete domains of rock-types with similar properties allowed us to expand upon existing geological knowledge of the area for mapping purposes; and, often it was the combination of the magnetic and radiometric responses that identified a lithology's unique response. One particular unit was identified that had an association with known gold mineralization, which consequently highlighted the prospectivity of that unit elsewhere in the survey area. Our results indicate that SOM can be used for the semi-automatic analysis of regional airborne geophysical data to assist in geological mapping

  16. [Efficiency of Brazilian States and the Federal District in the public kidney transplant system based on DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) and the Malmquist index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cassia Kely Favoretto; Balbinotto Neto, Giácomo; Sampaio, Luciano Menezes Bezerra

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Brazilian States and the Federal District in the public kidney transplant system and their productivity trends from 2006 to 2011. The authors used Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) with slack and the Malmquist index with slack. Inputs included spending on hospital services and health professionals in the system. The output was the number of kidney transplants performed in each State. The data showed a significant discrepancy between States in the number of kidney transplants. The transplant system's inefficiency may result from inadequate management, failure to comply with national guidelines, inactive hospital transplant committees, and overburdened hospital staff. Institutional changes promoted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (procedures improvement and standardization) failed to increase productivity in most States during this period.

  17. Construction of Buildings on Peat: Case Studies and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmod Ali Abdul-Wadoud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Building construction on soft soils including on peat has many challenges and difficulties. The failed and deteriorated buildings have a big impact on the community. The IConCEES International Workshop 2015 which was conducted on October 2015 convened as a joint venture between Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM and the University College of Technology Sarawak (UCTS. The aim was to invite regional experts from academia and the industry to formally present and discuss the various construction problems encountered when working with peat. The discussions were divided into two divisions; infrastructure and building construction. This paper discusses the outcomes of the workshop and focuses on the factors and relevant challenges when constructing buildings on peat. The experts have discussed regulatory and construction issues including: drainage issues, site investigation practices, monitoring and construction guidelines. A few suggestions were outlined as a remedy to these problems and to better assist the peat practitioner at work.

  18. The climate impact of future energy peat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagberg, Linus; Holmgren, Kristina

    2008-09-15

    The aim of this study was to estimate total greenhouse gas emissions and climate impact of different peat utilisation scenarios, using a life cycle perspective. This and previous studies show that the climate impact from energy peat utilisation is more complex than just considering the emissions at the combustion stage. There are important emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases that occur on the peatland before, during and after peat harvest. The results show that the climate impact of future peat utilisation can be significantly reduced compared to current utilisation and will be lower than the climate impact resulting from only the combustion phase. This can be achieved by choosing already drained peatlands with high greenhouse gas emissions, using a more efficient production method and by securing a low-emission after-treatment of the cutaway (e.g. afforestation)

  19. Impact on the greenhouse effect of peat mining and combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodhe, H.; Svensson, Bo

    1995-01-01

    Combustion of peat leads to emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the atmosphere. In addition, mining of the peat alters the environment such that the natural fluxes of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases are modified. Of particular interest is a reduction in the emission of methane (CH 4 ) in the drained parts of the mires. We estimate the total impact on the greenhouse effect of these processes. The results indicate that the decreased emission of methane from the drained mires compensates for about 15% of the CO 2 emission during the combustion of the peat. It follows that, in a time perspective of less than several hundred years, peat is comparable to a fossil fuel, as far as the contribution to the greenhouse effect is concerned. 39 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  20. Guidelines for the environmental protection in peat mining; Turvetuotannon ympaeristoensuojeluohje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    The objective of these guidelines is to accelerate environmental protection in peat mining and to reduce the harmful effects caused by its related activities. The guidelines promote achievement of environmental objectives set both in legislation and government programmes through uniform practices and interpretations. The guidelines are based on current valid legislation. The guidelines provide up-to-date information on best practices in peat mining, especially in water protection but also in reducing noise and dust. They are intended to ease the work of both peat producers and the licensing and controlling authorities. The guidelines are not legally binding and must be applied on case-by-case basis. The current guidelines replace the 'Guidelines for environmental protection in peat mining' given in 2008. (orig.)

  1. Fuel peat utilization in Finland: resource use and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijting, J.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to inventorize the emissions and other stressors caused by fuel peat use in Finland. The life cycle approach was used to organise and compile the burdens associated with the fuel peat utilisation sector in the years 1994 and 1995. Fuel peat accounts for about 6.5 % of the total primary energy production in Finland. The study showed that most emissions out into the air occur during combustion of peat in energy plants. The emissions account for about 13 - 14 % of the CO 2 emissions released by fossil fuel utilisation in Finland, for 12 % of the SO 2 for 8 % of the N 2 O and approximately 4 % of the NOR emissions released by anthropogenic sources in Finland. Phosphorus releases into waters contributes for about 0.2 % while nitrogen releases account for 0.3 % in the total anthropogenic discharge in Finland. (orig.) 88 refs

  2. Foam concrete of increased strength with the thermomodified peat additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudyakov, A. I.; Kopanitsa, N. O.; Sarkisov, Ju S.; Kasatkina, A. V.; Prischepa, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research of foam concrete with thermomodified peat additives. The aim of the research was to study the effect of modifying additives on cement stone and foam concrete properties. Peat additives are prepared by heat treatment of peat at 600 °C. Two approaches of obtaining additives are examined: in condition of open air access (TMT-600) and in condition of limited air access (TMT-600-k). Compressive strength of a cement stone with modifiers found to be increased by 28.9 - 65.2%. Introducing peat modifiers into foam concrete mix leads to increase of compressive strength by 44-57% at 28- day age and heat conductivity of foam concrete decreases by 0.089 W/(m·°C).

  3. TEHOPALA - Intensification of peat production; TEHOPALA - palaturvetuotannon tehostaminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurminen, T.; Katainen, E. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Leinonen, A.; Aalto, J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hoelttae, P. [Biomasters Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the Tehopala project is to increase the hectare yield of sod peat by 50 % and to reduce the production costs by 30 % by developing the sod peat production methods and equipment. The main aim of the research is in machine development, the target of which is to develop a new efficient machine chain for ridge-drying method. A new more effective cutting disc, suitable for 600 mm nozzles for production wave-like sod, has been developed for PK-1S sod peat excavator. The RYT-MP excavator has been developed to operationally reliable stage, and a nozzle for production of wave-like sod has been constructed for it. Prototype machines have been developed for ridging and loading. The development work of these will be carried out further. Ridge-drying method and wave-like sod peat method have been proven to be more effective than the cylindrical sod technology and field-drying method

  4. Weeds optimally grow in peat swamp after burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Susanti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After clearing land by burning the peat, then the weeds and undergrowth will flourish. Even sometimes, the weeds are eventually burned again. Weed is known as a destroyer plant that has to be controlled. Through proper treatment, the existing weeds in peatlands can be potentiallly exploited. The purpose of this study was to determine the calorific value of briquettes as one of peatland weeds utilization. The results showed that the calorific value ranged from 2,492 cal/g to 5,230 cal/g. The lowest calorific value was on ‘teki kecil’ grass (Scirpus grossus Lf, while the highest calorific value was observed for ‘bantalaki grass’ (Hymenachne amplexicaulis Nees. The high calorific value of the peat weeds are potential for biomass briquettes raw materials. The utilization and use of peat weed briquettes as a raw materials expected can reduce land degradation due to peat swamp burning

  5. Genesis of Spodic Material underneath Peat Bogs in a Danish Wetland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Søren Munch; Dalsgaard, Kristian; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2010-01-01

    illuviation under a fluctuating water table, or (ii) degradation of a former Fe-rich, well-drained spodic horizon. Methods included soil surveys, wet chemical analyses, micromorphology, pollen analysis, and radiocarbon dating of soil organic matter (OM) fractions. Aquods, and soil material with spodic...... features, were exclusively found in sandy material at the margins of or underneath sphagnum peat bogs, whereas Inceptisols were found on well-drained sandy deposits only. Aluminum content was very high and Fe low in spodic materials with ortstein properties. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR....... Radiocarbon ages of bulk soil C in the spodic horizons had mean residence times of 4500 to 4400 yr. Accordingly, the spodic B horizon was probably formed by strong in situ illuviation of Al-OM complexes before the sphagnum peat bog formation. This suggests that spodic material formation and thus strong C...

  6. High resolution 14C dating of surface peat using the AMS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolonen, K.; Possnert, G.; Jungner, H.; Sonninen, E.; Alm, J.

    1992-01-01

    In an AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometric) determination of 14 C from moss-increment dated samples from a Sphagnum fuscum hummock, a clear peak representing the time of high 14 C activity in the atmosphere due to nuclear bomb tests was found. The C-14 activities in the peat profile at deeper levels, corresponding to the period down to 1600 Bp, showed similar variations as the atmospheric values. The time scale obtained from radiocarbon dating fitted well with results from moss-increment counting, pollen analysis and dendrochronological dating of a fire horizon. Using the bomb layers and refixing into growing peat was estimated. The fraction of soil carbon dioxide taken up by the contemporary Sphagnum Sward was thus found to be in the order of 20 %. (orig.). (15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.)

  7. The Information Professional's Profile: An Analysis of Brazilian Job Vacancies on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Miriam Vieira

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Report of a study to discover and describe job vacancies for information professionals available online at specific sites and discussion lists between January 2005 and February 2008. Method: The study uses Bardin's content analysis technique and the following analysis criteria: information source, institutional type, professional…

  8. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  9. Constructing deposition chronologies for peat deposits using radiocarbon dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Piotrowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon dating is one of the main methods used to establish peat chronologies. This article reviews the basis of the method and its application to dating of peat deposits. Important steps in the radiocarbon dating procedure are described, including selection and extraction of material (and fractions for dating, chemical and physical preparation of media suitable for measurements, measurements of 14C activity or concentration, calculations, calibration of results and age-depth modelling.

  10. Radioactivity changes during burning of peat and chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedvall, R.; Erlandsson, B.; Mattsson, S.

    1985-01-01

    The increasing use of peat and chip as fuel materials in fossil-fuel power plants has resulted in the need for information about the change in radionuclides concentration in fuel after combustion. The paper describes a study of natural radionuclides from the uranium- and the thorium series and 40 K, as well as fission products from atmospheric nuclear explosions, in ashes from five peat and chip fuelled power plants in Sweden

  11. Bibliometric analysis of scientific articles published in Brazilian and international orthodontic journals over a 10-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Neudí Antonio; Gazzola, Vivian Bertoglio; Primo, Bruno Tochetto; Tovo, Maximiano Ferreira; Faraco, Italo Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at describing the profiles of Brazilian and international studies published in orthodontic journals. The sample comprised 635 articles selected from two scientific journals, i.e., Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics and American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, which were analyzed at three different intervals over a 10-year period (1999 - 2004 - 2009). Articles were described in terms of knowledge domain, study design, and country of origin (or state of origin for Brazilian papers). The most frequent study designs adopted in international studies were cohort (23.9%) and cross-sectional (21.7%) designs. Among Brazilian papers, cross-sectional studies (28.9%) and literature reviews (24.6%) showed greater frequency. The topics most often investigated in international articles were dental materials (17%) and treatment devices (12.4%), with the latter topic being addressed by 16% of the Brazilian publications, followed by malocclusion, with 12.6%. In all cases, the most frequent countries of origin coincided with the countries of origin of each journal. The majority of the studies analyzed featured a low level of scientific evidence. Moreover, the findings showed that journals tend to publish studies produced in their own country of origin, and that there are marked discrepancies in the number of papers published by different Brazilian states.

  12. Improving the {sup 210}Pb-chronology of Pb deposition in peat cores from Chao de Lamoso (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olid, Carolina, E-mail: carolina.olid@emg.umu.se [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Garcia-Orellana, Jordi, E-mail: jordi.garcia@uab.cat [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Masqué, Pere, E-mail: pere.masque@uab.cat [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cortizas, Antonio Martínez, E-mail: antonio.martinez.cortizas@usc.es [Departamento de Edafoloxía e Química Agrícola, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); and others

    2013-01-15

    The natural radionuclide {sup 210}Pb is commonly used to establish accurate and precise chronologies for the recent (past 100–150 years) layers of peat deposits. The most widely used {sup 210}Pb-dating model, Constant Rate of Supply (CRS), was applied using data from three peat cores from Chao de Lamoso, an ombrotrophic mire in Galicia (NW Spain). On the basis of the CRS-chronologies, maximum Pb concentrations and enrichment factors (EFs) occurred in the 1960s and late 1970s, consistent with the historical use of Pb. However, maximum Pb fluxes were dated in the 1940s and the late 1960s, 10 to 20 years earlier. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that, although the {sup 210}Pb distribution was mainly (74%) controlled by radioactive decay, about 20% of the {sup 210}Pb flux variability was associated with atmospheric metal pollution, suggesting an extra {sup 210}Pb supply source and thus invalidating the main assumption of the CRS model. When the CRS-ages were recalculated after correcting for the extra input from the {sup 210}Pb inventory of the uppermost peat layers of each core, Pb flux variations were consistent with the historical atmospheric Pb deposition. Our results not only show the robustness of the CRS model to establish accurate chronologies of recent peat deposits but also provide evidence that there are confounding factors that might influence the calculation of reliable peat accumulation rates (and thus also element accumulation rates/fluxes). This study emphasizes the need to verify the hypotheses of {sup 210}Pb-dating models and the usefulness of a full geochemical interpretation of peat bog records. - Highlights: ► Peat cores collected in NW Spain were used to reconstruct recent Pb deposition. ► Applicability of {sup 210}Pb-dating models (CRS) in bogs is discussed based on PCA results. ► Results showed that ∼ 20% of the {sup 210}Pb flux was related to anthropogenic metal pollution. ► Geochemical analysis of bogs is useful to

  13. Considerations for the preparation of peat samples for palynology, and for the counting of pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambers, F.M.; van Geel, B.; van der Linden, M.

    2011-01-01

    Peat deposits are valuable archives for studying palaeoclimate, the history of local and regional vegetation, and human impact. The most widely applied laboratory analytical technique has been palynology (pollen analysis), which is often limited to the study of pollen and a few easily recognisable

  14. Zavarzinella formosa gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel stalked, Gemmata-like planctomycete from a Siberian peat bog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulichevskaya, I.S.; Baulina, O.I.; Bodelier, P.L.E.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    An aerobic, pink-pigmented, budding and rosette-forming bacterium was isolated from an acidic Sphagnum peat bog and designated strain A10T. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain A10T was a member of the order Planctomycetales and belonged to a phylogenetic lineage defined by the

  15. Study of stability of humic acids from soil and peat irradiated by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Wilson Tadeu Lopes da

    1995-01-01

    Humic acids samples (one deriving from a sedimentary soil and other from a peat), in aqueous media, were irradiated with gamma rays, in doses of 10, 50 and 100 kGy, in order to understand their chemical behavior after the irradiation. The material, before and after irradiation, was analyzed by Elemental Analysis, Functional Groups (carboxylic acids and phenols), UV/Vis Spectroscopy (E 4 /E 6 ratio), IR spectroscopy, CO 2 content and Gel permeation Chromatography (GPC) ). The Elemental Analysis showed the humic acid derived from a peat had a most percentage quantity of Carbon and Hydrogen than the material from a sedimentary soil. From the UV/Vis Spectroscopy, it was observed a decrease of E 4 /E 6 ratio with an increase of the applied dose. The data from GPC are in agreement with this. The results showed that the molecular weight of the material increased by exposing it to a larger radiolitical dose. The peat material was less affected by the gamma radiation than the soil material. The carboxylic groups were responsible by radiochemical behavior of the material. (author)

  16. Influence of Biodegradation on the Organic Compounds Composition of Peat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Olga; Svarovskaya, Lidiya; Duchko, Maria; Strelnikova, Evgeniya; Russkikh, Irina

    2016-06-01

    Largest wetland systems are situated on the territory of the Tomsk region. They are characterized by the high content of organic matter (OM), which undergoes transformation as a result of physical, chemical and biological processes. The composition of peat OM is determined by the nature of initial peat-forming plants, their transformation products and bacteria. An experiment in stimulated microbial impact was carried out for estimating the influence of biodegradation on the composition of peat lipids. The composition of the functional groups in the bacterial biomass, initial peat and peat after biodegradation was determined by IR-spectroscopy using the spectrometer NICOLET 5700. The IR spectra of peat and bacteria organic matter are characterized by the presence of absorption bands in ranges: 3400-3200 cm-1, which refers to the stretching vibrations of OH-group of carboxylic acids and various types of hydrogen bonds; 1738-1671 cm-1 - characteristic stretching vibrations of the C = O group of carboxylic acids and ketones; 1262 cm-1 - stretching vibrations of C-O of carboxylic acids. Group and individual composition of organic compounds in studied samples was determined by gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry.

  17. The Role of Agriculture on the Recent Brazilian Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Spolador, Humberto Francisco Silva; Roe, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the contribution of the Brazilian agriculture to economic growth of the Brazilian economy. It draws upon the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) data base, and other time series data to construct a multi-sector Ramsey model that shows the transition growth of the Brazilian agricultural sector and its effects on growth of the Brazilian economy, with particular emphasis given to the years 1994–2010.

  18. TEMPORAL VEGETATION DYNAMICS IN PEAT SWAMP AREA USING MODIS TIME-SERIES IMAGERY: A MONITORING APPROACH OF HIGH-SENSITIVE ECOSYSTEM IN REGIONAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Setiawan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peat swamp area is an essential ecosystem due to high vulnerability of functions and services. As the change of forest cover in peat swamp area has increased considerably, many studies on peat swamp have focused on forest conversion or forest degradation. Meanwhile, in the context of changes in the forestlands are the sum of several processes such as deforestation, reforestation/afforestation, regeneration of previously deforested areas, and the changing spatial location of the forest boundary. Remote sensing technology seems to be a powerful tool to provide information required following that concerns. A comparison imagery taken at the different dates over the same locations for assessing those changes tends to be limited by the vegetation phenology and land-management practices. Consequently, the simultaneous analysis seems to be a way to deal with the issues above, as a means for better understanding of the dynamics changes in peat swamp area. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using MODIS images during the last 14 years for detecting and monitoring the changes in peat swamp area. We identified several significant patterns that have been assigned as the specific peat swamp ecosystem. The results indicate that a different type of ecosystem and its response to the environmental changes can be portrayed well by the significant patterns. In understanding the complex situations of each pattern, several vegetation dynamics patterns were characterized by physical land characteristics, such as peat depth, land use, concessions and others. Characterizing the pathways of dynamics change in peat swamp area will allow further identification for the range of proximate and underlying factors of the forest cover change that can help to develop useful policy interventions in peatland management.

  19. Uranium/thorium dating of Late Pleistocene peat deposits in NW Europe, uranium/thorium isotope systematics and open-system behaviour of peat layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnis, H.; Plicht, J. van der

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of dating peat by the uranium-series disequilibrium method is discussed. In principle, this method can be used to date peat to approximately 350 ka. The application of the U/Th disequilibrium method (UTD) on peat provides us with the probability of constructing a new chronology for

  20. Regulation of solid waste management at Brazilian ports: analysis and proposals for Brazil in light of the European experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccoud, Cristiane; Magrini, Alessandra

    2014-02-15

    With a coastline of 8500 km, Brazil has 34 public ports and various private terminals, which together in 2012 handled 809 million tonnes of goods. The solid wastes produced (from port activities, ships and cargoes) pose a highly relevant problem, both due to the quantity and diversity, requiring a complex and integrated set of practices resulting from legal requirements and proactive initiatives. The main Brazilian law on solid waste management is recent (Law 12,305/2010) and the specific rules on solid waste in ports are badly in need of revision to meet the challenges caused by expansion of the sector and to harmonize them with the best global practices. This paper analyzes the current legal/regulatory framework for solid waste management at Brazilian ports and compares this structure with the practice in Europe. At the end, we suggest initiatives to improve the regulation of solid wastes at Brazilian ports. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Homicides among women in the different Brazilian regions in the last 35 years: an analysis of age-period-birth cohort effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de; Meira, Karina Cardoso; Ribeiro, Adalgisa Peixoto; Santos, Juliano Dos; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Borges, Laiane Felix; Oliveira, Lannuzya Veríssimo E; Simões, Taynãna César

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the effects of age-period-birth cohort (APC) on female homicides. This is an ecological study which analyzed the violence-related death records of women aged 10 years and older, in the Brazilian geographic regions, between 1980 and 2014. Data on mortality were extracted from the Mortality Information System. The trend analysis was conducted using negative binomial regression and APC effects were analyzed using estimable functions. The average mortality rate for the period was 5.13 deaths per 100,000 women, with the highest rates observed in the Central-West (7.98 deaths), followed by the Southeast (4.78 deaths), North (4.77 deaths), Northeast (4.05 deaths) and South (3.82 deaths) regions. All regions presented a decrease in the risk of death in the period from 2010 to 2014, except for the Northeast region (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.10). There was a progressive increase in the homicide risk for women born from 1955 to 1959 in all Brazilian regions. Younger women are at higher risk of dying from homicides in all Brazilian geographic regions. The upward trend of homicide mortality rates according to birth cohort was significant and the highest risk was observed in women born between 2000 and 2004.

  2. The Cressey hypothesis (1953 and an investigation into the occurrence of corporate fraud: an empirical analysis conducted in Brazilian banking institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Rílany Rodrigues Machado

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article fills a technical-scientific gap that currently exists in the Brazilian literature on corporative fraud, by combining the theoretical framework of agency theory, of criminology, and of the economics of crime. In addition, it focuses on a sector that is usually excluded from analyses due to its specific characteristics and shows the application of multinomial logit panel data regression with random effects, which is rarely used in studies in the area of accounting. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of corporative fraud, as well as cases of fraud in Brazilian banking institutions, by using detection variables related to the Cressey fraud triangle. Research into fraud and methods of detecting fraud has grown in management literature, especially after the occurrence of various corporative scandals in the 1990s. Although regulatory agencies have increased their investments in monitoring and control, fraud investigations and convictions are still common in the day-to-day administration of banks, as can be seen in the Brazilian Central Bank and the National Financial System Resource Council’s databases of punitive proceedings. We believe that this article will have a positive impact in the area of accounting sciences, since it involves corporative fraud in a multidisciplinary form and because it provides the incentive to use a quantitative tool that can help increase the development of similar studies in the area. This study tested the theory that the dimensions of the fraud triangle condition the occurrence of corporative fraud in Brazilian banking institutions. Thirty-two representative variables of corporative fraud were identified in the theoretical-empirical review, which were reduced to seven latent variables by the principal component analysis. Finally, the seven factors formed the independent variables in the multinomial logit models used in the hypothesis tests, which presented promising results.

  3. Effect of Different Peat Size and Pre-Consolidation Pressure of Reconstituted Peat on Effective Undrained Shear Strength Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, ATS; Norhaliza, W.; Ismail, B.; Ezree, AM; Nizam, ZM

    2017-08-01

    Shear strength of the soil is one of the most important parameters in engineering design, especially during the pre- or post-construction periods, since it is mainly used to measure and evaluate the foundation or slope stability of soil. Peat normally known as a soil that has a very low value of shear strength, and in order to determine and understand the shear strength of the peat, it is a difficult task in geotechnical engineering due to several factors such as types of fabrics, the origin of the soil, water content, organic matter and the degree of humification. The aim of this study is to determine the effective undrained shear strength properties of reconstituted peat of different sizes. All the reconstituted peat samples were formed with the size that passed the opening sieve of 0.425 mm (effective undrained shear strength properties for reconstituted peat effective shear strength properties for the reconstituted peat effective undrained shear strength properties result obtained from the tests show that the reconstituted peat pore pressure, Δu, show both of peat

  4. Energy commercialization in the new environment of the Brazilian electric power sector. A methodology for production allocation strategies analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Dorel Soares; Lima, Wagner da Silva

    1999-01-01

    The restructuring of the Brazilian Electric Sector has modified the rules for purchase and sale of energy, resulting in the creation of the Wholesale Energy Market. In this new context, the decision of the exposure level to the spot market price and the purchase of energy through bilateral contracts becomes so much a strategic variable for consumers or dealers, as for hydro and thermal generators. This work presents a methodology for planning of energy commercialization envisaging purchase and sale energy opportunities provided by the new Regulatory Framework of the Brazilian Electric Sector. (author)

  5. Bonded Labour and its Roots in Rural Sphere: An Analysis by Criticality Gaps in the Brazilian Agricultural Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Amaral de Pontes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Relations between the Agrarian Law and slave labor phenomenon derived from situations of oppression in rural work sometimes are invisibilized by the agrarian academic debate. It is necessary to analyze the Brazilian identity of land property for an interconnected approach to the bonded labour. The exit from legalistic bubble to recognize its relation to the genesis and maintenance of slave labor is our focus. Other regulations, either the CF in 1988 cannot able to eradicate slavery, "updated" in contemporary mold. The uncritical view of agrarian institutes cause false aseptic realities of the Brazilian context, is our approach.

  6. Analysis of 210Pb and 210Po in Brazilian foods and diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, I.L.; Bueno, L.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Maihara, V.A.; Cozzollino, S.

    2001-01-01

    Radiochemical procedures for the analysis of 210 Pb and 210 Po in foods and diets are presented. Because of the low beta energy of 210 Pb, its analysis was based on a separation of the daughter radionuclide 210 Bi by precipitation of lead sulphate, 210 Bi ingrowing and beta counting of this nuclide. 210 Po analysis was based on wet dissolution of the sample, deposition onto silver disc and counting by alpha-spectrometry. Levels of these radionuclides in individual items and diets of selected university students were determined in order to evaluate the intakes of 210 Pb and 210 Po as well as the dose due to ingestion of foods and diets in Sao Paulo city. (author)

  7. Mineral capacity of peat soils organic matter and entry of Cs137 into perennial grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsybulko, N.N.; Shapsheeva, T.P.; Arastovich, T.V.; Zajtsev, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The results of the study of peat soils organic substance structure with various peat ash content are given. Contents of active organic substance and carbon of microbial biomass in peat and boggy soil with 20% peat ash content is 3.0-3.5 and 1.6-1.8 times higher correspondingly, than thus in peaty-gley soil with 70% peat ash content. At peat and boggy soil with low peat ash content Cs137 transition into hay is minimal. 14 times higher than at peaty-gley soil with 70% peat ash content. Application of fertilizers at peat and boggy soil reduces Cs137 transition factor 4.7-6.4 times if compared to peaty-gley soil (2.1-4.7 times). Close positive interconnection between Cs137 transition factors from soil into the plants and organic carbon soil contents, absolute contents of potentially mineralized carbon and mineralization degree

  8. Review of pre-treated peat applied in treating domestic wastewaters and oily waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Coles, C.A.; Asapo, E.S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discussed recent research related to the use of peat in removing contaminants from domestic wastewater, oil-contaminated water, and soil. The review also discussed methods of pretreating peat before its application to polluted area. Pretreatment processes are needed to remove components in peat that interfere with treatment mechanisms. Polymers are added to peat in order to encourage the aggregation of the peat particles into larger colloidal particles that are easy to dewater. Phosphoric acid treatments are also applied to increase the swelling capacity of peat. Hydrogen peroxide is used to break down oil-contaminated peat in order to facilitate its subsequent decomposition. Experiments have demonstrated that peat is an effective adsorbent for many different types of oil. Studies have demonstrated that the removal rate for standard mineral and crude oils from wastewater using peat was 83 and 70 per cent. Applications of commercial peat to the surface of oily contaminated waters resulted in oil removal efficiencies of 99.998 per cent. It was concluded that peat is an effective, low-cost material for removing contaminants from domestic waste water and oil-contaminated water. The peat can also be used as a secondary energy source after the sorption process. While peat is an abundant resource in Canada, the resource is found mainly in wetlands. Effective harvesting strategies should be used to ensure the environmental sustainability of peat filtration systems. 38 refs., 1 tab

  9. Comparability of Accounting Choices in Future Valuation of Investment Properties: An Analysis of Brazilian and Portuguese Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaida Êmine Alves de Souza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the main purposes for adopting the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS is the quest for comparability between financial statements within the same country, over time, and between different countries. IFRS have the feature of allowing accounting choices in most of their standards. However, the existence of such flexibility in the process for recognizing, measuring, and disclosing as sets and liabilities may impact on comparability. IFRS have been criticized both due to their accounting choices and the adoption of the fair value paradigm. This article examines these two issues, investigating the choice of the cost model versus the choice of the fair value model for investment properties (IPs, an option guaranteed under the terms of the International Accounting Standard (IAS 40. This research aimed to identify the comparability degree and the factors that determine the accounting choices made by managers of IPs, in Brazilian and Portuguese listed companies, within the periods from 2010 to 2012. Comparability, within and between countries, was identified by the T-index and the search for the determining factors of accounting choices made by managers was performed by means of a logistic re gression analysis. As a result, it was found that, despite the accounting choices allowed by IAS 40, there was a mean comparability between the accounting practices of firms in these countries, but showing a decrease in the index over the years. The explanatory factors identified were auditing by one of the big four (PricewaterhouseCoopers, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, KPMG, or Ernst & Young, companies' indeb tedness, relative importance of IPs' balance, net profit, and less experience of Brazil in using the fair value method to appraise IPs.

  10. An Analysis of Adopting RFID in the Brazilian Air Force Uniform Sales System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    RFID research: an academic literature review (1995–2005) and future research directions. International Journal of Production Economics 112(2...management. International Journal of Production Economics , 128(1), 77. Stokey, E., and Zeckhauser, R. (1978). A primer for policy analysis. New

  11. Extended genetic analysis of Brazilian isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Zahner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple locus sequence typing (MLST was undertaken to extend the genetic characterization of 29 isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis previously characterized in terms of presence/absence of sequences encoding virulence factors and via variable number tandem repeat (VNTR. Additional analysis involved polymerase chain reaction for the presence of sequences (be, cytK, inA, pag, lef, cya and cap, encoding putative virulence factors, not investigated in the earlier study. MLST analysis ascribed novel and unique sequence types to each of the isolates. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from a single sequence of 2,838 bp of concatenated loci sequences. The strains were not monophyletic by analysis of any specific housekeeping gene or virulence characteristic. No clear association in relation to source of isolation or to genotypic profile based on the presence or absence of putative virulence genes could be identified. Comparison of VNTR profiling with MLST data suggested a correlation between these two methods of genetic analysis. In common with the majority of previous studies, MLST was unable to provide clarification of the basis for pathogenicity among members of the B. cereus complex. Nevertheless, our application of MLST served to reinforce the notion that B. cereus and B. thuringiensis should be considered as the same species.

  12. Neutron activation analysis for chemical characterization of Brazilian oxo-biodegradable plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus Eugenio Boscaro; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Luis Gustavo Cofani dos Santos; Cofani dos Santos, S.N.S.; Sandra Mara Martins-Franchetti

    2015-01-01

    The chemical characterization of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags was performed by neutron activation analysis. The presence of several chemical elements (As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Ta and Zn) with large variability of mass fractions amongst samples indicates that these plastics receive additives and may have been contaminated during manufacturing process thereby becoming potential environmental pollutants. (author)

  13. Process for distilling shales, peats, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felizat, G

    1922-01-09

    The invention has for its object: a process for the distillation of shales, peats, and analogous products characterized by injecting across the substance a very rapid stream of superheated steam under pressure in order to effect a rapid removal of the products of distillation, to lower also the temperature at which it distills, to equalize the temperature throughout the mass, to hydrogenate the heavy hydrocarbons. An apparatus is put into operation characterized by the combination of a retort receiving the material to be distilled with a superheater for the steam, the combustion products which escape from the hearth of the superheater going to encircle the retort while the steam which comes off the superheater traverses this retort, the pressure of the steam being regulated by a convenient regulator; the products of the distillation result from the simultaneous action of the hot gases and steam on the contents of the retort being, on the other hand, separated at the outlet of this retort by means of cooling in a gas separator, a condenser, and part of the gas after being separated serving to heat the mentioned superheater.

  14. Are ant assemblages of Brazilian veredas characterised by location or habitat type?

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-Milanez,CB; Lourenço-Silva,G; Castro,PTA; Majer,JD; Ribeiro,SP

    2014-01-01

    Wetland areas in the Brazilian Cerrado, known as “veredas”, represent ecosystems formed on sandy soils with high concentrations of peat, and are responsible for the recharge of aquiferous reservoirs. They are currently under threat by various human activities, most notably the clearing of vegetation for Eucalyptus plantations. Despite their ecological importance and high conservation value, little is known about the actual effects of human disturbance on the animal community. To a...

  15. Increased tree establishment in Lithuanian peat bogs--insights from field and remotely sensed approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Johannes; Šimanauskienė, Rasa; Taminskas, Julius; Baužienė, Ieva; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-02-01

    Over the past century an ongoing establishment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), sometimes at accelerating rates, is noted at three studied Lithuanian peat bogs, namely Kerėplis, Rėkyva and Aukštumala, all representing different degrees of tree coverage and geographic settings. Present establishment rates seem to depend on tree density on the bog surface and are most significant at sparsely covered sites where about three-fourth of the trees have established since the mid-1990s, whereas the initial establishment in general was during the early to mid-19th century. Three methods were used to detect, compare and describe tree establishment: (1) tree counts in small plots, (2) dendrochronological dating of bog pine trees, and (3) interpretation of aerial photographs and historical maps of the study areas. In combination, the different approaches provide complimentary information but also weigh up each other's drawbacks. Tree counts in plots provided a reasonable overview of age class distributions and enabled capturing of the most recently established trees with ages less than 50 years. The dendrochronological analysis yielded accurate tree ages and a good temporal resolution of long-term changes. Tree establishment and spread interpreted from aerial photographs and historical maps provided a good overview of tree spread and total affected area. It also helped to verify the results obtained with the other methods and an upscaling of findings to the entire peat bogs. The ongoing spread of trees in predominantly undisturbed peat bogs is related to warmer and/or drier climatic conditions, and to a minor degree to land-use changes. Our results therefore provide valuable insights into vegetation changes in peat bogs, also with respect to bog response to ongoing and future climatic changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of Sago Palm, Oil Palm, and Paddy Cultivated on Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarining Wulan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Sago Palm, Oil Palm, and Paddy Cultivated on Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarining Wulan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.

  18. The use of plant-specific pyrolysis products as biomarkers in peat deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Judith; Bradley, Jonathan A.; Kuyper, Thomas W.; Fraga, Isabel; Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo; Abbott, Geoffrey D.; Buurman, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Peatlands are archives of environmental change that can be driven by climate and human activity. Proxies for peatland vegetation composition provide records of (local) environmental conditions that can be linked to both autogenic and allogenic factors. Analytical pyrolysis offers a molecular fingerprint of peat, and thereby a suite of environmental proxies. Here we investigate analytical pyrolysis as a method for biomarker analysis. Pyrolysates of 48 peatland plant species were compared, comprising seventeen lichens, three Sphagnum species, four non-Sphagnum mosses, eleven graminoids (Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, Poaceae), five Ericaceae and six species from other families. This resulted in twenty-one potential biomarkers, including new markers for lichens (3-methoxy-5-methylphenol) and graminoids (ferulic acid methyl ester). The potential of the identified biomarkers to reconstruct vegetation composition is discussed according to their depth records in cores from six peatlands from boreal, temperate and tropical biomes. The occurrence of markers for Sphagnum, graminoids and lichens in all six studied peat deposits indicates that they persist in peat of thousands of years old, in different vegetation types and under different conditions. In order to facilitate the quantification of biomarkers from pyrolysates, typically expressed as proportion (%) of the total quantified pyrolysis products, an internal standard (5-α-androstane) was introduced. Depth records of the Sphagnum marker 4-isopropenylphenol from the upper 3 m of a Sphagnum-dominated peat, from samples analysed with and without internal standard showed a strong positive correlation (r2 = 0.72, P use of analytical pyrolysis in biomarker research by avoiding quantification of a high number of products.

  19. Restructuring of a peat in interaction with multivalent cations: effect of cation type and aging time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunhi Mouvenchery, Yamuna; Jaeger, Alexander; Aquino, Adelia J A; Tunega, Daniel; Diehl, Dörte; Bertmer, Marko; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2013-01-01

    It is assumed to be common knowledge that multivalent cations cross-link soil organic matter (SOM) molecules via cation bridges (CaB). The concept has not been explicitly demonstrated in solid SOM by targeted experiments, yet. Therefore, the requirements for and characteristics of CaB remain unidentified. In this study, a combined experimental and molecular modeling approach was adopted to investigate the interaction of cations on a peat OM from physicochemical perspective. Before treatment with salt solutions of Al(3+), Ca(2+) or Na(+), respectively, the original exchangeable cations were removed using cation exchange resin. Cation treatment was conducted at two different values of pH prior to adjusting pH to 4.1. Cation sorption is slower (>2 h) than deprotonation of functional groups (cation addition and decreased with increasing cation valency. Sorption coefficients were similar for all cations and at both pH. This contradicts the general expectations for electrostatic interactions, suggesting that not only the interaction chemistry but also spatial distribution of functional groups in OM determines binding of cations in this peat. The reaction of contact angle, matrix rigidity due to water molecule bridges (WaMB) and molecular mobility of water (NMR analysis) suggested that cross-linking via CaB has low relevance in this peat. This unexpected finding is probably due to the low cation exchange capacity, resulting in low abundance of charged functionalities. Molecular modeling demonstrates that large average distances between functionalities (∼3 nm in this peat) cannot be bridged by CaB-WaMB associations. However, aging strongly increased matrix rigidity, suggesting successive increase of WaMB size to connect functionalities and thus increasing degree of cross-linking by CaB-WaMB associations. Results thus demonstrated that the physicochemical structure of OM is decisive for CaB and aging-induced structural reorganisation can enhance cross-link formation.

  20. Effect of residual monomer from polyacrylamide on head lettuce grown in peat substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Ewelina; Kleiber, Tomasz; Konieczny, Piotr; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the migration of the acrylamide monomer (AMD) to lettuce chosen as a test plant growing in an organic medium (peat substrate). Polyacrylamide (PAM)-based flocculant added to the growing medium contained no more than 1000 mg kg(-1) of AMD. Plants were grown with varied doses of PAM preparation (0.5-3.0 mg dm(-3) of peat substrate) to compare the results with the control sample. The determination of AMD content, chlorophyll content, weight of the lettuce head, and also analysis of macro- and micro-elements in lyophilised test material was made under the same analytical conditions. The results showed that lettuce plants absorb AMD to the leaves from the peat substrate. The AMD uptake has a negative impact on the growth of lettuce. It reduces the average fresh weight of heads and destabilises the mineral composition of the plant. Therefore, concern related to the transfer risk of the residual AMD from sludge used for organic fertilisation of edible plants still remains a crucial question from a food and consumer safety point of view. To ensure consumer safety, the fate of the AMD following the application of PAM to cropland should be carefully monitored in the whole food chain.

  1. Production of activated carbon from peat. A techno-economic feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K; Asplund, D; Ekman, E

    1984-05-01

    The production of activated carbon from peat was studied both with laboratory and pilot plant experiments in a fluidized-bed furnace. Peat coke was mainly used as raw material, and it was gasified partially with steam to granular activated carbon. The activated carbon grades produced were evaluated on the basis of physical characteristics, for example, volume weight, hardness, specific surface, and pore structure. The proximated analysis of activated carbon crush produced from peat coke: volume weight 220-260 g/l, specific surface 700-1100 msup/g, ash content 13-15%. The physical properties of the produced activated carbon grades were equal to those of commercial carbon brands. On the basis of these trial runs, an activated carbon plant for capacities of 400 t/a and 1500 t/a was preliminary designed adn the use of the fluidized-bed furnace for regenerating activated carbon was evaluated. The initial investment in the production plant was estimated to amount to FIM 3.5 mill. and FIM 5.9 mill. The refund periods of the basic alternatives would be 26 and 2 years, and the minimum capacity of profitable production 900 t/a.

  2. Application of neutron activation analysis to the monitoring of trace elements in Brazilian foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Munita, C.J.S.; Maihara, V.A.; Abe, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The work of the group of the Radiochemistry Division on food analysis started with milk powder and bread samples, since these foodstuffs are largely consumed by the population of Sao Paulo (Brazil). Both instrumental and radiochemical NAA techniques were employed, allowing the determination of the elements Na, Cl, Mn, Br, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sb, Se, Cr, Al, Mg, Cu and La. Nuclear techniques for toxic elements in foodstuffs, were applied more specifically to the analysis of rice, specially for Hg and Se. A radiochemical separation procedure was developed for the determination of these two elements, at the ppb level, based on distillation and precipitation. INAA was applied to determine As, Br, Na, K, Rb and Zn, as well. 3 tabs

  3. Line shape and thermal Kinetics analysis of the Fe2+ -band in Brazilian Green beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotani, S.; Furtado, W.; Antonini, R.; Dias, O.L.

    1988-03-01

    The optical absorption spectra study through isothermal treatments of the σ- and Π-polarized bands of Fe 2+ -band is reported. It was shown a linear correlation between these bands through thermal treatments. Irradiation with γ-rays from 60 Co, showed the decrease of this band. The line shape analysis and the discussions lend us to assign the Π- and σ-polarized bands to Fe 2+ ions in the structural channels with and without neighbour water molecules, respectively. The kinetics analysis through a ''bimolecular-like'' model gives untrapping parameter with Arrhenius behavior. The retrapping and recombination parameters showed a behavior proportional to T 1/2 - T 1/2 o which were explained from free electron distribution of velocities and minimum untrapped electron energy due to a potential barrier of the trap. The kinetics cut-off temperature, T 0 , agrees with the previous experimental observation. (author) [pt

  4. INMETRO products analysis program: impact on quality of the brazilian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos André Borges

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective is to proceed a detailed analysis of the Products Analysis Program of Inmetro, evaluating its contribution to the suppliers of products and services. The relevance of this program - a governmental initiative financed with public resources that relates several sectors of the society – as a factor of incentive to the competitiveness of the national industry, can be evidenced by the research of the impact generated by this activity, translated in improvement actions to the analyzed products and services that aim at the correction of eventual non-conformity to the criteria set in standards and technical regulations related to health and safety. Several sectors in industry have been benefited with the creation or revision of standards, implementation of industry quality programs, voluntary or mandatory conformity assessment programs, and others. The consequences include, beyond the protection of the consumers, the increase of national industry competitiveness and domestic market strength, and the warranty of loyal competition between the suppliers. Key-words: Product Analysis, Quality, Inmetro.

  5. Hybrid multidimensional design for heterogeneous data supported by ontological analysis: an application case in the Brazilian electric system operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, João; Cordeiro, Kelli; Campos, Maria Luiza M.; Borges, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    An issue in operating a national electric system is how the corporate image of an Independent System Operator (ISO) can be impacted by disturbances in the system and their related news publications from specialized press. To deal with it, a solution was developed in the context of the Brazilian

  6. Peat-accumulating depositional systems of Sarawak, East Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, James R.; Esterle, Joan S.

    1994-02-01

    Many coal deposits originate in deltaic, estuarine, and coastal plain settings and a knowledge of interrelationships between the tectonic and depositional elements active at the time of sediment deposition is necessary to formulate basin scale models. The prograding coastal depositional systems of Sarawak all contain domed peat-accumulating environments in which low-ash, low-sulfur peats are being deposited in areas of active clastic siliciclastic sedimentation. These depositional systems are as large as 11,400 km 2 and individual peat deposits within systems are in excess of 20 m thick and 1000 km 2 in area. The geographic positions and drainage basin areas of each depositional system are controlled by fault and fold systems. Although prograding into the same receiving basin, individual system geomorphology is variable and ranges from a wave-dominated microtidal delta, to a wave-dominated meso- to macro-tidal delta/coastal plain system, to a tide-dominated macrotidal estuarine embayment along a 450 km stretch of coastline. System variation is a function of sediment supply, shelf and embayment geometry, wave climate, and tidal range. These factors, which control depositional system geomorphology, also control the resulting long axis orientation of the thick, domed peat deposits. The surface vegetation and internal characteristics of most domed peat deposits, however, are similar. Internal characteristics consist of basal high-ash, high-sulfur, degraded peats overlain by low-ash, low-sulfur, well preserved peats in vertical profile. These systems demonstrate variable responses to late Pleistocene/Holocene sea-level rise and, in these instances, the variation is most attributable to local differences in siliciclastic sediment supply, which is a function of the drainage basin area.

  7. Multi-criteria analysis for municipal solid waste management in a Brazilian metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Simone Machado; Silva, Maisa Mendonça; Melo, Renata Maciel; Gavazza, Savia; Florencio, Lourdinha; Kato, Mario T

    2017-10-15

    The decision-making process involved in municipal solid waste management (MSWM) must consider more than just financial aspects, which makes it a difficult task in developing countries. The Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR) in the Northeast of Brazil faces a MSWM problem that has been ongoing since the 1970s, with no common solution. In order to direct short-term solutions, three MSWM alternatives were outlined for the RMR, considering the current and future situations, the time and cost involved and social/environmental criteria. A multi-criteria approach, based on the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE), was proposed to rank these alternatives. The alternative that included two private landfill sites and seven transfer, sorting and composting stations was confirmed as the most suitable and stable option for short-term MSWM, considering the two scenarios for the criteria weights. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to support the robustness of the results. The implementation of separate collections would minimize the amount of waste buried, while maximizing the useful life of landfill sites and increasing the timeframe of the alternative. Overall, the multi-criteria analysis was helpful and accurate during the alternative selection process, considering the similarities and restrictions of each option, which can lead to difficulties during the decision-making process.

  8. GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF MANGABA (Hancornia speciosa Gomes, AN EXOTIC BRAZILIAN TROPICAL SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Veruska Cruz da Silva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty genotypes from natural population of mangaba located in Itaporanga D’Ajuda (Sergipe state - Brazil were subjected to analysis using RAPD markers. Polymorphism, genetic diversity and structure parameters were determined to characterize the differences between plants. 60 DNA fragments were generated by 10 primers, 85% of which were polymorphic. Results show a quantitative genetic diversity value of 0.35 and a Shannon index of 0.46 in the population. The similarity among the specimens according to Jaccard’s coefficient ranged from 0.36 to 0.87. Using cluster analysis it was possible to indentify five groups. Three individuals also stand out since they presented significant divergence from the groups. The PCoA formed four groups, with three of the groups isolated from the others. This investigation showed that genetic diversity was relatively large among these individuals. In addition, the results demonstrated that RAPD markers are a useful tool for evaluating the genetic diversity and relationships among mangaba.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Performance Measures for Network Screening: A Case Study of Brazilian Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Jamille Mesquita Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall effectiveness of the roadway safety management process relies on a robust method for identifying and ranking sites with major potential for safety improvements. In Brazil, guidelines for hotspot identification are usually based only on crash frequency and Crash Rate as safety performance measures. This study presents a comparative analysis of safety performance measures, considering its limitations of applicability in a sample of signalized intersections from Fortaleza city, Brazil. The performance of each measure to rank the sample intersection was obtained through the rank difference between each safety performance measure and the Excess Expected Average Crash Frequency with EB Adjustment (EEB. In addition, it has taken a temporal analysis based on the consistency of safety performance measures during subsequent time periods. The results have suggested a reasonable matching between the most comprehensive safety performance measure (EEB and very simple safety performance measures such as crash frequency and Crash Rate. It is recommended to investigate the consistency of the results for longer observation period as well as for a different jurisdiction in Brazil.

  10. Determination of Uranium and Thorium in Brazilian coals by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernedo, L.F.B.

    1981-08-01

    An experimental technique for the determination of uranium and thorium in coal by epithermal neutron activation was developed and systemized. Seventeen different coal samples, six copper monitors for neutron flux corrections and three NBS standard coal samples were irradiated together in a cadmium cylinder. Uranium and thorium were determined by measuring the 239 N sub(p) and 233 P sub(a) activities respectively, being both produced in (n,γ) reactions and subsequent β - decay. The 239 N sub(p) was measured by counting the 106.4 KeV γ-ray in a LEPS detector and the 233 P sub(a) by counting the 311.8 KeV γ-ray, but in a Ge(Li) detector. A 4096 multichannel analizer and a PDP-11 computer complemented the basic measuring equipment. An average precision of 3% was obtained in the analysis of seventeen coal samples coming from different strata and heights of Charqueadas and Morungava mines in Rio Grande do Sul State. The sensitivity of the method is around 100 ppb. This technique will allow determinations of up to twenty elements, besides uranium and thorium, and it can be applied in routine analysis. (Author) [pt

  11. Pollen analysis in honey samples from the two main producing regions in the Brazilian northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodré, Geni da S; Marchini, Luís C; Carvalho, Carlos A L de; Moreti, Augusta C de C C

    2007-09-01

    Knowledge about the botanical source of honey is very important for the beekeeper while it indicates adequate and abundant supply sources of nectar and pollen for the bees, thus contributing toward improved yield. The present study means to identify the pollen types occurring in 58 samples of honey produced in two states of the northeastern region of Brazil, Piauí (38 samples) and Ceará (20 samples), and to verify the potential of the honey plants during the months of February to August. The samples were obtained directly from beekeepers in each state and analyzed at the Apiculture Laboratory of the Entomology Section of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The pollen analysis was performed using the acetolysis method. The samples were submitted to both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis. The dominant pollen in the State of Ceará is from Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Borreria verticillata, Serjania sp., and a Fabaceae pollen type, while in the State of Piauí it is from Piptadenia sp., M. caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Croton urucurana and Tibouchina sp.

  12. Assessing heavy metal sources in sugarcane Brazilian soils: an approach using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Fernando Bruno Vieira; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Araújo, Paula Renata Muniz; da Silva, Luiz Henrique Vieira; da Silva, Roberto Felipe

    2016-08-01

    Brazil is the world's largest sugarcane producer and soils in the northeastern part of the country have been cultivated with the crop for over 450 years. However, so far, there has been no study on the status of heavy metal accumulation in these long-history cultivated soils. To fill the gap, we collect soil samples from 60 sugarcane fields in order to determine the contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. We used multivariate analysis to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources of these metals in soils. Analytical determinations were performed in ICP-OES after microwave acid solution digestion. Mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 1.9, 18.8, 6.4, 4.9, 11.2, and 16.2 mg kg(-1), respectively. The principal component one was associated with lithogenic origin and comprised the metals Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Cluster analysis confirmed that 68 % of the evaluated sites have soil heavy metal concentrations close to the natural background. The Cd concentration (principal component two) was clearly associated with anthropogenic sources with P fertilization being the most likely source of Cd to soils. On the other hand, the third component (Pb concentration) indicates a mixed origin for this metal (natural and anthropogenic); hence, Pb concentrations are probably related not only to the soil parent material but also to industrial emissions and urbanization in the vicinity of the agricultural areas.

  13. Non-destructive methods for peat layer assessment in oligotrophic peat bogs: a case study from Poiana Ştampei, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana F. Gheorghe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Practices currently employed in the investigation and characterisation of peat deposits are destructive and may irremediable perturb peat bog development even in cases when exploitation is not carried out. We investigated the correlation between vegetation characteristics in the active area of Poiana Ştampei peat bog, Romania, and the underlying peat layer depth, aiming at establishing a non-destructive method of peat layer depth estimation. The presence of the Sphagneto-Eriophoretum vaginati association, dominated by Sphagnum fimbriatum, Eriophorum vaginatum, Andromeda polifolia, Vaccinium oxycoccos, V. myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Polytrichum commune, Picea excelsa, Pinus sylvestris and Betula verrucosa was found to predict the existence of the peat layer but not its depth. Out of the seven identified vegetation types, one type was associated with a very thin or no peat layer, one type was characterised by the presence of a thick (over 100 cm peat layer and five types indicated the presence of variable average depths of the peat layer. pH values correlated with peat layer depth only within the vegetation type associated with thick peat layers.

  14. Aspects of incidence of convergence telejournalism: analysis of fragments of context instances Brazilian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Joseane da Cunha Klein

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This text reflects on the affectations of mediatization on the field of journalism in the context of digital convergence, considering changes in news production, shift in the relationship of the actors in the field and with the reception. The text makes preliminary considerations on the ways in which television journalism interacts with digital tools - from partial analysis of how television program Profession Reporter uses such tools. Also stressed are two cases on the affectation of the social uses of digital media on the television news: the first, linked to the impact of a Profession Reporter edition on domestic violence (2009, the second, the impact of a case highlighted in social networks in TV journalism. Thus, we consider the issues of communication circulation, accentuated by digital convergence

  15. Media and Public Communications Policies: An Empirical Analysis of the Brazilian Print Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Canela

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines a subject rarely emphasized in the studies on public interest issues reported in the print media. Drawing on a review of the journalistic content produced by 53 newspapers from every state in the federation and 4 national weekly magazines, the paper analyzes a sample of 1,184 articles, editorials, columns, interviews, and reports on subjects of immediate interest to the media, journalism, and/or media companies. Throughout 2003, 2004, and 2005, news pieces were compiled containing keywords, including “media and democracy,” “concentration of ownership,” “television regulation.” The analysis found that the print media provides insufcient and inadequate coverage of these issues, reserving more extensive coverage only to those questions nearest and dearest to it, such as the freedom of expression.

  16. Use of multivariate and neutron activation analysis on studying element interrelationships in Brazilian phosphorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, J.U.; Carvalho, J.L.S.; Tauhata, L.

    1993-01-01

    Methods to determine U, Th and other constituent elements in mineral matrices through Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), have been widely utilized due to their capability to extract a large quantity of information from small samples. In the present work, an experimental methodology based on INAA associated to the cluster statistics technique was used to determine the uranium concentration and its correlation with other elements present in the mineral phosphorites from the northeast region of Brazil. Data for 22 elements including rare-earth elements are presented. A good correlation between uranium and rare-earth elements is observed. For the transition metals, correlation with uranium was not noted. (author) 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Determination of inorganic components in Brazilian medicinal plants by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Sertie, J.A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determinations of medicinal extracts obtained from the plants Cordia verbenacea DC, Folidago microglossa DC, and Petiveria alliacea. Concentrations of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, and Zn have been determined in dried extracts of these herbs by short and long irradiations under a thermal neutron flux of 10 11 -10 13 n/cm 2 s in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. The NBS Tea Leaves (1572) and NIES Pepperbush reference materials were analyzed simultaneously with the plant extracts. The results obtained in these analyses have shown a good accuracy and reproducibility of the method. The relative errors and the relative standard deviations were less than 10% for most of the elements analyzed

  18. Multielemental analysis of Brazilian milk powder and bread samples by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of Na, Cl, Mn, Br, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Cr, Al and Mg were determined in some types of bread and in some brands of milk powder consumed in the city of Sao Paulo (SP - Brasil), by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Radiochemical separations were carried out by means of retention of 24 Na on hydrated antimony pentoxide (HAP) from a 8N HCl solution, after digestion of the organic matter. Thus the radioisotopes 64 Cu, 69m Zn and 140 La could be determined in the effluent solution. The detection limits of the trace elements analyzed in bread and milk powder samples were determined using the Currie and Girardi criterions. (author) 22 refs.; 2 figs.; 7 tabs

  19. Determination of inorganic components in Brazilian medicinal plants by neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M; Vasconcellos, M B; Sertié, J A

    1990-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determinations of medicinal extracts obtained from the plants. Cordia Verbenacea DC, Folidago Microglossa DC, and Petiveria Alliacea. Concentrations of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, and Zn have been determined in dried extracts of these herbs by short and long irradiations under a thermal neutron flux of 10(11)-10(13) n/cm2s in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. The NBS Tea Leaves (1572) and NIES Pepperbush (1) reference materials were analyzed simultaneously with the plant extracts. The results obtained in these analyses have shown a good accuracy and reproducibility of the method. The relative errors and the relative standard deviations were less than 10% for most of the elements analyzed.

  20. Metabolomic analysis applied to chemosystematics and evolution of megadiverse Brazilian Vernonieae (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallon, Marília Elias; Monge, Marcelo; Casoti, Rosana; Da Costa, Fernando Batista; Semir, João; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo

    2018-06-01

    Vernonia sensu lato is the largest and most complex genus of the tribe Vernonieae (Asteraceae). The tribe is chemically characterized by the presence of sesquiterpene lactones and flavonoids. Over the years, several taxonomic classifications have been proposed for Vernonia s.l. and for the tribe; however, there has been no consensus among the researches. According to traditional classification, Vernonia s.l. comprises more than 1000 species divided into sections, subsections and series (sensu Bentham). In a more recent classification, these species have been segregated into other genera and some subtribes were proposed, while the genus Vernonia sensu stricto was restricted to 22 species distributed mainly in North America (sensu Robinson). In this study, species from the subtribes Vernoniinae, Lepidaploinae and Rolandrinae were analyzed by UHPLC-UV-HRMS followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Data mining was performed using unsupervised (HCA and PCA) and supervised methods (OPLS-DA). The HCA showed the segregation of the species into four main groups. Comparing the HCA with taxonomical classifications of Vernonieae, we observed that the groups of the dendogram, based on metabolic profiling, were in accordance with the generic classification proposed by Robinson and with previous phylogenetic studies. The species of the genera Stenocephalum, Stilpnopappus, Strophopappus and Rolandra (Group 1) were revealed to be more related to the species of the genus Vernonanthura (Group 2), while the genera Cyrtocymura, Chrysolaena and Echinocoryne (Group 3) were chemically more similar to the genera Lessingianthus and Lepidaploa (Group 4). These findings indicated that the subtribes Vernoniinae and Lepidaploinae are non-chemically homogeneous groups and highlighted the application of untargeted metabolomic tools for taxonomy and as indicators of species evolution. Discriminant compounds for the groups obtained by OPLS-DA were determined. Groups 1 and 2 were characterized

  1. Pollen analysis in honey samples from the two main producing regions in the Brazilian northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni da S. Sodré

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the botanical source of honey is very important for the beekeeper while it indicates adequate and abundant supply sources of nectar and pollen for the bees, thus contributing toward improved yield. The present study means to identify the pollen types occurring in 58 samples of honey produced in two states of the northeastern region of Brazil, Piauí (38 samples and Ceará (20 samples, and to verify the potential of the honey plants during the months of February to August. The samples were obtained directly from beekeepers in each state and analyzed at the Apiculture Laboratory of the Entomology Section of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The pollen analysis was performed using the acetolysis method. The samples were submitted to both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis. The dominant pollen in the State of Ceará is from Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Borreria verticillata, Serjania sp., and a Fabaceae pollen type, while in the State of Piauí it is from Piptadenia sp., M. caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Croton urucurana and Tibouchina sp.O conhecimento da origem botânica do mel é de grande importância para o apicultor por indicar fontes adequadas e de abundante suprimento de néctar e pólen para as abelhas, contribuindo, desta forma, para uma melhor produção. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar os tipos polínicos em 58 amostras de méis produzidos em dois estados da região nordeste do Brasil, Piauí (38 amostras e Ceará (20 amostras, verificando o potencial das plantas apícolas durante os meses de fevereiro a agosto. As amostras foram obtidas diretamente de apicultores de cada Estado e analisadas no Laboratório de Apicultura do Setor de Entomologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo. A análise polínica foi realizada utilizando-se o método da acetólise. As amostras foram

  2. RETENTION TIME EFFECT ON METAL REMOVAL BY PEAT COLUMNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E

    2007-02-28

    The potential use of a peat bed to treat the H-12 Outfall discharge to bring it to new compliance limits was previously investigated and reported utilizing a 7 hour retention time. The influence of retention time (contact time) of water with peat moss on the removal of copper from the water was investigated under laboratory conditions using vertical flow peat moss columns. Reduction of the necessary retention time has a large influence on the design sizing of any peat bed that would be constructed to treat the H-12 discharge on a full scale basis. Retention times of 5 hours, 3 hours and 1 hour were tested to determine the copper removal by the peat columns using vertical flow. Water samples were collected after 4, 8, 12, and 16 water volumes had passed through the columns and analyzed for a suite of metals, with quantitative emphasis on copper. Laboratory results indicated that copper removal was very high at each of the 3 retention times tested, ranging from 99.6 % removal at 5 and 3 hours to 98.8% removal at 1 hour. All these values are much lower that the new compliance limit for the outfall. The results also indicated that most divalent metals were removed to their normal reporting detection limit for the analytical methods used, including zinc. Lead levels in the H-12 discharge used in this study were below PQL in all samples analyzed. While each of the retention times studied removed copper very well, there were indications that 1 hour is probably too short for an operational, long-term facility. At that retention time, there was about 6% compaction of the peat in the column due to the water velocity, and this may affect long term hydraulic conductivity of the peat bed. At that retention time, copper concentration in the effluent was higher than the other times tested, although still very low. Because of the potential compacting and somewhat reduced removal efficiency at a 1 hour retention time, it would be prudent to design to at least a 3 hour retention

  3. Regional Haze Evolved from Peat Fires - an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuqi; Rein, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    This work provides an overview of haze episodes, their cause, emissions and health effects found in the scientific literature. Peatlands, the terrestrial ecosystems resulting from the accumulation of partially decayed vegetation, become susceptible to smouldering fires because of natural droughts or anthropogenic-induced drainages. Once ignited, smouldering peat fires persistently consume large amounts of soil carbon in a flameless form. It is estimated that the average annual carbon gas emissions (mainly CO2 and CO) from peat fires are equivalent to 15% of manmade emissions, representing influential perturbation of global carbon circle. In addition to carbon emissions, smouldering peat fires emit substantial quantities of heterogeneous smoke, which is responsible for haze phenomena, has not yet been fully studied. Peat-fire-derived smoke is characterized by high concentration of particulate matter (PM), ranging from nano-scale ultrafine fraction (PM1, particle diameter condition, and then low buoyant smoke plume could accumulate and migrate long distances, leading to regional haze. Apart from air quality deterioration, haze leads to severe reduction in visibility, which strongly affects local transportation, construction, tourism and agriculture-based industries. For example, an unprecedented peatland mega-fire burst on the Indonesian islands Kalimantan and Sumatra during the 1997 El-Niño event, resulting in transboundary smoke-haze disaster. Severe haze events continue to appear in Southeast Asia every few years due to periodical peat fires in this region. In addition, smouldering peat fires have been frequently reported in tropical, temperate and boreal regions (Botswana in 2000, North America in 2004, Scotland in 2006 and Central Russia in 2010 et al.), peat-fire-induced haze has become a regional seasonal phenomenon. Exposure to smoky haze results in deleterious physiologic responses, predominantly to the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In 1997, an

  4. An Analysis of the Influence of Controlling Shareholder Identity over Earnings Informativeness on Brazilian Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vicente Prazeres

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to investigate the influence of controlling shareholder identity over earnings informativeness and to contribute empirically on the advance on the understanding of the agency conflict between controlling shareholders and minority investors through the lens of value relevance. The research sample considered 104 shares of non-financial firms negotiated on BM&FBovespa from 2011 to 2016. The methodology was conducted through panel data regression analysis. As results, this paper concludes with the following findings: i the higher the control/vote power of controlling shareholder (ownership concentration and the lower the stock liquidity, the less informative are the earnings and the greater is the probability of entrenchment and wealth expropriation by controlling shareholders; ii larger firms and highly leveraged firms have more informative earnings; iii the stock prices reflect the controlling shareholder identity; iv Firms controlled by financial institutions, nonfinancial institutions and the government are much more likely to expropriate minority investors wealth and have less informative earnings; v family firms are positively priced by the market.

  5. X-ray fluorescence and computed radiography analysis of a famous brazilian painting from XIX century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calza, Cristiane; Oliveira, Davi F.; Rocha, Henrique S.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu

    2009-01-01

    This work used Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Computed Radiography (CR) to evaluate the general conditions of the painting 'Gioventu' (Eliseu Visconti, 1898), identifying possible problems, areas that revealed signs of previous retouchings and the pigments used by the artist. EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 with W anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 μA, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. Several spectra were obtained in each color, with an acquisition time of 300 s and a beam collimation of 2 mm. The spectra were analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL (IAEA). The results revealed that the drawings were made over a preparatory layer of lead white. Some pigments identified were: yellow, red and brown ochre; umbra; vermilion; cobalt blue; etc. The experimental setup used in the CR analysis consisted of an Oxford X-ray source, operating at 50 kV and 200 μA, placed at 85 cm from the painting, a GE CR 50P portable computed radiography scanner and a Fuji imaging plate detector. The exposure time was 600 s. The radiographic images revealed that the painting was in a good state of conservation and also a complete composition hidden underneath the visible paint layer.(author)

  6. Operational Practices and Financial Performance: an Empirical Analysis of Brazilian Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís de Castro Moura Duarte

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the operations management field, operational practices like total quality management or just in time have been seen as a way to improve operational performance and ultimately financial performance. Empirical support for this effect of operational practices in financial performance has been, however, limited due to research design and the inherent difficulties of using performance as a dependent variable. In this paper, we tested the relationship between selected operational practices (quality management, just in time, ISO certification and services outsourcing in financial performance outcomes of profitability and growth. A sample of 1200 firms, operating in São Paulo, Brazil, was used. Analysis using multiple regression explored the direct effect of practices and their interaction with industry dummies. Results did not support the existence of a positive relationship with financial performance. A negative relationship of outsourcing with both profitability and growth was found, supporting some critical views of the outsourcing practice. A weaker negative relationship between ISO certification and growth was also found. Some interactions between practices and industries were also significant, with mixed results, indicating that the effect of practices on performance might be context dependent.

  7. Background noise analysis in urban airport surroundings of Brazilian cities, Congonhas Airport, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Scatolini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To perform a quantitative analysis of the background noise at Congonhas Airport surroundings based on large sampling and measurements with no interruption. METHODS Measuring sites were chosen from 62 and 72 DNL (day-night-level noise contours, in urban sites compatible with residential use. Fifteen sites were monitored for at least 168 hours without interruption or seven consecutive days. Data compilation was based on cross-reference between noise measurements and air traffic control records, and results were validated by airport meteorological reports. Preliminary diagnoses were established using the standard NBR-13368. Background noise values were calculated based on the Sound Exposure Level (SEL. Statistic parameters were calculated in one-hour intervals. RESULTS Only four of the fifteen sites assessed presented aircraft operations as a clear cause for the noise annoyance. Even so, it is possible to detect background noise levels above regulation limits during periods of low airport activity or when it closes at night. CONCLUSIONS All the sites monitored showed background noise levels above regulation limits between 7:00 and 21:00. In the intervals between 6:00-6:59 and 21:00-22:59 the noise data, when analyzed with the current airport operational characteristics, still allow the development of additional mitigating measures.

  8. X-ray fluorescence and computed radiography analysis of a famous brazilian painting from XIX century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calza, Cristiane; Oliveira, Davi F.; Rocha, Henrique S.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear], e-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br; Pedreira, Andrea [Museu Nacional de Belas Artes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work used Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Computed Radiography (CR) to evaluate the general conditions of the painting 'Gioventu' (Eliseu Visconti, 1898), identifying possible problems, areas that revealed signs of previous retouchings and the pigments used by the artist. EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 with W anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 {mu}A, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. Several spectra were obtained in each color, with an acquisition time of 300 s and a beam collimation of 2 mm. The spectra were analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL (IAEA). The results revealed that the drawings were made over a preparatory layer of lead white. Some pigments identified were: yellow, red and brown ochre; umbra; vermilion; cobalt blue; etc. The experimental setup used in the CR analysis consisted of an Oxford X-ray source, operating at 50 kV and 200 {mu}A, placed at 85 cm from the painting, a GE CR 50P portable computed radiography scanner and a Fuji imaging plate detector. The exposure time was 600 s. The radiographic images revealed that the painting was in a good state of conservation and also a complete composition hidden underneath the visible paint layer.(author)

  9. Excavation and drying of compressed peat; Tiivistetyn turpeen nosto ja kuivaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkkilae, A.; Frilander, P.; Hillebrand, K.; Nurmi, H.

    1996-12-31

    The target of this three year (1993 - 1995) project was to improve the peat product-ion efficiency by developing an energy economical excavation method for compressed peat, by which it is possible to obtain best possible degree of compression and load from the DS-production point of view. It is possible to improve the degree of utilization of solar radiation in drying from 30 % to 40 %. The main research areas were drying of the compressed peat and peat compression. The third sub-task for 1995 was demonstration of the main parts of the method in laboratory scale. Experimental compressed peat (Compeat) drying models were made for peats Carex-peat H7, Carex-peat H5 and Carex-Sphagnum-peat H7. Compeat dried without turning in best circumstances in 34 % shorter time than milled layer made of the same peat turned twice, the initial moisture content being 4 kgH2OkgDS-1. In the tests carried out in 1995 with Carex-peat the compression had not corresponding effect on intensifying of the drying of peat. Compression of Carex-Sphagnum peat H7 increased the drying speed by about 10 % compared with the drying time of uncompressed milled layer. In the sprinkling test about 30-50 % of the sprinkled water was sucked into the compressed peat layer, while about 70 % of the rain is sucked into the corresponding uncompressed milled layer. Use of vibration decreased the energy consumption of the steel-surfaced nozzles about 20 % in the maximum, but the effect depend on the rotation speed of the macerator and the vibration power. In the new Compeat method (production method for compressed peat), developed in the research, the peat is loosened from the field surface by milling 3-5 cm thick layer of peat of moisture content 75-80 %

  10. Evaluation of ecological constraints on peat mining in New Brunswick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautreau-Daigle, H

    1990-07-01

    A study was undertaken to obtain baseline information on moose and waterfowl usage of peatlands in the Escuminac bog complex in New Brunswick, in order to determine the impact of existing peat mining activities and to assist in making decisions regarding future resource development. The bog complex comprises a relatively large number of freshwater ponds which support breeding populations for waterfowl and serve as staging areas during bird migrations. Aerial surveys were carried out to quantify the use of these ponds by waterfowl and to determine changes in their level of use as a result of peat extraction. Results indicate that usage of ponds by birds seems mostly limited to staging and migration, except for black and ring-necked ducks. Those species are the most significant users of bog ponds and have been found to breed and raise young in the ponds. Some areas were found to get more waterfowl than others, but this was not shown to be related to peat mining activity. Active mined areas were devoid of waterfowl, but this area was a relatively small portion of the total bog area. The moose survey examined moose activity in a control area (without peat mining) and a representative bog area where peat mining occurred. Results do not indicate a difference in the moose activity patterns between the two areas. 9 refs., 25 figs., 17 tabs.

  11. High nitrogen availability reduces polyphenol content in Sphagnum peat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragazza, Luca; Freeman, Chris

    2007-05-15

    Peat mosses of the genus Sphagnum constitute the bulk of living and dead biomass in bogs. These plants contain peculiar polyphenols which hamper litter peat decomposition through their inhibitory activity on microbial breakdown. In the light of the increasing availability of biologically active nitrogen in natural ecosystems, litter derived from Sphagnum mosses is an ideal substrate to test the potential effects of increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition on polyphenol content in litter peat. To this aim, we measured total nitrogen and soluble polyphenol concentration in Sphagnum litter peat collected in 11 European bogs under a chronic gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Our results demonstrate that increasing nitrogen concentration in Sphagnum litter, as a consequence of increased exogenous nitrogen availability, is accompanied by a decreasing concentration of polyphenols. This inverse relationship is consistent with reports that in Sphagnum mosses, polyphenol and protein biosynthesis compete for the same precursor. Our observation of modified Sphagnum litter chemistry under chronic nitrogen eutrophication has implications in the context of the global carbon balance, because a lower content of decay-inhibiting polyphenols would accelerate litter peat decomposition.

  12. Diallel analysis of leaf disease resistance in inbred Brazilian popcorn cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, R A; Scapim, C A; Moterle, L M; Tessmann, D J; Conrado, T V; Amaral Júnior, A T

    2009-12-01

    We estimated general and specific combining abilities and examined resistance to northern leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum) and to gray leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis) in a set of nine inbred popcorn lines. These inbreds were crossed in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, which produced 36 F(1) hybrids. Two experiments with a square lattice design and three replications were conducted during the 2008/2009 crop season, in Maringá, PR, Brazil. The severity of northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot was assessed under natural infestation conditions. Data were examined by individual and joint analysis of variance. Individual and joint Griffing's diallel analyses were carried out for adjusted means. General combining ability and specific combining ability were significant (P < 0.10) by the F-test for northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot infestation levels. This denotes that additive and non-additive gene effects both contributed to resistance to these diseases, but that the additive gene effects were more important. Among the inbred lines, P(8) and P(9) gave the highest resistance to northern leaf blight, and P(3) and P(4.3) gave the highest resistance to gray leaf spot. The hybrids P(7.4) x P(8) and P(4.3) x P(9) could be exploited by reciprocal recurrent selection to provide genotypes with both northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot resistance. Significant interaction between general combining ability and crop season (P < 0.10) denotes the importance of environment, even though the disease levels in the hybrids were quite consistent.

  13. Survival, causes of death, and prognostic factors in systemic sclerosis: analysis of 947 Brazilian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio-Barros, Percival D; Bortoluzzo, Adriana B; Marangoni, Roberta G; Rocha, Luiza F; Del Rio, Ana Paula T; Samara, Adil M; Yoshinari, Natalino H; Marques-Neto, João Francisco

    2012-10-01

    To analyze survival, prognostic factors, and causes of death in a large cohort of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). From 1991 to 2010, 947 patients with SSc were treated at 2 referral university centers in Brazil. Causes of death were considered SSc-related and non-SSc-related. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify prognostic factors. Survival at 5 and 10 years was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. One hundred sixty-eight patients died during the followup. Among the 110 deaths considered related to SSc, there was predominance of lung (48.1%) and heart (24.5%) involvement. Most of the 58 deaths not related to SSc were caused by infection, cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, and cancer. Male sex, modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) > 20, osteoarticular involvement, lung involvement, and renal crisis were the main prognostic factors associated to death. Overall survival rate was 90% for 5 years and 84% for 10 years. Patients presented worse prognosis if they had diffuse SSc (85% vs 92% at 5 yrs, respectively, and 77% vs 87% at 10 yrs, compared to limited SSc), male sex (77% vs 90% at 5 yrs and 64% vs 86% at 10 yrs, compared to female sex), and mRSS > 20 (83% vs 90% at 5 yrs and 66% vs 86% at 10 yrs, compared to mRSS < 20). Survival was worse in male patients with diffuse SSc, and lung and heart involvement represented the main causes of death in this South American series of patients with SSc.

  14. Acute viral bronchiolitis and risk of asthma in schoolchildren: analysis of a Brazilian newborn cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Heli V; Vieira, Graciete O; Vieira, Tatiana O; Cruz, Álvaro A; Guimarães, Armênio C; Teles, Carlos; Camargos, Paulo; Cruz, Constança M S

    To verify whether the occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life constitutes a risk factor for asthma at age 6 considering a parental history of asthma. Cross-sectional study in a cohort of live births. A standardized questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was applied to the mothers to identify asthma in children at the age of 6 years. Acute viral bronchiolitis diagnosis was performed by maternal report of a medical diagnosis and/or presence of symptoms of coryza accompanied by cough, tachypnea, and dyspnea when participants were 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Socioeconomic, environmental data, parental history of asthma, and data related to pregnancy were collected in the first 72h of life of the newborn and in prospective home visits by trained interviewers. The association between acute viral bronchiolitis and asthma was evaluated by logistic regression analysis and potential modifier effect of parental history was verified by introducing an interaction term into the adjusted logistic regression model. Prevalence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life was 68.6% (461). The occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis was a risk factor for asthma at 6 years of age in children with parental history of asthma OR: 2.66, 95% CI (1.10-6.40), modifier effect p=0.002. Parental history of asthma OR: 2.07, 95% CI (1.29-3.30) and male gender OR: 1.69, 95% CI, (1.06-2.69) were other identified risk factors for asthma. Acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life is a risk factor for asthma in children with parental history of asthma. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  15. Acute viral bronchiolitis and risk of asthma in schoolchildren: analysis of a Brazilian newborn cohort,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli V. Brandão

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To verify whether the occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life constitutes a risk factor for asthma at age 6 considering a parental history of asthma. Methods: Cross-sectional study in a cohort of live births. A standardized questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was applied to the mothers to identify asthma in children at the age of 6 years. Acute viral bronchiolitis diagnosis was performed by maternal report of a medical diagnosis and/or presence of symptoms of coryza accompanied by cough, tachypnea, and dyspnea when participants were 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Socioeconomic, environmental data, parental history of asthma, and data related to pregnancy were collected in the first 72 h of life of the newborn and in prospective home visits by trained interviewers. The association between acute viral bronchiolitis and asthma was evaluated by logistic regression analysis and potential modifier effect of parental history was verified by introducing an interaction term into the adjusted logistic regression model. Results: Prevalence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life was 68.6% (461. The occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis was a risk factor for asthma at 6 years of age in children with parental history of asthma OR: 2.66, 95% CI (1.10-6.40, modifier effect p = 0.002. Parental history of asthma OR: 2.07, 95% CI (1.29-3.30 and male gender OR: 1.69, 95% CI, (1.06-2.69 were other identified risk factors for asthma. Conclusion: Acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life is a risk factor for asthma in children with parental history of asthma.

  16. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CERTIFICATION SCHEMES IN THE BRAZILIAN FRUIT SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉA CRISTINA DÖRR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Certification has become increasingly relevant as a marketing signal for agribusiness especially in the fruit sector over the past few years. Substantial parts of many value chains are by now certified by standards as GlobalGAP, Fair Trade, Integrated Fruit Production and Organic. At the same time, in developed countries, particularly in the European Union and the United States, demand for higher levels of food safety has led to the implementation of certification programs that address more types of safety-related attributes and impose stricter standards. Certification systems play an important role in any market that is burdened with a high degree of information asymmetry and quality uncertainty. Thus, producers and exporters of fresh fruit and vegetables from developing countries like Brazil are increasingly required to demonstrate the safety and traceability of their produce up to the consumption stage. The comparative analysis of the four certification schemes which exist in the fruit sector in Brazil has shown that GlobalGAP and the Integrated Fruit Production (PIF are similar certification schemes. However, they differ with respect to the number of requirements and their distribution over various stages (e.g. production, post-harvesting. Contrary to PIF and GlobalGAP, Fairtrade certification concentrates on producers’ organizations and cooperatives where small-scale farmers belong to and not on individual farmers. In addition, a lot of attention is paid to the labour and environmental conditions, besides the guarantee of a minimum price for farmers. With respect to organic certification, the requirements are not directed to a particular product or crop and their level of compliance is not indicated. Major emphasis is put on the production system. Organic and Fairtrade certification do not have an own book keeping for records.

  17. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  18. Selected Trace Element Concentrations in Peat Used for Cosmetic Production – A Case Study from Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glina Bartłomiej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of selected trace elements in organic soils used as a source to obtain a unique peat extract for cosmetics production. Peat material for laboratory analysis were collected from fen peatland located in the Prosna River Valley (Borek village. Studied peatland is managed by “Torf Corporation” company as a source of material to obtain peat extract for cosmetics production. In the collected soil samples (four soil profiles Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometer SpectraAA 220 (Varian, after acid digestion. Obtained results showed that the highest concentrations of selected trace elements were recorded in the surface horizons of organic soils. This fact might be the results of Prosna river flooding or air deposition. Howevere, according to the new Polish regulations (Ordinance of the Minister for Environment 01.09.2016 - the way of conducting contamination assessment of the earth surface, the content of trace elements in the examined soils was greatly belowe the permissible limit for areas from group IV (mine lands. Thus, described soils are proper to obtain peat extract used as a component in cosmetic production.

  19. An unexplored sedimentary record for the study of environmental change in mediterranean coastal environments: Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile peats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateo, M.-A.; Renom, P.; Romero, J.; Julia, R.; Michener, R.

    2002-01-01

    Information on seagrass paleo-ecology is very scarce because detailed seagrass paleorecords are virtually lacking. The endemic Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica conjugates two unusual features that allow the reconstruction of the past history of the plant at two different time scales. On the one hand, the study of the leaf sheaths that remain attached to the rhizomes after leaf abcision (lepidochronology), allows to differentiate up to 30 yearly cycles. On the other hand, radiocarbon dating of peat-like deposits derived from Posidonia oceanica rhizomes and roots ('mattes'), reveals a chronological organic record of the plant spanning several thousands of years. Changes in the isotopic signature (δ 13 C) of the sheaths along Posidonia rhizomes from a meadow off Medes Islands (NW Mediterranean, Spain), were highly correlated with changes in annual leave production and with water transparency. These relationships and the isotopic analysis of sheath debris from several Posidonia peats along the Spanish Mediterranean coast are used to make some preliminary inferences about long-term meadow history. Several phenomena potentially making difficult the interpretation of the information contained in Posidonia peats are critically discussed. It is concluded that a detailed study of P. oceanica peats will open new vistas in Mediterranean paleo-ecological and paleo-environmental research (author)

  20. Pre-estimation of loading on water bodies from peat production and new pollution control methods (TuVeKu); Turvetuotannon vesistoekuormituksen ennakointi ja uudet hallintamenetelmaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klove, B.; Saukkoriipi, J.; Tuukkanen, T.; Heiderscheidt, E.; Heikkinen, K.; Marttila, H.; Ihme, R.; Depre, L.; Karppinen, A.

    2012-10-15

    Approximately 25 million cubic metres of peat are produced in Finland each year. Furthermore 23 million cubic metres of peat is extracted for energy purposes in Finland, which is more than 50% of the world's energy peat production. Peat extraction activities such as drainage and the exposure of peat layers are known to increase the amount of water discharging from the catchment areas and to increase the loading of suspended solids and nutrients, like phosphorus and nitrogen. Hence every effort has to be made to reduce pollution from peat extraction by means of the best viable technologies that take account of the whole life-cycle impact on water bodies. Overland flow areas are considered as one of the best available technologies (BAT) for purifying run-off water. Wetlands that are constructed to already drained mires are also a common and practical method of protecting waters nowadays, as undrained areas of mires close to peat extraction areas are often lacking. Constructed wetlands however are not considered to BAT so far. The chemical purification of runoff waters is considered to one of the best available technologies. However the limiting factor for chemical treatment has often been the high costs of the method. Thus the less expensive small-scale chemical treatment has become a norm in small peat production areas with stringent purification requirements. However, there is still insufficient amount of knowledge regarding how effective drained wetlands and small-scale chemical treatment are in the purification of runoff waters. The 'Pre-estimation of loading on water bodies from peat production and new pollution control methods' project (TuVeKu) had two main objectives: (I) To assess the effect of the local and structural characteristics of the peat production areas and water treatment structures to the detected variations in the purification efficiencies. The statistical analysis is based on the gathered pollution monitoring data and gathered

  1. Background noise analysis in urban airport surroundings of Brazilian cities, Congonhas Airport, São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatolini, Fabio; Alves, Cláudio Jorge Pinto

    2016-12-22

    To perform a quantitative analysis of the background noise at Congonhas Airport surroundings based on large sampling and measurements with no interruption. Measuring sites were chosen from 62 and 72 DNL (day-night-level) noise contours, in urban sites compatible with residential use. Fifteen sites were monitored for at least 168 hours without interruption or seven consecutive days. Data compilation was based on cross-reference between noise measurements and air traffic control records, and results were validated by airport meteorological reports. Preliminary diagnoses were established using the standard NBR-13368. Background noise values were calculated based on the Sound Exposure Level (SEL). Statistic parameters were calculated in one-hour intervals. Only four of the fifteen sites assessed presented aircraft operations as a clear cause for the noise annoyance. Even so, it is possible to detect background noise levels above regulation limits during periods of low airport activity or when it closes at night. All the sites monitored showed background noise levels above regulation limits between 7:00 and 21:00. In the intervals between 6:00-6:59 and 21:00-22:59 the noise data, when analyzed with the current airport operational characteristics, still allow the development of additional mitigating measures. Avaliar quantitativamente o ruído de fundo no entorno do aeroporto de Congonhas, com base em ampla amostragem e medições sem interrupção. Locais de medição escolhidos a partir de curvas de ruído de 62 e 72 LDN (day-night level), em equipamentos urbanos de uso compatível com o residencial. Quinze locais foram avaliados por mais de 168 horas consecutivas cada um (sete dias). A compilação baseou-se em cruzamentos de dados do controle de tráfego aéreo e os resultados foram validados por meio de relatórios meteorológicos do aeroporto. Diagnósticos preliminares foram estabelecidos utilizando a NBR-13368. O ruído de fundo foi calculado com base no Sound

  2. Association of workplace and population characteristics with prevalence of hypertension among Brazilian industry workers: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinholes, Daniele B; Bassanesi, Sérgio L; Chaves Junior, Hilton de Castro; Machado, Carlos Alberto; Melo, Ione M F; Fuchs, Flavio Danni; Fuchs, Sandra Costa

    2017-08-21

    Exposure to risk factors for hypertension may be influenced by the characteristics of the workplace, where workers spend most of their daily time. To evaluate the association between features of the companies, particularly the presence of facilities to provide meals, and of population characteristics and the prevalence of hypertension, taking into account individual risk factors for hypertension. This multilevel analysis was based on a cross-sectional study with individual and company data from the SESI (Serviço Social da Indústria-Social Service of Industries) study and population-based data from the national census statistics. Workers aged ≥15 years were randomly selected from small (20-99), medium (100-499) and large (≥500 employees) companies per state using multistage sampling. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between hypertension and individual, workplace and population variables, with odds ratios (ORs; 95% CI) adjusted for three-level variables. 4818 Workers from 157 companies were interviewed and their blood pressure, weight and height were measured. Overall, 77% were men, aged 35.4 ±10.7 years, with 8.7 ±4.1 years of schooling and mostly worked in companies with a staff canteen (66%). Besides individual characteristics-being male, ageing, low schooling, alcohol abuse and higher BMI-a workplace with no staff canteen (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.52), small companies (OR=1.31; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.60) and living in cities with higher economic inequality (OR=1.47; 95% CI 1.23 to 1.76) were associated with a higher risk for hypertension. Among Brazilian workers, the prevalence of hypertension is associated with individual risk factors, lack of a canteen at the workplace, small companies and higher economic inequalities of cities. These three-level characteristics help to interpret differences in the prevalence of hypertension between regions or countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the

  3. Study of the sorption properties of the peat for removal of heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayrapetyan, S.S.; Gevorgyan, S.A.; Hayrapetyan, L.S.; Bareghamyan, S.F.; Pirumyan, G.P.

    2016-01-01

    The processes of sorption of several heavy metals on peat samples taken from basin of lake Sevan (near Vardenis Gegharkunik region of Armenia) were investigated. The peat samples were taken from different locations from 1 m depth. The sorption processes have been done in the static mode. The peat samples were used without any modification, i.e. the sorption properties of natural raw peat were studied. The studies were conducted on the basis of synthetic solution containing ions of these following metals - Ni, Co, As, U, Ba. The sorption properties of peat were estimated by ICP-MS. Thus, peat can be a very effective sorption medium for removal of heavy metals from water. Most of them are absorbed in the first minutes of peat exposure to aqueous solution. For the sorption of barium, uranium, arsenic peat exhibits very high sorption efficiency. For comparison, their relative sorption values about 10 times more than those of cobalt, nickel and zinc.

  4. Stable strontium isotopic ratios from archaeological organic remains from the Thorsberg peat bog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech; von Carnap-Bornheim, Claus; Grupe, Gisela

    2007-01-01

    Pilot study analysing stable strontium isotopic ratios from Iron Age textile and leather finds from the Thorsberg peat bog.......Pilot study analysing stable strontium isotopic ratios from Iron Age textile and leather finds from the Thorsberg peat bog....

  5. The association of uranium with organic matter in peat and peat water in a wetland from the Carson Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orem, W.; Zielinski, R.; Otton, J.; Lerch, H.

    1992-01-01

    Uranium has a high affinity for organic matter and is frequently found in high concentrations in coal and peat beds. The nature of the U/organic matter association was investigated in peat from cores obtained from a small wetland (Upper Zephyr Fen) near Lake Tahoe, NV. The peat contains U concentrations of up to 0.5% dry weight, supplied by surface and ground water weathering the U-rich granodiorite rocks of the surrounding mountains. Uranium concentrations are highly correlated with both organic C and N contents, but show no apparent relationship to specific organic moieties such as carboxyl or phenolic functional groups. Sieve studies of the peat show the U is concentrated in the 2,000--250 um size fraction. This fraction also has the lowest atomic C/N ratio, suggesting a possible role of N-containing organic compounds in U complexation. In peat pore waters, dissolved U is primarily associated with high molecular weight dissolved organic matter, as shown by equilibrium models and experimental data

  6. The professionalization of Brazilian nursing in the written media of the end of the nineteenth century: a gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Tiago Braga do Espírito; Oguisso, Taka; da Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa

    2011-01-01

    The object is the relationship between the professionalization of Brazilian nursing and women, in the broadcasting of news about the creation of the Professional School of Nurses, in the light of gender. to discuss the linkage of women to the beginning of the professionalization of Brazilian nursing following the circumstances and evidence of the creation of the Professional School of Nurses analyzed from the perspective of gender. The news articles were analyzed from the viewpoint of Cultural History, founded in the gender concept of Joan Scott and in the History of Women. The creation of the School and the priority given in the media to women consolidate the vocational ideal of the woman for nursing in a profession subjugated to the physician but also representing the conquest of a space in the world of education and work, reconfiguring the social position of nursing and of woman in Brazil.

  7. Performance indicators analysis at Brazilian and Italian women's volleyball leagues according to game location, game outcome, and set number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fabio A D; Stanganélli, Luiz C R; Campos, Leandra C B; Pasquarelli, Bruno N; Gómez, Miguel-Angel

    2014-04-01

    This study was done to investigate the advantage of playing at home in elite women's volleyball leagues and the influence of performance indicators in the game score according to set number. The sample consisted of 240 games of the Brazilian Volleyball League (n = 132 games) and the Italian Volleyball League (n = 108 games) from the 2011-2012 season. The relationship of performance indicators (including serve, attack, block, and opponents' errors) with the game outcome (win or lose) was assessed. The results showed that there was a home advantage effect in women's volleyball leagues, with a higher prevalence of victory for the home teams in Brazilian and Italian leagues (58 and 56%, respectively). When related to the performance indicators and among the aspects that were most highly correlated with victory, the attack was the technical indicator that explained most of the results of volleyball games.

  8. Analysis of the opening model of the Brazilian upstream business; Analise da adequacao do modelo de E e P brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    This paper analyses the institutional model adopted for the reform of the oil industry in Brazil, beginning with the approval of Law n. 9.478 by the Brazilian Parliament in 1997. The reform of the Brazilian oil industry took place in the context of the reforms of the world's national economies throughout the 1980's and 1990's. From this worldwide process of reform stemmed a huge increase in the international capital flow directed to long-run investment opportunities in the economic infrastructure sectors. The aim of this paper is to analyse both the regulatory model for the oil and gas upstream activities in Brazil and the bidding model adopted at Brazil's National Petroleum Agency's auctions for the acquisition of exploration areas. This paper is dedicated, in its entirety, to Prof. Carmen Alveal (in memoriam), whose knowledge, support, encouragement and friendship were, for me, the most important of all, professionally and morally. (author)

  9. Exploratory factor analysis of Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI) in a Brazilian musician sample

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Elisa Medeiros Barbar; José Alexandre de Souza; Flávia de Lima Osório

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI) is very significant among the available instruments which measures Musical Performance Anxiety (MPA). Objective The aim of this study is to find evidence of validity of the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI), in its translated and adapted Brazilian version, through the study of its factor structure. Methods A convenience sample of 230 amateur musicians completed the K-MPAI. Results The initial facto...

  10. Molecular analysis of the most prevalent mutations of the FANCA and FANCC genes in Brazilian patients with Fanconi anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, David Enrique Aguilar; Lima, Carmen Silvia Passos; Lourenço, Gustavo Jacob; Figueiredo, Maria Estela; Carneiro, Jorge David Aivazoglu; Tone, Luiz Gonzaga; Llerena Jr., Juan Clinton; Toscano, Raquel Alves; Brandalise, Silvia; Pinto Júnior, Walter; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Bertuzzo, Carmen Sílvia

    2005-01-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a recessive autosomal disease determined by mutations in genes of at least eleven complementation groups, with distinct distributions in different populations. As far as we know, there are no reports regarding the molecular characterisation of the disease in unselected FA patients in Brazil. OBECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the most prevalent mutations of FANCA and FANCC genes in Brazilian patients with FA. METHODS: Genomic DNA obtained from 22 racially and et...

  11. The Impacts of U.S. Cotton Programs on the World Market: An Analysis of Brazilian and African WTO Petitions

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Suwen; Mohanty, Samarendu; Ethridge, Don E.; Fadiga, Mohamadou L.

    2004-01-01

    Brazil, supported by Australia challenged U.S. cotton programs at the September 2003 meeting of the WTO settlement Body. Brazil complained that U.S. cotton subsidies such as marketing loans, export credits, commodity certificates, direct payments and counter cyclical payments are depressing world prices and are injurious to Brazilian farmers. In addition, the West and Central African Countries (WCA) countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali and Chad have filed a petition with the WTO claiming th...

  12. Costs analysis of surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence in a brazilian public hospital, comparing burch and synthetic sling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberger, Leo Francisco; Faria, Fernanda Pacheco; Campos, Luciana Silveira; Anzolch, Karin Marise Jaeger; Fornari, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    Surgical treatment of urinary incontinence progressed significantly with the introduction of synthetic slings. However, in some public Brazilian hospitals, the costs of these materials prevent their routine use. To compare the costs of ambulatory synthetic sling surgery with an historical series of patients submitted to Burch surgery in a Brazilian public hospital. Twenty nine incontinent patients were selected to synthetic sling surgery. Demographic data were prospectively collected and also the costs of the procedure, including drugs and materials, use of surgical and recovery wards, medical staff and hospitalization. These data were compared to the costs of 29 Burch surgeries performed before the introduction of synthetic slings. Demographic data were similar, although median age was lower in the group submitted to Burch surgery (46.3±8.6 versus 56.2±11.3 (pCost was significantly lower in patients submitted to sling in all items, except for time spent in recovery ward. Total value of 29 Burch surgeries was R$ 217.766.12, and of R$ 68.049.92 of 29 patients submitted to sling surgery (pcost of the synthetic sling was considered. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  13. Aid policy for peat from the EU's standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanen, J.; Suvanto-Luomala, S.; Aeimae, K.

    2002-10-01

    The study analyses the restrictions that may be imposed by the European Union on our national taxation schemes supporting the energy use of peat. These restrictions would mainly relate to the EU and international climate policy, which may change the attitudes towards the energy use of peat. The taxation arrangements studied concern the refunds of the electricity tax granted to small peat-fired power plants and the tax on peat, which compared especially with coal, is light in heat production. The study aims to find out whether the arrangements included State aid prohibited by the European Community or whether they gave rise to prohibited tax discrimination of other Member States' energy products. It was concluded that the objectives of the Community, particularly the regional security of energy supply, promotion of combined electricity and heat production, and employment, favour the energy use of peat rather than oppose to it. As for the aid to small power plants, it can be considered that the grounds for obtaining an exemption from the EC State aid prohibition exist, because the benefits of the aid referred to are more important than the disadvantages brought by it for undistorted trade and competition. This situation cannot be expected to change in the near future, either, e.g. as a result of the climate policy. As regards heat production, peat taxation cannot be considered to include State aid or to lead to discrimination against exported fuels like coal. This is essentially based on the taxation sovereignty of Member States and the related right to enhance national goals by means of taxation. The current energy tax regulation by the Community or the Commission's Proposal for an Energy Tax Directive do not seem to pose any obstacles to continuing Finland's present energy taxation policy. (orig.)

  14. TECHNOLOGY AND EFFICIENCY OF PEAT ASH USAGE IN CEMENT CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Liakhevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main ways to improve physical and mechanical properties of cement concrete is an introduction of ash obtained due to burning of fossil fuels into concrete mix. The concrete mixes with ash are characterized by high cohesion, less water gain and disintegration. At the same time the concrete has high strength, density, water resistance, resistance to sulfate corrosion. The aim of this paper is to explore the possibility to use peat ash and slag of peat enterprises of the Republic of Belarus in the concrete for improvement of its physical and mechanical properties and characteristics of peat ash, slag, micro-silica, cement, superplasticizing agent. Compositions and technology for preparation of concrete mixes have been developed and concrete samples have been have been fabricated and tested in the paper. It has been shown that the concrete containing ash, slag obtained due to burning of peat in the industrial installations of the Usiazhsky and Lidsky Peat Briquette Plants and also MK-85-grade micro-silica NSPKSAUsF-1-grade superplasticizing agent have concrete tensile strength within 78–134 MPa under axial compression and 53 MPa – for the control composition. This index is 1.5–2.5 times more than for the sample containing no additives.The usage of peat ash, slag together with MK-85-grade micro-silica and NSPKSAUsF-1-grade superplasticizing agent for fabrication of concrete and reinforced bridge and tunnel structures will provide the following advantages: reduction of cross-sectional area of structures while maintaining their bearing capacity due to higher value of tensile strength in case of axial compression; higher density, waterand gas tightness due to low water cement ratio; high resistance to aggressive environment due to lower content of capillary pores that ensures bridge structure longevity; achievement of environmental and social impacts.

  15. Effect of soil properties and hydrology on Archaeal community composition in three temperate grasslands on peat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Conrad, Ralf; Petersen, Søren O

    2013-01-01

    Grasslands established on drained peat soils are regarded as negligible methane (CH4) sources; however, they can still exhibit considerable soil CH4 dynamics. We investigated archaeal community composition in two different fen peat soils and one bog peat soil under permanent grassland in Denmark........ Overall, there seemed to be a significant coupling between peat type and archaeal community composition, with local hydrology modifying the strength of this coupling....

  16. An approach to peat formation period on both coast of Fildes Strait, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenfen, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Because peat consist mainly of organic matter, both credibility and comparability of the peat 14 C age are high. This paper discuss the use of radiocarbon ( 14 C) to study the peat age. The results of a comparative study of ten samples from China Great Wall Station in Antarctica and the nearby area (on both sides of Fildes Strait) are presented, indicating differences of peat formation period between the pole and other areas

  17. A new approach for peat inventory methods; Turvetutkimusten menetelmaekehitystarkastelu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laatikainen, M.; Leino, J.; Lerssi, J.; Torppa, J.; Turunen, J. Email: jukka.turunen@gtk.fi

    2011-07-01

    Development of the new peatland inventory method started in 2009. There was a need to investigate whether new methods and tools could be developed cost-effectively so field inventory work would more completely cover the whole peatland area and the quality and liability of the final results would remain at a high level. The old inventory method in place at the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is based on the main transect and cross transect approach across a peatland area. The goal of this study was to find a practical grid-based method linked to the geographic information system suitable for field conditions. the triangle-grid method with even distance between the study points was found to be the most suitable approach. A new Ramac-ground penetrating radar was obtained by the GTK in 2009, and it was concluded in the study of new peatland inventory methods. This radar model is relatively light and very suitable, for example, to the forestry drained peatlands, which are often difficult to cross because of the intensive ditch network. the goal was to investigate the best working methods for the ground penetrating radar to optimize its use in the large-scale peatland inventory. Together with the new field inventory methods, a novel interpolation-based method (MITTI) for modelling peat depths was developed. MITTI makes it possible to take advantage of all the available peat-depth data including, at the moment, aerogeophysical and ground penetrating radar measurements, drilling data and the mire outline. The characteristic uncertainties of each data type are taken into account and, in addition to the depth model itself, an uncertainty map of the model is computed. Combined with the grid-based field inventory method, this multi-approach provides better tools to more accurately estimate the peat depths, peat amounts and peat type distributions. The development of the new peatland inventory method was divided into four separate sections: (1) Development of new field

  18. The self-determination theory applied in the analysis of motivation and academic performance of accounting students in a brazilian public university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Salgado Borges

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was analyzing the relations between academic performance and motivation of Accounting students in a Brazilian public university based on Self-determination Theory. Methodologically, in order to reach that, structured questionnaires were applied in classrooms with the Brazilian version of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS, in a sample of 316 students enrolled from second to tenth periods of that course, equivalent to 37.2% of the total number of students. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis (AFE and multiple linear regression analysis with Ordinary Least Squares (OLS. The regression analyzes indicated a significant relationship between motivation and academic performance. The factors related to intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation by identified regulation are positively correlated with academic performance of students. On the other hand, the introjected for regulation extrinsic motivation factor is negatively correlated with student’s academic performance coefficient (CRA. Based on the sample analyzed, the results showed that the relationship between motivation and CRA of the student depends on the type of motivation that is present in each one.

  19. BRAZILIAN AND INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS APPLIED TO THE PUBLIC SECTOR AND THE CHALLENGE OF CONVERGENCE: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS - IPSAS AND NBCTSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Ribeiro Filho (in memoriam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this study is to analyze the current stage of conceptual convergence between Brazilian accounting standards applied to the public sector (NBCTSP and the International Public Sector Accounting Standard (IPSAS. The complexity and range of transactions between public or private sector entities, as a result of market internationalization, demand continuous and dynamic assessment of the events that promote quantitative or qualitative equity changes. For this evaluation process, observing accounting principles and standards is important to guarantee, among other information characteristics, understandability and comparability, thus reducing costs for investors and users in general, in view of the barriers raised by diverse languages, cultures, tax and economic policies. For convergence analysis, the standards’ contents were subject to a comparative study, based on a descriptive analysis, with a view to verifying the existing adherence between Brazilian and international standards applied to the public sector. The results found highlight that different aspects still have to be discussed with a view to an actual convergence with the international standards; the current convergence is partial. The high-quality conceptual exposure of the NBCPSPs is observed though, while the contents of the IPSAS are more focused on operating procedures

  20. Soil ecology and ecosystem services of dairy and semi-natural grasslands on peat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deru, Joachim G.C.; Bloem, Jaap; Goede, de Ron; Keidel, Harm; Kloen, Henk; Rutgers, Michiel; Akker, van den Jan; Brussaard, Lijbert; Eekeren, van Nick

    2018-01-01

    Peat wetlands are of major importance for ecosystem services such as carbon storage, water regulation and maintenance of biodiversity. However, peat drainage for farming leads to CO2 emission, soil subsidence and biodiversity losses. In the peat areas in the Netherlands, solutions are sought in

  1. How sustainable is the use of peat for commercial energy production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilstra, AJ

    The sustainability argument that more peat grows in Finland than is used does not hold. On designated peatlands, growth is about 85 times slower than peat use; growth elsewhere in Finland does not add to available resources. Claiming undisturbed peatlands as carbon sinks for sustainable peat use is

  2. Study of the organic material in peat formations in Puerto de Tornos (Santander)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, M C; Almendrus, G; Dorado, E; Polo, A

    1985-01-01

    Different hydrophysical, agrochemical and biochemical features in a raised peat from Puerto de Tornos (Santander, Northern Spain) have been described. Correlations and affinities among data were studied in seven peat horizons. The studied peat was constituted by the alternance of humic and sapric layers, showing a very high content in extractable humic substances, and a low proportion of exchangeable cations, mainly in deeper layers.

  3. Peat subsidence and its practical implications: a case study in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wösten, J.H.M.; Ismail, A.B.; Wijk, van A.L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Due to pressure for land, substantial areas of peat swamps in South-East Asia have been and presently are being reclaimed for agriculture or for other land use. As soon as peat swamps are drained, the irreversible process of subsidence starts, which can only be stopped by waterlogging the peat

  4. Assessing the conservation potential of damaged peat bog networks in Central and Northern Meshera (Central Russia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butovsky, R.O.; Reijnen, M.J.S.M.; Aleshenko, G.M.; Melik-Bagdasarov, E.M.; Otchagov, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Peat bogs are one of the most characteristic ecosystems of Central Russian landscape. Because of peat mining and transformation of peat bogs into agricultural land after drainage, suitable habitats for several characteristic species now show a very fragmented pattern. The potentials for viable

  5. How sustainable is the use of peat for commercial energy production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilstra, AJ

    2001-01-01

    The sustainability argument that more peat grows in Finland than is used does not hold. On designated peatlands, growth is about 85 times slower than peat use; growth elsewhere in Finland does not add to available resources. Claiming undisturbed peatlands as carbon sinks for sustainable peat use is

  6. Greenhouse gas balances of Frisian peat pastures. Long term effects of land use options.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Peat pastures in the Dutch province of Friesland emit high amounts of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, and CH4). These high emissions are the results of deep drainage of the peat for agricultural purposes and consequently oxidation of the peat. Other

  7. Ecological networks and nature policy in central Russia : peat bogs in central and northern Meshera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butovsky, R.O.; Reijnen, R.; Otchagov, D.M.; Aleshenko, G.M.; Melik-Bagdasarov, E.

    2001-01-01

    In central and northern Meshera, Russia, the habitat of many characteristic peat bog species now show a very fragmented pattern. Peat mining and other human influences are the most important causes. As a result the potentials for viable populations ofcharacteristic peat bog species have decreased

  8. Microscopic charcoal and tar (CHAT particles in peat: a 6500-year record of palaeo-fires in southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Malmgren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peat stratigraphies of eleven raised bogs in southern Sweden were investigated. Measurements included the occurrence of charcoal and various tar particles. Most of the particles found were microscopic, i.e. 5–100 µm in diameter. Two distinctly different groups of particles were distinguished: (A charred fragments of plant tissue and (B objects formed from tar, which were classified into five sub-groups on the basis of morphology. Both charcoal and tar are indicative of mire and forest fires. We suggest that it is possible to use the different groups of particles as fire regime indicators. Hence, the high frequency of charcoal and tar (CHAT in the lower parts of the stratigraphies, i.e. in the lower strongly decomposed fen and carr peats that were formed before ca. 4000 cal 14C BP, could be indicative of intense and frequent local fires. The decreasing abundance of CHAT and the lower relative share of Type A particles within the lower strongly decomposed Sphagnum peat ca. 4000–2500 cal 14C BP signify a transition from local to regional fires. With a few exceptions, the uppermost weakly decomposed ombrotrophic peats formed after ca. 2500 cal 14C BP, in which both charcoal and tar are rare, indicate a period of low fire frequency at both local and regional scales. There is no regional variation in the lower material, and it seems that wildfires were common phenomena throughout southern Sweden during the first few thousand years after peat formation began 6–8000 years ago. From a climatological point of view, the mass occurrence of CHAT in the lower parts of the profiles indicates a warm and dry Mid Holocene with frequent and widespread wildfires, and a moist and cool Late Holocene with more sporadic fires. Spectral analysis of the entire dataset shows significant periodicities of 610, 70, 30, 21, 17 and 14 years, the two most significant being 14 and 70 years.

  9. Influence of Potassium on Sapric Peat under Different Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Syafik Akmal Mohd; Rahman, Junita Abdul; Rahim, Nor Haakmal Abd; Saphira Radin Mohamed, Radin Maya; Saeed Abduh Algheethi, Adel Ali, Dr

    2018-04-01

    Potassium is mainly present in soil in the natural form known as the K-bearing mineral. Potassium is also available in fertilizer as a supplement to plants and can be categorized as macronutrient. The application of potassium improves the texture and structure of the soil beside to improves plant growth. The main objective of this study was to determine the concentration of potassium in sapric peat under different conditions. Physical model was used as a mechanism for the analysis of the experimental data using a soil column as an equipment to produce water leaching. In this investigation, there were four outlets in the soil column which were prepared from the top of the column to the bottom with the purpose of identifying the concentration of potassium for each soil level. The water leaching of each outlet was tested using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results obtained showed that the highest concentrations of potassium for flush condition at outlet 4 was 13.58 ppm. Similarly, sapric under rainwater condition recorded the highest value of 13.32 and 12.34 ppm respectively at outlet 4 for wet and dry condition. However, the difference in Sapric, rainwater and fertilizer category showed that the highest value for the wet condition was achieved at outlet 2 with 13.99 ppm while highest value of 14.82 ppm was obtained for the dry condition at the outlet 3. It was concluded that the outlets in the soil column gave a detailed analysis of the concentration of potassium in the soil which was influenced by the environmental conditions.

  10. Descriptive analysis of bacon smoked with Brazilian woods from reforestation: methodological aspects, statistical analysis, and study of sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña, Erick; Castillo, Luiz Saldarriaga; Sánchez, Jorge Cabrera; Siche, Raúl; de Almeida, Marcio Aurélio; Behrens, Jorge H; Selani, Miriam Mabel; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a descriptive analysis (DA) of bacons smoked with woods from reforestation and liquid smokes in order to investigate their sensory profile. Six samples of bacon were selected: three smoked bacons with different wood species (Eucalyptus citriodora, Acacia mearnsii, and Bambusa vulgaris), two artificially smoked bacon samples (liquid smoke) and one negative control (unsmoked bacon). Additionally, a commercial bacon sample was also evaluated. DA was developed successfully, presenting a good performance in terms of discrimination, consensus and repeatability. The study revealed that the smoking process modified the sensory profile by intensifying the "saltiness" and differentiating the unsmoked from the smoked samples. The results from the current research represent the first methodological development of descriptive analysis of bacon and may be used by food companies and other stakeholders to understand the changes in sensory characteristics of bacon due to traditional smoking process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards the identification of dyestuffs in Early Iron Age Scandinavian peat bog textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannering, Ulla; Gleba, Margarita; Vanden Berghe, Ina

    2009-01-01

    A large systematic dye investigation of prehistoric Danish and Norwegian bog textiles was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography with photo diode array detection. After the selection of the most suitable protocol for dye extraction and HPLC analysis for this specific group of ar...... of biological dye sources in Early Iron Age Scandinavia. The results clearly indicate that most Scandinavian peat bog textiles originally were dyed and that already during the 1st millennium BC, the populations in Scandinavia were familiar with the dyeing technology....

  12. Analysis of the profile, areas of action and abilities of Brazilian sports physical therapists working with soccer and volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Anderson A; Bittencourt, Natália F N; Mendonça, Luciana M; Tirado, Marcella G; Sampaio, Rosana F; Fonseca, Sérgio T

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the profile of Brazilian physical therapists working with soccer and volleyball professional teams, by verifying their level of education (graduate or undergraduate), as well as their role and insertion within the interdisciplinary team. Structured questionnaires were administered to forty-nine physical therapists working at soccer, volleyball clubs and Brazilian national teams. These questionnaires provided data on social demographic, characteristics of the work environment and organization of clinical practice and its domains. From the 49 participants in this study only five were female. Mean age of all participants was 32.2 years. The majority of the sports physical therapists had specialization degrees in different areas (78.2%), were hired through referral (78.2%), worked more than 8 hours a day or were exclusively dedicated to their clubs (80.0%) and earned seven to ten Brazilian minimal wages (58.2%). They reported to have participation in the domains of emergency care (87.3%), prevention (92.7%), functional rehabilitation (98.2%) and return to competition (100%). They had interdisciplinary relationships with physical educators during functional rehabilitation programs (70.9%) and with physicians in the decision process of return to activity after rehabilitation (74.5%) and on the veto of an athlete to take part in practices or matches (63.6%). Therapists also complained of threats to their professional autonomy, specially directed by the team's physician. There is still a need to invest in continuing education of sports physical therapists with the objective to improve their educational level and to strengthen their professional autonomy.

  13. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa M. Lamarão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese were conducted following proposed guidelines that involved translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, committee review and testing of the pre-final version. In addition, reliability and the intra- and inter-rater percent agreement were obtained with the Linear Weighted Kappa Coefficient that was associated with the 95% Confidence Interval and the cross tabulation 2×2. Results : The procedures for translation and adaptation were adequate and the necessary adjustments were conducted on the instrument. The intra- and inter-rater reliability showed values of 0.104 to 0.504, respectively, ranging from very poor to moderate. The percentage agreement values ranged from 5.66% to 69.81%. The percentage agreement was closer to 100% at the item 'upper arm' (69.81% for the Intra-rater 1 and at the items 'legs' and 'upper arm' for the Intra-rater 2 (62.26%. Conclusions: The processes of translation and cross-cultural adaptation were conducted on the REBA instrument and the Brazilian version of the instrument was obtained. However, despite the reliability of the tests used to correct the translated and adapted version, the reliability values are unacceptable according to the guidelines standard, indicating that the reliability must be re-evaluated. Therefore, caution in the interpretation of the biomechanical risks measured by this instrument should be taken.

  14. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarão, Andressa M.; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Comper, Maria L. C.; Padula, Rosimeire S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese were conducted following proposed guidelines that involved translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, committee review and testing of the pre-final version. In addition, reliability and the intra- and inter-rater percent agreement were obtained with the Linear Weighted Kappa Coefficient that was associated with the 95% Confidence Interval and the cross tabulation 2×2. Results : The procedures for translation and adaptation were adequate and the necessary adjustments were conducted on the instrument. The intra- and inter-rater reliability showed values of 0.104 to 0.504, respectively, ranging from very poor to moderate. The percentage agreement values ranged from 5.66% to 69.81%. The percentage agreement was closer to 100% at the item 'upper arm' (69.81%) for the Intra-rater 1 and at the items 'legs' and 'upper arm' for the Intra-rater 2 (62.26%). Conclusions: The processes of translation and cross-cultural adaptation were conducted on the REBA instrument and the Brazilian version of the instrument was obtained. However, despite the reliability of the tests used to correct the translated and adapted version, the reliability values are unacceptable according to the guidelines standard, indicating that the reliability must be re-evaluated. Therefore, caution in the interpretation of the biomechanical risks measured by this instrument should be taken. PMID:25003273

  15. A statistical approach to determining the uncertainty of peat thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Torppa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents statistical studies of peat thickness to define its expected maximum variation (∆dm(∆r as a function of separation distance Δr. The aim was to provide an estimate of the observational uncertainty in peat depth due to positioning error, and the prediction uncertainty of the computed model. The data were GPS position and ground penetrating radar depth measurements of six mires in different parts of Finland. The calculated observational uncertainty for Finnish mires in general caused, for example, by a 20 m positioning error, is 43 cm in depth with 95 % confidence. The peat depth statistics differed among the six mires, and it is recommended that the mire specific function ∆dm(∆r is defined for each individual mire to obtain the best estimate of observational uncertainty. Knowledge of the observational error and function ∆dm(∆r should be used in peat depth modelling for defining the uncertainty of depth predictions.

  16. Bacteriohopanepolyol signatures as markers for methanotrophic bacteria in peat moss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, J.F.; Talbot, H.M.; Kip, N.; Reichart, G.J.; Pol, A.; McNamara, N.P.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Op den Camp, H.J.M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are bacterial biomarkers with a likely potential to identify present and past methanotrophic communities. To unravel the methanotrophic community in peat bogs, we report the BHP signatures of type I and type II methanotrophs isolated from Sphagnum mosses and of an

  17. Bacteriohopanepolyol signatures as markers for methanotrophic bacteria in peat moss

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Winden, Julia F.; Talbot, Helen M.; Kip, Nardy; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Pol, Arjan; McNamara, Niall P.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are bacterial biomarkers with a likely potential to identify present and past methanotrophic communities. To unravel the methanotrophic community in peat bogs, we report the BHP signatures of type I and type II methanotrophs isolated from Sphagnum mosses and of an extreme acidophilic verrucomicrobial methanotroph. A type I Methylovulum-like strain (M200) contains a remarkable combination of BHPs, including a complete suite of mono-unsaturated aminobacteriohopanepentol, -tetrol and -triol. The Methylomonas-like strain (M5) mainly produces aminobacteriohopanepentol, characteristic for type I methanotrophs, and the Methylosinus-like strain (29) contains both aminobacteriohopanetetrol and aminobacteriohopanetriol, typical for a type II methanotroph. The type II methanotroph Methylocella palustris and the verrucomicrobial Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum strain SolV primarily produce aminotriol, which is also produced by many other bacteria. In Sphagnum mosses and underlying peat from a peat bog from Moorhouse, UK, the only detectable BHPs indicative of methanotrophs are aminobacteriohopanepentol (aminopentol) and aminobacteriohopanetetrol (aminotetrol), although both are relatively low in abundance compared to other BHPs. Aminopentol serves as a marker for type I methanotrophs, while aminotetrol may reflect the presence of both type I and type II methanotrophs. The similar quantities of aminotetrol and aminopentol indicate that the methanotrophic community in Sphagnum peat probably consist of a combination of both type I and type II methanotrophs, which is in line with previously published pmoA-based micro-array results.

  18. Application of peat filters