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Sample records for brazilian medical school

  1. Geriatric teaching in Brazilian medical schools in 2013 and considerations regarding adjustment to demographic and epidemiological transition

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    Ana Conceição Norbim Prado Cunha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: This study aims to describe the profile of medical schools that introduced courses on Geriatrics and Elderly Health or Aging in their curriculum, and compare such information with the age distribution and health epidemiological data of the Brazilian population, using data until the year of 2013. Methods: 180 universities offering medical undergraduate courses and registered with the Ministry of Education and Culture of Brazil (MEC were found, as seen on the MEC website (www.emec.mec.gov.br in February 2013. Based on the list of institutions, the authors created a database. Results: Brazil's Southeast region is the one presenting most of the courses, both offered as core or elective subjects, in the area of Geriatrics. The Midwest region had the least offer of Geriatrics and Elderly Health and Care courses. The Southeast region presents the greater absolute number of institutions with elective subjects, followed by the South and Northeast regions, each with a single institution. The Southeast region was at the same time the one that presented the biggest absolute number of institutions offering core subjects in the area of Geriatrics, being followed by the Northeast, South, North, and Midwest regions. Conclusion: By analyzing the availability of courses that emphasize aging and Geriatrics in brazilian medical schools, the present study reveals that specialized training should be encouraged with respect to the specificities of health care given to the elderly population, which has a higher frequency of chronic and degenerative diseases.

  2. Bullying in Brazilian Schools and Restorative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Patricia Krieger; dos Santos, Andreia Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a widespread phenomenon that affects many children and adolescents in Brazilian schools. A pilot research study was carried out in four schools (one private and three public) located in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. A combination of self-administered questionnaires and focus groups with students as well as interviews with teachers were…

  3. Effects of Brazilian Schools on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, José Francisco; Alves, Maria Teresa Gonzaga; Xavier, Flavia Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Brazilian elementary schools on the chances of their students achieving at different levels of mathematics proficiency. Since student proficiency is classified at three levels--Insufficient, Basic and Proficient--the chosen model of analysis was the hierarchical multinomial model. The…

  4. Proceedings of the 6. Brazilian congress on medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 6. Brazilian congress on medical physics has presented and discussed recent research results and themes about state-of-the-art of the applications of Physics methods in prevention, diagnosis and pathology treatments. Also has included questions of Safety and Protection in the medical practices and some aspects of Formation/Education emphasizing the situation of medical physics in Brazil - present and future

  5. Academic leagues: a Brazilian way to teach about cancer in medical universities

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Diogo Antonio Valente; Aranha, Renata Nunes; de Souza, Maria Helena Faria Ornellas

    2015-01-01

    Background Performance of qualified professionals committed to cancer care on a global scale is critical. Nevertheless there is a deficit in Cancer Education in Brazilian medical schools (MS). Projects called Academic Leagues (AL) have been gaining attention. However, there are few studies on this subject. AL arise from student initiative, arranged into different areas, on focus in general knowledge, universal to any medical field. They are not obligatory and students are responsible for the ...

  6. Diversity in School: A Brazilian Educational Policy against Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Sergio; Nascimento, Marcos; Duque, Aline; Tramontano, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Diversity in School is a Brazilian initiative that seeks to increase understanding, recognition, respect, and value social and cultural differences through offering an e-learning course on gender, sexuality, and ethnic relations for teachers and school administrators in the public school system. The course and its objectives aim to enable staff…

  7. Bullying and Sexual Harassment among Brazilian High School Students

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    DeSouza, Eros R.; Ribeiro, J'aims

    2005-01-01

    Bullying and sexual harassment at school have received recent attention in developed countries; however, they have been neglected in Latin America. Thus, the authors investigated these phenomena among 400 Brazilian high school students from two high schools (one private and one public). Analyses using t-tests showed that boys bullied and sexually…

  8. Medical Specialty Choice and Related Factors of Brazilian Medical Students and Recent Doctors.

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    Ligia Correia Lima de Souza

    Full Text Available Choosing a medical specialty is an important, complex, and not fully understood process. The present study investigated the factors that are related to choosing and rejecting medical specialties in a group of students and recent medical doctors.A cross-sectional survey of 1,223 medical students and doctors was performed in Brazil in 2012. A standardized literature-based questionnaire was applied that gathered preferable or rejected specialties, and asked questions about extracurricular experiences and the influence of 14 factors on a Likert-type scale from 0 to 4. Specialties were grouped according to lifestyle categories: controllable and uncontrollable, which were subdivided into primary care, internal medicine, and surgical specialties. Notably, the time period of rejection was usually earlier than the time period of intended choice (p < 0.0001, χ(2 = 107.2. The choice mainly occurred during the internship period in medical school (n = 466; 38.7%. An overall large frequency of participation in extracurricular activities was observed (n = 1,184; 95.8%, which were highly associated with the respective medical area. Orthopedic surgery had the highest correlation with participation in specialty-specific organized groups (OR = 59.9, 95% CI = 21.6-166.3 and psychiatry was correlated with participation in research groups (OR = 18.0, 95% CI = 9.0-36.2. With regard to influential factors in controllable lifestyle specialties, "financial reason" (mean score ± standard deviation: 2.8 ± 1.0; median = 3 and "personal time" (3.1 ± 1.3; median = 4 were important factors. In primary care, these factors were less important (1.7 ± 1.3 and 1.7 ± 1.5, respectively; median = 2 for both, and higher scores were observed for "curricular internship" (3.2 ± 1.1, median = 4 and "social commitment" (2.6 ± 1.3, median = 3.The present findings provide important insights into developing strategies to stimulate interest in specialties based on the needs of the

  9. The VA-Medical School Partnership: The Medical School Perspective.

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    Petersdorf, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    Issues in the relationship between the Veterans' Administration (VA) and medical schools are discussed, including VA faculty recruitment and retention, ambulatory care in VA teaching hospitals, governance and growth of research within VA medical centers, and effects of cost containment and competition on teaching and training in VA hospitals. (MSE)

  10. Spirituality and health in the curricula of medical schools in Brazil

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    Lucchetti Giancarlo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to recent surveys, 59% of British medical schools and 90% of US medical schools have courses or content on spirituality and health (S/H. There is little research, however, on the teaching of S/H in medical schools in other countries, such as those in Latin America, Asia, Australia and Africa. The present study seeks to investigate the current status of teaching on S/H in Brazilian medical schools. Methods All medical schools in Brazil (private and public were selected for evaluation, were contacted by email and phone, and were administered a questionnaire. The questionnaire, sent by e-mail, asked medical school directors/deans about any S/H courses that were taught, details about those courses, S/H lectures or seminars, importance of teaching this subject for medical school directors, and medical schools characteristics. Results A total of 86 out of 180 (47.7% medical schools responded. Results indicated that 10.4% of Brazilian Medical Schools have a dedicated S/H courses and 40.5% have courses or content on spirituality and health. Only two medical schools have S/H courses that involve hands-on training and three schools have S/H courses that teach how to conduct a spiritual history. The majority of medical directors (54% believe that S/H is important to teach in their schools. Conclusion Few Brazilian medical schools have courses dealing specifically with S/H and less than half provide some form of teaching on the subject. Unfortunately, there is no standard curriculum on S/H. Nevertheless, the majority of medical directors believe this issue is an important subject that should be taught.

  11. The Medical School Retention Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg

    2011-01-01

    the predictive validity of admission testing versus grade-based admission on dropout. METHOD This prospective cohort study followed 6 cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at University of Southern Denmark (USD) in 2002-2007 (N=1544). Half the students were admitted based on...

  12. Analogies in high school Brazilian chemistry textbooks

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    Rosária Justi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an analysis of the analogies presented by Brazilian chemistry textbooks for the medium level. The main aim of the analysis is to discuss whether such analogies can be said good teaching models. From the results, some aspects concerning with teachers' role are discussed. Finally, some new research questions are emphasised.

  13. [Investigation on Qiantang medical school].

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    Zhu, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Cheng-Lie; Hu, Bin; Bao, Xiao-Dong; Zhu, De-Ming

    2004-04-01

    Qiantang medical school came into being during the late Ming Dynasty and the early Qing Dynasty, and lasted for 200 years until Guang Xu Reign in the late Qing Dynasty. Lu Zhiyi and Zhang Suichen were the early representative figures; Zhang Zhicong, Zhang Xiju and Gao Shizong were the mid-period representative figures; and Zhong Xuelu was the late representative figure. They respected consistently the classics and the ancients, cultivated new talents, studied medical literature with a trinity of teaching, studying the classics and practising medicine as its characteristic. Eventually, it developed under the specific background of time and geographical environment as the only academic medical school enbodying teaching, studying the classics, and medical practice as a whole with distinguished achievements. PMID:15555234

  14. A Hierarchical Dynamic Beta Regression Model of School Performance in the Brazilian Mathematical Olympiads for Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Alexandra M.; de Moraes, Caroline P.; Migon, Helio S.

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Mathematical Olympiads for Public Schools (OBMEP) is held every year since 2005. In the 2013 edition there were over 47,000 schools registered involving nearly 19.2 million students. The Brazilian public educational system is structured into three administrative levels: federal, state and municipal. Students participating in the OBMEP come from three educational levels, two in primary and one in secondary school. We aim at studying the performance of Brazilian public schools whi...

  15. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  16. Prevalence of the burnout syndrome among Brazilian medical oncologists

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    João Glasberg

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Burnout syndrome which is prevalent among oncologists is characterized by three aspects: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment. The purpose was to evaluate prevalence of the burnout syndrome among Brazilian medical oncologists and the variables that correlate with its presence. METHODS: A survey was conducted with members of the Brazilian Society of Medical Oncology (SBOC who received three questionnaires (general, Maslach burnout questionnaire and an opinion survey mailed to all 458 members. RESULTS: Response rate was of 22.3%. According to the criteria proposed by Grunfeld, which consider burnout present when at least one of the aspects is severely abnormal, prevalence of this syndrome was 68.6% (95% confidence interval, CI: 58.68% to 77.45%. By multivariate analysis having a hobby/physical activity, a religious affiliation, older age, living with a companion and rating vacation time as sufficient were correlated significantly and independently with burnout syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The burnout syndrome is prevalent among Brazilian oncologists. Oncologists having sufficient personal and social resources to engage in a hobby, physical activity, have enough vacation time and religious activities are at lower risk of developing burnout.INTRODUÇÃO: A Síndrome da Estafa Profissional (SEP é considerada uma doença caracterizada por três componentes básicos: exaustão emocional (EE, despersonalização (DP e reduzida realização pessoal (RP, sendo identificada em oncologistas. OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência da SEP entre oncologistas clínicos e possíveis fatores relacionados. MÉTODOS: Foram enviados três questionários (Questionário Geral, Questionário Maslach de Burnout e Questionário de Opinião para 458 cancerologistas cadastrados na Sociedade Brasileira de Oncologia Clínica (SBOC. RESULTADOS: A taxa de resposta foi de 20%. 43,3% dos entrevistados demonstraram nível baixo de EE, 57

  17. Understanding the process of greening of Brazilian business schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, C.J.C.; Sarkis, J.; De Sousa Jabbour, A.B.L.;

    2013-01-01

    with researching and teaching; (b) this incorporation process depends on the personal motivation of few or single faculty researchers; (c) the trajectory of the analyzed business schools is marked by advances and stagnation, when analyzing the incorporation of environmental management issues to its...... four core activities; (d) paradoxically, the analyzed business schools can be considered academic leaders in the field, but have had difficulties in adopting environmental management practices internally; (e) there is a "path dependence" effect in this process; (f) there are barriers to organizational...... change towards green business schools; (g) institutional entrepreneurs are important to the process of greening. This research represents the first research shedding light to understanding the process of greening of Brazilian business schools while considering the multidimensional aspects (teaching...

  18. Medication Administration Practices in Pennsylvania Schools

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    Ficca, Michelle; Welk, Dorette

    2006-01-01

    As a result of various health concerns, children are receiving an increased number of medications while at school. In Pennsylvania, the School Code mandates a ratio of 1 certified school nurse to 1,500 students, which may mean that 1 school nurse is covering 3-5 buildings. This implies that unlicensed personnel are administering medications, a…

  19. Bullying among medical students in a Saudi medical school

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    Alzahrani Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' percep...

  20. Centralization vs. decentralization in medical school libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, H

    1966-07-01

    Does the medical school library in the United States operate more commonly under the university library or the medical school administration? University-connected medical school libraries were asked to indicate (a) the source of their budgets, whether from the central library or the medical school, and (b) the responsibility for their acquisitions and cataloging. Returns received from sixtyeight of the seventy eligible institutions showed decentralization to be much the most common: 71 percent of the libraries are funded by their medical schools; 79 percent are responsible for their own acquisitions and processing. The factor most often associated with centralization of both budget and operation is public ownership. Decentralization is associated with service to one or two rather than three or more professional schools. Location of the medical school in a different city from the university is highly favorable to autonomy. Other factors associated with these trends are discussed. PMID:5945568

  1. The Current State of Medical Education in Chinese Medical Schools

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    Kosik, Russell Oliver; Huang, Lei; Cai, Qiaoling; Xu, Guo-Tong; Zhao, Xudong; Guo, Li; Tang, Wen; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Today's doctor is as much a humanist as a scientist. Medical schools have responded to this change by introducing a variety of courses, most notably those concerning the humanities and ethics. Thus far, no one has examined the extent of use of these subjects in Chinese medical schools. The goal of this study is to determine how many and in…

  2. Immunization policies in Canadian medical schools.

    OpenAIRE

    Rowan, M S; Carter, A O; Walker, V J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the policies of Canadian medical schools concerning immunization of students and the methods used to promote these policies. DESIGN: Mail survey with the use of a 12-item, self-administered questionnaire; telephone follow-up to ensure response. SETTING: All 16 medical schools in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Deans of Canada's 16 medical schools or their designates. All of them responded to the questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Policies on vaccination of students against di...

  3. Organic food-related educational actions developed by dieticians in Brazilian municipal schools

    OpenAIRE

    Tayse Valdira Vieira; Arlete Catarina Tittoni Corso; David Alejandro González-Chica

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study describes educational actions concerning organic foods conducted in Brazilian public schools and investigates how these actions are associated with the weekly workload and duration of employment of the dietician responsible for school meals. METHODS: In 2012 this cross-sectional, census-type study used an electronic questionnaire to collect data from dieticians or others responsible for school meals in all 5,565 Brazilian municipalities. The software Stata 11.0 was ...

  4. Radiation education in medical and Co-medical schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the medical field, ionizing radiation is very widely in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, Around 60% of environmental radiation, including natural background and man-made sources of radiation, is caused from medical exposure in Japan. Education of radiation in medical ad co-medical schools are mainly aimed to how effectively use the radiation, and the time shared to fundamental physics, biology and safety or protection of radiation is not so much. (author)

  5. Effects of Homophobic versus Nonhomophobic Victimization on School Commitment and the Moderating Effect of Teacher Attitudes in Brazilian Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Mandi M.; Santo, Jonathan B.; Da Cunha, Josafa; Weber, Lidia; Russell, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated homophobic victimization, teacher support, and school commitment in Brazilian schools. Participants were 339 students, ages 11 to 18 years old, in two public schools in Brazil. Data were obtained using the Brazil Preventing School Harassment Survey. Structural equation modeling revealed that both homophobic and…

  6. Factors influencing students' performance in a Brazilian dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Erica Tatiane da; Nunes, Maria de Fátima; Queiroz, Maria Goretti; Leles, Cláudio R

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment of students' academic performance plays an important role in educational planning. The aim of this study was to investigate variables that influence student's performance in a retrospective sample including all undergraduate students who entered in a Brazilian dental school, in a 20-year period between 1984 and 2003 (n=1182). Demographic and educational variables were used to predict performance in the overall curriculum and course groups. Cluster analysis (K-means algorithm) categorized students into groups of higher, moderate or lower performance. Clusters of overall performance showed external validity, demonstrated by Chi-square test and ANOVA. Lower performance groups had the smallest number of students in overall performance and course groups clusters, ranging from 11.8% (clinical courses) to 19.2% (basic courses). Students' performance was more satisfactory in dental and clinical courses, rather than basic and non-clinical courses (pstudent's performance was predicted by lower time elapsed between completion of high school and dental school admission, female gender, better rank in admission test, class attendance rate and student workload hours in teaching, research and extension (R(2)=0.491). Findings give evidence about predictors of undergraduate students' performance and reinforce the need for curricular reformulation focused on with improvement of integration among courses. PMID:20464326

  7. School Nurses' Experiences with Medication Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael W.; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Mordhorst, Matthew J.

    2003-01-01

    This article reports school nurses' experiences with medication administration through qualitative analyses of a written survey and focus groups. From a random sample of 1,000 members of the National Association of School Nurses, 649 (64.9%) school nurses completed the survey. The quantitative data from the survey were presented previously.…

  8. Emotional intelligence predicts success in medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbrecht, Nele; Lievens, Filip; Carette, Bernd; Côté, Stéphane

    2014-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that effective communication and interpersonal sensitivity during interactions between doctors and patients impact therapeutic outcomes. There is an important need to identify predictors of these behaviors, because traditional tests used in medical admissions offer limited predictions of "bedside manners" in medical practice. This study examined whether emotional intelligence would predict the performance of 367 medical students in medical school courses on communication and interpersonal sensitivity. One of the dimensions of emotional intelligence, the ability to regulate emotions, predicted performance in courses on communication and interpersonal sensitivity over the next 3 years of medical school, over and above cognitive ability and conscientiousness. Emotional intelligence did not predict performance on courses on medical subject domains. The results suggest that medical schools may better predict who will communicate effectively and show interpersonal sensitivity if they include measures of emotional intelligence in their admission systems. PMID:24219393

  9. Self-Medication among School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed; Batiha, Abdul-Monim; Tawalbeh, Loai; Tubaishat, Ahmad; AlAzzam, Manar

    2015-01-01

    Self-medication, usually with over-the-counter (OTC) medication, is reported as a community health problem that affects many people worldwide. Most self-medication practice usually begins with the onset of adolescence. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan, using a simple random sampling method to select…

  10. Medical student fitness to practise committees at UK medical schools

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    Aldridge Jocelyne

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to explore the structures for managing student fitness to practise hearings in medical schools in the UK. We surveyed by email the named fitness to practise leads of all full members of the UK Medical Schools Council with a medical undergraduate programme. We asked whether student fitness to practise cases were considered by a committee/panel dedicated to medicine, or by one which also considered other undergraduate health and social care students. Findings All 31 medical schools responded. 19 medical schools had a fitness to practise committee dealing with medical students only. Three had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and dentistry. One had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and veterinary medicine. Eight had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and two or more other programmes, such as dentistry, nursing, midwifery, physiotherapy, dietetics, social work, pharmacy, psychology, audiology, speech therapy, operating department practice, veterinary medicine and education. Conclusion All 31 UK medical schools with undergraduate programmes have a fitness to practise committee to deal with students whose behaviour has given rise to concern about their fitness to practise. The variation in governance structures for student fitness to practise committees/panels can in part be explained by variations in University structures and the extent to which Universities co-manage undergraduate medicine with other courses.

  11. The Medical Physics Brazilian Portal: the challenge of information dissemination by Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Medical Physics Brazilian Portal (PBFM) was created to publish news and events from its related areas in Brazil. The PBFM represents an open, impartial, and free information center, managed by postgraduate students from diverse areas. The PBFM's cost are covered by financial support. The objective of this work is to communicate about the PBFM's creation and its main indicators. (author)

  12. The Medical Ethics Curriculum in Medical Schools: Present and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giubilini, Alberto; Milnes, Sharyn; Savulescu, Julian

    2016-01-01

    In this review article we describe the current scope, methods, and contents of medical ethics education in medical schools in Western English speaking countries (mainly the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia). We assess the strengths and weaknesses of current medical ethics curricula, and students' levels of satisfaction with different teaching approaches and their reported difficulties in learning medical ethics concepts and applying them in clinical practice. We identify three main challenges for medical ethics education: counteracting the bad effects of the "hidden curriculum," teaching students how to apply ethical knowledge and critical thinking to real cases in clinical practice, and shaping future doctors' right character through ethics education. We suggest ways in which these challenges could be addressed. On the basis of this analysis, we propose practical guidelines for designing, implementing, teaching, and assessing a medical ethics program within a four-year medical course. PMID:27333063

  13. Self-medication in health students from two Brazilian universities

    OpenAIRE

    Delprina de G. Rocha de Carvalho; Felipe Eduardo Ferreira Valoz; Danilo Santos Carneiro; Patricia Freire Gasparetto; Vírginia Farias Alves; Cláudio Maranhão Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Self medication is a component of self care and it is considered as primary public health resource in health care system. It can be defined as use of non-prescription medicines by people on their own initiative. Dentists, together with doctors and veterinarians, comprise the professional classes that may and must prescribe medications for their patients. On the other hand, the nursing professionals are the ones who more administer drugs to patients in the ambulatory and hospital...

  14. Psychotropic Medications: An Update for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Nancy; Kulick, Deborah; Phelps, LeAdelle

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of medications used frequently in the treatment of pediatric depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. The need for a collaborative relationship between the prescribing physician, school personnel, and the family is outlined. School psychologists can play crucial roles by providing the physician with information…

  15. Supporting medical students with learning disabilities in Asian medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Majumder, Azim

    2010-01-01

    Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Sayeeda Rahman2, Urban JA D’Souza3, Gad Elbeheri4, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman5, M Muzaherul Huq61,2Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 3School of Medicine, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; 4Centre for Child Evaluation and Teaching, Kuwait; 5College of Medicine, Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Centre for Medical Education (CME), Mohakhali, Dhaka, Ba...

  16. Self-medication in health students from two Brazilian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delprina de G. Rocha de Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Self medication is a component of self care and it is considered as primary public health resource in health care system. It can be defined as use of non-prescription medicines by people on their own initiative. Dentists, together with doctors and veterinarians, comprise the professional classes that may and must prescribe medications for their patients. On the other hand, the nursing professionals are the ones who more administer drugs to patients in the ambulatory and hospital. Objective: This study was aimed to find out the frequency of self medication in selected university students, to find out the difference in the proportions of self medication between dentistry and nursing students, as well to evaluate the students’ knowledge of harmful effects of self medication and common problems of students that use the self medication. Material and methods: We were applied 209 questionnaires among dentistry students from the 3rd to 8th semesters at the Paulista University/Goiânia and 542 among nursing students from the 3rd to 8th semesters at the Estacio de Sa University of Goiás. Results and conclusion: In the present study was observed a high rate of self-medication among undergraduate students in the health area,particularly among the dentistry and nurse students. The result was alarming because the professional him/herself who should educate patients and dissuade them from this practice is a habitual user; it makes it more difficult to aspire to the future inhibition and reduction of this practice that is so harmful to health.

  17. Constructing Electives in Medical Curricula: Example of Gazi Medical School

    OpenAIRE

    Budakoğlu, İrem; COŞKUN, ÖZLEM; Uluoğlu, Canan; Ayhan, Sühan; Özkan, Seçil; Çağlar, Kayhan; Kalkancı, Ayşe; Gözil, Rabet; Çakır, Nuri

    2013-01-01

    Configuring a part of the medical curricula as an elective, supports the students planning their careers in the future by providing in-depth study in the particular area and also working environment. In this study it is aimed to share the steps that we followed to develop elective clerkship and internship program in a medical school, and the lessons we obtained. This study was carried out between November 2010- May 2011. The members of Program Development and Evaluation Board of t...

  18. Measuring Strength of Motivation for Medical School

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    Marja GH Nieuwhof

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Students vary in their strength of motivation to start and pursue medical training. This study was conducted to investigate the psychometric properties of a Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS questionnaire. Method. The questionnaire was designed using an iterative method. The instrument was applied to medical students (N= 296 at the start of medical school and to potential applicants (N= 147. The stability of the concept over a six month’s time and associations with other motivation measures were studied. A separate group of potential applicants and their parents (N= 169 were asked to validate the items of the questionnaire. Results. Cronbach’s alpha reliability of .79 was found. Test-retest reliability of SMMS-scores with a six months interval was .71. Little to no association with specific dimensions of motivation was found, except for a negative correlation with ‘ambivalence towards studying’. SMMS-scores were associated with potential applicants’ plans to apply for medical school (Spearman’s rho .65 and differentially with potential applicants’ and their parents’ judgements of item validities (.13 to .57. Conclusions. The SMMS-questionnaire appears to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure strength of motivation for medical training in students who have just entered medical school. It may be used to evaluate the validity of selection procedures and to identify associated variables that could be used in selection procedures.

  19. School-specific assessment in German medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Resch, Franz; Duelli, Roman; Möltner, Andreas; Jünger, Jana

    2010-01-01

    [english] The 2002 licensing regulation for doctors significantly increased the importance of school-specific assessment during the clinical phase of medical education. School-specific assessment should strengthen the practical element of medical training; due to the licensing reform, students now obtain individual grades for each clinical subject, which then count toward the final degree. In order to gain an overview of how the assessment procedure has evolved in light of this reform, a sur...

  20. Brazilian Medical Association guidelines for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of panic disorder

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    Michelle Nigri Levitan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the most relevant findings regarding the Brazilian Medical Association guidelines for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of panic disorder. Methods: We used the methodology proposed by the Brazilian Medical Association for the Diretrizes Project. The MEDLINE (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and LILACS online databases were queried for articles published from 1980 to 2012. Searchable questions were structured using the PICO format (acronym for “patient” [or population], “intervention” [or exposure], “comparison” [or control], and “outcome”. Results: We present data on clinical manifestations and implications of panic disorder and its association with depression, drug abuse, dependence and anxiety disorders. In addition, discussions were held on the main psychiatric and clinical differential diagnoses. Conclusions: The guidelines are proposed to serve as a reference for the general practitioner and specialist to assist in and facilitate the diagnosis of panic disorder.

  1. Characteristics of violence suffered by high school adolescents in a Brazilian state capital

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins; Lidiane Cristina da Silva Alencastro

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study was to describe the characteristics of violence suffered by high school adolescent students of public schools in a Brazilian state capital. The data correspond to 456 adolescent victims of violence, collected by means of a questionnaire and processed by Epi-Info, in which analyses considered a value of p

  2. Bullying among medical students in a Saudi medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzahrani Hasan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as “a “persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient”. Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0% of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.

  3. An overview of recently published medical papers in Brazilian scientific journals

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Mauricio Rocha e; Ariane Gomes

    2011-01-01

    A brief review intended as information to the readership of Clinics on papers recently published under various medical headings in Brazilian scientific journals recently indexed or about to be indexed in ISI-THOMSON Journal Citation Reports. Journals covered in this review are Acta Ortopédica Brasileira, Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia, Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular and Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira.

  4. Medical school entrance and career plans of Malaysian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, S M

    1996-11-01

    This study investigates the reasons for entry to medicine and the career perspectives of phase III medical students of the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The majority of the students were Malays from low socio-economic backgrounds who entered medical school after completing a 2-year matriculation course. An interest in medicine and helping people were the two main stated reasons for entry to medical school. A group of students wishing to work in private practice was identified. In comparison to the rest of the study body, students in the group were: not well prepared to enter medical school; dissatisfied with the course; and subject to family influences. A desire for monetary gain motivated their choice of medicine as a career. Overall, 13% of the students wished to change career because they were dissatisfied with their experience of medicine as undergraduates. The study did not find a significant difference in career intentions between female and male medical students. However, women were less likely to seek entrance into private practice or pursue formal postgraduate education. The choice of surgery as a career was confined to men. About 90% of the students had already decided on their future specialty. Four well-established specialties were their most popular choices. The gender of the students had no significant influences of the decision to continue into postgraduate education. The proportion of female students who wished to marry doctors was significantly higher than for male students. PMID:9217903

  5. Supporting medical students with learning disabilities in Asian medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Sayeeda Rahman2, Urban JA D’Souza3, Gad Elbeheri4, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman5, M Muzaherul Huq61,2Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 3School of Medicine, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; 4Centre for Child Evaluation and Teaching, Kuwait; 5College of Medicine, Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Centre for Medical Education (CME, Mohakhali, Dhaka, BangladeshAbstract: Learning disabilities (LDs represent the largest group of disabilities in higher education (HE institutes, including medical schools, and the numbers are continuing to rise. The worrying concern is that two-thirds to half of these students with LDs remain undiagnosed when they start their undergraduate education and may even graduate without having their disabilities diagnosed. These students struggle with their academic abilities, receive poor grades and, as a result, develop lower perceptions of their intellectual abilities than do those students without LDs. All these ultimately hamper their professional practice, employment, and career progression. Appropriate and adequate educational policies, provisions, and practices help students to progress satisfactorily. In Asian countries, public and professional awareness about LDs is low, supportive provisions are limited, legislations are inadequate, data are scarce, and equal-opportunity/widening-participation policies are not implemented effectively in the HE sector. This article discusses the issues related to LDs in medical education and draws policy, provision, and practice implications to identify, assess, and support students with LDs in medical schools, particularly in an Asian context.Keywords: medical education, learning disabilities, dyslexia, Asia

  6. The Role of School Environment in Physical Activity among Brazilian Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    de Rezende, Leandro Fórnias Machado; Azeredo, Catarina Machado; Silva, Kelly Samara; Claro, Rafael Moreira; França-Junior, Ivan; Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Eluf-Neto, José

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the association of physical activity facilities and extracurricular sports activities in schools with physical activity among adolescents. Methodology/Principal Findings We used data collected for the National Survey of School Health in 2012. The national representative sample comprised 109,104 Brazilian students from 2,842 schools. We calculated the prevalence of participation in physical education classes, leisure-time physical activity, and total physical activity leve...

  7. [Plagiarism in medical schools, and its prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annane, Djillali; Annane, Frédérique

    2012-09-01

    The plagiarism has become very common in universities and medical school. Undoubtedly, the easy access to a huge amount of electronic documents is one explanation for the increasing prevalence of plagiarism among students. While most of universities and medical school have clear statements and rules about plagiarism, available tools for the detection of plagiarism remain inefficient and dedicate training program for students and teachers too scarce. As lack of time is one reason for students to choose plagiarism, it should be one main target for educational programs. PMID:22739066

  8. Legal training of students in medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Kablukov, А. А.; Strakhova, O. Р.

    2014-01-01

    Legal training of medical workers is an urgent problem that must be solved in order to improve the comprehensive process of teaching students at the Ukrainian medical schools. An example of implementation the initial stage of legal training for medical students based on existing training programs, within existing departments is described in this article. The acquisition of the primary skills for students in fi nding and selecting the legal documents and the ability to navigate skillfully in t...

  9. Admission criteria and diversity in medical school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Vonsild, Maria; Wallstedt, Birgitta;

    2013-01-01

    students admitted via the two tracks between the years 2002-2007. Method: This prospective cohort study included 1074 medical students admitted between the years 2002-2007 to the University of Southern Denmark (USD) medical school. Of these, 454 were admitted by grade-based selection and 620 were selected...... (grade-based or attribute-based) had no statistically significant effect on the social diversity of medical students admitted to USD. Discussion: It may be a myth that attribute-based admission widens access and increases social diversity. To the contrary, there is evidence that combining grade...

  10. A Content Analysis of Medical School Admissions Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Altmaier

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Prospective medical school applicants use Internet websites to gain information about medical school interviews as well as to offer their experience in such interviews. This study examined applicants’ reported experiences of interviews and compared them to the purposes of the interview as purported by medical schools. Method. Content analysis of student feedback regarding medical school interviews at 161 medical schools was conducted for entries of over 4600 students applying to medical school who anonymously and voluntarily completed an online questionnaire. Results. Across all medical schools, nearly one half of all cited interview questions addressed non-cognitive characteristics of the applicants. Top ranked medical schools were reported to ask significantly more interpersonal and illegal questions and fewer academic/general knowledge questions than other medical schools. Lower ranked schools did not differ significantly in the types of questions reportedly asked applicants compared to other medical schools. Discussion. Medical school interviews are generally gathering types of information about applicants that admissions personnel identify as important in the admission decision. In addition to measuring interpersonal characteristics, medical school admissions interviews are assessing cognitive abilities and ethical decision-making. Sources on the Internet provide actual medical school interview questions to prospective students. This practice can help them gain an undue advantage in interviewing. Admissions committees and faculty who interview students may want to consider how best to obtain accurate and valid responses from applicants.

  11. Medication Administration in the School Setting. Position Statement. Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharski, Susan; Kain, Carole A.; Fleming, Robin; Pontius, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that school districts develop written medication administration policies and procedures that focus on safe and efficient medication administration at school by a registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse). Policies should include prescription…

  12. The quality of public education and private school enrollment: an assessment using Brazilian data

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Estevan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we test the hypothesis that private school enrollment is the households' response to the low quality of public schools. In order to deal with the simultaneity issue, we explore variations in public school funding caused by the FUNDEF reform that occurred in Brazil in 1998. Using data from the Brazilian School Census, we show that a positive impact of the reform is associated with an immediate reduction in the share of private enrollment for the first grade of primary school at ...

  13. Profiling alumni of a Brazilian public dental school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Maria F

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Follow-up studies of former students are an efficient way to organize the entire process of professional training and curriculum evaluation. The aim of this study was to identify professional profile subgroups based on job-related variables in a sample of former students of a Brazilian public dental school. Methods A web-based password-protected questionnaire was sent to 633 registered dentists who graduated from the Federal University of Goias between 1988 and 2007. Job-related information was retrieved from 14 closed questions, on subjects such as gender, occupational routine, training, profits, income status, and self-perception of professional career, generating an automatic database for analysis. The two-step cluster method was used for dividing dentists into groups on the basis of minimal within-group and maximal between-group variation, using job-related variables to represent attributes upon which the clustering was based. Results There were 322 respondents (50.9%, predominantly female (64.9% and the mean age was 34 years (SD = 6.0. The automatic selection of an optimal number of clusters included 289 cases (89.8% in 3 natural clusters. Clusters 1, 2 and 3 included 52.2%, 30.8% and 17.0% of the sample respectively. Interpretation of within-group rank of variable importance for cluster segmentation resulted in the following characterization of clusters: Cluster 1 - specialist dentists with higher profits and positive views of the profession; Cluster 2 - general dental practitioners in small cities; Cluster 3 - underpaid and less motivated dentists with negative views of the profession. Male dentists were predominant in cluster 1 and females in cluster 3. One-way Anova showed that age and time since graduation were significantly lower in Cluster 2 (P Conclusions Cluster analysis was a valuable method for identifying natural grouping with relatively homogeneous cases, providing potentially meaningful information for

  14. Veterinary medicine and the medical school library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D

    1969-07-01

    The study of veterinary medicine is becoming increasingly important in the progress of human medicine, and as a consequence the literature of veterinary medicine is assuming increased importance in the libraries of schools of human medicine. In the past decade programs in comparative medicine have been initiated in many centers, reestablishing the linkage between veterinary and human medicine. Since 1966 the National Library of Medicine has assumed extra responsibilities in the collection and control of veterinary medical literature. increased indexing has thus far been the major result, with a resultant increase in the need to consult veterinary journals. Advances in the veterinary curriculum and continued veterinary education have also increased demand for veterinary publications. Such demand must be foreseen and met by medical school libraries if they are to fulfill their obligations to the scholarly medical community. PMID:5789821

  15. Hygienic, sanitary, physical, and functional conditions of Brazilian public school food services

    OpenAIRE

    Kênia Machado de Almeida; Maria Cláudia Porfirio André; Maria Raquel Hidalgo Campos; Mário Ernesto Piscoya Díaz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify the physical, functional, hygienic, and sanitary conditions of the food services of municipal schools located in the Brazilian Midwest region. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 296 school food services conducted from February to June 2012. The food services were assessed by a semi-structured check list divided into the following sections: physical conditions, available equipment, food handlers' conduct, and food service cleaning processes and procedures. Th...

  16. Status of nutrition education in Canadian dental and medical schools.

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, M. L.; Hargreaves, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate the present status of nutrition education for dentists and physicians in Canada, we conducted a survey of the nutrition education programs in 10 Canadian dental and 16 medical schools in the academic year 1982-83. Seven of the dental schools and seven of the medical schools had a separate course in nutrition. The average duration of these courses was 22 hours for the dental schools and 26 hours for the medical schools. Nutrition education was integrated with another discipline ...

  17. Mentoring program design and implementation in new medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Fornari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Mentoring is considered a valuable component of undergraduate medical education with a variety of programs at established medical schools. This study presents how new medical schools have set up mentoring programs as they have developed their curricula. Methods: Administrators from 14 US medical schools established since 2006 were surveyed regarding the structure and implementation of their mentoring programs. Results: The majority of new medical schools had mentoring programs that varied in structure and implementation. Although the programs were viewed as valuable at each institution, challenges when creating and implementing mentoring programs in new medical schools included time constraints for faculty and students, and lack of financial and professional incentives for faculty. Conclusions: Similar to established medical schools, there was little uniformity among mentoring programs at new medical schools, likely reflecting differences in curriculum and program goals. Outcome measures are needed to determine whether a best practice for mentoring can be established.

  18. Chat reference service in medical libraries: part 2--Trends in medical school libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Cheryl R

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of medical school libraries offer chat service to provide immediate, high quality information at the time and point of need to students, faculty, staff, and health care professionals. Part 2 of Chat Reference Service in Medical Libraries presents a snapshot of the current trends in chat reference service in medical school libraries. In late 2002, 25 (21%) medical school libraries provided chat reference. Trends in chat reference services in medical school libraries were compiled from an exploration of medical school library Web sites and informal correspondence from medical school library personnel. Many medical libraries are actively investigating and planning new chat reference services, while others have decided not to pursue chat reference at this time. Anecdotal comments from medical school library staff provide insights into chat reference service. PMID:12723811

  19. Personality Perceptions of Medical School Applicants

    OpenAIRE

    Jelley, R. Blake; Parkes, Michael A.; Rothstein, Mitchell G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To examine the extent to which medical school interviewers consider perceptions of applicant personality traits during a semi-structured panel interview, the interrater reliability of assessments, and the impact of such perceptions on individual admission decisions. Method Semi-structured panel interviews were conducted with applicants to the Doctor of Medicine Program at the University of Western Ontario in London, Canada. Interviewers also provided voluntary, ?research only? ratings...

  20. Personality Perceptions of Medical School Applicants

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell Rothstein

    2002-01-01

    Purpose To examine the extent to which medical school interviewers consider perceptions of applicant personality traits during a semi-structured panel interview, the interrater reliability of assessments, and the impact of such perceptions on individual admission decisions. Method Semi-structured panel interviews were conducted with applicants to the Doctor of Medicine Program at the University of Western Ontario in London, Canada. Interviewers also provided voluntary, research only ratings o...

  1. Brazilian actions to promote physiology learning and teaching in secondary and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; Granjeiro, Érica Maria; Montrezor, Luís Henrique; Rocha, Maria José Alves

    2016-06-01

    Members of the Education Committee of the Brazilian Society of Physiology have developed multiple outreach models to improve the appreciation of science and physiology at the precollege level. The members of this committee act in concert with important Brazilian governmental strategies to promote training of undergraduate students in the teaching environment of secondary and high schools. One of these governmental strategies, the Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciação à Docência, a Brazilian public policy of teaching enhancement implemented by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) since 2007, represents a well-articulated public policy that can promote the partnership between University and Schools (7). Furthermore, the Program "Novos Talentos" (New Talents)/CAPES/Ministry of Education is another government initiative to bring together university and high-level technical training with the reality of Brazilian schools. Linked to the New Talents Program, in partnership with the British Council/Newton Fund, CAPES recently promoted the visit of some university professors that coordinate New Talents projects to formal and informal educational science spaces in the United Kingdom (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, Brazil-United Kingdom International Cooperation Program) to qualify the actions developed in this area in Brazil, and one of us had the opportunity to participate with this. PMID:27231260

  2. New perspectives—approaches to medical education at four new UK medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, A.; Campion, P; J Searle; H. Smith

    2004-01-01

    With the expansion in UK medical student numbers, four new medical schools have been established. The authors, all senior faculty members at these new schools at the time of writing, discuss how much the schools have in common in their approaches to medical education

  3. From the stretcher to the pharmacy's shelf: drug leads from medically important brazilian venomous arachnid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rates, Breno; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Santos, Daniel Moreira; Nunes, Kênia Pedrosa; Pimenta, Adriano M C; De Lima, Maria Elena

    2011-10-01

    Accidents involving venomous animals have always caught the attention of mankind due to their lethality and other clinical implications. However, since the molecules obtained from animal venoms have been the product of millions of years of evolutionary process, toxins could be used to probe physiological mechanisms and could serve as leads for drug development. The present work reviews the state of the art pertaining to venom molecules from Brazilian medically important arachnid species bearing potential biotechnological applications. Special focus is given to toxins isolated from the scorpion Tityus serrulatus and the spiders Phoneutria nigriventer and Lycosa erythrognatha, whose venoms possess molecules acting as erectile function modulators and as antihypertensive, analgesic, neuroprotective and antimicrobial agents. PMID:21824079

  4. Bullying in Brazilian school children: analysis of the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the victimization and bullying practice in Brazilian school children, according to data from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey and to compare the surveys from 2009 and 2012. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with univariate and multivariate analyzes of the following variables: to have been treated badly by colleagues, to have been bullied and to have bullied other children. The following independent variables were analyzed: age, sex, race/color, type of school, maternal education. Prevalence rates were compared between the editions of 2009 and 2012 of the survey. RESULTS: Of all the adolescents analyzed, 27.5% have not been treated well by peers at school, with greater frequency among boys (OR = 1.50, at the age of 15 years (OR = 1.29 and 16 (OR = 1.41, public school students (OR = 2.08, black (OR = 1.18 and whose mothers had less education; 7.2% reported having been bullied, with a greater chance in younger students (13 years old, male (OR = 1.26, black (OR = 1.15 and indigenous (OR = 1.16 and whose mothers had less education; 20.8% reported to have bullied other children, with a greater chance for older students, at the age of 14 (OR = 1.08 and 15 years (OR = 1.18, male (OR = 1.87, black (OR = 1.14 and yellow (OR = 1.15, children of mothers with higher education, private school students. There was an increase of bullying in the Brazilian capitals, from 5.4 to 6.8%, between 2009 and 2012. DISCUSSION: The occurrence of bullying reveals that the Brazilian school context is also becoming a space of reproduction of violence, in which it is crucial to act intersectorally and to articulate social protection networks, aiming to face this issue.

  5. The prevalence of developmental dyscalculia in Brazilian public school system

    OpenAIRE

    José Alexandre Bastos; Angela Maria Traldi Cecato; Marielza Regina Ismael Martins; Kelly Regina Risso Grecca; Rafael Pierini

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The goal of the study was to assess public school children at the end of the first stage of elementary school. We used a protocol applied concurrently with a writing test in the form of an unexpected activity in 28 public schools; 2,893 children assessed, 687 exhibited performance below 58 points, 184 were excluded due to change of address or lack of consent; 503 children subjected to a test of intellectual capacity and reading assessment and 71 considered intellectually disabled wer...

  6. The prevalence of developmental dyscalculia in Brazilian public school system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, José Alexandre; Cecato, Angela Maria Traldi; Martins, Marielza Regina Ismael; Grecca, Kelly Regina Risso; Pierini, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    The goal of the study was to assess public school children at the end of the first stage of elementary school. We used a protocol applied concurrently with a writing test in the form of an unexpected activity in 28 public schools; 2,893 children assessed, 687 exhibited performance below 58 points, 184 were excluded due to change of address or lack of consent; 503 children subjected to a test of intellectual capacity and reading assessment and 71 considered intellectually disabled were excluded. 226 (7.8%) children, who could read, write, and had normal intellectual level, met the criteria of developmental dyscalculia (DD), 98 female and 128 male. The most influential factors in the prevalence were socioeconomic levels of the schools neighborhood, education level of parents, and being male, as demonstrated by the odds ratio and multiple logistic regression analysis. Further studies should be done so that educational policies are taken. PMID:27050848

  7. The prevalence of developmental dyscalculia in Brazilian public school system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre Bastos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The goal of the study was to assess public school children at the end of the first stage of elementary school. We used a protocol applied concurrently with a writing test in the form of an unexpected activity in 28 public schools; 2,893 children assessed, 687 exhibited performance below 58 points, 184 were excluded due to change of address or lack of consent; 503 children subjected to a test of intellectual capacity and reading assessment and 71 considered intellectually disabled were excluded. 226 (7.8% children, who could read, write, and had normal intellectual level, met the criteria of developmental dyscalculia (DD, 98 female and 128 male. The most influential factors in the prevalence were socioeconomic levels of the schools neighborhood, education level of parents, and being male, as demonstrated by the odds ratio and multiple logistic regression analysis. Further studies should be done so that educational policies are taken.

  8. Continuing Medical Education: Linking the Community Hospital and the Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Phil R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A group of community hospitals has been linked to the University of Southern California School of Medicine in a continuing medical education network. An educational development team based at the school helps community hospital physicians identify educational needs and develop responses using local and medical school experts as faculty. (Author/JMD)

  9. Quality improvement teaching at medical school: a student perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nair P; Barai I; Prasad S; Gadhvi K

    2016-01-01

    Pooja Nair, Ishani Barai, Sunila Prasad, Karishma Gadhvi Department of Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: Guidelines in the UK require all doctors to actively take part in quality improvement. To ease future doctors into the process, formal quality improvement teaching can be delivered during medical school. Keywords: quality improvement, medical school, patient safety, patient satisfaction, medical student, clinical audit

  10. The five year school medical--time for change.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, G. C.; Powell, A.; Reynolds, K.; Campbell, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    School medical records of 1000 children born in 1981 were studied retrospectively. They showed that once known medical problems and those screened for by the school nurse (hearing, vision, growth) were excluded, only 17 problems requiring treatment were discovered: speech (n = 10), development (n = 3), undescended testes (n = 3), and phimosis (n = 1). This indicates that routine screening by a nurse, backed up by selective medical examination by the school doctor, is efficient and effective.

  11. The State of Nutrition Education at US Medical Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Kelly M.; W. Scott Butsch; Martin Kohlmeier

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the state of nutrition education at US medical schools and compare it with recommended instructional targets. Method. We surveyed all 133 US medical schools with a four-year curriculum about the extent and type of required nutrition education during the 2012/13 academic year. Results. Responses came from 121 institutions (91% response rate). Most US medical schools (86/121, 71%) fail to provide the recommended minimum 25 hours of nutrition education; 43 (36%) provide less t...

  12. The Social Structure of Criminalized and Medicalized School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, David M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author examines how school- and district-level racial/ethnic and socioeconomic compositions influence schools' use of different types of criminalized and medicalized school discipline. Using a large data set containing information on over 60,000 schools in over 6,000 districts, the authors uses multilevel modeling and a…

  13. School trajectory and teenage pregnancy in three Brazilian state capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Maria da Conceição C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the relationship between school trajectory and incidence of teenage pregnancy. A cross-sectional residence-based questionnaire was applied, interviewing 4,634 youth ages 18 to 24 years, selected through a stratified three-stage sample. For the present study, young people ages 20 to 24 years (65.6% were chosen, with teenage pregnancy rates of 29.5% for females and 21.4% for males (in relation to their partners. Sexual debut was reported by 87% of women and 95.3% of men. The majority of young people reported irregular school trajectory, with 39% enrolled in school at the time of the study. Nearly half of those who had interrupted their studies at least once reported a teenage pregnancy. The main reasons for interrupting their studies were pregnancy and children for women and work for men. School dropout due to teenage pregnancy was mentioned by 40.1% of women for whom the outcome of pregnancy was a child. However, 20.5% had already dropped out of school before becoming pregnant.

  14. Gaia Theory in Brazilian High School Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Carmo, Ricardo Santos; Nunes-Neto, Nei Freitas; El-Hani, Charbel Nino

    2009-01-01

    Gaia theory proposes that a cybernetic system including the biota and the physicochemical environment regulates environmental variables at a global scale, keeping them within a range that makes Earth inhabitable by living beings. One can argue that this theory can play an important role in school science, since it bears upon current environmental…

  15. [The educational change in medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Manuel; Hawes, Gustavo; Castillo, Silvana; Romero, Luis; Rojas, Ana María; Espinoza, Mónica; Oyarzo, Sandra

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports the reflections of a group of members of the University of Chile Faculty of Medicine, about the changes in teaching methods that medical schools should incorporate. In a complex scenario, not only new and better knowledge should be transmitted to students but also values, principles, critical reasoning and leadership, among others. In the first part, a proposal to understand this educational development in the context of complex universities, incorporating pedagogical skills and reviewing institutional leadership, is carried out. In the second part, the training of teaching physicians, as part of the changes, is extensively discussed. Physicians hired as academics in the University should have the opportunity to work mainly as teachers and be relieved of research obligations. For them, teaching should become a legitimate area of academic development. PMID:25424678

  16. What attracts medical students towards psychiatry? A review of factors before and during medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Kitty; Lydall, Gregory J; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2013-08-01

    Potential psychiatrists decide on their careers before, during or after medical school. This article summarises the literature focusing on the first two groups. Pre-medical school factors associated with choosing psychiatry include gender, academic aptitude, ethnicity and migration, exposure to mental illness, economic considerations and medical school route and selection. Factors involved in influencing career choice at medical school level include attitudes towards psychiatry, teaching methods, quality and length of clinical exposure, electives and enrichment activities, and personality factors. Considering these factors may improve recruitment to psychiatry and address shortages in the speciality. PMID:24032490

  17. Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

  18. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: A nationwide survey at German medical schools

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    Timmermann Arnd

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Methods Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Results Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21; problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10, e-learning at 3% (n = 1, and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4. In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions are favoured (89%, n = 31, partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11. Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10 or oral examinations (17%, n = 6. Conclusion Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard

  19. The teaching of temporomandibular disorders and orofacial pain at undergraduate level in Brazilian dental schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner SIMM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evaluate the way the topics for the study of pain mechanisms in general, and Orofacial Pain (OFP and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs more specifically, are addressed in undergraduate courses curricula, and also to verify the existence of specialist OFP/TMD teachers in Brazilian dental schools. Methods: Between July 2010 and January 2011, course Coordinators/Directors of all dental schools duly registered at the Ministry of Education were invited to answer a questionnaire on topics related to OFP/TMD teaching in their institutions. Results: Fifty-three dental schools representatives answered the questionnaire. The study of pain mechanisms was found to cover an average of less than 10% of the courses' total time. Pharmacology, Endodontics and Physiology were identified as the departments usually responsible for addressing pain mechanisms in dental courses. Psychosocial aspects were found to occupy a very small proportion in the syllabi, while most of the content referred to biological or somatic aspects. OFP/TMD is addressed by a specific department in only 28.4% of the participating dental schools, while in most cases (46.3%, OFP/TMD is under the responsibility of the Prosthodontics department. Only 38.5% of respondents indicated that they had a specialist OFP/TMD teacher in their Schools. Conclusion: Among the Brazilian dental schools participating in the study, the teaching of OFP/TMD was found to be insufficient, segmented or with an extremely restricted focus. This initial assessment indicates that Curricular Guidelines for the study of OFP/TMD at undergraduate dental schools should be developed and implemented to facilitate their appropriate inclusion into the curricula and in specific pedagogical projects.

  20. The teaching of temporomandibular disorders and orofacial pain at undergraduate level in Brazilian dental schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIMM, Wagner; GUIMARÃES, Antônio Sérgio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate the way the topics for the study of pain mechanisms in general, and Orofacial Pain (OFP) and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) more specifically, are addressed in undergraduate courses curricula, and also to verify the existence of specialist OFP/TMD teachers in Brazilian dental schools. Methods Between July 2010 and January 2011, course Coordinators/Directors of all dental schools duly registered at the Ministry of Education were invited to answer a questionnaire on topics related to OFP/TMD teaching in their institutions. Results Fifty-three dental schools representatives answered the questionnaire. The study of pain mechanisms was found to cover an average of less than 10% of the courses' total time. Pharmacology, Endodontics and Physiology were identified as the departments usually responsible for addressing pain mechanisms in dental courses. Psychosocial aspects were found to occupy a very small proportion in the syllabi, while most of the content referred to biological or somatic aspects. OFP/TMD is addressed by a specific department in only 28.4% of the participating dental schools, while in most cases (46.3%), OFP/TMD is under the responsibility of the Prosthodontics department. Only 38.5% of respondents indicated that they had a specialist OFP/TMD teacher in their Schools. Conclusion Among the Brazilian dental schools participating in the study, the teaching of OFP/TMD was found to be insufficient, segmented or with an extremely restricted focus. This initial assessment indicates that Curricular Guidelines for the study of OFP/TMD at undergraduate dental schools should be developed and implemented to facilitate their appropriate inclusion into the curricula and in specific pedagogical projects. PMID:24473717

  1. School trajectory and teenage pregnancy in three Brazilian state capitals

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Maria da Conceição C.; Aquino Estela M. L.; Barros Antoniel Pinheiro de

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the relationship between school trajectory and incidence of teenage pregnancy. A cross-sectional residence-based questionnaire was applied, interviewing 4,634 youth ages 18 to 24 years, selected through a stratified three-stage sample. For the present study, young people ages 20 to 24 years (65.6%) were chosen, with teenage pregnancy rates of 29.5% for females and 21.4% for males (in relation to their partners). Sexual debut was reported by 87% of women and 95.3% of men. ...

  2. Terror Medicine As Part of the Medical School Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard A Cole

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Terror medicine, a field related to emergency and disaster medicine, focuses on medical issues ranging from preparedness to psychological manifestations specifically associated with terrorist attacks. Calls to teach aspects of the subject in American medical schools surged after the 2001 jetliner and anthrax attacks. Although the threat of terrorism persists, terror medicine is still addressed erratically if at all in most medical schools. This paper suggests a template for incorporating the subject throughout a 4-year medical curriculum. The instructional framework culminates in a short course for fourth year students, such as one recently introduced at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ. The proposed 4-year Rutgers curriculum serves as a model that could assist other medical schools contemplating the inclusion of terror medicine in pre-clerkship and clerkship training.

  3. Sexual harassment during clinical clerkships in Dutch medical schools.

    OpenAIRE

    Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den; Slappendel, G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Borleffs, J.C.C.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Sexual harassment of medical students has been the focus of many international studies. Prevalence rates from 18% to over 60% have been reported. However, a Dutch study at Nijmegen Medical School found the prevalence rate to be lower (13.3% in the total group; 20% among female students only). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify whether Nijmegen constitutes a positive sample of Dutch medical schools or whether incidents of sexual harassment are less prevalent in the Netherlands than else...

  4. Why Medical Schools Are Tolerant of Unethical Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira Vidal, Edison Iglesias; Silva, Vanessa dos Santos; dos Santos, Maria Fernanda; Jacinto, Alessandro Ferrari; Boas, Paulo José Fortes Villas; Fukushima, Fernanda Bono

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to unethical and unprofessional behavior is thought to play a major role in the declining empathy experienced by medical students during their training. We reflect on the reasons why medical schools are tolerant of unethical behavior of faculty. First, there are barriers to reporting unprofessional behavior within medical schools including fear of retaliation and lack of mechanisms to ensure anonymity. Second, deans and directors do not want to look for unethical behavior in thei...

  5. Student Health Policies of U.S. Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekema, Daniel J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of student affairs deans at 108 medical schools found most schools required hepatitis vaccination, evidence of immunity, or waiver refusing vaccination. Nearly all required health insurance, and usually offered a plan, but fewer offered disability insurance. Schools often held students responsible for costs of vaccination, serologic…

  6. Perspectives on medical school library services in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennen, P W; Blackwelder, M B; Kirkali, M

    1987-07-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of medical education in Turkey and shows the impact of established social, educational, and economic patterns upon current medical library services. Current statistical information is given on the twenty-two medical school libraries in Turkey. Principal problems and chief accomplishments with library services are highlighted and discussed. PMID:3676535

  7. Motivation, learning strategies, participation and medical school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegers-Jager, Karen M.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Themmen, Axel P. N.

    2012-01-01

    Medical Education 2012: 46:678688 Context Medical schools wish to better understand why some students excel academically and others have difficulty in passing medical courses. Components of self-regulated learning (SRL), such as motivational beliefs and learning strategies, as well as participation

  8. Perspectives on medical school library services in Turkey.

    OpenAIRE

    Brennen, P W; Blackwelder, M B; Kirkali, M

    1987-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of medical education in Turkey and shows the impact of established social, educational, and economic patterns upon current medical library services. Current statistical information is given on the twenty-two medical school libraries in Turkey. Principal problems and chief accomplishments with library services are highlighted and discussed.

  9. A survey of medical information education in radiological technology schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to clarify actual conditions and problems in medical information education and to propose the educational concept to be adopted in medical information. A questionnaire survey was carried out by the anonymous method in June 2008. The survey was intended for 40 radiological technology schools. The questionnaire items were as follows: educational environment in medical information education, content of a lecture in medical information, problems in medical information education. The response rate was 55.0% (22 schools). Half of the responding schools had a laboratory on medical information. Seventeen schools had a medical information education facility, and out of them, approximately 50% had an educational medical information system. The main problems of the medical information education were as follows: motivation of the students is low, the educational coverage and level for medical information are uncertain, there are not an appropriate textbook and educational guidance. In conclusion, these findings suggest that it is necessary to have a vision of medical information education in the education of radiological technologists. (author)

  10. Revisiting black medical school extinctions in the Flexner era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lynn E; Weiss, Richard M

    2012-04-01

    Abraham Flexner's 1910 exposé on medical education recommended that only two of the seven extant medical schools for blacks be preserved and that they should train their students to "serve their people humbly" as "sanitarians." Addressing charges of racism, this article traces the roots of the recommendation that blacks serve a limited professional role to the schools themselves and presents evidence that, in endorsing the continuance of Howard's and Meharry's medical programs, Flexner exhibited greater leniency than he had toward comparable schools for white students. Whether his recommendations to eliminate the other five schools were key factors in their extinction is addressed here by examining 1901-30 enrollment patterns. Those patterns suggest that actions of the American Medical Association and state licensing boards, combined with the broader problem of limited premedical educational opportunities for blacks, were more consequential than was the Flexner report both for the extinction of the schools and for the curtailed production of black doctors. PMID:21296769

  11. THE DEVELOPMENT AND ORGANIZATION OF A NEW MEDICAL SCHOOL LIBRARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRANDON, A N

    1964-01-01

    Factors to consider in determining the type of new medical school library include geographical location, proximity of general library facilities, and financial support. The librarian should be directly responsible to the dean of the medical school, have faculty status, and be a member of the administrative council. Five professional librarians and five clerical workers plus part-time help are necessary to initiate a well-organized library. The basic collection for a medical research library will cost approximately $500,000, and an annual operating budget should be about $103,000. Selection of journal titles for subscription is the first major consideration; the second is the selection of basic, standard monographs. Immediate public service functions include meeting the needs of the new incoming faculty, aiding in the recruitment of faculty, and establishing good rapport with the local medical community. The librarian of a new medical school library must be a leader in every respect of medical librarianship. PMID:14119291

  12. Academic, social and cultural factors influencing medical school grade performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfayez, S F; Strand, D A; Carline, J D

    1990-05-01

    Studies of medical student performance have focused on various factors, including premedical academics, maturity, familial background and support, and personal experiences with illness. Most studies have been conducted in countries with highly developed educational systems and similar cultural and social systems. It is not clear that these findings can be applied to developing countries, where the educational and cultural experiences may be very different, and where medical instruction is carried out in a non-native language. Information was obtained from a survey of 153 fifth- and sixth-year medical students at King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia. The survey measured premedical educational, social and cultural experiences that might affect medical school performance. Men performed as well as women in the medical school despite heavy familial and social commitments. Women's performance seems to be more influenced by changes in living environment. Achievement in premedical years was correlated positively with grade performance in medical school. Competence in the high-school English courses was related to medical school performance. Interest in the study of medicine prior to medical school was not related to performance. Other motivations, such as social gains, financial benefits or family wish, were related to lower performance. Current interest in clinical medicine correlated negatively with performance. Students motivated by the presence of chronic ill health in their families performed significantly lower. Factors influencing medical school performance in developed countries had similar impact on medical students in a developing country. Social factors, unique to the country, also play a role in medical student performance. PMID:2355866

  13. A survey of Sub-Saharan African medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Candice

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa suffers a disproportionate share of the world's burden of disease while having some of the world's greatest health care workforce shortages. Doctors are an important component of any high functioning health care system. However, efforts to strengthen the doctor workforce in the region have been limited by a small number of medical schools with limited enrolments, international migration of graduates, poor geographic distribution of doctors, and insufficient data on medical schools. The goal of the Sub-Saharan African Medical Schools Study (SAMSS is to increase the level of understanding and expand the baseline data on medical schools in the region. Methods The SAMSS survey is a descriptive survey study of Sub-Saharan African medical schools. The survey instrument included quantitative and qualitative questions focused on institutional characteristics, student profiles, curricula, post-graduate medical education, teaching staff, resources, barriers to capacity expansion, educational innovations, and external relationships with government and non-governmental organizations. Surveys were sent via e-mail to medical school deans or officials designated by the dean. Analysis is both descriptive and multivariable. Results Surveys were distributed to 146 medical schools in 40 of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. One hundred and five responses were received (72% response rate. An additional 23 schools were identified after the close of the survey period. Fifty-eight respondents have been founded since 1990, including 22 private schools. Enrolments for medical schools range from 2 to 1800 and graduates range from 4 to 384. Seventy-three percent of respondents (n = 64 increased first year enrolments in the past five years. On average, 26% of respondents' graduates were reported to migrate out of the country within five years of graduation (n = 68. The most significant reported barriers to increasing the number of

  14. Regional food dishes in the Brazilian National School Food Program: Acceptability and nutritional composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo thimoteo da Cunha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition and describe the acceptability of regional culinary dishes served to students from public schools of rural and urban areas. Methods: Ten Brazilian regional dishes were evaluated for acceptability and nutritional composition. the survey was conducted in schools located in rural and urban areas of two cities in the state of São Paulo. Dish acceptability was evaluated using leftover analysis and a 5-point facial hedonic scale. the adherence index was calculated and used as an indirect measure of acceptance, and the nutritional composition was calculated based on the technical files of each dish. Results: A total of 2,384 students from 20 schools participated in the study and 1,174 tasted and evaluated the dishes. the test using the 5-point facial hedonic scale demonstrated that five dishes (Caldo verde soup, persimmon jelly, chicken with okra, puréed cornmeal with spinach, and arugula pizza had an acceptability rate above 85.0%. the mean adherence indices were 57.3% and 55.6% in urban and rural environments, respectively. Analysis of the nutritional composition of regional dishes indicates that these dishes can partially meet macronutrient recommendations. Conclusion: the tested dishes can become part of school menus as they were accepted or partly accepted by the students regardless of school location, whether rural or urban. the cultural heritage is an important resource for the food sovereignty of a country and should be constantly encouraged.

  15. Perceived Stress, Sources and Severity of Stress among medical undergraduates in a Pakistani Medical School

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Samina; Hasan Shahid; Shah Mohsin; Sreeramareddy Chandrashekhar T

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Recently there is a growing concern about stress during undergraduate medical training. However, studies about the same are lacking from Pakistani medical schools. The objectives of our study were to assess perceived stress, sources of stress and their severity and to assess the determinants of stressed cases. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among undergraduate medical students of CMH Lahore Medical College, Pakistan during January to ...

  16. The introduction of medical humanities in the undergraduate curriculum of Greek medical schools: challenge and necessity

    OpenAIRE

    Batistatou, A; Doulis, E A; Tiniakos, D.; Anogiannaki, A; Charalabopoulos, K

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aim: Medical humanities is a multidisciplinary field, consisting of humanities (theory of literature and arts, philosophy, ethics, history and theology), social sciences (anthropology, psychology and sociology) and arts (literature, theater, cinema, music and visual arts), integrated in the undergraduate curriculum of Medical schools. The aim of the present study is to discuss medical humanities and support the necessity of introduction of a medical humanities course in the cur...

  17. A review of cardiopulmonary research in Brazilian medical journals: clinical, surgical and epidemiological data

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Serrano; Mauricio Rocha e Silva

    2010-01-01

    Research in the field of cardiopulmonary disease in Brazil has been very active in recent decades. The combination of PUBMED, SCieLO, open access and online searching has provided a significant increase in the visibility of Brazilian journals. This newly acquired international visibility has in turn resulted in the appearance of more original research reports in the Brazilian scientific press. This review is intended to highlight part of this work for the benefit of the readers of "Clinics." ...

  18. Smoking Among Medical School Students and Attitudes against Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Erhan Yengil; Cengiz Çevik2; Gökhan Demirkıran1; et al.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to observe smoking and nicotine addiction status and of medical school students and to establish relating factors. Methods: A questionnaire was applied to students who were in Mustafa Kemal University Medical School in 2013-2014 semesters about smoking behavior, age of onset, thought of quitting, attitudes against, nicotine addiction, use of alcohol and other drugs. Results: Of the 712 students 54.5% (388) were male, while 45.5% (324) were female a...

  19. Residents' perspectives on the final year of medical school

    OpenAIRE

    O’Brien, Bridget C.; Brian Niehaus; Arianne Teherani; Young, John Q

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize junior residents' perspectives on the purpose, value, and potential improvement of the final year of medical school. Methods: Eighteen interviews were conducted with junior residents who graduated from nine different medical schools and who were in internal medicine, surgery, and psychiatry programs at one institution in the United States. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed inductively for themes. Results: Participants' descriptions of the purpose of the...

  20. The State of Nutrition Education at US Medical Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. Adams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the state of nutrition education at US medical schools and compare it with recommended instructional targets. Method. We surveyed all 133 US medical schools with a four-year curriculum about the extent and type of required nutrition education during the 2012/13 academic year. Results. Responses came from 121 institutions (91% response rate. Most US medical schools (86/121, 71% fail to provide the recommended minimum 25 hours of nutrition education; 43 (36% provide less than half that much. Nutrition instruction is still largely confined to preclinical courses, with an average of 14.3 hours occurring in this context. Less than half of all schools report teaching any nutrition in clinical practice; practice accounts for an average of only 4.7 hours overall. Seven of the 8 schools reporting at least 40 hours of nutrition instruction provided integrated courses together with clinical practice sessions. Conclusions. Many US medical schools still fail to prepare future physicians for everyday nutrition challenges in clinical practice. It cannot be a realistic expectation for physicians to effectively address obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, hospital malnutrition, and many other conditions as long as they are not taught during medical school and residency training how to recognize and treat the nutritional root causes.

  1. Normative data for the Brazilian population in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination: influence of schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radanovic M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In Neurolinguistics, the use of diagnostic tests developed in other countries can create difficulties in the interpretation of results due to cultural, demographic and linguistic differences. In a country such as Brazil, with great social contrasts, schooling exerts a powerful influence on the abilities of normal individuals. The objective of the present study was to identify the influence of schooling on the performance of normal Brazilian individuals in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE, in order to obtain reference values for the Brazilian population. We studied 107 normal subjects ranging in age from 15 to 84 years (mean ± SD = 47.2 ± 17.6 years, with educational level ranging from 1 to 24 years (9.9 ± 4.8 years. Subjects were compared for scores obtained in the 28 subtests of the BDAE after being divided into groups according to age (15 to 30, N = 24, 31 to 50, N = 33 and 51 years or more, N = 50 and education (1 to 4, N = 26, 5 to 8, N = 17 and 9 years or more, N = 61. Subjects with 4 years or less of education performed poorer in Word Discrimination, Visual Confrontation Naming, Reading of Sentences and Paragraphs, and Primer-Level Dictation (P < 0.05. When breakdown by schooling was 8 years or less, subjects performed poorer in all subtests (P < 0.05, except Responsive Naming, Word Recognition and Word-Picture Matching. The elderly performed poorer (P < 0.05 in Complex Ideational Material, Visual Confrontation Naming, Comprehension of Oral Spelling, Written Confrontation Naming, and Sentences to Dictation. We present the reference values for the cut-off scores according to educational level.

  2. Assessment of the diet of 0- to 6-year-old children in municipal schools in a Brazilian city

    OpenAIRE

    Garbin Clea; Arcieri R; Ferreira N.; Luvizuto E; Alle C

    2005-01-01

    Diet control is one of the important factors in the prevention of dental caries because food functions as substratum for fermentation and, consequently, for the formation of the organic acids that demineralize the tooth surface. This study aims to descriptively assess school diet and the associated caries-preventive methods applied to children in all municipal nursery schools of a Brazilian city (Aragatuba/SP). For this, a questionnaire with open and closed questions was used. The results sho...

  3. Incorporating Computer-Based Learning in a Medical School Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Leonard,; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents the history and background for the use of computers in medical education at the Norris Medical School at the University of Southern California. Describes the current computer facilities and how computer-based learning is incorporated into the curriculum. (PR)

  4. Financial-Ratio Analysis and Medical School Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastaugh, Steven R.

    1980-01-01

    The value of a uniform program of financial assistance to medical education and research is questioned. Medical schools have an uneven ability to compensate for declining federal capitation and research grants. Financial-ratio analysis and cluster analysis are utilized to suggest four adaptive responses to future financial pressures. (Author/MLW)

  5. Sexual harassment during clinical clerkships in Dutch medical schools.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den; Slappendel, G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Borleffs, J.C.C.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Sexual harassment of medical students has been the focus of many international studies. Prevalence rates from 18% to over 60% have been reported. However, a Dutch study at Nijmegen Medical School found the prevalence rate to be lower (13.3% in the total group; 20% among female students only

  6. Sexual harassment during clinical clerkships in Dutch medical schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den; Slappendel, G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Borleffs, J.C.C.

    2008-01-01

    Context Sexual harassment of medical students has been the focus of many international studies. Prevalence rates from 18% to over 60% have been reported. However, a Dutch study at Nijmegen Medical School found the prevalence rate to be lower (13.3% in the total group; 20% among female students only)

  7. Is There an Identity Crisis in Medical School Pharmacology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaky, T. Z.

    1976-01-01

    Rudolf Buchheim's thesis on why and how to teach pharmacology to medical students is reexamined in view of the so-called identity crisis. It is suggested that the crisis is not one of identity but one of acceptance of medical school pharmacology by clinical colleagues and professional educators. (LBH)

  8. Teaching on addiction issues lacking in medical school, specialists told

    OpenAIRE

    Robb, N.

    1998-01-01

    During the 1997 annual scientific meeting of the Canadian Society of Addiction Medicine, a medical student complained that medical schools do not provide enough education on addiction-related issues. April Boyd said most students want the information because they think they will face these issues when they enter practice.

  9. Effect of Undergraduate College Major on Performance in Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen R.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 406 Brown University (Rhode Island) medical students found slightly over half had undergraduate majors in science or mathematics, a third majored in the humanities or social sciences, and a tenth had double majors or independent concentrations. No statistically significant difference was found between medical school performances of the…

  10. Brazilian medical students’ perceptions of expert versus non-expert facilitators in a (non problem-based learning environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélio B. Couto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In problem-based learning (PBL, the facilitator plays an important role in guiding the student learning process. However, although content expertise is generally regarded as a useful but non-essential prerequisite for effective PBL facilitation, the perceived importance of content knowledge may be subject to cultural, contextual, and/or experiential influences. Aim: We sought to examine medical students’ perceptions of subject-matter expertise among PBL facilitators in a region of the world (Brazil where such active learning pedagogies are not widely used in university or pre-university settings. Results: Of the 252 Brazilian medical students surveyed, significantly (p≤0.001 greater proportions viewed content expert facilitators to be more effective than their non-expert counterparts at building knowledge (95% vs. 6%, guiding the learning process (93% vs. 7%, achieving cognitive learning (92% vs. 18%, generating learning goals (87% vs. 15%, and motivating self-study (80% vs. 15%. Discussion/conclusion: According to Brazilian medical students, subject-matter expertise among PBL facilitators is essential to the learning process. We believe this widespread perception is due, in large part, to the relative lack of prior educational exposure to such pedagogies.

  11. Why medical schools are tolerant of unethical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Vidal, Edison Iglesias; Silva, Vanessa Dos Santos; Santos, Maria Fernanda Dos; Jacinto, Alessandro Ferrari; Boas, Paulo José Fortes Villas; Fukushima, Fernanda Bono

    2015-03-01

    The exposure to unethical and unprofessional behavior is thought to play a major role in the declining empathy experienced by medical students during their training. We reflect on the reasons why medical schools are tolerant of unethical behavior of faculty. First, there are barriers to reporting unprofessional behavior within medical schools including fear of retaliation and lack of mechanisms to ensure anonymity. Second, deans and directors do not want to look for unethical behavior in their colleagues. Third, most of us have learned to take disrespectful circumstances in health care institutions for granted. Fourth, the accreditation of medical schools around the world does not usually cover the processes or outcomes associated with fostering ethical behavior in students. Several initiatives promise to change that picture. PMID:25755040

  12. Bedside ultrasound education in Canadian medical schools: A national survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Peter; Dobrescu, Octavian; Oleskevich, Sharon; Lewis, John

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to determine the extent and characteristics of bedside ultrasound teaching in medical schools across Canada. Methods A cross-sectional, survey-based study was used to assess undergraduate bedside ultrasound education in the 17 accredited medical schools in Canada. The survey, consisting of 19 questions was pilot-tested, web-based, and completed over a period of seven months in 2014. Results Approximately half of the 13 responding medical schools had integrated bedside ultrasound teaching into their undergraduate curriculum. The most common trends in undergraduate ultrasound teaching related to duration (1–5 hours/year in 50% of schools), format (practical and theoretical in 67% of schools), and logistics (1:4 instructor to student ratio in 67% of schools). The majority of responding vice-deans indicated that bedside ultrasound education should be integrated into the medical school curriculum (77%), and cited a lack of ultrasound machines and infrastructure as barriers to integration. Conclusions This study documents the current characteristics of undergraduate ultrasound education in Canada. PMID:27103956

  13. International students in United States’ medical schools: does the medical community know they exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashodeep Datta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Matriculation of international students to United States’ (US medical schools has not mirrored the remarkable influx of these students to other US institutions of higher education. Methods: While these students’ numbers are on the rise, the visibility for their unique issues remains largely ignored in the medical literature. Results: These students are disadvantaged in the medical school admissions process due to financial and immigration-related concerns, and academic standards for admittance also continue to be significantly higher compared with their US-citizen peers. Furthermore, it is simply beyond the mission of many medical schools – both public and private – to support international students’ education, especially since federal, state-allocated or institutional funds are limited and these institutions have a commitment to fulfill the healthcare education needs of qualified domestic candidates. In spite of these obstacles, a select group of international students do gain admission to US medical schools and, upon graduation, are credentialed equally as their US-citizen counterparts by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME. However, owing to their foreign citizenship, these students have visa requirements for post-graduate training that may adversely impact their candidacy for residency placement. Conclusion: By raising such issues, this article aims to increase the awareness of considerations pertinent to this unique population of medical students. The argument is also made to support continued recruitment of international students to US medical schools in spite of these impediments. In our experience, these students are not only qualified to tackle the rigors of a US medical education, but also enrich the cultural diversity of the medical student body. Moreover, these graduates could effectively complement the efforts to augment US physician workforce diversity while contributing to

  14. The Great Diseases Project: A Partnership between Tufts Medical School and the Boston Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Jacque, Berri; Malanson, Katherine; Bateman, Kathleen; Akeson, Bob; Cail, Amanda; Doss, Chris; Dugan, Matt; Finegold, Brandon; Gauthier, Aimee; Galego, Mike; Roundtree, Eugene; Spezzano, Lawrence; Meiri, Karina F

    2013-01-01

    Medical schools, although the gatekeepers of much biomedical education and research, rarely engage formally with K-12 educators to influence curriculum content or professional development. This segregation of content experts from teachers creates a knowledge gap that limits inclusion of current biomedical science into high school curricula, impacting both public health literacy and the biomedical pipeline. The authors describe how, in 2009, scientists from Tufts Medical School and Boston publ...

  15. Rural Origin Medical Students: How Do They Cope with the Medical School Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Shane R.; Bascomb, Angela; Turnbull, Deborah; Marley, John

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 163 senior medical students attending a South Australian medical school found that rural students were more likely than urban students to experience stress; be concerned about getting a provider number (license); feel that consultants had little time for them; have made the decision to study medicine without pressure from others; and…

  16. Validation of the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire among Brazilian families of school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Amaral Mais

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Children’s eating behaviors are influenced by parents, who are the first nutritional educators. The Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ was developed to measure feeding practices among parents, but has not yet been validated in Brazil, where child obesity rates are steeply increasing. The aim of the study was to test the validity of the CFPQ among Brazilian parents of school-aged children and propose a new version of the instrument. Methods Transcultural adaptation included translation into Portuguese, back-translation, content validity, testing for semantic equivalence, and piloting. Questionnaire data were obtained for 659 parents of 5-to-9-year-olds. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses and psychometric analyses (tests for internal consistency, factor correlations, item-discriminant and convergent validity, and test-retest reliability were conducted. Results Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated a poor fit of the data to the original 12-factor model. Exploratory factor analysis generated a 6-factor model composed of 42 items: Healthy Eating Guidance, Monitoring, Restriction for Weight Control, Restriction for Health, Emotion Regulation/Food as Reward, and Pressure. This factor solution was supported by internal consistency tests (α=0.71-0.91 and factor correlations (rho=-0.16 to 0.32. Item-discriminant and convergent validity tests showed that parents who used coercive practices had more overweight children and were more concerned about their child’s weight (rho=0.09 to 0.40. Test-retest reliability was acceptable (ICC=0.45 to 0.77. Conclusions Since parental practices are highly culturally- and age group-sensitive, it is essential to conduct careful evaluations of questionnaires when introduced into specific age groups within new cultural settings. This modified 6-factor model of the CFPQ is valid to measure parental feeding behaviors of school-aged children in urban Brazilian settings.

  17. Differences in perceptions of medical undergraduates of a military medical school on organizational culture

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the differences in medical students’ perceptions on the organizational culture at a Military Medical School and to reveal possible explanations of them. Method: A total of 205 1st, 2nd, and 6th grade military medical students were invited and 185 of them (coverage rate 90%) participated in the study in 2008. The organizational culture measurement tool previously developed by Turkish researchers was used to determine the perceptions of the students. Rel...

  18. eLearning at the Hannover Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthies, Herbert K.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years various multimedia learning modules were developed at the Hannover Medical School. So, for example the web-based content management system Schoolbook is used to collect medical cases for education. It enables authors to present their specialised knowledge in the World Wide Web without the need to be familiar with internet technologies. The System provides access to several sources of medical knowledge and is used as an elearning platform for different medical departments. Furthermore it was established in combination with the learning management system ILIAS which contains web-based learning units as well as self-tests (multiple choice with direct feedback.

  19. Measuring the social responsiveness of medical schools: setting the standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, J W

    1999-08-01

    This article calls for medical schools to use a new set of standards to gauge how well they contribute to social welfare. Because medical schools receive public funding and are given the authority to certify that providers are sufficiently trained, they incur an obligation to be socially responsible. In addition to setting and using higher standards, medical schools should call on their credibility and use their scientific expertise to find new policies that promote social welfare. In particular, they should do research on socially oriented policies and participate more actively in debates about health sector reform. Although societies vary and have different values, most countries and peoples probably share the following social objectives: They want to use limited public and private resources rationally to produce the best possible health, they do not want individuals or groups to suffer, and they want to protect people against catastrophic illness and associated financial losses. Although new standards are needed, medical schools should be encouraged to continue producing technically sophisticated providers and conducting high-level basic and clinical research. Available evidence suggests that medical schools can further contribute to the three social objectives noted above by increasing the intensity and relevancy of primary care training, expanding the curriculum beyond its biomedical focus, encouraging research in health services, and assessing the effectiveness of social policy in improving the health of the population. PMID:10495745

  20. Residents' perspectives on the final year of medical school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, Bridget; Niehaus, Brian; Teherani, Arianne; Young, John Q.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To characterize junior residents’ perspectives on the purpose, value, and potential improvement of the final year of medical school. Methods Eighteen interviews were conducted with junior residents who graduated from nine different medical schools and who were in internal medicine, surgery, and psychiatry programs at one institution in the United States. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed inductively for themes. Results Participants’ descriptions of the purpose of their recently completed final year of medical school contained three primary themes: residency-related purposes, interest- or need-based purposes, and transitional purposes. Participants commented on the most valued aspects of the final year. Themes included opportunities to: prepare for residency; assume a higher level of responsibility in patient care; pursue experiences of interest that added breadth of knowledge, skills and perspective; develop and/or clarify career plans; and enjoy a period of respite. Suggestions for improvement included enhancing the learning value of clinical electives, augmenting specific curricular content, and making the final year more purposeful and better aligned with career goals. Conclusions The final year of medical school is a critical part of medical education for most learners, but careful attention is needed to ensure that the year is developmentally robust. Medical educators can facilitate this by creating structures to help students define personal and professional goals, identify opportunities to work toward these goals, and monitor progress so that the value of the final year is optimized and not exclusively focused on residency preparation.

  1. Residents' perspectives on the final year of medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget C. O’Brien

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To characterize junior residents' perspectives on the purpose, value, and potential improvement of the final year of medical school. Methods: Eighteen interviews were conducted with junior residents who graduated from nine different medical schools and who were in internal medicine, surgery, and psychiatry programs at one institution in the United States. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed inductively for themes. Results: Participants' descriptions of the purpose of their recently completed final year of medical school contained three primary themes: residency-related purposes, interest- or need-based purposes, and transitional purposes. Participants commented on the most valued aspects of the final year. Themes included opportunities to: prepare for residency; assume a higher level of responsibility in patient care; pursue experiences of interest that added breadth of knowledge, skills and perspective; develop and/or clarify career plans; and enjoy a period of respite. Suggestions for improvement included enhancing the learning value of clinical electives, augmenting specific curricular content, and making the final year more purposeful and better aligned with career goals. Conclusions: The final year of medical school is a critical part of medical education for most learners, but careful attention is needed to ensure that the year is developmentally robust. Medical educators can facilitate this by creating structures to help students define personal and professional goals, identify opportunities to work toward these goals, and monitor progress so that the value of the final year is optimized and not exclusively focused on residency preparation.

  2. Stress Management Training in Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jeffrey A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    An effort to teach medical students practical stress management skills is discussed. A group of students volunteered to participate in a six-session program that taught them personal stress management techniques including self-relaxation training, schedule-planning, priority-setting, leisure time-planning, and cognitive modification techniques.…

  3. Characteristics of violence suffered by high school adolescents in a Brazilian state capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this cross-sectional study was to describe the characteristics of violence suffered by high school adolescent students of public schools in a Brazilian state capital. The data correspond to 456 adolescent victims of violence, collected by means of a questionnaire and processed by Epi-Info, in which analyses considered a value of p<0.05. Most of the adolescents were girls and the variables (gender, age, relationship with aggressor, frequency/length of time of abuse, place of occurrence and its interruption varied according to the type of violence (bullying, physical, psychological, threat, sexual, witness, harassment, cyber-bullying, abandonment, neglect, child labor and parental alienation. The results represent the scene of violence suffered by adolescents, a reality that is poorly known and reported to official bodies, however, the descriptive data represent only part of the problem, highlighting the need to develop new studies to further investigate the various facets of the theme and to suggest new measures for facing violence in adolescence.

  4. Human genetics teaching in U.S. medical schools.

    OpenAIRE

    Childs, B.; Huether, C A; Murphy, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    Information about instruction in genetics was obtained fron 103 of the 107 U.S. four-year medical schools. Seventy-two percent of the schools provide a compulsory course in genetics, but there was great variation in duration, content, departmental responsibility for giving the course, and in the disciplines of those doing the teaching. The variability in the number of hours devoted to teaching genetics was reflected in the competence of the students in giving correct answers to questions on g...

  5. Community engagement in US and Canadian medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein

    2011-01-01

    Adam O Goldstein, Rachel Sobel BearmanDepartment of Family Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USAIntroduction: This study examines the integration of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship at all accredited US and Canadian medical schools in order to better understand and assess their current state of engagement.Methods: A 32-question data abstraction instrument measured the role of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship...

  6. Students' perceptions of learning environment in an Indian medical school

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod P; Ramnarayan K; Abraham Reem; Torke Sharmila

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Learning environment in any medical school is found to be important in determining students' academic success. This study was undertaken to compare the perceptions of first year and clinical phase students regarding the learning environment at Melaka Manipal Medical College (MMMC) (Manipal Campus) and also to identify the gender wise differences in their perceptions. Methods In the present study, the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) inventory was used. DR...

  7. Analysis of Scientific Publication Networks among Medical Schools in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jin Oh; Park, Seo Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This research was intended to analyze the special characteristics and structure of social networks among Korean medical schools for the purpose of providing knowledge regarding medical field structure, dynamics, and potential paradigm development. Methods A collaborative 12-year data set of 35,469 published articles in the SCOPUS® database was analyzed. Among ISI subcategories, 61 having more than 20 articles were scrutinized. Following identification of correspondence and co-autho...

  8. Physical activity counseling in medical school education: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dacey, Marie L.; Kennedy, Mary A.; Polak, Rani; Edward M Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite a large evidence base to demonstrate the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA), few physicians incorporate PA counseling into office visits. Inadequate medical training has been cited as a cause for this. This review describes curricular components and assesses the effectiveness of programs that have reported outcomes of PA counseling education in medical schools.Methods: The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and ERIC databases for art...

  9. Adaptation and evaluation of the measurement properties of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Rafaela Batista dos Santos; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: to undertake the cultural adaptation of, and to evaluate the measurement properties of, the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, with outpatient monitoring at a teaching hospital. Method: the process of cultural adaptation was undertaken in accordance with the international literature. The data were obtained from 147 CHD patients, through the application of the sociodemographic/clinical characterization instrument, and of the Brazilian versions of the Morisky Self-Reported Measure of Medication Adherence Scale, the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale. Results: the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of semantic-idiomatic, conceptual and cultural equivalencies, with high acceptability and practicality. The floor effect was evidenced for the total score and for the domains of the scale studied. The findings evidenced the measure's reliability. The domains of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented significant inverse correlations of moderate to strong magnitude between the scores of the Morisky scale, indicating convergent validity, although correlations with the measure of general self-efficacy were not evidenced. The validity of known groups was supported, as the scale discriminated between "adherents" and "non-adherents" to the medications, as well as to "sufficient dose" and "insufficient dose". Conclusion: the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of reliability and validity in coronary heart disease outpatients. PMID:27192417

  10. Effects of age, gender and educational background on strength of motivation for medical school

    OpenAIRE

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor’s degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school), were asked to fill out the Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire at the start of medical school. The questionnaire measures ...

  11. Brazilian National Curricular Parameters in the pre-service training of high school teachers of natural sciences and mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Elio Carlos Ricardo; Arden Zylbersztajn

    2007-01-01

    The results of interviews with seventeen lecturers of Methodology of Teaching and/or Practice of Teaching in the areas of biology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, belonging to three public universities located in the three different geographical regions, are presented and discussed. The main research objective was to investigate how the Brazilian National Curricular Parameters are being treated in the pre-service training of high school teachers of subjects in the area of Natural Sciences, M...

  12. Consumption of sugar-rich food products among Brazilian students:National School Health Survey (PeNSE 2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Nathália Luíza Ferreira; Rafael Moreira Claro; Aline Cristine Souza Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to analyze the consumption of high-sugar foods by Brazilian schoolchildren and to identify associated factors, based on data from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE 2012). Consumption of these foods was classified as: do not consume sweets and soft drinks regularly; consume sweets or soft drinks regularly; and consume sweets and soft drinks regularly. Its association with sociodemographic information, eating habits, and family contexts were investigated via mul...

  13. Prior knowledge of deaf students fluent in brazilian sign languages regarding the algebraic language in high school

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Teresinha Frizzarini; Clélia Maria Ignatius Nogueira

    2014-01-01

    There are few researches with deeper reflections on the study of algebra with deaf students. In order to validate and disseminate educational activities in that context, this article aims at highlighting the deaf students’ prior knowledge, fluent in Brazilian Sign Language, referring to the algebraic language used in high school. The theoretical framework used was Duval’s theory, with analysis of the changes, by treatment and conversion, of different registers of semiotic representation, in p...

  14. Time to return medical schools to their primary purpose: education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, S

    1996-04-01

    The author maintains that the quality of medical education has been dropping for the last few decades as medical schools become less and less focused on their primary purpose of training physicians. Until the years immediately following World War II, the administration of the medical school was carried out by a small staff headed by a dean whose role was to provide leadership in educational matters. Academic departments managed the educational program, and the faculty were expected to be teachers and to participate in educational planning, preparation of teaching materials, advising of students, assessment of students' performances, admission, and all other tasks associated with having a teaching position. Today, the administration of a typical school includes any number of assistants to the dean and a wide variety of other staff dealing not only with educational functions but with grant management, public relations, fund-raising, personnel policy, budgeting, and an enormous and complex parallel structure designed to manage clinical practice and to respond to market pressures. The role of faculty has also changed greatly; faculty are expected to be researchers and clinicians first, and teaching is usually shortchanged. The author explains why he believes these changes have come about; for example, the strong federal support of research after World War II, which encouraged a growing dependence of medical schools on research grants and consequently raised in importance those faculty who could obtain such grants. He concludes with common-sense proposals for reform (such as having the education of medical students in the hands of a small number of faculty whose prime responsibility is teaching), but admits that there are fundamental barriers to such reforms, especially vested interests and resistance to change. In the end, change will come only when those in power recognize that medical schools must be returned to their primary role of training physicians. PMID:8645396

  15. The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on School Health POLICY STATEMENT: Guidelines for the Administration of Medication in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of School Nursing, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Many children who take medications require them during the school day. This policy statement is designed to guide prescribing physicians as well as school administrators and health staff on the administration of medications to children at school. The statement addresses over-the-counter products, herbal medications, experimental drugs that are…

  16. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351

  17. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351

  18. Curricular Change in Medical Schools: How To Succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Carole J.; Starnaman, Sandra; Wersal, Lisa; Moorhead-Rosenberg, Lenn; Zonia, Susan; Henry, Rebecca

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the literature on educational curricular change and applies findings to change in medical school settings. Found a consistent set of characteristics in the following areas associated with successful curricular change; these include: organizational mission and goals, history of organizational change, politics, organizational structure, need…

  19. Getting Personal: Harvard Medical School's Approach to Debt Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Kathleen

    2000-01-01

    Describes a program of the financial aid office at Harvard University Medical School (Massachusetts) that helps students with debt management and personal financial planning through presentations to seniors by professionals in insurance and financial planning and by offering two individual consultations with a physician financial planning…

  20. Universities and medical schools: reflections on a half-century of Canadian medical education.

    OpenAIRE

    Naimark, A.

    1993-01-01

    After 50 years of accelerated development, universities and medical schools have entered a period of uncertainty and instability. The Flexnerian paradigm of medical education, rooted in biomedical science and conducted under the aegis of a university, reached its apotheosis by the late 1960s and the early 1970s. Fuelled by the introduction of comprehensive, government-sponsored health care insurance and advances in technology, the demand for health care professionals and for access to facilit...

  1. Individualized strategic planning for faculty development in medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutham Rao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Faculty development is essential to provide skills not taught in typical medical training such as designing curricula or scientific writing, to help medical faculty acquire new skills valued today such as financial management, and to maintain institutional vitality. Faculty development receives relatively little attention in many medical schools and is narrowly focused upon teaching skills. Innovation. We propose a program that includes individual needs assessment and strategic planning. This strategy is consistent with Knowles’ principles of andragogy, a model of adult learning that differs in some ways from traditional pedagogy. We have included a self-assessment tool that may be useful to medical schools and an illustrative case study. Evaluation. We have introduced the self-assessment tool to a small number of faculty members who have found it clear and useful. We plan to introduce it to a large number of faculty members and to measure completion rates, perceived usefulness, and subsequent participation in faculty development activities and fulfillment of goals. Conclusions. Faculty development needs to be a higher priority in medical schools and to better reflect the current needs of faculty members. An individualized faculty development process has the potential to have a substantial impact upon acquisition of important skills, and faculty and institutional morale and vitality.

  2. Playing doctor, seriously: graduation follies at an American medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, D

    1984-01-01

    In American medical schools, the period of time between the announcement of internships and graduation is known as FYBIGMI, for "Fuck You Brother I Got My Internship." At University Medical School (pseudonym), as at most American medical schools, this period culminates in an elaborate musical comedy (attended by faculty and relatives) in which faculty are abused, patients are represented in terms of stigmatized stereotypes, and the students demonstrate a profane familiarity with cultural taboos. Using the analytic methods of cultural anthropology, this examination of the FYBIGMI performance at U.M.S. focuses primarily on the seniors' presentation of their newly acquired professional identity, which is constituted in the skits by recurring oppositions to socially stigmatized, medically self-destructive patients. In this oppositional logic, racial stereotypes play a particularly large role. In addition, the seniors establish their new social status by inverting their relationship to their (former) supervisors on a personal basis, and by confronting the audience with their professional ability to treat cultural taboos with profane familiarity. The FYBIGMI theatrical, and its representation of professional identity, is analyzed in relation to a proposed model of the underlying structure of the process of medical education, that is, an escalating dialectic of intimidation and self-congratulation. PMID:6490261

  3. [Shortening undergraduate medical training: now and for all medical schools in Chile?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes B, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, undergraduate medical education starts after High School, it lasts seven years, with the final two dedicated to a rotary internship, taking to an M.D. degree that allows the graduate to enter working activities. The country needs more M.D.s in primary care, but there is also a shortage of specialists, mainly out of the main cities. In recent decades, post graduate programs leading to specialty titles have become competitively adopted by a large proportion of medical graduates. This is the case at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, stimulating its faculties and medical students to develop a collaborative review of their teaching programs, leading to a curricular reform with a new graduate profile and a new curriculum oriented to learning objectives, that will allow to obtain the M.D. degree in six instead of seven years of undergraduate education. This new program awakened expectations in other universities in Chile, that will have to face the attraction of this shortened program for future candidates to enter medical schools. However, any shortening of medical school careers should first consider the local conditions in quality of applicants, number of accepted students, the training of teachers in integrated teaching programs, the availability of adequate campuses. Furthermore, for students with different academic backgrounds and diverse personal and familial interests, the seven years programs may still be necessary to gain the expertise required to become medical doctors. PMID:26998976

  4. A Integracao de Ensino das Ciencias da Saude (An Integrated Medical Education Program [in Brazil]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourchet-Campos, M. A.; Guimaraes Junior, Paulino

    At the Sixth Annual Reunion of the Brazilian Association of Medical Schools (VI Reuniao Anual da Associacao Brasileira de Escolas Medicas) leaders in the Brazilian medical profession proposed an integrated educational program for training students in the fields of medicine and public health. Under Brazil's present system of education, all…

  5. The Brazilian Nuclear Program and the consequences for medical physics; O Programa Nuclear Brasileiro e a fisica medica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Odair Dias [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: odairdg@cnen.gov.br

    2009-10-15

    The use of radioactive materials or nuclear phenomena in medicine begun before the Second World War; since then, the knowledge about nuclear power has been through a huge development. Impelled by the development of nuclear power plants, the application of nuclear techniques and processes in medicine also had a similar progress, as the same happened in Brazil. On the other hand, the parallel evolution did not happen in developing ways to guarantee the safe and secure use of such knowledge, which grew in the energy field faster and earlier than in medicine. This paper attempts to make a brief analysis of the progress in both fields throughout time, emphasizing the Brazilian Nuclear Program and its consequences on the field of medical physics. (author)

  6. Legal Issues in School Health Services and School Psychology: Guidelines for the Administration of Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur-Mosiewicz, Anna; Pierson, Eric E.; McIntosh, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The use of psychoactive medications to augment behavioral and psychosocial interventions in schools has significantly increased within the last few decades. Yet, advising, administrating, and supervising the dispensation of medication (including psychostimulants and psychoactive substances) tend to be some of the most risky tasks of school…

  7. "Burnout in Medical Oncology Fellows: a Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study in Brazilian Institutions".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero, Daniel I G; Fumis, Renata Rego Lins; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Dettino, Aldo; Costa, Felipe Osório; Van Eyll, Brigitte M R H Adam; Beato, Carlos; Peria, Fernanda Maris; Mota, Augusto; Altino, José; Azevedo, Sérgio Jobim; da Rocha Filho, Duílio Reis; Moura, Melba; Lessa, Álvaro Edson Ramos; Del Giglio, Auro

    2016-09-01

    Burnout syndrome is a common occurrence among oncologists. Doctors enrolled in residency programs in clinical oncology are exposed to similar risk factors; however, few data are available in this population. This study assessed the occurrence of burnout and associated factors among first-year residents at Brazilian institutions. The present prospective, multicenter, cohort study was conducted with doctors enrolled in residency programs in clinical oncology at Brazilian institutions affiliated with the public health system. The participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Lipp's Stress Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), upon admission to the program and 6 and 12 months later. Of 37 eligible residency programs in 2009, 11 (30.6 %) agreed to participate in the study. Fifty-four residents, representing 100 % of new admissions to the participating institutions, were included. Most of the participants met the criteria for severe burnout upon admission to the residency programs (emotional exhaustion in 49.0 % and depersonalization in 64.7 %). The scores on MBI domains emotional exhaustion and depersonalization increased significantly (p < 0.01) during the first year of residency, and the prevalence of burnout increased to 88 % at the end of that first year. The present study found a high prevalence of burnout among doctors enrolled in residency programs in clinical oncology at Brazilian institutions. A large fraction of the participants met the criteria for burnout syndrome upon admission to the program, which suggests that the problem began during the course of the previous residency program in internal medicine. PMID:25952940

  8. Medical genetics teaching in Iranian medical schools, especially Ahvaz, south of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHDI BIJANZADEH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physicians have to visit, diagnose and refer patients with genetic disorders, so they need to be familiar with the basics and indications of genetic tests. In other words, they should have effective theoretical and practical knowledge about medical genetics before they do their job. Medical genetics courses at Medical Universities of Iran are generally presented as a theoretical subject in the first period of medical education. Methods: In this descriptive research, the results of interviews with teachers of medical genetics in 30 medical schools in Islamic Republic of Iran and responses to a questionnaire by 125 medical students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of medical sciences, about presentation time, curricula and also efficacy of medical genetics courses were analyzed. The interviews with teachers were done on phone and the students’ comments were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire. The data were analyzed, using SPSS software, version 14. Results: In two thirds of medical universities, medical genetics is taught in the third or fourth semester and in 5 universities in the fifth semester. 86% of the students believed that the quality of genetics courses is moderate and such courses are same as clinical manifestation of genetic disorders are benefitial to medical students. Conclusion: This article suggests that medical genetics be offered in the second or third period of medical education (physiopathology or stagger period. Furthermore, in teaching such courses advanced educational methods (animation presentation, case-based learning, problem-based learning, etc. should be used, together with simple genetic tests in laboratories, the visit of genetic patients in hospitals, and the genetics consult.

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the Brazilian public health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ribeiro Bahia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH under Brazilian public health system perspective (Unified Health System - "Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS". MATERIAL AND METHODS: A revision of the literature of the medical treatment of BPH using alpha-blockers, 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors and combinations was carried out. A panel of specialists defined the use of public health resources during episodes of acute urinary retention (AUR, the treatment and the evolution of these patients in public hospitals. A model of economic analysis(Markov predicted the number of episodes of AUR and surgeries (open prostatectomy and transurethral resection of the prostate related to BPH according to stages of evolution of the disease. Brazilian currency was converted to American dollars according to the theory of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP 2010: US$ 1 = R$ 1.70. RESULTS: The use of finasteride reduced 59.6% of AUR episodes and 57.9% the need of surgery compared to placebo, in a period of six years and taking into account a treatment discontinuity rate of 34%. The mean cost of treatment was R$ 764.11 (US$449.78 and R$ 579.57 (US$ 340.92 per patient in the finasteride and placebo groups, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICERs was R$ 4.130 (US$ 2.429 per episode of AUR avoided and R$ 2.735 (US$ 1.609 per episode of surgery avoided. The comparison of finasteride + doxazosine to placebo showed a reduction of 75.7% of AUR episodes and 66.8% of surgeries in a 4 year time horizon, with a ICERs of R$ 21.191 (US$ 12.918 per AUR episodes avoided and R$ 11.980 (US$ 7.047 per surgery avoided. In the sensitivity analysis the adhesion rate to treatment and the cost of finasteride were the main variables that influenced the results. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the treatment of BPH with finasteride is cost-effective compared to placebo in the Brazilian public health system

  10. "Without handicap": issues of medical schools and physically disabled students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichgott, M J

    1996-07-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 requires that access to education not be denied simply on the basis of disability. The law requires definition of "basic qualifications" required of all applicants, "essential elements" of the curriculum, and whether accommodation would alter the "fundamental nature" of the learning experience or impose "undue burden." Medical schools have a very low proportion of physically disabled students, which the author argues is largely a result of schools' conception of the "undifferentiated graduate" as being capable of performing the history, physical examination, and any medical procedure without an intermediary. But the author maintains that medical students need not be unblemished physically; medical educators' obligation is to educate those students who are qualified to become physicians by virtue of intelligence, professional attitude, and ability to effectively interact and communicate. With respect to clinical training, it is important to consider whether personal, hands-on experience is required for adequate learning to occur. Because most physicians limit the scopes of their practices and do not perform all procedures, because those physicians who develop physical disabilities are not precluded from continuing in some forms of medical practice, and because technologic advances allow for the substitution of imaging and diagnostic testing for the more conventional approach to the physical examination, the requirement for hands-on capability becomes less compelling. Yet not every physically disabled applicant should be admitted to medical school, and those admitted require coaching, guidance, and career advice in order to succeed with their physical limitations. The author suggests that one of the seminal concepts of medical education, "without handicap," should be seen not as referring to the pre-existing physical status of students but instead as the obligation of educators to provide all their students with the

  11. Van Swieten and the renaissance of the Vienna Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, M; Modlin, I M

    2001-04-01

    The period until 1745 found the Viennese medical system languishing far behind advances made in other major European centers. This chaotic situation was reversed by the foresight and breadth of vision of the Empress Maria Theresa, who initiated considerable reform in Austria by actively recruiting the best minds of the time to reduce the intellectual and technologic differences. Her ability to entice one of Boerhaave's most eminent pupils, Gerard van Swieten, to leave Leiden for Vienna, particularly benefited the Vienna Medical School. In 1745 van Swieten assumed responsibility for reconfiguration of the patronage and nepotism-ridden medical system of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. As a first task, he swiftly expunged the influence of the Jesuits and other religious orders from medicine and established formal training and examinations, transforming the medical discipline into a meritocracy. Excelling as a physician and an innovative teacher, he also established a close personal relationship with the Empress and became her medical confidante. To a large part, the success of this first great Viennese medical school was owed to de Haen, who left Leiden to implement Boerhaave's method of clinical teaching. As a result of these innovations and with considerable support from the Empress, the University of Vienna, particularly its medical school, within a few decades achieved recognition throughout Europe as a seat of learning and scholarship. Van Swieten would not be remembered today if his contribution had been only scholarly or scientific achievements. He propelled Austrian medicine to a level commensurate with that of other European states of the day by 27 years of dedicated and industrious service. PMID:11344396

  12. [The trajectory of the Brazilian School Nutrition Program between 2003 and 2010: report of the national manager].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixinho, Albaneide Maria Lima

    2013-04-01

    The scope of this paper is to study the report of the manager of the Brazilian School Nutrition Program (PNAE), with special emphasis on the period from 2003 to 2010. It is a critical essay based on a review of the literature and the official data. It was revealed that the program spent 954.2 million Brazilian reals in 2003 to assist 37.3 million students, and in 2010 the total resources increased to 3 billion Brazilian reals with 45.6 million students attended. Other important advances were the broadening and strengthening of the role of the School Nutrition Councils and the regulatory strategies of nutritionists as Accountable Technicians. Law No. 11.947/2009 gave a new impetus to the PNAE, extending the program to the entire basic public education grid and youths and adults, and recommending that 30% of the funds transferred from the FNDE should be used to acquire products from small farmers. The progress in technical and operational criteria seeking greater flexibility, efficiency and effectiveness in the management of the Program is clear for all to see. It is hoped that these advances will translate into effective improvement in food and nutrition conditions for schoolchildren. PMID:23670366

  13. Use of UKCAT scores in student selection by UK medical schools, 2006-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Jane; Dowell Jon; Greatrix Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) is a set of cognitive tests introduced in 2006, taken annually before application to medical school. The UKCAT is a test of aptitude and not acquired knowledge and as such the results give medical schools a standardised and objective tool that all schools could use to assist their decision making in selection, and so provide a fairer means of choosing future medical students. Selection of students for UK medical schools is ...

  14. Survey of Nutrition Education in U.S. Medical Schools An Instructor-Based Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Steven H. Zeisel, MD, PhD

    2001-01-01

    Background: Recent reports on the state of nutrition in U.S. medical schools suggest that these schools are challenged to incorporate nutrition into an already full curriculum. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the current state of nutrition education in US medical schools based on information reported by individuals responsible for teaching nutrition to medical students. Design: Between July 1999 and May 2000, we surveyed 122 U.S. medical and osteopathic schools. The survey w...

  15. Survey of Nutrition Education in U.S. Medical Schools – An Instructor-Based Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Torti, Frank M; Adams, Kelly M.; Edwards, Lloyd J.; Lindell, Karen C.; Zeisel, Steven H

    2001-01-01

    Background: Recent reports on the state of nutrition in U.S. medical schools suggest that these schools are challenged to incorporate nutrition into an already full curriculum. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the current state of nutrition education in US medical schools based on information reported by individuals responsible for teaching nutrition to medical students. Design: Between July 1999 and May 2000, we surveyed 122 U.S. medical and osteopathic schools. The survey w...

  16. Assessment of the diet of 0- to 6-year-old children in municipal schools in a Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbin Clea

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Diet control is one of the important factors in the prevention of dental caries because food functions as substratum for fermentation and, consequently, for the formation of the organic acids that demineralize the tooth surface. This study aims to descriptively assess school diet and the associated caries-preventive methods applied to children in all municipal nursery schools of a Brazilian city (Aragatuba/SP. For this, a questionnaire with open and closed questions was used. The results showed that all schools serve school meal, which is composed mainly of sugar, carbohydrates, and proteins. The students enjoy the meal very much because for most of them, the meal served at school is the only source of food. It was observed that 90% of the schools offer other kinds of food besides the main school meal. The snacks served such as cakes, white hominy, and milk fudge are composed of sweet and highly cariogenic foods. It was also verified that in 13.30% of the schools, the daily supervised dental hygiene, an important procedure that should not be neglected, is not carried out. This procedure introduces the children to healthy habits that are added to those acquired in the family environment. It was concluded that the school diet is potentially cariogenic and, in association with the lack of daily dental hygiene, this potential may become even higher.

  17. Leading among leaders: the dean in today's medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, R M

    1998-06-01

    The magnitude and pace of change in the health care environment demand that medical schools change. Leading in a time of great change is difficult, and it is ironic that just when stability in leadership is most needed, the average tenure of deans is dropping. Indeed, the path to leadership in academic medicine is strewn with inherent ironies, paradoxes, and idiosyncrasies. For example, few people who become leaders in academic medicine aspire to, plan for, or seek training for leadership, yet leadership skills are essential to meet today's complex institutional demands. Also, most medical school deans were once medical students, and were selected and trained to be assertive, independent physicians, not to collaborate. For faculty, the medical school environment traditionally values individual autonomy and rewards individual achievement, not behavior that supports a larger community interest. Yet today's deans must be skilled at collaborative behavior, since they must have a vision for their schools and find ways to offer direction to the faculty and others to realize that vision. The author offers ideas about leadership and its development, and stresses that good leaders must above all curtail their egos in order to do what is best for their institutions. What a dean does as an individual is not nearly as important as what a dean enables others to do. The author also provides a checklist of dean's characteristics and responsibilities to help deans-to-be understand the job and current deans to think about how to succeed and thrive. He concluded by reiterating that the culture of individual faculty success based on individual entrepreneurism is passé. To operate in the new collaborative culture, today's successful dean must meld persuasion with educational statesmanship, always informed by a vision of how the school can prosper and serve. PMID:9653402

  18. The evaluation of the relevance of teaching of homeopathy at the medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José de Freitas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 1912 the Hahnemann Medical Faculty to graduate homeopathic physicians was created. This was one of the courses that originated the present Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro – UNIRIO. Homeopathy in UNIRIO was consolidated during the 80s and 90s through the relationship with other specialties. In 1999, the interface of Homeopathy and the curriculum guidelines of the Brazilian Ministry of Education justified the inclusion of Homeopathy as a compulsory subject in the medical course at UNIRIO. In 2001 a University program to improve the development of research called “Homeopathy - Health and Quality of Life”, was created to integrate the activities of Teaching, Research and Extension. Aim: To evaluate the relevance of the compulsory teaching of Homeopathy in the medical area at the Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro – UNIRIO, Brazil. Methods: A prospective longitudinal qualitative and quantitative research was used with semi-structured questionnaires with open and closed questions at the beginning and end of each semester. Undergraduate students from the third year of the UNIRIO Medical Faculty (2008/March till 2009/September who accepted the “Consent Form”, were included. Students who didn't respond adequately to the questions were excluded. This research was approved and registered at the Brazilian Research Ethics Center. Microsoft Office Excel 2007 used to data collection and analysis. Results: Total number of students attending the course during the four semesters: 304. 70% answered the questionnaires. 60% of the students had heard of homeopathy before attending the homeopathy course (67% as patients, 21% as patients and through media, 6% through media and 6% by other means of contact. 86% consider that homeopathy brought new knowledge to the medical and academic training. 72% consider that this

  19. The Reliance on Unclaimed Cadavers for Anatomical Teaching by Medical Schools in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangata, Hope; Ntaba, Phatheka; Akol, Princess; Louw, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The study of gross Anatomy through the use of cadaveric dissections in medical schools is an essential part of the comprehensive learning of human Anatomy, and unsurprisingly, 90% of the surveyed medical schools in Africa used cadaveric dissections. Donated cadavers now make up 80% of the total cadavers in North American medical schools and all…

  20. Evaluating Learning among Undergraduate Medical Students in Schools with Traditional and Problem-Based Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess knowledge and skills in a respiratory physiology course in traditional versus problem-based learning (PBL) groups in two different medical schools. Two different undergraduate medical schools were selected for this study. The first medical school followed the traditional [lecture-based learning (LBL)] curriculum, and the…

  1. The Morehouse Mystique: Becoming a Doctor at the Nation's Newest African American Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasman, Marybeth

    2012-01-01

    The Morehouse School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia, is one of only four predominantly Black medical schools in the United States. Among its illustrious alumni are surgeons general of the United States, medical school presidents, and numerous other highly regarded medical professionals. This book tells the engrossing history of this venerable…

  2. The Contribution of Ethnobiology to the Construction of a Dialogue between Ways of Knowing: A Case Study in a Brazilian Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Geilsa Costa Santos; El-Hani, Charbel Nino

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports results obtained in pedagogical interventions in a Brazilian public high school which aimed at promoting a dialogue between scientific and traditional knowledge in the context of biology teaching. The interventions were based on the use of a didactic material and teaching sequence elaborated on the grounds of school knowledge…

  3. Perspectives for vertebrology teaching development in higher medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norkin I.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues on improving the efficiency of vertebrology teaching in specialist training at pre-and postgraduate stages. Modern epidemiologic trends for spine traumas and diseases form the increasing interest to the problems of care and prevention of the considered pathology and define the necessity of single-skilled specialists training. Developing vertebrology into a separate discipline that is studied at medical universities at both pre- and postgraduate stages is one of the topic issues for higher medical schools where the search of effective ways of its realization is stressed.

  4. Status of medical education reform at Saga Medical School 5 years after introducing PBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo

    2008-03-01

    In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan. PMID:18364287

  5. Trends in medical school library statistics in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherbury, M C; Lyders, R A

    1992-01-01

    Ten years of statistics from over 140 U.S. and Canadian medical school libraries are analyzed to determine trends in library collections, staffing, services, and expenditures. In addition, ratios of use patterns and personnel utilization are shown. Costs over the ten-year period are examined in both actual and constant dollar amounts. The trends in costs show continuous rises in absolute and constant dollars both for materials and personnel. The number of serials subscriptions remained fairly constant while the number of monographs added declined slowly. Collection use grew, although traditional external circulation declined. Interlibrary lending and borrowing increased throughout the decade. Reference service workload increased, while the use of external databases decreased. The longitudinal data indicate trends in medical school libraries that may assist administrators and staff to shape future services, staffing patterns, and budget requests. PMID:1537018

  6. Role Modeling in the First 2 Years of Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadia, Sharon J

    2015-08-01

    Role modeling opportunities for osteopathic physician teachers during a student's first 2 years of medical school are emerging as more colleges of osteopathic medicine strive to connect basic science didactics with clinically based learning activities. Examples of positive modeling by physician teachers during the first years of medical school are illustrated by 10 vignettes that can be incorporated into faculty development programs to increase awareness of such opportunities. The physician teacher in each vignette interacts with the student demonstrating desired professional behaviors. These vignettes also illustrate the effect of a positive "hidden curriculum" on a student's professional development. By recognizing these valuable teachable moments, teachers can incorporate role modeling into their daily practice. PMID:26214824

  7. Smoking Among Medical School Students and Attitudes against Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Yengil1

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to observe smoking and nicotine addiction status and of medical school students and to establish relating factors. Methods: A questionnaire was applied to students who were in Mustafa Kemal University Medical School in 2013-2014 semesters about smoking behavior, age of onset, thought of quitting, attitudes against, nicotine addiction, use of alcohol and other drugs. Results: Of the 712 students 54.5% (388 were male, while 45.5% (324 were female and overall smoking rate was 25.6%. The average age of smoking initiation was 17.7 ± 2.8 years. The overall smoking rates are increasing every year of school. 40.1% (73 of smokers reported the smoke in the hospital, while 33.5% (61 of them smoke only in the separated area. Almost half of the smokers (51.6%, 94 had very low, 19.2% (35 low, 8.8% (16 moderate, 14.3% (26 high, and 6% (11 very high level of nicotine dependency. Of the participants 46.3% (330 reported no special anti-tobacco efforts against in the society, whether only 2.4% (17 of them stated regular counseling. Non smokers showed more effort than smokers (p=0.0001. 40.1% of the smokers reported that medical education didn’t affect their attitude against smoking, while 19.8% stated that it affected negatively. Conclusion: In conclusion the study found a higher smoking prevalence compared to developed countries Medical school curricula need to be reframed in the context of smoking cessation counseling in order to win the war against tobacco use and addiction.

  8. The military medical school of Mexico: a tradition of excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, J Leonel; Merrill, Daniel M; Rich, Norman M

    2005-01-01

    It is a historical fact that warfare and surgery have been linked together as far back as military history has been recorded. In the 18th century, the tendency of most armies to dismiss their medical services at the end of every major conflict resulted in higher mortality at the beginning of the next war. This became evident in the French and British Armies during the Battle of Waterloo. These countries went to great efforts to mobilize their civilian reserve physicians, only to discover that more than half of the medical personnel declined to serve. The scarcity of physicians and the inexperience of those caring for the wounded resulted in a high casualty rate. The current armed conflicts throughout the world with their high number of victims are living evidence of the need for preparedness of the military medical personnel. In this article, we review the systems of military medical education in several countries, and offer the example of the Escuela Medico Militar (Military Medical School) of Mexico, a prestigious source of military medical physicians for the Mexican armed forces. PMID:15815819

  9. Level of Differentiation of Vocational Interests Profiles: Comparative Study by Age and Schooling in a Brazilian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Porto Noronha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vocational interests can be defined as standards of preference, aversion or indifference to professional activities, but little is known about the factors involved in their development. From this perspective, this study attempted to clarify which variable, age or schooling, better fit comparisons of profile differentiation index. To this end, we analyzed the Escala de Aconselhamento Profissional (Professional Counseling Scale responses of 6,824 Brazilian students between 14 and 50 years old with various levels of education. Differentiation of the interest profile was observed by subtraction between dimensions with lower and higher scores. Normality of the distributions was verified and then Analysis of Variance and Tukey’s post hoc test were conducted in relation to groups of age and schooling. The results suggest that schooling is a more appropriate variable to compare the differentiation of interests. The implications and limitations of this study are discussed, and suggestions for future studies are given.

  10. Students' perceptions of learning environment in an Indian medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod P

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Learning environment in any medical school is found to be important in determining students' academic success. This study was undertaken to compare the perceptions of first year and clinical phase students regarding the learning environment at Melaka Manipal Medical College (MMMC (Manipal Campus and also to identify the gender wise differences in their perceptions. Methods In the present study, the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM inventory was used. DREEM was originally developed at Dundee and has been validated as a universal diagnostic inventory for assessing the quality of educational environment. In the present study, DREEM was administered to undergraduate medical students of first year (n = 118 and clinical phase (n = 108 and the scores were compared using a nonparametric test. Results Among the two batches, first year students were found to be more satisfied with the learning environment at MMMC (as indicated by their higher DREEM score compared to the clinical batch students. Gender wise, there was not much difference in the students' perceptions. Conclusion The present study revealed that both groups of students perceived the learning environment positively. Nevertheless, the study also revealed problematic areas of learning environment in our medical school which enabled us to adopt some remedial measures.

  11. A survey of factors influencing career preference in new-entrant and exiting medical students from four UK medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Cleland, Jennifer A.; Johnston, Peter W; Anthony, Micheal; Khan, Nadir; Scott, Neil W

    2014-01-01

    Background Workforce planning is a central issue for service provision and has consequences for medical education. Much work has been examined the career intentions, career preferences and career destinations of UK medical graduates but there is little published about medical students career intentions. How soon do medical students formulate careers intentions? How much do these intentions and preferences change during medical school? If they do change, what are the determining factors? Our a...

  12. Peer-assisted learning in medical school: tutees’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Audrey Menezes,1,2 Annette Burgess,1 Antonia J Clarke,1,3 Craig Mellis1 1Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney; 2Hornsby Ku-ring-gai Hospital; 3Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: Peer tutoring offers a valuable method of enhancing students’ learning experience in medical school. Junior students learn from senior peers to reinforce curriculum content in an engaging community environment. The aim of our study was to assess tutees’ perceptions of a formal peer tutoring program at the Central Clinical School of Sydney Medical School. We used the learning theory of the community of practice in order to understand tutees’ perspectives. Patients and methods: All Year 1 and Year 2 students within the Central Clinical School were invited to be tutored by Year 3 and Year 4 students, respectively. Tutor pairs taught a group of three to four tutees fortnightly, and the tutorials were largely clinically based. A questionnaire containing 13 closed items and four open-ended questions regarding their experiences in the program was distributed to the tutees. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: A total of 66 of 101 (65% Year 1 and Year 2 students took part as tutees and 42 of 106 (40% students as tutors. The tutees' response rate was 53% (35/66. Results were largely positive, with 97% of the tutees enjoying the program, 90% showing interest in tutorial topics, 91% feeling a sense of community, 100% wanting to take part next year, 97% finding small groups effective, and 97% and 91% feeling an improved understanding of medical concepts and clinical skills, respectively. Tutees perceived the most useful aspects to be learning and revision and advice from experienced peers. The most frequent suggestion for improvement was to resolve scheduling conflicts. Conclusion: Tutees found the peer tutoring program to be valuable in learning and revision, establishing a community, and

  13. Student perceptions of mistreatment and harassment during medical school. A survey of ten United States schools.

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, D. C.; Daugherty, S. R.; Eckenfels, E. J.

    1991-01-01

    Senior students at 10 medical schools in the United States responded to a questionnaire that asked how often, if ever, they perceived themselves being mistreated or harassed during the course of their medical education. Results show that perceived mistreatment most often took the form of public humiliation (86.7%), although someone else taking credit for one's work (53.5%), being threatened with unfair grades (34.8%), and threatened with physical harm (26.4%) were also reported. Students also...

  14. Bullying and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents: analysis of the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Carvalho Malta; Rogério Ruscitto do Prado; Antônio José Ribeiro Dias; Flavia Carvalho M. Mello; Marta Angelica Iossi Silva; Michelle Ralil da Costa; Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of bullying from the victim's perspective in Brazilian school children and to analyze its association with individual and family context variables. METHODS: An analysis of the data on 109,104 adolescents, obtained by the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey, held in schools in 2012, was carried out. An association model between bullying and explanatory variables was tested in different contexts: sociodemographic, risk behaviors, mental heal...

  15. THE IMPACT OF THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES ON THE COLLECTING POLICY OF MEDICAL SCHOOL LIBRARIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MACKENZIE, R C; BLOOMQUIST, H

    1964-01-01

    The scope of medical science has broadened to embrace subject areas in the behavioral and social sciences. Medical school curricula have responded to this trend, and the response is inevitably making itself felt in the medical school library. One medical school library's efforts to identify significant library materials in this area are presented as an example of a technique and as an indication of an order of magnitude. A master list of appropriate journal titles is appended. PMID:14119295

  16. Publishing medical schools’ USMLE Step 1 scores: increase preclinical education accountability and national standards

    OpenAIRE

    Eltorai AE

    2013-01-01

    Adam EM Eltorai Brown University, Warren Alpert Medical School, Providence, RI, USA Medical education innovation is a field of active investigation.1,2 Whether it is problem-based learning, lectures, discussion groups, systems-based blocks, integrated courses, video-captured, pass-fail, or iPad-requiring, every medical school approaches preclinical education differently. Which combination of these methods is most effective?To answer this, I propose that medical schools ought to be required to...

  17. The Medical Physics Brazilian Portal: the challenge of information dissemination by Internet; Portal brasileiro de fisica medica: o desafio das divulgacao da informacao na Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisa, I.T.; Moraes, E.R.; Araujo, D.B.; Smarra, A.L.S.; Nicolucci, P.; Holanda, A.J. [Portal brasileiro de Fisica Medica, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: fisicamedica@fisicamedica.com.br

    2001-07-01

    The Medical Physics Brazilian Portal (PBFM) was created to publish news and events from its related areas in Brazil. The PBFM represents an open, impartial, and free information center, managed by postgraduate students from diverse areas. The PBFM's cost are covered by financial support. The objective of this work is to communicate about the PBFM's creation and its main indicators. (author)

  18. Analysis of calls to the Mobile First-Aid Medical Services in a Brazilian capital city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Nonnemacher Luchtemberg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is a documentary study to characterize Mobile First-Aid Medical Services calls that did not provide assistance in the state of Santa Catarina, SC, Brazil from 2007 to 2010. Data were collected from assistance reports, being noticed 393,912 prank phone calls to the institution. The main reason for the assistance not being provided was the removal of the victim by third parties. The others were refusal of care, the removal of the patient and incorrect address. There were significant differences (p<0.05 between the years under study concerning the calls received by the Mobile First-Aid Medical Services and the number of prank phone calls received in the state macro-regions. The results indicate the need of investment in health education activities, reducing costs and increasing effectiveness. It is also necessary to improve communication between Mobile First-Aid Medical Services and the other services (Military Police and Fire Brigade reducing the number of assistance.

  19. Validity evidence for the measurement of the strength of motivation for medical school

    OpenAIRE

    Kusurkar, R.A.; Croiset, G.; Kruitwagen, C.; Cate, O. ten

    2010-01-01

    The Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire is designed to determine the strength of motivation of students particularly for medical study. This research was performed to establish the validity evidence for measuring strength of motivation for medical school. Internal structure and relations to other variables were used as the sources of validity evidence. The SMMS questionnaire was filled out by 1,494 medical students in different years of medical curriculum. The valid...

  20. Prior knowledge of deaf students fluent in brazilian sign languages regarding the algebraic language in high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Teresinha Frizzarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are few researches with deeper reflections on the study of algebra with deaf students. In order to validate and disseminate educational activities in that context, this article aims at highlighting the deaf students’ prior knowledge, fluent in Brazilian Sign Language, referring to the algebraic language used in high school. The theoretical framework used was Duval’s theory, with analysis of the changes, by treatment and conversion, of different registers of semiotic representation, in particular inequalities. The methodology used was the application of a diagnostic evaluation performed with deaf students, all fluent in Brazilian Sign Language, in a special school located in the north of Paraná State. We emphasize the need to work in both directions of conversion, in different languages, especially when the starting record is the graphic. Therefore, the conclusion reached was that one should not separate the algebraic representation from other records, due to the need of sign language perform not only the communication function, but also the functions of objectification and treatment, fundamental in cognitive development.

  1. A study of the factors influencing school-going students considering medical careers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M

    2011-08-01

    Obtaining a place in an Irish medical school is extremely competitive, a situation mirrored in many other countries. We aimed to determine the factors influencing school students in deciding to study medicine in university. We further determined what level of interest exists in pursuing a surgical career after completion of medical school.

  2. Monetizing College Reputation: The Case of Taiwan's Engineering and Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hung-Lin

    2007-01-01

    This study uses the admission scores of Taiwan's Joint College Entrance Examination (JCEE) and occupational wage data to estimate the reputation values of engineering and medical schools in Taiwan. It is found that the reputation values of medical schools are more than twice those of engineering schools. It takes about 7 and 19 years of work for…

  3. An Audit of Medication Administration: A Glimpse into School Health Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Daryl L.; Bauer, Laurie; Concepcion, Michelle; Luong, June; Peters, Jill; Wilde, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Many students require prescription and nonprescription medication to be administered during the school day for chronic and acute illnesses. School office staff members are typically delegated this task, yet these individuals are unlicensed assistive personnel without medical training. Five school nurses developed and participated in a medication…

  4. Accreditation of medical schools: the question of purpose and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azila, N M A; Tan, C P L

    2005-08-01

    Accreditation is a process by which official accrediting bodies evaluate institutions using a set of criteria and standards, following established procedures, to ensure a high quality of education needed to produce highly competent graduates. Additional objectives include (1) ensuring quality institutional functioning, (2) strengthening capabilities of educational institutions for service to the nation and (3) improving public confidence in medical schools. The accreditation process provides an opportunity for the institution to critically reflect upon all the aspects of its programme and the level of compliance or attainment of the requirements. The self-evaluation exercise, which identifies strengths and weaknesses, is perceived as formative. It is envisaged that eventually institutions will adopt a learning culture for curriculum development, implementation, monitoring and matching the outcomes. In conclusion, periodic accreditation activities can act as a "monitoring" system to ensure that the quality of medical education is maintained according to established standards. PMID:16315622

  5. Validity Evidence for the Measurement of the Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Croiset, Gerda; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle

    2011-01-01

    The Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire is designed to determine the strength of motivation of students particularly for medical study. This research was performed to establish the validity evidence for measuring strength of motivation for medical school. Internal structure and relations to other variables were used as…

  6. Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Background on Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…

  7. Teaching of Biochemistry in Medical School: A Well-Trodden Pathway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Michael B.; Stagnaro-Green, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Biochemistry and molecular biology occupy a unique place in the medical school curriculum. They are frequently studied prior to medical school and are fundamental to the teaching of biomedical sciences in undergraduate medical education. These two circumstances, and the trend toward increased integration among the disciplines, have led to…

  8. Family Perceptions of Medication Administration at School: Errors, Risk Factors, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Daniel; Farris, Karen; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W.; Howarth, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    Medications are administered every day in schools across the country. Researchers and clinicians have studied school nurses' and educators' experiences with medication administration, but not the experiences of children or their parents. This study examined medication administration from the child and parent perspectives to (a) determine problems…

  9. Development of the university of Massachusetts Medical School Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C R

    1969-04-01

    The creation of a library for the new Medical School of the University of Massachusetts presents an interesting opportunity to see how the principles of administrative technique, which have been found so effective in other areas of business and management, can be applied to the library profession. The solution of the logistical problem of having a base in Amherst and a field in Worcester lends itself to the prescribed pattern of progression from consultation to decision, decision to policy, and policy to action. The same pattern also emerges in the relationship of the librarian to the architect. PMID:5778725

  10. The decline and rise of the medical school applicant pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassebaum, D G; Szenas, P L

    1995-04-01

    The authors characterize the demographic changes that transpired with the decline and rise of the medical school applicant pool over the past decade, and describe the variations in academic antecedents, attrition, and graduation rates of students matriculated during that time. Data over the ten-year cycle, derived from the AAMC's Student and Applicant Information Management System (SAIMS), were examined in the context of published education and employment statistics. The contraction and expansion of the applicant pool were related to changes in the number and pattern of undergraduate majors and to changes in the employment conditions for college-educated youth. Furthermore, a significant part of the variations in size of the applicant pool is an artifact of changes in the number of repeat applications. Matriculants' pre-medical grades and MCAT scores dropped slightly during the period of applicant decline, and rebounded as admission committees were able to exercise greater selection when the pool expanded. The attrition of medical students rose and fell during this time, but the changes were small and of little discrete influence on graduation rates during the period. The downturn and rebound in applications over the past decade appear to be more related to cycles in the employment market for college graduates than to applicants' perceptions of unfavorable/favorable conditions in medical education and practice. PMID:7718069

  11. Professionalism perspectives among medical students of a novel medical graduate school in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mainul Haque,1 Zainal Zulkifli,2 Seraj Zohurul Haque,3 Zubair M Kamal,4 Abdus Salam,5 Vidya Bhagat,2 Ahmed Ghazi Alattraqchi,2 Nor Iza A Rahman2 1Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Defense Health, National Defense University of Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Jalan Sultan Mahmud, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 3School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee, UK; 4Sleep Research Unit, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Department of Medical Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Defining professionalism in this constantly evolving world is not easy. How do you measure degrees of benevolence and compassion? If it is so obvious to our profession, what professionalism is, then why is it so difficult to teach it to medical students and residents? Today’s definition of medical professionalism is evolving – from autonomy to accountability, from expert opinion to evidence-based medicine, and from self-interest to teamwork and shared responsibility. However, medical professionalism is defined as the basis for the trust in the patient–physician relationship, caring and compassion, insight, openness, respect for patient dignity, confidentiality, autonomy, presence, altruism, and those qualities that lead to trust-competence, integrity, honesty, morality, and ethical conduct. The purpose of this study is to explore professionalism in terms of its fundamental elements among medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA. This was a cross-sectional study carried out on medical students of UniSZA. The study population included preclinical and clinical medical students of UniSZA from Year I to Year V of academic session 2014/2015. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Data were

  12. Medical students-as-teachers: a systematic review of peer-assisted teaching during medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TC

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Chieh Yu¹, Nichola C Wilson², Primal P Singh¹, Daniel P Lemanu¹, Susan J Hawken³, Andrew G Hill¹¹South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ²Department of Surgery, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ³Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandIntroduction: International interest in peer-teaching and peer-assisted learning (PAL during undergraduate medical programs has grown in recent years, reflected both in literature and in practice. There, remains however, a distinct lack of objective clarity and consensus on the true effectiveness of peer-teaching and its short- and long-term impacts on learning outcomes and clinical practice.Objective: To summarize and critically appraise evidence presented on peer-teaching effectiveness and its impact on objective learning outcomes of medical students.Method: A literature search was conducted in four electronic databases. Titles and abstracts were screened and selection was based on strict eligibility criteria after examining full-texts. Two reviewers used a standard review and analysis framework to independently extract data from each study. Discrepancies in opinions were resolved by discussion in consultation with other reviewers. Adapted models of “Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Learning” were used to grade the impact size of study outcomes.Results: From 127 potential titles, 41 were obtained as full-texts, and 19 selected after close examination and group deliberation. Fifteen studies focused on student-learner outcomes and four on student-teacher learning outcomes. Ten studies utilized randomized allocation and the majority of study participants were self-selected volunteers. Written examinations and observed clinical evaluations were common study outcome assessments. Eleven studies provided student-teachers with formal teacher training. Overall, results suggest that peer-teaching, in highly selective

  13. Virtues Education in Medical School: The Foundation for Professional Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Leonardo; Tompkins, Lisa M.; De Conciliis, Anthony; Boysen, Philip G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that medical students have high rates of burnout accompanied by a loss of empathy as they progress through their training. This article describes a course for medical students at The University of Queensland-Ochsner Clinical School in New Orleans, LA, that focuses on the development of virtues and character strengths necessary in the practice of medicine. Staff of the Ochsner Clinical School and of the Institute of Medicine, Education, and Spirituality at Ochsner, a research and consulting group of Ochsner Health System, developed the course. It is a curricular innovation designed to explicitly teach virtues and their associated prosocial behaviors as a means of promoting professional formation among medical students. Virtues are core to the development of prosocial behaviors that are essential for appropriate professional formation. Methods: Fourth-year medical students receive instruction in the virtues as part of the required Medicine in Society (MIS) course. The virtues instruction consists of five 3-hour sessions during orientation week of the MIS course and a wrapup session at the end of the 8-week rotation. Six virtues—courage, wisdom, temperance, humanity, transcendence, and justice—are taught in a clinical context, using personal narratives, experiential exercises, contemplative practices, and reflective practices. Results: As of July 2015, 30 medical students had completed and evaluated the virtues course. Ninety-seven percent of students felt the course was well structured. After completing the course, 100% of students felt they understood and could explain the character strengths that improve physician engagement and patient care, 100% of students reported understanding the importance of virtues in the practice of medicine, and 83% felt the course provided a guide to help them deal with the complexities of medical practice. Ninety-three percent of students stated they would use the character strengths for their own

  14. [Medical degree earned with a thesis in medical schools of Lima, 2011: characteristics, motivations and perceptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Christian R; Inga-Berrospi, Fiorella; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed physicians who obtained their medical degree with a thesis in 2011 from the seven medical schools in Lima to know the characteristics of the degree by thesis process, as well as participants’ motivations and perceptions of that process. We included 98 students who did a thesis (87% of total); 99% conducted observational thesis, 30% did so in groups of three. The main motivation was that it was good for their curriculum vitae (94%). At the university where the thesis is compulsory, the process began with the choice of topic and adviser. Perceived “greatest” and “least” difficulty in the process was the completion of administrative procedures (53%) and selection of their advisor (11%), respectively. Administrative timeliness and processes should be reviewed so as not to impede the completion of thesis, since the new University Act requires the completion of a thesis to graduate. PMID:25418650

  15. Physical activity counseling in medical school education: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie L. Dacey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a large evidence base to demonstrate the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA, few physicians incorporate PA counseling into office visits. Inadequate medical training has been cited as a cause for this. This review describes curricular components and assesses the effectiveness of programs that have reported outcomes of PA counseling education in medical schools. Methods: The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and ERIC databases for articles published in English from 2000 through 2012 that met PICOS inclusion criteria of medical school programs with PA counseling skill development and evaluation of outcomes. An initial search yielded 1944 citations, and 11 studies representing 10 unique programs met criteria for this review. These studies were described and analyzed for study quality. Strength of evidence for six measured outcomes shared by multiple studies was also evaluated, that is, students’ awareness of benefits of PA, change in students’ attitudes toward PA, change in personal PA behaviors, improvements in PA counseling knowledge and skills, self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling, and change in attitude toward PA counseling. Results: Considerable heterogeneity of teaching methods, duration, and placement within the curriculum was noted. Weak research designs limited an optimal evaluation of effectiveness, that is, few provided pre-/post-intervention assessments, and/or included control comparisons, or met criteria for intervention transparency and control for risk of bias. The programs with the most evidence of improvement indicated positive changes in students’ attitudes toward PA, their PA counseling knowledge and skills, and their self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling. These programs were most likely to follow previous recommendations to include experiential learning, theoretically based frameworks, and students’ personal PA behaviors. Conclusions: Current results provide

  16. The Role of the Medical School Admission Process in the Production of Generalist Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Howard K.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the medical student characteristics associated with graduates' entering generalist careers, including initial specialty preference, geographic background, gender, age, ethnicity, economic/lifestyle factors, attitudes and personal values, service orientation, and premedical academic performance. Presents strategies medical schools can use…

  17. Insulin Administration in Catholic Schools: A New Look at Legal and Medical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence indicates that more students with type 1 diabetes are enrolling in Catholic schools across the United States. Meeting the medical needs of these students appears to be a significant challenge--legally and logistically--for many Catholic schools. District officials, school leaders, and school staff need support to understand the…

  18. Association of Medical Students' Reports of Interactions with the Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Industries and Medical School Policies and Characteristics: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, James S.; Austad, Kirsten E.; Franklin, Jessica M; Susan Chimonas; Eric G Campbell; Jerry Avorn; Kesselheim, Aaron S.

    2014-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Making and selling prescription drugs and medical devices is big business. To promote their products, pharmaceutical and medical device companies build relationships with physicians by providing information on new drugs, by organizing educational meetings and sponsored events, and by giving gifts. Financial relationships begin early in physicians' careers, with companies providing textbooks and other gifts to first-year medical students. In medical school settings,...

  19. Cardiac auscultation via simulation: a survey of the approach of UK medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Samantha Jayne; Wong, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Background A decline in clinical skills of medical students and junior doctors is well documented. We aim to determine how the 32 UK medical schools utilise simulated heart sounds to develop medical students’ cardiac auscultation skills. Methods Representatives of all 32 UK medical schools were contacted with a survey questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS. Continuous variables e.g. teaching group size were described using median and interquartile range (IQR). Results 27 Medi...

  20. Improving the Social Responsiveness of Medical Schools: Proceedings of the 1998 Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates/World Health Organization Invitational Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Nancy E., Ed.; Boelen, Charles, Ed.; Gastel, Barbara, Ed.; Ayers, William, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Proceedings of the conference on improving the social responsiveness of medical schools include papers on the role of medical schools in relation to societal needs, the missions of medical schools (from North American, European, African, and Asian perspectives), measuring social responsiveness (perspective of the United Kingdom, standard-setting,…

  1. Reacting to Poverty: A Comparative Analysis of Schools in Brazilian Deprived Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabini, Aina; Bonal, Xavier; Valiente, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Schools in the most deprived areas in Brazil are marked by extreme poverty, a situation that has obvious consequences for the everyday life in schools and for efforts to develop a supportive culture of schooling. Nevertheless, schools' responses to poverty are far from uniform. Although the context of poverty generally determines what is…

  2. [Calculation of recommendations regarding protein intake: their application to preschool, school students and adults taking Brazilian foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, J S; Rodrigues, M M; Cunha, S F; Fausto, M A; Vannucchi, H; de Oliveira, J E

    1994-04-01

    The recommendations for protein consumption depend on the essential amino acid and total nitrogen content of a diet, and food digestibility. International recommendations are based on egg or milk proteins. However, populations eat different food mixtures. Brazilians use rice and beans as their main protein food source. This study presents different Brazilian diets, with variable amount of rice and beans. The results show that for each diet there is a different amount of protein recommended. Pre-school children, for example, must receive from 1.15 to 1.77 g/protein/day, depending on the mixture of their dietary protein intake. Besides the diet protein's quality and quantity, the total food intake and presence of other essential nutrients, such as iron, calcium and vitamin C has also to be considered. The correct protein recommendation with respect to a diet or a mixture of food, should take into consideration: digestibility, total nitrogen, essential amino acids, presence of others nutrients and weight of food consumed. PMID:7824848

  3. Medical school personal statements: a measure of motivation or proxy for cultural privilege?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Students from state schools are underrepresented in UK medical schools. Discussions often focus on deficient academic and motivational traits of state school students, rather than considering the effects of student support during the admissions process. This qualitative study explored student experiences of support from schools and families during the medical school admissions process with particular focus on the personal statement. Interviews were conducted with thirteen medical students at a British medical school who had each attended a different secondary school (classified as private or state funded). A thematic analysis was performed. Bourdieu's concepts of capital and field were used as a theoretical lens through which to view the results. Interviews revealed substantial differences in support provided by private and state funded schools. Private schools had much more experience in the field of medical school admissions and had a vested interest in providing students with support. State schools were lacking by comparison, offering limited support that was often reactive rather than proactive. Students from private schools were also more likely to have social contacts who were knowledgeable about medical school admissions and who could help them gain access to work experience opportunities that would be recognised as legitimate by selectors. While medical schools endeavour to make fair admissions policies, there is an unintended link between a student's access to capital and ability to demonstrate commitment and motivation on personal statements. This helps explain why academically capable but financially or socially challenged students are less likely to be recognised as having potential during the admissions process. Medical schools need to be challenged to review their admissions policies to ensure that the do not inadvertently favour cultural privilege rather than student potential. PMID:25201752

  4. International Medical School Faculty Development: The Results of a Needs Assessment Survey among Medical Educators in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Sippola, Emily; Feng, Xinglin; Dong, Zhe; Wang, Debing; Moyer, Cheryl A.; Stern, David T.

    2009-01-01

    To explore the need for faculty development among Chinese medical educators. Leaders at each medical school in China were asked to complete a 123-item survey to identify interest in various topics and barriers and perceived benefits of participating in faculty development programs. Interest levels were high for all topics. Experience with Hospital…

  5. A Family Day program enhances knowledge about medical school culture and necessary supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cushing Herbert E

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Family Day program was implemented at Indiana University School of Medicine to educate the families and friends of in-coming medical students about the rigors of medical school and the factors that contribute to stress. Methods Surveys that assessed knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about medical school were administered to participants before and after the program. Results After the program, participants showed a significant improvement in their understanding of medical school culture and the importance of support systems for medical students. Post-test scores improved by an average of 29% (P Conclusions The inclusion of family members and other loved ones in pre-matriculation educational programs may serve to mitigate the stress associated with medical school by enhancing the students' social support systems.

  6. Brazilian National Curricular Parameters in the pre-service training of high school teachers of natural sciences and mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Carlos Ricardo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews with seventeen lecturers of Methodology of Teaching and/or Practice of Teaching in the areas of biology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, belonging to three public universities located in the three different geographical regions, are presented and discussed. The main research objective was to investigate how the Brazilian National Curricular Parameters are being treated in the pre-service training of high school teachers of subjects in the area of Natural Sciences, Mathematics and their Technologies, as well as to capture the opinions of the interviewees about those documents and their comprehension about the main concepts of competences, interdisciplinary approaches and contextualization, embodied in the Parameters. Some theoretical aspects related to those notions and which are present in recent literature are also discussed.

  7. Health-profession students’ teaching and learning expectations in Ugandan medical schools: pre- and postcommunity placement comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Wakida EK; Ruzaaza GN; Muggaga K; Akera P; Oria H; Kiguli S

    2015-01-01

    Edith K Wakida,1 Gad Ruzaaza,1 Kintu Muggaga,2 Peter Akera,3 Hussein Oria,4 Sarah Kiguli4 1Medical School, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, 2Medical School, Kampala International University, Kampala, 3Medical School, Gulu University, Gulu, 4Medical School, Makerere University Kampala, Kampala, Uganda Purpose: The benefits of community-based medical education for both students and teachers are becoming increasingly clear. However, there is paucity of information about th...

  8. Alcohol consumption among Brazilian Adolescents according to the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

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    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of alcohol consumption among Brazilian students and identify the sociodemographic factors associated alcohol consumption in the last 30 days. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a cluster sample of 109,104 9th grade students in Brazilian public and private schools in 2012. The prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of the indicators of alcohol consumption were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the students analyzed, 50.3% (95%CI 49.0 - 51.6 experimented one dose of alcoholic beverages or more. The consumption of alcohol in the last 30 days was 26.1% (95%CI 24.5 - 27.7, and there was no difference in prevalence between students from public and private schools. Drunkenness episodes were reported by 21.8% (95%CI 21.1 - 22.5 of the students. The perception of students about the negative reaction of their family if they came home drunk occurred in 89,7% (95%CI 89,6 - 89,9 of cases, and 10% (95%CI 8.9 - 11.1 of them reported having problems with their families or friends because they had been drinking. Among adolescents aged less than 14 years old, the first alcoholic drink intake was predominantly at 12 to 13 years old. The most common way to get a drink was at parties, with friends, buying in them in supermarkets, stores or bars and at home. The consumption of alcohol in the last 30 days was less frequent among boys, increasing with age. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates the extension of alcohol as a problem, making it important to advance in measures such as the improvement of protective legislation for children and adolescents and stricter enforcement in alcohol sales.

  9. The impact of preparatory activities on medical school selection outcomes: a cross-sectional survey of applicants to the university of Adelaide medical school in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Selection into medical school is highly competitive with more applicants than places. Little is known about the preparation that applicants undertake for this high stakes process. The study aims to determine what preparatory activities applicants undertake and what difficulties they encounter for each stage of the application process to medical school and in particular what impact these have on the outcome. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1097 applicants who applied for a place in the University of Adelaide Medical School in 2007 and participated in the UMAT (Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test) and oral assessment components of the selection process. The main outcome measures were an offer of an interview and offer of a place in the medical school and were analysed using logistic regression. Results The odds of a successful outcome increased with each additional preparatory activity undertaken for the UMAT (odds ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.33; P students most appropriate for medical school and the course they provide. Our results indicate that performance in the selection processes can be improved by training. However, if these preparatory activities may be limited to those who can access them, the playing field is not even and increasing equity of access to medical schools will not be achieved. PMID:24289521

  10. Preventing and managing unprofessionalism in medical school faculties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Renee; Friedli, Amy; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Professionalism is a required competency for medical students, residents, practicing physicians, and academic faculty. Faculty members must adhere to codes of conduct or risk discipline. The authors describe issues of unprofessionalism that culminate in allegations of faculty misconduct or filing of grievances in academic medicine and outline strategies for early intervention and prevention. The authors, vice and associate deans and executive director of the office of faculty affairs at a large U.S. medical school, have handled many allegations of unprofessional conduct over the past decade. They present case examples based on behaviors such as lack of respect, inappropriate language and behavior, failure to cooperate with members of the health care team, and sexual harassment/discrimination. They discuss factors complicating evaluation of these behaviors, including variable definitions of respect, different cultural norms, and false allegations. The authors make recommendations for prevention and intervention, including early identification, performance management, education about sexual harassment, and referrals to professional coaches, anger management classes, and faculty-staff assistance programs. PMID:25470311

  11. Military medical graduates' perceptions of organizational culture in Turkish military medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Mustafa; Bakir, Bilal; Teke, Abdulkadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Bas, Turker; Atac, Adnan

    2008-08-01

    Organizational culture is the term used to describe the shared beliefs, perceptions, and expectations of individuals in organizations. In the healthcare environment, organizational culture has been associated with several elements of organizational experience that contribute to quality, such as nursing care, job satisfaction, and patient safety. A range of tools have been designed to measure organizational culture and applied in industrial, educational, and health care settings. This study has been conducted to investigate the perceptions of military medical graduates on organizational culture at Gülhane Military Medical School. A measurement of organizational culture, which was developed by the researchers from Akdeniz University, was applied to all military medical graduates in 2004. This was a Likert type scale that included 31 items. Designers of the measurement grouped all these items into five main dimensions in their previous study. The items were scored on a five-point scale anchored by 1: strongly agree and 5: strongly disagree. Study participants included all military physicians who were in clerkship training period at Gulhane Military Medical Academy in 2004. A total of 106 graduates were accepted to response the questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 25.2 +/- 1.1. At the time of study only 8 (7.5%) graduates were married. The study results have showed that the measurement tool with 31 items had a sufficient reliability with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.91. Factor analysis has resulted a final measurement tool of 24 items with five factors. Total score and the scores of five subdimensions have been estimated and compared between groups based on living city and marital status. The study has shown the dimension of symbol received positive perceptions while the dimension of organizational structure and efficiency received the most negative perceptions. GMMS has a unique organizational culture with its weak and strong aspects. Conducting this kind

  12. Perceived Stress, Sources and Severity of Stress among medical undergraduates in a Pakistani Medical School

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    Malik Samina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently there is a growing concern about stress during undergraduate medical training. However, studies about the same are lacking from Pakistani medical schools. The objectives of our study were to assess perceived stress, sources of stress and their severity and to assess the determinants of stressed cases. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among undergraduate medical students of CMH Lahore Medical College, Pakistan during January to March 2009. Perceived stress was assessed using the perceived stress scale. A 33-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Results The overall response rate was 80.5% (161 out of 200 students. The overall mean perceived stress was 30.84 (SD = 7.01 and was significantly higher among female students. By logistic regression analysis, stressed cases were associated with occurrence of psychosocial (OR 5.01, 95% CI 2.44-10.29 and academic related stressors (OR 3.17 95% CI 1.52-6.68. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. 'High parental expectations', 'frequency of examinations', 'vastness of academic curriculum', 'sleeping difficulties', 'worrying about the future', 'loneliness', 'becoming a doctor', 'performance in periodic examinations' were the most frequently and severely occurring sources of stress. There was a negative but insignificant correlation between perceived stress and academic performance (r = -0.099, p > 0.05. Conclusion A higher level of perceived stress was reported by the students. The main stressors were related to academic and psychosocial domains. Further studies are required to test the association between stressed cases and gender, academic stressors and psychosocial stressors.

  13. Workplace learning through peer groups in medical school clerkships

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    Calvin L. Chou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: When medical students move from the classroom into clinical practice environments, their roles and learning challenges shift dramatically from a formal curricular approach to a workplace learning model. Continuity among peers during clinical clerkships may play an important role in this different mode of learning. We explored students’ perceptions about how they achieved workplace learning in the context of intentionally formed or ad hoc peer groups. Method: We invited students in clerkship program models with continuity (CMCs and in traditional block clerkships (BCs to complete a survey about peer relationships with open-ended questions based on a workplace learning framework, including themes of workplace-based relationships, the nature of work practices, and selection of tasks and activities. We conducted qualitative content analysis to characterize students’ experiences. Results: In both BCs and CMCs, peer groups provided rich resources, including anticipatory guidance about clinical expectations of students, best practices in interacting with patients and supervisors, helpful advice in transitioning between rotations, and information about implicit rules of clerkships. Students also used each other as benchmarks for gauging strengths and deficits in their own knowledge and skills. Conclusions: Students achieve many aspects of workplace learning in clerkships through formal or informal workplace-based peer groups. In these groups, peers provide accessible, real-time, and relevant resources to help each other navigate transitions, clarify roles and tasks, manage interpersonal challenges, and decrease isolation. Medical schools can support effective workplace learning for medical students by incorporating continuity with peers in the main clinical clerkship year.

  14. Role of students’ context in predicting academic performance at a medical school: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Thiele, Tamara; Pope, Daniel; Singleton, A; Stanistreet, D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examines associations between medical students’ background characteristics (postcode-based measures of disadvantage, high school attended, sociodemographic characteristics), and academic achievement at a Russell Group University. Design Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting Applicants accepted at the University of Liverpool medical school between 2004 and 2006, finalising their studies between 2010 and 2011. Participants 571 students (with an English home postcode) regi...

  15. Misconceptions Highlighted among Medical Students in the Annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2012-01-01

    The annual Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe. The 8th IMSPQ, in 2010, hosted by the Department of Physiology, University of Malaya, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, had 200 students representing 41…

  16. Integrating Geriatrics into Medical School: Student Journaling as an Innovative Strategy for Evaluating Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Renee R.; Farrell, Timothy W.; Nanda, Aman; Campbell, Susan E.; Wetle, Terrie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the study: The Alpert Medical School of Brown University began to integrate geriatrics content into all preclerkship courses and key clerkship cases as part of a major medical school curriculum redesign in 2006. This study evaluates students' responses to geriatrics integration within the curriculum using journals kept by volunteer…

  17. Specialty Choices at One Medical School: Recent Trends and Analysis of Predictive Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Tracy A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A study investigated the proportions of medical school graduates of the University of California at San Francisco entering personal care and technology-oriented specialties from 1982-1988. For the 1988 cohort, the importance of demographic, medical school, and postgraduate factors were also evaluated as predictors. (Author/MSE)

  18. The Academic Backbone: longitudinal continuities in educational achievement from secondary school and medical school to MRCP(UK) and the specialist register in UK medical students and doctors

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, I.; Woolf, K.; DACRE, J; Paice, E; Dewberry, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Selection of medical students in the UK is still largely based on prior academic achievement, although doubts have been expressed as to whether performance in earlier life is predictive of outcomes later in medical school or post-graduate education. This study analyses data from five longitudinal studies of UK medical students and doctors from the early 1970s until the early 2000s. Two of the studies used the AH5, a group test of general intelligence (that is, intellectual aptitud...

  19. Discrimination against the obese and very thin students in Brazilian schools

    OpenAIRE

    Kubota, Luis Claudio

    2014-01-01

    PeNSE 2012 is a survey conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), in partnership with the Ministry of Health. PeNSE covers a broad range of subjects, especially risk behavior. This article has the aim of analyzing discrimination against obese and very thin students using PeNSE microdata. Data indicate that students that classify themselves as “very fat” or “very thin” are much more prone to risk behaviors like consumption of illicit drugs, alcohol, cigarettes and...

  20. Self-development groups reduce medical school stress: a controlled intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Stordal Kirsten I; Tyssen Reidar; Holm Mari; Haver Brit

    2010-01-01

    Background High stress levels and mental health problems are common among medical students and there is a lack of studies on group interventions that aim to reduce such distress during medical school. Methods A full class of students (n = 129) participated in group sessions during their third year of medical school in Bergen, Norway. The subsequent third-year class (n = 152) acted as control group, in...

  1. Potential advantage of student-run clinics for diversifying a medical school class

    OpenAIRE

    Chris N. Gu; McElroy, Jane A; Corcoran, Blake C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a student-run clinic on the diversification of a medical student class. We distributed a two-page, 20-item, paper survey to students of the University of Missouri School of Medicine (MU SOM) class of 2015 in July of 2011. The survey gathered information on general demographics, opinions on the importance of medical education opportunities, and opinions on the importance of medical school characteristics in applying to and attending MU...

  2. Podcasting as a novel way to communicate with medical school applicants

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Benjamin D.; Bister, Mary K.; Krapec, Joni N.

    2014-01-01

    Podcasting in medical education is becoming more widely used and may be a useful tool for communicating with applicants to medical school. Given recent trends in the popularity of podcasting and mobile media, we created a podcast to communicate more effectively with applicants to our medical school as well as with the broader premedical community. The purpose of this study was to characterize the listening habits and motivations of our audience and compare the podcast’s benefits to those of o...

  3. International electives in the final year of German medical school education – a student's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Agrawal, Mridul; Wahlster, Lara

    2014-01-01

    [english] The final year of medical school has a unique role for introducing students to their future responsibilities and challenges. At many medical schools, electives at an accredited institution abroad are a common part of the student’s final year experience. International electives provide an opportunity for a personal and academic experience that will often create new perspectives on clinical medicine and research, medical education and healthcare policy. In this article the authors ref...

  4. Planning the new medical school library in relation to local and regional information resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D

    1971-04-01

    The first relationship of a new medical school library with local and regional medical libraries is one of dependence. This must change, as the new library grows, to a continuing state of interdependence. To accomplish this, the new library must thoughtfully design its collections and services, and must prepare for an extramural as well as an intramural clientele. Relationships with Regional Medical Library services and with Regional Medical Programs must be carefully planned. So too must be the adoption of EDP and related procedures where future compatability is important. Any new medical school library must have strength, but must never forget the need for true cooperation to give it viability. PMID:5582095

  5. Social Accountability of Medical Schools: Do Accreditation Standards Help Promote the Concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Mohamed Elhassan

    2014-01-01

    The social accountability of medical schools is an emerging concept in medical education. This issue calls for the consideration of societal needs in all aspects of medical programmes, including the values of relevance, quality, cost-effectiveness and equity. Most importantly, these needs must be defined collaboratively with people themselves.…

  6. Replication of a Multidimensional Model of Medical School Similarities. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Charles R.

    In 1976, the Association of American Medical Colleges developed a map-like model to describe the global picture of the U.S. medical school similarities with respect to two loosely defined concepts: an institutional emphasis on research and an emphasis on clinical and graduate medical training. This study is an attempt to replicate the results of…

  7. First aid and basic life support: a questionnaire survey of medical schools in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Hekkert, K.D.; Vugt, A.B. van; Biert, J.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adequate education in first aid and basic life support (BLS) should be considered as an essential aspect of the medical curriculum. The objective of this study was to investigate the current medical training in first aid and BLS at all 8 medical schools in the Netherlands. SUMMARY: An evalu

  8.   Open Source E-learning for Medical Schools in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dørup, Jens; Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simunovic, V.

    2005-01-01

    traffic. On the other hand many medical students use the internet regularly from their homes and there is an increasing knowledge and understanding for the use of IT in medical education both among teachers and students [2,3]. The present project was established to try to help the medical schools in...

  9. What makes a top research medical school? A call for a new model to evaluate academic physicians and medical school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Matthew J; Lunn, Mitchell R; Peng, Lily

    2015-05-01

    Since the publication of the Flexner Report in 1910, the medical education enterprise has undergone many changes to ensure that medical schools meet a minimum standard for the curricula and clinical training they offer students. Although the efforts of the licensing and accrediting bodies have raised the quality of medical education, the educational processes that produce the physicians who provide the best patient care and conduct the best biomedical research have not been identified. Comparative analyses are powerful tools to understand the differences between institutions, but they are challenging to carry out. As a result, the analysis performed by U.S. News & World Report (USN&WR) has become the default tool to compare U.S. medical schools. Medical educators must explore more rigorous and equitable approaches to analyze and understand the performance of medical schools. In particular, a better understanding and more thorough evaluation of the most successful institutions in producing academic physicians with biomedical research careers are needed. In this Perspective, the authors present a new model to evaluate medical schools' production of academic physicians who advance medicine through basic, clinical, translational, and implementation science research. This model is based on relevant and accessible objective criteria that should replace the subjective criteria used in the current USN&WR rankings system. By fostering a national discussion about the most meaningful criteria that should be measured and reported, the authors hope to increase transparency of assessment standards and ultimately improve educational quality. PMID:25607941

  10. What do medical students think about their quality of life? A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Tempski Patricia; Bellodi Patricia L; Paro Helena BMS; Enns Sylvia C; Martins Milton A; Schraiber Lilia B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Medical education can affect medical students’ physical and mental health as well as their quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess medical students’ perceptions of their quality of life and its relationship with medical education. Methods First- to sixth-year students from six Brazilian medical schools were interviewed using focus groups to explore what medical student’s lives are like, factors related to increases and decreases of their quality of life during...

  11. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y. [School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Nyhof-Young, Joyce [Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: Meredith.Giuliani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  12. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  13. Measuring social responsiveness of medical schools: a case study from New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, A

    1999-08-01

    Medical schools can assess their social responsiveness by gauging the degrees to which the health needs of the populations and communities they serve frame their missions and endeavors in education, service, and research. Beyond considering these traditional academic missions, medical schools can also assess how well they apply their expertise to needed reform of the health care delivery system and to the formation of health policies aimed at improving community health status. This article summarizes the means by which a medical school's social responsiveness can be judged in each of the above areas, and it presents examples of successes and failures in such responsiveness by the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. It concludes with lessons learned that can guide future innovations in social responsiveness of medical schools. PMID:10495746

  14. TEAM SPORTS, MARTIAL ARTS AND COMBAT SPORTS AS PREVENTIVE SOCIAL WORK : a Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu based project for school-aged children

    OpenAIRE

    De Oliveira Fernandes, Thiago

    2014-01-01

    The contents of this paper are based in a 17 weeks internship in Icehearts, a NGO which promotes preventive social work for school-aged children through daily activities. In this period, a Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) project was implemented aiming to improve the socio-relational skills, self-confidence, self-concept and self-esteem of specific children. Exposure, observatory, and participatory methods were applied in order to recognize, with Icehearts' educators, four children who could benefit...

  15. Developing the Medical Liaison Role in School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Steven R.; Glaser, Sarah E.; Ouimet, Tia

    2011-01-01

    There is a reciprocal relationship between medical and educational systems; nearly all medical issues for children have educational ramifications and educational settings are ideal for implementing preventative and ameliorative medical strategies. Systemic models of collaboration between medical and educational systems are necessary but not…

  16. Progress in Teaching Physician–Patient Communication in Medical School; Personal Observations and Experience of a Medical Educator

    OpenAIRE

    Shimon Glick

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the enormous progress of Western medicine during the past century there has not be a concomitant rise in the public’s satisfaction with the medical profession. Much of the discontent relates to problems in physician–patient communication. The multiple advantages of good communication have been clearly demonstrated by numerous careful studies. While the past few decades have witnessed much more attention given to teaching communication skills in medical schools, there are a number ...

  17. A model for training medical student innovators: the Harvard Medical School Center for Primary Care Abundance Agents of Change program

    OpenAIRE

    David B. Duong; Sullivan, Erin E.; Myechia Minter-Jordan; Lindsay Giesen; Andrew L. Ellner

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2013, the Harvard Medical School Center for Primary Care established the Abundance Agents of Change (AoC) program to promote interprofessional learning and innovation, increase partnership between 15 academic and community health centers (CHCs) in Boston's most under-served communities, and increase medical student interest in primary care careers. Methods: The AoC is modeled in the form of a ‘grants challenge’, offering $20,000 to interprofessional student teams to develop an ...

  18. Evaluation of doctors' performance as facilitators in basic medical science lecture classes in a new Malaysian medical school

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail S; Salam A; Alattraqchi AG; Annamalai L; Chockalingam A; Elena WP; Rahman NI; Abubakar AR; Haque M

    2015-01-01

    Salwani Ismail,1 Abdus Salam,2 Ahmed G Alattraqchi,1 Lakshmi Annamalai,1 Annamalai Chockalingam,1 Wan Putri Elena,3 Nor Iza A Rahman,1 Abdullahi Rabiu Abubakar,1 Mainul Haque1 1Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 2Department of Medical Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia Background: Dida...

  19. Evaluation of doctors’ performance as facilitators in basic medical science lecture classes in a new Malaysian medical school

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Mainul; Ismail, Salwani; Salam, Abdus; Ghazi Alattraqchi,Ahmed; Annamalai,Lakshmi; Chockalingam, Annamalai; Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; A Rahman,Nor Iza; Abdullahi Rabiu,Abubakar

    2015-01-01

    Salwani Ismail,1 Abdus Salam,2 Ahmed G Alattraqchi,1 Lakshmi Annamalai,1 Annamalai Chockalingam,1 Wan Putri Elena,3 Nor Iza A Rahman,1 Abdullahi Rabiu Abubakar,1 Mainul Haque1 1Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 2Department of Medical Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia Background: Dida...

  20. Transition from glass to digital slide microscopy in the teaching of oral pathology in a Brazilian dental school

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Santos Silva, Alan Roger; Lopes, Márcio Ajudarte; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Vargas, Pablo Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Several medical and dental schools have described their experience in the transition from conventional to digital microscopy in the teaching of general pathology and histology disciplines; however, this transitional process has scarcely been reported in the teaching of oral pathology. Therefore, the objective of the current study is to report the transition from conventional glass slide to virtual microscopy in oral pathology teaching, a unique experience in Latin America. Study D...

  1. Exploring academic leadership in medical schools and universities in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Bikmoradi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background: Medical education in Iran has been integrated into the health care system through a complex organizational change that included the formation of a single government division called the Ministry of Health and Medical Education. This division is responsible for both medical education and health services at the national level, whereas health care at the provincial level is provided by medical universities. Due to this restructuring, medical academic leadership in th...

  2. Factors associated with dropping out of medical school: a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg

    2010-01-01

    of Aarhus; Jan Hartvigsen, PhD, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark.   Title: Factors associated with dropping out of medical school: a literature review.      Background: Considerable resources are spent on medical school selection and the...... competition for places is usually fierce. Dropping out must therefore be the worst possible performance outcome in medical education. What do we know about factors associated with dropping out of medical school? Summary of work: A systematic critical literature review of the international peer......-reviewed research literature on medical education is ongoing. Inclusion criteria are: Study population=medical students, outcome=dropout, follow up period=minimum 1 year, study designs=cohort/case-control/experimental. An experienced research librarian performed a primary search of the databases PubMed, ERIC, Psyc...

  3. Fatores associados ao uso de medicamentos durante a gestação em seis cidades brasileiras Factors related to use of medication during pregnancy in six Brazilian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotero Serrate Mengue

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o uso de medicamentos durante a gravidez, segundo variáveis sócio-demográficas, em gestantes que fizeram o pré-natal em serviços do SUS em seis grandes cidades brasileiras. Utilizando-se um questionário estruturado, foram entrevistadas 5.564 gestantes que se apresentaram para consulta em serviço de pré-natal do SUS, participantes do Estudo Brasileiro de Diabetes Gestacional, entre 1991 e 1995. O uso de qualquer medicamento mostrou uma associação positiva com o aumento da escolaridade, da idade e com o fato de ter companheiro, e uma associação negativa com maior número de filhos. O uso de medicamentos multivitamínicos e medicamentos que atuam sobre o aparelho digestivo mostrou aumento da associação com maior escolaridade e idade e uma associação negativa com o aumento do número de filhos. O uso de medicamentos antianêmicos mostrou uma associação negativa com o aumento da escolaridade e com o aumento da idade. O uso de multivitamínicos e medicamentos que atuam sobre o aparelho digestivo mostrou uma associação com variáveis que caracterizam gestantes de melhor nível sócio-econômico, sugerindo que o uso de medicamentos é uma expressão de cuidado com a gestação.This report aims to compare the use of medication during pregnancy in Brazil according to socio-demographic variables in pregnant women who received prenatal care in Unified National Health System (SUS facilities in six large cities. A structured questionnaire was applied to 5,564 pregnant women who attended prenatal care at SUS facilities, all of whom were participants in the Brazilian Study on Gestational Diabetes (1991-1995. The use of any type of medication presented a positive association with increases in schooling, age, and having a partner, and a negative association with an increase in the number of children. Multivitamin and digestive tract-related drug use showed a positive association with increased schooling and

  4. Playing doctor: Simulation in medical school as affective practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underman, Kelly

    2015-07-01

    Simulated patient encounters, in which a trained layperson role-plays a patient, have become increasingly important in medical education. One such type is the gynecological teaching associate (GTA), who teaches medical students how to perform the pelvic examination using her own body. This paper considers the role that simulation like the GTA session plays in medical students' professional socialization. Drawn from interviews and archival sources gathered from medical students, medical faculty, and GTAs, this paper explores the tensions between artificiality and authenticity in order to understand how, through pedagogical practice, medical students come to embody medical culture through simulation. This paper uses the theoretical framework of the medical habitus to understand the role of emotion in medical student socialization. It argues that simulation is an example of affective practice: any rehearsal of techniques or styles of expressing, experiencing, or managing emotion that reshape the body's capacity to feel. PMID:26022187

  5. Sexual behavior among Brazilian adolescents, National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Maryane Oliveira-Campos; Marília Lavocart Nunes; Fátima Carvalho Madeira; Maria Goreth Santos; Silvia Reise Bregmann; Deborah Carvalho Malta; Luana Giatti; Sandhi Maria Barreto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study describes the sexual behavior among students who participated in the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) 2012 and investigates whether social inequalities, the use of psychoactive substances and the dissemination of information on sexual and reproductive health in school are associated with differences in behavior. METHODOLOGY: The response variable was the sexual behavior described in three categories (never had sexual intercourse, had protected ...

  6. Brazilian adolescents' knowledge and beliefs about abortion methods: A school-based internet inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Ellen; Heumann, Silke; Araujo, Ana; Adesse, Leila; Halpern, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Internet surveys that draw from traditionally generated samples provide the unique conditions to engage adolescents in exploration of sensitive health topics.Methods: We examined awareness of unwanted pregnancy, abortion behaviour, methods, and attitudes toward specific legal indications for abortion via a school-based internet survey among 378 adolescents aged 12-21 years in three Rio de Janeiro public schools.Results: Forty-five percent knew peers who had undergone a...

  7. Bacteriological quality and food safety in a Brazilian school food program

    OpenAIRE

    Samara Nagla Chaves Trindade; Julia Silva Pinheiro; Héllen Gonçalves de Almeida; Keyla Carvalho Pereira; Paulo de Souza Costa Sobrinho

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Food safety is a critical issue in school food program. Objective: This study was conducted to assess the bacteriological quality and food safety practices of a municipal school food program (MSFP) in Jequitinhonha Valley, Brazil. Materials and methods: A checklist based on good manufacturing practices (GMP) for food service was used to evaluate food safety practices. Samples from foods, food contact surfaces, the hands of food handlers, the water supply and the air were collect...

  8. Cost-effectiveness comparison between non-penetrating deep sclerectomy and maximum-tolerated medical therapy for glaucoma within the Brazilian National Health System (SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Paletta Guedes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Non-penetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS has emerged as a viable option in the surgical management of open-angle glaucoma. Our aim is to assess the cost-effectiveness of NPDS and to compare it to maximum medical treatment in a 5-year follow-up. METHODS: A decision analysis model was built. Surgical (NPDS arm of the decision tree was observational (consecutive retrospective case series and maximum medical treatment arm was hypothetical. Maximum medical therapy was considered a three-drug regimen (association of a fixed combination of timolol/dorzolamide [FCTD] and a prostaglandin analogue [bimatoprost, latanoprost or travoprost]. Cost-effectiveness ratio was defined as direct cost (US dollars for each percentage of intraocular pressure (IOP reduction. Horizon was 5 years and perspective is from the public health care service in Brazil (SUS. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was calculated. RESULTS: Direct cost for each percentage of IOP reduction in 5 years (cost-effectiveness ratio was US$ 10.19 for NPDS; US$ 37.45 for the association of a FCTD and bimatoprost; US$ 39.33 for FCTD and travoprost; and US$ 41.42 for FCTD and latanoprost. NPDS demonstrated a better cost-effectiveness ratio, compared to maximum medical therapy. The ICER was negative for all medical treatment options; therefore NPDS was dominant. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some limitations, NPDS was both less costly and more effective than maximum medical therapy. From the Brazilian public health perspective, it was the most cost-effective treatment option when compared to maximum medical therapy (FCTD and prostaglandin.

  9. Use of UKCAT scores in student selection by UK medical schools, 2006-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jane

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT is a set of cognitive tests introduced in 2006, taken annually before application to medical school. The UKCAT is a test of aptitude and not acquired knowledge and as such the results give medical schools a standardised and objective tool that all schools could use to assist their decision making in selection, and so provide a fairer means of choosing future medical students. Selection of students for UK medical schools is usually in three stages: assessment of academic qualifications, assessment of further qualities from the application form submitted via UCAS (Universities and Colleges Admissions Service leading to invitation to interview, and then selection for offer of a place. Medical schools were informed of the psychometric qualities of the UKCAT subtests and given some guidance regarding the interpretation of results. Each school then decided how to use the results within its own selection system. Methods Annual retrospective key informant telephone interviews were conducted with every UKCAT Consortium medical school, using a pre-circulated structured questionnaire. The key points of the interview were transcribed, 'member checked' and a content analysis was undertaken. Results Four equally popular ways of using the test results have emerged, described as Borderline, Factor, Threshold and Rescue methods. Many schools use more than one method, at different stages in their selection process. Schools have used the scores in ways that have sought to improve the fairness of selection and support widening participation. Initially great care was taken not to exclude any applicant on the basis of low UKCAT scores alone but it has been used more as confidence has grown. Conclusions There is considerable variation in how medical schools use UKCAT, so it is important that they clearly inform applicants how the test will be used so they can make best use of their limited number of

  10. Community perceptions of a rural medical school: a pilot qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestel D

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Debra Nestel,1 Katherine Gray,1 Margaret Simmons,1 Shane A Pritchard,1 Rumana Islam,1 Wan Q Eng,1 Adrian Ng,1 Tim Dornan2 1Gippsland Medical School/School of Rural Health, Monash University, Clayton, Australia; 2School of Health Professions Education, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: This paper explores local community perceptions of a relatively new rural medical school. For the purposes of this paper, community engagement is conceptualized as involvement in planning, delivering, and evaluating the medical program. Although there are several reviews of patient involvement in medical curricula development, this study was designed to pilot an approach to exploring the perspectives of well members of the community in the transition of institutional policy on community engagement to one medical school. Methods: An advertisement in the local newspaper invited volunteers to participate in a telephone interview about the new medical school. An independent researcher external to the medical school conducted the interviews using a topic guide. Audio recordings were not made, but detailed notes including verbatim statements were recorded. At least two research team members analyzed interview records for emergent themes. Human research ethics approval was obtained. Results: Twelve interviews were conducted. Participants offered rich imaginings on the role of the school and expectations and opportunities for students. Most participants expressed strong and positive views, especially in addressing long-term health workforce issues. It was considered important that students live, mix, and study in the community. Some participants had very clear ideas about the need of the school to address specified needs, such as indigenous health, obesity, aging, drug and alcohol problems, teenage pregnancy, ethnic diversity, and working with people of low socioeconomic status. Conclusion: This study has initiated a dialogue with potential

  11. Too few, too weak: conflict of interest policies at Canadian medical schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Shnier

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The education of medical students should be based on the best clinical information available, rather than on commercial interests. Previous research looking at university-wide conflict of interest (COI policies used in Canadian medical schools has shown very poor regulation. An analysis of COI policies was undertaken to document the current policy environment in all 17 Canadian medical schools. METHODS: A web search was used to initially locate COI policies supplemented by additional information from the deans of each medical school. Strength of policies was rated on a scale of 0 to 2 in 12 categories and also on the presence of enforcement measures. For each school, we report scores for all 12 categories, enforcement measures, and summative scores. RESULTS: COI policies received summative scores that ranged from 0 to 19, with 0 the lowest possible score obtainable and 24 the maximum. The highest mean scores per category were for disclosure and ghostwriting (0.9 and for gifts and scholarships (0.8. DISCUSSION: This study provides the first comprehensive evaluation of all 17 Canadian medical school-specific COI policies. Our results suggest that the COI policy environment at Canadian medical schools is generally permissive. Policy development is a dynamic process. We therefore encourage all Canadian medical schools to develop restrictive COI policies to ensure that their medical students are educated based on the best clinical evidence available, free of industry biases and COI relationships that may influence the future medical thinking and prescribing practices of medical students in Canada once they graduate.

  12. Learner-Directed Nutrition Content for Medical Schools to Meet LCME Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Hark

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in medical school nutrition education have been noted since the 1960s. Nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, and obesity, are now the most common, costly, and preventable health problems in the US. Training medical students to assess diet and nutritional status and advise patients about a healthy diet, exercise, body weight, smoking, and alcohol consumption are critical to reducing chronic disease risk. Barriers to improving medical school nutrition content include lack of faculty preparation, limited curricular time, and the absence of funding. Several new LCME standards provide important impetus for incorporating nutrition into existing medical school curriculum as self-directed material. Fortunately, with advances in technology, electronic learning platforms, and web-based modules, nutrition can be integrated and assessed across all four years of medical school at minimal costs to medical schools. Medical educators have access to a self-study nutrition textbook, Medical Nutrition and Disease, Nutrition in Medicine© online modules, and the NHLBI Nutrition Curriculum Guide for Training Physicians. This paper outlines how learner-directed nutrition content can be used to meet several US and Canadian LCME accreditation standards. The health of the nation depends upon future physicians’ ability to help their patients make diet and lifestyle changes.

  13. Medical Physics in the new undergraduate curriculum of Spanish medical schools; La Fisica Medica en los nuevos planes de estudio de grado de las facultades de medicina espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibelalde, E.; Calzado, A.; Chevalier, M.

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review of the contents of Medical Physics in the curricula of the new curriculum Grade in Spanish medical schools after the entry into force of that legislation.

  14. Resident Perceptions of Anatomy Education: A Survey of Medical School Alumni from Two Different Anatomy Curricula and Multiple Medical Specialties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Michael A.; Gest, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the University of Michigan Medical School reduced its gross anatomy curriculum. To determine the effect of this reduction on resident perceptions of their clinical preparedness, we surveyed alumni that included residents from the original and new shortened curricula. A Likert-scale survey was sent to four classes of alumni. Respondents…

  15. Impact of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder on School Performance: What are the Effects of Medication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baweja, Raman; Mattison, Richard E; Waxmonsky, James G

    2015-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects an estimated 5-7 % of schoolchildren worldwide. School functioning and academic achievement are frequently impaired by ADHD and represent one of the main reasons children start ADHD medication. Multiple potential causal pathways exist between ADHD and impaired school performance. In this review, we decompose school performance into three components and assess the impact of ADHD and its treatments on academic performance (assessed by grade point average [GPA], time on-task, percentage of work completed as well as percent completed correctly), academic skills (as measured by achievement tests and cognitive measures), and academic enablers (such as study skills, motivation, engagement, classroom behavior and interpersonal skills). Most studies examined only the short-term effects of medication on school performance. In these, ADHD medications have been observed to improve some aspects of school performance, with the largest impact on measures of academic performance such as seatwork productivity and on-task performance. In a subset of children, these benefits may translate into detectable improvements in GPA and achievement testing. However, limited data exists to support whether these changes are sustained over years. Optimizing medication effects requires periodic reassessment of school performance, necessitating a collaborative effort involving patients, parents, school staff and prescribers. Even with systematic reassessment, behavioral-based treatments and additional school-based services may be needed to maximize academic performance for the many youth with ADHD and prominent impairments in school performance. PMID:26259966

  16. A Medical School's Organizational Readiness for Curriculum Change (MORC): Development and Validation of a Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jippes, M.; Driessen, E.W.; Broers, N.J.; Majoor, G.D.; Gijselaers, W.H.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Because successful change implementation depends on organizational readiness for change, the authors developed and assessed the validity of a questionnaire, based on a theoretical model of organizational readiness for change, designed to measure, specifically, a medical school's organizatio

  17. A study of smoking and smoking cessation on the curricula of UK medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Roddy, E; Rubin, P.; Britton, J.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify current practice in teaching on smoking and smoking cessation in UK medical schools, and establish whether newly qualified UK doctors feel prepared to deliver smoking cessation interventions.

  18. Survey of teaching/learning of healthcare-associated infections in UK and Irish medical schools.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, D

    2009-10-01

    All medical doctors have an important role to play in the diagnosis, management and prevention of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). Strengthening the contribution of medical doctors and medical students to HCAI prevention programmes should include measures that enhance knowledge, improve practice and develop appropriate attitudes to the safety and quality of patient care. The Hospital Infection Society (HIS) funded a review of medical education on HCAI throughout medical schools in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. A questionnaire was drafted and circulated to all medical schools and 31 of 38 (82%) responded. The prevalence and transmission of HCAI were taught by 97% and 100% of medical schools, respectively, but the importance of HCAI as a quality and safety issue was covered in only 60% of medical schools. Multiple choice questions (MCQs) and objective structure clinical examinations (OSCEs) were the most popular methods of assessment. Lectures, discussion of cases and practical demonstrations were considered useful by >90% of respondents and online material and log books by 67% and 60%, respectively. More than 80% were willing to share a common pool of educational resources. An agreed curriculum should be developed for educating medical students in HCAI prevention and control, to outline optimum methods for assessment and develop a shared pool of educational resources.

  19. Sociocultural factors in Brazilian neuropsycholinguistic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta Parente

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of Brazilian neuropsychology is traced at different neuropsycholinguistic stages with a focus on the importance of sociocultural factors. We first focus on language disorders, the sequelae of injuries in the left hemisphere, and neuropsychology restricted to the medical field in Europe, the United States, and Brazil. In the middle of the last century, attention to the interdisciplinary importance of studies on the right hemisphere began. Studies consequently emerged on the individual variability of brain function with both biological and cultural origins. Based on this approach, Brazilian studies on aphasic children and illiterate aphasic persons were disseminated internationally. In the 1970s, cognitive neuropsychology began in England, highlighting dysfunctions in reading and writing processes. The characteristics of writing systems within each language became relevant for the manifestations of acquired dyslexia. Brazilian studies showed deficits in Portuguese and Japanese writing caused by brain lesions. During this scientific journey, scientific societies and postgraduate programs in Brazil were created to facilitate exchanges and communication among young researchers. By the end of the last century and in the early 2000s, the growth of the neuropsychology of aging raised awareness of the complexity of sociocultural factors, not only on language research but also according to the level of education, frequency of reading and writing habits, school type, and interactions among these factors and biological factors, especially between the level of education and age. From this historical standpoint, we outline future directions and perspectives in the field of Brazilian neuropsychology.

  20. Medical school dropout - testing at admission versus selection by highest grades as predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta;

    2011-01-01

    Medical Education 2011: 45: 1111-1120 Context  Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of non-grade-based admission testing versus grade-based admission relative to subsequent...... dropout. Methods  This prospective cohort study followed six cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at the University of Southern Denmark during 2002-2007 (n = 1544). Half of the students were admitted based on their prior achievement of highest grades (Strategy 1) and the other half...... years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. Results  Strategy 2 (admission test) students had a lower relative risk for dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.80). Only the admission...

  1. The Use of Professionalism Scenarios in the Medical School Interview Process: Faculty and Interviewee Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Kleshinski, James; Shriner, Constance; Sadik A. Khuder

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of professionalism scenarios on the medical school admissions process from applicant and faculty perspectives. Specifically, do completing professionalism scenarios as part of the medical school interview process have an impact on both the interviewee’s and the faculty’s perception of the process and outcome? Method: Ninety-one faculty interviewed 199 applicants from January 2007 through April 2007 at The University of Toledo Coll...

  2. Executive Functioning and Reading Achievement in School: A study of Brazilian Children Assessed by Their Teachers as Poor Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale M. J. Engel de Abreu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined executive functioning and reading achievement in 106 6- to 8-year-old Brazilian children from a range of social backgrounds of whom approximately half lived below the poverty line. A particular focus was to explore the executive function profile of children whose classroom reading performance was judged below standard by their teachers and who were carefully matched to controls on chronological age, sex, school type (Private or Public, domicile (Salvador/BA or São Paulo/SP, and socioeconomic status. Children completed a battery of 12 executive function tasks that were conceptually tapping cognitive flexibility, working memory, inhibition, and selective attention. Each executive function domain was assessed by several tasks. Principal component analysis extracted four factors that were labeled Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility, Interference Suppression, Selective Attention, and Response Inhibition. Individual differences in executive functioning components made differential contributions to early reading achievement. The Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility factor emerged as the best predictor of reading. Group comparisons on computed factor scores showed that the struggling readers presented limitations in Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility, but not in other executive function components, compared to more skilled readers. These results validate the account that working memory capacity provides a crucial building block for the development of early literacy skills and extends it to a population of early readers of Portuguese from Brazil. The study suggests that deficits in working memory/cognitive flexibility might represent one contributing factor to reading difficulties in early readers which might have important implications for interventions for children at risk of school failure.

  3. Measuring social responsiveness of medical schools: a case study from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisup, N

    1999-08-01

    Thailand has 13 medical schools, one of which is private. Graduates of the 12 government medical schools must provide service in rural areas for three years after graduation. The Chulalongkorn University Faculty of Medicine (Chulalongkorn Medical School) pursues social responsibility in various ways. For example, it has multiple tracks for student admission, includes a curricular track designed to produce doctors for rural areas, has revised curriculum to make it more relevant to social needs, chooses clinical teaching sites with such needs in mind, and works closely with relevant institutions in the government and elsewhere. Until recently, Thai medical schools evaluated their social responsiveness informally. This evaluation has become much more systematic, however, since 1996, when the Ministry of University Affairs issued policies and guidelines for quality assurance in higher education. As a member of the International Working Party for Measuring the Social Accountability of Medical Schools, Chulalongkorn Medical School recently used the social accountability grid to help assess its performance. It found its social responsiveness to be outstanding in the educational domain, fair in the research domain, and good in the service domain. PMID:10495747

  4. Learning contexts at Two UK medical schools: A comparative study using mixed methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Andrew

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The context in which learning takes place exerts a powerful effect on the approach learners take to their work. In some instances learners will be forced by the nature of a task to adopt a less-favoured approach. In this study, we used a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to compare the effect of context on learning at different UK medical schools. We compared schools with conventional, and problem-based curricula. Method We had collected data from 30 interviews with third year medical students in one UK medical school with a conventional, lecture-based curriculum in relation to a previous study. The interview guide had explored effects of context and approach to learning. We used the same guide to interview 6 students in another UK medical school with a problem-based curriculum. We then put together a pack of validated questionnaires, which measured the phenomena that had emerged in the interviews. In particular we selected questionnaires which measured the criteria on which students from the different schools appeared to demonstrate greatest variance. Results There were two areas where students from schools with differing curricula differed - basic learning activity and assessment. Students at the lecture-based school attended lectures where they received information while students at the Problem-based school attended tutorials where they stimulated prior knowledge and identified new learning objectives. Progress -testing at the problem-based school helped students gain a sense of accumulating a body of knowledge needed for their life in medicine while students' at the lecture-based school directed their learning towards passing the next set of exams. The findings from quantitative, questionnaire data correlated with the interview findings. They showed that students at a school with a PBL curriculum scored significantly higher for reflection in learning, self-efficacy in self-directed learning and for

  5. Evaluation of the medical student research programme in Norwegian medical schools. A survey of students and supervisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tømmerås Karin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Student Research Programme is a national education and grant scheme for medical students who wish to carry out research in parallel with their studies. The purpose of the programme is to increase recruitment of people with a standard medical degree to medical research. The Research Programme was established in 2002 and underwent a thorough evaluation during the spring of 2007. The evaluation should investigate if the programme had fulfilled its objectives of increased recruitment to medical research, in addition to the students' and supervisors' satisfaction of the programme, and unwanted differences between the universities. Methods Data was collected from students, supervisors and administrative staff via web-based questionnaires. Information about admission, implementation, results achieved and satisfaction was analysed and compared between the four Norwegian medical schools. In addition, the position of the scheme in relation to the national Quality Reform of Higher Education was analysed. Results At the end of 2006, the Medical Student Research Programme had recruited 265 medical students to research. These consisted of 214 active students, 35 who had completed their studies and only 17 who had dropped out. Both students and supervisors were generally very satisfied with the scheme, including the curriculum, the results achieved and the administrative service. The majority of students wanted to continue their research towards a PhD and, of those who had completed the Medical Student Research Programme, practically all had published one or several scientific papers. The survey showed only small differences between the four medical schools, despite their choice of somewhat different solutions in terms of administration and organisation. The Medical Student Research Programme satisfies the majority of the demands of the Quality Reform, however as an integrated research programme aimed at a PhD it presupposes

  6. Managerial Action and Sensemaking in E-Learning Implementation in Brazilian Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Angilberto Sabino; Bandeira-de-Mello, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    The existing literature on e-learning implementation is either descriptive or normative and falls short on explaining how managers act in introducing and disseminating e-learning projects in school settings. In this paper, we follow a symbolic approach in order to offer a grounded model for explaining how managerial framing of the introduction of…

  7. School Physical Education in the Transition from Solid Modernity to Liquid Modernity: The Brazilian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracht, Valter; Gomes, Ivan Marcelo; de Almeida, Felipe Quintão

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of the contemporary transition from a solid modernity to a liquid modernity for school physical education, according to the metaphors adopted by the Polish sociologist and English resident Zygmunt Bauman. By leveraging Bauman's sociological theory, this article pursues two aims: (1) to examine how physical…

  8. Brazilian primary school teachers' knowledge about immediate management of dental trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo Pithon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of knowledge of primary school teachers in the public school network of Northeastern Brazil with respect to management of dental trauma and its relationship with prognosis. METHODS: A questionnaire was applied to 195 school teachers of public schools in Northeastern Brazil. The questionnaire comprised 12 objective questions about dental trauma and methods for its prevention and management. Data were submitted to chi-square test and Poisson regression test (P > 0.05. RESULTS: Out of the 141 teachers who responded the questionnaires, the majority were women (70.2% and most of them had experienced previous dental accidents involving a child (53.2%. The majority (84.4% had incomplete college education and few were given some training on how to deal with emergency situations during their undergraduate course (13.5% or after it (38.3%. Their level of knowledge about dental trauma and emergency protocols showed that unsatisfactory knowledge level was associated with the male sex: 46% higher for men in comparison to women (P = 0.025. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately half of teachers evaluated had unsatisfactory knowledge about dental trauma and emergency protocols, with female teachers showing more knowledge than men.

  9. Maintaining a Sufficient and Quality Physician Workforce: The Role of For-profit Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Jessica M; Babcock, Blake D; Schwartz, Marshall Z

    2013-01-01

    Currently, in the United States there is a significant physician workforce shortage. This problem is likely to persist as there is no quick solution. The nature of this shortage is complex and involves factors such as an absolute physician shortage, as well as physician shortages in primary care and certain specialty care areas. In addition, there is a misdistribution of physicians to medically underserved areas and populations. The medical education system trains medical school graduates that eventually feed the physician workforce. However, several factors are in place which ultimately limits the effectiveness of this system in providing an appropriate workforce to meet the population demands. For-profit medical schools have been in existence in and around the continental US for many years and some authors have suggested that they may be a major contributor to the physician workforce shortage. There is currently one for-profit medical school in the US, however the majority exist in the Caribbean. The enrollment in and number of these schools have grown to partially meet the ever-growing demand for an increase in medical school graduates and they continue to provide a large number of graduates who return to the US for postgraduate medical training and, ultimately, increase the physician workforce. The question is whether this source will benefit the workforce quality and quantity needs of our growing and aging population. PMID:25114564

  10. Medical Diagnostic Consultation concerning Mental Retardation: An Analogue Study of School Psychologists' Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodrich, David L.; Tarbox, Jennifer; Balles, John; Gorin, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Recent research of relevance to school psychologists suggests that the cause, or etiology, of mental retardation can be established by medical diagnosticians in approximately one-half of cases. In the current study, 109 practicing school psychologists considered a hypothetical case of an elementary student with mental retardation and indicated…

  11. Medical, psychological and pedagogical support of pupils in the sanatorium boarding school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Zhilina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The author substantiates the value of medical, psychological and pedagogical support of the pupils in the boarding school. The aim of the research was to investigate the psychological and pedagogical problems of upbringing and educating of adolescents in sanatorium boarding schools in order to prevent and overcome their multiple dysadaptation.

  12. A Zero-Base Approach to Medical School Planning and Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Thomas J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The University of Michigan Medical School concluded that the traditional budgeting process failed to discriminate adequately among programs. The school developed a new system for managing resources utilizing the principles of zero-base budgeting. The new budget/planning system is described. (Author/MLW)

  13. Prudentia: A Medical School's Solution to Curriculum Mapping and Curriculum Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steketee, Carole

    2015-01-01

    During early accreditation visits by the Australian Medical Council (AMC), staff in the School of Medicine (SoM) were asked to demonstrate how and when AMC student outcome statements were being integrated into the MBBS course. As a result, the School Executive committed to developing a curriculum mapping system (CMS) that could systematically…

  14. Medication-Related Practice Roles: An Ethical and Legal Primer for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Given the prevalence of school-age children and adolescents who are prescribed with and are taking psychotropic medications, a critical issue that school psychologists may likely encounter in contemporary practice is providing both quality and continuity of care to these students in the context of relevant legal and ethical parameters. With a…

  15. Association between Lifestyle and School Attendance in Japanese Medical Students: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Lifestyle factors are thought to be associated with students' academic performance. Whether lifestyle factors were associated with medical students' school attendance was determined. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: The study group consisted of 157 healthy second-year medical students attending Osaka City University Graduate…

  16. Instruction in Research-Related Topics in U.S. and Canadian Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, James R.; Baer, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    A questionnaire developed and mailed to administrators of all accredited U.S., Canadian, and Puerto Rican medical schools, asked for information on courses offered in epidemiology, statistics, evaluation of medical literature, and research design. Future research should evaluate the effectiveness of such courses. (Author/MLW)

  17. Examination of Job Satisfaction of the Medical Vocational High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, Hatice Vatansever; Güney, Burcu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the job satisfaction level of Medical Vocational High School teachers and whether it differs according to different variables. The research was organized in accordance with the screening model. The population of the research was composed of vocational course teachers who worked in Medical Vocational High…

  18. Positive Impact of Integrating Histology and Physiology Teaching at a Medical School in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Renslow; Wan, Yu; Dong, Hongmei; Cooper, Brian; Morgan, Ivy; Peng, Biwen; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lin; Xu, David

    2014-01-01

    To modernize its stagnant, traditional curriculum and pedagogy, the Medical School of Wuhan University in China adopted (with modifications) the University of Chicago's medical curriculum model. The reform effort in basic sciences was integrating histology and physiology into one course, increasing the two subjects' connection to…

  19. Inspiring Careers in STEM and Healthcare Fields through Medical Simulation Embedded in High School Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Louis J.; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L.; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A.; Gordon, James A.; Faux, Russell; Oriol, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school…

  20. Attitudes of Medical School Faculty toward Gifts from the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James W., III; Mainous, Arch G., III

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 248 University of Kentucky medical school faculty investigated attitudes toward American Medical Association policy concerning gifts from the pharmaceutical industry. Faculty generally agreed with the guidelines but felt gifts did not influence prescribing behaviors. PhD faculty favored more prescriptive policy than did MD faculty.…

  1. The evaluation of the relevance of teaching of homeopathy at the medical school

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco José de Freitas; Debora Alves dos Santos Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    Background: In 1912 the Hahnemann Medical Faculty to graduate homeopathic physicians was created. This was one of the courses that originated the present Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro – UNIRIO. Homeopathy in UNIRIO was consolidated during the 80s and 90s through the relationship with other specialties. In 1999, the interface of Homeopathy and the curriculum guidelines of the Brazilian Ministry of Education justified the inclusion of Homeopathy as a compulsory subjec...

  2. Healthy environment — indoor air quality of Brazilian elementary schools nearby petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mitigation of pollution released to the environment originating from the industrial sector has been the aim of all policy-makers and its importance is evident if the adverse health effects on the world population are considered. Although this concern is controversial, petroleum refinery has been linked to some adverse health effects for people living nearby. Apart from home, school is the most important indoor environment for children and there is increasing concern about the school environment and its impact on health, also in developing countries where the prevalence of pollution is higher. As most of the children spend more than 40% of their time in schools, it is critical to evaluate the pollution level in such environment. In the metropolitan region of Curitiba, South Brazil, five schools nearby industries and highways with high density traffic, were selected to characterize the aerosol and gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms, during 2009–2011. Size segregated aerosol samples were collected for analyses of bulk and single particle elemental profiles. They were analyzed by electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPXMA), and by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to investigate the elemental composition of individual particles and bulk samples. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); NO2; SO2; acetic acid; and formic acid were assessed indoor and outdoor using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by GC–MS and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. Individual exposition of BTEX was assessed by personal passive diffusion tubes. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could affect the health of the scholars. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the children's respiratory systems were calculated, revealing the deposition of particles at

  3. Healthy environment — indoor air quality of Brazilian elementary schools nearby petrochemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoi, Ricardo H.M., E-mail: rhmgodoi@ufpr.br [Department of Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Paran UFPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Godoi, Ana F.L.; Gonçalves Junior, Sérgio J.; Paralovo, Sarah L.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Gonçalves Gregório Barbosa, Cybelli; Arantes, Manoela G.; Charello, Renata C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Paran UFPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rosário Filho, Nelson A. [Department of Pediatric, Div. of Allergy and Pneumol, Federal University of Paran Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Grassi, Marco T. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Yamamoto, Carlos I. [Department of Chemistry Engineering, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Rotondo, Giuliana G.; De Wael, Karolien; Grieken, Rene van [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-10-01

    The mitigation of pollution released to the environment originating from the industrial sector has been the aim of all policy-makers and its importance is evident if the adverse health effects on the world population are considered. Although this concern is controversial, petroleum refinery has been linked to some adverse health effects for people living nearby. Apart from home, school is the most important indoor environment for children and there is increasing concern about the school environment and its impact on health, also in developing countries where the prevalence of pollution is higher. As most of the children spend more than 40% of their time in schools, it is critical to evaluate the pollution level in such environment. In the metropolitan region of Curitiba, South Brazil, five schools nearby industries and highways with high density traffic, were selected to characterize the aerosol and gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms, during 2009–2011. Size segregated aerosol samples were collected for analyses of bulk and single particle elemental profiles. They were analyzed by electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPXMA), and by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to investigate the elemental composition of individual particles and bulk samples. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); NO{sub 2}; SO{sub 2}; acetic acid; and formic acid were assessed indoor and outdoor using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by GC–MS and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. Individual exposition of BTEX was assessed by personal passive diffusion tubes. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could affect the health of the scholars. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the children's respiratory systems were calculated, revealing the deposition of

  4. Malaria is associated with poor school performance in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacerda Marcus VG

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 40% of the world's population is at risk for malaria. In highly endemic tropical areas, malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during infancy. There is a complex interrelationship between malaria, malnutrition and intestinal helminths, and this may impair cognitive development in children. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between malaria and school performance in children living in an endemic area where Plasmodium vivax is the species responsible for most of the cases. Methods The study was conducted in the Municipality of Careiro, Amazonas, Brazil, with five to14 year-old children, studying the first eight grades of public school, during the year 2008. After an initial active case detection, during nine months of follow-up, passive malaria cases detection was instituted, through a thick blood smear performed in every child with fever. School performance was evaluated by the final notes in Mathematics and Portuguese Language. Performance was considered poor when either of the final notes in these disciplines was below the 50th percentile for the respective class and grade. Results The total number of students followed-up in the cohort was 198. Malarial attacks were reported in 70 (35.4% of these students, with no cases of severe disease. Plasmodium vivax was detected in 69.2% of the attacks, Plasmodium falciparum in 25.5% and both species in 5.3%. In the multivariate analysis, adjusting for age, mother's education, time living in the study area and school absenteeism, presenting with at least one episode of malaria independently predicted a poor performance at school [OR = 1.91 (1.04-3.54; p = 0.039]. Conclusion Non-severe malaria compromises the school performance of children even during a nine-month follow-up, potentially contributing to the maintenance of underdevelopment in countries endemic for malaria. This is the first evidence of such impact in Latin America, where P

  5. Sir Harry Sinderson Pasha and Iraq's first medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fattal, Sa'ad

    2013-08-01

    During the early twentieth century, the medical status of Mesopotamia, later Iraq, was very bad due to the lack of sanitation and recurrent epidemics and it was rife with endemic diseases including bilharziasis, tuberculosis and malaria. Medical care was poor, with few hospitals and doctors. The condition improved slowly with the return of a few Iraqi doctors who trained outside Iraq, in Turkey, Syria and Lebanon, and with the arrival of British Medical personnel, during and after the First World War, principally Sir Harry Sinderson who was one of the most influential figures in recent Iraqi medical and political history. He had the distinctive role of being one of the founders and the Dean of the first Iraqi medical college. During his service until his retirement in 1946 he achieved, with tireless effort, exceptionally high standards and brought fame and prestige to the new medical college in record time. He attained his goal of training at least 500 local doctors. PMID:24585764

  6. Medical genetics teaching in Iranian medical schools, especially Ahvaz, south of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    MAHDI BIJANZADEH

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Physicians have to visit, diagnose and refer patients with genetic disorders, so they need to be familiar with the basics and indications of genetic tests. In other words, they should have effective theoretical and practical knowledge about medical genetics before they do their job. Medical genetics courses at Medical Universities of Iran are generally presented as a theoretical subject in the first period of medical education. Methods: In this descriptive rese...

  7. Digital dissection system for medical school anatomy training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Carmichael, Stephen W.; Korinek, Mark J.; Schroeder, Kathryn K.; Segovis, Colin M.; Robb, Richard A.

    2003-05-01

    As technology advances, new and innovative ways of viewing and visualizing the human body are developed. Medicine has benefited greatly from imaging modalities that provide ways for us to visualize anatomy that cannot be seen without invasive procedures. As long as medical procedures include invasive operations, students of anatomy will benefit from the cadaveric dissection experience. Teaching proper technique for dissection of human cadavers is a challenging task for anatomy educators. Traditional methods, which have not changed significantly for centuries, include the use of textbooks and pictures to show students what a particular dissection specimen should look like. The ability to properly carry out such highly visual and interactive procedures is significantly constrained by these methods. The student receives a single view and has no idea how the procedure was carried out. The Department of Anatomy at Mayo Medical School recently built a new, state-of-the-art teaching laboratory, including data ports and power sources above each dissection table. This feature allows students to access the Mayo intranet from a computer mounted on each table. The vision of the Department of Anatomy is to replace all paper-based resources in the laboratory (dissection manuals, anatomic atlases, etc.) with a more dynamic medium that will direct students in dissection and in learning human anatomy. Part of that vision includes the use of interactive 3-D visualization technology. The Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic has developed, in collaboration with the Department of Anatomy, a system for the control and capture of high resolution digital photographic sequences which can be used to create 3-D interactive visualizations of specimen dissections. The primary components of the system include a Kodak DC290 digital camera, a motorized controller rig from Kaidan, a PC, and custom software to synchronize and control the components. For each dissection procedure, the

  8. Should Research be Made Compulsory in Medical School?

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Varshil

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare decision-making is mostly reliant on evidence–based medicine. Building and upgrading skills in scientific reasoning and thinking amongst medical students has now became an important part of medical education. But due to unforeseen reasons, medical students in developing countries have no or very little opportunities to develop research skills and become evidence based physician-scientist. Moreover, there is also an alarming decline in the current number of physician-sci...

  9. Should Research be Made Compulsory in Medical School?

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Varshil

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare decision-making is mostly reliant on evidence–based medicine. Building and upgrading skills in scientific reasoning and thinking amongst medical students has now became an important part of medical education. But due to unforeseen reasons, medical students in developing countries have no or very little opportunities to develop research skills and become evidence based physician-scientist. Moreover, there is also an alarming decline in the current...

  10. Comparison of Wound Education in Medical Schools in the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Nima P; Granick, Mark S.; Kanakaris, Nikolaos K.; Giannoudis, Peter V.; Werdin, Frank; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Millions of patients are treated annually in the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany with either acute or chronic wounds. The purpose of this study is to compare how the medical education systems in the United States, Germany, and United Kingdom have prepared their physician trainees to deal with clinical issues of wounds. Methods: A retrospective study was performed in the United States by obtaining medical school curriculum data from the American Association of Medical Col...

  11. Maintaining a Sufficient and Quality Physician Workforce: The Role of For-profit Medical Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Babcock, Jessica M.; Babcock, Blake D.; Schwartz, Marshall Z.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, in the United States there is a significant physician workforce shortage. This problem is likely to persist as there is no quick solution. The nature of this shortage is complex and involves factors such as an absolute physician shortage, as well as physician shortages in primary care and certain specialty care areas. In addition, there is a misdistribution of physicians to medically underserved areas and populations. The medical education system trains medical school graduates tha...

  12. What information is provided in transcripts and Medical Student Performance Records from Canadian Medical Schools? A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Robins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resident selection committees must rely on information provided by medical schools in order to evaluate candidates. However, this information varies between institutions, limiting its value in comparing individuals and fairly assessing their quality. This study investigates what is included in candidates’ documentation, the heterogeneity therein, as well as its objective data. Methods: Samples of recent transcripts and Medical Student Performance Records were anonymised prior to evaluation. Data were then extracted by two independent reviewers blinded to the submitting university, assessing for the presence of pre-selected criteria; disagreement was resolved through consensus. The data were subsequently analysed in multiple subgroups. Results: Inter-rater agreement equalled 92%. Inclusion of important criteria varied by school, ranging from 22.2% inclusion to 70.4%; the mean equalled 47.4%. The frequency of specific criteria was highly variable as well. Only 17.7% of schools provided any basis for comparison of academic performance; the majority detailed only status regarding pass or fail, without any further qualification. Conclusions: Considerable heterogeneity exists in the information provided in official medical school documentation, as well as markedly little objective data. Standardization may be necessary in order to facilitate fair comparison of graduates from different institutions. Implementation of objective data may allow more effective intra- and inter-scholastic comparison.

  13. Sexual behavior among Brazilian adolescents, National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

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    Maryane Oliveira-Campos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study describes the sexual behavior among students who participated in the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012 and investigates whether social inequalities, the use of psychoactive substances and the dissemination of information on sexual and reproductive health in school are associated with differences in behavior. METHODOLOGY: The response variable was the sexual behavior described in three categories (never had sexual intercourse, had protected sexual intercourse, had unprotected sexual intercourse. The explanatory variables were grouped into socio- demographic characteristics, substance use and information on sexual and reproductive health in school. Variables associated with the conduct and unprotected sex were identified through multinomial logistic regression, using "never had sexual intercourse" as a reference. RESULTS: Over nearly a quarter of the adolescents have had sexual intercourse in life, being more frequent among boys. About 25% did not use a condom in the last intercourse. Low maternal education and work increased the chance of risky sexual behavior. Any chance of protected and unprotected sex increased with the number of psychoactive substances used. Among those who don't receive guidance on the prevention of pregnancy in school, the chance to have sexual intercourse increased, with the largest magnitude for unprotected sex (OR = 1.41 and OR = 1.87 . CONCLUSION: The information on preventing pregnancy and STD/AIDS need to be disseminated before the 9th grade. Social inequalities negatively affect risky sexual behavior. Substance use is strongly associated with unprotected sex. Information on the prevention of pregnancy and STD/AIDS need to be disseminated early.

  14. Medical school accreditation in Australia: Issues involved in assessing major changes and new programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Field

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Medical Council (AMC is an independent company for quality assurance and quality improvement in medical education in Australia and New Zealand. Accreditation procedures for the 20 medical schools in these two countries are somewhat different for three different circumstances or stages of school development: existing medical schools, established courses undergoing major changes, and new schools. This paper will outline some issues involved in major changes to existing courses, and new medical school programs. Major changes have included change from a 6 year undergraduate course to a 5 year undergraduate course or 4 year graduate-entry course, introduction of a lateral graduate-entry stream, new domestic site of course delivery, offshore course delivery, joint program between two universities, and major change to curriculum. In the case of a major change assessment, accreditation of the new or revised course may be granted for a period up to two years after the full course has been implemented. In the assessment of proposals for introduction of new medical courses, six issues needing careful consideration have arisen: forward planning, academic staffing, adequate clinical experience, acceptable research program, adequacy of resources, postgraduate training program and employment.

  15. Integrated medical school ultrasound: development of an ultrasound vertical curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Bahner, David P.; Eric J Adkins; Hughes, Daralee; Barrie, Michael; Boulger, Creagh T; Royall, Nelson A

    2013-01-01

    Background Physician-performed focused ultrasonography is a rapidly growing field with numerous clinical applications. Focused ultrasound is a clinically useful tool with relevant applications across most specialties. Ultrasound technology has outpaced the education, necessitating an early introduction to the technology within the medical education system. There are many challenges to integrating ultrasound into medical education including identifying appropriately trained faculty, access to ...

  16. The Prediction of Academic and Clinical Performance in Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Harrison G.; Hall, Wallace B.

    1975-01-01

    A study of medical student performance showed the clinical performance factor more or less unpredictable from aptitude and premedical academic achievement indices while the academic performance factor was forecast with acceptable accuracy by equations based on the Medical College Admissions Test and premedical grade point average. (JT)

  17. Prepared to practice? Perception of career preparation and guidance of recent medical graduates at two campuses of a transnational medical school: a cross-sectional study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kassim, Sameer S; McGowan, Yvonne; McGee, Hannah; Whitford, David L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Graduating medical students enter the workforce with substantial medical knowledge and experience, yet little is known about how well they are prepared for the transition to medical practice in diverse settings. We set out to compare perceptions of medical school graduates' career guidance with their perceptions of preparedness to practice as interns. We also set out to compare perceptions of preparedness for hospital practice between graduates from two transnational medical schoo...

  18. Awareness and attitude regarding human papilloma virus and its vaccine among medical students in a medical school in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagasireesha Challa

    2014-08-01

    Results: Most of the participants know well about the etiology and prevention of cervical cancer but information regarding the dosage, schedule, site and route of administration was lacking in majority of them. Conclusion: The medical students know the association between Human Papilloma Virus and cervical cancer, but the awareness about HPV vaccine was low among study population. Medical schools should modify their curricula to include teaching methods aimed at improving awareness regarding HPV and its vaccine. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1607-1611

  19. A model for training medical student innovators: the Harvard Medical School Center for Primary Care Abundance Agents of Change program

    OpenAIRE

    David B. Duong; Sullivan, Erin E.; Minter-Jordan, Myechia; Giesen, Lindsay; Andrew L. Ellner

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2013, the Harvard Medical School Center for Primary Care established the Abundance Agents of Change (AoC) program to promote interprofessional learning and innovation, increase partnership between 15 academic and community health centers (CHCs) in Boston’s most under-served communities, and increase medical student interest in primary care careers.Methods: The AoC is modeled in the form of a ‘grants challenge’, offering $20,000 to interprofessional student teams to develop an i...

  20. Association of medical students' reports of interactions with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries and medical school policies and characteristics: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S Yeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Professional societies use metrics to evaluate medical schools' policies regarding interactions of students and faculty with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. We compared these metrics and determined which US medical schools' industry interaction policies were associated with student behaviors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using survey responses from a national sample of 1,610 US medical students, we compared their reported industry interactions with their schools' American Medical Student Association (AMSA PharmFree Scorecard and average Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP Conflicts of Interest Policy Database score. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to determine the association between policies and students' gift acceptance, interactions with marketing representatives, and perceived adequacy of faculty-industry separation. We adjusted for year in training, medical school size, and level of US National Institutes of Health (NIH funding. We used LASSO regression models to identify specific policies associated with the outcomes. We found that IMAP and AMSA scores had similar median values (1.75 [interquartile range 1.50-2.00] versus 1.77 [1.50-2.18], adjusted to compare scores on the same scale. Scores on AMSA and IMAP shared policy dimensions were not closely correlated (gift policies, r = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.44; marketing representative access policies, r = 0.51, 95% CI 0.36-0.63. Students from schools with the most stringent industry interaction policies were less likely to report receiving gifts (AMSA score, odds ratio [OR]: 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.72; IMAP score, OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.19-1.04 and less likely to interact with marketing representatives (AMSA score, OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.15-0.69; IMAP score, OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.95 than students from schools with the lowest ranked policy scores. The association became nonsignificant when fully adjusted for NIH funding level, whereas adjusting for year of

  1. Evaluation of doctors' performance as facilitators in basic medical science lecture classes in a new Malaysian medical school

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    Ismail S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salwani Ismail,1 Abdus Salam,2 Ahmed G Alattraqchi,1 Lakshmi Annamalai,1 Annamalai Chockalingam,1 Wan Putri Elena,3 Nor Iza A Rahman,1 Abdullahi Rabiu Abubakar,1 Mainul Haque1 1Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 2Department of Medical Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia Background: Didactic lecture is the oldest and most commonly used method of teaching. In addition, it is considered one of the most efficient ways to disseminate theories, ideas, and facts. Many critics feel that lectures are an obsolete method to use when students need to perform hands-on activities, which is an everyday need in the study of medicine. This study evaluates students' perceptions regarding lecture quality in a new medical school. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted of the medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin. The study population was 468 preclinical medical students from years 1 and 2 of academic year 2012–2013. Data were collected using a validated instrument. There were six different sections of questions using a 5-point Likert scale. The data were then compiled and analyzed, using SPSS version 20. Results: The response rate was 73%. Among 341 respondents, 30% were male and 70% were female. Eighty-five percent of respondents agree or strongly agree that the lectures had met the criteria with regard to organization of lecture materials. Similarly, 97% of students agree or strongly agree that lecturers maintained adequate voices and gestures. Conclusion: Medical students are quite satisfied with the lecture classes and the lectures. However, further research is required to identify student-centered teaching and learning methods to promote active learning. Keywords: lecture, effectiveness, evaluation, undergraduate medical

  2. Back Pain Prevalence and Its Associated Factors in Brazilian Athletes from Public High Schools: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Matias; de Avelar, Ivan Silveira; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Vieira, Marcus Fraga

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the prevalence of back pain have evaluated it in developed countries (Human Development Index-HDI > 0.808), and their conclusions may not hold for developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of back pain in representative Brazilian athletes from public high schools. This cross-sectional study was performed during the state phase of the 2015 Jogos dos Institutos Federais (JIF), or Federal Institutes Games, in Brazil (HDI = 0.744), and it enrolled 251 athletes, 173 males and 78 females (14-20 years old). The dependent variable was back pain, and the independent variables were demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, hereditary, exercise-level, anthropometric, strength, behavioral, and postural factors. The prevalence ratio (PR) was calculated using multivariable analysis according to the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05). The prevalence of back pain in the three months prior to the study was 43.7% (n = 104), and 26% of the athletes reported feeling back pain only once. Multivariable analysis showed that back pain was associated with demographic (sex), psychosocial (loneliness and loss of sleep in the previous year), hereditary (ethnicity, parental back pain), strength (lumbar and hand forces), anthropometric (body mass index), behavioral (sleeping time per night, reading and studying in bed, smoking habits in the previous month), and postural (sitting posture while writing, while on a bench, and while using a computer) variables. Participants who recorded higher levels of lumbar and manual forces reported a lower prevalence of back pain (PR 1.30). In conclusion, there is no association between exercise levels and back pain but there is an association between back pain and non-exercise related variables. PMID:26938456

  3. Executive functioning and reading achievement in school: a study of Brazilian children assessed by their teachers as "poor readers".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M J; Abreu, Neander; Nikaedo, Carolina C; Puglisi, Marina L; Tourinho, Carlos J; Miranda, Mônica C; Befi-Lopes, Debora M; Bueno, Orlando F A; Martin, Romain

    2014-01-01

    This study examined executive functioning and reading achievement in 106 6- to 8-year-old Brazilian children from a range of social backgrounds of whom approximately half lived below the poverty line. A particular focus was to explore the executive function profile of children whose classroom reading performance was judged below standard by their teachers and who were matched to controls on chronological age, sex, school type (private or public), domicile (Salvador/BA or São Paulo/SP) and socioeconomic status. Children completed a battery of 12 executive function tasks that were conceptual tapping cognitive flexibility, working memory, inhibition and selective attention. Each executive function domain was assessed by several tasks. Principal component analysis extracted four factors that were labeled "Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility," "Interference Suppression," "Selective Attention," and "Response Inhibition." Individual differences in executive functioning components made differential contributions to early reading achievement. The Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility factor emerged as the best predictor of reading. Group comparisons on computed factor scores showed that struggling readers displayed limitations in Working Memory/Cognitive Flexibility, but not in other executive function components, compared to more skilled readers. These results validate the account that working memory capacity provides a crucial building block for the development of early literacy skills and extends it to a population of early readers of Portuguese from Brazil. The study suggests that deficits in working memory/cognitive flexibility might represent one contributing factor to reading difficulties in early readers. This might have important implications for how educators might intervene with children at risk of academic under achievement. PMID:24959155

  4. The introduction of a medical informatics course into a medical school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Fulfilling the need for a course in medical informatics to be taught to medical students requires an effort on the part of the teaching faculty and administration. Creators of the curriculum must take into account contemporary pedagogical trends and the direction of medical education. Producing a course of study requires a firm conviction that practicing medicine in the 21st century demands currency, accuracy, and literacy with the available information sources. PMID:21271454

  5. Learning resources in a medical school--the evolution of an innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessell, G

    1990-10-01

    Resources to support self-study have been provided in the Medical School of the University of Aberdeen for the past 15 years. The initial impetus to this provision was given when a project--the Postgraduate Teaching Project--was set up in 1974 to develop programmes for medical postgraduates studying the Membership Examinations of the Royal College of Physicians. The success of the project resulted in a widening of its remit to undergraduate medical education. This led, in turn, to the formation, in 1978, of the Medical Learning Resources Group and the construction of a designated Learning Resources Area in the Medical School Library. Use of resources is continuously monitored and the resources themselves are regularly revised and updated. PMID:2077063

  6. Prevalência de TDAH em quatro escolas públicas brasileiras ADHD prevalence in four brazilian plublic schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane da Silva Fontana

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de transtorno de déficit de atenção/hiperatividade (TDAH em crianças de quatro escolas públicas brasileiras. MÉTODO: Estudo de prevalência. A população consistiu em todos os alunos de 1ª à 4ª séries do ensino fundamental com idades entre 6 e 12 anos de quatro escolas públicas (CIEPs. Na primeira etapa do estudo, os professores efetuaram triagem para TDAH utilizando os critérios diagnósticos do Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais - IV Edição (DSM-IV. A triagem resultou em dois grupos de crianças: suspeitos e não suspeitos. Na segunda etapa, os pais das crianças suspeitas foram convidados a comparecerem à escola para entrevista com os pesquisadores e preenchimento dos critérios diagnósticos de TDAH, anamnese e exame físico pediátrico e neurológico. Ao final desta etapa, as crianças foram classificadas em "casos" de TDAH e crianças "indeterminadas" (crianças que preenchiam parcialmente os critérios diagnósticos. RESULTADOS: De uma população de 602 alunos, 461 fizeram parte do estudo. A prevalência de TDAH considerando o conjunto das 4 escolas foi 13%. A proporção masculino: feminino foi 2:1. O subtipo de TDAH mais freqüente foi o misto com 61,7% dos casos. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de TDAH nestes escolares brasileiros (13% é mais elevada que a prevalência tradicionalmente mencionada (3-5%. O sexo masculino foi mais acometido que o feminino e o subtipo de TDAH mais prevalente foi o misto, ambos de acordo com estudos anteriores.OBJECTIVE: To define the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children from four Brazilian public elementary schools. METHOD: Study population consisted of all students from the first through fourth grades, age range 6-12 years, who attended four public elementary schools (CIEPs. This prevalence study comprised two steps. During the first step, school teachers screened their own pupils for ADHD using

  7. Attitude and perception of urology by medical students at the end of their medical school: An appraisal from Saudi Arabia

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    Saleh Binsaleh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Knowledge of medical school graduates is insufficient in many urologic subjects, and there is a need for more urology exposure. Social reasons and lack of knowledge about urology hinder the choice of urology specialty as a future career. Clearance of learning objectives, immediate and prompt feedback on performance and adequate emphasis of common problems and ambulatory care are some aspects that should be taken into account by curriculum planners as they consider improvements to urology rotation program.

  8. Learning to use learning resources during medical school and residency*

    OpenAIRE

    Shershneva, Marianna B.; Slotnick, Henry B.; Mejicano, George C

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study (1) examined the natural history of learning to use learning resources by medical students and residents and (2) considered whether that history is consistent with the ways in which physicians approach their learning tasks.

  9. International Workshop and Summer School on Medical and Service Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Bouri, Mohamed; Mondada, Francesco; Pisla, Doina; Rodic, Aleksandar; Helmer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Medical and Service Robotics integrate the most recent achievements in mechanics, mechatronics, computer science, haptic and teleoperation devices together with adaptive control algorithms. The book  includes topics such as surgery robotics, assist devices, rehabilitation technology, surgical instrumentation and Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) as examples for medical robotics. Autonomous cleaning, tending, logistics, surveying and rescue robots, and elderly and healthcare robots are typical examples of topics from service robotics. This is the Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Medical and Service Robots, held in Lausanne, Switzerland in 2014. It presents an overview of current research directions and fields of interest. It is divided into three sections, namely 1) assistive and rehabilitation devices; 2) surgical robotics; and 3) educational and service robotics. Most contributions are strongly anchored on collaborations between technical and medical actors, engineers, surgeons and clinicians....

  10. Offshore Medical Schools Are Buying Clinical Clerkships in U.S. Hospitals: The Problem and Potential Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Edward C; Goldberg, Robert B

    2016-05-01

    U.S. medical education faces a threat from for-profit Caribbean medical schools which purchase clinical rotation slots for their students at U.S. hospitals. These offshore schools are monetizing a system that was previously characterized as a duty-the duty of the current generation of physicians to educate their successors. Offshore schools purchase clinical rotation slots using funds largely derived from federally subsidized student loans. This leads to pressure on U.S. schools to pay for clinical clerkships and is forcing some of them to find new clinical training sites.For-profit Caribbean schools largely escape the type of scrutiny that U.S. schools face from U.S. national accreditation organizations. They also enroll large classes of students with lower undergraduate GPAs and Medical College Admission Test scores than those of students at U.S. medical schools; their students take and pass Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination at a substantially lower rate than that of U.S. medical students; and their students match for residencies at a fraction of the rate of U.S. medical school graduates.Among the potential solutions proposed by the authors are passing laws to hold for-profit Caribbean schools to standards for board passage rates, placing restrictions on federal student loans, monitoring attrition rates, and denying offshore schools access to U.S. clinical training sites unless they meet accreditation standards equivalent to those of U.S. medical schools. PMID:26910896

  11. Bacteriological quality and food safety in a Brazilian school food program

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    Samara Nagla Chaves Trindade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Food safety is a critical issue in school food program. Objective: This study was conducted to assess the bacteriological quality and food safety practices of a municipal school food program (MSFP in Jequitinhonha Valley, Brazil. Materials and methods: A checklist based on good manufacturing practices (GMP for food service was used to evaluate food safety practices. Samples from foods, food contact surfaces, the hands of food handlers, the water supply and the air were collected to assess bacteriological quality in establishments that comprise the MSFP. Results: Nine (81.8% establishments were classified as poor quality and two (18.2% as medium quality. Neither Salmonella nor Listeria monocytogenes were detected in food samples. Coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in 36 (52.9%, 1 (1.5% and 22 (32.4% of the food samples and in 24 (40.7%, 2 (3.3% and 13 (22.0% of the food contact surfaces, respectively. The counts of coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus ranged from 1 to 5.0 and 1 to 5.1 log CFU/g of food, respectively. The mean aerobic mesophilic bacteria count was 3.1 log CFU/100 cm² of surface area. Coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus were detected on the hands of 33 (73.3%, 1 (2.2% and 36 (80% food handlers, respectively. With regard to air quality, all the establishments had an average aerobic mesophilic count above 1.6 log CFU/cm²/week. Conclusions: The results indicate the need to modify the GMP used in food service in MSFP in relation to food safety, particularly because children served in these establishments are often the most socially vulnerable.

  12. Patient safety education at Japanese medical schools: results of a nationwide survey

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    Maeda Shoichi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety education, including error prevention strategies and management of adverse events, has become a topic of worldwide concern. The importance of the patient safety is also recognized in Japan following two serious medical accidents in 1999. Furthermore, educational curriculum guideline revisions in 2008 by relevant the Ministry of Education includes patient safety as part of the core medical curriculum. However, little is known about the patient safety education in Japanese medical schools partly because a comprehensive study has not yet been conducted in this field. Therefore, we have conducted a nationwide survey in order to clarify the current status of patient safety education at medical schools in Japan. Results Response rate was 60.0% (n = 48/80. Ninety-eight-percent of respondents (n = 47/48 reported integration of patient safety education into their curricula. Thirty-nine percent reported devoting less than five hours to the topic. All schools that teach patient safety reported use of lecture based teaching methods while few used alternative methods, such as role-playing or in-hospital training. Topics related to medical error theory and legal ramifications of error are widely taught while practical topics related to error analysis such as root cause analysis are less often covered. Conclusions Based on responses to our survey, most Japanese medical schools have incorporated the topic of patient safety into their curricula. However, the number of hours devoted to the patient safety education is far from the sufficient level with forty percent of medical schools that devote five hours or less to it. In addition, most medical schools employ only the lecture based learning, lacking diversity in teaching methods. Although most medical schools cover basic error theory, error analysis is taught at fewer schools. We still need to make improvements to our medical safety curricula. We believe that this

  13. Psychiatric morbidity among medical in-patients: a standardized assessment (GHQ-12 and CIS-R) using 'lay' interviewers in a Brazilian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botega, N J; Pereira, W A; Bio, M R; Garcia Júnior, C; Zomignani, M A

    1995-05-01

    The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R) were used to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among 78 consecutive admissions to a general medical ward in a Brazilian university hospital (43 males and 35 females; mean age = 43.2 years). The CIS-R was administered by three 5th-year medical students after a brief training. A prevalence rate of 36% was found for psychiatric disorders. The most frequent symptoms were sleep disorders (48.7%), worry (35.9%), depression (28.2%) and anxiety (26.9%). The sensitivity and specificity of the GHQ-12 were 71% and 76%, respectively. The CIS-R was simple to administer and acceptable both to patients and interviewers. Misunderstanding was most likely to occur with the poorly educated (20% were illiterate) in questions involving time calculation. Alternative options might be used to specify the length of time in future studies. The findings support the feasibility of the CIS-R and the use of 'lay' interviewers to produce epidemiological information on psychiatric disorders in developing countries at lower costs. PMID:7624806

  14. Medical Students and Abortion: Reconciling Personal Beliefs and Professional Roles at One Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dans, Peter E.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of first- and fourth-year Johns Hopkins University (Maryland) medical students found little change in attitudes about abortion over four years. Attitudes correlated most strongly with personal beliefs about when a fetus is considered human life and somewhat with student gender. Results are used in a medical ethics course to illuminate…

  15. Teaching medical students about children with disabilities in a rural setting in a school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Mal

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe and implement a community paediatric placement in a school setting that teaches undergraduate medical students about intellectual disability that provides benefit to the community and is acceptable to both students and teachers. Methods Twenty six 4th year undergraduate medical students of the University of Newcastle completed their Paediatric studies based in Tamworth in 2004 & 2005 including an 8 week placement at Bullimbal School for Specific Purposes. The placement involved the students being actively involved in assisting with the delivery of a variety of activities aimed at improving the motor skills of a group of disabled children. De-identified data were obtained from completed evaluation surveys from 75% (21 of 26 of the medical students and from 100% (5 of 5 of the teachers. Results All students and teachers found the placement was acceptable and enjoyed the placement and felt that it gave the medical students a greater understanding of children with disabilities. 80% (4 of 5 of the teachers involved in the program did not feel that its implementation added to their workload and all were enthusiastic to continue with the program. Conclusion Medical students can be effectively taught and have a valuable clinical experience in a school setting to learn about children with a disability. This educational innovation has provided a mutual benefit for both the medical students and the school children who participated in the program without impacting on the workloads of teachers.

  16. Rational use of water: interdisciplinary actions in a rural school in the Brazilian semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Taiusky Ferreira Santos Brito

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, terms such as "drought industry" and "drought polygon" are constantly used in reference to the semiarid region of the country. Besides climatic factors and political and infrastructural issues, there is a consensus that the best way to deal with water scarcity is its rational use. While offering to contribute to the development of farmers’ communities in this region, the project "Citizen Universities", in partnership with the project "Space of Water", developed strategies involving the interdisciplinary rational management and conservation of hydric resources, to include knowledge and specific technologies in cooperation with the faculty and students of a rural public school in the Community of Uruçu, Gurinhém, PB. Progress can be seen in the practical applications of the project in the community and surrounding areas, such as forming teams to collect trash and the cleaning up of springs, and the inclusion of issues related to water together with the mandatory curriculum, in the expectation that students can apply the academic issues to their everyday life.

  17. Assessing task importance and anxiety in medical school: an instrument development and initial validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Henry L; Dong, Ting; Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R

    2015-04-01

    Recent research in medical education suggests that students' motivational beliefs, such as their beliefs about the importance of a task, and their emotions are meaningful predictors of learning and performance. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a self-report measure of "task importance" and "anxiety" in relation to several medical education competencies and to collect validity evidence for the new measures. The secondary purpose was to evaluate differences in these measures by year of medical school. Exploratory factor analysis of scores from 368 medical school students suggested two task importance factors and three anxiety factors. The task importance and anxiety subscales were weakly related to each other and exhibited consistently negative and positive correlations, respectively, with three self-efficacy subscales. The task importance subscales were positively related to "metacognition," whereas "interpersonal skills anxiety" and "health knowledge anxiety" were positively related to "procrastination." All three anxiety factors were positively related to "avoidance of help seeking," whereas "interpersonal skills and professionalism importance" was negatively related to help avoidance behaviors. Finally, comparisons across the 4 years of medical school indicated that some aspects of task importance and anxiety varied significantly. Overall, findings from this study provide validity evidence for the psychometric quality of these scales, which capture task importance and anxiety in medical students. Limitations and implications for medical education research are discussed. PMID:25850124

  18. A model for selecting assessment methods for evaluating medical students in African medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walubo, Andrew; Burch, Vanessa; Parmar, Paresh; Raidoo, Deshandra; Cassimjee, Mariam; Onia, Rudy; Ofei, Francis

    2003-09-01

    Introduction of more effective and standardized assessment methods for testing students' performance in Africa's medical institutions has been hampered by severe financial and personnel shortages. Nevertheless, some African institutions have recognized the problem and are now revising their medical curricula, and, therefore, their assessment methods. These institutions, and those yet to come, need guidance on selecting assessment methods so as to adopt models that can be sustained locally. The authors provide a model for selecting assessment methods for testing medical students' performance in African medical institutions. The model systematically evaluates factors that influence implementation of an assessment method. Six commonly used methods (the essay examinations, short-answer questions, multiple-choice questions, patient-based clinical examination, problem-based oral examination [POE], and objective structured clinical examination) are evaluated by scoring and weighting against performance, cost, suitability, and safety factors. In the model, the highest score identifies the most appropriate method. Selection of an assessment method is illustrated using two institutional models, one depicting an ideal situation in which the objective structured clinical examination was preferred, and a second depicting the typical African scenario in which the essay and short-answer-question examinations were best. The POE method received the highest score and could be recommended as the most appropriate for Africa's medical institutions, but POE assessments require changing the medical curricula to a problem-based learning approach. The authors' model is easy to understand and promotes change in the medical curriculum and method of student assessment. PMID:14507620

  19. Reducing corruption in a Mexican medical school: impact assessment across two cross-sectional surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Corruption pervades educational and other institutions worldwide and medical schools are not exempt. Empirical evidence about levels and types of corruption in medical schools is sparse. We conducted surveys in 2000 and 2007 in the medical school of the Autonomous University of Guerrero in Mexico to document student perceptions and experience of corruption and to support the medical school to take actions to tackle corruption. Methods In both 2000 and 2007 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire in the classroom without the teacher present. The questionnaire asked about unofficial payments for admission to medical school, for passing an examination and for administrative procedures. We examined factors related to the experience of corruption in multivariate analysis. Focus groups of students discussed the quantitative findings. Results In 2000, 6% of 725 responding students had paid unofficially to obtain entry into the medical school; this proportion fell to 1.6% of the 436 respondents in 2007. In 2000, 15% of students reported having paid a bribe to pass an examination, not significantly different from the 18% who reported this in 2007. In 2007, students were significantly more likely to have bribed a teacher to pass an examination if they were in the fourth year, if they had been subjected to sexual harassment or political pressure, and if they had been in the university for five years or more. Students resented the need to make unofficial payments and suggested tackling the problem by disciplining corrupt teachers. The university administration made several changes to the system of admissions and examinations in the medical school, based on the findings of the 2000 survey. Conclusion The fall in the rate of bribery to enter the medical school was probably the result of the new admissions system instituted after the first survey. Further actions will be necessary to tackle the continuing presence of bribery to pass examinations

  20. Views of junior doctors about whether their medical school prepared them well for work: questionnaire surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Kathryn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transition from medical student to junior doctor in postgraduate training is a critical stage in career progression. We report junior doctors' views about the extent to which their medical school prepared them for their work in clinical practice. Methods Postal questionnaires were used to survey the medical graduates of 1999, 2000, 2002 and 2005, from all UK medical schools, one year after graduation, and graduates of 2000, 2002 and 2005 three years after graduation. Summary statistics, chi-squared tests, and binary logistic regression were used to analyse the results. The main outcome measure was the level of agreement that medical school had prepared the responder well for work. Results Response rate was 63.7% (11610/18216 in year one and 60.2% (8427/13997 in year three. One year after graduation, 36.3% (95% CI: 34.6, 38.0 of 1999/2000 graduates, 50.3% (48.5, 52.2 of 2002 graduates, and 58.2% (56.5, 59.9 of 2005 graduates agreed their medical school had prepared them well. Conversely, in year three agreement fell from 48.9% (47.1, 50.7 to 38.0% (36.0, 40.0 to 28.0% (26.2, 29.7. Combining cohorts at year one, percentages who agreed that they had been well prepared ranged from 82% (95% CI: 79-87 at the medical school with the highest level of agreement to 30% (25-35 at the lowest. At year three the range was 70% to 27%. Ethnicity and sex were partial predictors of doctors' level of agreement; following adjustment for them, substantial differences between schools remained. In years one and three, 30% and 34% of doctors specified that feeling unprepared had been a serious or medium-sized problem for them (only 3% in each year regarded it as serious. Conclusions The vast knowledge base of clinical practice makes full preparation impossible. Our statement about feeling prepared is simple yet discriminating and identified some substantial differences between medical schools. Medical schools need feedback from graduates about

  1. Reducing corruption in a Mexican medical school: impact assessment across two cross-sectional surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes-Solís Sergio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corruption pervades educational and other institutions worldwide and medical schools are not exempt. Empirical evidence about levels and types of corruption in medical schools is sparse. We conducted surveys in 2000 and 2007 in the medical school of the Autonomous University of Guerrero in Mexico to document student perceptions and experience of corruption and to support the medical school to take actions to tackle corruption. Methods In both 2000 and 2007 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire in the classroom without the teacher present. The questionnaire asked about unofficial payments for admission to medical school, for passing an examination and for administrative procedures. We examined factors related to the experience of corruption in multivariate analysis. Focus groups of students discussed the quantitative findings. Results In 2000, 6% of 725 responding students had paid unofficially to obtain entry into the medical school; this proportion fell to 1.6% of the 436 respondents in 2007. In 2000, 15% of students reported having paid a bribe to pass an examination, not significantly different from the 18% who reported this in 2007. In 2007, students were significantly more likely to have bribed a teacher to pass an examination if they were in the fourth year, if they had been subjected to sexual harassment or political pressure, and if they had been in the university for five years or more. Students resented the need to make unofficial payments and suggested tackling the problem by disciplining corrupt teachers. The university administration made several changes to the system of admissions and examinations in the medical school, based on the findings of the 2000 survey. Conclusion The fall in the rate of bribery to enter the medical school was probably the result of the new admissions system instituted after the first survey. Further actions will be necessary to tackle the continuing presence of

  2. Teaching Pharmacology at a Nepalese Medical School: The Student Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar PR, ,

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundKIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal conducts problem-basedpharmacology learning during small-group practical sessions.The present study was carried out to obtain student feedbackregarding the sessions and suggestions for improvement.MethodThe questionnaire-based study was carried out among firstyear medical students during July 2009. Respondents wereenrolled after explaining the aims and objectives of the studyand obtaining written, informed consent. Basic demographicinformation and student agreement with a set of 30statements using a modified Likert-type scale was noted.ResultsSixty-four of the 75 students (86% participated. The mediantotal score was 107 (maximum score 150 and was higheramong males, students from within the Kathmandu valley andself-financing students. The differences were not statisticallysignificant. The suggestions for improvement were improvingthe physical infrastructure of the lab and providing more timefor the practical exercises.ConclusionStudent opinion was favourable. The findings would be ofinterest to medical educators especially in developingcountries.

  3. Recording and podcasting of lectures for students of medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Pierre; Cuggia, Marc; Le Beux, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) becomes an important way for the knowledge transmission, especially in the field of medicine. Podcasting (mobile broadcast content) has recently emerged as an efficient tool for distributing information towards professionals, especially for e-learning contents.The goal of this work is to implement software and hardware tools for collecting medical lectures at its source by direct recording (halls and classrooms) and provide the automatic delivery of these resources for students on different type of devices (computer, smartphone or videogames console). We describe the overall architecture and the methods used by medical students to master this technology in their daily activities. We highlight the benefits and the limits of the Podcast technologies for medical education. PMID:21893751

  4. Comparison of A level and UKCAT performance in students applying to UK medical and dental schools in 2006: cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    James, David; Yates, Janet; Nicholson, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) adds value to the selection process for school leaver applicants to medical and dental school, and in particular whether UKCAT can reduce the socioeconomic bias known to affect A levels. Design Cohort study Setting Applicants to 23 UK medical and dental schools in 2006. Participants 9884 applicants who took the UKCAT in the UK and who achieved at least three passes at A level in their school leaving examinations (53% of all...

  5. Medical School Hotline: The Evolution of the Japanese Medical Education System: A Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Yamashita, Miu; Yee, Keolamau; Kurahara, David

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese Medical Education system has been influenced by political events throughout the country's history. From long periods of isolation from the western world to the effect of world wars, Japan's training system for physicians has had to adapt in many ways and will continue to change. The Japanese medical education system was recently compared to the “Galapagos Islands” for its unusual and singular evolution, in a speech by visiting professor Dr. Gordon L. Noel at the University of Tok...

  6. Coordinating the undergraduate medical (MBBS) basic sciences programme in a Nepalese medical school

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar PR

    2011-01-01

    KIST Medical College follows the curriculum of the Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University. The programme aims to produce socially responsible and competent physicians who are willing and able to meet the existing and emerging challenges of the national and international healthcare system. The first cohort of undergraduate medical students (MBBS) students was admitted in November 2008 and three cohorts including the one admitted in 2008 have been admitted at the time of writing. The basic...

  7. Biometrics in the Medical School Curriculum: Making the Necessary Relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James R.

    1980-01-01

    Because a student is more likely to learn and retain course content perceived as relevant, an attempt was made to change medical students' perceptions of a biometrics course by introducing statistical methods as a means of solving problems in the interpretation of clinical lab data. Retrospective analysis of student course evaluations indicates a…

  8. Choice and Social Class of Medical School Students in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianou-Kyrgiou, Eleni; Tsiplakides, Iakovos

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of literature focuses on choice of studies in the context of policies on widening participation in higher education and graduates' difficulties in the labour market. Drawing on research findings showing a relationship between social class and choice of studies, we conducted a qualitative study on first-year medical students in a…

  9. Do Clinical Breast Examination Skills Improve During Medical School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karen C.; Dunlop, Dorothy; Dolan, Nancy C.

    1998-01-01

    A study assessed the effect of training stage, gender, and specialty interest on 493 Northwestern University (Illinois) medical students' breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and clinical breast examination skills. Results suggest knowledge and attitudes are not related to clinical breast examination proficiency, which is a practiced tactile skill.…

  10. Do students learn to be more conscientious at medical school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaytor Andrew T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professionalism in medical students is not only difficult to define but difficult to teach and measure. As negative behaviour in medical students is associated with post-graduate disciplinary action it would be useful to have a model whereby unprofessional behaviour at the undergraduate level can easily be identified to permit appropriate intervention. We have previously developed a scalar measure of conscientiousness, the Conscientiousness Index (CI, which positively correlates to estimates of professional behaviour in undergraduate medical students. By comparing CI points awarded in year 1 and year 2 of study we were able to use the CI model to determine whether teaching and clinical exposure had any effect on students’ conscientiousness. Methods CI points were collected by administrative staff from 3 successive cohorts of students in years 1 and 2 of study. Points were awarded to students for activities such as submission of immunisation status and criminal record checks, submission of summative assignments by a specified date and attendance at compulsory teaching sessions. CI points were then converted to a percentage of maximal possible scores (CI % to permit direct comparison between years 1 and 2 of study. Results CI % scores were generally high with each year of study for each cohort showing negatively skewed normal distributions with peaks > 89%. There was a high degree of correlation of CI % scores between year 1 and year 2 of study for each cohort alone and when cohort data was combined. When the change in CI % from year 1 to year 2 for all students was compared there was no significant difference in conscientiousness observed. Conclusions We have provided evidence that use of a CI model in undergraduate medical students provides a reliable measure of conscientiousness that is easy to implement. Importantly this study shows that measurement of conscientiousness by the CI model in medical students does not change

  11. Stressbelastung von Medizinstudierenden messen: Übersetzung des „Perceived Medical School Stress Instruments“ in die deutsche Sprache [Measurement of specific medical school stress: translation of the “Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument” to the German language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltmer, Edgar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Objective: Medical students encounter specific stressors during their studies. As a result, they develop anxiety, depression and burnout symptoms more frequently than their similarly aged, but employed counterparts. In 1984, Vitaliano et al. published a 13-item instrument for the measurement of stress specific to medical school: the “Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument“ (PMSS. Since then, it has been widely applied and validated in English-speaking countries. No German version of the PMSS exists to date. Thus, our aim was to translate the instrument into the German language in order to be able to measure medical school stress in German-speaking countries.Method: The items of the PMSS were translated into German by three separate researchers. The resulting translations were compared and combined with each other to establish a first German version of each item in the PMSS. These items were then translated back into English by two native English speakers to validate the correct primary translation. Based on a revised German version, a cognitive debriefing with 19 German medical students and a theoretical testing on 169 German medical students, the final German translations for each of the 13 items were determined.Results: The PMSS was easily translated into German and there was a high congruency between the primary translations into German and the secondary translations back into English. Incongruities between the translations were solved quickly. The assessment of the German equivalent of the PMSS showed good results regarding its reliability (Cronbach’s Alpha 0.81.Conclusion: A German version of the PMSS is now available for measuring the medical school related stress in German-speaking countries.[german] Zielsetzung: Medizinstudierende sind spezifischen Stressoren ausgesetzt. Als Folge der Stressbelastung kommt es bei Medizinstudierenden im Vergleich zu gleichaltrigen Berufstätigen häufiger zu Ängsten, Depressionen und

  12. Políticas educacionais e desempenho escolar nas capitais brasileiras Educational policies and school performance in the Brazilian capitals of states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Alves

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investiga a associação das políticas públicas sobre o desempenho das redes de ensino das capitais brasileiras a partir dos dados relativos ao rendimento de alunos da 4ª série do ensino fundamental, aferidos pelo Sistema de Avaliação da Educação Básica nos anos 1999, 2001 e 2003. A investigação fez uso de modelos multiníveis de classificação cruzada para dar conta da relação entre o rendimento de alunos, redes de ensino e anos em que foi feita a avaliação, e implementou controles pelo nível socioeconômico dos alunos e pela composição social das redes de ensino. Os resultados apontam que as políticas educacionais associadas a melhor desempenho dos estudantes das redes de ensino das capitais brasileiras são aquelas relacionadas aos processos de escolha meritocrática de diretores, à autonomia financeira, à implementação de sistemas de avaliação, ao atendimento em educação infantil e à formação superior de docentes. Conseqüências para a formulação da agenda das políticas educacionais são apresentadas.On the basis of data from the Brazilian National Assessment of Basic Education, this paper investigates, in the set of schools attached to each local authority within the capital of Brazilian states, the association of educational policies and 4th grade students' school performances, during the period of 1999-2003. Multilevel cross-classified models were used in order to take into account the structure of the data (students' performance, set of schools and assessment years. Also, the analysis included statistical control for students' socioeconomic levels and for their social composition within the set of schools under the administration of each local authority. The results indicate that merit-based processes for appointing principals, financial autonomy of schools, external assessment of schools, offer of pre-schools' enrollments, and a higher percentage of teachers with more than a high school

  13. Die Bibliothek der Medizinischen Hochschule Hannover / The Hannover Medical School library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss, Christiane

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hannover Medical School library was initially the only source to provide literature and information for the whole of the Medical School. Literature in every form is now made available by the central location of purchase based in the library. The traditional library is the main area to provide information and learning facilities for all students and employees. The extension of electronic facilities together with a broad spectrum of services offered by the library personnel constitutes the main functions of the library.

  14. The Time is Now: Improving Substance Abuse Training in Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Anita; Chisolm, Margaret S

    2016-06-01

    This commentary highlights the growing demand for substance abuse prevention and treatment, summarizes the literature regarding the current insufficiencies in substance abuse training in medical schools, and suggests strategies to address this gap in physician education. The authors describe how the combination of mandated coverage for substance abuse services and expanding treatment needs means that more physicians, regardless of their patient populations, will be faced with addressing the problem of substance use. The authors review the literature on substance abuse training in medical schools, which indicates insufficient exposure to this topic. The authors describe how current substance abuse training at medical schools is focused on transmitting scientific knowledge with relatively little education or training in attitudes and skills central to effective prevention and treatment. Given the gap between clinical need and physician education, the authors suggest several strategies for medical schools to increase training in substance abuse knowledge, attitudes, and skills, which will enhance the practice of evidence-based care. The authors posit that medical curricular reform, combined with initiatives to change clinical culture around substance abuse, will translate into improved rates of screening, shorter overall length of treatment, effective referrals for continued treatment, and increased access to care for individuals who use substances and so reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with substance use. PMID:25749922

  15. School sex education: an experimental programme with educational and medical benefit.

    OpenAIRE

    Mellanby, A. R.; Phelps, F. A.; Crichton, N J; Tripp, J H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To develop and teach a school sex education programme that will lead to a decrease in sexual activity. DESIGN--A matched internal and external control experiment, comparing control populations which received their own sex education programmes with populations which received a novel sex education intervention that included medical and peer led teaching. SETTING--Comprehensive secondary schools; control and intervention populations within Devon, and distant controls from rural, semi...

  16. Reference activity and the external user: confluence of community needs at a medical school branch library.

    OpenAIRE

    Landwirth, T K; Wilson, M L; Dorsch, J

    1988-01-01

    The allocation of reference services between primary and secondary users constantly challenges academic medical libraries. Routine statistics at a medical school branch library suggested that over 40% of its reference transactions involved persons not affiliated with the university. To investigate this finding, a survey of reference activity was conducted using measurement techniques unobtrusive to the user. Fifteen data items were recorded, including user status, type of question, intended u...

  17. Improving the transition from medical school to internship – evaluation of a preparation for internship course

    OpenAIRE

    Scicluna, Helen A.; Grimm, Michael C.; Jones, Philip D.; Pilotto, Louis S; McNeil, H. Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background This study evaluates the impact of a new 'Preparation for Internship’ (PRINT) course, which was developed to facilitate the transition of University of New South Wales (UNSW) medical graduates from Medical School to Internship. Methods During a period of major curricular reform, the 2007 (old program) and 2009 (new program) cohorts of UNSW final year students completed the Clinical Capability Questionnaire (CCQ) prior to and after undertaking the PRINT course. Clinical supervisors’...

  18. Concepts of Disease, Medical Research and the Challenges to the Schools of the Healing Professions

    OpenAIRE

    Farber, Emmanuel

    1985-01-01

    The study of disease is a significant part of the pattern of funding for medical research in North America and elsewhere. Also, the existence of disease and its importance in all branches of the healing professions is the major justification for separate professional schools of medicine. These considerations should encourage a vigorous exploration and development of concepts of disease as an important part of any medical education. Based on much of the current research activities, concepts of...

  19. Determining the Criteria and Their Weights for Medical Schools' Ranking: A National Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtahedzadeh, Rita; Mohammadi, Aeen; Kohan, Noushin; Gharib, Mitra; Zolfaghari, Mitra

    2016-06-01

    Delphi as a consensus development technique enables anonymous, systematic refinement of expert opinion with the aim of arriving at a combined or consensual position. In this study, we determined the criteria and their weights for Iranian Medical Schools' ranking through a Delphi process. An expert committee devised 13 proposed criteria with 32 indicators with their weights, which were arranged hierarchically in the form of a tree diagram. We used the Delphi technique to reach a consensus on these criteria and weights among the deans of 38 public Iranian medical schools. For this purpose, we devised and sent a questionnaire to schools and asked them to suggest or correct the criteria and their weights. We repeated this process in two rounds till all the schools reached an acceptable consensus on them. All schools reached a consensus on the set of 13 criteria and 30 indicators and their weights in three main contexts of education, research and facilities, and equipment which were used for Medical Schools' ranking. Using Delphi technique for devising the criteria and their weights in evaluation processes such as ranking makes their results more acceptable among universities. PMID:27306348

  20. Driving change in rural workforce planning: the medical schools outcomes database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Jonathan P; Landau, Louis I

    2010-01-01

    The Medical Schools Outcomes Database (MSOD) is an ongoing longitudinal tracking project ofmedical students from all medical schools in Australia and New Zealand. It was established in 2005 to track the career trajectories of medical students and will directly help develop models of workforce flow, particularly with respect to rural and remote shortages. This paper briefly outlines the MSOD project and reports on key methodological factors in tracking medical students. Finally, the potential impact of the MSOD on understanding changes in rural practice intentions is illustrated using data from the 2005 pilot cohort (n = 112). Rural placements were associated with a shift towards rural practice intentions, while those who intended to practice rurally at both the start and end of medical school tended to be older and interested in a generalist career. Continuing work will track these and future students as they progress through the workforce, as well as exploring issues such as the career trajectories of international fee-paying students, workforce succession planning, and the evaluation of medical education initiatives. PMID:21133296

  1. Workplace learning through peer groups in medical school clerkships

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Calvin L.; Teherani, Arianne; Dylan E. Masters; Vener, Margo; Wamsley, Maria; Poncelet, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: When medical students move from the classroom into clinical practice environments, their roles and learning challenges shift dramatically from a formal curricular approach to a workplace learning model. Continuity among peers during clinical clerkships may play an important role in this different mode of learning. We explored students’ perceptions about how they achieved workplace learning in the context of intentionally formed or ad hoc peer groups.Method: We invited students in cle...

  2. Integrating addiction medicine training into medical school and residency curricula

    OpenAIRE

    Klimas, Jan; Rieb, Launette; Bury, Gerard; Muench, John; O’Toole, Thomas; Rieckman, Traci; Cullen, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Affordable Care Act (2010) brings an opportunity to increase the integration of addiction treatment into the health care system. With the anticipated expansion of addiction care services in primary care, challenges, such as workforce training, can be expected. This presentation discusses challenges and opportunities for addiction medicine training of primary care professionals in Ireland, Canada and Portland, OR. Objectives: To explore ideas for integrating addiction medic...

  3. a survey on education in German Medical Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, M.; Neitzke, G.; Stöckel, S; Lohff, B; Frewer, A.

    2006-01-01

    In view of the new German curriculum regulations, inaugural teachings in the integrated course "History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine" were taking place during winter semester 2003/04. The survey examines the degree of implementation of this new integrated class at all German Medical Universities. It details questions about the organisation of the class, the importance of different course contents and the type of assessment and evaluation methods. Differences and difficulties in organising t...

  4. Perspectives for vertebrology teaching development in higher medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Norkin I.A.; Zaretskov V.V.; Levchenko K.K.; Fedonnikov A.S.; Zaretskov A.V.; Kireev S.N.

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the issues on improving the efficiency of vertebrology teaching in specialist training at pre-and postgraduate stages. Modern epidemiologic trends for spine traumas and diseases form the increasing interest to the problems of care and prevention of the considered pathology and define the necessity of single-skilled specialists training. Developing vertebrology into a separate discipline that is studied at medical universities at both pre- and postgraduate stages is one ...

  5. Stability of empathy among undergraduate medical students: A longitudinal study at one UK medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson John A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Empathy is important to patient care. The prevailing view is that empathy declines during university medical education. The significance of that decline has been debated. This paper reports the findings in respect of two questions relating to university medical education: 1. Do men and women medical students differ in empathy? 2. Does empathy change amongst men and women over time? Methods The medical course at the University of Cambridge comprises two components: Core Science (Years 1-3 and Clinical (Years 4-6. Data were obtained from repeated questionnaire surveys of medical students from each component over a period of four years: 2007-2010. Participation in the study was voluntary. Empathy was measured using two subscales of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index: IRI-EC (affective empathy and IRI-PT (cognitive empathy. We analysed data separately for men and women from the Core Science and Clinical components. We undertook missing value analyses using logistic regression separately, for each measure of empathy, to examine non-response bias. We used Student's t-tests to examine gender differences and linear mixed effects regression analyses to examine changes over time. To assess the influence of outliers, we repeated the linear mixed effects regression analyses having excluded them. Results Women displayed statistically significant higher mean scores than men for affective empathy in all 6 years of medical training and for cognitive empathy in 4 out of 6 years - Years 1 and 2 (Core Science component and Years 4 and 5 (Clinical component. Amongst men, affective empathy declined slightly during both Core Science and Clinical components. Although statistically significant, both of these changes were extremely small. Cognitive empathy was unchanged during either component. Amongst women, neither affective empathy nor cognitive empathy changed during either component of the course. Analysis following removal of outliers showed a

  6. Is the Pass/Fail System Applicable to a Medical School in Korea?

    OpenAIRE

    Mee Young Kim

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether a pass/fail system is more appropriate for medical education instead of a grade-based system, a survey of medical students and faculty members of Hallym University, Korea, was taken. A questionnaire was delivered to 54 junior students and 36 faculty members from a medical school in Korea and analyzed. Of these participants, 37.7% of students and 36.1% of faculty agreed to the pass/fail system, while 28.3% of students and 52.8% of faculty objected to it. The most frequent ...

  7. Effects of age, gender and educational background on strength of motivation for medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school), were asked to fill out the Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire at the start of medical school. The questionnaire measures the willingness of the medical students to pursue medical education even in the face of difficulty and sacrifice. GE students (59.64 ± 7.30) had higher strength of motivation as compared to NGE students (55.26 ± 8.33), so did females (57.05 ± 8.28) as compared to males (54.30 ± 8.08). 7.9% of the variance in the SMMS scores could be explained with the help of a linear regression model with age, gender and educational background/selection as predictor variables. Age was the single largest predictor. Maturity, taking developmental differences between sexes into account, was used as a predictor to correct for differences in the maturation of males and females. Still, the gender differences prevailed, though they were reduced. Pre-entrance educational background and selection also predicted the strength of motivation, but the effect of the two was confounded. Strength of motivation appears to be a dynamic entity, changing primarily with age and maturity and to a small extent with gender and experience. PMID:19774476

  8. Brazilian medical students’ perceptions of expert versus non-expert facilitators in a (non) problem-based learning environment

    OpenAIRE

    Lucélio B. Couto; Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Restini, Carolina B. A.; Faria-Jr, Milton; Gustavo S. Romão

    2015-01-01

    Background: In problem-based learning (PBL), the facilitator plays an important role in guiding the student learning process. However, although content expertise is generally regarded as a useful but non-essential prerequisite for effective PBL facilitation, the perceived importance of content knowledge may be subject to cultural, contextual, and/or experiential influences.Aim: We sought to examine medical students’ perceptions of subject-matter expertise among PBL facilitators in a region of...

  9. Gateway to curiosity: Medical marijuana ads and intention and use during middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S

    2015-09-01

    Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents' perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed sixth- to eighth-grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in Southern California (n = 8,214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13 years) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions, and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use 1 year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure 1 year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products. PMID:26030167

  10. Coordinating the undergraduate medical (MBBS basic sciences programme in a Nepalese medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar PR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available KIST Medical College follows the curriculum of the Institute ofMedicine, Tribhuvan University. The programme aims toproduce socially responsible and competent physicians whoare willing and able to meet the existing and emergingchallenges of the national and international healthcaresystem. The first cohort of undergraduate medical students(MBBS students was admitted in November 2008 and threecohorts including the one admitted in 2008 have beenadmitted at the time of writing. The basic science subjects aretaught in an integrated, organ-system-based manner withcommunity medicine during the first two years. I wasappointed as the MBBS Phase I programme coordinator inSeptember 2008 and in this article I share my experiences ofrunning the basic sciences programme and also offersuggestions for running an efficient academic programme. Themanuscript will be of special interest to readers runningundergraduate medical programmes. The reader canunderstand our experiences in running the programme inadverse circumstances, learning to achieve greater integrationamong basic science, community medicine and clinicaldepartments, obtain information about a communitydiagnosis programme and know about running specialmodules on the medical humanities and pharmaceuticalpromotion.

  11. Critical Race Theory: A Counternarrative of African American Male Medical Students Attending Predominately White Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Adrienne L.

    2013-01-01

    The history of African Americans seeking medical education in the United States is rooted in a legacy of racial segregation, cultural constructs, and legal doctrine that differs from other ethnic and racial groups. The disturbing results of this legacy are that while African Americans account for 12.9% of the U.S. population, they only account for…

  12. Five-year survey of medical student attrition in a medical school in Nigeria: a pilot study

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    Ogugua A Egwu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ogugua A Egwu1, Godson E Anyanwu21Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Ebonyi State; 2Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Enugu State, NigeriaBackground: Student attrition represents a waste of career opportunity and, at times, results in a holistic loss of sense of self-worth for the students involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nature, causes, and impact of medical student attrition in Nigeria.Method: A pilot analysis was undertaken using the records of students who failed at medical school as a result of inability to pass the second MBBS examination at Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria, between 2002 and 2007. Some of these students were interviewed using a structured questionnaire.Results: Data analysis showed that 58 (7.8% of the students admitted into preclinical class withdrew from their study. Thirty-six (62.1% were males and the rest were females. Thirteen of those withdrawn were interviewed, and 53.8% of them believed they had poor academic ability, while 15.4% attributed their withdrawal to family pressure. No record of guidance or counseling session programs was noted for these students either at the point of withdrawal from the faculty and on the choice of a new career path.Conclusion: As a result of the high attrition rate due to low academic ability, efforts should be made to check students for evidence of this at the point of admission to medicine training. Also, more accommodating teaching programs should be encouraged in faculties to accommodate students with such challenges. Good guidance and counseling programs should be encouraged to handle these inevitable cases of attrition when they occur, to avoid the demoralizing low self-esteem that plagues these individuals for the rest of their lives.Keywords: medical students, attrition, medical education, Nigeria

  13. [The medical school of Bologna in Spanish culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeo, R A

    1990-01-01

    The relations between Spanish scholars and the University of Bologna may be dated back to the time of Saint Raymond of Penafort, Saint Antonius of Lisbon and Saint Dominic of Guzmàn. These connections became tighter as, a "House of Spanish People" was set up inside Saragozza Gate in order to give hospitality to young students desiring to study canon law, theology and medicine. Students attended constantly up to 1587, greatly contributing to the development of the great Spanish school of the modern age. It was only with the statutes of 1876 that this ancient habit was restored, with the institution of the "Advanced Centre of Post-graduate". PMID:11640109

  14. Evaluation of doctors’ performance as facilitators in basic medical science lecture classes in a new Malaysian medical school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Salwani; Salam, Abdus; Alattraqchi, Ahmed G; Annamalai, Lakshmi; Chockalingam, Annamalai; Elena, Wan Putri; Rahman, Nor Iza A; Abubakar, Abdullahi Rabiu; Haque, Mainul

    2015-01-01

    Background Didactic lecture is the oldest and most commonly used method of teaching. In addition, it is considered one of the most efficient ways to disseminate theories, ideas, and facts. Many critics feel that lectures are an obsolete method to use when students need to perform hands-on activities, which is an everyday need in the study of medicine. This study evaluates students’ perceptions regarding lecture quality in a new medical school. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted of the medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin. The study population was 468 preclinical medical students from years 1 and 2 of academic year 2012–2013. Data were collected using a validated instrument. There were six different sections of questions using a 5-point Likert scale. The data were then compiled and analyzed, using SPSS version 20. Results The response rate was 73%. Among 341 respondents, 30% were male and 70% were female. Eighty-five percent of respondents agree or strongly agree that the lectures had met the criteria with regard to organization of lecture materials. Similarly, 97% of students agree or strongly agree that lecturers maintained adequate voices and gestures. Conclusion Medical students are quite satisfied with the lecture classes and the lectures. However, further research is required to identify student-centered teaching and learning methods to promote active learning. PMID:25878516

  15. Survey of the Prevalence of Burnout, Stress, Depression, and the Use of Supports by Medical Students at One School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Elaine; Eddins-Folensbee, Florence; Coverdale, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors determined the prevalence of stress, depression, and burnout in medical students and the resources used by students in one school to alleviate psychological distress. Methods: A survey was administered to 526 students in the first 3 years of medical school (336 responders; response rate: 70%) at one institution, using a…

  16. The Influence of Achievement before, during and after Medical School on Physician Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J.; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we investigated the relationship between physicians' prior achievements (before, during and after medical school) and job satisfaction, and tested the two lines of reasoning that prior achievements influence job satisfaction positively or negatively, respectively. The participants were graduates who started their…

  17. Integrating Geriatric Content into a Medical School Curriculum: Description of a Successful Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Debra A.; Raji, Mukaila; Lieberman, Steven; Beach, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    Most medical school curricula do not equip students with adequate attitudes, knowledge and skills to care for elderly populations. We describe an effective geriatric curricular infusion model compatible with preserving the overall curricula schema. Course and clerkship directors, staff and faculty from the Office of Educational Development, Center…

  18. Speech-Language Pathologist Job Satisfaction in School versus Medical Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoff, Nicole L.; Collins, Dana R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine if job satisfaction differs between speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working in school settings and SLPs working in medical settings. Method: The Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) by Spector (1997) was sent via electronic mail to 250 SLPs in each of the 2 settings. Job satisfaction scores were…

  19. An Evaluation of a Medical School Smoking Policy: A Student Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Jesse; Ronay, Ashley; Telfer, Megan; Becker, Craig M.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Swinker, Marian

    2012-01-01

    A medical school at a Southeastern university implemented a tobacco free policy to promote a healthy environment for its employees, patients, and visitors. Eighteen months post policy implementation, undergraduate students in the Department of Health Education and Promotion evaluated the satisfaction, awareness, and perceived…

  20. The Reorganization of Basic Science Departments in U.S. Medical Schools, 1980-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, William T.; Biebuyck, Julien F.; Jones, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed a longitudinal database to examine how basic science departments have been reorganized at U.S. medical schools. Found that there were fewer basic science departments in the traditional disciplines of anatomy, biochemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, and physiology in 1999 than in 1980. But as biomedical science has developed in an…

  1. Medical Service Utilization among Youth with School-Identified Disabilities in Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Matthew C.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Epstein, Michael H.; W. Thompson, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Background: Behavioral, social, emotional, and educational risks among children and youth with school identified disabilities served in residential care have been well documented. However, the health care needs and medical service utilization of this high-risk population are less well known. Given the risks associated with children with…

  2. Harvard Medical School professor to give lecture on bacterial toxins at Virginia Bioinformatics Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, Barry James

    2009-01-01

    R. John Collier, Maude and Lillian Presley Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at Harvard Medical School, will visit the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech on May 21 and 22 to discuss his research on the function of bacterial toxins, including how this work can be used to develop countermeasures against anthrax.

  3. Recovering from Loss: A Qualitative Study Examining Student Loss While in Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Mitsue

    2011-01-01

    Recovering from the loss of a loved one can be difficult for anyone, but it can be especially trying for individuals already dealing with elevated levels of stress. Various studies have looked at the causes of stress in medical school students, but little has been done to understand the adjustments these students undergo after experiencing the…

  4. An Update on the Status of Anatomical Sciences Education in United States Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Richard L.; McBride, Jennifer M.; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Curricular changes continue at United States medical schools and directors of gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, neuroscience/neuroanatomy, and embryology courses continue to adjust and modify their offerings. Developing and supplying data related to current trends in anatomical sciences education is important if informed decisions are going to…

  5. [Proposal for the teaching and application of informatics at medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juri, H; Sipowicz, O; Avila, R; Hernández, D; Palma, A

    1991-01-01

    Informatics is the discipline that process efficiently all the necessary data to obtain information. The data acquisition, processing and interpretation is realized through traditional as well as automated means. Medical Informatics is the union of all methods of informatics in medicine including the preparation of medical data required for the application of these methods. Due to the need to keep up with the increasing amount of data that modern medicine is receiving and efficiently process it to obtain meaningful information, we propose the creation of a department of Medical Informatics in our Medical School to: 1) Teach the basic principles of medical informatics to undergraduate and graduate students, including lectures in: Information technics, medical terminology, medical linguistics, international classification of diseases, Hospital informations Systems, practical application of computing in medicine as Oncocyn, Mycin, etc., as well as external data bases. 2) Help the health sciences personnel to obtain and transfer medical information through the National and International Electronic Networks of Medical Information. PMID:1843360

  6. Personal characteristics of students entering higher medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimova O.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the structure of personal features of students decided to devote their life to medical profession, their personal readiness for a profession of a doctor. 241 students going to enter the Saratov Medical University in 2013 serve as an object of research. Methods of research included psychology tests on a self-assessment of a mental state, ability to empathy, a motivation orientation. Result. It was revealed that the majority of respondents low level of uneasiness, low level of frustration, the average level of aggression, the average level of a rigidity, and also high rates on an empathy scale. The types of the personality in relation to work are emotive and intuitive. Prevalence of motive of achievement of success or motive of avoiding of failures directly depends on specifics of a situation. Conclusion. Students possess qualities which are necessary in professional activity for doctors, namely high resistance to stress, absence of fear before difficulties, low level of rigidity, high level of empathy, the average level of aggression. Students are motivated on success, in situations when they are fully confident.

  7. The missions of medical schools: the pursuit of health in the service of society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewkonia Ray M

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mission statements and role documents of medical schools in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia have been examined on their Internet Web sites and categorised in purpose, content and presentation. The format and content are highly variable, but there is a common vision of three integral roles, namely, education, advancement of knowledge and service to society. Other frequent themes include tradition and historical perspective, service for designated communities, and benchmarking to accreditation standards. Differences in content reflect variable interpretation of the notion of "mission", and local or national characteristics such as institutional affiliations, the types, levels and organisation of medical education, relationships with health systems, and extent of multi-professional education. Outcomes data and measures of medical school performance referenced to the institution's stated missions are rarely encountered. Mission documents placed on the Internet are in the public domain. These Web sites and documents and linked information constitute a valuable new resource for international exchange of approaches and ideas in medical education and generally in academic medicine. Routine inclusion of outcome or performance data could help to demonstrate the community roles and social accountability of medical schools This paper proposes that partial standardisation of these Web documents could enhance their value both internally and for external readers. A generic descriptive statement template is offered.

  8. [The Salernitan School of Medicine: Its History and Contribution to European Medical Education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2015-12-01

    The Salernitan School of Medicine was founded in the late 10th century as a loose association of medical teachers. The period before the middle 13th century was divided into three phases. In the early phase, before the end of 11th century, "practica" books were written, utilizing extant ancient literature, Arabic medical treatises were translated into Latin, and the medical text "Articella" was compiled. In the high phase before the end of the 12th century, the "Articella" was commented upon and new pharmacopeia and practica books were written. In the late phase before the middle of the 13th century, physicians who graduated from Salerno were active in various countries in Europe. After the middle of the 13th century the school developed organizations and rules, became a university at the end of 16th century, and was closed in 1811. The Salernitan school produced "Articella", which pioneered in theoretical medical education, and produced "practica", which dealt with both local diseases from head to foot and systemic fever diseases, and it continued until the end of 18th century. The two major disciplines of medical education before the end of 18th century, theoretica and practica, were derived from Salerno. PMID:27089736

  9. Improving the social responsiveness of medical schools: lessons from the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappon, P; Watson, D

    1999-08-01

    The recent Canadian experience in promoting social accountability and social responsiveness of medical schools has been one of steady improvement in certain institutions, against a background lacking overall national policy direction. Canada has several distinct advantages in trying to devise means of enhancing social accountability of medical training and health services, including a strong national system of publicly supported and financed health care of high quality, a network of excellent academic medical centers, and well-established accreditation bodies. A review of the literature, complemented by a new survey of Canadian medical schools, confirms that some of the centers, conscious of the need to promote social responsiveness, are developing innovative programs to do so. Future progress toward the goal of social responsiveness of medical schools on a pan-Canadian basis will require a more cohesive approach involving systematic sharing of best practices among academic health centers, effective alliances with other health professionals to promote these objectives, and support by federal and provincial ministries of health. Canadian awareness of an international movement tending to similar objectives would support the efforts of Canadian health professionals engaged in practices of enhanced accountability. PMID:10495748

  10. Medical students-as-teachers: a systematic review of peer-assisted teaching during medical school

    OpenAIRE

    Yu TC; Wilson NC; Singh PP; Lemanu DP; Hawken SJ; Hill AG

    2011-01-01

    Tzu-Chieh Yu¹, Nichola C Wilson², Primal P Singh¹, Daniel P Lemanu¹, Susan J Hawken³, Andrew G Hill¹¹South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ²Department of Surgery, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ³Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandIntroduction: International interest in peer-teaching and peer-assisted learning ...

  11. Competition in health research: the experience of the John Curtin School of Medical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Judith A

    2005-03-16

    BACKGROUND: In 2002 the Australian National Competitive Grants System was opened to the Institute of Advanced Studies at the Australian National University as part of a commitment to transparency, competitiveness, and collaboration in national research funding. RESULTS: The block grant to the John Curtin School of Medical Research had progressively eroded over many years. Access to the National Competitive Grants Schemes and associated infrastructure (through an agreed 'buy-in' price of 20% of block funding) has succeeded in its aims and in reversing this progressive effective decrease in funding. CONCLUSION: Access to the National Competitive Grant Scheme has allowed the John Curtin School of Medical Research to contribute more broadly to Australia's health and medical research effort through increased collaboration, in a transparent and competitive funding environment. PMID:15771773

  12. The impact of the college environment on Black students' access to a medical school education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Barbara Marie

    2009-12-01

    The focus of this study was to explore factors influencing the disparity in the acceptance rate for African American students into medical school as compared to their white counterparts. This study compared the college environment of Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Principally White Institutions, with respect to African American students' perceptions regarding their college experiences and the extent to which they perceived that their experiences enhanced or diminished their success in gaining access to medical school. The community cultural wealth framework was used to explore whether the HBCU or the PWI is the better environment for undergraduate science majors. By use of the CCW framework the study explored which college environment nurtured students to be successful as a biology major, obtain a competitive MCAT score and ultimately secure acceptance into medical school. A qualitative research design served as the best approach to explore the object of inquiry in this study: the students' perception of their college environment, and their perceptions of their college experiences. The findings suggest that both the HBCU and the PWI reveal characteristics that enhanced and diminished the potential for success in the biology pre-med program. The results of this study specifically addressed barriers to access as factors which may be contributing to the disparities in the number of African American students admitted to medical school. These barriers are related to differences in the social dynamics of the university. In this study both groups of students perceived that there were the negative faculty attitudes, but these seemed to have little impact on access to medical school. Student motivation and identification with a supportive community seemed to have more impact on the potential for career success.

  13. Considerações sobre o Provão On the Brazilian National Medical Course Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides A. Castilho

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A implementação, no Brasil, do Exame Nacional de Cursos, conhecido como Provão, vem suscitando debates de distinta natureza. Este artigo tem como objetivo contribuir para esse debate, apontando, com base nas provas aplicadas, sua ambivalência entre se constituir num instrumento de avaliação dos cursos médicos e/ou dos futuros profissionais médicos, até destacar questões sobre imprecisões e pressupostos presentes na formulação das perguntas.In Brazil, implementation of the so-called "Provão", or National Medical Course Examination, has raised numerous levels of discussion. This article aims to identify patterns in some of the more controversial issues: whether the Exam is really an instrument for evaluation of medical courses themselves, or that of future physicians; adequacy of assumptions underlying the questions as formulated; and lack of precision in the questions.

  14. Medical School Attrition-Beyond the Statistics A Ten Year Retrospective Study

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    Maher Bridget M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical school attrition is important - securing a place in medical school is difficult and a high attrition rate can affect the academic reputation of a medical school and staff morale. More important, however, are the personal consequences of dropout for the student. The aims of our study were to examine factors associated with attrition over a ten-year period (2001–2011 and to study the personal effects of dropout on individual students. Methods The study included quantitative analysis of completed cohorts and qualitative analysis of ten-year data. Data were collected from individual student files, examination and admission records, exit interviews and staff interviews. Statistical analysis was carried out on five successive completed cohorts. Qualitative data from student files was transcribed and independently analysed by three authors. Data was coded and categorized and key themes were identified. Results Overall attrition rate was 5.7% (45/779 in 6 completed cohorts when students who transferred to other medical courses were excluded. Students from Kuwait and United Arab Emirates had the highest dropout rate (RR = 5.70, 95% Confidence Intervals 2.65 to 12.27;p  Absenteeism was documented in 30% of students, academic difficulty in 55.7%, social isolation in 20%, and psychological morbidity in 40% (higher than other studies. Qualitative analysis revealed recurrent themes of isolation, failure, and despair. Student Welfare services were only accessed by one-third of dropout students. Conclusions While dropout is often multifactorial, certain red flag signals may alert us to risk of dropout including non-EU origin, academic struggling, absenteeism, social isolation, depression and leave of absence. Psychological morbidity amongst dropout students is high and Student Welfare services should be actively promoted. Absenteeism should prompt early intervention. Behind every dropout statistic lies a personal story. All

  15. How one teaching hospital system and one medical school are jointly affirming their academic mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, M; Rabkin, M T; Tosteson, D C

    1997-06-01

    The economic forces that are reshaping the practice of medicine and the funding of medical research will have great impact on clinical education and research in teaching hospitals and their associated medical schools. Changes in the setting of and approach to medical education will need to be made in order to continue to train physicians at the same high level as in the past and to maintain the productivity of our national biomedical research enterprise and its contributions to health. Academic leaders, such as department chiefs who have clinical service responsibilities, are finding it more and more difficult to manage simultaneously the demands of the clinical business, education, and research. In an effort to organize a teaching hospital and a medical school in a manner that would position them to maintain more effectively their common academic mission front and center with the clinical business, Harvard Medical School and the Beth Israel Hospital created a joint venture in 1996. The new nonprofit Institute for Education and Research has education and research as its top (and only) mission. It is designed to provide additional and specific academic leadership and to enable the joint venture to undertake strategic planning for the academic mission. In addition to the challenges it faces from changes in the external environment, the Institute for Education and Research will need to establish a new pattern of interactions internally within the parent institutions. Collaborations with department chairs and faculty are an essential ingredient for its success. It is hoped that this structure will prove to be a useful template for organizing other medical school-hospital collaborations on behalf of the academic mission. PMID:9200578

  16. Destaques éticos nos periódicos nacionais das áreas médicas Ethics relevance in Brazilian medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tavares-Neto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os destaques éticos existentes nas instruções aos autores de periódicos nacionais citados conjuntamente pelas quatro áreas médicas da CAPES e qualificados nível "A" nacional ou "I" internacional. MÉTODOS: As instruções aos autores de 20 revistas nacionais foram estudadas e 36 tipos de preocupações éticas foram identificados, permitindo a seguinte categorização: I - Ética na pesquisa com seres humanos; II - Integridade científica; III - Política editorial. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que na categoria I a instrução mais freqüente (50% é a exigência de aprovação da pesquisa por um CEP institucional, seguida da indicação no corpo do artigo referir-se a esta aprovação (35%, e a apresentação de cópia do parecer do CEP (30%. Todavia, nenhum periódico adverte sobre a importância do CEP ser credenciado pela CONEP. Na categoria II, 55% dos periódicos exigem declaração de conflitos de interesse e 40% deles interrogam sobre qual tipo de interesse; todavia, todos (100% os periódicos são omissos quanto à verificação de conflitos de interesse entre autores e revisores assim como prevenção de fraudes, plágios e fabricação de dados. Finalmente, na categoria III, 65% dos periódicos exigem que os direitos autorais sejam-lhes cedidos e os demais 35% nada dizem sobre o assunto. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados são discutidos em relação à situação atual do Brasil em relação à ética da pesquisa em seres humanos e à prevenção de desonestidade científica.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Brazilian journals cited by the four CAPES medical areas, qualified as "A" national or "I" international, regarding the relevance given to ethics in the instructions for authors. METHODS: The instructions for authors of twenty Brazilian journals were studied and 36 types of ethical concerns were identified allowing the following categorization: I - Ethics in human research; II - Scientific integrity; III

  17. School Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Management for the Pediatrician--Extending the Medical Home with Critical Collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistiner, Michael; Devore, Cynthia DiLaura; Schoessler, Sally

    2015-12-01

    Community pediatricians, working in consultation with allergists, create a medical home that is the central focus of care for the child with life-threatening food allergies. They participate in coordinating mutual and critical collaborations within schools that support families and children. They can provide leadership and guidance to both families and schools to safeguard children and adolescents, thereby extending the medical home goals into the school setting. PMID:26456441

  18. Survey of e-learning implementation and faculty support strategies in a cluster of mid-European medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Back, David Alexander; Behringer, Florian; Harms, Tina; Plener, Joachim; Sostmann, Kai; Peters, Harm

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of electronic learning formats (e-learning) in medical education is reported mainly from individual specialty perspectives. In this study, we analyzed the implementation level of e-learning formats and the institutional support structures and strategies at an institutional level in a cluster of mid-European medical schools. Methods A 49-item online questionnaire was send to 48 medical schools in Austria, Germany and Switzerland using SurveyMonkey®. Data were collected betwe...

  19. Voluntary community service in medical school: a qualitative study on obstacles faced by student leaders and potential solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, Alvona Zi Hui; Tan, Julia Shi Yu; Lee, Jeannette Jen-Mai; Koh, Gerald Choon Huat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In medical school, students may participate in various community involvement projects (CIP), which serve disadvantaged communities. However, several obstacles may arise during these projects. The authors conducted a qualitative study with the primary aim of understanding the obstacles and corresponding potential solutions when medical students in Singapore participate in local CIP (LCIP) and overseas CIP (OCIP).Design: The authors recruited medical students from Yong Loo Lin School o...

  20. A learning skills course for the 1st year medical students: an experience at a Saudi medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui IA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Imran A Siddiqui,1 Khalid A Bin Abdulrahman,2 Mohammed A Alsultan3 1Department of Medical Education and Postgraduate Studies, Saudi Commission for Health Specialties, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine, Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Every year nearly 1,500 students enter into medical program after passing high school and national aptitude exams. However, many students experience frustration, failure, and psychological morbidities like stress, depression, and anxiety because they are not aware of their learning styles or do not have effective learning skills and strategies. The College of Medicine of Al-Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University has adopted the outcome based, community oriented, Spiral Curriculum. Although the curriculum is innovative, on the other hand, it is very demanding. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to share educational structure and evaluation results of the course on effective learning and study skills for the 1st year medical students. Methods: To prepare our students in order to cope with this demanding but promising curriculum, we conducted an effective and comprehensive learning skills course for 16 weeks in the first semester of year 1 in the medical program. Performance of each student was assessed and the course evaluation was done by students at the end of the course. Results: The attendance of the students throughout the course was over 90%. The average performance of students in the summative assessment was 78% and the course was generally liked by the students. Discussion: Students overall had a positive attitude toward the learning skills course. Majority of the students showed interest in attending the sessions regularly and realized the significance of this course to improve their learning skills. Keywords: medical students, learning

  1. The role of the medical school-based consumer health information service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rocco, A

    1994-01-01

    Historically, medical information has been provided to patients at the physician's discretion. Although this method never has been wholly satisfactory, the trend toward bureaucratic organization of medical care, characterized by impersonal patient encounters and prompted by increased emphasis on cost controls, has restricted patient information even further. Yet, at the same time, the upsurge in consumer power has created patient demand for more health information. Consumers feel they have a right to expect help in obtaining information so they can make informed decisions with respect to their medical care. This paper focuses on the medical school-based consumer health service in this context. In particular, it calls attention to the medical school library as the foundation for expanded health information resources, pointing to the tools of information retrieval, as well as the substantive information contained in the medical, nursing, and allied health literature. In this setting, the consumer health librarian is called upon to act as a mediator in providing quality-filtered information to the patron, while at the same time remaining within the confines of professional expertise as a librarian. Important sources of health information are highlighted, particularly online databases, drug indexes, therapeutic texts, and physician specialist directories. PMID:8136760

  2. Simulated surgical workshops enhance medical school students’ preparation for clinical rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Johnson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA major focus of the medical school curriculum is to ensure medical students are well prepared prior to entering clinical rotations, which includes the compulsory surgical rotation.AimsThe objective of this research was to design and formally evaluate a set of real-life surgical workshops aimed at better preparing medical students for their clinical rotation in surgery. These workshops would be incorporated into the pre-clinical medical school curriculum.MethodDedicated surgical workshops were introduced into the preclinical component of the Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS program at our University in 2009. These workshops encompassed training in the clinical skills needed in the perioperative and wider hospital setting. A survey comprising of eight to nine ranked questions (utilising a five-point Likert Scale as well as three short answer questions was administered to the medical students after they completed their compulsory surgical clinical rotation.ResultsThe overall response rate to the survey evaluating the surgical workshops was 79% (123/155. The mean of the ranked questions ranged from 4.05 to 4.89 which indicated that the students found the workshops useful. When evaluating the short answer questions (via topic coding, additional information was provided that supported and explained the survey findings and also included suggestions for improvements.ConclusionThe findings of the medical student survey demonstrated the value of incorporating dedicated preparatory surgical workshops in the medical school pre-clinical curriculum. However, further research is warranted to determine if this inclusion translated into improved student performance during the clinical surgical rotation.

  3. Does Emotional Intelligence Change during Medical School Gross Anatomy Course? Correlations with Students' Performance and Team Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Michelle A.; Porter, Samuel G.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Juskewitch, Justin E.; Lachman, Nirusha

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been associated with increased academic achievement, but its impact on medical education is relatively unexplored. This study sought to evaluate change in EI, performance outcomes, and team cohesion within a team-based medical school anatomy course. Forty-two medical students completed a pre-course and post-course…

  4. Proximity morality in medical schoolmedical students forming physician morality "on the job": Grounded theory analysis of a student survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sallin Karl; Thulesius Hans O; Lynoe Niels; Löfmark Rurik

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The value of ethics education have been questioned. Therefore we did a student survey on attitudes about the teaching of ethics in Swedish medical schools. Methods Questionnaire survey on attitudes to ethics education with 409 Swedish medical students participating. We analyzed > 8000 words of open-ended responses and multiple-choice questions using classic grounded theory procedures. Results In this paper we suggest that medical students take a proximity morality stance t...

  5. The communication skills course for second year medical students at Hannover Medical School: An evaluation study based on students' self-assessments

    OpenAIRE

    von Lengerke, Thomas; Kursch, Angelika; Lange, Karin; ,

    2011-01-01

    In the model medical curriculum HannibaL at Hannover Medical School (MHH, Hannover, Germany), communication skills in taking case histories and disclosing diagnoses (breaking bad news) are assessed through an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). This is part of the examinations which at the MHH represent the equivalent to the First Part of the Medical Examinations. The second year doctor-patient communication course preparing for these examinations was evaluated during the 2009/1...

  6. Addiction medicine: a model osteopathic medical school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, R Gregory; Wyatt, Stephen A; Przekop, Peter R

    2010-03-01

    The World Health Organization has identified nicotine, alcohol, and illicit drugs as among the top 10 contributors of morbidity and mortality in the world. Substance use disorders are preventable conditions that are major contributors to poor health, family dysfunction, and various social problems in the United States-problems that have a profound economic impact. The American Osteopathic Academy of Addiction Medicine seeks to promote teaching of addiction medicine at colleges of osteopathic medicine (COMs), which-honoring the osteopathic concepts of holistic medicine and disease prevention-are well poised to develop a model addiction medicine curriculum. Educators and students at COMs can use guidelines from Project MAINSTREAM, a core addiction medicine curriculum designed to improve education of health professionals in substance abuse, for developing addiction medicine curricula and for gauging their professional growth. These guidelines should be incorporated into the first 2 years of osteopathic medical students' basic science didactics. The authors encourage the development of addiction medicine courses and curricula at all COMs. PMID:20386021

  7. "DREEM" comes true - Students′ perceptions of educational environment in an Indian medical school

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    H S Kiran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The accomplishment and contentment of students depends upon their educational environment. Very few studies in India have looked at the impact of educational environment on students, there are few such studies in our country despite having a large number of medical schools. Objective: This study was performed to assess the undergraduate students′ perceptions of medical education in general and educational environment in our medical school in particular. Materials and Methods: The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM, a validated inventory was distributed among undergraduate students in final Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS (2010-2011 and students who were undergoing internship (2010-2011 and various scores were calculated and the means were compared using Mann-Whitney test. Results: The mean total DREEM score was found to be 121.5/200 for final MBBS students (n = 115 and 118.4/200 (n = 109 for the internship batch students. There was no statistically significant difference between the scores of the two batches. The overall DREEM score for our Medical School during the academic year 2010-2011 (for the final MBBS and internship batch was 120/200 (n = 224, which showed that the students′ perceptions were more positive. Conclusion: The study showed that the students′ perception of the educational environment was positive. There was no statistically significant difference between the scores of the two batches (final MBBS and internship. This study helped us to introspect and identify remediable areas in the educational environment of our medical school and hence we could suggest some measures to modify them.

  8. Genetic evaluation as an itinerant strategic medical care towards impaired children and teenagers in the Brazilian Family Health Program

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    Daniela Koeller Rodrigues Vieira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic disorders affect about 3-10% of the population and can lead to chronic health problems and disabilities. The present work aimed to describe a new experience in health care in clinical genetics by an itinerant team of experts that evaluated patients selected by the primary care through the supplementary registration form for people with disabilities. A descriptive and transversal study was carried out with patients, who were previously identified by the supplementary registration form for people with disabilities, evaluated by the team in 2005, 2008 and 2009, in a total of 324 families. The etiology of disability was defined as genetic in 38% of the cases and environmental in 32.7%. The prevalence of congenital malformations was 31.8%. Family Health Strategy was utilized as a gateway to expand the access to health services for people with highly complex genetic diseases, birth defects and disabilities. The results expose the need to interiorize medical genetics and its interfaces with primary care in Brazil, reinforcing the importance of implementing health policies in this area.

  9. Post-graduation migration intentions of students of Lebanese medical schools: a survey study

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    Sakr Mazen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The international migration of physicians is a global public health problem. Lebanon is a source country with the highest emigration factor in the Middle East and North Africa and the 7th highest in the World. Given that residency training abroad is a critical step in the migration of physicians, the objective of this study was to survey students of Lebanese medical schools about their intentions to train abroad and their post training plans. Methods Our target population consisted of all students of Lebanese medical schools in the pre-final and final years of medical school. We developed the survey questionnaire based on the results of a qualitative study assessing the intentions and motives for students of Lebanese medical schools to train abroad. The questionnaire inquired about student's demographic and educational characteristics, intention to train abroad, the chosen country of abroad training, and post-training intention of returning to Lebanon. Results Of 576 eligible students, 425 participated (73.8% response rate. 406 (95.5% respondents intended to travel abroad either for specialty training (330 (77.6% or subspecialty training (76 (17.9%. Intention to train abroad was associated with being single compared with being married. The top 4 destination countries were the US (301(74.1%, France (49 (12.1%, the United Kingdom (31 (7.6% and Canada (17 (4.2%. One hundred and two (25.1% respondents intended to return to Lebanon directly after finishing training abroad; 259 (63.8% intended to return to Lebanon after working abroad temporarily for a varying number or years; 43 (10.6% intended to never return to Lebanon. The intention to stay indefinitely abroad was associated male sex and having a 2nd citizenship. It was inversely associated with being a student of one of the French affiliated medical schools and a plan to train in a surgical specialty. Conclusion An alarming percentage of students of Lebanese medical schools

  10. Medical Versus Nonmedical Immunization Exemptions for Child Care and School Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Routine childhood immunizations against infectious diseases are an integral part of our public health infrastructure. They provide direct protection to the immunized individual and indirect protection to children and adults unable to be immunized via the effect of community immunity. All 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have regulations requiring proof of immunization for child care and school attendance as a public health strategy to protect children in these settings and to secondarily serve as a mechanism to promote timely immunization of children by their caregivers. Although all states and the District of Columbia have mechanisms to exempt school attendees from specific immunization requirements for medical reasons, the majority also have a heterogeneous collection of regulations and laws that allow nonmedical exemptions from childhood immunizations otherwise required for child care and school attendance. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) supports regulations and laws requiring certification of immunization to attend child care and school as a sound means of providing a safe environment for attendees and employees of these settings. The AAP also supports medically indicated exemptions to specific immunizations as determined for each individual child. The AAP views nonmedical exemptions to school-required immunizations as inappropriate for individual, public health, and ethical reasons and advocates for their elimination. PMID:27573087

  11. [Validity of indicators on physical activity and sedentary behavior from the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey among adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Letícia Ferreira; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Cardoso, Letícia Oliveira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Oliveira, Andreia Ferreira de

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the relative validity of physical activity indicators from the questionnaire used in the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, based on a sample of 174 students. The following indicators of weekly physical activity were evaluated: ACTIVE-300MIN (≥ 300 minutes/week); ACTIVE-150MIN (≥ 150 minutes), INACTIVE (no physical activity). Additionally, indicators of sedentary behavior were also assessed, as daily screen time (TV, videogames, and computer). The results from the questionnaire were compared with three 24-hour recalls. The results of ACTIVE-300MIN, ACTIVE-150MIN, and INACTIVE generated by PeNSE showed high accuracy. These indicators performed better than those of sedentary behavior in relation to frequency estimates as well as sensitivity, specificity, and correct classification rate. The indicators of physical activity from PeNSE showed satisfactory relative validity. PMID:25317515

  12. Teaching of pharmacology in Universiti Malaya and the other medical schools in Malaysia- a historical perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si Mui SIM

    2004-01-01

    Traditional pharmacology teaching has focused more on drug instead of therapeutics, such that although pharmacological knowledge is acquired, practical skills in prescribing remain weak. In Malaysia many new medical schools (both public and private) have been set up in the last 12 years due to a change in government policy, resulting in a wide spectrum of medical curricula. Universiti Malaya (UM) being the oldest medical school in Malaysia was deep set in its traditional way of teaching-learning, since its inception in 1962, until a visit from the General Medical Council of the United Kingdom in 1984 triggered off a change of tide. Since then the medical curriculum in UM has undergone two major revisions. The first revised curriculum (1988) aimed to inject more clinical relevance into basic science teaching, through introducing clinical lectures and skills in the paraclinical year.Professional behaviour was also addressed. The second revised curriculum (1998) sought to improve further the integration of knowledge as well as to produce a holistic doctor, viewing the patient as a person instead of a clinical entity. The teaching-learning of pharmacology has gradually moved from factual regurgitation to more clinical reasoning, from lab-based to more patient-oriented approach. As more new medical schools are being set up in Malaysia, exchange of experience in this area of learning will hopefully help us find a happy medium between "the old is best" and "the new is better" type approach so that a pedagogically sound and yet logistically practical curriculum can be found in our local setting, to help produce doctors with good prescribing practice.

  13. Teaching of pharmacology in Universiti Malaya and the other medical schools in Malaysia -- a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Si Mui

    2004-09-01

    Traditional pharmacology teaching has focused more on drug instead of therapeutics, such that although pharmacological knowledge is acquired, practical skills in prescribing remain weak. In Malaysia many new medical schools (both public and private) have been set up in the last 12 years due to a change in government policy, resulting in a wide spectrum of medical curricula. Universiti Malaya (UM) being the oldest medical school in Malaysia was deep set in its traditional way of teaching-learning, since its inception in 1962, until a visit from the General Medical Council of the United Kingdom in 1984 triggered off a change of tide. Since then the medical curriculum in UM has undergone two major revisions. The first revised curriculum (1988) aimed to inject more clinical relevance into basic science teaching, through introducing clinical lectures and skills in the paraclinical year. Professional behaviour was also addressed. The second revised curriculum (1998) sought to improve further the integration of knowledge as well as to produce a holistic doctor, viewing the patient as a person instead of a clinical entity. The teaching-learning of pharmacology has gradually moved from factual regurgitation to more clinical reasoning, from lab-based to more patient-oriented approach. As more new medical schools are being set up in Malaysia, exchange of experience in this area of learning will hopefully help us find a happy medium between "the old is best" and "the new is better" type approach so that a pedagogically sound and yet logistically practical curriculum can be found in our local setting, to help produce doctors with good prescribing practice. PMID:15339399

  14. Personal health promotion at US medical schools: a quantitative study and qualitative description of deans' and students' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elon Lisa K

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior literature has shown that physicians with healthy personal habits are more likely to encourage patients to adopt similar habits. However, despite the possibility that promoting medical student health might therefore efficiently improve patient outcomes, no one has studied whether such promotion happens in medical school. We therefore wished to describe both typical and outstanding personal health promotion environments experienced by students in U.S. medical schools. Methods We collected information through four different modalities: a literature review, written surveys of medical school deans and students, student and dean focus groups, and site visits at and interviews with medical schools with reportedly outstanding student health promotion programs. Results We found strong correlations between deans' and students' perceptions of their schools' health promotion environments, including consistent support of the idea of schools' encouraging healthy student behaviors, with less consistent follow-through by schools on this concept. Though students seemed to have thought little about the relationships between their own personal and clinical health promotion practices, deans felt strongly that faculty members should model healthy behaviors. Conclusions Deans' support of the relationship between physicians' personal and clinical health practices, and concern about their institutions' acting on this relationship augurs well for the role of student health promotion in the future of medical education. Deans seem to understand their students' health environment, and believe it could and should be improved; if this is acted on, it could create important positive changes in medical education and in disease prevention.

  15. Non-medical use of prescription pain relievers among high school students in China: a multilevel analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Lan; Xu, Yan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Gao, Xue; Li, Pengsheng; Wu,Hong; Zhou, Jinhua; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Given the differences between general high school (GHS) and vocational high school (VHS) students, this study aimed to investigate the lifetime prevalence of non-medical use of prescription pain relievers (NMUPPR) among high school students as well as the associations between NMUPPR and individual-level factors and school category. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in GHS and VHS students in 2012 in Chongqing, and 11 906 students’ questionnaires were completed and quali...

  16. Global health and service learning: lessons learned at US medical schools

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    Mark Stoltenberg

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interest in global health is rapidly increasing amongst US medical students. Many students aspire to incorporate global health into their future careers, while others seek international opportunities to better prepare themselves for domestic practice. US medical schools have begun responding to this burgeoning interest with varying intensity and through a number of different strategies. Conclusions: Three important themes involved include: increasing the academic rigor of programming, fostering sustainable site partnerships, and encouraging mentorship and reflection for the students involved. Finally, the growing practice of service learning might also play a helpful role in integrating these themes into expanding global health programs.

  17. The Arabian Gulf University College of Medicine and Medical Sciences: a successful model of a multinational medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Hossam; Anderson, M Brownell

    2006-12-01

    In the late 1970s, leaders of the Arabian [corrected] Gulf countries proposed a novel idea of a joint educational and cultural venture: establishing a new regional university based in the Kingdom of Bahrain that would be managed as a multinational consortium of Gulf countries including Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Bahrain. It was intended to promote higher education and research in the Gulf region; to serve the development needs of the region; to reflect the unique economic, social, and cultural attributes of the Gulf communities and their environments; and to respond to the health care needs of the member countries. Since its inception in 1982, the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS) at Arabian Gulf University (AGU) has adopted the educational philosophy of problem-based learning (PBL) and self-directed, student-centered education. The curriculum is integrated, with early introduction of education to foster clinical skills and professional competencies. The strategic alliance with the health care systems in Bahrain and other Gulf regions has created a successful model of efficient and effective initialization of health care resources in the community. The experience that has accumulated at the AGU-CMMS from introducing innovative medical education has allowed it to take a leadership position in medical education in the Gulf region. The original goals of this unique experiment have been realized along with unanticipated outcomes of spearheading changes in medical education in the Gulf region. Old and new medical schools have adopted several characteristics of the AGU educational program. Several elements contributed to its success: a clear vision of providing quality medical education and realizing and sustaining this vision by a supportive leadership at the university and college levels; an alliance with the regional health care systems; a dedicated faculty who have been able to work as a team while continually

  18. Collaboration Between PNPs and School Nurses: Meeting the Complex Medical and Academic Needs of the Child With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Beth; Williams, Shenoa

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric nurse practitioners take a lead role in diagnosing and coordinating the care of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). School nurses offer rich insight into the child's health and social and academic functioning in the school setting. School nurses develop individualized health care plans, administer and monitor medications, provide valuable input on Individualized Education Plans and Section 504 Accommodation Plans, and serve as the point person in communicating with the medical provider. Pediatric nurse practitioners can enhance the collaboration with school nurses by establishing communication parameters, streamlining medication regimens, and facilitating development of educational curricula for school nurses regarding evidence-based ADHD management. Optimizing partnerships with school nurses will provide better surveillance of treatment efficacy and can facilitate improved health and academic and social outcomes for children with ADHD. PMID:26454689

  19. Birth cohort differences in the use of medications in a Brazilian population of older elderly: the Bambuí cohort study of aging (1997 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Ignácio de Loyola Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences in the use of medications in two birth cohorts (born from 1916 to 1926 and from 1927 to 1937 among older elderly in the population-based cohort study in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study used data on participants who were 71-81 years of age in the baseline survey in 1997 (n = 492 and in the 11th wave, in 2008 (n = 620. The number of medications currently consumed (mean = 4.6 and 3.4, respectively and prevalence of polypharmacy (46.6% and 29.1%, respectively were higher in the more recent cohort as compared to the earlier one. These differences were independent of gender, age, schooling, number of medical visits in the previous 12 months, and number of chronic conditions. The more recent cohort showed significant differences in the use of psychoactive drugs, lipid modifying agents, drugs for diabetes, and antithrombotic agents, as well as changes in drugs used for arterial hypertension. In general, these changes are consistent with those observed in elderly populations in high-income countries.

  20. Dental care and dentistry practice in the Medieval Medical School of Salerno.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, M; Amato, M; Gangemi, G; Marasco, M; Caggiano, M; Amato, A; Pisanti, S

    2016-07-22

    Even though dental care is sometimes erroneously considered a modern practice, written records from major ancient civilisation all around the world date back to several millennia BC. In particular, in the Middle Ages, among the tenth and thirteenth centuries, the illustrious Medical School of Salerno in Italy, the most important institution in the Western world for the diffusion of medical knowledge, disseminated through its precepts the importance of oral hygiene and practiced specific dental therapies for tooth decay, gingivitis, paradentosis and halitosis among others. Interestingly, several of the officinal plants and natural ingredients proposed for oral care by the school's most famous physicians recipes, notably those of the legendary Trotula De Ruggiero, considered the first female physician in history, are still in vogue in the twenty-first century. PMID:27444600

  1. Knowledge Attitude and Behavior of Medical Technology Vocational Training School Students About Genetically Modified Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Safak Taner Gursoy; Isil Ergin; Zeliha Asli Ocek; Meltem Ciceklioglu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine The Medical Technology Vocational Training School (MTVTS) students’ the knowledge about the effects of GMO on human health and environment and to evaluate their attitude and behavior has been aimed. METHODS: All of the second class students of the year 2006-2007 of MTVTS were included (N=161) in the study, response rate was 92%. The survey questionare included questions on knowledge, the risk perception and attitute about GMOs. The legal framework in Turkey about...

  2. Evaluating the validity of an integrity-based situational judgement test for medical school admissions

    OpenAIRE

    Husbands, Adrian; Rodgerson, Mark J.; Dowell, Jon; Patterson, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Background While the construct of integrity has emerged as a front-runner amongst the desirable attributes to select for in medical school admissions, it is less clear how best to assess this characteristic. A potential solution lies in the use of Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) which have gained popularity due to robust psychometric evidence and potential for large-scale administration. This study aims to explore the psychometric properties of an SJT designed to measure the construct of i...

  3. U of T Medical School uses multistep strategy to prevent sexual harassment.

    OpenAIRE

    Koba, H

    1995-01-01

    The University of Toronto medical school is using a multistep strategy in an attempt to prevent sexual harassment among students and faculty members. A driving force behind the program is Dr. Miriam Rossi, who was recently appointed associate dean of student affairs. As well, the dean of medicine sent a notice to faculty members explaining that there will be zero tolerance "for any behaviour that can be construed to be sexual harassment."

  4. A qualitative analysis of statements on motivation of applicants for medical school

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, Anouk; Bakker, Anneke H; van Wijk, Inge J; Croiset, Gerda; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2014-01-01

    Background Selection committees try to ascertain that motivated students are selected for medical school. Self-determination theory stresses that the type of motivation is more important than the quantity of motivation. Autonomous motivation, compared to controlled motivation, in students leads to better learning outcomes. Applicants can express their motivation in written statements, a selection tool which has been found to elicit heterogeneous responses, hampering the comparison of applican...

  5. Students’ Perspectives on the Fourth Year of Medical School: A Mixed-Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockspeiser, Tai M.; Gong, Jennifer; Guiton, Gretchen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the purpose and value of the fourth year of medical school from the perspective of medical students. In this study, the authors systematically explored the year’s purpose and value as determined by students. Method In April 2011, the authors conducted semistructured focus groups with graduating fourth-year students at the University of Colorado School of Medicine to understand their perspectives on the purpose of the fourth year. Using results of a thematic analysis of the focus group data, the authors developed and administered a 10-item questionnaire to all graduating fourth-year medical students in May 2011. Questionnaire data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis. Results A total of 17 students participated in two focus groups. Six themes related to the purpose of the fourth year emerged from the focus group data: career development and preparation, pursuing personal interests, career identification, exploration of diverse practice settings, influence of emotion, and flexibility and individualization. The questionnaire was completed by 134 of 148 students (91% response rate). Factor analysis of the questionnaire data identified five factors: strengthening one’s residency application, developing skills, pursuing personal interests, exploring diverse practice settings, and identifying a career. Conclusions Medical students uniformly identified the fourth year of medical school as having purpose and value, but their views on the fourth year’s purpose differed. This finding underscores the importance of the individualization of the fourth year. Students’ perspectives should inform any decisions made about modifying fourth-year curricula and structure. PMID:24556778

  6. Predicting performance at medical school: can we identify at-risk students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sami Shaban, Michelle McLeanDepartment of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab EmiratesBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive potential of multiple indicators (eg, preadmission scores, unit, module and clerkship grades, course and examination scores on academic performance at medical school, with a view to identifying students at risk.Methods: An analysis was undertaken of medical student grades in a 6-year medical school program at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, over the past 14 years.Results: While high school scores were significantly (P < 0.001 correlated with the final integrated examination, predictability was only 6.8%. Scores for the United Arab Emirates university placement assessment (Common Educational Proficiency Assessment were only slightly more promising as predictors with 14.9% predictability for the final integrated examination. Each unit or module in the first four years was highly correlated with the next unit or module, with 25%–60% predictability. Course examination scores (end of years 2, 4, and 6 were significantly correlated (P < 0.001 with the average scores in that 2-year period (59.3%, 64.8%, and 55.8% predictability, respectively. Final integrated examination scores were significantly correlated (P < 0.001 with National Board of Medical Examiners scores (35% predictability. Multivariate linear regression identified key grades with the greatest predictability of the final integrated examination score at three stages in the program.Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that it may be possible to identify “at-risk” students relatively early in their studies through continuous data archiving and regular analysis. The data analysis techniques used in this study are not unique to this institution.Keywords: at-risk students, grade

  7. Student evaluation of the academic advising process in an Iranian medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Shamsdin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine student evaluation of the academic advising process in an Iranian medical school. Method: We conducted a cross sectional survey of all fourth and fifth year students who studied medicine, nursing and laboratory technology. A short version of a validated questionnaire was administrated to 85 students (23 males and 62 females at Fasa Medical School, Iran. Results: Of the students, 48 (56 were satisfied with the academic advising process. The descriptive analysis of the study showed that many students (n=72 valued the importance of feedback on student ability in the academic advising process. A further descriptive analysis showed that 34 students (40 were satisfied that advisers were aware of their records. There was a significant difference between student's main course (χ[sup]2[/sup][sub](2[/sub] = 8.9; p = 0.012 and satisfaction with academic advising. However, the observed differences between female and male students in this study were not statistically significant (χ[sup]2[/sup][sub](1[/sub] = 2.2; p= 0.107. Conclusions: The results of this study reveal a lack of systematic planning, skills and resources for the academic advising process at the Fars Medical School. The results indicate the need for academic staff development initiatives to improve the academic advising process. An ongoing evaluation program of the academic needs of students may help to advisors to provide academic advising and academic support for students in various courses.

  8. Awareness and attitude towards human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine among medical students in a premier medical school in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha Pandey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As preventing cancer with the help of a vaccine is a comparatively new concept, awareness and education about it will have important implication in the implementation of this strategy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Present explorative questionnaire based survey included 618 MBBS students for final analysis. RESULTS: Majority of participants (89.6% were well aware of the preventable nature of cervical cancer. Most of them (89.2% knew that necessary factor responsible for cervical cancer is infection with high risk HPV. Awareness regarding the availability of vaccine against cervical cancer was 75.6%. Females had a better awareness regarding availability of vaccine, target population for vaccination and about the catch up program. Overall acceptance of HPV vaccine among the population studied was 67.8%. Medical teaching had a definitive impact on the understanding of this important public health issue. Females seemed to be more ready to accept the vaccine and recommend it to others. For our study population the most common source of information was medical school teaching. Majority of participants agreed that the most important obstacle in implementation of HPV vaccination program in our country is inadequate information and 86.2% wanted to be educated by experts in this regard. CONCLUSION: HPV vaccine for primary prevention of cervical cancer is a relatively new concept. Health professional will be able to play a pivotal role in popularizing this strategy.

  9. [Analysis on medication principles for cough based on experience of Xu Di-hua, descendant of Meng He Medical School].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-jing; Xu, Li-min; Shen, Chun-feng; Wang, Cai-hua; Shen, Chun-ti

    2015-11-01

    Based on the software of traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system (TCMISS), this article aims to analyze the experience and composition rules for cough from the descendant of Meng He Medical School, Xu Di-hua. The cough cases treated by Xu Di-hua were collected, and recorded into TCMISS (V2.0). Data mining methods such as Apriori algorithm and complex system entropy cluster were used to analyze the medication principles of Xu Di-hua for cough from pathogenesis and therapeutie aspects, and dig out the frequency of the herbs in prescription, core medicine and new combinations. The experience of curing cough from Professor Xu Di-hua were well found in the research. He is good at choosing prescriptions accurately, and pays attention to simultaneous use of cold and moisture drugs with combination of tonification and purgation. He is skilled in adding or reducing materia medica flexibly, as well as regulating lung to relieve cough and eliminating phlegm by clearing heat. PMID:27071274

  10. A model for training medical student innovators: the Harvard Medical School Center for Primary Care Abundance Agents of Change program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Duong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2013, the Harvard Medical School Center for Primary Care established the Abundance Agents of Change (AoC program to promote interprofessional learning and innovation, increase partnership between 15 academic and community health centers (CHCs in Boston's most under-served communities, and increase medical student interest in primary care careers. Methods: The AoC is modeled in the form of a ‘grants challenge’, offering $20,000 to interprofessional student teams to develop an innovative solution that addresses a healthcare delivery need identified by CHCs. The program's initial two years were characterized by a four-stage process which included working with CHCs and crafting a request for proposals, forming interprofessional 20 student teams comprising students from across and outside of Harvard University, training students using a systems-based innovation curriculum, and performing program evaluation. Results: Our evaluation data from cohorts 1 and 2 of the AoC program demonstrate that we succeeded in training students as innovators and members of interprofessional teams. We also learned valuable lessons regarding creating better alignment with CHC priorities, extending the program cycle from 12 to 18 months, and changing the way funding is disbursed to 25 students, which will be incorporated in later versions of the program. Conclusions: Based on our experience and evaluation data, we believe that this program is a replicable way to train students as innovators and members of interprofessional teams to address the current complex healthcare environment.

  11. A study of the factors influencing school-going students considering medical careers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obtaining a place in an Irish medical school is extremely competitive, a situation mirrored in many other countries. We aimed to determine the factors influencing school students in deciding to study medicine in university. We further determined what level of interest exists in pursuing a surgical career after completion of medical school. METHODS: The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland hosts an annual "Introduction to Medicine" programme for senior school children. Attendees were surveyed using a Likert scale to examine the factors influencing the group in choosing to study medicine, and pursue surgery as their ultimate career choice. RESULTS: A total of 128 completed the survey, giving a response rate of 100%. The opportunity to help others was most the most influential factors cited by students (97%). Males were significantly more likely to have an interest in a career in surgery rather than medicine (p = 0.003), and ranked "financial reward" (p = 0.036) as a more significant factors in influencing career choice than did females. CONCLUSIONS: A clear understanding of these factors influencing our students in their career choices and a strategy of recruitment based on these is imperative in order to optimize recruitment of students most suited to working as doctors.

  12. The relationship among self-efficacy, perfectionism and academic burnout in medical school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji Hye; Chae, Su Jin; Chang, Ki Hong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among academic self-efficacy, socially-prescribed perfectionism, and academic burnout in medical school students and to determine whether academic self-efficacy had a mediating role in the relationship between perfectionism and academic burnout. Methods: A total of 244 first-year and second-year premed medical students and first- to fourth-year medical students were enrolled in this study. As study tools, socially-prescribed perfectionism, academic self-efficacy, and academic burnout scales were utilized. For data analysis, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. Results: Academic burnout had correlation with socially-prescribed perfectionism. It had negative correlation with academic self-efficacy. Socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy had 54% explanatory power for academic burnout. When socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic self-efficacy were simultaneously used as input, academic self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between socially-prescribed perfectionism and academic burnout. Conclusion: Socially-prescribed perfectionism had a negative effect on academic self-efficacy, ultimately triggering academic burnout. This suggests that it is important to have educational and counseling interventions to improve academic self-efficacy by relieving academic burnout of medical school students. PMID:26838568

  13. Applying Established Guidelines to Team-Based Learning Programs in Medical Schools: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Deborah M.; Mellis, Craig M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Team-based learning (TBL), a structured form of small-group learning, has gained popularity in medical education in recent years. A growing number of medical schools have adopted TBL in a variety of combinations and permutations across a diversity of settings, learners, and content areas. The authors conducted this systematic review to establish the extent, design, and practice of TBL programs within medical schools to inform curriculum planners and education designers. Method The authors searched the MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and ERIC databases for articles on TBL in undergraduate medical education published between 2002 and 2012. They selected and reviewed articles that included original research on TBL programs and assessed the articles according to the seven core TBL design elements (team formation, readiness assurance, immediate feedback, sequencing of in-class problem solving, the four S’s [significant problem, same problem, specific choice, and simultaneous reporting], incentive structure, and peer review) described in established guidelines. Results The authors identified 20 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria. They found significant variability across the articles in terms of the application of the seven core design elements and the depth with which they were described. The majority of the articles, however, reported that TBL provided a positive learning experience for students. Conclusions In the future, faculty should adhere to a standardized TBL framework to better understand the impact and relative merits of each feature of their program. PMID:24556770

  14. Learning approaches to physiology of undergraduates in an Indian medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Reem R; Kamath, Asha; Upadhya, Subramanya; Ramnarayan, Komattil

    2006-09-01

    Inventories monitoring students' learning approaches are widely used in medical education research. It is important that teaching interventions adopted in medical schools aim to develop a deep approach to learning in medical students. To study the changes in medical students' approaches to learning before and after the incorporation of clinically orientated physiology teaching (COPT) in the undergraduate physiology curriculum, using the Short Inventory of Approaches to Learning (SIAL). Medical students (n = 223) at Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus) undertake a 9-week learning block of endocrine, reproductive and renal physiology in Year 1. During this period, COPT was incorporated along with regular didactic lectures with the intention of enhancing the use of the deep approach and decreasing the use of the surface and strategic approaches to learning taken by the students. The SIAL, which focuses on the learning approaches of students to physiology, was distributed both before and after COPT. The implementation of COPT seemed to affect the learning approaches of students as measured by the SIAL. After the introduction of COPT, there was a significant increase in the use of the deep learning approach, while the majority of subscales for the surface approach showed decreased use. Nevertheless, use of the strategic approach was found to have increased after COPT. The SIAL was found to be a fairly reliable tool with which to determine the learning approaches of medical students. Clinically orientated physiology teaching was successful in enhancing use of the deep approach to learning and reducing use of the surface approach among undergraduate medical students. PMID:16925643

  15. Mentoring During Medical School and Match Outcome Among Emergency Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Dehon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies have documented the value of mentoring for medical students, and research has been limited to more subjective (e.g., job satisfaction, perceived career preparation rather than objective outcomes. This study examined whether having a mentor is associated with match outcome (where a student matched based on their rank order list [ROL]. Methods: We sent a survey link to all emergency medicine (EM program coordinators to distribute to their residents. EM residents were surveyed about whether they had a mentor during medical school. Match outcome was assessed by asking residents where they matched on their ROL (e.g., first choice, fifth choice. They were also asked about rank in medical school, type of degree (MD vs. DO, and performance on standardized tests. Residents who indicated having a mentor completed the Mentorship Effectiveness Scale (MES, which evaluates behavioral characteristics of the mentor and yields a total score. We assessed correlations among these variables using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Post-hoc analysis using independent sample t-test was conducted to compare differences in the MES score between those who matched to their first or second choice vs. third or higher choice. Results: Participants were a convenience sample of 297 EM residents. Of those, 199 (67% reported having a mentor during medical school. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no significant correlation between having a mentor and match outcome (r=0.06, p=0.29. Match outcome was associated with class rank (r=0.13, p=0.03, satisfaction with match outcome (r= -0.37, p<0.001, and type of degree (r=0.12, p=0.04. Among those with mentors, a t-test revealed that the MES score was significantly higher among those who matched to their first or second choice (M=51.31, SD=10.13 compared to those who matched to their third or higher choice (M=43.59, SD=17.12, t(194=3.65, p<0.001, d=0.55. Conclusion: Simply having a mentor during medical

  16. Organizational role stress among medical school faculty members in Iran: dealing with role conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brommels Mats

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little research has been conducted to investigate role stress experienced by faculty members in medical schools in developing countries. This becomes even more important when the process of reform in medical education has already taken place, such as the case of Iran. The objectives of this study were to investigate and assess the level and source of role-related stress as well as dimensions of conflict among the faculty members of Iranian medical schools. Variables like the length of academic work, academic rank, employment position, and the departments of affiliation were also taken into consideration in order to determine potentially related factors. Methods A survey was conducted at three different ranks of public medical schools. The validated Organizational Role Stress Scale was used to investigate the level of role stress and dimensions of role conflict among medical faculty members. The response rate was 66.5%. Results The findings show that role stress was experienced in high level among almost all faculty members. All three studied medical schools with different ranks are threatened with relatively the same levels of role stress. Specific differences were found among faculty members from different disciplines, and academic ranks. Also having permanent position and the length of services had significant correlation with the level of role stress. The major role- related stress and forms of conflict among faculty members were role overload, role expectation conflict, inter-role distance, resource inadequacy, role stagnation, and role isolation. Conclusion The most role-related stressors and forms of conflict among faculty members include too many tasks and everyday work load; conflicting demands from colleagues and superiors; incompatible demands from their different personal and organizational roles; inadequate resources for appropriate performance; insufficient competency to meet the demands of their role; inadequate

  17. Lifetime use of illicit drugs and associated factors among Brazilian schoolchildren, National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

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    Rogério Lessa Horta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at describing the prevalence of illicit drug use among 9th grade students in the morning period of public and private schools in Brazil, and assessing associated factors. METHOD: The Brazilian survey PeNSE (National Adolescent School-based Health Survey 2012 evaluated a representative sample of 9th grade students in the morning period, in Brazil and its five regions. The use of illicit drugs at least once in life was assessed for the most commonly used drugs, such as marijuana, cocaine, crack, solvent-based glue, general ether-based inhalants, ecstasy and oxy. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis, and Pearson's χ2 test and logistic regression was used in the multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The use of illicit drugs at least once in life was reported by 7.3% (95%CI 5.3 - 9.4 of the respondents. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis and the evidences suggest that illicit drug use is associated to social conditions of greater consumption power, the use of alcohol and tobacco, behaviors related to socialization, such as having friends or sexual activity, and also the perception of loneliness, loose contact between school and parents and experiences of abuse in the family environment. The outcome was inversely associated with close contact with parents and parental supervision. CONCLUSION: In addition to the association with the processes of socialization and consumption, the influence of family and school is expressed in a particularly protective manner in different records of direct supervision and care.

  18. An Evaluation of Physician-to-Patient Communication Training in Medical Schools across the United States: A Status Report on the Nation's Efforts to Promote Health Literacy by Adding Health Literacy Courses to Medical School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Andrea P.

    2012-01-01

    This research study employed a mixed method sequential approach and investigated the number of Schools of Medicine within the United States that offer health literacy as a component of their curriculum and a course of study within the academic setting. Data were gathered from medical school surveys and personal interviews. Curriculum content,…

  19. Predictive validity of the UK clinical aptitude test in the final years of medical school: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Husbands, Adrian; Mathieson, Alistair; Dowell, Jonathan; Cleland, Jennifer; MacKenzie, Rhoda

    2014-01-01

    Background The UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) was designed to address issues identified with traditional methods of selection. This study aims to examine the predictive validity of the UKCAT and compare this to traditional selection methods in the senior years of medical school. This was a follow-up study of two cohorts of students from two medical schools who had previously taken part in a study examining the predictive validity of the UKCAT in first year. Methods The sample consisted of ...

  20. Medical Students’ Clinical Skills Do Not Match Their Teachers’ Expectations: Survey at Zagreb University School of Medicine, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Sičaja, Mario; Romić, Dominik; Prka, Željko

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate self-assessed level of clinical skills of graduating medical students at Zagreb University School of Medicine and compare them with clinical skill levels expected by their teachers and those defined by a criterion standard. Method: The study included all medical students (n = 252) graduating from the Zagreb University School of Medicine in the 2004-2005 academic year and faculty members (n = 129) involved in teaching clinical skills. The participants completed anonymous qu...

  1. Follow-up study of the regional quota system of Japanese medical schools and prefecture scholarship programmes: a study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Takeuchi, Keisuke; Tanaka, Junko; Tazuma, Susumu; Inoue, Kazuo; Owaki, Tetsuhiro; Iguchi, Seitaro; Maeda, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Given the shortage of physicians, particularly in rural areas, the Japanese government has rapidly expanded the number of medical school students by adding chiikiwaku (regional quotas) since 2008. Quota entrants now account for 17% of all medical school entrants. Quota entrants are usually local high school graduates who receive a scholarship from the prefecture government. In exchange, they temporarily practise in that prefecture, including its rural areas, after graduation. Many prefectures also have scholarship programmes for non-quota students in exchange for postgraduate in-prefecture practice. The objective of this cohort study, conducted by the Japanese Council for Community-based Medical Education, is to evaluate the outcomes of the quota admission system and prefecture scholarship programmes nationwide. Methods and analysis There are 3 groups of study participants: quota without scholarship, quota with scholarship and non-quota with scholarship. Under the support of government ministries and the Association of Japan Medical Colleges, and participation of all prefectures and medical schools, passing rate of the National Physician License Examination, scholarship buy-out rate, geographic distribution and specialties distribution of each group are analysed. Participants who voluntarily participated are followed by linking their baseline information to data in the government's biennial Physician Census. Results to date have shown that, despite medical schools' concerns about academic quality, the passing rate of the National Physician License Examination in each group was higher than that of all medical school graduates. Ethics and dissemination The Ethics Committee for Epidemiological Research of Hiroshima University and the Research Ethics Committee of Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences permitted this study. No individually identifiable results will be presented in conferences or published in journals. The aggregated

  2. A computerized representation of a medical school curriculum: integration of relational and text management software in database design.

    OpenAIRE

    Mattern, W. D.; Wagner, J A; Brown, J.S.; Fisher-Neenan, L.

    1991-01-01

    We describe the development of a computer-based representation of the medical school curriculum at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH). Over the past seven years the Medical School's Office of Academic Affairs has employed both relational database and text management software to design an integrated curriculum database system. Depending on the function selected--exploring the curriculum, searching through course outlines, retrieving elective descriptions, identifying teac...

  3. Development of a Medical School Admissions Interview Phase 2: Predictive Validity of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Streyffeler, Lisa; Altmaier, Elizabeth M.; Kuperman, Samuel; Patrick, Luke E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Interest in improving medical school admissions processes led to the development of a structured admissions interview to eliminate potential bias and provide valid information for selection. This article reports on the degree to which this interview, along with other admissions variables, predicted later student performance during medical school. Methods: All applicants considered for admission participated in the new interview. Interview scores and regular admissions data were co...

  4. How do medical school applicants respond to the requirement for 'work experience'? An exploration of 'going abroad'

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Stephen,; Timm, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Arranging work experience prior to medical school can for many potential applicants prove extremely difficult, with access to clinical settings often considered the ideal type. Potential applicants struggle to interpret the official guidance from medical schools1, making the application process intensely unsettling. Anecdotal evidence suggests that some UK-based candidates have been responding to these perceived requirements by paying to undertake commerc...

  5. A holistic review of the medical school admission process: examining correlates of academic underperformance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry D. Stratton

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite medical school admission committees’ best efforts, a handful of seemingly capable students invariably struggle during their first year of study. Yet, even as entrance criteria continue to broaden beyond cognitive qualifications, attention inevitably reverts back to such factors when seeking to understand these phenomena. Using a host of applicant, admission, and post-admission variables, the purpose of this inductive study, then, was to identify a constellation of student characteristics that, taken collectively, would be predictive of students at-risk of underperforming during the first year of medical school. In it, we hypothesize that a wider range of factors than previously recognized could conceivably play roles in understanding why students experience academic problems early in the medical educational continuum. Methods: The study sample consisted of the five most recent matriculant cohorts from a large, southeastern medical school (n=537. Independent variables reflected: 1 the personal demographics of applicants (e.g., age, gender; 2 academic criteria (e.g., undergraduate grade point averages [GPA], medical college admission test; 3 selection processes (e.g., entrance track, interview scores, committee votes; and 4 other indicators of personality and professionalism (e.g., Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test™ emotional intelligence scores, NEO PI-R™ personality profiles, and appearances before the Professional Code Committee [PCC]. The dependent variable, first-year underperformance, was defined as ANY action (repeat, conditionally advance, or dismiss by the college's Student Progress and Promotions Committee (SPPC in response to predefined academic criteria. This study protocol was approved by the local medical institutional review board (IRB. Results: Of the 537 students comprising the study sample, 61 (11.4% met the specified criterion for academic underperformance. Significantly increased

  6. Sultan Bayezid II Külliyesi: one of the earliest medical schools--founded in 1488.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heybeli, Nurettin

    2009-09-01

    During the 8th to 13th centuries, Islamic medicine went through a golden age which influenced medical education and practice in the Ottomans, who conserved fundamental features of Islamic civilization. A külliye is an Ottoman architectural concept that designates a complex with a central mosque and a series of ancillary buildings surrounding it. Sultan Bayezid II Külliyesi of Edirne, Turkey is an early characteristic example with its sections, and in particular, with the medical school and hospital. The other constructed units were built to complete the hospital service in social, cultural, religious and financial aspects. This foundation (vakif, waqf in Arabic) of health was a trust with deeds that contain notable information regarding hospital management, and the duties, responsibilities, qualities, and proficiency standards requisite for physicians. The Külliye, established in the 15th century, provided substantial contributions to medical and scientific history, and patient care. Together with the history of the Külliye, I will focus on the medical books of the period, in particular works of Serefeddin Sabuncuoğlu who used the Turkish language instead of Arabic and color illustrations and his two books which were the main medical books of the period combining knowledge of Greek, Roman, Arabic, and Turkish acquirements. PMID:19067095

  7. Self-medication among secondary school pupils in Hong Kong: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, M H; Chung, J T; Munro, J G

    1989-12-01

    A self-completion questionnaire was used to survey self-medication among secondary school pupils in Hong Kong. Data were collected from 4793 pupils aged 10 to 23 years (55.9% female and 44.1% male). Nearly three quarters (72.1%) had taken self-medication without consulting a medical practitioner and 51.8% of the sample had done so without the knowledge of older family members. The prevalence of self-medication increased with age. More than half the pupils (50.4%) indicated that trivial illness did not warrant a consultation with a doctor. Information relating to the sources of self-administered drugs, types of drugs used and sources of information about these drugs was collected. Medicine cabinets at home and pharmacy shops were the two most common places from which the pupils obtained their drugs. Though the prevalence of taking tranquillizers and sleeping tablets was found to be low, the probability of young people, especially boys, obtaining dangerous drugs from these places should not be overlooked. The medical, nursing and teaching professions should take a more active role in health education, as the sources from which the pupils obtained their drug knowledge, in descending order of frequency, were: family members, previous illness experience, pharmacy shops, doctor or nurse, television or radio, newspapers or magazines, friends and teachers. PMID:2632309

  8. Knowledge of Hazards of Self-Medication among Secondary School Students in Ethiopia East Local Government Area of Delta State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyeke, Patrick; Dafe, Onoharigho Festus

    2016-01-01

    This study is set out to ascertain the knowledge of hazards of self-medication among Secondary School Students. The descriptive Survey design was adopted for the work. The population of the study is 9,500 students in the public Secondary Schools, in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. The sample is 300 students randomly selected…

  9. Medical school survival versus social responsibility: finances as a driving force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, E N

    1989-01-01

    Medical educators are an interesting group of people. They thrive on new knowledge. They get excited and enthusiastic, and readily adopt new ways when the evidence is sufficient. Yet, at the same time, they resist with great vehemence change in the way they do their business. Ask how often the curriculum structure is examined. Indeed, the function of most curriculum committees is to ensure that that does not happen. Ask how often the criteria for medical school admission are examined, especially with respect to the knowledge requirements. Ask how often the faculty discusses, or even examines, the expectations of society as they are expressed by alumni, legislators, or members of the public. Ask how often faculties try to determine strategies for dealing with all of these external forces. Are those strategies approached with the same degree of objectivity and data-gathering skills that would be used in examining new therapeutic regimens? Medical educators are talented, creative people. They have a very large appetite for information and great ambition to be as fine academicians as possible. It is those characteristics that have served them well, as students and as responsible academicians. Indeed, the great strength of medical education, in my view, is that medical schools take some very bright people called faculty and some very bright people called students, mix them together for four years, and graduate a group of very smart people who will then spend three years or more mixed up with some very bright and creative people. That is a strength that can-not lost. Will the future allow us to continue that in an equally effective manner? PMID:2734361

  10. A Comparison of Student Performance on Discipline-Specific versus Integrated Exams in a Medical School Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew R.; Braun, Mark W.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.

    2013-01-01

    Curricular reform is a widespread trend among medical schools. Assessing the impact that pedagogical changes have on students is a vital step in review process. This study examined how a shift from discipline-focused instruction and assessment to integrated instruction and assessment affected student performance in a second-year medical school…

  11. Predicting the Admission into Medical School of African American College Students Who Have Participated in Summer Academic Enrichment Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, Al; Cregler, Louis L.; Lewis, Lloyd

    1998-01-01

    A study of 309 African American college students in summer academic enrichment programs at the Medical College of Georgia from 1980-89 found the most significant predictors of medical school admission were the Scholastic Assessment Test math score, summer program grade point average, college grade point average, career aspirations, college type,…

  12. Contributions of monastic medicine: from Hippocratic School to Salernitan Medical School. De urinis et pulsis secundum praecepta dionisi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Luigi; Avagliano, F

    2002-07-01

    Due to the intense relationship between Byzantium and the Abbey of Montecassino, which lasted for about three centuries, some of the Hippocratic Medical Texts were gathered by the Roman Catholic Church during the last years of the Roman Empire. Some texts were transferred directly from the Byzantine Empire to the abbey. Some of the earliest texts which were written in Greek and Latin have been lost; afterwards they were only written in Latin and in Beneventano-Cassinese type. They constituted the basis of medical assistance that was given in the "ospitia" near the monastery to sick monks and pilgrims needing treatment on their way from Rome to Monte Sant'Angelo of Gargano. The Diuresis et pulsis secundum praecepta Dionisi is kept in Cod. Cas. No. 69 (10th century), pp 551-562, in the Montecassino archive. The author of this text tried to perform a urine examination considering the clinical signs, such as high temperature and pulse examination. The text is thought to have been written by Dionysius, a Hippocratic physician and contemporary of Herophilus, who lived around the 4th century BC. This text was read again in the Salernitan Medical School and compared with other texts from Arabic countries also influenced by Hippocrates. PMID:12097734

  13. Avaliação de descritores na angiologia e cirurgia vascular em artigos publicados em dois periódicos nacionais The current medical subjects headings in two brazilian vascular medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eymard Francisco Brito de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A recuperação de referências na literatura biomédica está normatizada pelos Descritores em Ciências da Saúde (DeCS, contudo os autores de artigos científicos nem sempre obedecem ao regulamentado, o que causa dificuldade a localização da informação. Os autores avaliaram os Descritores em Ciências da Saúde em artigos de dois periódicos nacionais, na angiologia e cirurgia vascular no período de 1995 a 2000 em relação a adequada utilização dos descritores de acordo com a listagem do DeCS 2001 e do MeSH 1994. Foram estudados os descritores em 186 artigos publicados em 02 periódicos da especialidade. Foi observado que a maioria dos descritores empregados não estão de acordo com o DeCS 2001 e com o MeSH 1994. Concluiu-se que a indexação deva ser uma atividade dinâmica e que novos termos devem ser acrescentados para acompanhar o desenvolvimento da especialidade.Por outro lado, percebe-se uma desinformação por parte dos autores, que devem ser estimulados a utilizarem corretamente os descritores e a sugerirem a inclusão dos novos termos, como prevê a sistemática da indexação.MeSH - indexed internet health directories must provide a fast and safety research of the scientific information. Otherwise, for this purpose, it is necessary that the authors choose the adequate and available headings. Our research goal is to explore two brazilian vascular medical journals from the headings included in MEDLINE and LILACS documents and determine how well the authors were using the medical subject headings. The Medline and Lilacs database were searched from published 1996 to 2000 and queried with the list of DeCs 2001(MeSH Portuguese version and MeSH 1994. We describe here that about 186 articles were reviewed, in two journals of the speciality and found that most of them were out of the standard terms suggested by the MeSH. We concluded, despite the indexation must be a dynamic performance, the authors must be better informed about the

  14. Caffeinating the PBL return session: Curriculum innovations to engage students at two medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korin, Tatum; Thode, Joan Brumbaugh; Kakar, Seema; Blatt, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    At the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, and the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, authors observed that problem-based learning (PBL) return sessions for first- and second-year medical students often lacked the energy and engagement of first sessions. Unlike in first sessions, where students took on the physician's role and actively problem solved, in return sessions students spent much of their time passively, listening to research reports on learning objectives. Time spent listening to reports dilutes return session impact, with the patient receding from view as the level of abstraction increases and learning issues take center stage. In this Perspective, the authors present innovations, developed separately at their respective medical schools between 2009 and 2012, designed to reenergize the return session.To frame the discussion of the return session slump and their innovations in response to it, the authors used self-determination theory (SDT) and active learning theory (ALT), both of which are supported by a considerable body of evidence. SDT provides understanding of how to maximize PBL learners' motivation, and ALT sheds light on how to promote PBL learners' incorporation of concepts into long-term memory. As motivation and memory are key factors in learning, both theories are appropriate tools to help understand and maximize the effectiveness of PBL. Finally, guided by these theories, the authors present reflections on future directions for the development of PBL. PMID:24988419

  15. Commentary: Interim leadership of academic departments at U.S. medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, R Kevin; Aber, Robert C; Quillen, David A

    2009-10-01

    Medical schools and teaching hospitals are experiencing more frequent turnover of department chairs. Loss of a department chair creates instability in the department and may have a negative effect on the organization at large. Interim leadership of academic departments is common, and interim chairs are expected to immediately demonstrate skills and leadership abilities. However, little is known about how persons are prepared to assume the interim chair role. Newer competencies for effective leadership include an understanding of the business of medicine, interpersonal and communication skills, the ability to deal with conflict and solve adaptive challenges, and the ability to build and work on teams. Medical schools and teaching hospitals need assistance to meet the unique training and support needs of persons serving as interim leaders. For example, the Association of American Medical Colleges and individual chair societies can develop programs to allow current chairs to reflect on their present positions and plan for the future. Formal leadership training, mentorship opportunities, and conscientious succession planning are good first steps in preparing to meet the needs of academic departments during transitions in leadership. Also, interim leadership experience may be useful as a means for "opening the door" to underrepresented persons, including women, and increasing the diversity of the leadership team. PMID:19881413

  16. Implications of aligning full registration of doctors with medical school graduation: a qualitative study of stakeholder perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Mattick, K L; Kaufhold, K; Kelly, N; Cole, J A; Scheffler, G; Rees, C. E.; Bullock, A; Gormley, G J; Monrouxe, L V

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Shape of Training report recommended that full registration is aligned with medical school graduation. As part of a General Medical Council-funded study about the preparedness for practice of UK medical graduates, we explored UK stakeholders' views about this proposal using qualitative interviews (30 group and 87 individual interviews) and Framework Analysis.SETTING: Four UK study sites, one in each country.SavePARTICIPANTS: 185 individuals from eight stakeholder groups: (1) f...

  17. Life satisfaction and resilience in medical school – a six-year longitudinal, nationwide and comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gronvold Nina T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the relationship between life satisfaction among medical students and a basic model of personality, stress and coping. Previous studies have shown relatively high levels of distress, such as symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts in medical undergraduates. However despite the increased focus on positive psychological health and well-being during the past decades, only a few studies have focused on life satisfaction and coping in medical students. This is the first longitudinal study which has identified predictors of sustained high levels of life satisfaction among medical students. Methods This longitudinal, nationwide questionnaire study examined the course of life satisfaction during medical school, compared the level of satisfaction of medical students with that of other university students, and identified resilience factors. T-tests were used to compare means of life satisfaction between and within the population groups. K-means cluster analyses were applied to identify subgroups among the medical students. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the subgroups. Results Life satisfaction decreased during medical school. Medical students were as satisfied as other students in the first year of study, but reported less satisfaction in their graduation year. Medical students who sustained high levels of life satisfaction perceived medical school as interfering less with their social and personal life, and were less likely to use emotion focused coping, such as wishful thinking, than their peers. Conclusion Medical schools should encourage students to spend adequate time on their social and personal lives and emphasise the importance of health-promoting coping strategies.

  18. The Contribution of Ethnobiology to the Construction of a Dialogue Between Ways of Knowing: A Case Study in a Brazilian Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Geilsa Costa Santos; El-Hani, Charbel Niño

    2009-04-01

    This paper reports results obtained in pedagogical interventions in a Brazilian public high school which aimed at promoting a dialogue between scientific and traditional knowledge in the context of biology teaching. The interventions were based on the use of a didactic material and teaching sequence elaborated on the grounds of school knowledge about botany, as presented in biology textbooks, and interviews with students who were also farmers, so as to gather data about their ethnobiological knowledge. Our goal was to develop and test resources that can offer support for teachers who wish to build a dialogue between different ways of knowing in multicultural settings. Our results indicate that the use of the didactic material and teaching sequence indeed created possibilities for a dialogue between the students’ ethnobiological knowledge and biology school knowledge. We observed some shortcomings in classroom practice, partly reflecting our very choice of subject matter to develop the teaching sequence. But the interventions also revealed important limitations that we regard as representative of problems that may generally make multicultural science teaching a hard goal to achieve. It was clear that important shortcomings were related to teachers’ difficulties to conduct a dialogue between ways of knowing in a science classroom, and, thus, called attention to the importance of introducing a multicultural dimension into teacher education. We also observed that the fact that students did not show much sensitivity towards dealing with cultural diversity was a factor constraining the success of the interventions. These results highlight the importance of proposing and testing teacher education initiatives aiming at preparing them to teach science in a culturally sensitive manner, and also managing classroom tensions and conflicts so as to make it possible an effective dialogue between different ways of knowing in a multicultural setting.

  19. An evaluation of the performance in the UK Royal College of Anaesthetists primary examination by UK medical school and gender

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    Watmough Simon D

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been comparatively little consideration of the impact that the changes to undergraduate curricula might have on postgraduate academic performance. This study compares the performance of graduates by UK medical school and gender in the Multiple Choice Question (MCQ section of the first part of the Fellowship of the Royal College of Anaesthetists (FRCA examination. Methods Data from each sitting of the MCQ section of the primary FRCA examination from June 1999 to May 2008 were analysed for performance by medical school and gender. Results There were 4983 attempts at the MCQ part of the examination by 3303 graduates from the 19 United Kingdom medical schools. Using the standardised overall mark minus the pass mark graduates from five medical schools performed significantly better than the mean for the group and five schools performed significantly worse than the mean for the group. Males performed significantly better than females in all aspects of the MCQ – physiology, mean difference = 3.0% (95% CI 2.3, 3.7, p Conclusion Graduates from each of the medical schools in the UK do show differences in performance in the MCQ section of the primary FRCA, but significant curriculum change does not lead to deterioration in post graduate examination performance. Whilst females now outnumber males taking the MCQ, they are not performing as well as the males.

  20. Does Emotional Intelligence at Medical School Admission Predict Future Academic Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, John J.; Wood, Timothy J.; Puddester, Derek; Moineau, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Medical school admissions committees are increasingly considering noncognitive measures like emotional intelligence (EI) in evaluating potential applicants. This study explored whether scores on an EI abilities test at admissions predicted future academic performance in medical school to determine whether EI could be used in making admissions decisions. Method The authors invited all University of Ottawa medical school applicants offered an interview in 2006 and 2007 to complete the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso EI Test (MSCEIT) at the time of their interview (105 and 101, respectively), then again at matriculation (120 and 106, respectively). To determine predictive validity, they correlated MSCEIT scores to scores on written examinations and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) administered during the four-year program. They also correlated MSCEIT scores to the number of nominations for excellence in clinical performance and failures recorded over the four years. Results The authors found no significant correlations between MSCEIT scores and written examination scores or number of failures. The correlations between MSCEIT scores and total OSCE scores ranged from 0.01 to 0.35; only MSCEIT scores at matriculation and OSCE year 4 scores for the 2007 cohort were significantly correlated. Correlations between MSCEIT scores and clinical nominations were low (range 0.12–0.28); only the correlation between MSCEIT scores at matriculation and number of clinical nominations for the 2007 cohort were statistically significant. Conclusions EI, as measured by an abilities test at admissions, does not appear to reliably predict future academic performance. Future studies should define the role of EI in admissions decisions. PMID:24556771

  1. Use of Medical Plants in Schools Communities from Sinop, Mato Grosso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Urtado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study was conducted in Sinop, Mato Grosso, on two school communities. It was applied semi-structured questionnaires with questions focused on socioeconomic and the use of medicinal plants. It has as finality proved the effective use of medicinal plants on the everyday and a levy of the most used plant. The general profile of the respondents has shown that the women detain the major part of the knowledge, and that pass this uses to the future generations and friends, and find these plants on specialty stores, backyards, supermarket, root stores, bush and fairs. The plants that were found more frequently was (Ruta graveolens L., Babosa (Aloe vera L., Erva-Cidreira (Lippia alba Mill., Erva-Santa-Maria (Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Boldo (Plectranthus amboinicus Spreng., Hortel(Menta x vilosa Huds. e Terramicina (Alternanthera dentata Moench..Keywords: medical plants, Sinop, school.

  2. A 12-year comparison of students’ perspectives on diversity at a Jesuit Medical School

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    Imran Mujawar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have assessed perspectives of medical students toward institutional diversity, but few of them have attempted to map changes in diversity climate over time. Objective: This study aims to investigate changes in diversity climate at a Jesuit medical institution over a 12-year period. Methods: In 1999, 334 medical students completed an anonymous self-administered online survey, and 12 years later, 406 students completed a comparable survey in 2011. Chi-square tests assessed the differences in percent responses to questions of the two surveys, related to three identities: gender, race, and sexual orientation. Results: The 1999 versus 2011 samples were 46% versus 49% female, 61% versus 61% Caucasian, and 41% vs. 39% aged 25 years or older. Findings suggested improvements in medical students’ perceptions surrounding equality ‘in general’ across the three identities (p<0.001; ‘in the practice of medicine’ based on gender (p<0.001, race/ethnicity (p=0.60, and sexual orientation (p=0.43; as well as in the medical school curriculum, including course text content, professor's delivery and student–faculty interaction (p<0.001 across the three identities. There was a statistically significant decrease in experienced or witnessed events related to gender bias (p<0.001 from 1999 to 2011; however, reported events of bias based on race/ethnicity (p=0.69 and sexual orientation (p=0.58 only showed small decreases. Conclusions: It may be postulated that the improvement in students’ self-perceptions of equality and diversity over the past 12 years may have been influenced by a generational acceptance of cultural diversity and, the inclusion of diversity training courses within the medical curriculum. Diversity training related to race and sexual orientation should be expanded, including a follow-up survey to assess the effectiveness of any intervention.

  3. A 12-year comparison of students’ perspectives on diversity at a Jesuit Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujawar, Imran; Sabatino, Matt; Mitchell, Stephen Ray; Walker, Benjamin; Weissinger, Peggy; Plankey, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have assessed perspectives of medical students toward institutional diversity, but few of them have attempted to map changes in diversity climate over time. Objective This study aims to investigate changes in diversity climate at a Jesuit medical institution over a 12-year period. Methods In 1999, 334 medical students completed an anonymous self-administered online survey, and 12 years later, 406 students completed a comparable survey in 2011. Chi-square tests assessed the differences in percent responses to questions of the two surveys, related to three identities: gender, race, and sexual orientation. Results The 1999 versus 2011 samples were 46% versus 49% female, 61% versus 61% Caucasian, and 41% vs. 39% aged 25 years or older. Findings suggested improvements in medical students’ perceptions surrounding equality ‘in general’ across the three identities (p<0.001); ‘in the practice of medicine’ based on gender (p<0.001), race/ethnicity (p=0.60), and sexual orientation (p=0.43); as well as in the medical school curriculum, including course text content, professor’s delivery and student–faculty interaction (p<0.001) across the three identities. There was a statistically significant decrease in experienced or witnessed events related to gender bias (p<0.001) from 1999 to 2011; however, reported events of bias based on race/ethnicity (p=0.69) and sexual orientation (p=0.58) only showed small decreases. Conclusions It may be postulated that the improvement in students’ self-perceptions of equality and diversity over the past 12 years may have been influenced by a generational acceptance of cultural diversity and, the inclusion of diversity training courses within the medical curriculum. Diversity training related to race and sexual orientation should be expanded, including a follow-up survey to assess the effectiveness of any intervention. PMID:24581334

  4. Utilização de medicamentos por idosos brasileiros, de acordo com a faixa etária: um inquérito postal Use of medications by elderly Brazilians according to age: a postal survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Lourenço da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar fatores associados ao uso de medicamentos por idosos. Foi realizado um inquérito postal nacional, com 3 mil idosos, selecionados com base no cadastro do Instituto Nacional do Seguro Social. Foram estimadas a prevalência e a média de medicamentos utilizados nos 15 dias anteriores à pesquisa, segundo faixas etárias. A prevalência de uso de medicamentos foi de 83%, sendo de 87,3% no grupo de 70 anos ou mais, e de 78,8% no de 60-69 anos (p The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with use of medicines by the elderly. A national postal survey was conducted with a random sample of 3,000 elderly individuals selected from the registry of the Brazilian National Social Security Institute. The study estimated the prevalence and average number of medicines used in the 15 days prior to the survey, according to age bracket. Prevalence of use of medication was 83.0%: 78.8% in the 60-69 year bracket and 87.3% in individuals 70 years or older (p < 0.05. Older elders had taken an average of 4.4 drugs, as compared to 3.3 among younger elders. Drugs for the cardiovascular system were the most widely used. Age 70 years and older, female gender, poor self-rated health, interruption of routine daily activities, six or more medical visits in the previous year, private health insurance, and reporting of four or more illnesses were independently associated with use of medications (p < 0.05. The results expand the knowledge on use of medications among elderly Brazilians, emphasizing the need to improve pharmaceutical care focused on this subgroup of the population.

  5. Implementing a simpler approach to mission-based planning in a medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Tod B; Kaye, Celia I; Allen, William R; Magness, Brian E; Wartman, Steven A

    2005-11-01

    Changes in the education, research, and health care environments have had a major impact on the way in which medical schools fulfill their missions, and mission-based management approaches have been suggested to link the financial information of mission costs and revenues with measures of mission activity and productivity. The authors describe a simpler system, termed Mission-Aligned Planning (MAP), and its development and implementation, during fiscal years 2002 and 2003, at the School of Medicine at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Texas. The MAP system merges financial measures and activity measures to allow a broad understanding of the mission activities, to facilitate strategic planning at the school and departmental levels. During the two fiscal years mentioned above, faculty of the school of medicine reported their annual hours spent in the four missions of teaching, research, clinical care, and administration and service in a survey designed by the faculty. A financial profit or loss in each mission was determined for each department by allocation of all departmental expenses and revenues to each mission. Faculty expenses (and related expenses) were allocated to the missions based on the percentage of faculty effort in each mission. This information was correlated with objective measures of mission activities. The assessment of activity allowed a better understanding of the real costs of mission activities by linking salary costs, assumed to be related to faculty time, to the missions. This was a basis for strategic planning and for allocation of institutional resources. PMID:16249297

  6. Salerno, saints, and Sutton's Law: on the origin of Europe's "First" medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, Jacalyn

    2009-08-01

    When the famous bank robber, Willie Sutton was asked why he robbed banks, he replied, ''Because that's where the money is'' The Salerno school is often described as the first European school of medicine. Many scholars have offered theories to account for its origins, including the idea that it is merely a historical "construct" and not a school at all. This paper proposes another hypothesis based on a juxtaposition of primary sources, secondary literature, and observations of religious worship in the Salerno region. An extraordinary number of sites sacred to the memory of doctor saints dot the coastal promontory near Salerno. This concentration of medical saints might be explained by the church catering to a populace aware of the secular healing tradition in nearby Salerno. But if the saints came with or even before the school, both church and medicine could be seen as responding to a preexisting local need. Sutton's Law points to another hypothesis. Famous for its climate, gardens, and natural beauty, the coast served as a health resort since at least the time of ancient Rome. As a result, sick people with resources have long traveled to the region in search of comfort and cures. Saints and doctors followed the sick (and their money). PMID:19356856

  7. General practice career intentions among graduate-entry students: a cross-sectional study at Ireland's newest medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, G; Dunne, C; English, A; Finucane, P; O'Connor, R; Griffin, M; O'Sullivan, B; Hanrahan, C; McGrath, D; O'Donovan, N; Cullen, W

    2014-02-01

    Increased care provision and clinical activity in General Practice in Ireland will have important manpower implications. Recent developments in medical education policy including the introduction of graduate-entry medical degree programmes may help address this issue. The aim of this study was to determine GP career intentions among students on an Irish graduate-entry medical degree programme and to identify factors that influence these. An electronic cross-sectional study of students at University of Limerick Graduate-Entry Medical School (UL-GEMS) was undertaken. We received 139 replies (78% response rate). 41 (29%) reported GP was their current preferred career choice, while 29 (19%) reported it was their preferred career choice on entry to medical school. This first study to present data on GP career intentions among graduate-entry students in Ireland highlights the specialty as a popular preferred career choice among students, both on entry to, and during medical school. The study also identifies factors which are likely to be important in determining career intentions. Further research to examine this issue at other graduate-entry medical schools in Ireland and to determine whether our findings are pursued over time amongst graduates is a priority. PMID:24654489

  8. MECHANIZATION IN A NEW MEDICAL SCHOOL LIBRARY. I. ACQUISITIONS AND CATALOGING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DIVETT, R T

    1965-01-01

    The organization of a new medical school library offered a unique opportunity to develop machine methods of bibliographic control and to use electronic data processing for library routines. The development of the program and an analysis of major problems is reported. The program uses IBM record unit, punched card equipment: the IBM 407 Model E8 Accounting Machine, the IBM 26 Printing Card Punch, the IBM 82 Sorter, and the IBM 85 Collator. The total machine rental. with educational discount, for the program is $506.50 per month. A specific report is given of the ordering. receiving, and processing (including cataloging) procedures. PMID:14223734

  9. A return to the past: a student perspective on medical school pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelliPizzi, A

    2000-01-01

    In 1989, the second-year medical school pharmacology course at New York Medical College was revised to help improve student and faculty morale, improve scores on class exams and the U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), and encourage more active student participation in the course. Rather than incorporating new and innovative teaching techniques, the course adapted a more classical presentation of material. Traditional blackboard lectures replaced lectures aided by the use of slides, overheads, and extensive handouts. Transcripts and the tape recording of lectures were prohibited. Higher standards for students were set with the implementation of a passing grade, initially set at 65% and increased to 66%. Review sessions with senior graduate students were incorporated, and the use of live animal demonstrations was continued. Despite the return toward a more traditional classroom, students' satisfaction with the course continues to be high, with an overall 80% satisfaction rating. Attendance at lectures is quite high (> or = 80%). In addition, student scores on the USMLE continue to improve, and the number of students failing pharmacology continues to decrease. Overall, these trends indicate that the changes implemented in the pharmacology course at New York Medical College in 1989 successfully improved student participation in class and performance in the course and on the USMLE. PMID:10631620

  10. Balance deficits and ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve school-aged boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konicarova J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jana Konicarova,1 Petr Bob,1,2 Jiri Raboch11Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry and UHSL, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Central European Institute of Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech RepublicBackground and objectives: Functional disturbances developed early in life include balance deficits which are linked to dysfunctions of higher levels of cognitive and motor integration. According to our knowledge, there are only a few studies suggesting that balance deficits are related to behavioral disturbances in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods: We tested the extent to which balance deficits were related to ADHD symptoms in 35 medication-naïve boys of school age (8–11 years and compared the results with a control group of 30 boys of the same age.Results: ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve boys had specific relationships to disturbances of postural and gait balance.Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence in the medical literature for a direct relationship between ADHD symptoms and balance deficits, that cannot be attributed to medication and the presence of any neurological disease.Keywords: ADHD, balance deficits, conduct problems, developmental disorders, inhibitory deficits, impulsivity

  11. Conceptual foundations of classes with the disciples of special medical group in secondary schools

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    Vaskov Y.V.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: study and scientific rationale for new approaches to the organization of educational work with students of special medical group in secondary schools. Material : analyzed 15 scientific sources regarding the approaches of different authors to develop educational programs for students of special medical group. Results : focuses on the outstanding issues in a substantive, logistical and human aspects. Found that the selection of the content of educational material for special medical groups is an empirical question. Selection is carried out by copying the existing curriculum of physical culture for healthy children with an indication of the load reduction and exemption of complex elements. Established a complete absence of evaluation of educational achievements of pupils. Based on modern approaches to teaching students based on biomedical and didactic aspects: Leading defined function of each stage of training, fleshed main goals and objectives of the educational process, substantiated various kinds of sports activity, taking into account the diagnosis of diseases and the needs of students of different ages and gender. Conclusions : the main controversy in the decision of the designated problem. Substantiated leading features of each stage of training in special medical groups. A system of assessment of students' achievements.

  12. The Primary Care-Population Medicine Program at The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Paul; Tunkel, Allan R; Dollase, Richard; Gruppuso, Philip; Dumenco, Luba; Rapoza, Brenda; Borkan, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    The United States healthcare system has been in a period of rapid evolution over the past decade, a trend that is anticipated to continue for the foreseeable future. Physicians are increasingly responsible for the quality of care they provide, and are being held accountable not just for the patient in front of them, but also for the outcomes of their patient panels, communities, and populations. In response to these changes, as well as the projected shortage of primary care physicians, the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University (AMS) developed the Primary Care-Population Medicine (PC-PM) program, which builds upon the traditional curriculum with major integrated curricular innovations. The first is a Master of Science Degree in Population Medicine that requires students to take nine additional courses over four years, complete a thesis project focused on an area of Population Medicine, and take part in significant leadership training. Another significant innovative element is the development of a Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship (LIC) during the 3rd year of medical school in which the students complete a longitudinal outpatient experience with the same preceptors and patients. During the LIC students will follow a panel of patients wherever care is provided, while focusing on population health and healthcare delivery issues, in addition to medical topics throughout their clinical and didactic experiences. Though several of the innovative elements are being piloted, the inaugural PC-PM class of up to 24 students will only begin in August 2015. While the outcomes from this program will not be known for many years, the potential impact of the program is significant for AMS, medical education, and the future of healthcare delivery. PMID:26324970

  13. What Medical Oncologist Residents Think about the Italian Speciality Schools: A Survey of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) on Educational, Clinical and Research Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Anna; De Angelis, Carmine; Lambertini, Matteo; Cremolini, Chiara; Imbimbo, Martina; Berardi, Rossana; Di Maio, Massimo; Cascinu, Stefano; La Verde, Nicla

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Relevant heterogeneity exists among Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, also within the same country. In order to provide a comprehensive overview of the landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) undertook an online survey, inviting all the residents to describe their daily activities and to express their overall satisfaction about their programs. Methods A team composed of five residents and three consultants in medical oncology prepared a 38 items questionnaire that was published online in a reserved section, accessible through a link sent by e-mail. Residents were invited to anonymously fill in the questionnaire that included the following sub-sections: quality of teaching, clinical and research activity, overall satisfaction. Results Three-hundred and eleven (57%) out of 547 invited residents filled in the questionnaire. Two-hundred and twenty-three (72%) participants declared that attending lessons was frequently difficult and 153 (49%) declared they did not gain substantial improvement in their knowledge from them. Fifty-five percent stated that they did not receive lessons on palliative care. Their overall judgment about didactic activity was low in 63% of the interviewed. The satisfaction for clinical activity was in 86% of cases good: 84% recognized that, during the training period, they acquired a progressive independence on patients' management. About research activity, the majority (79%) of participants in the survey was actively engaged in managing patients included in clinical trials but the satisfaction level for the involvement in research activities was quite low (54%). Overall, 246 residents (79%) gave a positive global judgment of their Medical Oncology Schools. Conclusions The landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology is quite heterogeneous across the country. Some improvements in the organization of teaching and in the

  14. Time spent by Brazilian students in different modes of transport going to school: changes over a decade (2001-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Samara Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To examine changes in the time spent in each mode of transportation used for going to school by gender and age among adolescents from Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Two school-based surveys were performed in 2001 (N = 5,028 and 2011 (N = 6,529 in high school students (15-19 years old. The mode of transportation (on foot; by bicycle; by bus; car/motorcycle and the time spent for commuting to school were assessed. Active commuting increased for short trips in both genders (male: 25.1% to 36.7%; female: 18.8% to 29.2% and in all ages (15-16 years: 21% to 32.7%; 17-19 years: 21.9% to 32.4%, and declined for longer trips in males (30.5% to 21.9% and in 15-16 years old students (25.7% to 34.7%. Car/motorcycle use has doubled for short trips in males (38.1% to 65.9% and in 17-19 years old students (37.7% to 62.7%, while the use of buses remained stable in both genders. Our findings contribute to discussions on public policy focusing on the design of safe environments to promote active commuting to schools, particularly to decrease the use of motorized transport for short trips.

  15. Brazilian energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil's natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  16. Latin American Medical School Class of 2015: Exclusive with Cuban-trained US Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorry, Conner

    2015-07-01

    Call them intrepid trailblazers or just plain stubborn: over 200 US students, mainly from under-represented minorities and low-income families, decided they would become the doctors needed by their communities, and that Cuba's Latin American Medical School (ELAM) would prepare them for the job. In doing so, they accepted a host of challenges, not the least of which was studying in a country lauded for its population health indicators, but vilified for decades by their home government. Under President George W. Bush, even their enrollment required intercession from then Secretary of State Colin Powell and the Congressional Black Caucus, whose members represent districts with some of the poorest health indicators in the United States. Once they were accepted by ELAM, with its own hefty academic requirements, it was unclear if they could cope with living in Cuba, a poor country with limited resources. And then came the challenge of passing the US Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), required of all US medical students to secure residency placements. Added to these hurdles was another big question: would they actually serve in remote, inner-city and poor communities or just take the free medical education and abandon the social objectives cultivated by their alma mater? ELAM's concept is a simple but bold one: that providing free medical education to bright students driven to become doctors, but without the financial means to do so, will motivate them to return to serve in communities like their own. They spend six years learning basic sciences, clinical medicine and public health. Since the first graduation in 2005, ELAM has trained nearly 25,000 doctors-most women and many of them indigenous-from 84 countries, including the USA. A decade after the first US graduate received his diploma from ELAM, 113 have followed. While most (especially recent) grads are still finishing their USMLE exams, 40% of the total are already in residencies or have completed them: of these

  17. [Relative validity of dietary indicators from the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey among adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Letícia Ferreira; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Cardoso, Letícia Oliveira; Passos, Michelle Delboni dos; Brito, Flávia dos Santos Barbosa

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the relative validity of the dietary indicators from the questionnaire used in the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The sample included 174 students. The following indicators were evaluated: regular consumption (≥ 5 times a week) of markers for healthy eating, markers for unhealthy eating, and routine eating habits (having meals with parents or guardians (MEAL), having breakfast (breakfast), and eating while studying or watching TV. The results of the questionnaire were compared with three 24-hour recalls. For all the markers of healthy eating, there was no difference in the proportion of regular consumption when comparing the two methods. The rates detected by the questionnaire were higher for packaged snacks and crackers and lower for cold cuts and MEAL. The indicators for regular consumption of markers for healthy eating and that referring to BREAKFAST were those with the highest accuracy. The dietary indicators used by the PeNSE survey showed satisfactory validity. PMID:24936819

  18. Factors associated with self-medication among expatriate high school students: a cross-sectional survey in United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Ilyas Shehnaz; Jayadevan Sreedharan; Nelofer Khan; Khaled Jamal Issa; Mohamed Arifulla

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to assess factors associated with self-medication (SM) among expatriate high school students of United Arab Emirates using a validated questionnaire. Most common reasons for self-medication in 324 participating students were: presence of mild illness and previous experiences. High risk practices like altering the dose, discontinuation of medication and self-medication without adult guidance were observed. The likelihood of SM was 4.9 times (95%C.I.: 2.0-12.2) in students not u...

  19. The teaching of interpersonal skills in U.S. medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, G S; Cohen, B; Jason, H

    1979-01-01

    In response to the increasing recognition of the importance of interpersonal skills (IPS) to the physician, there has recently been a rapid growth in the number and variety of medical school teaching programs in IPS. This is a report of a national survey which was part of a study designed to determine the extent and characteristics of IPS-teaching. Most medical schools have specific IPS programs, 80 percent of which are less than five years old. Most teachers in the programs are psychiatrists and psychologists. Most programs teach process (for example, listening, responding), information-gathering, and psychological intervention (for example, demonstrating empathy) skills. Less than one-third teach any specific information-giving/counseling skills. IPS programs are taught mostly in the preclinical years, with a notable lack of formal follow-through into the clinical years. Ninety percent of the programs use videotechnology in teaching or assessing IPS. Only about one-third use any kind of outcome index for evaluation. PMID:762678

  20. A two-year experience with premedical postbaccalaureate students admitted to medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S R

    1991-01-01

    To determine how well premedical postbaccalaureate students performed in and adjusted to medical school, the author examined the records for all 123 matriculants to the Brown University Program in Medicine in 1987-88 and 1988-89 and sent each student a questionnaire. More than one-third of the first-year students admitted to Brown were from premedical postbaccalaureate programs (that is, they had taken the traditional premedical course requirements after graduating from college). The postbaccalaureate students were older than the rest of their classmates, on average, and were more likely to have been non-science majors in college. Academic performances over the first two years were comparable in the two groups, and there was no significant difference between the groups in their self-reports of adequacy of preparation or involvement in extracurricular activities. The author concludes that, faced with a smaller applicant pool, medical schools may wish to consider premedical postbaccalaureate students as a valuable resource. PMID:1985680

  1. Identifying Gaps in the Cultural Competence/Sensitivity Components of an Undergraduate Medical School Curriculum: A Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loue, Sana; Wilson-Delfosse, Amy; Limbach, Kristen

    2015-10-01

    Physicians and other health care workers are increasingly being called upon to bridge the cultural differences that may exist between themselves and their patients. Adequate cross-cultural education is essential if existing health care disparities are to be reduced. We conducted a needs assessment to identify gaps in the cultural competence/sensitivity components of the undergraduate medical school curriculum at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. The 2011 study was designed (1) to assess how first and second year medical school students perceive the adequacy of the medical school curriculum with respect to issues of diversity and (2) the extent to which first and second year medical students believe that an understanding of issues relating to patient culture are important to the provision of effective patient care. Student perspectives were assessed through a web-based anonymous survey of all first year (n = 167) and all second year (n = 166) medical school students, two focus groups (total n = 14) and a Problem-based Case Inquiry Group exercise (n = 6), both with second year students. A substantial proportion of participating first and second year medical students do not believe that self-reflection regarding one's own cultural biases is important to one's performance as a physician, do not view an understanding of diverse patient cultural beliefs as important or very important in the provision of effective patient care, and are uncomfortable with and unsure about how to approach culture-related issues arising in patient care. The inclusion of specified elements--increased contact with diverse patients, more comprehensive resources, increased opportunities to practice communication skills and engage in self-reflection--may be critical to heighten student awareness of and comfort in interacting with diverse populations. Our findings are relevant to the development of medical school curricula designed to improve physician understanding of and

  2. Que transmet l’école publique au Brésil ? What is transmitted in Brazilian public schools ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Brochier

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se propose d’examiner certains aspects de la transmission de connaissances scolaires dans les écoles publiques brésiliennes. Depuis les années 1980, en effet, le système scolaire s’est largement ouvert aux couches les plus défavorisées des populations urbaines, ce qui a provoqué des changements dans les modes de fonctionnement. Face à ce nouveau public, les exigences en termes de discipline et de travail scolaires se sont considérablement affaiblies, de même que le suivi des programmes. Par ailleurs, les enseignants surmenés qui occupent souvent plusieurs emplois pour compenser leurs bas salaires, manifestent un découragement évident tandis que les élèves s’habituent à un monde institutionnel tolérant qui ne propose plus une vraie rupture avec leur univers social d’origine.This article studies certain aspects of how knowledge is transmitted in Brazilian state schools. Since the 1980s, the school system has opened its doors to the most underprivileged segments of the urban populations, bringing about considerable changes in day-to-day behavior patterns. Faced with this new public, requirements in terms of discipline and dedication to learning have considerably weakened, as has the observance of the official programs. Moreover, the teachers, exhausted since they often hold down several jobs to compensate for their low wages, are prone to depression. The pupils, in turn, get used to a tolerant institutional world which no longer represents a departure from their original social environment.

  3. Job requirements compared to medical school education: differences between graduates from problem-based learning and conventional curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federkeil Gero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problem-based Learning (PBL has been suggested as a key educational method of knowledge acquisition to improve medical education. We sought to evaluate the differences in medical school education between graduates from PBL-based and conventional curricula and to what extent these curricula fit job requirements. Methods Graduates from all German medical schools who graduated between 1996 and 2002 were eligible for this study. Graduates self-assessed nine competencies as required at their day-to-day work and as taught in medical school on a 6-point Likert scale. Results were compared between graduates from a PBL-based curriculum (University Witten/Herdecke and conventional curricula. Results Three schools were excluded because of low response rates. Baseline demographics between graduates of the PBL-based curriculum (n = 101, 49% female and the conventional curricula (n = 4720, 49% female were similar. No major differences were observed regarding job requirements with priorities for "Independent learning/working" and "Practical medical skills". All competencies were rated to be better taught in PBL-based curriculum compared to the conventional curricula (all p Conclusion Among medical graduates in Germany, PBL demonstrated benefits with regard to competencies which were highly required in the job of physicians. Research and business competence deserve closer attention in future curricular development.

  4. Resident perceptions of anatomy education: a survey of medical school alumni from two different anatomy curricula and multiple medical specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Michael A; Gest, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the University of Michigan Medical School reduced its gross anatomy curriculum. To determine the effect of this reduction on resident perceptions of their clinical preparedness, we surveyed alumni that included residents from the original and new shortened curricula. A Likert-scale survey was sent to four classes of alumni. Respondents were compared in old curriculum (OC) and new curriculum (NC) groups, surgical specialty (SS) and nonsurgical specialty (NS) groups, and subgroups of SS and NS were compared for differences between OC and NC. Mean response scores were compared using independent samples T-tests. As a single population (n = 110), respondents felt their anatomy education prepared them well for residency, that a more robust anatomy curriculum would be helpful, that dissection was important to their residency preparation, and that a 4th year anatomy elective was effective in expanding their anatomy education and preparing them for residency. No significant difference existed between OC and NC groups, neither as a whole nor as SS and NS subgroups. The SS group felt dissection was more important to their residency preparation than the NS group (P = 0.001) and that a more robust anatomy curriculum would have better prepared them for residency (P = 0.001). Thirty percent of SS respondents who did not take a 4th year elective commented that they wish they had. Fourth year anatomy electives were highly valued by residents, and respondents felt that they should be offered to students as a way of revisiting anatomy following the 1st year of clinical training. PMID:21381214

  5. Conflict of Interest Policies at Canadian Universities and Medical Schools: Some Lessons from the AMSA PharmFree Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu, Ghislaine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Launched in 2007, the American Medical Students Association (AMSA PharmFree Scorecard is an annual ranking of conflict of interest (COI policies at American medical centres; it focuses on COIs that may occur when medical education seems likely to be influenced by university-industry relationships, especially those with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. The PharmFree Scorecard has proven influential in stimulating changes in policy regarding the management of COI at American medical institutions, thus it provides a useful jumping off point for reflection on how and why medical education institutions in other countries – and for our purposes, Canada – should pay more attention to the appropriate identification and management of COI. The PharmFree Scorecard methodology examines a diversity of factors and interests that could influence medical education; as such, it is an interesting approach to analysing the COI policies of medical schools. To test its utility or applicability outside the US, we decided to apply the PharmFree Scorecard to the COI policies of the 16 Canadian universities hosting medical schools. Overall, Canadian institutions rank very poorly, especially in ensuring that education and training tools are provided to staff, students and faculty members to enable the identification and management of COI. However, differences between the US and Canadian medical education contexts, e.g., with regards to the governance and funding of universities, limit to some extent the direct applicability of the AMSA ranking. Canadian medical schools – and their host universities – nonetheless have much to learn from insights provided by the AMSA PharmFree Scorecard ranking, although they can and should go further in developing their own COI policies and procedures.

  6. The Politics of Body Capital within Neoliberal Social Reproduction Systems: Freirean Critical Pedagogy Principles in Brazilian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Antonio Jose; Rossatto, César Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Sports in our society are a source of enthusiasm for many people, reflecting their cultural values and at times social tensions. Body capital development in different countries follow the local culture and politics. Since schools tend to reproduce the culture at large, sports are also one intrinsic representation replicated. Physical education or…

  7. Prevalence of abuse and related factors in a Colombian medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Guevara Cuéllar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different forms of abusive practices are very common in medical schools and have serious implications on vocational and professional formation. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of perception of abuse in a university in Colombia and to identify associated factors.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2008 in a private medical school. A proportional cycle-based stratified sampling technique and randomized sampling per semester was done. Socio demographic, academic, and abuse-related variables were obtained.Results: One hundred twenty-eight students participated in the study. The prevalence of perception of abuse was 40.6%. The most common type of abuse was psychological (98% and unjustified critique (10.9%, ridiculing (10.7%, shouting (10%, and discredit (9.5% were the most frequent manifestations. Professors in preclinical courses were reported as the most prevalent abusers (25.9%, followed by clinical professors (19.8%. The frequency of abusive manifestations was rare (15.8% and 11.5% in preclinical and clinical years, respectively. The abusive manifestations were most frequent in pathology and pediatrics in the preclinical and clinical years,  espectively. Nineteen percent of the victims of abuse reported such to somebody. The main consequences were desire to withdraw from the career (63.2% and change of career (36.8%. Increased perception of abuse (OR: 4.74 95% IC: 1.9-11.4 p=0.001 was associated during the clinical years.Conclusions: Although abusive practices are more frequent during clinical years, they do not constitute a systematic behavior among medical students from a private university in Colombia in comparison with other  tudies.

  8. The Use of Professionalism Scenarios in the Medical School Interview Process: Faculty and Interviewee Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kleshinski, MD

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of professionalism scenarios on the medical school admissions process from applicant and faculty perspectives. Specifically, do completing professionalism scenarios as part of the medical school interview process have an impact on both the interviewee’s and the faculty’s perception of the process and outcome?Method: Ninety-one faculty interviewed 199 applicants from January 2007 through April 2007 at The University of Toledo College of Medicine. All applicants were asked one standard professionalism scenario in each of their two interviews. A total of six scenarios were used for the entire interviewing season in rotation every two months. A survey was administered by an admissions office staff member to both the interviewed applicants as well as faculty who conducted interviews about how these scenarios impacted their interview experience.Results: Asking applicants to respond to professionalism scenarios during the interview was described as having a positive influence on their interview experience. This was also associated with leaving an impression on the applicant about what our institution values in its students and contributed an element of personal reflection about what will be expected of them in the medical profession. Applicants more often reported that asking questions about professionalism was an important aspect of the interview than did faculty. Overall, there was an association between the interviewer’s perception of the applicant’s response and the interviewer’s assessment of professionalism.Conclusions: Professionalism scenarios can be a worthwhile tool for use in the admissions process. The interview process should encourage participation from faculty who value this as an important component in the evaluation of an applicant. Determinants of faculty perception of the role of assessing professionalism in the interview process should be investigated in future

  9. The Evaluation of The Knowledge Levels and Attitudes of Medical Students Who Have Accomplished Obstetric and Gynaecological Diseases Internship in a Medical School About Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fatih Onsuz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Aim of the study was to determine medical school students’ knowledge levels and attitudes who accomplished Obstetric and Gynecology clerkship in a medical school about HPV vaccination and intention to suggest HPV vaccine to their patients. Method: This descriptive study was carried out in a medical school among 166 medical students accomplishing their internship in the Obstetrics and Gynaecological Diseases Department. Study data had been collected by questionnaire which had three part and 30 question. The data were evaluated by descriptive statistics. Results: Fifty five point four of the students stated that they felt informed about HPV vaccine, 72.9% of them stated that HPV was more serious for women. 95.8% of the participants thought they would suggest HPV vaccine to their patients and the most proposed group was adolescent girls (51.6%. 80.5% of students stated their possibility to suggest the vaccine would increase in case the vaccine would be free. The most important drawback points of the students in suggesting the vaccine to their patients were thinking high priced and not cost effectiveness of the vaccine (51.6% and inducing unprotected, risky sexual intercourses (45.9%. Conclusion: In this study we determine the professional acception of HPV vaccine between students. Also we determine the most important factor in suggesting the HPV vaccine is the cost effectiveness of it. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 557-564

  10. Nutritional condition of school age children. Clinic, anthropo-medical and alimentary assessment

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    Alina Esther González Hermida

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the study of children´s growth in an appropriate indicator of children health condition and should be used as one of the basis in the practice of preventive medicine. Objective: to determine the nutritional al condition of children of third and sixth grade of elementary schools of Health Area V of Cienfuegos Municipality. Methods: descriptive, observational, cross-sectional and relational study of 445 school age children from 4 elementary schools. A clinic assessment was carried out along with an anthropo-medical evaluation. A qualitative survey was developed to assess the frequency of consumption of different alimentary groups. Results: the relation weight/height in the two genders presents a prevalence of normal weight; undernourishment is more common among females, overweight is more usual among boys and obesity can be found in both genders. The variable weight/age showed one bad-nutrition (for defect among females, there was a prevalence of bad-nutrition for excess in both genders. There were no children with height under the third percentile, with prevalence of boys and girls tall and very tall. Bronchial asthma was the most common disease. Conclusions: Food consumption in general, taking into account frequency and kind of food, is not the appropriate. There is a relation between positive clinical findings and the anthropometric assessment of weight/height.

  11. Potential advantage of student-run clinics for diversifying a medical school class

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    Chris N. Gu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a student-run clinic on the diversification of a medical student class. We distributed a two-page, 20-item, paper survey to students of the University of Missouri School of Medicine (MU SOM class of 2015 in July of 2011. The survey gathered information on general demographics, opinions on the importance of medical education opportunities, and opinions on the importance of medical school characteristics in applying to and attending MU SOM. A total of 104 students responded to the survey. A majority of the students identified the MedZou Community Health Clinic, a student-run, free health clinic affiliated with MU SOM, and simulated-patient encounters as important educational experiences (81% and 94%, respectively. More than half of the self-identified non-white??students reported MedZou as an important factor in their choice to apply to (60%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 32 to 88 and attend (71%; 95% CI, 44 to 98 MU SOM, over half of the females reported MedZou as important in their choice to apply (59%; 95% CI, 43 to 76 and attend (57%; 95% CI, 40 to 74, and over half of non-Missouri residents reported MedZou as important in their choice to apply (64%; 95% CI, 36 to 93 and attend (71%; 95% CI, 44 to 98. According to the above results, it can be said that students clearly value both MedZou and simulated-patient encounters as important educational experiences. Women, minorities, and non-Missouri residents value MedZou more highly than their peers who are First Year Medical Students who are Missouri residents, suggesting that MedZou may provide a promising opportunity to advance diversity within MU SOM. These results highlight the need for additional research to further explore MedZou?占퐏 potential to enhance the recruitment of a diverse medical student class.

  12. Specialising in radiology in Switzerland: Still attractive for medical school graduates?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To gain insight into the professional characteristics of radiologists in Switzerland and to determine how to enhance the attractiveness of radiology to medical graduates as a specialty. Materials and methods: Data from 262 members of the Swiss Society of Radiology (m:f = 76:24%) obtained in a questionnaire survey were analysed regarding socio-demographic variables, working status, specialty, main fields of interest, career success, mentoring and reasons for the shortage of radiologists. Results: 35 (56.4%) female and 85 (45.5%) male radiologists were aged ≤45 years. 228 (87%) were board-certified; 44 (17.9%) had completed a sub-specialisation. Men worked part-time mostly just before retirement, while women worked part-time at a younger age. As reasons for specialty choice, the wide range of clinical work and the combination of technology and medicine were ranked highest. Women reported significantly less career success and support. To improve the attractiveness of radiology to graduates, radiology should be visible on medical school curricula. Conclusion: In Switzerland, more female radiologists work part-time than male ones, and there is less career success and support for women. In order to make radiology more attractive to medical graduates as a specialty, structured residency programmes and reliable gender-respecting career support are needed.

  13. Queda entre idosos no Brasil e sua relação com o uso de medicamentos: revisão sistemática Falls in elderly Brazilians and the relationship to medication: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Paula Rezende

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Quedas em idosos estão frequentemente relacionadas ao uso de medicamentos e geralmente levam a um prognóstico ruim, representando um problema de saúde pública. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar estudos publicados no Brasil, examinando o uso de medicamentos como fator de risco para quedas ou fraturas decorrentes das quedas em idosos. As bases de dados utilizadas foram LILACS, PubMed, SciELO, utilizando os descritores falls, elderly, medication/pharmaceutical preparations/medicines/drugs ou ainda specific groups of medications. Foram identificados 340 artigos; dentre eles, 53 cumpriram com os critérios de inclusão, porém apenas 6 estudos farmacoepidemiológicos de quedas por idosos foram realizados no Brasil. Os principais grupos farmacológicos associados ao aumento do risco de queda foram: antidepressivos, sedativos, ansiolíticos, diuréticos. Tendo em vista o envelhecimento da população no Brasil, necessário é que sejam realizadas e incentivadas pesquisas bem delineadas com tal população para produzir informação científica idônea e promover uso racional de medicamentos em geriatria.Falls in the elderly, often classified as accidental, are frequently related to medication, generally involving poor prognosis and thus becoming a public health issue. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify published Brazilian studies on medication as a risk factor for falls or fall-related fractures in the elderly. The search covered the LILACS, PubMed, and SciELO indexes using the descriptors falls, elderly, and pharmaceutical preparations/medications/medicines/drugs or specific drug classes. A total of 340 articles presented data on prevalence, incidence, and risk factors associated with medication and falls or fall-related fractures, but only 6 pharmacoepidemiological studies were examined because they were conducted specifically in Brazilian samples. The main drug classes associated with increased risk of falls

  14. Fair access to medicine? Retrospective analysis of UK medical schools application data 2009-2012 using three measures of socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Steven, Kathryn; Dowell, Jon; Jackson, Cathy; Guthrie, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical students have historically largely come from more affluent parts of society, leading many countries to seek to broaden access to medical careers on the grounds of social justice and the perceived benefits of greater workforce diversity. The aim of this study was to examine variation in socioeconomic status (SES) of applicants to study medicine and applicants with an accepted offer from a medical school, comparing the four UK countries and individual medical schools. Methods...

  15. Longterm effects of problem-based learning: A comparison of competencies acquired by graduates of a problem-based and a conventional medical school

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Henk; Vermeulen, Lyanda; van der Molen, Henk

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Problem-based learning (PBL) as an approach to the instruction of medical students has attracted much attention in recent years. However, its effect on the performance of its graduates is the subject of considerable debate. This article presents data from a large-scale study among graduates of a problem-based medical school and those of a conventional medical school to contribute to this discussion. PURPOSE: To study the longterm effects of problem-based medical traini...

  16. Recall of Theoretical Pharmacology Knowledge by 6th Year Medical Students and Interns of Three Medical Schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to provide some insights into the ability of the sixth year medical students and interns to recall theoretical knowledge of pharmacology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students who graduated from three different medical schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was distributed to male and female students in 3 different colleges of medicine. The questionnaire included demographic information and ten multiple choice questions (MCQs on basic pharmacology. Out of the 161 students, there were 39 females (24% and 122 males (76%. A total of 36 (22% students studied at a traditional learning school whereas 125 (78% students studied at problem based learning (PBL schools. The students were recruited from three universities: KSU, KSAU-HS, and KFMC-COM. In general, 31 students (19% of the participants scored ≥ 7 out of 10, 77 students (48% of them obtained a correct score of (4–6 out of 10, and 53 students (33% scored less than 4. The study showed no statistically significant difference in recalling pharmacology between traditional school and problem based learning school except for those who prepared for exams. Results suggest that pharmacology is a difficult subject. Reevaluations are needed in the way of teaching pharmacology.

  17. The attractions of medicine: the generic motivations of medical school applicants in relation to demography, personality and achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katona Cornelius

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The motivational and other factors used by medical students in making their career choices for specific medical specialities have been looked at in a number of studies in the literature. There are however few studies that assess the generic factors which make medicine itself of interest to medical students and to potential medical students. This study describes a novel questionnaire that assesses the interests and attractions of different aspects of medical practice in a varied range of medical scenarios, and relates them to demographic, academic, personality and learning style measures in a large group of individuals considering applying to medical school. Methods A questionnaire study was conducted among those attending Medlink, a two-day conference for individuals considering applying to medical school for a career in medicine. The main outcome measure was the Medical Situations Questionnaire, in which individuals ranked the attraction of three different aspects of medical practise in each of nine detailed, realistic medical scenarios in a wide range of medical specialities. As well as requiring clear choices, the questionnaire was also designed so that all of the possible answers were attractive and positive, thereby helping to eliminate social demand characteristics. Factor analysis of the responses found four generic motivational dimensions, which we labelled Indispensability, Helping People, Respect and Science. Background factors assessed included sex, ethnicity, class, medical parents, GCSE academic achievement, the 'Big Five' personality factors, empathy, learning styles, and a social desirability scale. Results 2867 individuals, broadly representative of applicants to medical schools, completed the questionnaire. The four generic motivational factors correlated with a range of background factors. These correlations were explored by multiple regression, and by path analysis, using LISREL to assess direct and

  18. How Different Medical School Selection Processes Call upon Different Personality Characteristics.

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    Nienke R Schripsema

    Full Text Available Research indicates that certain personality traits relate to performance in the medical profession. Yet, personality testing during selection seems ineffective. In this study, we examine the extent to which different medical school selection processes call upon desirable personality characteristics in applicants.1019 of all 1055 students who entered the Dutch Bachelor of Medicine at University of Groningen, the Netherlands in 2009, 2010 and 2011 were included in this study. Students were admitted based on either top pre-university grades (n = 139, acceptance in a voluntary multifaceted selection process (n = 286, or lottery weighted for pre-university GPA. Within the lottery group, we distinguished between students who had not participated (n = 284 and students who were initially rejected (n = 310 in the voluntary selection process. Two months after admission, personality was assessed with the NEO-FFI, a measure of the five factor model of personality. We performed ANCOVA modelling with gender as a covariate to examine personality differences between the four groups.The multifaceted selection group scored higher on extraversion than all other groups(p<0.01, higher on conscientiousness than both lottery-admitted groups(p<0.01, and lower on neuroticism than the lottery-admitted group that had not participated in the voluntary selection process. The latter group scored lower on conscientiousness than all other groups(p<0.05 and lower on agreeableness than the multifaceted selection group and the top pre-university group(p<0.01.Differences between the four admission groups, though statistically significant, were relatively small. Personality scores in the group admitted through the voluntary multifaceted selection process seemed most fit for the medical profession. Personality scores in the lottery-admitted group that had not participated in this process seemed least fit for the medical profession. It seems that in order to select applicants with

  19. Brazilian gemstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rui Ribeiro

    1981-04-01

    Brazil counts as a gemmological province because of the variety of gem minerals present in the country. Most Brazilian states and territories produce gemstones, the State of Minas Gerais being the most important producer both in volume and in number of species. Diamonds are chiefly derived by panning from alluvial deposits in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás. Among other gemstones, the most important are aquamarines, beryls, chrysoberyls, topazes, amethysts, tourmalines, emeralds and agates, and their respective varieties. The occurrences of these gemstones, as well as of a great number of others, are described for each state in which they are found.

  20. Bullying and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents: analysis of the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of bullying from the victim's perspective in Brazilian school children and to analyze its association with individual and family context variables. METHODS: An analysis of the data on 109,104 adolescents, obtained by the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey, held in schools in 2012, was carried out. An association model between bullying and explanatory variables was tested in different contexts: sociodemographic, risk behaviors, mental health and family context. Univariate and multivariate analyzes were performed, calculating the Odds Ratio and confidence intervals. RESULTS: The prevalence of bullying found in this study was of 7.2% (95%CI 6.6 - 7.8. A higher chance of bullying was found among male students (OR = 1.58; 95%CI 1.51 - 1.66, with an inverse relation between age and bullying, with the magnitude of risk among adolescents younger than 13 years of age being higher when compared to those with 16 years of age or more. Of individual risk behaviors, only being a smoker remained in the final model (OR = 1.11; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.23. Mental health variables associated with bullying were: feeling lonely (OR = 2.66; 95%CI 2.52 - 2.81, insomnia (OR = 1.92; 95%CI 1.80 - 2.05, not having friends (OR = 1.71; 95%CI 1.54 - 1.89, and, in the family context, those who skip class without telling their parents (OR = 1.13; 95%CI 1,07 - 1,19 and those who suffer physical abuse by family members (OR = 2.03; 95%CI 1.91 - 2.146. CONCLUSION: Bullying was associated to male students, younger, of black color, smokers, with mental health vulnerabilities and victims of domestic violence. This suggests the need for a holistic approach from education and health professionals, parents and the community in seeking measures for the prevention of bullying.

  1. The non-medical use of psychoactive substances among male secondary school students in Egypt: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soueif, M I; El-Sayed, A M; Hannourah, M A; Darweesh, Z A

    1980-03-01

    The paper reports on an epidemiological study of the non-medical use of psychoactive substances by secondary school male students in Greater Cairo. The main aim of the study was to provide factual answers to the questions: (1) How prevalent is drug abuse among male school students? (2) What are the psychoactive substances most commonly used? (3) What sociopsychological variables are meaningfully associated with the use of substances? PMID:7353477

  2. Dimensionality and predictive validity of the HAM-Nat, a test of natural sciences for medical school admission

    OpenAIRE

    Hissbach Johanna C; Klusmann Dietrich; Hampe Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Knowledge in natural sciences generally predicts study performance in the first two years of the medical curriculum. In order to reduce delay and dropout in the preclinical years, Hamburg Medical School decided to develop a natural science test (HAM-Nat) for student selection. In the present study, two different approaches to scale construction are presented: a unidimensional scale and a scale composed of three subject specific dimensions. Their psychometric properties and...

  3. The Evaluation of the Intern Doctors’ Feedback About Their Rotations During Their 6th Year Education in a Medical School

    OpenAIRE

    Selçuk ASLAN; Bideci, Aysun; Özkan, Seçil; Türkçüoğlu, Sertaç; Çakır, Nuri; Dursun, Ayşe; Tunaoğlu, Sedef

    2006-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intern doctors’ feedback about their rotations in the last year of a medical school in Ankara. Materials and Methods: In the 2004-2005 academic year, the sixth year of the medical faculty consisted of a total of 166 interns. 155 out of 166 interns participated in the study. The participation rate in the study was 93.37%. The questionnaire consisted of four questions on the physical conditions, practical training provided, workload ...

  4. Five-year survey of medical student attrition in a medical school in Nigeria: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Egwu, Ogugua A; Anyanwu, Godson E

    2010-01-01

    Ogugua A Egwu1, Godson E Anyanwu21Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Ebonyi State; 2Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Enugu State, NigeriaBackground: Student attrition represents a waste of career opportunity and, at times, results in a holistic loss of sense of self-worth for the students involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nature, causes, and impact of medical studen...

  5. How the Distinctive Cultures of Osteopathic and Allopathic Medical Schools Affect the Careers, Perceptions, and Institutional Efforts of Their Anatomy Faculties: A Qualitative Case Study of Two Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, James J.; Byram, Jessica N.; Traser, Courtney J.; Arbor, Tafline C.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy faculties are integral to basic science instruction in medical schools, particularly given the preponderance of anatomic instruction in the preclinical curriculum. Recent years have witnessed major curricular restructuring and other emerging national trends that pose significant challenges to anatomists. An examination of anatomy faculty…

  6. Postgraduate training in public health medicine: St George's Hospital Medical School Library public health information service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, R; Adshead, F

    2001-03-01

    This article examines the development of the St George's Hospital Medical School Library public health information service. Begun in 1997 as a pilot project to support Public Health Specialist Registrars in South Thames West, it is now an established part of postgraduate training in the region. An outline of the service is described, including the evolution of the post of Public Health Librarian. Issues influencing the development of the service, and the establishment of the Librarian as part of the public health network are discussed. This is a transferable model of public health information provision, which as a centralized resource makes best use of available funding. As a LIS model it is an effective and efficient way of maximizing resources, and delivering a service to a specialist user group that is spread across a wide geographical area. PMID:11260291

  7. Status of underrepresented minority and female faculty at medical schools located within Historically Black Colleges and in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Emily M.; Rodríguez, José E.; Campbell, Kendall M.; Smilnak, Timothy; Bazemore, Andrew W.; Petterson, Stephen; Morley, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives To assess the impact of medical school location in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) and Puerto Rico (PR) on the proportion of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM) and women hired in faculty and leadership positions at academic medical institutions. Method AAMC 2013 faculty roster data for allopathic medical schools were used to compare the racial/ethnic and gender composition of faculty and chair positions at medical schools located within HBCU and PR to that of other medical schools in the United States. Data were compared using independent sample t-tests. Results Women were more highly represented in HBCU faculty (mean HBCU 43.5% vs. non-HBCU 36.5%, p=0.024) and chair (mean HBCU 30.1% vs. non-HBCU 15.6%, p=0.005) positions and in PR chair positions (mean PR 38.23% vs. non-PR 15.38%, p=0.016) compared with other allopathic institutions. HBCU were associated with increased African American representation in faculty (mean HBCU 59.5% vs. non-HBCU 2.6%, p=0.011) and chair (mean HBCU 73.1% vs. non-HBCU 2.2%, p≤0.001) positions. PR designation was associated with increased faculty (mean PR 75.40% vs. non-PR 3.72%, p≤0.001) and chair (mean PR 75.00% vs. non-PR 3.54%, p≤0.001) positions filled by Latinos/Hispanics. Conclusions Women and African Americans are better represented in faculty and leadership positions at HBCU, and women and Latino/Hispanics at PR medical schools, than they are at allopathic peer institutions. PMID:26968254

  8. Status of underrepresented minority and female faculty at medical schools located within Historically Black Colleges and in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Mader

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: To assess the impact of medical school location in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU and Puerto Rico (PR on the proportion of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM and women hired in faculty and leadership positions at academic medical institutions. Method: AAMC 2013 faculty roster data for allopathic medical schools were used to compare the racial/ethnic and gender composition of faculty and chair positions at medical schools located within HBCU and PR to that of other medical schools in the United States. Data were compared using independent sample t-tests. Results: Women were more highly represented in HBCU faculty (mean HBCU 43.5% vs. non-HBCU 36.5%, p=0.024 and chair (mean HBCU 30.1% vs. non-HBCU 15.6%, p=0.005 positions and in PR chair positions (mean PR 38.23% vs. non-PR 15.38%, p=0.016 compared with other allopathic institutions. HBCU were associated with increased African American representation in faculty (mean HBCU 59.5% vs. non-HBCU 2.6%, p=0.011 and chair (mean HBCU 73.1% vs. non-HBCU 2.2%, p≤0.001 positions. PR designation was associated with increased faculty (mean PR 75.40% vs. non-PR 3.72%, p≤0.001 and chair (mean PR 75.00% vs. non-PR 3.54%, p≤0.001 positions filled by Latinos/Hispanics. Conclusions: Women and African Americans are better represented in faculty and leadership positions at HBCU, and women and Latino/Hispanics at PR medical schools, than they are at allopathic peer institutions.

  9. On-the-Job Ethics – Proximity Morality Forming in Medical School: A grounded theory analysis using survey data

    OpenAIRE

    Hans O. Thulesius, MD, Ph.D.

    2009-01-01

    On-the-job-ethics exist in all businesses and can also be called proximity morality forming. In this paper we propose that medical students take a proximity morality stance towards ethics education at medical school. This means that they want to form physician morality “on the job” instead of being taught ethics like any other subject. On-the-job-ethics for medical students involves learning ethics that is used when practicing ethics. Learning ethics includes comprehensive ethics courses in w...

  10. Profiling medical school learning environments in Malaysia: a validation study of the Johns Hopkins Learning Environment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Tackett

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: While a strong learning environment is critical to medical student education, the assessment of medical school learning environments has confounded researchers. Our goal was to assess the validity and utility of the Johns Hopkins Learning Environment Scale (JHLES for preclinical students at three Malaysian medical schools with distinct educational and institutional models. Two schools were new international partnerships, and the third was school leaver program established without international partnership. Methods: First- and second-year students responded anonymously to surveys at the end of the academic year. The surveys included the JHLES, a 28-item survey using five-point Likert scale response options, the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM, the most widely used method to assess learning environments internationally, a personal growth scale, and single-item global learning environment assessment variables. Results: The overall response rate was 369/429 (86%. After adjusting for the medical school year, gender, and ethnicity of the respondents, the JHLES detected differences across institutions in four out of seven domains (57%, with each school having a unique domain profile. The DREEM detected differences in one out of five categories (20%. The JHLES was more strongly correlated than the DREEM to two thirds of the single-item variables and the personal growth scale. The JHLES showed high internal reliability for the total score (α=0.92 and the seven domains (α= 0.56-0.85. Conclusion: The JHLES detected variation between learning environment domains across three educational settings, thereby creating unique learning environment profiles. Interpretation of these profiles may allow schools to understand how they are currently supporting trainees and identify areas needing attention.

  11. Impact of a Graduate Entry Programme on a medical school library service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sam

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the use of library facilities by first year undergraduate medical students and Graduate Entry Programme students (GEP). More specifically it tried to determine which library services (if any) were more frequently used by GEP so that this could be taken into account in future Information Services planning. A questionnaire on the use of Library and Information Services was posted to all first year GEP students and undergraduates on the 5-year course. In addition, user statistics of library entry and borrowing were collated from gate readings and the library Unicorn management system. Overall, GEP students were found to make a greater daily/weekly use of library facilities than undergraduates on the 5-year course. The facilities most used by both sets of students were essential texts, e-mail, PCs and study facilities. Computer Aided Learning packages, journals and video facilities were least used. However, on a daily/weekly basis GEP students made 74% more use of journals (P < 0.01), 59% more use of e-journals (P < 0.05), 36% more use photocopiers (P < 0.05), 42% more use of printers (P < 0.05), 56% more use of the library catalogue (P < 0.05) and 50% more use of databases (P < 0.05). This difference in use should be taken into account by LIS providers as there is expected to be an increase in fast-track graduate courses offered by medical schools throughout the UK. PMID:12641529

  12. National rankings as a means of evaluating medical school library programs: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, N W; Grefsheim, S F

    1981-07-01

    A comparative study was undertaken to assess the reasons for the low rankings received by George Washington University Medical Center library in the Annual Statistics for Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada. Although internal studies showed the library was successfully satisfying user needs and meeting its primary objectives, the rankings, which include the traditional measures of quality used by accrediting bodies, indicated the contrary. Three hypotheses were postulated to account for the discrepancy. In a matched group of similar libraries: (1) the rankings of an individual library would differ from the national rankings; (2) clustering the variables would change the rankings; and (3) libraries with similar staff size would tend to rank in the same quartile in service and resource variables. All hypotheses were invalidated. Further tests led to the conclusion that the Annual Statistics and other traditional measures of quality are inappropriate and inaccurate methods for evaluating library programs, since they only measure resource allocations and not the effectiveness of those allocations. Alternative evaluation methods are suggested. PMID:7248592

  13. Peculiarities of academic motivation of the students of high medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko I.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivation of students is one of the most efficient means of improving process and results of training, and motives being impetus of academic process and qualitative mastering of learning material. Formation of academic motivation today is one of the main tasks of up to date education. Academic motivation depends on individual peculiarities of students, character of the closest referent group, level of development of students’ collective, etc. Aim of the research was 1 studying level of academic motivation of students of SE “Dnipropetrovsk medical academy of HM of Ukraine”; 2 revealing prevailing motives of educational activity of students of high medical establishment; 3 assessment of moral readiness of students to inevitable mistakes in future work; 4 studying dynamics of motivation sphere of future doctors in the course of the studies in high medical school; 5 comparison of motivation and intellectual indices of students of junior, pre-graduate and graduate courses; 6 recommendations for lecturers as for improvement of academic motivation of the students. By means of anonymous testing of 537 students of the first, fifth and sixth courses there were studied peculiarities of academic motivation and intellectual indices of the students. Academic motivation of students at large is sufficiently high. Professional and scientific-cognitive motives of educational activity are the most expressed ones. Communicative motives and those of creative self-realization are somewhat less, social motives and motives of prestige are much less. Rather low indices of failure avoidance testify to moral mood of students to inevitable mistakes in their future work. On the whole, a tendency to academic motivation decreasing in the course of studies was revealed. Expressiveness of academic motivation does not depend on intellectual indices of students.

  14. THE ALGORITHM OF THE CASE FORMATION DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF CLINICAL DISCIPLINES IN MEDICAL SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Garanin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop the algorithm of formation of the case on discipline «Clinical Medicine». Methods. The methods involve the effectiveness analysis of the self-diagnosed levels of professional and personal abilities of students in the process of self-study. Results. The article deals with the organization of independent work of students of case-method, which is one of the most important and complex active learning methods. When implementing the method of case analysis in the educational process the main job of the teacher focused on the development of individual cases. While developing the case study of medical character the teacher needs to pay special attention to questions of pathogenesis and pathological anatomy for students’ formation of the fundamental clinical thinking allowing to estimate the patient’s condition as a complete organism, taking into account all its features, to understand the relationships of cause and effect arising at development of a concrete disease, to master new and to improve the available techniques of statement of the differential diagnosis. Scientific novelty and practical significance. The structure of a medical case study to be followed in the development of the case on discipline «Clinical Medicine» is proposed. Unification algorithm formation cases is necessary for the full implementation of the introduction in the educational process in the higher medical school as one of the most effective active ways of learning – method of case analysis, in accordance with the requirements that apply to higher professional education modern reforms and, in particular, the introduction of new Federal State Educational Standards. 

  15. Presence of Medical Home and School Attendance: An Analysis of the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children With Special Healthcare Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Kathryn A.; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith L.; Nies, Mary A.; Racine, Elizabeth F.; Platonova, Elena; Harris, Henry L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with special healthcare needs (CSHCN) tend to miss more school because of illness. Medical homes are a model of primary health care that coordinate services to better meet the needs of the child. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between presence of medical home and missed school days among CSHCN.…

  16. Integrating eLearning to Support Medical Education at the New University of Botswana School of Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebaetse, Masego B.; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Haverkamp, Cecil

    2014-01-01

    Since the enrolment of its first cohort of students in 2009, the University of Botswana School of Medicine (UB SoM) has employed elearning as a key element to support and strengthen its model of decentralised medical education. Significant investments have been made in setting up the physical infrastructure, and in acquiring relevant expertise to…

  17. Teaching first-year medical students in basic clinical and procedural skills − A novel course concept at a medical school in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileder, Lukas; Wegscheider, Thomas; Dimai, Hans Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Clerkships are still the main source for undergraduate medical students to acquire necessary skills. However, these educational experiences may not be sufficient, as there are significant deficiencies in the clinical experience and practical expertise of medical students. Project description: An innovative course teaching basic clinical and procedural skills to first-year medical students has been implemented at the Medical University of Graz, aiming at preparing students for clerkships and clinical electives. The course is based on several didactic elements: standardized and clinically relevant contents, dual (theoretical and virtual) pre-course preparation, student peer-teaching, small teaching groups, hands-on training, and the use of medical simulation. This is the first course of its kind at a medical school in Austria, and its conceptual design as well as the implementation process into the curriculum shall be described. Evaluation: Between November 2011 and January 2013, 418 students have successfully completed the course. Four online surveys among participating students have been performed, with 132 returned questionnaires. Students’ satisfaction with all four practical course parts was high, as well as the assessment of clinical relevance of contents. Most students (88.6%) strongly agreed/agreed that they had learned a lot throughout the course. Two thirds of the students were motivated by the course to train the acquired skills regularly at our skills laboratory. Narrative feedbacks revealed elements contributing most to course success. Conclusions: First-year medical students highly appreciate practical skills training. Hands-on practice, peer-teaching, clinically relevant contents, and the use of medical simulation are valued most. PMID:24575157

  18. Foreign intervention in medical education: a case study of the Rockefeller Foundation's involvement in a Thai medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, P J

    1976-01-01

    A case study of the process of foreign intervention in medical education in the developing world is presented. Material collected from the Rockefeller Foundation Archives on a Foundation program in Thailand is used to analyze the conditions under which foreign agencies and their personnel intervene in the development of medical professionals in the Third World and to study the problems that may occur as a result of such intervention. The importance of value consensus and the competitive advantage foreigners have in the marketing of professional models are highlighted as reasons for the diffusion of Western models of medical education throughout the developing world. PMID:939621

  19. Beyond corporate-style downsizing: a better way for medical schools to succeed in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, C J

    1997-06-01

    There is a critical need for medical schools and universities to consider strategies beyond corporate-style downsizing to address revenue needs and reposition their organizations. The author presents considerable evidence and three reasons to reject downsizing as a way to facilitate long-term organizational success. Instead, she recommends that institutions use a comprehensive approach to individual and organizational development to assure a flexible, enduring organization. Specifically, medical schools and universities should take an institution-wide perspective and approach to continually training, retraining, or reassigning faculty and should continually adapt their organizational structures and procedures as necessary to achieve changing institutional goals. The result will be the retention of able and dedicated faculty, who will be crucial in helping their schools continue to be successful while adapting to a changing world. PMID:9200579

  20. The validity of student tutors’ judgments in early detection of struggling in medical school. A prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Mørcke, Anne Mette; Eika, Berit

    2016-01-01

    early diagnosis of struggling in medical school based on informal teacher judgements of in-class behavior. The study design was a prospective cohort study and the outcomes/truth criteria were anatomy failure and medical school drop out. Six weeks into an anatomy course, student tutors attempted to...... students for signs of struggling. By week six, the student tutors were able to detect approximately 1/4–1/3 of the students who eventually failed or dropped out, and for ¾ of the strugglers they identified, they were correct in their judgments. Informal student tutor’s judgements showed incremental......-class behavior may be an untapped source of information in the early identification of struggling medical students with added value above and beyond formal testing....