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Sample records for brazilian medical research

  1. Post-trial access to study medication: a Brazilian e-survey with major stakeholders in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainesi, Sonia M; Goldbaum, Moises

    2012-12-01

    To analyse the perspective of clinical research stakeholders concerning post-trial access to study medication. Questionnaires and informed consents were sent through e-mail to 599 ethics committee (EC) members, 290 clinical investigators (HIV/AIDS and Diabetes) and 53 sponsors in Brazil. Investigators were also asked to submit the questionnaire to their research patients. Two reminders were sent to participants. The response rate was 21%, 20% and 45% in EC, investigators and sponsors' groups, respectively. 54 patients answered the questionnaire through their doctors. The least informative item in the consent form was how to obtain the study medication after trial. If a benefit were demonstrated in the study, 60% of research participants and 35% of EC answered that all patients should continue receiving study medication after trial; 43% of investigators believed the medication should be given to participants, and 40% to subjects who participated and benefited from treatment. For 50% of the sponsors, study medication should be assured to participants who had benefited from treatment. The majority of responders answered that medication should be provided free by sponsors; investigators and sponsors believed the medication should be kept until available in the public health sector; EC members said that the patient should keep the benefit; patients answered that benefits should be assured for life. Due to the study limitations, the results cannot be generalised; however, the data can contribute to discussion of this complex topic through analysing the views of stakeholders in clinical research in Brazil.

  2. Brazilian medical publications: citation patterns for Brazilian-edited and non-Brazilian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Cunha-Melo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, the quality of a scientific article depends on the periodical in which it is published and on the number of times the article is cited in the literature. In Brazil, the criteria for the evaluation of this scientific production are improving. However, there is still some resistance, with authors arguing that Brazilian publications must be preferentially addressed to the national readers and, therefore, they should ideally be written in Portuguese. In order to determine the kind of scientific journals cited in the reference lists of articles published in medical periodicals edited in Brazil, in the present study we determine the rate of Portuguese/English citations. Three issues of 43 periodicals (19 indexed in SciELO, 10 in PubMed, 10 in LILACS, and 4 in the ISI-Thompson base of different medical specialties were analyzed, and the number of both Portuguese and English citations in the reference list of each article was recorded. The results showed that in Brazilian-edited journals the mean number of citations/article was 20.9 ± 6.9 and the percentage of citations of international non-Brazilian periodicals was 86.0 ± 11.2%. Of the latter, 94.4 ± 7.0 are indexed by ISI-Thompson. Therefore, we conclude that Brazilian medical scientists cite the international non-Brazilian periodicals more than the national journals, and most of the cited papers are indexed by ISI-Thompson.

  3. References from Brazilian medical journals in national publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Botelho, Nara Macedo; Petroianu, Andy

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether there is a preference for international journal citation to the detriment of national ones in ten Brazilian medical journals, in two different periods. All references in the articles published in Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular, Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, São Paulo Medical Journal, Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Clinics, Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia, Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria e Acta Ortopédica Brasileira in the years 2011 and 2007 were analyzed, assessing the number of articles published in national and international journals. A total of 36,125 references from 1,462 articles published in the 10 aforementioned journals were analyzed. Of the total number, 4.242 (11.74%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no significant difference between the two analyzed periods. A total of 453 (30,98%) of the articles studied non-cited brazilian papers,and 81 (5.54%) articles had more Brazilian than international references. Of total references analyzed, 11.74% were related to articles published in Brazilian journals. This number, when compared to the percentage of Brazilian articles published in the medical area, demonstrates a good number of citations of national articles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Brazilian physicians hold national strike against medical insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; da Silva, Pedro Guarise

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Health System has two different forms of access, public and private. The purpose of the public health system is to provide universal, complete access, free of charge, for the entire population. The private sector is composed by people who have private insurance. Nowadays, about 43 million Brazilians, or 26.3% of the population, have private health insurance. The main motivations of the physicians for the strike were the low payment for medical services and the constant interference of the private health insurance companies in medical autonomy. For this reason, Brazilian physicians held a 24-hour strike against the Medical Insurance Companies that did not accept to negotiate new fees in almost all Brazilian states. At least 120,000 physicians from all specialties stopped elective activities during that day, only providing urgent or emergency care. It is estimated that the strike affected 25 to 35 million Brazilians, about 76% of the total number of medical insurance users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Nursing history research groups: a Brazilian reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Maria Itayra; Borenstein, Miriam Susskind; Carvalho, Maria Aline Lima; Ferreira, Aline Coelho

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the activities of Nursing History research groups in Brazil and their relationships with the nursing undergraduate and graduate courses. This exploratory, descriptive, qualitative documental study was performed from July 2008 to March 2010. We identified 34 research groups that had Nursing History as the focus of at least one of the lines of research. Results showed that the groups have produced a great amount of bibliographical material, research lines and broad participation of undergraduate and graduate students. It was also found that there is a communication network among groups working within the same line of research. In conclusion, there is a need to increase interdisciplinarity and also strengthen some lines of research in order to support knowledge of the history of Brazilian nursing.

  6. Highland Medical Research Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the Highland Medical Research Journal is to publish scientific research in various fields of medical science and to communicate such research findings to the larger world community. It aims to promote cooperation and understanding amoungst workers in various fields of medical science.

  7. [Medical writers in medical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Danielsen, Anne Kjærgaard; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-08-19

    Larger research units often comprise persons of several professions in order to secure a high level of efficiency and quality in the different tasks. In Denmark, employees with special competencies within the field of writing and publication are rarely used in research units. The purpose of this study was to present the advantages and challenges associated with the involvement of medical writers in academic environments.

  8. Understanding Medical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you hear about the results of a new medical research study. Sometimes the results of one study ... when reading or listening to reports of new medical findings. Some questions that can help you evaluate ...

  9. Quality of health and medication information on Brazilian websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Ana Paula Soares; Weyne, Davi Pontes; Ferreira, Bruno Sousa Pinto

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of information about health and medication available on Brazilian websites. A descriptive study with a quantitative approach regarding Brazilian websites, conducted from January to March 2011. The search sites were located using two search phrases: "medication information" and "health information." The choice of variables was based on the Internet information quality criteria of the World Health Organization and the International Code of Ethics for health and services sites on the Internet. The dependent variable was whether the site had information about health or medication. The independent variables were access, appearance, organization, honesty, transparency, responsibility and origin. For statistical analysis, the χ² and Fisher exact tests were applied, with a significance level of 5%. Of the 37 Brazilian sites analyzed, 24 (64.9%) contained health information and 13 (35.1%) contained medication information. Regarding appearance, organization and access criteria, most sites related to health and medication were easily accessible, easy to understand, used objective language, were updated and organized logically and provided accurate and scientifically grounded information. The honesty criterion differed significantly between sites, and the quality of information presented on health and medication websites showed significant differences, suggesting the need for a more systematic organization of these topics on the Internet.

  10. [Research in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    of articles on medical education studies indicate a need for improvement of the quality of medical education research in order to contribute to the advancement of educational practice as well as educational research. In particular, there is a need to embed studies in a conceptual theoretical framework......Research in medical education is a relatively new discipline. Over the past 30 years, the discipline has experienced a tremendous growth, which is reflected in an increase in the number of publications in both medical education journals and medical science journals. However, recent reviews...

  11. Quality of health and medication information on Brazilian websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Soares Gondim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the quality of information about health andmedication available on Brazilian websites. Methods: A descriptivestudy with a quantitative approach regarding Brazilian websites,conducted from January to March 2011. The search sites werelocated using two search phrases: “medication information” and“health information.” The choice of variables was based on theInternet information quality criteria of the World Health Organizationand the International Code of Ethics for health and services siteson the Internet. The dependent variable was whether the site hadinformation about health or medication. The independent variableswere access, appearance, organization, honesty, transparency,responsibility and origin. For statistical analysis, the χ2 and Fisherexact tests were applied, with a significance level of 5%. Results:Of the 37 Brazilian sites analyzed, 24 (64.9% contained healthinformation and 13 (35.1% contained medication information.Regarding appearance, organization and access criteria, mostsites related to health and medication were easily accessible,easy to understand, used objective language, were updated andorganized logically and provided accurate and scientifically groundedinformation. Conclusion: The honesty criterion differed significantlybetween sites, and the quality of information presented on healthand medication websites showed significant differences, suggestingthe need for a more systematic organization of these topics on theInternet.

  12. Potentially inappropriate medications among elderly Brazilian outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Grützmann Faustino

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVESIn Brazil, few studies have investigated the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs among elderly outpatients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of PIMs prescribed for elderly outpatients, identify the PIMs most commonly involved, and investigate whether age, sex and number of medications are related to prescription of such medications.DESIGN AND SETTINGObservational descriptive study developed in the Geriatrics Service of the Central Institute of Hospital das Clínicas (HC, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP, São Paulo, Brazil.METHODSPrescriptions issued to 1,270 elderly patients (≥ 60 years were gathered from a database. These prescriptions had been written by geriatricians at a tertiary-level university hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, between February and May 2008. The prescriptions were divided according to sex and age group (60-69, 70-79 and ≥ 80. The Beers criteria were used to evaluate PIMs.RESULTSMost of the sample comprised women (77% and the mean age was 80.1 years. The mean prevalence of PIM prescriptions was 26.9%. Female sex and number of medications prescribed were associated with prescription of PIMs. The chance of having a PIM prescription was lower among patients ≥ 70 years.CONCLUSIONThe greater prevalence of PIMs was correlated with female sex. The chance of having a PIM prescription was lower among patients ≥ 70 years and became greater with increasing numbers of medications prescribed (≥ 7.

  13. Medical Research Today

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Medical Research Today. Three broad categories: i. Socially useful, necessary; but not original; many listed by ICMR. ii. 'Basic research' – targeted on high - impact journals – not India's social needs;. iii. Mental health; application of available knowledge (Eg. RHD prophylaxis; ...

  14. Brazilian oral herbal medication for osteoarthritis: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Mariana Del Grossi; Lopes, Luciane Cruz; Biavatti, Maique Weber; Busse, Jason W; Wang, Li; Kennedy, Sean Alexander; Bhatnaga, Neera; Bergamaschi, Cristiane de Cássia

    2016-05-21

    Osteoarthritis affects 1 % of the world's population and is the most common cause of musculoskeletal impairment in the elderly. Herbal medications are commonly used in Brazil to manage symptoms associated with osteoarthritis, and some of them are financed by the Brazilian government; however, the effectiveness of most of these agents is uncertain. The aim was to systematically review the efficacy and safety of 13 oral herbal medications used in Brazil for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Randomized clinical trials eligible for our systematic review will enroll adults with osteoarthritis treated by a Brazilian herbal medication or a control group (placebo or active control). Using terms to include all forms of osteoarthritis combined with herbal medications, we will search the following electronic databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; Health Star; AMED, the database of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, LILACS; CAB abstracts, Clinical trial.gov, WHO trials registry, and Bank of Brazil Thesis (CAPES), to 31 January 2016, without restrictions concerning language or status of publication. Outcomes of interest include the following: symptom relief (e.g., pain), adverse events (gastrointestinal bleeding, epigastric pain, nausea, and allergic reactions), discontinuation due to adverse events, quality of life, and the satisfaction with the treatment. Dichotomous data will be summarized as risk ratios; continuous data will be given as standard average differences with 95 % confidence intervals. A team of reviewers will assess each citation independently for eligibility and in duplicate it. For eligible studies, the same reviewers will perform data extraction, bias risk assessment, and determination of the overall quality of evidence for each of the outcomes using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) classification system. This is the first study that will

  15. Opinions of Students from a Brazilian Medical School Regarding Online Professionalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocha, Paulo Novis; de Castro, Naara Alethéa Azael

    2014-01-01

    ... cultures.To determine the frequency with which students from a Brazilian Medical School come across ten given examples of unprofessional online behavior by medical students or physicians, and gather...

  16. Medical Specialty Choice and Related Factors of Brazilian Medical Students and Recent Doctors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Correia Lima de Souza

    Full Text Available Choosing a medical specialty is an important, complex, and not fully understood process. The present study investigated the factors that are related to choosing and rejecting medical specialties in a group of students and recent medical doctors.A cross-sectional survey of 1,223 medical students and doctors was performed in Brazil in 2012. A standardized literature-based questionnaire was applied that gathered preferable or rejected specialties, and asked questions about extracurricular experiences and the influence of 14 factors on a Likert-type scale from 0 to 4. Specialties were grouped according to lifestyle categories: controllable and uncontrollable, which were subdivided into primary care, internal medicine, and surgical specialties. Notably, the time period of rejection was usually earlier than the time period of intended choice (p < 0.0001, χ(2 = 107.2. The choice mainly occurred during the internship period in medical school (n = 466; 38.7%. An overall large frequency of participation in extracurricular activities was observed (n = 1,184; 95.8%, which were highly associated with the respective medical area. Orthopedic surgery had the highest correlation with participation in specialty-specific organized groups (OR = 59.9, 95% CI = 21.6-166.3 and psychiatry was correlated with participation in research groups (OR = 18.0, 95% CI = 9.0-36.2. With regard to influential factors in controllable lifestyle specialties, "financial reason" (mean score ± standard deviation: 2.8 ± 1.0; median = 3 and "personal time" (3.1 ± 1.3; median = 4 were important factors. In primary care, these factors were less important (1.7 ± 1.3 and 1.7 ± 1.5, respectively; median = 2 for both, and higher scores were observed for "curricular internship" (3.2 ± 1.1, median = 4 and "social commitment" (2.6 ± 1.3, median = 3.The present findings provide important insights into developing strategies to stimulate interest in specialties based on the needs of the

  17. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon: An Instrument for Psycholinguistic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estivalet, Gustavo L; Meunier, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon, a new word-based corpus for psycholinguistic and computational linguistic research in Brazilian Portuguese. We describe the corpus development, the specific characteristics on the internet site and database for user access. We also perform distributional analyses of the corpus and comparisons to other current databases. Our main objective was to provide a large, reliable, and useful word-based corpus with a dynamic, easy-to-use, and intuitive interface with free internet access for word and word-criteria searches. We used the Núcleo Interinstitucional de Linguística Computacional's corpus as the basic data source and developed the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon by deriving and adding metalinguistic and psycholinguistic information about Brazilian Portuguese words. We obtained a final corpus with more than 30 million word tokens, 215 thousand word types and 25 categories of information about each word. This corpus was made available on the internet via a free-access site with two search engines: a simple search and a complex search. The simple engine basically searches for a list of words, while the complex engine accepts all types of criteria in the corpus categories. The output result presents all entries found in the corpus with the criteria specified in the input search and can be downloaded as a.csv file. We created a module in the results that delivers basic statistics about each search. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon also provides a pseudoword engine and specific tools for linguistic and statistical analysis. Therefore, the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon is a convenient instrument for stimulus search, selection, control, and manipulation in psycholinguistic experiments, as also it is a powerful database for computational linguistics research and language modeling related to lexicon distribution, functioning, and behavior.

  18. Medical Research for All Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Medical Research for All Americans Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... information that is based on the very best medical research conducted by and for the National Institutes ...

  19. Brazilian research on extremophiles in the context of astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Nóbrega, Felipe; Nakayama, Cristina R.; Pellizari, Vivian H.

    2012-10-01

    Extremophiles are organisms adapted to grow at extreme ranges of environmental variables, such as high or low temperatures, acid or alkaline medium, high salt concentration, high pressures and so forth. Most extremophiles are micro-organisms that belong to the Archaea and Bacteria domains, and are widely spread across the world, which include the polar regions, volcanoes, deserts, deep oceanic sediments, hydrothermal vents, hypersaline lakes, acid and alkaline water bodies, and other extreme environments considered hostile to human life. Despite the tropical climate, Brazil has a wide range of ecosystems which include some permanent or seasonally extreme environments. For example, the Cerrado is a biome with very low soil pH with high Al+3 concentration, the mangroves in the Brazilian coast are anaerobic and saline, Pantanal has thousands of alkaline-saline lakes, the Caatinga arid and hot soils and the deep sea sediments in the Brazilian ocean shelf. These environments harbour extremophilic organisms that, coupled with the high natural biodiversity in Brazil, could be explored for different purposes. However, only a few projects in Brazil intended to study the extremophiles. In the frame of astrobiology, for example, these organisms could provide important models for defining the limits of life and hypothesize about life outside Earth. Brazilian microbiologists have, however, studied the extremophilic micro-organisms inhabiting non-Brazilian environments, such as the Antarctic continent. The experience and previous results obtained from the Brazilian Antarctic Program (PROANTAR) provide important results that are directly related to astrobiology. This article is a brief synopsis of the Brazilian experience in researching extremophiles, indicating the most important results related to astrobiology and some future perspectives in this area.

  20. [Brazilian experiences in the participation of users and family members in mental health research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presotto, Rodrigo Fernando; Silveira, Marília; Delgado, Pedro Gabriel Godinho; Vasconcelos, Eduardo Mourão

    2013-10-01

    In this paper the authors describe and contextualize the participation of users and family members in mental health research in Brazil, addressing the recent tradition of the experiences of recovery and empowerment to define the analysis of some Brazilian experiences of evaluative research and intervention projects, which count on these social actors to act as researchers. The experiences of Self-Help Groups and the Guide to Autonomous Medication Management are described briefly, in order to analyze the limits and possibilities of participation of users and their family members in research, which is still incipient and sporadic in the Brazilian reality. The authors also recommend the creation of an agenda in public health policy that encourages this participation.

  1. Brazilian demand for Iodine-125 seeds in cancer treatment after a decade of medical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Osvaldo L. da; Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, João A.; Souza, Carla D.; Oliveira, Henrique B. de; Peleiras Junior, Fernando S.; Zeituni, CArlos A.; Rostelaro, Maria E.C.M., E-mail: olcosta@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Iodine-125 and palladium-103 are radionuclides employed to made medical devices used in cancer treatment known as brachytherapy seeds. These radioactive sealed sources are applied in brain and ophthalmic cancer as a temporary implant to irradiate the tumor and in permanent implants to prostatic cancer. Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) has the monopoly in Brazil of iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds distribution which is executed for Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP). Along a decade of use in Brazil more than 240 thousand seeds were implanted in patients or used to treat cancer tumors. In this article the Brazilian demand for iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds is analyzed. The demand behavior along a decade of using loose, strand, ophthalmic and brain brachytherapy seeds are shown. The annual quantity of seeds demanded by Brazil has dropped since 2012. The loose seeds which represented until 30% from total brachytherapy seeds used in Brazil decreased to less than 3%. The brain brachytherapy seeds had low demand along the decade and presented zero demand in several years. Concurrent treatment techniques are listed and main trends are discussed. The influence of Brazilian economic crisis and the demand behavior of the main hospitals and clinics that use Iodine-125 brachytherapy are shown. (author)

  2. Do Brazilian scientific journals promote the adherence of Chagas disease researchers to international ethical principles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafaia, Guilherme; Guilhem, Dirce; Talvani, André

    2013-01-01

    The ethical aspects of the Brazilian publications about human Chagas disease (CD) developed between 1996 and 2010 and the policy adopted by Brazilian medical journals were analyzed. Articles were selected on the SciELO Brazil data basis, and the evaluation of ethical aspects was based on the normative contents about ethics in research involving human experimentation according to the Brazilian resolution of the National Health Council no. 196/1996. The editorial policies of the section "Instructions to authors" were analyzed. In the period of 1996-2012, 58.9% of articles involving human Chagas disease did not refer to the fulfillment of the ethical aspects concerning research with human beings. In 80% of the journals, the requirements and confirmation of the information about ethical aspects in the studies of human CD were not observed. Although a failure in this type of service is still observed, awareness has been raised in federal agencies, educational institutions/research and publishing groups to standardize the procedures and ethical requirements for the Brazilian journals, reinforcing the fulfillment of the ethical parameters, according to the resolution of NHC no. 196/1996.

  3. Do Brazilian scientific journals promote the adherence of Chagas disease researchers to internacional ethical principals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Malafaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ethical aspects of the Brazilian publications about human Chagas disease (CD developed between 1996 and 2010 and the policy adopted by Brazilian medical journals were analyzed. Articles were selected on the SciELO Brazil data basis, and the evaluation of ethical aspects was based on the normative contents about ethics in research involving human experimentation according to the Brazilian resolution of the National Health Council no. 196/1996. The editorial policies of the section "Instructions to authors" were analyzed. In the period of 1996-2012, 58.9% of articles involving human Chagas disease did not refer to the fulfillment of the ethical aspects concerning research with human beings. In 80% of the journals, the requirements and confirmation of the information about ethical aspects in the studies of human CD were not observed. Although a failure in this type of service is still observed, awareness has been raised in federal agencies, educational institutions/research and publishing groups to standardize the procedures and ethical requirements for the Brazilian journals, reinforcing the fulfillment of the ethical parameters, according to the resolution of NHC no. 196/1996.

  4. Regression methods for medical research

    CERN Document Server

    Tai, Bee Choo

    2013-01-01

    Regression Methods for Medical Research provides medical researchers with the skills they need to critically read and interpret research using more advanced statistical methods. The statistical requirements of interpreting and publishing in medical journals, together with rapid changes in science and technology, increasingly demands an understanding of more complex and sophisticated analytic procedures.The text explains the application of statistical models to a wide variety of practical medical investigative studies and clinical trials. Regression methods are used to appropriately answer the

  5. Prevalence of the burnout syndrome among Brazilian medical oncologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Glasberg

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Burnout syndrome which is prevalent among oncologists is characterized by three aspects: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment. The purpose was to evaluate prevalence of the burnout syndrome among Brazilian medical oncologists and the variables that correlate with its presence. METHODS: A survey was conducted with members of the Brazilian Society of Medical Oncology (SBOC who received three questionnaires (general, Maslach burnout questionnaire and an opinion survey mailed to all 458 members. RESULTS: Response rate was of 22.3%. According to the criteria proposed by Grunfeld, which consider burnout present when at least one of the aspects is severely abnormal, prevalence of this syndrome was 68.6% (95% confidence interval, CI: 58.68% to 77.45%. By multivariate analysis having a hobby/physical activity, a religious affiliation, older age, living with a companion and rating vacation time as sufficient were correlated significantly and independently with burnout syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The burnout syndrome is prevalent among Brazilian oncologists. Oncologists having sufficient personal and social resources to engage in a hobby, physical activity, have enough vacation time and religious activities are at lower risk of developing burnout.INTRODUÇÃO: A Síndrome da Estafa Profissional (SEP é considerada uma doença caracterizada por três componentes básicos: exaustão emocional (EE, despersonalização (DP e reduzida realização pessoal (RP, sendo identificada em oncologistas. OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência da SEP entre oncologistas clínicos e possíveis fatores relacionados. MÉTODOS: Foram enviados três questionários (Questionário Geral, Questionário Maslach de Burnout e Questionário de Opinião para 458 cancerologistas cadastrados na Sociedade Brasileira de Oncologia Clínica (SBOC. RESULTADOS: A taxa de resposta foi de 20%. 43,3% dos entrevistados demonstraram nível baixo de EE, 57

  6. Description of research design of articles published in four Brazilian physical therapy journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragiotto, Bruno T; Costa, Lucíola C M; Oliveira, Ronaldo F; Lopes, Alexandre D; Moseley, Anne M; Costa, Leonardo O P

    2014-01-01

    While the research design of articles published in medical journals and in some physical therapy journals has already been evaluated, this has not been investigated in Brazilian physical therapy journals. Objective : To describe the research design used in all articles published in Brazilian scientific journals that are freely available, have high Qualis rankings, and are relevant to physical therapy over a 7-year period. We extracted the bibliometric data, research design, research type (human or animal), and clinical area for all articles published. The articles were grouped into their level of evidence, and descriptive analyses were performed. We calculated the frequency, proportions of articles, and 95% confidence interval of these proportions with each research design in each journal. We cross-tabulated the clinical areas with research designs (expressed as number and percentages). A total of 1,458 articles from four Brazilian journals were found: Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia, Revista Fisioterapia em Movimento, Revista Fisioterapia e Pesquisa, and Revista Acta Fisiátrica. The majority of articles were classified as level II of evidence (60%), followed by level III (29%) and level I (10%). The most prevalent research designs were cross-sectional studies (38%), single-case or case-series studies, and narrative reviews. Most articles reported human research and were in the musculoskeletal, neurologic, and cardiothoracic areas. Most of the research published in Brazilian physical therapy journals used levels II and III of evidence. Increasing the publication rate of systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials would provide more high-quality evidence to guide evidence-based physical therapy practice.

  7. Description of research design of articles published in four Brazilian physical therapy journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno T. Saragiotto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : While the research design of articles published in medical journals and in some physical therapy journals has already been evaluated, this has not been investigated in Brazilian physical therapy journals. Objective : To describe the research design used in all articles published in Brazilian scientific journals that are freely available, have high Qualis rankings, and are relevant to physical therapy over a 7-year period. Method : We extracted the bibliometric data, research design, research type (human or animal, and clinical area for all articles published. The articles were grouped into their level of evidence, and descriptive analyses were performed. We calculated the frequency, proportions of articles, and 95% confidence interval of these proportions with each research design in each journal. We cross-tabulated the clinical areas with research designs (expressed as number and percentages. Results : A total of 1,458 articles from four Brazilian journals were found: Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia, Revista Fisioterapia em Movimento, Revista Fisioterapia e Pesquisa, and Revista Acta Fisiátrica. The majority of articles were classified as level II of evidence (60%, followed by level III (29% and level I (10%. The most prevalent research designs were cross-sectional studies (38%, single-case or case-series studies, and narrative reviews. Most articles reported human research and were in the musculoskeletal, neurologic, and cardiothoracic areas. Conclusions : Most of the research published in Brazilian physical therapy journals used levels II and III of evidence. Increasing the publication rate of systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials would provide more high-quality evidence to guide evidence-based physical therapy practice.

  8. ARTICLE Nutritional Intervention Research Unit, Medical Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARTICLE. Nutritional Intervention Research Unit, Medical Research Council of South Africa, Tygerberg,. W Cape ... determined by questionnaire; anunquantified food frequency questionnaire was used to determine usual food intake. Biochemical ..... complementary foods, incorrect preparation of formula feeds, and frequent ...

  9. Information literacy: perceptions of Brazilian HIV/AIDS researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maria do Carmo Avamilano; França, Ivan; Cuenca, Angela Maria Belloni; Bastos, Francisco I; Ueno, Helene Mariko; Barros, Cláudia Renata; Guimarães, Maria Cristina Soares

    2014-03-01

    Information literacy has evolved with changes in lifelong learning. Can Brazilian health researchers search for and use updated scientific information? To describe researchers' information literacy based on their perceptions of their abilities to search for and use scientific information and on their interactions with libraries. Semi-structured interviews and focus group conducted with six Brazilian HIV/AIDS researchers. Analyses comprised the assessment of researchers as disseminators, their interactions with librarians, their use of information and communication technology and language. Interviewees believed they were partially qualified to use databases. They used words and phrases that indicated their knowledge of technology and terminology. They acted as disseminators for students during information searches. Researchers' abilities to interact with librarians are key skills, especially in a renewed context where libraries have, to a large extent, changed from physical spaces to digital environments. Great amounts of information have been made available, and researchers' participation in courses does not automatically translate into adequate information literacy. Librarians must help research groups, and as such, librarians' information literacy-related responsibilities in Brazil should be redefined and expanded. Students must develop the ability to learn quickly, and librarians should help them in their efforts. Librarians and researchers can act as gatekeepers for research groups and as information coaches to improve others' search abilities. © 2013 Health Libraries Group of CILIP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Medical research. Fools' gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacking, John

    2004-04-01

    London, Oxford and Cambridge receive an unequal share of research and development funds. Eight other cities are working with the government to raise their own status generally. New regional centres of excellence would reduce the disparities.

  11. Research on The Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Perales Cabrera, Alberto; Unidad de Investigación, Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The author reviews the impact of globalization on medical teaching. Regarding research teaching for medical undergraduates, he underlines that the important issue is to help the students to develop a research attitude and behavior for which he proposes the corresponding teaching strategies. He also points out the value of research activities in the organizational development of any School of Medicine for which at present remains with an actual survival role. El autor revisa el impacto de l...

  12. [Photography in medical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Bernardo; Nahas, Fabio Xerfan; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2005-01-01

    Medical photography is an adequate scientific document when performed on a standard fashion. A proper photography is an important issue on a scientific publication. Plastic surgeons are experts in clinical photography and, frequently, an image is a more significant data than the written part of a paper. The purpose of this article is to describe the principles developed in this specialty. Basic photographic equipment used for clinical pictures is described. Standardized pictures determined by patient position and framing using anatomical references are reported. Using these rules it is possible to compare pre and post operative pictures. Topics such as intra operative pictures in endoscopic surgery, computer fotogrametry and in Experimental Surgery are also analyzed.

  13. Medical Chemical and Biological Defense Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linden, Carol D

    2001-01-01

    Partial contents; Medical Chemical/Biological Defense Research, Chemical/Biological Defense Rationale for Rationale for Investment,Medical Chemical and Biological Defense Research Program Mission, Medical Chemical...

  14. Ethics and Medical Toxicology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Jeremy; Stolbach, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Optimizing care in medical toxicology necessitates designing and conducting ethical research. Nevertheless, the context of medical toxicology can make clinical research ethically challenging for a variety of reasons: medical toxicology is typified by relative rare conditions; making precise and rapid diagnoses is often fraught with uncertainty; emergent and urgent clinical exigencies make consent difficult or impossible; and some exposures are stigmatized or related to illegal activities that can compromise collecting accurate data from patients. In this paper, we examine some of the ethical issues in medical toxicology research that are especially salient in effort to promote optimal research in the field. The particular issues to be addressed are as follows: (1) rare conditions and orphan agents, (2) randomization and control arms, (3) inclusion and exclusion criteria, (4) outcome measures, (5) consent, (6) confidentiality, (7) registries, (8) oversight, and (9) transparency and reporting. Thinking about these ethical issues prospectively will help researchers and clinicians appropriately navigate them.

  15. Statistical problems in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeh, U M

    2009-04-01

    Many medical specialties have reviewed the drawbacks of statistical methods in medical diagnosis in specialized areas in their journals. To my knowledge this has not been done in general practice. Given the main role of a general practitioner as a biostatistician, I thought it would be of interest to enumerate statistical problems in assessing methods of medical diagnosis in general terms. In conducting and reporting of medical research, there are some common problems in using statistical methodology which may result in invalid inferences being made. This paper is aimed to highlight to inexperienced statisticians, medical practitioners and personnel as well as other non-statisticians some of the common statistical problems encountered when using statistics to interpret data in medical research. I also comment on good practices to avoid some of these problems.

  16. Guidelines for Reporting Medical Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mathilde; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2016-01-01

    As a response to a low quality of reporting of medical research, guidelines for several different types of study design have been developed to secure accurate reporting and transparency for reviewers and readers from the scientific community. Herein, we review and discuss the six most widely...... accepted and used guidelines: PRISMA, CONSORT, STROBE, MOOSE, STARD, and SPIRIT. It is concluded that the implementation of these guidelines has led to only a moderate improvement in the quality of the reporting of medical research. There is still much work to be done to achieve accurate and transparent...... reporting of medical research findings....

  17. [Forensic medical examinations and teaching: disagreements and discussions within the Brazilian Society of Neurology, Psychiatry, and Forensic Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Ede

    2015-01-01

    In order to observe the influence wielded by forensic medicine in the development of the field of psychiatry in Brazil, this research note analyzes the debates that took place from May to July 1918 within the Brazilian Society of Neurology, Psychiatry, and Forensic Medicine over the use of forensic medical examinations as course material in the study of Public Medicine at the Rio de Janeiro School of Medicine. The focus is on how the controversy unfolded within the Society and how this scientific organization influenced the institution of the theoretical and practical training of medical experts.

  18. Research training program: Duke University and Brazilian Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellanda, Lucia Campos; Cesa, Claudia Ciceri; Belli, Karlyse Claudino; David, Vinicius Frayze; Rodrigues, Clarissa Garcia; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Bacal, Fernando; Kalil, Renato A K; Pietrobon, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    Research coaching program focuses on the development of abilities and scientific reasoning. For health professionals, it may be useful to increase both the number and quality of projects and manuscripts. To evaluate the initial results and implementation methodology of the Research and Innovation Coaching Program of the Research on Research group of Duke University in the Brazilian Society of Cardiology. The program works on two bases: training and coaching. Training is done online and addresses contents on research ideas, literature search, scientific writing and statistics. After training, coaching favors the establishment of a collaboration between researchers and centers by means of a network of contacts. The present study describes the implementation and initial results in reference to the years 2011-2012. In 2011, 24 centers received training, which consisted of online meetings, study and practice of the contents addressed. In January 2012, a new format was implemented with the objective of reaching more researchers. In six months, 52 researchers were allocated. In all, 20 manuscripts were published and 49 more were written and await submission and/or publication. Additionally, five research funding proposals have been elaborated. The number of manuscripts and funding proposals achieved the objectives initially proposed. However, the main results of this type of initiative should be measured in the long term, because the consolidation of the national production of high-quality research is a virtuous cycle that feeds itself back and expands over time.

  19. Practices for caring in nursing: Brazilian research groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, A L; de Andrade, S R; de Mello, A L Ferreira; Klock, P; do Nascimento, K C; Koerich, M Santos; Backes, D Stein

    2011-09-01

    The present study considers the production of knowledge and the interactions in the environment of research and their relationships in the system of caring in nursing and health. To elaborate a theoretical model of the organization of the practices used for caring, based on the experiences made by the research groups of administration and management in nursing, in Brazil. The study is based on grounded theory. Twelve leaders of research groups, working as professors in public universities in the south and the south-east of Brazil, distributed in sample groups, were interviewed. The core phenomenon 'research groups of administration and management in nursing: arrangements and interactions in the system of caring in nursing' was derived from the categories: conceptual bases and contexts of the research groups; experiencing interactions in the research groups; functionality of the research groups; and outputs of the research groups. The research groups are integrated in the system of caring in nursing. The activities of the Brazilian administration and management in nursing research groups are process oriented and in a process of constant renovation, socially relevant, operate in a complex scenario and contribute to the advancement of the organizations of the system of caring in nursing through strengthening the connection among academia, service and community. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  20. Tropical Journal of Medical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Medical Research publishes original research work, review articles, important case report, short communications, and innovations in medicine and related fields. Vol 16, No 2 (2012). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles ...

  1. Fulfillment of the brazilian agenda of priorities in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco Santos, Leonor Maria; Moura, Erly Catarina; Barradas Barata, Rita de Cássia; Serruya, Suzanne Jacob; da Motta, Marcia Luz; Silva Elias, Flávia Tavares; Angulo-Tuesta, Antonia; de Paula, Ana Patricia; de Melo, Gilvania; Guimarães, Reinaldo; Grabois Gadelha, Carlos Augusto

    2011-08-31

    This commentary describes how the Brazilian Ministry of Health's (MoH) research support policy fulfilled the National Agenda of Priorities in Health Research (NAPHR). In 2003, the MoH started a democratic process in order to establish a priority agenda in health research involving investigators, health managers and community leaders. The Agenda was launched in 2004 and is guiding budget allocations in an attempt to reduce the gap between scientific knowledge and health practice and activities, aiming to contribute to improving Brazilian quality of life. Many strategies were developed, for instance: Cooperation Agreements between the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Science and Technology; the decentralization of research support at state levels with the participation of local Health Secretariats and Science and Technology Institutions; Health Technology Assessment; innovation in neglected diseases; research networks and multicenter studies in adult, women's and children's health; cardiovascular risk in adolescents; clinical research and stem cell therapy. The budget allocated by the Ministry of Health and partners was expressive: US$419 million to support almost 3,600 projects. The three sub-agenda with the higher proportion of resources were "industrial health complex", "clinical research" and "communicable diseases", which are considered strategic for innovation and national development. The Southeast region conducted 40.5% of all projects and detained 59.7% of the resources, attributable to the concentration of the most traditional health research institutes and universities in the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The second most granted region was the Northeast, which reflects the result of a governmental policy to integrate and modernize this densely populated area and the poorest region in the country. Although Brazil began the design and implementation of the NAPHR in 2003, it has done so in accordance with the 'good practice principles

  2. Fulfillment of the Brazilian Agenda of Priorities in Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Reinaldo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This commentary describes how the Brazilian Ministry of Health's (MoH research support policy fulfilled the National Agenda of Priorities in Health Research (NAPHR. In 2003, the MoH started a democratic process in order to establish a priority agenda in health research involving investigators, health managers and community leaders. The Agenda was launched in 2004 and is guiding budget allocations in an attempt to reduce the gap between scientific knowledge and health practice and activities, aiming to contribute to improving Brazilian quality of life. Many strategies were developed, for instance: Cooperation Agreements between the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Science and Technology; the decentralization of research support at state levels with the participation of local Health Secretariats and Science and Technology Institutions; Health Technology Assessment; innovation in neglected diseases; research networks and multicenter studies in adult, women's and children's health; cardiovascular risk in adolescents; clinical research and stem cell therapy. The budget allocated by the Ministry of Health and partners was expressive: US$419 million to support almost 3,600 projects. The three sub-agenda with the higher proportion of resources were "industrial health complex", "clinical research" and "communicable diseases", which are considered strategic for innovation and national development. The Southeast region conducted 40.5% of all projects and detained 59.7% of the resources, attributable to the concentration of the most traditional health research institutes and universities in the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The second most granted region was the Northeast, which reflects the result of a governmental policy to integrate and modernize this densely populated area and the poorest region in the country. Although Brazil began the design and implementation of the NAPHR in 2003, it has done so in accordance with the 'good

  3. Profile of the Brazilian Researcher in Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Any Carolina Cardoso Guimarães Vasconcelos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze the profile of Brazilian PhD researchers in occupational therapy based on data obtained from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq. Two hundred forty curricula of occupational therapists were individually analyzed, 102 of them from PhD researchers. The curricula were analyzed with respect to gender; completion time of undergraduate studies; institution; time spent for obtaining the doctorate; professional activities; geographical distribution, scientific, and editorial composition; and guidance of undergraduate research, specialization, and master, doctorate and post-doctorate courses. The data showed that 94% of the researchers were women. With regard to professional practice, 73% of the doctors were affiliated to public universities and 84% were located in the southeast region. A total of 1361 papers were produced, at an average of 13.3 articles per researcher, with 25% on the theme of functional health (cognitive, neuromotor, musculoskeletal occupational performance and assistive technology. The PhD researchers in occupational therapy also published 90 books and 488 book chapters. Additionally, 59% of the researchers collaborated as reviewers for scientific periodicals. The results of the analysis will allow the academic community to gain a perspective of the occupational therapy scenario in Brazil, assisting in the establishment of future priorities for improving knowledge and professional practice.

  4. Research Article Introductions in English for Specific Purposes: A Comparison between Brazilian Portuguese and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Eliana

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares the rhetorical organization of research article introductions in Brazilian Portuguese and in English within a subfield of Applied Linguistics. Using Swales' (1990) CARS model as an analytical tool, this exploratory study investigated 20 research articles. The findings indicate that introductions in Brazilian Portuguese tend to…

  5. Medical Research in Stalin's Gulag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Golfo

    2016-01-01

    Recently declassified Gulag archives reveal for the first time that the Stalinist leadership established medical research laboratories in the camps. The present work offers an initial reading of the medical research conducted by and on prisoners in Stalin's Gulag. Although Gulag science did not apparently possess the lethal character of Nazi medicine, neither was this work entirely benign. I argue that the highly constrained environment of the Stalinist camps distorted medical science. Scientists were forced to produce work agreeable to their Gulag administrators. Thus they remained silent regarding the context of mass starvation and forced labor, and often perpetuated Gulag myths concerning the nature of diseases and the threat of deceptive patients. Rather than aggressive treatment to save lives, they often engaged in clinical observations of dead or dying patients. At the same time, a few courageous scientists challenged the Gulag system in their research, in both subtle and overt ways.

  6. Profile and scientific production of Brazilian researchers in oral pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ivanilde Pereira Santos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the profile and scientific production of researchers in oral pathology who received grants in the area of Dentistry from the Brazilian National Research and Development Council. MATERIAL AND METHOD : The standardized online curriculum vitae (Curriculum Lattes of 34 researchers in oral pathology who received grants in the years 2008-2010 were analyzed. The variables were: gender, affiliation, time from completion of the PhD program, scientific production, and supervision of undergraduate students and Master's and PhD programs. RESULT: The States of São Paulo (52.94% and Minas Gerais (26.47% were responsible for 79.41% of the researchers. Regarding affiliation, three institutions accounted for approximately 44.11% of the researchers: UNICAMP (17.64%; USP (14.70%; and UFMG (11.76%. The researchers published a total of 906 full-text articles, with a median of 26.64 articles per researcher in the triennium and 8.88 articles per year. It was found that of 906 articles published, 366 (40.39% were published in strata A (qualis-CAPES. Oral pathology researchers supervised 437 scientific initiation and post-graduate students. Of these, 138 (31.57% were scientific initiation, 169 (38.67% were Master and 130 (29.74% were PhD students. CONCLUSION: An important scientific production of oral pathology researchers in the 2008-2010 triennium was observed. By knowing the profile of researchers in oral pathology, more effective strategies for encouraging scientific production and demanding resources to finance research projects can be defined.

  7. Highland Medical Research Journal: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highland Medical Research Journal: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Highland Medical Research Journal: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Statistical problems in medical research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... medical research, there are some common problems in using statistical methodology which may result in invalid inferences being made. ... several independent groups, use of statistical power, inadequate analysis of reported ..... WRONG PLACEMENT OF UNITS OF OBSERVATION. IN REPORTING AND ...

  9. Translation to Brazilian Portuguese and cultural adaptation of a questionnaire addressing high-alert medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Ariane Cristina Barboza; Gabriel, Carmen Silvia; Bernardes, Andrea; Pereira, Leonardo Régis Leira

    2016-10-24

    To describe the translation into Portuguese and cultural adaptation of a Questionnaire addressing High-Alert Medications to the Brazilian context. Methodological study comprising the translation from Chinese to Brazilian Portuguese, synthesis of translations, back translation, panel of experts, and pretest to obtain the final version of the questionnaire. cultural and conceptual equivalence, though 50% of the items required adjustment. Thirty nurses from a teaching hospital participated in the pretest and considered the items to be understandable. Satisfactory semantic, idiomatic, cultural and conceptual equivalence was obtained between the versions. The Portuguese version was also considered to be relevant to the Brazilian culture and easily understood. Nevertheless, its psychometric properties need to be assessed before making it available.

  10. Perception of illegal practice of medicine by Brazilian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Herbas, Suzana; Lisboa, Larissa; Damasceno, Hannah; Menezes, Marta

    2014-06-01

    Illegal practice of medicine by medical students is a worldwide problem. In Brazil, information about this issue is scarce. To describe the perception of illegal practice of medicine by medical students. A cross-sectional study in a stratified random sample of 130 medical students in the 6th to 12th semesters from a private faculty of medicine in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil, from September to October 2011. Students responded to a standardised questionnaire about the illegal practice of medicine by medical students. Knowing medical students who practised medical activities without supervision was reported by 86% of the respondents, and 93.8% had heard about someone who performed such practices. Medical specialties most often associated with illegal practice were general medicine (78.8%) and occupational health (55.9%). Illegal practice of medicine was more common in peripheral cities/towns (83.9%) than in the State capital, Salvador City (52.4%). Only 10.5% of illegal activities were reported to the authorities. Unsupervised medical practice was more often reported in the 8th-9th semester (56.8%) and 10th-11th semester (54.4%) of medical school. Illegal practice of medicine was commonly reported by the medical students questioned. The high frequency of reported illegal practice for financial reasons highlights the need for greater availability of paid internships for medical students. Educational institutions represent the social control responsible for supervising the activities of academics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. THE USE OF TRIANGULATION IN BRAZILIAN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Beckert Zappellini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to investigate the use of triangulation procedures in Brazilian scientific research in Administration. Triangulation is defined as a procedure that combines different methods of data collection, distinct populations or samples, different theoretical perspectives and different points in time to solidify its conclusions about the investigated phenomenon. There are several types of triangulation, but researchers generally follow the classification presented by Denzin (2005, which distinguished data, theory, researchers, and methodological triangulation, and was subsequently expanded and explained by different authors. In the analyses performed on articles obtained from the Scielo Brazil database a diversification in the use of the method was identified, whereby it was sometimes applied in a distorted manner, mostly confusing between data and methodological triangulation. In this sense, it was concluded that there are few studies that recognize the use of triangulation based on the different perspectives and purposes mentioned in the literature, although there has been a significant number of studies that use it as a data analysis technique based on different sources of empirical evidence.

  12. Medical Student Oncology Congress: Designed and Implemented by Brazilian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Celeste Rodovalho Soares; Schoueri, Jean Henri Maselli; Neto, Felippe Lazar; Segalla, Paola Boaro; Del Giglio, Auro; Cubero, Daniel I G

    2017-03-30

    Oncology is an essential field of medicine; however, its teaching is occasionally underemphasized and uncoordinated during medical school. An alternative method of providing additional oncological information to medical students is through extracurricular activities, such as congresses and medical student associations. The aim of this paper is to describe a Medical Student Oncology Congress entirely designed and organized by medical students. Three medical students from oncology study and research groups identified the gap in oncology training at universities and decided to organize a congress for students. They selected representatives from 26 universities in Brazil for onsite registration and created a website for online registration and promotion of the congress. To determine the topics of the lectures, they searched the medical literature for the most commonly occurring cancers in adults and children. Extrapolating the academic content of oncology, they organized lectures by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), talks on career guidance and research in this field as well as a role-playing workshop to train future doctors on how to deliver news to patients. There were a total of 609 attendees, with 590 students from 26 different universities in Brazil. Approximately 82% were medical students, and among the participants there were also 15 medical educators. A total of 80.75% of the participants were extremely satisfied with the congress, and 99.17% would recommend it to a colleague. Most of the overall cost of the congress, 96%, was covered by registration fees. There was a 6% positive net balance, which was donated to the NGOs participating in the congress. This successful experience proves that it is possible to have a congress fully designed, organized and managed by students. It demonstrates how students can be active participants in their own education, as opposed to a classic approach through which only professors are responsible for instruction.

  13. Brazilian Medical Association guidelines for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Nigri Levitan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the most relevant findings regarding the Brazilian Medical Association guidelines for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of panic disorder. Methods: We used the methodology proposed by the Brazilian Medical Association for the Diretrizes Project. The MEDLINE (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and LILACS online databases were queried for articles published from 1980 to 2012. Searchable questions were structured using the PICO format (acronym for “patient” [or population], “intervention” [or exposure], “comparison” [or control], and “outcome”. Results: We present data on clinical manifestations and implications of panic disorder and its association with depression, drug abuse, dependence and anxiety disorders. In addition, discussions were held on the main psychiatric and clinical differential diagnoses. Conclusions: The guidelines are proposed to serve as a reference for the general practitioner and specialist to assist in and facilitate the diagnosis of panic disorder.

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors in outpatients with bipolar disorder: a report from the Brazilian Research Network in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano A. Gomes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD is associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to comorbid general medical conditions, particularly cardiovascular disease. This study is the first report of the Brazilian Research Network in Bipolar Disorder (BRN-BD that aims to evaluate the prevalence and clinical correlates of cardiovascular risk factors among Brazilian patients with BD. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 159 patients with DSM-IV BD, 18 years or older, consecutively recruited from the Bipolar Research Program (PROMAN in São Paulo and the Bipolar Disorder Program (PROTAHBI in Porto Alegre. Clinical, demographic, anthropometric, and metabolic variables were systematically assessed. Results: High rates of smoking (27%, physical inactivity (64.9%, alcohol use disorders (20.8%, elevated fasting glucose (26.4%, diabetes (13.2%, hypertension (38.4%, hypertriglyceridemia (25.8%, low HDL-cholesterol (27.7%, general (38.4% and abdominal obesity (59.1% were found in the sample. Male patients were more likely to have alcohol use disorders, diabetes, and hypertriglyceridemia, whereas female patients showed higher prevalence of abdominal obesity. Variables such as medication use pattern, alcohol use disorder, and physical activity were associated with selected cardiovascular risk factors in the multivariable analysis. Conclusion: This report of the BRN-BD provides new data regarding prevalence rates and associated cardiovascular risk factors in Brazilian outpatients with BD. There is a need for increasing both awareness and recognition about metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in this patient population.

  15. Growth Disparity between Medical Research and Medical Services ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Growth Disparity between Medical Research and Medical Services in India. British rulers opened hospitals for modern medicine; medical colleges; nurses schools etc. in the 19th century to the joyous welcome of natives. During the same period, they set up Indian Research Fund Association two years ahead of the MRC of ...

  16. Archives: Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 8 of 8 ... Archives: Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research. Journal Home > Archives: Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Cross-cultural Differences in Mental Health, Quality of Life, Empathy, and Burnout between US and Brazilian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Damiano, Rodolfo Furlan; DiLalla, Lisabeth F; Lucchetti, Alessandra Lamas Granero; Moutinho, Ivana Lúcia Damásio; da Silva Ezequiel, Oscarina; Kevin Dorsey, J

    2017-08-31

    This study aimed to compare mental health, quality of life, empathy, and burnout in medical students from a medical institution in the USA and another one in Brazil. This cross-cultural study included students enrolled in the first and second years of their undergraduate medical training. We evaluated depression, anxiety, and stress (DASS 21), empathy, openness to spirituality, and wellness (ESWIM), burnout (Oldenburg), and quality of life (WHOQOL-Bref) and compared them between schools. A total of 138 Brazilian and 73 US medical students were included. The comparison between all US medical students and all Brazilian medical students revealed that Brazilians reported more depression and stress and US students reported greater wellness, less exhaustion, and greater environmental quality of life. In order to address a possible response bias favoring respondents with better mental health, we also compared all US medical students with the 50% of Brazilian medical students who reported better mental health. In this comparison, we found Brazilian medical students had higher physical quality of life and US students again reported greater environmental quality of life. Cultural, social, infrastructural, and curricular differences were compared between institutions. Some noted differences were that students at the US institution were older and were exposed to smaller class sizes, earlier patient encounters, problem-based learning, and psychological support. We found important differences between Brazilian and US medical students, particularly in mental health and wellness. These findings could be explained by a complex interaction between several factors, highlighting the importance of considering cultural and school-level influences on well-being.

  18. Highland Medical Research Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The aim of the Highland Medical Research Journal is to publish scientific research in various fields of medical science and to communicate such research findings to the larger world community. It aims to promote cooperation and understanding amoungst workers in various fields of medical science.

  19. Gaming Habits and Opinions of Brazilian Medical School Faculty and Students: What's Next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Leandro Arthur; de Souza, Rodrigo Martins; Gordan, Pedro Alejandro; Esteves, Roberto Zonato; Coelho, Izabel Cristina Meister

    2014-04-01

    This study assessed habits and opinions of medical educators and students from a Brazilian medical school about electronic games for learning or for fun. A questionnaire was sent to Universidade Estadual de Londrina medical school faculty members and undergraduate students. From the 50 faculty members, 20 percent reported regular use of electronic games (at least once a week), spending 1 hour/week with games (median). Among 302 medical students, 37 percent reported regular gaming. Students spent 3 hours/week playing games (median). Male students played games 4.4 times more often than female students. About 90 percent of faculty members and students believed that games are useful for medical education, and >80 percent would like to play games for education of health professionals, but only one-third of students and one-fifth of faculty had already played one of such games. More than 80 percent of faculty would like to use a game for their educational activities. The main obstacles to incorporation of games into medical education, reported by faculty members, were associated with lack of knowledge on available options, lack of time to develop new activities, and lack of resources or institutional support. Playing electronic games is common among medical faculty and students, who both present very positive opinions about games for learning, but the scarcity of available options and the lack of institutional support prevent a more widespread adoption of medical education games.

  20. Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice aims to promote and advance the practice and study of all fields of medicine in Nigeria in general as well ... case reports, letters, preliminary communications etc. it aims to serve medical doctors, medical consultants, allied health professionals and medical scientists ...

  1. Brazilian legal and bioethical approach about donation for research and patents of human body parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Márcia Santana; Silla, Lúcia; Goldim, José Roberto; Martins-Costa, Judith

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain why the Brazilian legal system does not accept commercialization or commodification of human body parts, including genes or cells. As a consequence, in Brazil, the donation of human body parts for research-including basic or translational-must be made altruistically. For the same reason, the Brazilian patent system cannot be applied to human parts, cells or genes. Here, we present a qualitative analysis of juridical, bioethical, and social reasoning related to the legal status of human body parts especially in biobanks, as well as a description of the Brazilian legal system for clarification. Our aim is to discuss the responsibility of researchers for making available the scientific information resulting from scientific research and biobank storage of human body parts and to ensure the free utilization of knowledge in human health research.

  2. The Brazilian research contribution to knowledge of the plant communities from Antarctic ice free areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO B. PEREIRA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to summarize the results of research carried out by Brazilian researchers on the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas during the last twenty five years. Since 1988 field work has been carried out in Elephant Island, King George Island, Nelson Island and Deception Island. During this period six papers were published on the chemistry of lichens, seven papers on plant taxonomy, five papers on plant biology, two studies on UVB photoprotection, three studies about the relationships between plant communities and bird colonies and eleven papers on plant communities from ice free areas. At the present, Brazilian botanists are researching the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas in order to understand their relationships to soil microbial communities, the biodiversity, the distribution of the plants populations and their relationship with birds colonies. In addition to these activities, a group of Brazilian researchers are undertaking studies related to Antarctic plant genetic diversity, plant chemistry and their biotechnological applications.

  3. Improving Defense Health Program Medical Research Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    administration and management of all MTFs, including budgetary matters, information technology, administrative policy and procedure, military medical...2013;7(12). 7. Kitchen LW, Vaughn DW, Skillman DR. Role of US military research programs in the development of US Food and Drug Administration ...that would optimally support military medical professionals who oversee and conduct DHP medical research. In response, the DHB assigned the Public

  4. Validação do Modified Pulmonary Functional Status and Dyspnea Questionnaire e da escala do Medical Research Council para o uso em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica no Brasil Validation of the Modified Pulmonary Functional Status and Dyspnea Questionnaire and the Medical Research Council scale for use in Brazilian patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetria Kovelis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a validade e a reprodutibilidade do uso de dois instrumentos subjetivos para avaliar a limitação nas atividades da vida diária (AVD em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC no Brasil: o Pulmonary Functional Status and Dyspnea Questionnaire - Modified version (PFSDQ-M e a escala do Medical Research Council (MRC. MÉTODOS: Trinta pacientes com DPOC (17 homens; idade, 67 ± 10 anos; volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo, 42% ± 13% do predito responderam por duas vezes às versões em português dos dois instrumentos com intervalo de uma semana. O PFSDQ-M contém três componentes: influência da dispnéia nas AVD, influência da fadiga nas AVD, e mudança nas AVD em comparação ao período anterior à doença. A escala do MRC é simples, com apenas cinco itens, dentre os quais o paciente escolhe qual o seu nível de limitação nas AVD devido à dispnéia. O tradicional questionário Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, já validado para o uso no Brasil, foi utilizado como critério de validação. RESULTADOS: A confiabilidade em reteste do PFSDQ-M utilizando o coeficiente de correlação intraclasse foi de 0,93, 0,92 e 0,90 para os componentes dispnéia, fadiga e mudança, respectivamente, enquanto que esta foi de 0,83 para a escala do MRC. A análise dos gráficos de Bland e Altman mostrou boa concordância entre a aplicação e a reaplicação do PFSDQ-M. Os componentes do PFSDQ-M e a escala do MRC se correlacionaram significativamente com os domínios e o escore total do SGRQ (0,49 OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity and reproducibility of two subjective instruments to assess limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in Brazil: the Pulmonary Functional Status and Dyspnea Questionnaire - Modified version (PFSDQ-M and the Medical Research Council (MRC scale. METHODS: Thirty patients with COPD (age, 67 ± 10 years

  5. Academic leagues: a Brazilian way to teach about cancer in medical universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Diogo Antonio Valente; Aranha, Renata Nunes; de Souza, Maria Helena Faria Ornellas

    2015-12-30

    Performance of qualified professionals committed to cancer care on a global scale is critical. Nevertheless there is a deficit in Cancer Education in Brazilian medical schools (MS). Projects called Academic Leagues (AL) have been gaining attention. However, there are few studies on this subject. AL arise from student initiative, arranged into different areas, on focus in general knowledge, universal to any medical field. They are not obligatory and students are responsible for the organizing and planning processes of AL, so participation highlights the motivation to active pursuit of knowledge. The objective of this study was to explore the relevance of AL, especially on the development of important skills and attitudes for medical students. A survey was undertaken in order to assess the number of AL Brazilian MS. After nominal list, a grey literature review was conducted to identify those with AL and those with Oncology AL. One hundred eighty of the 234 MS were included. Only 4 MS selected held no information about AL and 74.4 % of them had AL in Oncology. The majority had records in digital media. The number of AL was proportional to the distribution of MS across the country, which was related to the number of inhabitants. The real impact and the potential of these projects can be truly understand by a qualitative analysis. AL are able to develop skills and competencies that are rarely stimulated whilst studying in traditional curriculum. This has positive effects on professional training, community approach through prevention strategies, and development on a personal level permitting a dynamic, versatile and attentive outlook to their social role. Besides stimulating fundamental roles to medical practice, students that participate in AL acquire knowledge and develop important skills such as management and leadership, entrepreneurship, innovation, health education, construction of citizenship. Oncology AL encourage more skilled care to patients and more

  6. Medical education research in GCC countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Hassan, Asim; Aqil, Mansoor; Usmani, Adnan Mahmood

    2015-02-01

    Medical education is an essential domain to produce physicians with high standards of medical knowledge, skills and professionalism in medical practice. This study aimed to investigate the research progress and prospects of GCC countries in medical education during the period 1996-2013. In this study, the research papers published in various global scientific journals during the period 1996-2013 were accessed. We recorded the total number of research documents having an affiliation with GCC Countries including Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Oman. The main source for information was Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science, Thomson Reuters. In ISI-Web of Science, Saudi Arabia contributed 40797 research papers, Kuwait 1666, United Arab Emirates 3045, Qatar 4265, Bahrain 1666 and Oman 4848 research papers. However, in Medical Education only Saudi Arabia contributed 323 (0.79%) research papers, Kuwait 52 (0.03%), United Arab Emirates 41(0.01%), Qatar 37(0.008%), Bahrain 28 (0.06%) and Oman 22 (0.45%) research papers in in ISI indexed journals. In medical education the Hirsch index (h-index) of Saudi Arabia is 14, United Arab Emirates 14, Kuwait 11, Qatar 8, Bahrain 8 and Oman 5. GCC countries produced very little research in medical education during the period 1996-2013. They must improve their research outcomes in medical education to produce better physicians to enhance the standards in medical practice in the region.

  7. Ethics of translational medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Jharna; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Translational research is the science of application of basic research knowledge to develop novel methods of improving public health outcome. This review briefly discusses the various phases involved and the hurdles faced in the translational pathway, how translational science originated, and the infrastructures consigned for translational research. Translational research also faces numerous diverse ethical issues similar to those observed in biomedical research. The various types of ethical issues faced whereas conducting translational research are discussed briefly in this review to help researchers identify and prevent unethical practices while conducting or regulating translational research.

  8. Brazilian research on cognitive impairment and dementia from 1999 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toledo, André Aguiar Souza Furtado; Nitrini, Ricardo; Bottino, Cássio Machado de Campos; Caramelli, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of demographic transition in recent decades has increased the number of elderly people in Brazil, promoting an escalation in chronic-degenerative conditions, particularly dementia and cognitive related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of the Brazilian scientific publications on dementia and related conditions from 1999 to 2013. Articles published during the analysis period were searched on three electronic databases: Scopus, Medline (via PubMed) and Lilacs (via BVS). The keywords used were Alzheimer's disease, dementia and mild cognitive impairment, with Brazil as the country of affiliation. A total of 1,657 articles met the conditions for inclusion in the study. The output of Brazilian researchers in the area of cognitive disorders increased 11.38-fold in the fifteen-year period of analysis and 4.98-fold from 2003 to 2013. More than half of the articles (53%) were published in international journals. The majority of institutions involved in publications were public universities while 19% were collaborative studies involving Brazilian and international institutions. Despite marked growth, the number of Brazilian scientific publications in the area of cognitive impairment and dementia is still low. More effort is required to improve the output of Brazilian researchers and institutions. Possible strategies to accomplish this increase could be to encourage residents to participate in publications of scientific papers during their residence program and to increase the collaborations between different institutions within Brazil and with the international scientific community.

  9. Brazilian research on cognitive impairment and dementia from 1999 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toledo, André Aguiar Souza Furtado; Nitrini, Ricardo; Bottino, Cássio Machado de Campos; Caramelli, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of demographic transition in recent decades has increased the number of elderly people in Brazil, promoting an escalation in chronic-degenerative conditions, particularly dementia and cognitive related disorders. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of the Brazilian scientific publications on dementia and related conditions from 1999 to 2013. Methods Articles published during the analysis period were searched on three electronic databases: Scopus, Medline (via PubMed) and Lilacs (via BVS). The keywords used were Alzheimer's disease, dementia and mild cognitive impairment, with Brazil as the country of affiliation. Results A total of 1,657 articles met the conditions for inclusion in the study. The output of Brazilian researchers in the area of cognitive disorders increased 11.38-fold in the fifteen-year period of analysis and 4.98-fold from 2003 to 2013. More than half of the articles (53%) were published in international journals. The majority of institutions involved in publications were public universities while 19% were collaborative studies involving Brazilian and international institutions. Conclusion Despite marked growth, the number of Brazilian scientific publications in the area of cognitive impairment and dementia is still low. More effort is required to improve the output of Brazilian researchers and institutions. Possible strategies to accomplish this increase could be to encourage residents to participate in publications of scientific papers during their residence program and to increase the collaborations between different institutions within Brazil and with the international scientific community. PMID:29213932

  10. Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry and the challenges for clinical research governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguardia, Josué; Piolli, Alessandro Luís; Prevot, Margareth; Ramalho, Luciano; Gamarski, Ricardo; Nishizawa, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Over the past five years, efforts to set up a Brazilian clinical trials registry have progressed from early discussions in academic forums through to the establishment of the registry as a web-based computer platform. This article describes the process of developing and introducing the Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBEC), and its relationship with the authorities that regulate clinical research in Brazil. The Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry and the multilingual, free and open source, internet-based software developed to manage it are outcomes of partnerships among Brazilian federal and international health agencies. Information for describing the technical and operational dimensions of Rebec was drawn from technical documents and the records of the OpenTrials software development team and the ReBEC executive and advisory committees, which are available in free-access repositories. The Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry was launched in December 2010, and approved as a primary registry of the WHO ICTRP network in April 2011. ReBEC's arrival on-line and its acceptance as an ICTRP primary registry is a significant step in consolidating a policy of free access to information on clinical research in Brazil. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  11. Brazilian research stages in Computer Assisted Language Learning: the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Cristina dos Reis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of computer assisted language learning (CALL and teaching has discussed the necessity of defining a research agenda in the area. Because of this, some of these studies have focused on the analysis of research reports to identify the objectives of studies, the methodologies and the themes in order to identify the state of the art. By using a methodology of a research synthesis, this work identifies the Brazilian research stages in the field of CALL based on researches already published. The results suggest three stages of research in Brazil and that there are few Brazilian Applied Linguists producing research and publishing in the field of CALL in our country. Furthermore, it also suggests the necessity of CALL theory and practice to be implemented through academic subjects at Languages courses.

  12. Supporting medical education research quality: the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical Education Research Certificate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Yoder, Ernie; Frye, Ann; Perkowski, Linda C; Mavis, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the medical education research (MER) reported in the literature has been frequently criticized. Numerous reasons have been provided for these shortcomings, including the level of research training and experience of many medical school faculty. The faculty development required to improve MER can take various forms. This article describes the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program, a national faculty development program that focuses exclusively on MER. Sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and led by a committee of established medical education researchers from across the United States, the MERC program is built on a set of 11 interactive workshops offered at various times and places across the United States. MERC participants can customize the program by selecting six workshops from this set to fulfill requirements for certification. This article describes the history, operations, current organization, and evaluation of the program. Key elements of the program's success include alignment of program content and focus with needs identified by prospective users, flexibility in program organization and logistics to fit participant schedules, an emphasis on practical application of MER principles in the context of the participants' activities and interests, consistency in program content and format to ensure standards of quality, and a sustainable financial model. The relationship between the national MERC program and local faculty development initiatives is also described. The success of the MERC program suggests that it may be a possible model for nationally disseminated faculty development programs in other domains.

  13. Undergraduate medical research: the student perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise N. Burgoyne

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research training is essential in a modern undergraduate medical curriculum. Our evaluation aimed to (a gauge students’ awareness of research activities, (b compare students’ perceptions of their transferable and research-specific skills competencies, (c determine students’ motivation for research and (d obtain students’ personal views on doing research. Methods: Undergraduate medical students (N=317 completed a research skills questionnaire developed by the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning in Applied Undergraduate Research Skills (CETL-AURS at Reading University. The questionnaire assessed students’ transferable skills, research-specific skills (e.g., study design, data collection and data analysis, research experience and attitude and motivation towards doing research. Results: The majority of students are motivated to pursue research. Graduate entrants and male students appear to be the most confident regarding their research skills competencies. Although all students recognise the role of research in medical practice, many are unaware of the medical research activities or successes within their university. Of those who report no interest in a career incorporating research, a common perception was that researchers are isolated from patients and clinical practice. Discussion: Students have a narrow definition of research and what it entails. An explanation for why research competence does not align more closely with research motivation is derived from students’ lack of understanding of the concept of translational research, as well as a lack of awareness of the research activity being undertaken by their teachers and mentors. We plan to address this with specific research awareness initiatives.

  14. Emerging research trends in medical textiles

    CERN Document Server

    Gokarneshan, N; Rajendran, V; Lavanya, B; Ghoshal, Arundhathi

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the significant researches reported during the recent years in the field of medical textiles. It also highlights the use of new types of fibres in developing medical textile products and their promising role in the respective areas of application. Considerable developments have taken place in the development of medical textiles for varied applications.

  15. Description of color/race in Brazilian biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Teresa Veronica Catonho; Ferreira, Luzitano Brandão

    2012-01-01

    Over recent years, the terms race and ethnicity have been used to ascertain inequities in public health. However, this use depends on the quality of the data available. This study aimed to investigate the description of color/race in Brazilian scientific journals within the field of biomedicine. Descriptive study with systematic search for scientific articles in the SciELO Brazil database. A wide-ranging systematic search for original articles involving humans, published in 32 Brazilian biomedical scientific journals in the SciELO Brazil database between January and December 2008, was performed. Articles in which the race/ethnicity of the participants was identified were analyzed. In total, 1,180 articles were analyzed. The terms for describing race or ethnicity were often ambiguous and vague. Descriptions of race or ethnicity occurred in 159 articles (13.4%), but only in 42 (26.4%) was there a description of how individuals were identified. In these, race and ethnicity were used almost interchangeably and definition was according to skin color (71.4%), ancestry (19.0%) and self-definition (9.6%). Twenty-two races or ethnicities were cited, and the most common were white (37.3%), black (19.7%), mixed (12.9%), nonwhite (8.1%) and yellow (8.1%). The absence of descriptions of parameters for defining race, as well as the use of vague and ambiguous terms, may hamper and even prevent comparisons between human groups and the use of these data to ascertain inequities in healthcare.

  16. [Opinions and attitudes regarding sexuality: Brazilian national research, 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Vera; Aranha, Francisco; Bastos, Francisco I

    2008-06-01

    To describe opinions and attitudes concerning sexuality of the Brazilian urban population. A population survey was carried out in 2005 on a representative sample of 5,040 interviewees. An analysis of the attitudes regarding sexual initiation and sexual education of teenagers, considering gender, age, schooling, income, marital status, color, geographic region and opinion on fidelity, homosexuality, and masturbation. The results were contrasted with a similar survey carried out in 1998, when possible. Most interviewees selected the "sex is evidence of love" option when describing the meaning of sex. As in 1998, the majority was in favor of sexual initiation after marriage (63.9% for women vs. 52.4% for men initiation); results differed among religions. School teenage education on the use of condoms was supported by 97% of the interviewees across all social groups. The proportion of Brazilians who agreed with having access to condoms in health services (95%) and at school (83.6%) was high. Fidelity remained an almost unanimous value and there was an increase, in 2005, in the proportion of those in favor of sexual initiation after marriage, and in the rate of acceptance of masturbation and homosexuality compared to the 1998 survey. The younger generations tend to be more tolerant and egalitarian. As observed in other countries, this study confirms the difficulty in establishing a single dimension that guides sexual life ("liberal" vs "conservative"). The study suggests that the normativity concerning sexual activity should be understood in the light of the local culture and social organization of sexuality, considered by the STD/Aids programs. Opinions in favor of free access to preservatives at school clash with the slower results obtained in fighting the stigma and discriminating against homosexual minorities. The design of laical policies on sexuality allow for the dialog across different perspectives.

  17. Brazilian pediatric research groups, lines of research, and main areas of activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Priscila H A; Pinheiro, Mariana G; Isquierdo, Larissa A; Sukiennik, Ricardo; Pellanda, Lucia C

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian scientific production in the pediatrics field has been increasing significantly. It is important to identify the distribution and activity of these groups in the country and the main study areas, contributing with data for better resource allocation by institutions. An active research was conducted in the National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico [CNPq]) website, using as filters the macro area of the research group (Health Sciences), the area (Medicine), and descriptors related to pediatrics. Research lines and main area of pediatric research groups were classified according to the subject predominantly studied by each group. The scientific production of the leader of the pediatric research group between 2011 and 2014 was also analyzed. Most pediatric research groups in Brazil have more than five years of activity and are concentrated in the Southeast and South regions of the country; São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, and Minas Gerais are the states with most groups. Of the 132 specific pediatric research groups analyzed, 14.4% have lines of research in multiple areas and 11.4% in child and adolescent health. Among the 585 lines of research of these groups, the most prevalent areas were: oncology, infectious diseases, epidemiology, and gastroenterology. The pediatric research groups in Brazil have relevant scientific production, including works published in international publications, and are concentrated in regions with higher socioeconomic index. Most groups registered in CNPq started their activity in the last five years (46%), reflecting the recent growth of scientific production in this area. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Undergraduate medical research: the student perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burgoyne, Louise N

    2010-01-01

    Research training is essential in a modern undergraduate medical curriculum. Our evaluation aimed to (a) gauge students\\' awareness of research activities, (b) compare students\\' perceptions of their transferable and research-specific skills competencies, (c) determine students\\' motivation for research and (d) obtain students\\' personal views on doing research.

  19. Medical Robots: Current Systems and Research Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan A. Beasley

    2012-01-01

    First used medically in 1985, robots now make an impact in laparoscopy, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, emergency response, and various other medical disciplines. This paper provides a review of medical robot history and surveys the capabilities of current medical robot systems, primarily focusing on commercially available systems while covering a few prominent research projects. By examining robotic systems across time and disciplines, trends are discernible that imply future capabilities ...

  20. Trends in research about postgraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo-Cárdenas, Leonor Angélica

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was framed in the research: Characterization of professional competency-based model in medical education developed in twelve clinical and nine surgical specializations at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Antioquia. Its aim was to inquire about the state of the art in medical postgraduate education. The guiding question was: Where is present-day research headed in medical postgraduate education. For this descriptive, nonexperimental work, 12 bibliographic databases were reviewed and 28 research articles related to graduate medical formation were selected. The findings were compared, analyzed and interpreted. The tendency in research on graduate medical education points to the need of having multi-inter-trans-disciplinary and humanistic proposals based on constructivism; to consider evaluation as a process emphasizing on learning and the participation of students, and to build systems of pedagogical formation of tutors and interactive and flexible curricula. The lack of studies that promote competencies-based training in postgraduate medical education is notorious.

  1. A Spatiotemporal Analysis of Brazilian Science from the Perspective of Researchers' Career Trajectories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Alves Furtado

    Full Text Available The growth of Brazilian scientific production in recent years is remarkable, which motivates an investigation on the factors, inside and outside the country, that helped shape this wealthy research environment. This article provides a thorough analysis of the education of researchers that constitute the main Brazilian research groups, using data on about 6,000 researchers involved in the country's National Institutes of Science and Technology (INCT initiative. Data on the steps taken by each researcher in her education, from the bachelor's degree to doctorate, including a possible postdoctoral experience, and employment, are extracted from an official curriculum vitae repository. The location and the time at which each career step occurred define spatiotemporal career trajectories. We then analyze such trajectories considering additional data, including the area of knowledge of the INCTs to which each researcher is associated. We found an increasing prevalence of Brazilian institutions in the education of Brazilian scientists, as the number of doctorates earned abroad is decreasing over time. Postdoctoral stages, on the other hand, often take place in Europe or in the United States. Taking an international postdoctoral position after a full education in Brazil suggests a drive towards seeking higher-level exchange and cooperation with foreign groups in a more advanced career stage. Results also show that Brazilian researchers tend to seek employment in regions that are close to the institutions at which they received their bachelor's degrees, suggesting low mobility within the country. This study can be instrumental in defining public policies for correcting distortions, and can help other developing countries that aim to improve their national science systems.

  2. A Spatiotemporal Analysis of Brazilian Science from the Perspective of Researchers' Career Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Caio Alves; Davis, Clodoveu A; Gonçalves, Marcos André; de Almeida, Jussara Marques

    2015-01-01

    The growth of Brazilian scientific production in recent years is remarkable, which motivates an investigation on the factors, inside and outside the country, that helped shape this wealthy research environment. This article provides a thorough analysis of the education of researchers that constitute the main Brazilian research groups, using data on about 6,000 researchers involved in the country's National Institutes of Science and Technology (INCT) initiative. Data on the steps taken by each researcher in her education, from the bachelor's degree to doctorate, including a possible postdoctoral experience, and employment, are extracted from an official curriculum vitae repository. The location and the time at which each career step occurred define spatiotemporal career trajectories. We then analyze such trajectories considering additional data, including the area of knowledge of the INCTs to which each researcher is associated. We found an increasing prevalence of Brazilian institutions in the education of Brazilian scientists, as the number of doctorates earned abroad is decreasing over time. Postdoctoral stages, on the other hand, often take place in Europe or in the United States. Taking an international postdoctoral position after a full education in Brazil suggests a drive towards seeking higher-level exchange and cooperation with foreign groups in a more advanced career stage. Results also show that Brazilian researchers tend to seek employment in regions that are close to the institutions at which they received their bachelor's degrees, suggesting low mobility within the country. This study can be instrumental in defining public policies for correcting distortions, and can help other developing countries that aim to improve their national science systems.

  3. Medical education research as translational science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C

    2010-02-17

    Research on medical education is translational science when rigorous studies on trainee clinical skill and knowledge acquisition address key health care problems and measure outcomes in controlled laboratory settings (T1 translational research); when these outcomes transfer to clinics, wards, and offices where better health care is delivered (T2); and when patient or public health improves as a result of educational practices (T3). This Commentary covers features of medical education interventions and environments that contribute to translational outcomes, reviews selected research studies that advance translational science in medical education at all three levels, and presents pathways to improve medical education translational science.

  4. Perspectives and Challenges Regarding Brazilian Policies for Research and Postgraduate Studies in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Souza Lobo Guzzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe National Association of Research and Postgraduate Studies in Psychology (ANPEPP promotes exchange among researchers to develop and consolidate lines of research, through the discussion of action strategies and decisions that impact Brazilian scientific policy. Themes such as postgraduate research training, national production and the internationalization of knowledge have been the focus of ANPEPP's biennial research and scientific exchange symposia, in forums on Ethics in Research, Scientific Policies and Internationalization. The Scientific Policy Committee (Comissão de Políticas Científicas - CPC is responsible for each symposium, providing and discussing issues for future goals and plans. Themes identified by the CPC in recent biennia (2010/2012 and 2012/2014 relate to official documents on educational policies (National Education Plan - 2010-2020; National Postgraduate Plan - 2010/2020 and their impact on Brazilian postgraduate programs and the production of research in psychology. Recent themes include: encouraging models of scientific production; clarity of the profile of the researcher; and better conditions for the training of scientists for research, technology and innovation. Fulfillment of these actions is essential for the VI National Postgraduate Plan (VI PNPG in Portuguese goals to take effect and change the research climate of the country. It will do so through improved monitoring of postgraduate programs, adjustment of training curricula for researchers, and internationalization activities. Formulation, development and evaluation of these policies could herald better prospects for a fair and qualitative growth in Brazilian psychology.

  5. Highland Medical Research Journal: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highland Medical Research Journal: About this journal. Journal Home > Highland Medical Research Journal: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ...

  6. The Brazilian Research and Teaching Center in Biomedicine and Aerospace Biomedical Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Russomano, T; Falcao, P F; Dalmarco, G; Martinelli, L; Cardoso, R; Santos, M A; Sparenberg, A

    2008-01-01

    The recent engagement of Brazil in the construction and utilization of the International Space Station has motivated several Brazilian research institutions and universities to establish study centers related to Space Sciences. The Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) is no exception.

  7. Scientometric indicators for Brazilian research on High Energy Physics, 1983-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONZALO R. ALVAREZ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article presents an analysis of Brazilian research on High Energy Physics (HEP indexed by Web of Science (WoS from 1983 to 2013. Scientometric indicators for output, collaboration and impact were used to characterize the field under study. The results show that the Brazilian articles account for 3% of total HEP research worldwide and that the sharp rise in the scientific activity between 2009 and 2013 may have resulted from the consolidation of graduate programs, the increase of the funding and of the international collaboration as well as the implementation of the Rede Nacional de Física de Altas Energias (RENAFAE in 2008. Our results also indicate that the collaboration patterns in terms of the authors, the institutions and the countries confirm the presence of Brazil in multinational Big Science experiments, which may also explain the prevalence of foreign citing documents (all types, emphasizing the international prestige and visibility of the output of Brazilian scientists. We concluded that the scientometric indicators suggested scientific maturity in the Brazilian HEP community due to its long history of experimental research.

  8. Scientometric indicators for Brazilian research on High Energy Physics, 1983-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Gonzalo R; Vanz, Samile A S; Barbosa, Marcia C

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of Brazilian research on High Energy Physics (HEP) indexed by Web of Science (WoS) from 1983 to 2013. Scientometric indicators for output, collaboration and impact were used to characterize the field under study. The results show that the Brazilian articles account for 3% of total HEP research worldwide and that the sharp rise in the scientific activity between 2009 and 2013 may have resulted from the consolidation of graduate programs, the increase of the funding and of the international collaboration as well as the implementation of the Rede Nacional de Física de Altas Energias (RENAFAE) in 2008. Our results also indicate that the collaboration patterns in terms of the authors, the institutions and the countries confirm the presence of Brazil in multinational Big Science experiments, which may also explain the prevalence of foreign citing documents (all types), emphasizing the international prestige and visibility of the output of Brazilian scientists. We concluded that the scientometric indicators suggested scientific maturity in the Brazilian HEP community due to its long history of experimental research.

  9. Medical Robots: Current Systems and Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A. Beasley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available First used medically in 1985, robots now make an impact in laparoscopy, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, emergency response, and various other medical disciplines. This paper provides a review of medical robot history and surveys the capabilities of current medical robot systems, primarily focusing on commercially available systems while covering a few prominent research projects. By examining robotic systems across time and disciplines, trends are discernible that imply future capabilities of medical robots, for example, increased usage of intraoperative images, improved robot arm design, and haptic feedback to guide the surgeon.

  10. Comparative effectiveness research: Challenges for medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovey David

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Editors from a number of medical journals lay out principles for journals considering publication of Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER. In order to encourage dissemination of this editorial, this article is freely available in PLoS Medicine and will be also published in Medical Decision Making, Croatian Medical Journal, The Cochrane Library, Trials, The American Journal of Managed Care, and Journal of Clinical Epidemiology.

  11. Reliability and validity of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication among Portuguese-speaking Brazilian patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer Liberato, Ana Carolina; Cunha Matheus Rodrigues, Roberta; Kim, MyoungJin; Mallory, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (version 1.4) among patients with hypertension. Understanding the patient experience with treatment satisfaction will contribute to improved medication adherence and control of hypertension. Hypertension is a serious problem in Brazil that is associated with chronic illness controlled, in part, by consistent adherence to medications. Patient satisfaction with medication treatment is associated with adherence to medication. The Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (version 1.4) is a promising instrument for measuring medication; however, to date there has been no report of the reliability and validity of the instrument with Portuguese-speaking adults with hypertension in Brazil. Cross-sectional descriptive exploratory study. A convenience sample of 300 patients with hypertension in an outpatient setting in the southeast region of São Paulo state in Brazil completed the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (version 1.4). The instrument, comprised of four subscales, was evaluated for reliability using correlation analyses and internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine factorial validity. Correlational analyses, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis demonstrate adequate support for the four-factor dimensionality, reliability and factorial validity of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (version 1.4). This study provides modest evidence for internal consistency and factorial validity of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (version 1.4) in Portuguese-speaking adult Brazilians with hypertension. Future testing should focus on extending reliability testing, discriminant validity and potential translation and literacy issues in this population. Within known limitations, clinicians will

  12. Stimulating medical education research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, Debbie; Scherpbier, Albert; Van Der Vleuten, Cees; Ten Cate, Olle

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, the Dutch have been active innovators and researchers in the medical education domain. With regards to the quantity of publications in the medical education literature, the Netherlands rank second among countries in Europe and fourth worldwide over the past years,

  13. Circumcisions for medical reasons in the Brazilian public health system: epidemiology and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korkes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the epidemiological factors associated tomedical circumcision, based on data from the Brazilian public healthsystem. Methods: Using the Unified Health System public databasebetween 1984 and 2010, hospital admissions associated with surgicaltreatment of phimosis were searched. A total of 668,818 men admittedto public hospitals who underwent circumcision were identified andincluded in the present study. Results: A mean±standard deviation of47.8±13.4 circumcisions/100,000 men/year was performed throughthe Unified Health System for medical reasons. During the 27-yearperiod evaluated, 1.3% of the male population required circumcisionfor medical reasons. Total number of circumcisions and circumcisionrate increased in childhood, declined progressively after 5 years ofage and rose again progressively after the sixth decade of life. Inthe regions of the country with better access to healthcare, 5.8%of boys aged 1 to 9 years old required circumcisions. From 1992 to2010 there were 63 deaths associated with circumcisions (mortalityrate of 0.013%. Conclusion: In conclusion, yearly circumcisionrates could be estimated in Brazil, and a very low mortality rate wasassociated with this procedures. Circumcision is mostly performed inchildren in the first decade of life and a second peak of incidence ofpenile foreskin diseases occurs after the sixth decade of life, whencircumcision is progressively performed again.

  14. Brazilian Science and Research Integrity: Where are We? What Next?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M.R. Vasconcelos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Building a world-class scientific community requires first-class ingredients at many different levels: funding, training, management, international collaborations, creativity, ethics, and an understanding of research integrity practices. All over the world, addressing these practices has been high on the science policy agenda of major research systems. Universities have a central role in fostering a culture of research integrity, which has posed additional challenges for faculty, students and administrators - but also opportunities. In Brazil, the leading universities and governmental funding agencies are collaborating on this project, but much remains to be done.

  15. Sudanese Medical Students and Scientific Research | Mohamed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 18.3% had attended research methodology workshop. The rate of internet navigation is directly proportional to the social class. Only 14.7% knew the engines used for finding medical literature. Conclusion: The low knowledge score is due to lack of application of research in the academic curriculum; however, the ...

  16. Tropical Journal of Medical Research: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · Journals · Tropical Journal of Medical Research · About · Log In · Register · Advanced Search · By Author · By Title. Issues. Current Issue · Archives · Open Journal Systems · Help. ISSN: 1119-0388. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  17. Naval Medical Research and Development Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Barriers Initiatives Milestones Risk Management Balanced Scorecard 1SWOT - Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Each succeeding Workshop...researcher examines cultures. conducted as a series of ( Kaizen ) Blitzes (in Lean Six Sigma terminology), making use of existing information to...Distribution List D-4 Naval Medical Research and Development Strategic Plan March 2008 SWE Naval Surface Warfare Enterprise SWOT Strengths

  18. Brazilian science communication research: national and international contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Germana; Caldas, Graça; Gascoigne, Toss

    2017-08-31

    Science communication has emerged as a new field over the last 50 years, and its progress has been marked by a rise in jobs, training courses, research, associations, conferences and publications. This paper describes science communication internationally and the trends and challenges it faces, before looking at the national level. We have documented science communication activities in Brazil, the training courses, research, financial support and associations/societies. By analyzing the publication of papers, dissertations and theses we have tracked the growth of this field, and compared the level of activity in Brazil with other countries. Brazil has boosted its national research publications since 2002, with a bigger contribution from postgraduate programs in education and communication, but compared to its national research activity Brazil has only a small international presence in science communication. The language barrier, the tradition of publishing in national journals and the solid roots in education are some of the reasons for that. Brazil could improve its international participation, first by considering collaborations within Latin America. International publication is dominated by the USA and the UK. There is a need to take science communication to the next level by developing more sophisticated tools for conceptualizing and analyzing science communication, and Brazil can be part of that.

  19. Brazilian Institute for Ecological Research: Teaching and applying ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Because IPE “works with ecosystems and the balance with humans and wildlife,” Dr Padua said, it has a great deal to contribute to ecohealth research. Wildlife and climate change are closely linked to human health. The education centre at IPE recently expanded to include a graduate program. As a non-governmental ...

  20. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvarda, I; Maglaveras, N

    2015-08-13

    This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated.

  1. Patterns and trends of medical student research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Our study describes the change in the research output, trends and content of published research involving medical students over the last century. Methods Pubmed® and Scopus® were searched for keywords ‘Medical Student’ in the affiliation field. The search results were combined in Endnote® and duplicate entries removed and the multiple variables described below were assessed. Results The combined searches after excluding duplicates yielded 416 results and 66 articles were excluded. There was an exponential increase in medical student research from 1980–2010. Medical student was the first author in 170 (48.6%) studies and 55 studies were authored by a single medical student. The 3 most common areas of research in descending order were Psychiatry (n = 26, 7.4%), General Medicine (n = 24, 6.9%) and Medical Education (n = 21, 6%). The commonest type of articles, in descending order were review articles (n = 48, 13.7%), Cross sectional studies (n = 47, 13.4%) and Case reports (n = 43, 12.3. The majority of these articles (n = 207, 59.1%) have never been cited subsequently. The trend of increasing number of articles was seen equally among all article types, fields and countries. Conclusions There is an exponential increase in articles by medical students but the majority of articles have not been cited. The numbers of medical student authors per publication have remained static while the total numbers of authors have increased. The proportions in the type of articles, fields of study and country of origin have largely remained static. Publishers and authors should strive to enhance the quality and quantity of data available in indexing services. PMID:24373230

  2. Perceptions of Nigerian medical specialists on research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulraheem Olarongbe Mahmoud

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The current research aimed at collating the views of medical specialists on disease priorities, class and outcomes of health research in Nigeria, and draw appropriate policy implications. Structured questionnaires were distributed to consent 90 randomly selected medical specialists practising in six Nigerian tertiary health institutions. Participants' background information, relative disease priority, research types and class, type and class of publication media, frequency of publications, challenges faced in publishing research, impact of their research on health practice or policy, and inventions made were probed. Fifty-one out of the 90 questionnaires distributed were returned giving a response rate of 63.3%. Sixty-four point six percent indicated that the highest priority should be given to non communicable diseases while still recognizing that considerations should be giving to the others. They were largely “always” involved in simple low budget retrospective studies or cross-sectional and medical education studies (67.8% and over a third (37.5% had never been involved in clinical trials. They largely preferred to “always” publish in PubMed indexed journals that are foreign-based (65.0%. They also indicated that their research works very rarely resulted in inventions (4% and change (4% in clinical practice or health policy. Our study respondents indicated that they were largely involved in simple low budget research works that rarely had significant impacts and outcomes. We recommend that adequate resources and research infrastructures particularly funding be made available to medical specialists in Nigeria. Both undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in Nigeria should emphasize research training in their curricula.

  3. Qualitative research methods for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Janice L; Balmer, Dorene F; Giardino, Angelo P

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a primer for qualitative research in medical education. Our aim is to equip readers with a basic understanding of qualitative research and prepare them to judge the goodness of fit between qualitative research and their own research questions. We provide an overview of the reasons for choosing a qualitative research approach and potential benefits of using these methods for systematic investigation. We discuss developing qualitative research questions, grounding research in a philosophical framework, and applying rigorous methods of data collection, sampling, and analysis. We also address methods to establish the trustworthiness of a qualitative study and introduce the reader to ethical concerns that warrant special attention when planning qualitative research. We conclude with a worksheet that readers may use for designing a qualitative study. Medical educators ask many questions that carefully designed qualitative research would address effectively. Careful attention to the design of qualitative studies will help to ensure credible answers that will illuminate many of the issues, challenges, and quandaries that arise while doing the work of medical education. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Gender Might Be Factor for Student Admission in Two Brazilian Medical Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Henrique Beraldi

    Full Text Available This is a secondary data-based study conducted to investigate whether gender is related to acceptance. Two Brazilian Medical Schools, Universities A and B, were studied. Their entrance exams (EE were analysed and the number of candidates who took the EE was compared to the number of students admitted to the MS according to gender, in the period between 1995 and 2009. The same data from MS in the United States in 2011 was also evaluated. There was an increase in the percentage of female applicants but it did not correspond to the percentage of admitted students of the same gender. There was a trend of selecting men. At A, 39.3% of the applicants and 47% of the admitted students were men (OR = 1.37; CI95% = 1.24 – 1.51. In B, men represented 39.3% of the applicants and 65.4% of the admitted students (OR = 2.93; CI 95% = 2.76 – 3.11. This was not seen in US MS. The analysis of the EE suggests that the greater selection of men could be a product of EE format.

  5. Drivers of human resource management competences development in Brazilian multinational subsidiaries: a multilevel research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Glufke Reis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to verify the factors associated with the development of human resource management (HRM competences in foreign subsidiaries of Brazilian multinationals. These competences are essential in that they allow foreign units to adopt HRM practices that are consistent with the countries or markets in which they operate. A multilevel research was conducted, involving headquarters and subsidiaries of major Brazilian companies; the empirical analysis employed hierarchical linear modelling. Despite the recurrent debate on global standardisation versus local adaptation, it was identified that the integration of international HRM policies (addressing simultaneously global guidelines and local response may stimulate competences development. In addition, interaction in external networks in the host country may enhance the development of HRM competences in the subsidiaries. However, specific cultural factors of the company may inhibit development activity in units abroad.

  6. Brazilian research about prevention of cervical neoplasia: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Apolônio de Freitas Guimarães

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This is an integrative review that aimed to synthesize the scientific knowledge published in national nursing journals about the prevention of cervical cancer. It was made a literature review in May 2009 in BIREME, covering the national nursing publications, from 1999 to 2009. We identified 15 articles that comprised the study sample. Of these, 11 addressed the nursing care, 6 were about prevention of cancer and 5 were about risk factors for such disease. In 4 articles the studies were accomplished in the Family Health Care Unit (UBASF which was the most prevalent place. It was found out that 6 of the articles used the qualitative method. The most studied population was formed by users of the Family Health Care Unit, in 3 studies. It was so concluded that the national research about this topic was related to the problems identified in health places, either in the effectiveness of the examination, in the knowledge of users or in conducted health education.

  7. Nazi Medical Research in Neuroscience: Medical Procedures, Victims, and Perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra; Weindling, Paul J

    Issues relating to the euthanasia killings of the mentally ill, the medical research conducted on collected body parts, and the clinical investigations on living victims under National Socialism are among the best-known abuses in medical history. But to date, there have been no statistics compiled regarding the extent and number of the victims and perpetrators, or regarding their identities in terms of age, nationality, and gender. "Victims of Unethical Human Experiments and Coerced Research under National Socialism," a research project based at Oxford Brookes University, has established an evidence-based documentation of the overall numbers of victims and perpetrators through specific record linkages of the evidence from the period of National Socialism, as well as from post-WWII trials and other records. This article examines the level and extent of these unethical medical procedures as they relate to the field of neuroscience. It presents statistical information regarding the victims, as well as detailing the involvement of the perpetrators and Nazi physicians with respect to their post-war activities and subsequent court trials.

  8. Empathy is Associated with Meaning of Life and Mental Health Treatment but not Religiosity Among Brazilian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Rodolfo Furlan; de Andrade Ribeiro, Luciana Maria; Dos Santos, Amanda Guedes; da Silva, Barbara Almeida; Lucchetti, Giancarlo

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of spirituality, religiosity, personal beliefs, and previous contact with health issues on the level of empathy in medical students. Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Student Version, WHOQOL-Spirituality, Religiousness and Personal Beliefs, and Duke University Religion Index were applied to 285 Brazilian medical students. The findings suggest that meaning of life and previous mental health treatment but not Religiosity were positively related to empathy. We suggest that more attention should be given for prevention and treatment of mental health issues, and further studies are needed to understand and replicate these findings.

  9. The contribution of action research in the construction of scientific knowledge in Brazilian Production Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gibertoni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main subject of this article is the action research and it has as general objective to describe the construction of knowledge in this field from the uses that Brazilian Production Engineering makes of it, aiming to recognize its contributions, potentials and limits. To achieve this goal, a literature review was carried out for a subsequent contrast with the national academic researches that use action research and show its uses. Identified these similarities, a documentary research was carried out in academic papers published in the National Meeting of Production Engineering (ENEGEP – from 1996 to 2010. The content analysis was the strategy used for data analysis and NVivo® software was used for its treatment. As a conclusion of the research, it can be stated that the use of action research in the Brazilian Production Engineering distances itself from epistemic precepts associated with it. The results of the action are more highlighted than the reflection on the mechanisms that produced it

  10. The contribution of B. Dervin to the Brazilian Information Science research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Ávila Araújo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research to see the impact of Dervin in the Brazilian production in Information Science. It was looked citations to the author on all articles published in seven Brazilian journals, between the years 2003 at 2007. Dervin is cited in 27 of the 872 articles analyzed. From the 19,577 bibliographic references of these articles, 42 are Dervin’s works. These references were analyzed to identify the frequency of each Dervin’s work cited, year, language, kind and cases of co-authorship. The citing articles were analyzed in terms of thematic and institutional origin of the authors. Finally, it examined the importance of the citation to the author for the discussions in citing articles. Some results are: the most cited work, Information needs and uses, had 16 references; the author’s greatest contribution is in the information user studies; the Brazilian institution that the most cited is the UFMG; the most important kind of citation is the conceptual citation.

  11. Ethics and epidemiological research | Cullinan | Malawi Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawi Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Ethics and epidemiological research. T Cullinan. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.

  12. INFORMATION SUPPORT SYSTEM OF MEDICAL SYSTEM RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Martsenyuk

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions. The complex qualitative behavior of diseases models depending on parameters and controllers was observed in our investigation even without considering probabilistic nature of the majority of quantities and parameters of information models. KEY WORDS: data mining, system analysis, medical research, decision making

  13. Research: Clinical undergraduate medical student training at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To profile the clinicians at Kimberley Hospital Complex in terms of their knowledge of, skills in and perspectives on the added responsibility of clinical undergraduate medical student training prior to the launch of the proposed undergraduate student rotations. Methods. The study followed a qualitative research design using ...

  14. Tropical Journal of Medical Research: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. J.C Orakwe Editor-in-Chief Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Tropical Journal of Medical Research, C/o Department of Surgery, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital P.M.B 5025. Nnewi, Nigeria. Email: jayceeorakwe@yahoo.com ...

  15. Verbal Protocol in Group at Brazilian research in Knowledge Organization and Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cristina Dal'Evedove Tartarotti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1518-2924.2017v22n48p41 In order to enable the qualitative data collection of introspective nature, some studies in Information Science are conducted through the Verbal Protocol. The option for the technical results from the feasibility is magnified observation studies, mostly related to the mental processes of research subjects in reading activities. As a way to contribute to the operation of Verbal Protocol in qualitative research in the Organization and Representation of Knowledge and offer subsidies for the correct use of emphasis on technique, the purpose of this article is to present the Verbal Protocol in Group, its main advantages and disadvantages as a qualitative technique of data collection, characterize the Brazilian scientific community in the theme through production and connection bibliometric indicators and present examples of its applicability in Brazilian research. The analysis enabled the identification of relevant aspects of scientific production in the highlighted modality, whose results contribute to the direction of future research by the scientific community of Information Science. It concludes that the modality of Verbal Protocol in Group contributes as an introspective and interactive technique of data collection to provide consistent results for a significant body of research that was used.

  16. Adaptation and evaluation of the measurement properties of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Rafaela Batista dos Santos; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus

    2016-01-01

    to undertake the cultural adaptation of, and to evaluate the measurement properties of, the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, with outpatient monitoring at a teaching hospital. the process of cultural adaptation was undertaken in accordance with the international literature. The data were obtained from 147 CHD patients, through the application of the sociodemographic/clinical characterization instrument, and of the Brazilian versions of the Morisky Self-Reported Measure of Medication Adherence Scale, the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale. the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of semantic-idiomatic, conceptual and cultural equivalencies, with high acceptability and practicality. The floor effect was evidenced for the total score and for the domains of the scale studied. The findings evidenced the measure's reliability. The domains of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented significant inverse correlations of moderate to strong magnitude between the scores of the Morisky scale, indicating convergent validity, although correlations with the measure of general self-efficacy were not evidenced. The validity of known groups was supported, as the scale discriminated between "adherents" and "non-adherents" to the medications, as well as to "sufficient dose" and "insufficient dose". the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of reliability and validity in coronary heart disease outpatients.

  17. Research and academic education in medical sexology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchera, A; Jannini, E A; Lenzi, A

    2003-01-01

    Advances in sexual pharmacology have stimulated the development of new analytical instruments in the management of sexual dysfunction, with increasing research in the area of basic mechanisms of human sexual response. However, the public is greatly interested and eager for new discoveries and pharmacological treatments to enhance sexual performance and relationships, and cure common sexual dysfunctions and symptoms. The need for sexology--in this case, a new "medical" sexology--to utilize scientific tools and be taught in medical schools is therefore evident.

  18. Critical Medical Anthropology in Midwifery Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Newnham

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the use of critical medical anthropology (CMA as a theoretical framework for research in the maternity care setting. With reference to the doctoral research of the first author, we argue for the relevance of using CMA for research into the maternity care setting, particularly as it relates to midwifery. We then give an overview of an existing analytic model within CMA that we adapted for looking specifically at childbirth practices and which was then used in both analyzing the data and structuring the thesis. There is often no clear guide to the analysis or writing up of data in ethnographic research; we therefore offer this Critical analytic model of childbirth practices for other researchers conducting ethnographic research into childbirth or maternity care.

  19. Translation, adaptation and validation the contents of the Diabetes Medical Management Plan for the Brazilian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Heloísa de Carvalho; Chaves, Fernanda Figueredo; Silva, Daniel Dutra Romualdo da; Bosco, Adriana Aparecida; Gabriel, Beatriz Diniz; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Rodrigues, Júlia Santos Nunes; Pagano, Adriana Silvina

    2016-08-08

    to translate, adapt and validate the contents of the Diabetes Medical Management Plan for the Brazilian context. This protocol was developed by the American Diabetes Association and guides the procedure of educators for the care of children and adolescents with diabetes in schools. this methodological study was conducted in four stages: initial translation, synthesis of initial translation, back translation and content validation by an expert committee, composed of 94 specialists (29 applied linguists and 65 health professionals), for evaluation of the translated version through an online questionnaire. The concordance level of the judges was calculated based on the Content Validity Index. Data were exported into the R program for statistical analysis. the evaluation of the instrument showed good concordance between the judges of the Health and Applied Linguistics areas, with a mean content validity index of 0.9 and 0.89, respectively, and slight variability of the index between groups (difference of less than 0.01). The items in the translated version, evaluated as unsatisfactory by the judges, were reformulated based on the considerations of the professionals of each group. a Brazilian version of Diabetes Medical Management Plan was constructed, called the Plano de Manejo do Diabetes na Escola. traduzir, adaptar e validar o conteúdo do Diabetes Medical Management Plan para o contexto brasileiro, protocolo elaborado pela Associação Americana de Diabetes, que orienta a conduta dos educadores para o cuidado das crianças e adolescentes com diabetes mellitus nas escolas. trata-se de estudo metodológico, realizado em quatro etapas: tradução inicial, síntese da tradução inicial, retrotradução e validação de conteúdo por um Comitê de Juízes, composto por 94 especialistas (29 linguistas aplicados e 65 profissionais da área da Saúde), para avaliação da versão traduzida por meio de um questionário online. O nível de concordância dos juízes foi

  20. Research on patient safety: falls and medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddice, Sandra Dawn; Kogan, Polina

    2009-10-01

    Below you will find summaries of published research describing investigations into patient safety issues related to falls and medications. The first summary provides details on the incidence of falls associated with the use of walkers and canes. This is followed by a summary of a fall-prevention intervention study that evaluated the effectiveness of widespread dissemination of evidence-based strategies in a community in Connecticut. The third write up provides information on three classes of medications that are associated with a significant number of emergency room visits. The last summary describes a pharmacist-managed medication reconciliation intervention pilot program. For additional details about the study findings and interventions, we encourage readers to review the original articles.

  1. Preliminary Design of the Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research Broadband Radiometer for Solar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni, L. A.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Savonov, G. S.; Dal Lago, A.; Mendes, O.; Silva, M. R.; Guarnieri, F.; Sampaio, M.; Barbosa, M. J.; Vilas Boas, J. V.; Branco, R. H. F.; Nishimori, M.; Silva, L. A.; Carlesso, F.; Rodríguez Gómez, J. M.; Alves, L. R.; Vaz Castilho, B.; Santos, J.; Silva Paula, A.; Cardoso, F.

    2017-10-01

    The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI), which is the total radiation arriving at Earth's atmosphere from the Sun, is one of the most important forcing of the Earths climate. Measurements of the TSI have been made employing instruments on board several space-based platforms during the last four solar cycles. However, combining these measurements is still challenging due to the degradation of the sensor elements and the long-term stability of the electronics. Here we describe the preliminary efforts to design an absolute radiometer based on the principle of electrical substitution that is under development at Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research (INPE).

  2. Preliminary thoughts on research in medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Xiaojing; Guo, Jiawei; Qian, Haihong

    2017-05-23

    Medical humanities (MH) is an interdisciplinary field of medicine which includes the humanities (literature, philosophy, ethics, history, and religion), social sciences (anthropology, cultural studies, psychology, sociology, and health geography), and the arts (literature, theater, film, and visual arts) and their application to medical education and practice. Studies of MH should not be limited to theoretical discussions. Research results must be translated into use of methodologies to formulate medical policies, guide clinical practices, and help resolve physical or mental problems. MH has a critical role in addressing medicine-related issues, such as human cloning legislation and the treatment of Ebola virus infection. Recently, MH has also been included in the "Healthy China 2030" project, indicating that MH has garnered more attention in China. Medical colleges, research institutes, and non-profit organizations are focusing on MH studies. Over the past few years, financial support for MH studies has also increased. Although the development of MH currently lags behind medicine and health sciences, MH has promise.

  3. The Brazilian research and teaching center in biomedicine and aerospace biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomano, T; Falcao, P F; Dalmarco, G; Martinelli, L; Cardoso, R; Santos, M A; Sparenberg, A

    2008-08-01

    The recent engagement of Brazil in the construction and utilization of the International Space Station has motivated several Brazilian research institutions and universities to establish study centers related to Space Sciences. The Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) is no exception. The University initiated in 1993 the first degree course training students to operate commercial aircraft in South America (the School of Aeronautical Sciences. A further step was the decision to build the first Brazilian laboratory dedicated to the conduct of experiments in ground-based microgravity simulation. Established in 1998, the Microgravity Laboratory, which was located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas (IPCT), was supported by the Schools of Medicine, Aeronautical Sciences and Electrical Engineering/Biomedical Engineering. At the end of 2006, the Microgravity Laboratory became a Center and was transferred to the School of Engineering. The principal activities of the Microgravity Centre are the development of research projects related to human physiology before, during and after ground-based microgravity simulation and parabolic flights, to aviation medicine in the 21st century and to aerospace biomedical engineering. The history of Brazilian, and why not say worldwide, space science should unquestionably go through PUCRS. As time passes, the pioneering spirit of our University in the aerospace area has become undeniable. This is due to the group of professionals, students, technicians and staff in general that have once worked or are still working in the Center of Microgravity, a group of faculty and students that excel in their undeniable technical-scientific qualifications.

  4. Brazilian medical students’ perceptions of expert versus non-expert facilitators in a (non problem-based learning environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélio B. Couto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In problem-based learning (PBL, the facilitator plays an important role in guiding the student learning process. However, although content expertise is generally regarded as a useful but non-essential prerequisite for effective PBL facilitation, the perceived importance of content knowledge may be subject to cultural, contextual, and/or experiential influences. Aim: We sought to examine medical students’ perceptions of subject-matter expertise among PBL facilitators in a region of the world (Brazil where such active learning pedagogies are not widely used in university or pre-university settings. Results: Of the 252 Brazilian medical students surveyed, significantly (p≤0.001 greater proportions viewed content expert facilitators to be more effective than their non-expert counterparts at building knowledge (95% vs. 6%, guiding the learning process (93% vs. 7%, achieving cognitive learning (92% vs. 18%, generating learning goals (87% vs. 15%, and motivating self-study (80% vs. 15%. Discussion/conclusion: According to Brazilian medical students, subject-matter expertise among PBL facilitators is essential to the learning process. We believe this widespread perception is due, in large part, to the relative lack of prior educational exposure to such pedagogies.

  5. Brazilian medical students' perceptions of expert versus non-expert facilitators in a (non) problem-based learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Lucélio B; Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Restini, Carolina B A; Faria, Milton; Romão, Gustavo S

    2015-01-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL), the facilitator plays an important role in guiding the student learning process. However, although content expertise is generally regarded as a useful but non-essential prerequisite for effective PBL facilitation, the perceived importance of content knowledge may be subject to cultural, contextual, and/or experiential influences. We sought to examine medical students' perceptions of subject-matter expertise among PBL facilitators in a region of the world (Brazil) where such active learning pedagogies are not widely used in university or pre-university settings. Of the 252 Brazilian medical students surveyed, significantly (p≤0.001) greater proportions viewed content expert facilitators to be more effective than their non-expert counterparts at building knowledge (95% vs. 6%), guiding the learning process (93% vs. 7%), achieving cognitive learning (92% vs. 18%), generating learning goals (87% vs. 15%), and motivating self-study (80% vs. 15%). According to Brazilian medical students, subject-matter expertise among PBL facilitators is essential to the learning process. We believe this widespread perception is due, in large part, to the relative lack of prior educational exposure to such pedagogies.

  6. Geriatric teaching in Brazilian medical schools in 2013 and considerations regarding adjustment to demographic and epidemiological transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Conceição Norbim Prado Cunha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: This study aims to describe the profile of medical schools that introduced courses on Geriatrics and Elderly Health or Aging in their curriculum, and compare such information with the age distribution and health epidemiological data of the Brazilian population, using data until the year of 2013. Methods: 180 universities offering medical undergraduate courses and registered with the Ministry of Education and Culture of Brazil (MEC were found, as seen on the MEC website (www.emec.mec.gov.br in February 2013. Based on the list of institutions, the authors created a database. Results: Brazil's Southeast region is the one presenting most of the courses, both offered as core or elective subjects, in the area of Geriatrics. The Midwest region had the least offer of Geriatrics and Elderly Health and Care courses. The Southeast region presents the greater absolute number of institutions with elective subjects, followed by the South and Northeast regions, each with a single institution. The Southeast region was at the same time the one that presented the biggest absolute number of institutions offering core subjects in the area of Geriatrics, being followed by the Northeast, South, North, and Midwest regions. Conclusion: By analyzing the availability of courses that emphasize aging and Geriatrics in brazilian medical schools, the present study reveals that specialized training should be encouraged with respect to the specificities of health care given to the elderly population, which has a higher frequency of chronic and degenerative diseases.

  7. Brazilian medical students’ perceptions of expert versus non-expert facilitators in a (non) problem-based learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Lucélio B.; Bestetti, Reinaldo B.; Restini, Carolina B. A.; Faria-Jr, Milton; Romão, Gustavo S.

    2015-01-01

    Background In problem-based learning (PBL), the facilitator plays an important role in guiding the student learning process. However, although content expertise is generally regarded as a useful but non-essential prerequisite for effective PBL facilitation, the perceived importance of content knowledge may be subject to cultural, contextual, and/or experiential influences. Aim We sought to examine medical students’ perceptions of subject-matter expertise among PBL facilitators in a region of the world (Brazil) where such active learning pedagogies are not widely used in university or pre-university settings. Results Of the 252 Brazilian medical students surveyed, significantly (p≤0.001) greater proportions viewed content expert facilitators to be more effective than their non-expert counterparts at building knowledge (95% vs. 6%), guiding the learning process (93% vs. 7%), achieving cognitive learning (92% vs. 18%), generating learning goals (87% vs. 15%), and motivating self-study (80% vs. 15%). Discussion/conclusion According to Brazilian medical students, subject-matter expertise among PBL facilitators is essential to the learning process. We believe this widespread perception is due, in large part, to the relative lack of prior educational exposure to such pedagogies. PMID:25881638

  8. Perceptions in health and medical research careers: the Australian Society for Medical Research Workforce Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavallaris, Maria; Meachem, Sarah J; Hulett, Mark D; West, Catherine M; Pitt, Rachael E; Chesters, Jennifer J; Laffan, Warren S; Boreham, Paul R; Khachigian, Levon M

    2008-05-05

    To report on the sentiments of the Australian health and medical research (HMR) workforce on issues related to employment and funding opportunities. In August 2006, the Australian Society for Medical Research (ASMR) invited all of its members to participate in an online survey. The survey took the form of a structured questionnaire that focused on career aspirations, career development and training opportunities, attitudes toward moving overseas to work, and employment conditions for medical researchers. Researchers' views on career opportunities, funding opportunities, salary and quality of the working environment; impact of these views on retaining a skilled medical research workforce in Australia. Of the 1258 ASMR members, 379 responded (30% response rate). Ninety-six per cent of respondents were currently based in Australia; 70% had a PhD or equivalent; and 58% were women. Most respondents worked at hospital research centres (37%), independent research institutes (28%) or university departments (24%). Sixty-nine per cent had funding from the National Health and Medical Research Council, with the remainder funded by other sources. Over the previous 5 years, 6% of respondents had left active research and 73% had considered leaving. Factors influencing decisions about whether to leave HMR included shortage of funding (91%), lack of career development opportunities (78%) and poor financial rewards (72%). Fifty-seven per cent of respondents were directly supported by grants or fellowships, with only 16% not reliant on grants for their continuing employment; 62% believed that funding had increased over the previous 5 years, yet only 30% perceived an increase in employment opportunities in HMR. Among the respondents, twice as many men as women held postgraduate qualifications and earned >or= dollars 100 000 a year. Employment insecurity and lack of funding are a cause of considerable anxiety among Australian health and medical researchers. This may have important

  9. The Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences: five decades of collaborative medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arthur; Nitayaphan, Sorachai

    2011-05-01

    The Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS) is a 50-year-old joint institute of the US and Royal Thai Army Medical Departments located in Bangkok, Thailand. Investigators from the Institute have carried out research in Thailand and the region, in collaboration with many partners, focused on a large number of tropical infectious diseases. In celebration of the 50th anniversary, this paper summarizes highlights of this research, focusing on malaria, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, diarrhea and HIV. In addition, research done in support of the medical problems of refugees and of the health of Thai peace-keeping forces are summarized. The research carried out by AFRIMS and added to the scientific literature has contributed significantly to advancement in multiple areas of tropical infectious disease.

  10. Medical Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Medical Research Research Results in the News: A Users ... day — you hear about a new result of medical research on television or read about it in ...

  11. Brazilian Network on Global Climate Change Research (Rede CLIMA: structure, scientific advances and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Moraes Arraut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to create the necessary scientific knowledge for Brazil to understand and deal with the causes and consequences of climate change, the federal government created, in 2007, the Brazilian Network on Global Climate Change Research (Rede CLIMA. Rede CLIMA needs to discuss issues, pose questions, develop methodologies and technological products, find answers, and suggest solutions that are relevant to society. In its first phase, it focused mainly on providing infrastructure and consolidating the sub-networks. Several scientific advances were also achieved, a selection of which are presented in sections focusing on climate modelling, agriculture, energy and water, human development and mobility, biodiversity and ecosystem services, and human health. Now, in its second phase, the objective is to straighten collaboration between sub-networks by means of interdisciplinary projects. It is argued that in order to succeed the Network needs to foster research whose merit is measured not exclusively by academic production.

  12. Social theory and Brazilian social thought: notes for a research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Maia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available So-called "social thought" has always occupied a prominent place in the social sciences in Brazil. Current research in the field has increasingly sought to articulate in its analysis of national essayistic production broader theoretical preoccupations regarding the status of modernity in non-central societies. Taking as its starting point this intellectual state of affairs, this article seeks to accomplish two principal goals: a justify the need for a dialogue between Brazilian social thought and social theory, in particular post-colonial theories and criticism of the Eurocentric tradition in sociology; b explore possible further points of dialogue between these areas through an examination of analytical nexuses common to both fields of research.

  13. Contextual considerations in implementing problem-based learning approaches in a Brazilian medical curriculum: the UNAERP experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Bulgarelli Bestetti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite being a well-established pedagogical approach in medical education, the implementation of problem-based learning (PBL approaches hinges not only on educational aspects of the medical curriculum but also on the characteristics and necessities of the health system and the medical labor market within which it is situated. Aim: To report our experiences implementing a PBL-based approach in a region of Brazil where: 1 all pre-university education and the vast majority of medical courses are based on traditional, lecture-based instructions; and 2 students’ career interests in primary care, arguably the prototypical PBL trainee, are heavily disfavored because of economics. Results: Brazilian guidelines require that clinical training take place during the last 2 years of the medical program and include intensive, supervised, inpatient and outpatient rotations in pediatrics, family medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, internal medicine, and surgery. Throughout the pre-clinical curriculum, then, students learn to deal with progressively more difficult and complex cases – typically through the use of PBL tutors in a primary care context. However, because of curricular time constraints in the clerkships, and students’ general preoccupation with specialty practice, the continuation of PBL-based approaches in the pre-clinical years – and the expansion of PBL into the clerkships – has become exceedingly difficult. Discussion and conclusion: Our experience illustrates the importance of context (both cultural and structural in implementing certain pedagogies within one Brazilian training program. We plan to address these barriers by: 1 integrating units, whenever possible, within a spiral curriculum; 2 introducing real patients earlier in students’ pre-clinical coursework (primarily in a primary care setting; and 3 using subject experts as PBL tutors to better motivate students.

  14. Contextual considerations in implementing problem-based learning approaches in a Brazilian medical curriculum: the UNAERP experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; Couto, Lucélio Bernardes; Romão, Gustavo Salata; Araújo, Guilherme Teixeira; Restini, Carolina Baraldi A

    2014-01-01

    Despite being a well-established pedagogical approach in medical education, the implementation of problem-based learning (PBL) approaches hinges not only on educational aspects of the medical curriculum but also on the characteristics and necessities of the health system and the medical labor market within which it is situated. To report our experiences implementing a PBL-based approach in a region of Brazil where: 1) all pre-university education and the vast majority of medical courses are based on traditional, lecture-based instructions; and 2) students' career interests in primary care, arguably the prototypical PBL trainee, are heavily disfavored because of economics. Brazilian guidelines require that clinical training take place during the last 2 years of the medical program and include intensive, supervised, inpatient and outpatient rotations in pediatrics, family medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, internal medicine, and surgery. Throughout the pre-clinical curriculum, then, students learn to deal with progressively more difficult and complex cases--typically through the use of PBL tutors in a primary care context. However, because of curricular time constraints in the clerkships, and students' general preoccupation with specialty practice, the continuation of PBL-based approaches in the pre-clinical years--and the expansion of PBL into the clerkships--has become exceedingly difficult. Our experience illustrates the importance of context (both cultural and structural) in implementing certain pedagogies within one Brazilian training program. We plan to address these barriers by: 1) integrating units, whenever possible, within a spiral curriculum; 2) introducing real patients earlier in students' pre-clinical coursework (primarily in a primary care setting); and 3) using subject experts as PBL tutors to better motivate students.

  15. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AND STOCK PRICES OF BRAZILIAN COMPANIES: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aridelmo José Campanharo Teixeira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to identify the relationship between spending on research and development (R&D and the stock price of Brazilian companies listed for trading on the São Paulo Stock Exchange (Bovespa, following on the studies of Lopes (2001;2002 and Rezende (2005 about the value-relevance of accounting information in Brazil. This empirical-analytic study was based on the model of Collins et al. (1997, which is a proxy for the Residual Income Valuation (RIV model of Ohlson (1995, and on the classification of technological intensity in the study of Chan et al. (1990, carried out in the United States. The sample consisted of Brazilian firms with shares traded on the Bovespa between 1996 and 2006. By means of multiple regressions we identified that R&D spending is not statistically significant for the stock prices of the firms analyzed. These conclusions do not corroborate the findings of Chan et al. (1990, but do provide support for the studies of Ohlson (1995 and Lopes (2001; 2002 and complement the study by Rezende (2005, since our results indicate that earnings is statistically significant for stock price, with a positive relationship even after deducting R&D spending accounted for as expense. The situation is different for book value, which ceased being statistically significant and being related with stock price after deducting R&D spending accounted for as investment.

  16. Snake oil and venoms for medical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2011-04-01

    Some think that using derivatives of snake venom for medical purposes is the modern version of snake oil but they are seriously misjudging the research potentials of some of these toxins in medicines of the 2000's. Medical trials, using some of the compounds has proven their usefulness. Several venoms have shown the possibilities that could lead to anticoagulants, helpful in heart disease. The blood clotting protein from the taipan snake has been shown to rapidly stop excessive bleeding. The venom from the copperhead may hold an answer to breast cancer. The Malaysian pit viper shows promise in breaking blood clots. Cobra venom may hold keys to finding cures for Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's. Rattlesnake proteins from certain species have produced blood pressure medicines. Besides snake venoms, venom from the South American dart frog, mollusks (i.e. Cone Shell Snail), lizards (i.e. Gila Monster & Komodo Dragon), some species of spiders and tarantulas, Cephalopods, mammals (i.e. Platypus & Shrews), fish (i.e. sting rays, stone fish, puffer fish, blue bottle fish & box jelly fish), intertidal marine animals (echinoderms)(i.e. Crown of Thorn Star Fish & Flower Urchin) and the Honeybee are being investigated for potential medical benefits.

  17. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1995-12-31

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ``gold standards`` to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications.

  18. Phenomenography: A Missed Method in Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assarroudi Abdolghader

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research is an approach with which human beings can attempt to answer questions and discover the unknowns. Research methodology is something that is determined by the researcher’s attitude toward the universe as well as by the question he is trying to answer. Some essential questions regarding the research process are: “What is the nature of reality?”, “What is the nature of the relationship between the scholar and the subject of interest?”, and “How can one understand the subject, and what are the methods?”. Research approaches can be categorized as quantitative and qualitative. In the former, measurement, prediction, and control are the bases, while in the latter, exploring, describing, and explaining the phenomena are fundamental. Among qualitative research methods, phenomenography is one of the newest methods. However, in spite of proving to be useful in various disciplines, it has yet to become popular, and many scholars mistake it for phenomenology. The focus of phenomenography is on what is known as the second-order perspective and the different ways that people can experience the same phenomenon, while phenomenology primarily emphasizes the first-order perspective and the similar essences that are derived from various experiences. This article aims to provide a better understanding of phenomenography through explaining it and comparing it with phenomenology in order to facilitate its proper and timely application in medical studies.

  19. A pesquisa médica e biomédica no Brasil: comparações com o desempenho científico brasileiro e mundial Medical and biomedical research in Brazil: a comparison of Brazilian and international scientific performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Guimarães

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este texto coloca o Brasil no interior dos países que fazem investimento em C&T, de forma comparada, no que concerne a pesquisas básicas, à aplicação do conhecimento e à formação de pesquisadores. Evidencia elevada correlação entre o (PIB e o desempenho científico e tecnológico de países desenvolvidos como EUA, Japão, Alemanha, Inglaterra, França, Canadá, Itália, China, Rússia e Espanha, e mostra como isso se realiza em países de médio desenvolvimento como México, Índia e Brasil. Os dados apresentados foram extraídos de diversas fontes: Diretório dos Grupos de Pesquisa e Plataforma Lattes, CNPq-MCT; Science Indicators; Institute for Scientific Information (ISI; World Development Indicators (WDI; Web of Science do ISI, acordo Capes ­ Fapesp, Brasil. A comparação com os países de mais elevado desempenho possibilita melhor situar o desafio a ser vencido pela pesquisa brasileira na área da saúde, para colocá-la no patamar dos índices de citação que melhor qualifica a pesquisa feita na área.This article compares Brazil's performance in science and technology investment to that of other countries, in relation to basic research, application of knowledge, and researcher training. The article shows a high correlation between GDP and scientific and technological performance in developed countries such as the United States, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, France, Canada, Italy, China, Russia, and Spain, and demonstrates how this occurs in medium development countries like Mexico, India, and Brazil. The data presented were obtained from various sources: the Research Group Directory and Lattes Platform of the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq-MCT; Science Indicators; Institute for Scientific Information (ISI; World Development Indicators (WDI; Web of Science of the ISI; and the CAPES ­ FAPESP agreement, Brazil. The comparison to higher-performance countries gave a clearer grasp of Brazil's health research challenge

  20. Faculty teaching skills perceived by medical students of a university of the Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfor, Jiulyanne Andrade; Sena, Iuri Silva; Silva, Dyone Karla Barbosa da; Lopes, Bruno Rafael da Silva; Koga, Mário; Santos, Bráulio Érison França Dos

    2018-01-01

    The National Curriculum Guidelines for achieving a medical degree value active teaching methodologies and the application of new teaching skills in the current setting. In this context, we consider that evaluation of teachers by students is an important tool for the development of education. Therefore, we aimed to identify students perceptions about the skills of medical school faculty of the Federal University of Amapá (UNIFAP) through the implementation of a cross-sectional and qualitative research from four focus group sessions, attended by 28 volunteer students from the first, second and third year of the course. Sessions were recorded and the content was analyzed in two stages using the Wordle.net platform and Bardin technique. Focal groups discussed five main topics: faculty teaching skills; academic planning; faculty skills evaluation by students; theory-practice integration and the teaching-learning process. In general, it was observed that all the students had similar ideas, but those with more years in the course showed greater mastery of subjects. Worth highlighting were the need to improve essential aspects of medical training and the importance of constant evaluation of this process.

  1. Why do people use exotic plants in their local medical systems? A systematic review based on Brazilian local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Patrícia Muniz de; Ferreira Júnior, Washington Soares; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; Silva, Taline Cristina da; Ladio, Ana Haydée; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2017-01-01

    Efforts have been made to understand the processes that lead to the introduction of exotic species into local pharmacopoeias. Among those efforts, the diversification hypothesis predicts that exotic plants are introduced in local medical systems to amplify the repertoire of knowledge related to the treatment of diseases, filling blanks that were not occupied by native species. Based on such hypothesis, this study aimed to contribute to this discussion using the context of local Brazilian populations. We performed a systematic review of Brazilian studies up to 2011 involving medicinal plants, excluding those studies that presented a high risk of bias (because of sampling or plant identification problems). An analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) was conducted in different scales to test for differences in the repertoire of therapeutic indications treated using native and exotic species. We have found that although there is some overlap between native and exotic plants regarding their therapeutic indications and the body systems (BSs) that they treat, there are clear gaps present, that is, there are therapeutic indications and BSs treated that are exclusive to exotic species. This scenario enables the postulation of two alternative unfoldings of the diversification hypothesis, namely, (1) exotic species are initially introduced to fill gaps and undergo subsequent expansion of their use for medical purposes already addressed using native species and (2) exotic species are initially introduced to address problems already addressed using native species to diversify the repertoire of medicinal plants and to increase the resilience of medical systems. The reasons why exotic species may have a competitive advantage over the native ones, the implications of the introduction of exotic species for the resilience of medical systems, and the contexts in which autochthonous plants can gain strength to remain in pharmacopoeias are also discussed.

  2. Archives: Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 10 of 10 ... Archives: Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice. Journal Home > Archives: Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Archives: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 33 of 33 ... Archives: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. Journal Home > Archives: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research: About this journal. Journal Home > Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice: About this ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice: About this journal. Journal Home > Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. The history of sociology as a field of research and some recent trends in Brazilian social thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, João Marcelo Ehlert

    2017-01-01

    The article lays the foundation for a dialog between scholars of Brazilian social thought and historians of sociology as a discipline. In order to achieve this objective, I analyze recent developments in the field of the history of sociology, highlighting the incorporation of historiographic methods and the emergence of a transnational approach, which points toward a global history of the discipline. I criticize the Eurocentric limits of this field and argue that recent research trends in the area of Brazilian social thought can help overcome this limitation. Finally, I briefly analyze the obstacles that impede this dialog and indicate possible strategies for overcoming them.

  8. Adaptation and evaluation of the measurement properties of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Batista dos Santos Pedrosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to undertake the cultural adaptation of, and to evaluate the measurement properties of, the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale in coronary heart disease (CHD patients, with outpatient monitoring at a teaching hospital. Method: the process of cultural adaptation was undertaken in accordance with the international literature. The data were obtained from 147 CHD patients, through the application of the sociodemographic/clinical characterization instrument, and of the Brazilian versions of the Morisky Self-Reported Measure of Medication Adherence Scale, the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale. Results: the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of semantic-idiomatic, conceptual and cultural equivalencies, with high acceptability and practicality. The floor effect was evidenced for the total score and for the domains of the scale studied. The findings evidenced the measure's reliability. The domains of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented significant inverse correlations of moderate to strong magnitude between the scores of the Morisky scale, indicating convergent validity, although correlations with the measure of general self-efficacy were not evidenced. The validity of known groups was supported, as the scale discriminated between "adherents" and "non-adherents" to the medications, as well as to "sufficient dose" and "insufficient dose". Conclusion: the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of reliability and validity in coronary heart disease outpatients.

  9. Growth Disparity between Medical Research and Medical Services ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Institutions started in late 19th and early 20th century included Plague laboratory, Nutrition Research Lab at Coonoor; Malaria Research Institute in Delhi; King Institute, Guindy; Central Research Institute, Kasauli; AIIH & PH at Kolkata.

  10. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.

  11. [Who finances medical research in Chile?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H; Kauffmann, R; Goic, A

    1995-10-01

    To identify those institutions granting medical research in Chile, every issue of Revista Médica de Chile published between 1987 and 1994 was reviewed, under the assumption that a vast majority (over 70%) of papers released by Chilean authors in topics of internal medicine and related subspecialties would have been submitted for publication in this journal. This assumption was based in the solid prestige of Revista Médica de Chile among Chilean physicians and investigators: it is one of the oldest medical journals in the world (founded in 1872) and its inclusion in the most important international indexes (e.g. Index Medicus, Current Contents) qualifies it in the "mainstream literature". Papers classified as "Original Articles", "Clinical Experiences", "Review Articles", "Public Health", "Case Reports", "Clinical Laboratory", "Special Articles" and "Medical Education" were screened for acknowledgment of financial support beyond the resources needed for routine clinical work. Among 1,528 manuscripts published, 344 were "Original Articles" and 61.3% of them acknowledged special financial support. Five hundred and one manuscripts were "Clinical Experiences" and 21.5% of them received special financial support; similar proportions were detected in "Review Articles" and "Public Health" topics. The institution ranked as providing support most often was the "Fondo Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnología" (FONDECYT), a governmental fund that assigns resources to research in all areas of science and technology through a peer-reviewed nationwide annual contest. FONDECYT was identified as provider of financial support to 45.2% of the "Original Articles" and "Clinical Experiences"; Chilean universities were mentioned by 33.6% and other entities (including pharmaceutical companies, other national and foreign organizations) by 23.1%. The University of Chile was the main Chilean university mentioned in the acknowledgments. The proportion of papers receiving special financial support

  12. Profile and scientific production of the Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) researchers in the field of Hematology/Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria Christina Lopes Araujo; Martelli, Daniella Reis; Quirino, Isabel Gomes; Colosimo, Enrico Antônio; Silva, Ana Cristina Simões e; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio; Oliveira, Eduardo Araujo de

    2014-01-01

    several studies have examined the academic production of the researchers at the CNPq, in several areas of knowledge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the scientific production of researchers in Hematology/Oncology who hold scientific productivity grants from the Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development. the Academic CVs of 28 researchers in Hematology/Oncology with active grants in the three-year period from 2006 to 2008 were included in the analysis. The variables of interest were: institution, researchers' time after doctorate, tutoring of undergraduate students, masters and PhD degree, scientific production and its impact. from a total of 411 researchers in Medicine, 28 (7%) were identified as being in the area of Hematology/Oncology. There was a slight predominance of males (53.6%) and grant holders in category 1. Three Brazilian states are responsible for approximately 90% of the researchers: São Paulo (21,75%), Rio de Janeiro (3,11%), and Minas Gerais (2, 7%). During their academic careers, the researchers published 2,655 articles, with a median of 87 articles per researcher (IQR = 52 to 122). 65 and 78% of this total were indexed on the Web of Science and Scopus databases, respectively. The researchers received 14,247 citations on the WoS database with a median of 385 citations per researcher. The average number of citations per article was 8.2. in this investigation, it was noted that researchers in the field of Hematology/Oncology have a relevant scientific output from the point of view of quantity and quality compared to other medical specialties.

  13. Promoting medical student research productivity: the student perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Benjamin K; Cai, Fei; Tandon, Vickram J; George, Paul; Greenberg, Paul B

    2014-06-02

    One-third of medical students complete medical school without significant exposure to research. This gap in their medical education is significant: research not only exposes medical students to scientific methodology and academic writing, but also encourages them to multi-task, communicate, and critically analyze the scientific literature - valuable skills that will serve them well in their future medical careers. We report herein the proceedings from a student-led symposium that aimed to promote student involvement in research at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University by providing practical information on how to successfully complete a research project.

  14. [The medical education and the extended general practice: results of a Brazilian experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Maria de Lourdes Marmorato Botta; Moraes, Magali Aparecida Alves de; Marvulo, Marilda Marques Luciano; Braccialli, Luzmarina Aparecida Doretto; Carvalho, Maria Helena Ribeiro de; Gomes, Romeu

    2010-06-01

    This is a qualitative study that is part of an evaluation research of a medicine course with the use of active teaching-learning methodologies based on the triangulation of methods. The aim is to evaluate the results related to the extended general practice concept. The sources of information used in the study include 17 semi-structured interviews with ex-prisoners and a situation that simulated the medical practice, of which seven ex-prisoners and a simulated patient participated. The analysis of the information and the production of the data were based on the method of interpretation of senses, according to the referential hermeneutic-dialectic system. The results point to aspects that justify the extended general practice, evidenced in two themes: the doctor-patient relationship and the patient approach. In conclusion, it is observed that the evaluated medical course brings together the education of the general, humanist, critical and reflexive doctor that may intervene in the different levels of health attention as well as in the individual and collective approach. It is also concluded that there are limits in operating an extended general practice in diverse health situations.

  15. Evaluation of self-perception of mechanical ventilation knowledge among Brazilian final-year medical students, residents and emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallo, Fernando Sabia; de Campos Vieira Abib, Simone; de Andrade Negri, Alexandre Jorgi; Cesar, Paulo; Lopes, Renato Delascio; Lopes, Antônio Carlos

    2017-02-01

    To present self-assessments of knowledge about mechanical ventilation made by final-year medical students, residents, and physicians taking qualifying courses at the Brazilian Society of Internal Medicine who work in urgent and emergency settings. A 34-item questionnaire comprising different areas of knowledge and training in mechanical ventilation was given to 806 medical students, residents, and participants in qualifying courses at 11 medical schools in Brazil. The questionnaire's self-assessment items for knowledge were transformed into scores. The average score among all participants was 21% (0-100%). Of the total, 85% respondents felt they did not receive sufficient information about mechanical ventilation during medical training. Additionally, 77% of the group reported that they would not know when to start noninvasive ventilation in a patient, and 81%, 81%, and 89% would not know how to start volume control, pressure control and pressure support ventilation modes, respectively. Furthermore, 86.4% and 94% of the participants believed they would not identify the basic principles of mechanical ventilation in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome, respectively, and would feel insecure beginning ventilation. Finally, 77% said they would fear for the safety of a patient requiring invasive mechanical ventilation under their care. Self-assessment of knowledge and self-perception of safety for managing mechanical ventilation were deficient among residents, students and emergency physicians from a sample in Brazil.

  16. Faculty development in medical education research: a cooperative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Wendy C; Love, Jeffrey N; Santen, Sally A; Hobgood, Cherri D; Mavis, Brian E; Maggio, Lauren A; Farrell, Susan E

    2010-05-01

    As the definition of scholarship is clarified, each specialty should develop a cadre of medical education researchers who can design, test, and optimize educational interventions. In 2004, the Association for American Medical Colleges' Group on Educational Affairs developed the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program to provide a curriculum to help medical educators acquire or enhance skills in medical education research, to promote effective collaboration with seasoned researchers, and to create better consumers of medical education scholarship. MERC courses are offered to individuals during educational meetings. Educational leaders in emergency medicine (EM) identified a disparity between the "scholarship of teaching" and medical education research skills, and they collaborated with the MERC steering committee to develop a mentored faculty development program in medical education research. A planning committee comprising experienced medical education researchers who are also board-certified, full-time EM faculty members designed a novel approach to the MERC curriculum: a mentored team approach to learning, grounded in collaborative medical education research projects. The planning committee identified areas of research interest among participants and formed working groups to collaborate on research projects during standard MERC workshops. Rather than focusing on individual questions during the course, each mentored group identified a single study hypothesis. After completing the first three workshops, group members worked under their mentors' guidance on their multiinstitutional research projects. The expected benefits of this approach to MERC include establishing a research community network, creating projects whose enrollments offer a multiinstitutional dimension, and developing a cadre of trained education researchers in EM.

  17. Using selected scenes from Brazilian films to teach about substance use disorders, within medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio; Oliveira, Hercílio Pereira; Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Lotufo-Neto, Francisco; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2012-01-01

    Themes like alcohol and drug abuse, relationship difficulties, psychoses, autism and personality dissociation disorders have been widely used in films. Psychiatry and psychiatric conditions in various cultural settings are increasingly taught using films. Many articles on cinema and psychiatry have been published but none have presented any methodology on how to select material. Here, the authors look at the portrayal of abusive use of alcohol and drugs during the Brazilian cinema revival period (1994 to 2008). Qualitative study at two universities in the state of São Paulo. Scenes were selected from films available at rental stores and were analyzed using a specifically designed protocol. We assessed how realistic these scenes were and their applicability for teaching. One author selected 70 scenes from 50 films (graded for realism and teaching applicability > 8). These were then rated by another two judges. Rating differences among the three judges were assessed using nonparametric tests (P 8) were defined as "quality scenes". Thirty-nine scenes from 27 films were identified as "quality scenes". Alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens and inhalants were included in these. Signs and symptoms of intoxication, abusive/harmful use and dependence were shown. We have produced rich teaching material for discussing psychopathology relating to alcohol and drug use that can be used both at undergraduate and at postgraduate level. Moreover, it could be seen that certain drug use behavioral patterns are deeply rooted in some Brazilian films and groups.

  18. Using selected scenes from Brazilian films to teach about substance use disorders, within medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Themes like alcohol and drug abuse, relationship difficulties, psychoses, autism and personality dissociation disorders have been widely used in films. Psychiatry and psychiatric conditions in various cultural settings are increasingly taught using films. Many articles on cinema and psychiatry have been published but none have presented any methodology on how to select material. Here, the authors look at the portrayal of abusive use of alcohol and drugs during the Brazilian cinema revival period (1994 to 2008. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative study at two universities in the state of São Paulo. METHODS: Scenes were selected from films available at rental stores and were analyzed using a specifically designed protocol. We assessed how realistic these scenes were and their applicability for teaching. One author selected 70 scenes from 50 films (graded for realism and teaching applicability > 8. These were then rated by another two judges. Rating differences among the three judges were assessed using nonparametric tests (P 8 were defined as "quality scenes". RESULTS: Thirty-nine scenes from 27 films were identified as "quality scenes". Alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens and inhalants were included in these. Signs and symptoms of intoxication, abusive/harmful use and dependence were shown. CONCLUSIONS: We have produced rich teaching material for discussing psychopathology relating to alcohol and drug use that can be used both at undergraduate and at postgraduate level. Moreover, it could be seen that certain drug use behavioral patterns are deeply rooted in some Brazilian films and groups.

  19. Institutional landmarks in Brazilian research on soil erosion: a historical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Santos Telles

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of soil erosion in Brazil has been a focus of agricultural scientific research since the 19th century. The aim of this study was to provide a historical overview of the institutional landmarks which gave rise to the first studies in soil erosion and established the foundations of agricultural research in Brazil. The 19th century and beginning of the 20th century saw the founding of a series of institutions in Brazil, such as Botanical Gardens, executive institutions, research institutes, experimental stations, educational institutions of agricultural sciences, as well as the creation and diversification of scientific journals. These entities, each in its own way, served to foster soil erosion research in Brazil. During the Imperial period (1808-1889, discussions focused on soil degradation and conserving the fertility of agricultural land. During the First Republic (1889-1930, with the founding of various educational institutions and consolidation of research on soil degradation conducted by the Agronomic Institute of Campinas in the State of São Paulo, studies focused on soil depletion, identification of the major factors causing soil erosion and the measures necessary to control it. During the New State period (1930-1945, many soil conservation practices were developed and disseminated to combat erosion and field trials were set up, mainly to measure soil and water losses induced by hydric erosion. During the Brazilian New Republic (1945-1964, experiments were conducted throughout Brazil, consolidating soil and water conservation as one of the main areas of Soil Science in Brazil. This was followed by scientific conferences on erosion and the institutionalization of post-graduate studies. During the Military Regime (1964-1985, many research and educational institutions were founded, experimental studies intensified, and coincidently, soil erosion reached alarming levels which led to the development of the no-tillage system.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the Brazilian public health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ribeiro Bahia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH under Brazilian public health system perspective (Unified Health System - "Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS". MATERIAL AND METHODS: A revision of the literature of the medical treatment of BPH using alpha-blockers, 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors and combinations was carried out. A panel of specialists defined the use of public health resources during episodes of acute urinary retention (AUR, the treatment and the evolution of these patients in public hospitals. A model of economic analysis(Markov predicted the number of episodes of AUR and surgeries (open prostatectomy and transurethral resection of the prostate related to BPH according to stages of evolution of the disease. Brazilian currency was converted to American dollars according to the theory of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP 2010: US$ 1 = R$ 1.70. RESULTS: The use of finasteride reduced 59.6% of AUR episodes and 57.9% the need of surgery compared to placebo, in a period of six years and taking into account a treatment discontinuity rate of 34%. The mean cost of treatment was R$ 764.11 (US$449.78 and R$ 579.57 (US$ 340.92 per patient in the finasteride and placebo groups, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICERs was R$ 4.130 (US$ 2.429 per episode of AUR avoided and R$ 2.735 (US$ 1.609 per episode of surgery avoided. The comparison of finasteride + doxazosine to placebo showed a reduction of 75.7% of AUR episodes and 66.8% of surgeries in a 4 year time horizon, with a ICERs of R$ 21.191 (US$ 12.918 per AUR episodes avoided and R$ 11.980 (US$ 7.047 per surgery avoided. In the sensitivity analysis the adhesion rate to treatment and the cost of finasteride were the main variables that influenced the results. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the treatment of BPH with finasteride is cost-effective compared to placebo in the Brazilian public health system

  1. Stimulating medical students interest in research: a neglected craft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research as a component of the undergraduate curriculum has not received the deserved attention in many medical schools in Africa. This correspondence underscores the need to reassess and improve on the existing metrics of research among medical students in Africa. Pan African Medical Journal 2012; 13:12 ...

  2. Endocrinologists and the Future of Medical Research in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    TOSHIO MATSUMOTO

    2009-01-01

    「Decrease in the Interest of Medical School Graduates in Basic Science」In the past, many medical school graduates went to basic research field after finishing clinical training for several years...

  3. Perceptions, attitudes and practices toward research among senior medical students

    OpenAIRE

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; Moussa, Noura A.; AlEssa, Dana S.; AlOthimeen, Nermeen; Al-Saud, Adwa S.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to explore perceptions, attitudes and practices toward research among medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among senior medical students at the King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

  4. A Course in Medical Research Study Design and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linskey, Mark E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A course to familiarize medical students with the principles of good medical research study design and analysis focuses on three types of studies: clinical trials, laboratory science, and epidemiology and biostatistics. (MSE)

  5. Scientific Disclosure: Social Representations of Brazilian Researchers Acting in the Field of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, D. L. C. M.

    2014-10-01

    Science dissemination has unquestioned role on intermediate science and society and it is a wide subject of research in education, considering that the construction of knowledge flows in different spaces, and, consequently, produces and disseminates representations. It presents as a motivator for reflection and as a necessary tool to prevent that knowledge do not become synonymous with domination and power. Thereby, the Astronomy assumes a remarkable role as a trigger of scientific dissemination process, due to its interdisciplinary character. From this viewpoint and the theoretical and methodological framework of the Theory of Social Representations (TRS), grounded by Serge Moscovici, this research, qualitative in nature, seek to answer: What are the social representations about scientific dissemination of Brazilian researchers that act in the field of astronomy? The work was based on Longhini, Gomide and Fernandes (2013) research, which delineate the Brazilian scientific community involved in Astronomy, identifying two groups of researchers with different training paths: one with postgraduate in education and related fields, and other with postgraduate in Physics or Astronomy. Thus, this study had the subquestion: Does the researchers of these groups have different conceptions about the practices of science dissemination? A sample was composed of six subjects, three of each formative course, who participated in semi-structured interviews analyzed following the steps outlined by Spink (2012). The results show that the science dissemination is part of the researches schedule's, with a positive image relative to promote scientific knowledge to population and similar on practical approach between the two groups. Point to two social representations of science dissemination: one for society in general, moved by passion, anchored in values and beliefs, in satisfaction of seeing the results that their actions bring to people's lives; and the other to their pairs

  6. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal covers technical and clinical studies related to health, ethical and social issues in field of all aspects of medicine (Basic and Clinical), Health Sciences, Nursing, Medical Laboratory Sciences, Medical Radiography and Rehabilitation, Pharmacy, Biomedical Engineering, etc. Articles with clinical interest and ...

  7. Science Divulgation: The Social Representations of Brazilian Researchers Working in the Field of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Dalira Lúcia Cunha Maradei; Longhini, Marcos Daniel

    2015-12-01

    This article addresses the role of scientific divulgation in the interaction between science and society, debating the importance of Astronomy as a prime starter of the scientific divulgation. In the light of Moscovici’s Social Representations Theory, the social representations on scientific divulgation of Brazilian researchers that work in the field of Astronomy are studied. Individuals from different educational trajectories ansewered semi-structured interviews, which were analyzed according to Spink. The results indicate two representations: one for the society at large, moved by passion, based on values and beliefs, and on the satisfaction of seeing the results of their actions on people’s life; and another for their peers. In the first representation, gaps that obstruct the science divulgation emerge, such as the lack of training and the difficulty to use a plain language, the bureaucracy required for the projects’ execution and its negative representation in the media. Other inferences are that Astronomy is neither part of a systematic teaching nor a part of the media at large, and it often presents conceptual mistakes. Those representations find an echo in the theoretical framework, showing that, despite their advances, scientific divulgation and Astronomy Education are in a context of social fragility.

  8. Research of Medication Use during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment options. Learning the Effects of Medication during Pregnancy The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates ... http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/default.htm . Pregnancy Registries Drug companies sometimes conduct special studies using ...

  9. Anatomy research under the knife of medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W M S; Archana, R; Prathibha, K M; Johnson, Priscilla

    2015-04-01

    There is increased awareness and anxiety in conducting research for publication and at the same time ignorance about getting Ethical Committee clearance at least in Anatomy Departments among Basic Medical Sciences. While people are actively presenting papers, collect data, Indian Council for Medical Research guidelines does not cover aspects pertaining to Anatomy oriented research activities. This review article is an eye opener for fraternity in the medical field, especially in anatomy.

  10. Anatomy research under the knife of medical ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. S. Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increased awareness and anxiety in conducting research for publication and at the same time ignorance about getting Ethical Committee clearance at least in Anatomy Departments among Basic Medical Sciences. While people are actively presenting papers, collect data, Indian Council for Medical Research guidelines does not cover aspects pertaining to Anatomy oriented research activities. This review article is an eye opener for fraternity in the medical field, especially in anatomy.

  11. [Common mental disorders and use of psychotropic medications in women consulting at primary care units in a Brazilian urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Tatiana Longo; Hegadoren, Kathleen Mary; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) in women consulting at primary health care units in a Brazilian urban area, as well as to determine the impact of CMD on quality of life (QoL), the association of sociodemographic factors with CMD and QoL, and the prevalence and pattern of psychotropic medication use in the study sample. In this quantitative, cross-sectional, correlational-descriptive study, a stratified sample of 365 women was interviewed between May 2012 and January 2013 in five primary health care units in Brazil. Data were collected using sociodemographic and drug use questionnaires. The self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to estimate the prevalence of CMD; and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-bref instrument was used to assess quality of life. To evaluate the impact of CMD on QoL, the t test and linear regression models were employed. The chi-square test was used to verify associations between CMD and sociodemographic variables. Descriptive analysis was used for psychotropic drug use. The prevalence of CMD was 44.1%. The prevalence of psychotropic medication use was 27.1%. Only 5.6% of participants had a psychiatric diagnosis recorded in their medical chart. Psychotropic drugs were used by 41.6% of participants with CMD according to the SRQ-20 and by 15.7% of those without CMD. There was no association between CMD and sociodemographic variables, but CMD and QoL were significantly associated. Women with CMD had the worst QoL, without impact of sociodemographic variables. Further attention should be given to the pattern of psychotropic medication use and prescription in primary care settings. Women with CMD had functional impairment, as shown by significantly lower QoL scores. The fact that sociodemographic factors did not impact the present results seems to support the notion of a different basis for CMD in women.

  12. Clinical skills assessment: limitations to the introduction of an "OSCE" (Objective Structured Clinical Examination in a traditional Brazilian medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ernesto de Almeida Troncon

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Assessment of clinical skills has a central role in medical education and the selection of suitable methods is highly relevant. The OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examination is now established as one of the most valid, reliable and effective tests for the assessment of clinical skills. OBJECTIVE: To describe student and faculty perceptions of an OSCE introduced in a traditional Brazilian medical school. TYPE OF STUDY: Descriptive, semi-quantitative study. SETTING: Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo. PARTICIPANTS: 258 junior medical students finishing an introductory course on basic clinical skills and six faculty members deeply involved with the OSCE administration. PROCEDURES: Over a period of three consecutive years, student perceptions on the examination were evaluated using a structured questionnaire containing several five-point scales; faculty members' opinions were collected using a structured questionnaire plus a personal interview. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Student satisfaction or dissatisfaction with aspects of OSCE administration and positive or negative opinions from faculty members. RESULTS: Students were comfortable with cases and tasks, but nearly half (48% of them criticized organizational aspects of the OSCE. Substantial proportions of students reported difficulties with both time management (70% and stress control (70%. Improvement of several aspects of exams reduced criticism of organization to a minority (5% of students, but the proportions of students reporting difficulties with time management (40% and stress control (75% during the exam remained virtually unchanged. Faculty members acknowledged the accuracy of the OSCE, but criticized its limitations for assessing the integrated approach to patients and complained that the examination was remarkably time and effort-consuming. The educational impact of the OSCE was felt to be limited, since other faculty members did not respond to

  13. Medical Applications of Non-Medical Research: Applications Derived from BES-Supported Research and Research at BES Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This publication contains stories that illustrate how the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) research and major user facilities have impacted the medical sciences in the selected topical areas of disease diagnosis, treatment (including drug development, radiation therapy, and surgery), understanding, and prevention.

  14. [SOROKA UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER: THE ROAD TO LEADERSHIP IN QUALITY OF MEDICAL CARE, SERVICE AND RESEARCH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ehud; Sheiner, Eyal

    2016-02-01

    Soroka University Medical Center is a tertiary hospital, and the sole medical center in the Negev, the southern part of Israel. Soroka has invested in quality, service and research. The region has developed joint programs in order to advance the quality of medical care whilst optimizing the utilization of available resources. In this editorial we describe the path to leadership in quality of medical care, service and research.

  15. Potentially inappropriate medications used by the elderly: prevalence and risk factors in Brazilian care homes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vieira de Lima, Thaís Jaqueline; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Garbin, Artênio José Isper; Sumida, Dóris Hissako; Saliba, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    The use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) among the elderly is a serious public health problem because it is intrinsically linked to increased morbidity and mortality, causing high costs to public health systems...

  16. Medication safety research by observational study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Kim S J; Chui, Celine S L; Man, Kenneth K C; Lau, Wallis C Y; Chan, Esther W; Wong, Ian C K

    2016-06-01

    Observational studies have been recognised to be essential for investigating the safety profile of medications. Numerous observational studies have been conducted on the platform of large population databases, which provide adequate sample size and follow-up length to detect infrequent and/or delayed clinical outcomes. Cohort and case-control are well-accepted traditional methodologies for hypothesis testing, while within-individual study designs are developing and evolving, addressing previous known methodological limitations to reduce confounding and bias. Respective examples of observational studies of different study designs using medical databases are shown. Methodology characteristics, study assumptions, strengths and weaknesses of each method are discussed in this review.

  17. Medical marijuana: the state of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirken, B

    1996-10-18

    Recent raids on buyers' clubs in San Francisco have focused attention on medicinal uses of marijuana. The Clinton administration's policy is that there is no scientific evidence that smoked marijuana is useful in treating pain and nausea in AIDS and cancer patients. However, mainstream medical literature has supported the use of cannabis in managing symptoms of diseases such as glaucoma and multiple sclerosis. Well designed, controlled studies of marijuana are needed to determine the effective medical uses of the drug and break the political stalemate on this issue.

  18. Ethics and epidemiological research | Cullinan | Malawi Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawi Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here ...

  19. Populations As Brands In Medical Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro

    2017-01-01

    The collection, use, and distribution of human tissue samples have stressed the new pathways in which human body parts and related information are becoming productive. This article probes the question of how the concept of branding can elucidate the way historico-cultural narratives of origin...... in the medical sciences become intertwined with notions of productivity and bioeconomic potential....

  20. Brazilian version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy: psychometric properties and factor analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Paro Helena BMS; Daud-Gallotti Renata M; Tibério Iolanda C; Pinto Rogério MC; Martins Mílton A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Empathy is a central characteristic of medical professionalism and has recently gained attention in medical education research. The Jefferson Scale of Empathy is the most commonly used measure of empathy worldwide, and to date it has been translated in 39 languages. This study aimed to adapt the Jefferson Scale of Empathy to the Brazilian culture and to test its reliability and validity among Brazilian medical student...

  1. Narrative inquiry: a relational research methodology for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clandinin, D Jean; Cave, Marie T; Berendonk, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Narrative research, an inclusive term for a range of methodologies, has rapidly become part of medical education scholarship. In this paper we identify narrative inquiry as a particular theoretical and methodological framework within narrative research and outline its characteristics. We briefly summarise how narrative research has been used in studying medical learners' identity making in medical education. We then turn to the uses of narrative inquiry in studying medical learners' professional identity making. With the turn to narrative inquiry, the shift is to thinking with stories instead of about stories. We highlight four challenges in engaging in narrative inquiry in medical education and point toward promising future research and practice possibilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  2. The qualitative orientation in medical education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Anne Cleland

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research is very important in educational research as it addresses the “how” and “why” research questions and enables deeper understanding of experiences, phenomena and context. Qualitative research allows you to ask questions that cannot be easily put into numbers to understand human experience. Getting at the everyday realities of some social phenomenon and studying important questions as they are really practiced helps extend knowledge and understanding. To do so, you need to understand the philosophical stance of qualitative research and work from this to develop the research question, study design, data collection methods and data analysis. In this article, I provide an overview of the assumptions underlying qualitative research and the role of the researcher in the qualitative process. I then go on to discuss the type of research objectives which are common in qualitative research, then introduce the main qualitative designs, data collection tools, and finally the basics of qualitative analysis. I introduce the criteria by which you can judge the quality of qualitative research. Many classic references are cited in this article, and I urge you to seek out some of these further reading to inform your qualitative research program.

  3. The qualitative orientation in medical education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Jennifer Anne

    2017-06-01

    Qualitative research is very important in educational research as it addresses the "how" and "why" research questions and enables deeper understanding of experiences, phenomena and context. Qualitative research allows you to ask questions that cannot be easily put into numbers to understand human experience. Getting at the everyday realities of some social phenomenon and studying important questions as they are really practiced helps extend knowledge and understanding. To do so, you need to understand the philosophical stance of qualitative research and work from this to develop the research question, study design, data collection methods and data analysis. In this article, I provide an overview of the assumptions underlying qualitative research and the role of the researcher in the qualitative process. I then go on to discuss the type of research objectives which are common in qualitative research, then introduce the main qualitative designs, data collection tools, and finally the basics of qualitative analysis. I introduce the criteria by which you can judge the quality of qualitative research. Many classic references are cited in this article, and I urge you to seek out some of these further reading to inform your qualitative research program.

  4. Research status and development tendency of medical psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Li-Yi; Gao-feng YAO

    2011-01-01

    Objective The present study aims to review the research status and development tendency of military medical psychology in China and abroad and proposes the development of medical psychology research in the Chinese military.Methods A literature search method was adopted to find and review major literature on military medical psychology,from basic studies,discipline construction,professional teaching,to the service force in the last 10 years.Results The last 10 years witnessed much development ...

  5. Factors Influencing Research Activity among Medical Students at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at describing the factors that influence research among medical students in a Kenyan University. Subjects and Methods This descriptive cross sectional study involved medical students at the School of Medicine, University of Nairobi. An open questionnaire regarding research activity was administered to ...

  6. The quality of translated medical research questionnaires | Fourie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little data have been published on the subject of medical research and translation. This study endeavours to contribute to such literature by investigating the quality of original and retranslated medical questionnaires. The various steps researchers follow when translating their questionnaires or other texts are considered, ...

  7. The involvement of clinicians in medical education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Murphy, Roger; Rahemei-Madeseh, Mohammad; Torabi, Sima

    2008-01-01

    Medical education, like other forms of professional preparation, is a complex and demanding process, which can benefit enormously from careful research. Although such research can be conducted by researchers from outside medical education, there is also a clear need for clinicians to participate in such research and conduct studies that can draw upon their experience and insights. However, despite recent endeavours to involve clinical educators in such research, there are very few published articles reporting research conducted by such individuals. To explore the factors that impact upon clinicians' engagement in medical education research. Interview data, concerning potential involvement in medical education research, were gathered directly from 20 clinicians. A detailed systematic analysis was conducted on the interview transcripts. Three general themes emerged from the interviews, all of which relate to clinicians' engagement in medical education research. They are: (a) effective leadership, (b) promoting professional growth, and (c) all-encompassing support. The study shows that there is a need for clinical leaders with inspirational qualities to drive research in medical education. Also, clinicians need better training in educational research methods and more funding is needed to support this type of research.

  8. Balance between education- and research-oriented publications from a Brazilian University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendonça de Araujo K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the trends of scientific output of the University Hospital, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. A total of 1420 publications were classified according to pattern and visibility. Most were non-research publications with domestic visibility. With time, there was a tendency to shift from non-research (or education-oriented publications with domestic visibility to research publications with international visibility. This change may reflect new academic attitudes within the institution concerning the objectives of the hospital and the establishment of scientific research activities. The emphasis of this University Hospital had been on the training of new physicians. However, more recently, the production of new knowledge has been incorporated as a new objective. The analysis of the scientific production of the most productive sectors of the hospital also showed that most are developing non-research studies devoted to the local public while a few of the sectors are carrying out research studies published in journals with international status. The dilemma of quality versus quantity and of education versus research-oriented publication seems, however, to continue to exist within the specialized sectors. The methodology described here to analyze the scientific production of a university hospital can be used as a tool to better understand the evolution of medical research in Brazil and also to help formulate public policies and new strategies to include research among the major objectives of University Hospitals.

  9. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    Over the past two decades there has been a phenomenal growth in the number of dedicated synchrotron radiation facilities and a corresponding growth in the number of applications in both basic and applied sciences. The high flux and brightness, tunable beams, time structure and polarization of synchrotron radiation provide an ideal x- ray source for many applications in the medical sciences. There is a dual aspect to the field of medical applications of synchrotron radiation. First there are the important in-vitro programs such as structural biology, x-ray microscopy, and radiation cell biology. Second there are the programs that are ultimately targeted at in-vivo applications. The present status of synchrotron coronary angiography, bronchography, multiple energy computed tomography, mammography and radiation therapy programs at laboratories around the world is reviewed.

  10. Progress in animal experimentation ethics: a case study from a Brazilian medical school and from the international medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalli Jr, Edvaldo Luiz; Ho, Wanli; Alves, Mônica; Rocha, Eduardo Melani

    2012-09-01

    This study describes in Brazil and in the global biomedical community the time course of the development of animal research welfare guidelines. The database of the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto (EC/FMRP-USP), Brazil, was surveyed since its inception in 2002 as the regulations became more stringent to provide better protection of animal research welfare at this institution. Medline database was evaluated to identify the number of publications in the period between 1968 and 2008 that used research animals and were in compliance with established ethics guidelines. The EC/FMRP-USP evaluated 979 projects up until 2009. Most of the applications came from Department of Physiology and the most frequently requested species was the rat. In 2004, national research funding agencies started to request prior approval from institutional review ethics committees prior to application review and this requirement became federal law in Brazil in 2008. The analysis of international publications revealed a relative reduction in studies involving research animals (18% in 1968 to 7.5% in 2008). The present work showed that in the last four decades major changes occurred in the guidelines dictating use of research animals occurred and they are being adopted by developing countries. Moreover, animal welfare concern in the scientific community preceded the introduction of journal guidelines for this purpose. Furthermore, in Brazil it was anticipated that laws were needed to protect animal research welfare from being not upheld.

  11. A history of health and medical research in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Timothy; Anderson, Warwick P

    2014-07-07

    Health and medical research has played an important role in improving the life of Australians since before the 20th century, with many Australian researchers contributing to important advances both locally and internationally. The establishment of the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) to support research and to work to achieve the benefits of research for the community was significant. The NHMRC has also provided guidance in research and health ethics. Australian research has broadened to include basic biomedical science, clinical medicine and science, public health and health services. In October 2002, the NHMRC adopted Indigenous health research as a strategic priority. In 2013, government expenditure through the NHMRC was $852.9 million. This article highlights some important milestones in the history of health and medical research in Australia.

  12. Progress report 2011-2013 - Brazilian Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    This progress report presents the results of the R&D center of IPEN in accordance with the main programs: Lasers Technology, Applications of Ionizing Radiations, Biotechnology, Renewable Energies, Radiopharmacy, Nuclear Science and Technology, Environmental Science and Technology, Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle, Materials and Nanotechnology, Nuclear Safety, Education, Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor and Scientific and Technical Production.

  13. The South African Medical Research Council's Guidelines on Ethics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spell out protections for them. These generally ... Medical Research: General Principles (Book 1)5 to the enrolment of ... Book 1 states that 'by definition' healthy volunteers will not be participants in therapeutic research but will participate in non-therapeutic research. It may be difficult to classify research according to these.

  14. Analysis of calls to the Mobile First-Aid Medical Services in a Brazilian capital city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Nonnemacher Luchtemberg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is a documentary study to characterize Mobile First-Aid Medical Services calls that did not provide assistance in the state of Santa Catarina, SC, Brazil from 2007 to 2010. Data were collected from assistance reports, being noticed 393,912 prank phone calls to the institution. The main reason for the assistance not being provided was the removal of the victim by third parties. The others were refusal of care, the removal of the patient and incorrect address. There were significant differences (p<0.05 between the years under study concerning the calls received by the Mobile First-Aid Medical Services and the number of prank phone calls received in the state macro-regions. The results indicate the need of investment in health education activities, reducing costs and increasing effectiveness. It is also necessary to improve communication between Mobile First-Aid Medical Services and the other services (Military Police and Fire Brigade reducing the number of assistance.

  15. [Depressive symptoms among medical intern students in a Brazilian public university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Edméa Fontes de Oliva; Santana, Ygo Santos; Santos, Ana Teresa Rodrigues de Abreu; Martins, Luiz Antonio Nogueira; Melo, Enaldo Vieira de; Andrade, Tarcísio Matos de

    2012-01-01

    To estimate, among Medical School intern students, the prevalence of depressive symptoms and their severity, as well as associated factors. Cross-sectional study in May 2008, with a representative sample of medical intern students (n = 84) from Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS). Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and a structured questionnaire containing information on sociodemographic variables, teaching-learning process, and personal aspects were used. The exploratory data analysis was performed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Finally, the analysis of multiple variables by logistic regression and the calculation of simple and adjusted ORs with their respective 95% confidence intervals were performed. The general prevalence was 40.5%, with 1.2% (95% CI: 0.0-6.5) of severe depressive symptoms; 4.8% (95% CI: 1.3-11.7) of moderate depressive symptoms; and 34.5% (95% CI: 24.5-45.7) of mild depressive symptoms. The logistic regression revealed the variables with a major impact associated with the emergence of depressive symptoms: thoughts of dropping out (OR 6.24; p = 0.002); emotional stress (OR 7.43;p = 0.0004); and average academic performance (OR 4.74; p = 0.0001). The high prevalence of depressive symptoms in the study population was associated with variables related to the teaching-learning process and personal aspects, suggesting immediate preemptive measures regarding Medical School graduation and student care are required.

  16. The P-A-C-I-E-N-T-E Protocol: An instrument for breaking bad news adapted to the Brazilian medical reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rebello Pereira

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: There are plenty of published tools for breaking bad medical news; however, none of them is culturally appropriate to our reality or published in the Brazilian literature. This study proposes a genuinely Brazilian communication tool and evaluates its acceptance among doctors and nurses. Method: This was a prospective study. The data were collected after specific training of doctors and nurses on the bad news communication techniques based on the P-A-C-I-E-N-T-E ("patient," in Portuguese Protocol. This instrument is in accordance with the Brazilian reality and was based on the SPIKES communication tool. Results: The worst task to be performed during communication is "talking about death" followed by "discussing the end of curative treatment attempts" and "diagnosis" itself. Among the respondents, 48% reported they did not receive formal training for communicating. Also, 52% of respondents do not use any systematic approach in their daily practice when communicating with patients, but 97% considered the proposed P-A-C-I-E-N-T-E Protocol as a useful and appropriate communication tool. Conclusion: The P-A-C-I-E-N-T-E Protocol proved to be suitable to the Brazilian context.

  17. [Occupational medical research of male reproductive capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, J P

    1993-04-05

    During the past 15 years, approximately 50 occupational medical sperm quality investigations have been carried out in the world as a whole. The discovery of reduced testicular function among workers exposed to the chemical agent dibromochloropropane (DBCP) was an important incitment for the conduct of these investigations. These have not demonstrated new occupational medical influences with as dramatic an effect as DBCP but moderately reduced sperm quality has, however, been proved or suspected after occupational exposure to a series of other agents: certain cell poisons (ethylene dibromide, carbaryl, chlordecone), certain glycoethers (in paint, glue, printing inks, antifreeze solutions), certain organic solvents e.g. styrene (plastic casting), choroprene (plastic production), low exposure to lead, metal welding, thermal influences and high frequent electromagnetic fields (300 kHz-300 mHz). Only a few investigations illustrate the significance of the male factors for infertility and delay before deliberate pregnancy and there are still no well-proved examples of human paternal teratogenic agents or carcinogens. Our present knowledge only serves to prevent a limited proportion of reproductory failure in men. Reports of decreased sperm quality in the population and the influence of the environment on reproduction in domestic animals indicate that further investigations are necessary. Longitudinal investigations of sperm quality together with investigations of fertility or delay till deliberate pregnancy are proposed subjects for future strategy.

  18. Perfil do pesquisador fisioterapeuta brasileiro Profile of the Brazilian physical therapy researcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HJCG Coury

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traçar um perfil do pesquisador fisioterapeuta quanto a sua formação, produção científica e fomento e bolsas obtidos pela área do Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq. MÉTODOS: Foram consultados os curricula vitae de cada pesquisador fisioterapeuta com doutorado disponíveis na Plataforma Lattes do CNPq, que é uma agência do MCT dedicada à promoção da pesquisa científica e à formação de recursos humanos para a pesquisa. A escolha dessa fonte pública de informação ocorreu porque cada pesquisador interessado em auxílios de pesquisa ou envolvidos com a pós-graduação deve preencher eletronicamente um curriculum vitae com informações sobre formação e produção científica. O sistema requer uma senha pessoal e uma declaração do pesquisador atestando a veracidade das informações fornecidas, o que assegura precisão no preenchimento. Estatísticas sobre fomento e bolsas disponíveis foram também consultadas. Uma análise de regressão binária foi rodada para explicar a ocorrência de publicações ISI/JCR. RESULTADOS: Houve um crescimento extraordinário (900% no número de doutores com graduação em Fisioterapia, na última década, em áreas tradicionais ou novos campos de atuação e crescimento expressivo em número de artigos publicados, dissertações e teses orientadas. Os fatores analisados pela regressão conseguiram explicar 49,8% da ocorrência de artigos indexados. Dados de fomento e bolsas mostram um investimento pequeno do CNPq na Fisioterapia comparativamente às demais áreas da Saúde. CONCLUSÕES: O perfil do pesquisador traçado aqui poderá prover à comunidade acadêmica uma perpectiva de sua identidade e auxiliar no estabelecimento de prioridades futuras para o aprimoramento do conhecimento e prática profissional.OBJECTIVE: To define the profile of the Brazilian physical therapy researcher in terms of training, productive outcomes, and grants and

  19. Profile of research published in the annals of the Brazilian Pulmonology and Phthisiology Conferences held over the last twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabro, Alexandre Todorovic; Yoo, Hugo Hyung Bok; Queluz, Thais Helena Abrahão Thomaz

    2006-01-01

    To increase the knowledge base regarding pulmonology research in Brazil. A retrospective, observational study of the abstracts published in the Annals of the Brazilian Pulmonology and Phthisiology Conferences held from 1986 to 2004, quantifying the institutions of origin by geographic distribution and type, as well as categorizing the abstracts by study design and topic. A total of 6467 abstracts were published. The institutions of origin were located, variously, in the Southeast (3870 abstracts), South (1309), Northeast (783), Central-West (267) and North (84). There were 94 abstracts originating from foreign institutions, especially from institutions in Portugal (56.3%) and the United States (13.8%). Most of the studies (5825) were conducted in public Brazilian institutions. There were 4234 clinical studies, 1994 case reports and 239 original research articles. A marked, progressive increase was observed in the number of clinical studies and case reports during the period evaluated. Overall, the most common themes were tuberculosis and other infections diseases (25.2%), following by oncology (11.6%), interstitial lung diseases (8.8%) and thoracic surgery (8.5%). Nevertheless, the number of abstracts on each topic varied widely from year to year. Public Brazilian institutions are the principal sources of pulmonology research in Brazil. Such research activity is concentrated in the southeastern part of the country. Case reports account for one-third of this activity. Although there was great variability in the subjects addressed, diseases that are highly prevalent in Brazil, such as tuberculosis and other infections diseases, were the most common topics.

  20. Destaques éticos nos periódicos nacionais das áreas médicas Ethics relevance in Brazilian medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tavares-Neto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os destaques éticos existentes nas instruções aos autores de periódicos nacionais citados conjuntamente pelas quatro áreas médicas da CAPES e qualificados nível "A" nacional ou "I" internacional. MÉTODOS: As instruções aos autores de 20 revistas nacionais foram estudadas e 36 tipos de preocupações éticas foram identificados, permitindo a seguinte categorização: I - Ética na pesquisa com seres humanos; II - Integridade científica; III - Política editorial. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que na categoria I a instrução mais freqüente (50% é a exigência de aprovação da pesquisa por um CEP institucional, seguida da indicação no corpo do artigo referir-se a esta aprovação (35%, e a apresentação de cópia do parecer do CEP (30%. Todavia, nenhum periódico adverte sobre a importância do CEP ser credenciado pela CONEP. Na categoria II, 55% dos periódicos exigem declaração de conflitos de interesse e 40% deles interrogam sobre qual tipo de interesse; todavia, todos (100% os periódicos são omissos quanto à verificação de conflitos de interesse entre autores e revisores assim como prevenção de fraudes, plágios e fabricação de dados. Finalmente, na categoria III, 65% dos periódicos exigem que os direitos autorais sejam-lhes cedidos e os demais 35% nada dizem sobre o assunto. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados são discutidos em relação à situação atual do Brasil em relação à ética da pesquisa em seres humanos e à prevenção de desonestidade científica.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Brazilian journals cited by the four CAPES medical areas, qualified as "A" national or "I" international, regarding the relevance given to ethics in the instructions for authors. METHODS: The instructions for authors of twenty Brazilian journals were studied and 36 types of ethical concerns were identified allowing the following categorization: I - Ethics in human research; II - Scientific integrity; III

  1. Fraud and Misconduct in Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moghtaderi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last year we had observed different types of misconduct in the submitted manuscripts into the editorial office. Those are included attempted theft of data, presence of ghost authors, gift authorship, dual submissions, salami publications, falsification and some other types of fraud. Our analysis in the editorial office led us to conclude that research fraud is an important issue and should be discussed clearly. The emphasis on competition and pressure to produce published materials, while internal intention to discover the scientific truth may foster a conflict between personal career goals and human intellectual motivation; finally may induce research misconduct. Having accurate and good knowledge in this field is mandatory for researchers especially the younger ones. In the first part of this article we will discuss a short but important part of the history of this problem and in the second part definition and editorial response will be reviewed

  2. Highland Medical Research Journal: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  3. Children in Medical Research : Ethical challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Bos (Wendy)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractPaediatric research ethics evolves around a central dilemma. Either one has to accept that many childhood diseases cannot be (properly) treated and that many children receive treatments that are not (properly) tested in children, or one has to accept that children, i.e. vulnerable

  4. NORMAL DISTRIBUTION LAW IN MEDICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. A. Ivanchuk

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main methods for assessing normality were described. As an example, multiple samples from clinical research were tested for normality using graphical (the histogram and t he normal probability plot, and statistical methods. The majority of clinical samples were not normally distributed (60 %. The practical recommendations were provided.

  5. Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The papers should include a statement to the effect that the research protocol was approved by a local ethical committee and informed consent obtained from each subject prior to inclusion in the study. Conflict of interest. If there are no conflicts of interest, the author should state there are none. Sometimes, the authors will ...

  6. Legislation hampers medical research in acute situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...

  7. Teaching in Medical Education | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many postdoctoral fellows are considering an academic career at a medical school. In addition to conducting research, new faculty members must learn effective teaching methodologies. This course will focus on good teaching practices, including basic strategies for developing and organizing a course. The purpose of the "Teaching in Medical Education (TIME)" course is to increase the scientist's ability to teach in medical education. The course will provide basic knowledge in teaching methods, course planning, writing a syllabus and developing examinations.

  8. Research in medical education: balancing service and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu; Hodges, Brian; Regehr, Glenn

    2007-02-01

    Since the latter part of the 1990's, the English-speaking medical education community has been engaged in a debate concerning the types of research that should have priority. To shed light on this debate and to better understand its implications for the practice of research, 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted with "influential figures" from the community. The results were analyzed using the concept of "field" developed by the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. The results reveal that a large majority of these influential figures believe that research in medical education continues to be of insufficient quality despite the progress that has taken place over the past 2 decades. According to this group, studies tend to be both redundant and opportunistic, and researchers tend to have limited understanding of both theory and methodological practice from the social sciences. Three factors were identified by the participants to explain the current problems in research: the working conditions of researchers, budgetary restraints in financing research in medical education, and the conception of research in the medical environment. Two principal means for improving research are presented: intensifying collaboration between PhD's and clinicians, and encouraging the diversification of perspectives brought to bear on research in medical education.

  9. Risk management for medical devices in research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter Christian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In applied research for medical devices exists a conflict between effective research and regulations. While researchers need sufficient freedom the regulations require a complex technical documentation for a medical device. One relevant aspect of the regulations is risk management which takes time and therefore is ignored in many research projects. With adoptions to the standard the effort can be reduced: Identifying of risks can be focused on critical risks, measures can be categorised and only some categories need to be implemented. Research teams using this method can provide results which can be transferred into commercial products easier, cheaper and faster.

  10. Building bridges: future directions for medical error disclosure research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannawa, Annegret F; Beckman, Howard; Mazor, Kathleen M; Paul, Norbert; Ramsey, Joanne V

    2013-09-01

    The disclosure of medical errors has attracted considerable research interest in recent years. However, the research to date has lacked interdisciplinary dialog, making translation of findings into medical practice challenging. This article lays out the disciplinary perspectives of the fields of medicine, ethics, law and communication on medical error disclosure and identifies gaps and tensions that occur at these interdisciplinary boundaries. This article summarizes the discussion of an interdisciplinary error disclosure panel at the 2012 EACH Conference in St. Andrews, Scotland, in light of the current literature across four academic disciplines. Current medical, ethical, legal and communication perspectives on medical error disclosure are presented and discussed with particular emphasis on the interdisciplinary gaps and tensions. The authors encourage interdisciplinary collaborations that strive for a functional approach to understanding and improving the disclosure of medical errors with the ultimate goal to improve quality and promote safer medical care. Interdisciplinary collaborations are needed to reconcile the needs of the stakeholders involved in medical error disclosure. A particular challenge is the effective translation of error disclosure research into practice. Concrete research questions are provided throughout the manuscript to facilitate a resolution of the tensions that currently impede interdisciplinary progress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Teaching Medical Students Basic Neurotransmitter Pharmacology Using Primary Research Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Amy C.; Devonshire, Ian M.; Greenfield, Susan A.; Dommett, Eleanor J.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching pharmacology to medical students has long been seen as a challenge, and one to which a number of innovative approaches have been taken. In this article, we describe and evaluate the use of primary research articles in teaching second-year medical students both in terms of the information learned and the use of the papers themselves. We…

  12. Editorial | Adedoyin | Savannah Journal of Medical Research and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). The dedicated members of the USAMRIID staff ... military personnel and civilians from the threat of infectious diseases. We participate in support of emerging disease investigations, ...

  14. Legislation hampers medical research in acute situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...... out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients were randomised to targeted temperature management. Patients were randomised before NOK could be informed, and proxy consent was obtained as soon as possible. Written consent from NOK and GP were our study data. RESULTS: We obtained all legally required...

  15. Changing opinions about research by Saudi medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulaban, Ahmad; Alharbi, Abdulrahman; BinDajam, Osama; Al Jarbou, Mohammed; Alharbi, Hatem; Alanazi, Faiz; Aldamiri, Khalid; Althobaiti, Ahmed; Al Sayyari, Abdulla

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and compare the opinions and attitudes of medical students toward medical research in five Saudi universities and examine the changes observed in these opinions and attitudes in one of these universities over a period of time. This is a cross-sectional study conducted among medical students in five Saudi universities. This study was based on a survey undertaken in 2015. The survey consisted of five questions inquiring about the opinions and attitudes of medical students toward medical research. The same survey was carried out 8 years earlier in one of these universities (King Abdulaziz University [KAU]), and the results obtained during the two periods (2007 and 2015) were compared. A convenient sample of 924 students was selected from five Saudi universities. Ninety-five (10.3%) of the medical students were not aware of the usefulness and importance scientific research will have on their future careers. A total of 409 (44.3%) stated that they had no knowledge on how to conduct scientific research. On the other hand, a vast majority of medical students (98.1%) expressed a willingness and interest to participate in scientific research if provided with an opportunity. The percentage of students from KAU strongly agreeing to participate in research rose from 33.1% in 2007 to 81.5% in 2015 (P=0.001). Of all the students surveyed, 431 (46.6%) had participated in scientific research as undergraduates. Most students in five Saudi universities expressed enthusiasm for participating in a research project, but only a few of them had sufficient knowledge on basic research. There was considerable improvement in students' perception of research in KAU when comparing their responses in 2007 to those in 2015.

  16. The ethics of conducting graduate medical education research on residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Jason D; Brunsvold, Melissa E; Hohmann, Elizabeth; Korndorffer, James R; Weinstein, Debra F; Smink, Douglas S

    2013-04-01

    The field of graduate medical education (GME) research is attracting increased attention and broader participation. The authors review the special ethical and methodological considerations pertaining to medical education research. Because residents are at once a convenient and captive study population, a risk of coercion exists, making the provision of consent important. The role of the institutional review board (IRB) is often difficult to discern because GME activities can have multiple simultaneous purposes, educational activities may go forward with or without a research component, and the subjects of educational research studies are not patients. The authors provide a road map for researchers with regard to research oversight by the IRB and also address issues related to research quality. The matters of whether educational research studies should have educational value for the study subject and whether to use individual information obtained when residents participate as research subjects are explored.

  17. Students' and tutors' perceptions of problems in PBL tutorial groups at a Brazilian medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolli, Mauricio B; Boshuizen, Henny P A; De Grave, Willem S

    2002-01-01

    There are few published studies that address the problem of dysfunctional tutorial groups. Most studies are restricted to student or faculty opinions separately and to specific aspects affecting the tutorial group function. This study examined teacher and student perceptions of frequency and importance of problems observed in tutorial groups in a new PBL program. Tutors (n=30) and students in the second (n=75) and third (n=53) year completed a questionnaire at the beginning of the 1999 academic year. The questionnaire had 33 items grouped as seven "factors" related to tutor performance, feedback, assessment, educational resources, student performance, educational problems and external factors The most important problems identified were related to tutors (mainly in training aspects) and students (mainly in problem discussion). Students and feedback (quality) were the most frequent. There were statistically significant differences between tutors' and students' (higher) and between second and third year (higher) students' perceptions of different factors. (1) Marilia Medical School (FAMEMA) has problems in the tutorial group function mainly related to contributions of students and tutors. (2) Students' and tutors' opinions, as well as those of second and third year students, differ and therefore all need to be consulted to solve tutorial group problems. (3) It is necessary to develop a better student training program and also to improve the tutors training program. (4) There is a need for continued evaluation of problem-based learning at FAMEMA. We must look at perceptions of students from all years.

  18. Attitudes of Saudi Arabian Undergraduate Medical Students towards Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Al-Hilali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, perceptions and perceived barriers towards health research among Saudi Arabian undergraduate medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between August and October 2014 and included 520 students from five medical schools across Saudi Arabia. An anonymous online survey with 21 close-ended questions was designed to assess students’ attitudes towards research, contribution to research-related activities, awareness of the importance of research, perception of available resources/opportunities for research, appreciation of medical students’ research contributions and perceived barriers to research. Responses were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: A total of 401 students participated in the study (response rate: 77.1%. Of these, 278 (69.3% were female. A positive attitude towards research was reported by 43.9% of the students. No statistically significant differences were observed between genders with regards to attitudes towards and available resources for research (P = 0.500 and 0.200, respectively. Clinical students had a significantly more positive attitude towards research compared to preclinical students (P = 0.007. Only 26.4% of the respondents believed that they had adequate resources/opportunities for research. According to the students, perceived barriers to undertaking research included time constraints (n = 200; 49.9%, lack of research mentors (n = 95; 23.7%, lack of formal research methodology training (n = 170; 42.4% and difficulties in conducting literature searches (n = 145; 36.2%. Conclusion: Less than half of the surveyed Saudi Arabian medical students had a positive attitude towards health research. Medical education policies should aim to counteract the barriers identified in this study.

  19. [Centralized biobanks: a basis for medical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernemann, Inga; Kersting, Markus; Prokein, Jana; Hummel, Michael; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Biobanks are the basis for a substantial part of biomedical research. The development, establishment and operation of biobanks are connected to a broad range of aspects, mainly concerning the preparation, storage, usage and dissemination of samples and associated data, in addition to the social and public involvement of these processes. These complex requirements can often only be managed in large centralized biobanks. In recent years, centralized clinical biobanks have been established in several university clinics in Germany. Similar activities take place in other European countries and worldwide. This article highlights the requirements and main tasks of centralized clinical biobanks: high-quality pre-analytics and sample storage, the creation of professional IT structures, data protection, ethical issues, in addition to quality and project management.

  20. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual research summary, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, S.H. (ed.)

    1984-08-01

    This research summary contains brief descriptions of research in the following areas: (1) mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis; (2) role of metals in cocarcinogenesis and the use of liposomes for metal mobilization; (3) control of mutagenesis and cell differentiation in cultured cells by tumor promoters; (4) radiation effects in mammalian cells; (5) radiation carcinogenesis and radioprotectors; (6) life shortening, tumor induction, and tissue dose for fission-neutron and gamma-ray irradiations; (7) mammalian genetics and biostatistics; (8) radiation toxicity studies; (9) hematopoiesis in chronic toxicity; (10) molecular biology studies; (11) chemical toxicology; (12) carcinogen identification and metabolism; (13) metal metabolism and toxicity; and (14) neurobehavioral chronobiology. (ACR)

  1. International travel as medical research: architecture and the modern hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Cameron; Willis, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The design and development of the modern hospital in Australia had a profound impact on medical practice and research at a variety of levels. Between the late 1920s and the 1950s hospital architects, administrators, and politicians travelled widely in order to review the latest international developments in the hospital field They were motivated by Australia's geographic isolation and a growing concern with how to govern the population at the level of physical health. While not 'medical research' in the conventional sense of the term, this travel was a powerful generator of medical thinking in Australia and has left a rich archival legacy. This paper draws on that archive to demonstrate the ways in which architectural research and international networks of hospital specialists profoundly shaped the provision of medical infrastructure in Australia.

  2. Research priorities in medical education: A national study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tootoonchi, Mina; Yamani, Nikoo; Changiz, Tahereh; Yousefy, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One preliminary step to strengthen medical education research would be determining the research priorities. The aim of this study was to determine the research priorities of medical education in Iran in 2007-2008. METHODS: This descriptive study was carried out in two phases. Phase one was performed in 3 stages and used Delphi technique among academic staffs of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The three stages included a brainstorming workshop for 140 faculty members and educational experts resulting in a list of research priorities, then, in the second and third stages 99 and 76 questionnaires were distributed among faculty members. In the second phase, the final questionnaires were mailed to educational research center managers of universities type I, II and III, and were distributed among 311 academic members and educational experts to rate the items on a numerical scale ranging from 1 to 10. RESULTS: The most important research priorities included faculty members’ development methods, faculty members’ motives, satisfaction and welfare, criteria and procedures of faculty members’ promotion, teaching methods and learning techniques, job descriptions and professional skills of graduates, quality management in education, second language, clinical education, science production in medicine, faculty evaluation and information technology. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the medial education research priorities in national level and in different types of medical universities in Iran. It is recommended that faculty members and research administrators consider the needs and requirements of education and plan the researches in education according to these priorities. PMID:23248661

  3. Why we need community engagement in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Jessica K; Ellis, Lauren; Merritt, Maria W

    2014-08-01

    The medical research enterprise depends on public recognition of its societal value. In light of evidence indicating public mistrust, especially among minorities, inadequate enrollment as well as diversity of research participants, and poor uptake of findings, medical research seems to fall short of sufficient public regard. Community engagement in medical research, with special attention to minority communities, may help to remedy this shortfall by demonstrating respect for the communities in practical ways. We provided 3 case examples that illustrate how specific approaches to community-engaged research can build trust between researchers and communities, encourage participation among underrepresented groups, and enhance the relevance as well as the uptake of research findings. A common attribute of the specific approaches discussed here is that they enable the researchers to demonstrate respect by recognizing community values and interests. The demonstration of respect for the communities has intrinsic ethical importance. The 2 potential outgrowths of demonstrating respect specifically through community engagement are (1) the production of research that is more relevant to the community and (2) the mitigation of asymmetry in the researcher-community relationship. We summarized practical resources available to researchers who seek to incorporate community engagement in their research.

  4. Changing opinions about research by Saudi medical students

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    Abulaban A

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad Abulaban, Abdulrahman Alharbi, Osama BinDajam, Mohammed Al Jarbou, Hatem Alharbi, Faiz Alanazi, Khalid Aldamiri, Ahmed Althobaiti, Abdulla Al Sayyari Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate and compare the opinions and attitudes of medical students toward medical research in five Saudi universities and examine the changes observed in these opinions and attitudes in one of these universities over a period of time.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted among medical students in five Saudi universities. This study was based on a survey undertaken in 2015. The survey consisted of five questions inquiring about the opinions and attitudes of medical students toward medical research. The same survey was carried out 8 years earlier in one of these universities (King Abdulaziz University [KAU], and the results obtained during the two periods (2007 and 2015 were compared.Results: A convenient sample of 924 students was selected from five Saudi universities. Ninety-five (10.3% of the medical students were not aware of the usefulness and importance scientific research will have on their future careers. A total of 409 (44.3% stated that they had no knowledge on how to conduct scientific research. On the other hand, a vast majority of medical students (98.1% expressed a willingness and interest to participate in scientific research if provided with an opportunity. The percentage of students from KAU strongly agreeing to participate in research rose from 33.1% in 2007 to 81.5% in 2015 (P=0.001. Of all the students surveyed, 431 (46.6% had participated in scientific research as undergraduates.Conclusion: Most students in five Saudi universities expressed enthusiasm for participating in a research project, but only a few of them had

  5. Research status and development of medical science in cold regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-hai SUN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To propose the concept, objects of study,tasks and roles of military medical sciences in cold regions(CM, and provide a theoretical basis and academic reference for its establishment anddevelopment. Methods  Literature concerning medical sciences in cold regions were retrieved with infomatics method to analyze the research status and development of medical sciences in cold regions in the military,domestic and abroad, and venture to propose the strategy and direction of development of medical sciences in cold regions. Results CM is a comprehensive medical science composing of multiple speciaties.A large area of Chinese territory is situated in frigid area, where the garrison servicemen have to take up onerous duties, so that the establishment anddevelopment of CM should be considered as a special subject and an important specialty in military medical support. Conclusion Research work on CM in PLA is in preliminary stage.For developing CM in the future,it is suggested to integrate medical resources of CM, with the aim of gathering and rectifying interrelated medical resources,improving related medical equipment,in order to establish abasic and clinical research platform for improving the health level of garrison forces both at peacetime and during military conflicts, and also in prevention of organic and psychological diseases.Therefore,it is important to emphasize the establishment of such specialty, with an effort to accelerate team construction of science and technology of medicine of cold regions, with an increase in funding for research andimprovement in improve the scientific innovation, with a purpose of safeguarding andimproving the combat effectiveness of troops in cold regions.

  6. The role of social networking sites in medical genetics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Allison Cook; Bianchi, Diana W

    2013-05-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) have potential value in the field of medical genetics as a means of research subject recruitment and source of data. This article examines the current role of SNS in medical genetics research and potential applications for these sites in future studies. Facebook is the primary SNS considered, given the prevalence of its use in the United States and role in a small but growing number of studies. To date, utilization of SNS in medical genetics research has been primarily limited to three studies that recruited subjects from populations of Facebook users [McGuire et al. (2009); Am J Bioeth 9: 3-10; Janvier et al. (2012); Pediatrics 130: 293-298; Leighton et al. (2012); Public Health Genomics 15: 11-21]. These studies and a number of other medical and public health studies that have used Facebook as a context for recruiting research subjects are discussed. Approaches for Facebook-based subject recruitment are identified, including paid Facebook advertising, snowball sampling, targeted searching and posting. The use of these methods in medical genetics research has the potential to facilitate cost-effective research on both large, heterogeneous populations and small, hard-to-access sub-populations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Deployment of a Testbed in a Brazilian Research Network using IPv6 and Optical Access Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luciano; Ferramola Pozzuto, João; Olimpio Tognolli, João; Chaves, Niudomar Siqueira De A.; Reggiani, Atilio Eduardo; Hortêncio, Claudio Antonio

    2012-04-01

    This article presents the implementation of a testbed and the experimental results obtained with it on the Brazilian Experimental Network of the government-sponsored "GIGA Project." The use of IPv6 integrated to current and emerging optical architectures and technologies, such as dense wavelength division multiplexing and 10-gigabit Ethernet on the core and gigabit capable passive optical network and optical distribution network on access, were tested. These protocols, architectures, and optical technologies are promising and part of a brand new worldwide technological scenario that has being fairly adopted in the networks of enterprises and providers of the world.

  8. What do medical graduates think of their earlier research projects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asefzadeh S

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research project is an educational means to increase the students’ creativity and motivates them to take on solving medical and health problems. Purpose: To assess the attitudes of Qazvin’s medical practitioners toward their earlier research projects. Methods: The views of 202 physicians (residents, general practitioners, specialists and sub-specialists who were practicing in Qazvin province and had been graduated between 1986 and 2001 were collected with a selfadministered structured questionnaire. Results: Most research projects did not received any facilities from their universities. Only 2.5% had received financial support. Of 202 physicians, 60.9% received no supervision in choosing their research projects topics. Most research projects had little or no impact on the scientific and practical skills, future careers and their postgraduate residency program. However, most physicians stated that research project is necessary for medical students and pointed out the need for more education on research methodologic fundamentals. Of all respondents, 73% believed that they had little or no knowledge about research methodologies. Conclusion: Overall, our findings indicate that the research projects do not meet the standards of sound research work. Keywords: THESIS, RESEARCH PROJECTS, VIEWS

  9. [Significance of COI disclosure in medical research in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Saburo

    2011-11-01

    In medical research, remarkable increase in collaboration with industry, public organizations such as universities, research institutions, and academic societies makes researchers to be more deeply involved with the activities of commercial entities. Activities of education and research, which are the responsibilities of academic institutions and societies, conflict with the interests of individuals associated with industrial-academic collaboration. Management of such conflict of interest (COI) is of much importance for academic institutions and societies to appropriately promote industrial-academic collaborative activities. Particularly, participation not only by healthy individuals, but also patients, is essential in the medical field as subjects of clinical research. For those involved in medical research, the deeper the level of COI with commercial entities, who are the financial or benefit provider, becomes serious, the more human rights of subjects could be violated, safety of life could be endangered, and research methods, data analysis and interpretation of results could be distorted. It is also possible that research may be unfairly evaluated or not published, even if the results are accurate, sometimes resulting in the ascertained effects of reporting bias included the overestimation of efficacy and the underestimation of safety risks of interventions. According to the COI management guideline of the Japanese Association of Medical Science (JAMS), significance of COI management is discussed.

  10. Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · Journals · Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice · About · Log In · Register · Advanced Search · By Author · By Title. Issues. Current Issue · Archives · Open Journal Systems · Help. ISSN: 2276-6839. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  11. EVOLUTION OF MEDICAL RESEARCH REGISTRY IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY: MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathy U. Thandapani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The International Committee of Medical Journal Editor (ICJMJE members require all clinical trials to register as a condition for publication. This policy applies to clinical trial starting enrolment after July 1, 2005. The National Medical Research Register (NMRR was designed to meet this requirement yet extending it to include all types of medical research beyond clinical trials. Characteristics and flow of registered medical research as reported in the NMRR system is analysed; in terms of time trend time and differences in characteristics as a function of clinical specialty. A dataset comprising all research registered from year 2007 until 2012 in NMRR was downloaded on 26 Dec, 2012, and entered into a relational database to analyze aggregate data. The number of registered researches in NMRR system increased from 206 (September 2007 to 5107 (September 2007-Dec 2012, and the number of missing values in the data elements has generally declined. Most researches registered are those from student (57%; 2888/5107 and the rest from Ministry of Health (MOH site researches (43%; 2219/5107. Most of the Interventional trials were phase III (56 % and very small number of phase I. Heterogeneity in the reported methods by clinical specialty, sponsor type, therapeutic area, disease area, and research type was evident.

  12. Quarterly report of Biological and Medical Research Division, April 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brues, A.M.

    1955-04-01

    This report is a compilation of 48 investigator prepared summaries of recent progress in individual research programs of the Biology and Medical Division of the Argonne National Laboratory for the quarterly period ending April,1955. Individual reports are about 3-6 pages in length and often contain research data.

  13. Amani Medical Research Centre comes of age: Achievements in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amani Medical Research Centre comes of age: Achievements in the last 50 years. M M Lemnge, Y G Matola, A Y Kitua. Abstract. (Tanzania Health Research Bulletin, 2001, Supplement 2(2): 35-38). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. Medical and biomedical research productivity from Palestine, 2002 – 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical research productivity reflects the level of medical education and practice in a particular country. The objective of this study was to examine the quantity and quality of medical and biomedical research published from Palestine. Findings Comprehensive review of the literature indexed by Scopus was conducted. Data from Jan 01, 2002 till December 31, 2011 was searched for authors affiliated with Palestine or Palestinian authority. Results were refined to limit the search to medical and biomedical subjects. The quality of publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report. The total number of publications was 2207. A total of 770 publications were in the medical and biomedical subject areas. The annual rate of publication was 0.077 articles per gross domestic product/capita. The 770 publications have an h-index of 32. One hundred and thirty eight (18%) articles were published in 46 journals that were not indexed in the web of knowledge. Twenty two (22/770; 2.9%) articles were published in journals with an IF > 10. Conclusions The quantity and quality of research originating from Palestinian institutions is promising given the scarce resources of Palestine. However, more effort is needed to bridge the gap in medical research productivity and to promote better health in Palestine. PMID:23375070

  15. Medical and biomedical research productivity from Palestine, 2002 - 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Sawalha, Ansam F; Abu-Taha, Adham; Hussein, Ayman; Al-Jabi, Samah W

    2013-02-02

    Medical research productivity reflects the level of medical education and practice in a particular country. The objective of this study was to examine the quantity and quality of medical and biomedical research published from Palestine. Comprehensive review of the literature indexed by Scopus was conducted. Data from Jan 01, 2002 till December 31, 2011 was searched for authors affiliated with Palestine or Palestinian authority. Results were refined to limit the search to medical and biomedical subjects. The quality of publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report. The total number of publications was 2207. A total of 770 publications were in the medical and biomedical subject areas. The annual rate of publication was 0.077 articles per gross domestic product/capita. The 770 publications have an h-index of 32. One hundred and thirty eight (18%) articles were published in 46 journals that were not indexed in the web of knowledge. Twenty two (22/770; 2.9%) articles were published in journals with an IF > 10. The quantity and quality of research originating from Palestinian institutions is promising given the scarce resources of Palestine. However, more effort is needed to bridge the gap in medical research productivity and to promote better health in Palestine.

  16. Brief guidelines for methods and statistics in medical research

    CERN Document Server

    Ab Rahman, Jamalludin

    2015-01-01

    This book serves as a practical guide to methods and statistics in medical research. It includes step-by-step instructions on using SPSS software for statistical analysis, as well as relevant examples to help those readers who are new to research in health and medical fields. Simple texts and diagrams are provided to help explain the concepts covered, and print screens for the statistical steps and the SPSS outputs are provided, together with interpretations and examples of how to report on findings. Brief Guidelines for Methods and Statistics in Medical Research offers a valuable quick reference guide for healthcare students and practitioners conducting research in health related fields, written in an accessible style.

  17. Ethics and the ethnography of medical research in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Sassy; Geissler, P. Wenzel

    2008-01-01

    The ethics of medical research have grown as an area of expertise and debate in recent years, with two broad approaches emerging in relation to transnational research: (1) the refinement of guidelines and strengthening of review, processes primarily to protect the right of individual research participants and strengthen interpersonal relations at the micro-level; and (2) considering more centrally, as crucial ethical concerns, the wider interests of whole populations, the functioning of research institutions, the processes of collaboration, and the ethics of inequitable international relations. We see the two areas of debate and action as complementary, and believe that social science conducted in and around transnational medical research environments can bring these two perspectives together in a more ‘situated ethics’ of research. To explore this idea for medical research in Africa, we organized a conference in December 2005 in Kilifi, Kenya. In this introduction we outline the two emerging approaches to medical ethics, summarise each of seven papers selected from the conference for inclusion in this special issue on ethics and ethnography, and finally highlight two areas of lively debate at the conference itself: the appropriateness and value of ethics guidelines and review boards for medical research; and the ethical review of social science research. Together, the papers and debates point to the importance of focusing on the ethics of relationships and on justice in both biomedicine and social science research, and on giving greater voice and visibility to the field staff who often play a crucial and under-supported role in ‘doing ethics’ in the field. They also point to the potential value of social science research on the range of relationships operating at different levels and time scales in medical research, including those surrounding community engagement activities, and the role and functioning of ethics review boards. We conclude by highlighting

  18. Surveillance, health promotion and control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region--Medical attention in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela C V

    2015-11-01

    We refer to Oswaldo Cruz's reports dating from 1913 about the necessities of a healthcare system for the Brazilian Amazon Region and about the journey of Carlos Chagas to 27 locations in this region and the measures that would need to be adopted. We discuss the risks of endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region. We recommend that epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region and Pan-Amazon region should be implemented through continuous monitoring of the human population that lives in the area, their housing, the environment and the presence of triatomines. The monitoring should be performed with periodic seroepidemiological surveys, semi-annual visits to homes by health agents and the training of malaria microscopists and healthcare technicians to identify Trypanosoma cruzi from patients' samples and T. cruzi infection rates among the triatomines caught. We recommend health promotion and control of Chagas disease through public health policies, especially through sanitary education regarding the risk factors for Chagas disease. Finally, we propose a healthcare system through base hospitals, intermediate-level units in the areas of the Brazilian Amazon Region and air transportation, considering the distances to be covered for medical care.

  19. Review article: medical education research: an overview of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boet, Sylvain; Sharma, Saroo; Goldman, Joanne; Reeves, Scott

    2012-02-01

    This article provides clinician-teachers with an overview of the process necessary to move from an initial idea to the conceptualization and implementation of an empirical study in the field of medical education. This article will allow clinician-teachers to become familiar with educational research methodology in order to a) critically appraise education research studies and apply evidence-based education more effectively to their practice and b) initiate or collaborate in medical education research. This review uses relevant articles published in the fields of medicine, education, psychology, and sociology before October 2011. The focus of the majority of research in medical education has been on reporting outcomes related to participants. There has been less assessment of patient care outcomes, resulting in informing evidence-based education to only a limited extent. This article explains the process necessary to develop a focused and relevant education research question and emphasizes the importance of theory in medical education research. It describes a range of methodologies, including quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods, and concludes with a discussion of dissemination of research findings. A majority of studies currently use quantitative methods. This article highlights how further use of qualitative methods can provide insight into the nuances and complexities of learning and teaching processes. Research in medical education requires several successive steps, from formulating the correct research question to deciding the method for dissemination. Each approach has advantages and disadvantages and should be chosen according to the question being asked and the specific goal of the study. Well-conducted education research should allow progression towards the important goal of using evidence-based education in our teaching and institutions.

  20. The psychophysiology of medical communication. Linking two worlds of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsman, Robert L; Smets, Ellen M A; Karemaker, John M; de Haes, Hanneke J C J M

    2011-09-01

    Medical communication is goal oriented behavior. As such, it can be modeled as a chain of decisions, resulting from cognitive and emotional processes each potentially associated with psychophysiological reactions. Psychophysiological may be helpful to detect small changes in affect or arousal in the course of a consultation that would be difficult to detect by other evaluations of the process, like self-reports. The question is how psychophysiological communication research should be modeled for unraveling in more detail the cognitive, emotional and interpersonal processes which underlie physician and patient behavior. In the world of medical communication research the six-function model of medical communication reveals a number of fundamental perceptual, cognitive and emotional processes which may evoke psychophysiological responses. The world of psychophysiological research encompasses domains of perception, mental imagery, anticipation and action which all have close connections with fundamental tasks in communication. This paper discusses ten methodological issues in linking continuous psychophysiological data to verbal and nonverbal events in a medical consultation observed with the Verona coding system. When linking the two worlds of research, the methodological challenges discussed need to be solved to obtain a valid and reliable application of psychophysiological measures in medical communication research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Continuing evolution of statistical tests in medical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, Angelo; Volpe, Andrea; Sacco, Emilio; Pinto, Francesco; Palma, Monica; Bassi, Pierfrancesco

    2010-01-01

    The role of statistics in medical research starts at the planning stage of a clinical trial or laboratory experiment to establish the design and size of an experiment that will ensure a good prospect of detecting effects of clinical or scientific interest. Statistics is again used during data analysis (sample data) to make inferences valid in a wider population. In simple situations, computation of simple quantities such as P-values, confidence intervals, standard deviations, standard errors or application of some standard parametric or nonparametric tests may suffice. Moreover, despite the wide use of statistics in medical research, simple notions are sometimes misunderstood or misinterpreted by medical research workers, who have only a limited knowledge of statistics. This article, written for non-statisticians, is to explain what are the most common statistical tests used today in the field of medical research, tracing the evolution of statistical tests over time, in particular the introduction of nonparametric methods and, more recently, the NonParametric Combination (NPC) methodology. At the same time, this work seeks to identify some of the errors associated with their use, that often lead to an incorrect assessment and interpretation of results of medical research.

  2. Grounded theory in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher J; Lingard, Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research in general and the grounded theory approach in particular, have become increasingly prominent in medical education research in recent years. In this Guide, we first provide a historical perspective on the origin and evolution of grounded theory. We then outline the principles underlying the grounded theory approach and the procedures for doing a grounded theory study, illustrating these elements with real examples. Next, we address key critiques of grounded theory, which continue to shape how the method is perceived and used. Finally, pitfalls and controversies in grounded theory research are examined to provide a balanced view of both the potential and the challenges of this approach. This Guide aims to assist researchers new to grounded theory to approach their studies in a disciplined and rigorous fashion, to challenge experienced researchers to reflect on their assumptions, and to arm readers of medical education research with an approach to critically appraising the quality of grounded theory studies.

  3. BRAZILIAN SIGN LANGUAGE AS AN ACADEMIC COURSE: WHAT HAS ACADEMIC RESEARCH STATED ABOUT ITS INSERTION IN HIGHER EDUCATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Klein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes how the insertion of Brazilian Sign Language as a course in Higher Education has been a focus of research since the Federal Act nr. 5.626/2005. A search on different research web sites, like Scielo and Google, has led us to dissertations and theses, as well as papers published in books, journals or annals of events. Such productions analyze: the law as a policy requiring the insertion of that course in Higher Education; curricula, considering the teaching program of the courses; the implications of the course in the education of teachers to work in the inclusion of deaf students; the course didactic materials. Discourses about Libras as an academic course have increased and produced meanings about the deaf, their language and education, as well as effects on the course program.

  4. Research status and development tendency of medical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-yi ZHANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study aims to review the research status and development tendency of military medical psychology in China and abroad and proposes the development of medical psychology research in the Chinese military.Methods A literature search method was adopted to find and review major literature on military medical psychology,from basic studies,discipline construction,professional teaching,to the service force in the last 10 years.Results The last 10 years witnessed much development in the medical psychological branches,such as physiological psychology,mental measurement,psychological counseling,and treatment.With these developments,military medical psychology achieved much with regard to the reserve of talented men,the mental measurement for officers and soldiers,mental intervention for military stress,and psychological rehabilitation after stress.Conclusion Thus,future studies on military medical psychology should focus on intensifying the training of medical psychology experts to promote the study on the etiology of military mental diseases and on the prevention and treatment of mental disorders caused by wars.

  5. The establishment of ethical committees for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlum, Emil; Ruyter, Knut W

    2012-06-26

    In this article we will describe the process that preceded the establishment of regional committees for medical research ethics in 1985. We will also take a look at the difficult initial period experienced by the committees in the eastern and southern regions. We have examined the material that has been submitted to the National Archives by the Research Council of Norway, the Ministry of Social Affairs and the Ministry of Education and Research, as well as the records of the Regional Committees for Medical and Health Research Ethics South-East. From the early 1970s the Norwegian Medical Association played a key role, for example by launching the proposal for "nationally dispersed committees" in 1977. There was widespread consensus that such committees were desirable, but everybody assumed that they would be funded by somebody else. As a result, the simplest model was chosen. The full set of regional committees was not established until 1987, and even more time passed before they were granted the funding that could ensure appropriate processing of cases. This was only achieved after the adoption of the Research Ethics Act in 2006. Unsolved financial issues were the key reason why this process was so prolonged. The organisational model proposed by the Norwegian Medical Association in 1977 is fairly similar to the one that the Health Research Act brought into place in 2009.

  6. Medical informatic research management in academia - the Danish setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjær Andersen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    The condition that the Danish universities have been subject to severe changes through the last decade has had huge consequences for management of research at the level of a discipline as Medical Informatics. The presentation pinpoints some of the instruments, which is on top of the management agenda in the new academic reality in Denmark. Performance contracts, organizational structure, general management, research constraints, ranking and performance issues, economy linked to production, ownership, and incitements are issues affecting the way research are done. The issue of effective research management is to navigate in this reality, ensure inspiration and influx from other environments dealing with medical informatics problems, in theory as well as in praxis - and shield the individual researcher from emerging bureaucracy, leaving room for creativity.

  7. Emerging concepts in high-impact publishing: insights from the First Brazilian Colloquium on High Impact Research and Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Matarese

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Reports of scientific research are published by selective journals only when they meet stringent criteria, first and foremost of which are the quality and importance of the research. Even when the research is excellent, other elements come into play to determine if the manuscript will be accepted for publication. Many of these factors are under direct control of the researcher-author, but not all authors are aware of the elements of high-impact scientific writing. At the First Brazilian Colloquium on High Impact Research and Publishing, editors of leading biomedical journals provided insight on the aspects of scientific reporting that favor acceptance (or immediate rejection. This commentary summarizes the editors' advice and uses the debate that followed as the basis for analyzing emerging concepts in high-impact publishing. Lessons learned from this meeting are relevant to researcher-authors in other non-anglophone countries as well as to their educators and administrators who wish to improve the impact of the research that they support and finance.

  8. Medical practice employee selection: application of recent research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Robert J

    2003-01-01

    Findings based on recent research are presented to support the universal use of tests measuring general mental ability (GMA) and the Big Five personality factor of conscientiousness to evaluate applicants for all medical practice and health care system clerical, nursing, and office management positions. Widely validated measures of both of these factors are identified. These findings simplify the process of identifying employment methods for jobs in medical practices. This research also suggests that for some jobs, Work Samples, Structured Interviews, or other Big Five personality factors may add some incremental validity to the GMA + Conscientiousness combination. This should be determined based on job analysis.

  9. A survey on financial support and research achievement of medical education research units in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shi-Hao; Ren, Wei-Min; Qu, Li; Wang, Yue; Carline, Jan D; Fang, Guo-En

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the current situation of financial support and research achievement of medical education research units in China. A total of 46 individuals in 46 medical schools completed a questionnaire including information about affiliation of the unit, financial support, published articles and achievement awards of the units. Of the 46 schools, 24 had independent medical education research units, 36 had financial support, and 30 had research funding. The mean number of published articles was 2.53 per staff. The mean number of achievement awards was 3.80 per unit. There was a significant difference in funding and published articles between independent medical education research units and other types of units; and in published articles and achievement awards between the units with funding and without funding. The financial support from the school was the main source of medical education research units in China. More attention should be paid to the development of medical education research units, to their ability to produce high quality research and support the improvement of medical care in China.

  10. A social-ecological database to advance research on infrastructure development impacts in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M.; Valle, Denis; Moretto, Evandro Mateus; Pulice, Sergio Mantovani Paiva; Zuca, Nadia Lucia; Roquetti, Daniel Rondinelli; Beduschi, Liviam Elizabeth Cordeiro; Praia, Amanda Salles; Okamoto, Claudia Parucce Franco; da Silva Carvalhaes, Vinicius Leite; Branco, Evandro Albiach; Barbezani, Bruna; Labandera, Emily; Timpe, Kelsie; Kaplan, David

    2016-08-01

    Recognized as one of the world’s most vital natural and cultural resources, the Amazon faces a wide variety of threats from natural resource and infrastructure development. Within this context, rigorous scientific study of the region’s complex social-ecological system is critical to inform and direct decision-making toward more sustainable environmental and social outcomes. Given the Amazon’s tightly linked social and ecological components and the scope of potential development impacts, effective study of this system requires an easily accessible resource that provides a broad and reliable data baseline. This paper brings together multiple datasets from diverse disciplines (including human health, socio-economics, environment, hydrology, and energy) to provide investigators with a variety of baseline data to explore the multiple long-term effects of infrastructure development in the Brazilian Amazon.

  11. Educating medical students: lessons from research in continuing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, K V

    1994-01-01

    Creating a true continuum of medical education from admission to medical school throughout a lifetime of professional learning is easier said than done. To do so, the various components on the continuum must be explored to determine where appropriate links might be made. The author considers selected concepts and evidence from the theory and practice underlying continuing medical education (CME) and continuing professional education (CPE) insofar as CME and CPE can inform undergraduate medical curricula, including its current innovations. Five conceptual and empirical approaches from CME and CPE are discussed in detail: social learning theory, how physicians learn and change, competence in business and the professions, how professionals learn in practice, and lifelong self-directed learning. Then the author describes the implications of these approaches for the ongoing development of undergraduate medical education. (1) The entire learning environment, and not merely discrete aspects such as curriculum content, must be examined and fully utilized to benefit learning. (2) The importance of the contexts in which learning occurs must be emphasized in several ways. (3) Learning should be centered around clinical problems. (4) The many benefits of small-group learning and other ways of learning from colleagues should be emphasized. (5) The undergraduate curriculum should emphasize the development of students' feelings of self-efficacy to ensure that students become physicians who are confident about their abilities. (6) CME research and CPE research reinforce the efforts in undergraduate medical education to emphasize the early development of students' process skills as well as content mastery.

  12. Design and level of evidence of studies published in two Brazilian medical journals recently indexed in the ISI Web of Science database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torloni, Maria Regina; Riera, Rachel

    2010-07-01

    The level of evidence and methodological quality of articles published in medical journals are important aids for clinicians in decision-making and also affect journals' impact factor. Although systematic reviews (SR) are considered to represent the highest level of evidence, their methodological quality is not homogeneous and they need to be as carefully assessed as other types of study. This study aimed to assess the design and level of evidence of articles published in 2007, in two recently indexed Brazilian journals (Clinics and Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira), and to evaluate the methodological quality of the SRs. Descriptive study developed in the Brazilian Cochrane Center, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. All 289 published articles were classified according to types of study design and level of evidence. The SRs were critically appraised by two evaluators using the AMSTAR tool. The most frequent design types were cross-sectional studies (39.9%), case reports (15.8%), experimental studies (10.8%) and narrative reviews (7.4%). According to the Oxford criteria, 25.6% of the articles were classified as level 4 or 5 evidence, while 2.8% were level 1. SRs represented only 2% of the published articles and their methodological quality scores were low. The main design types among the published papers were observational and experimental studies and narrative reviews. SRs accounted for a small proportion of the articles and had low methodological scores. Brazilian medical journals need to encourage publication of greater numbers of clinically relevant papers of high methodological quality.

  13. Clinical research ethics in Irish healthcare: diversity, dynamism and medicalization.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Condell, Sarah L

    2012-11-01

    Gaining ethical clearance to conduct a study is an important aspect of all research involving humans but can be time-consuming and daunting for novice researchers. This article stems from a larger ethnographic study that examined research capacity building in Irish nursing and midwifery. Data were collected over a 28-month time frame from a purposive sample of 16 nurse or midwife research fellows who were funded to undertake full-time PhDs. Gaining ethical clearance for their studies was reported as an early \\'rite of passage\\' in the category of \\'labouring the doctorate\\'. This article penetrates the complexities in Irish clinical research ethics by describing the practices these nurse and midwife researchers encountered and the experiences they had. The key issue of representation that occurred in the context of \\'medicalized\\' research ethics is further explored including its meaning for nursing or midwifery research.

  14. Self-directed learning and research attitudes among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Waqas; Haroon, Mustafa; Munir, Ahmed; Hyder, Omar

    2014-03-01

    To describe the correlation between Self-directed Learning (SDL) and medical students' attitude towards research, based on the premise that self-directed learners are independent, motivated, and curious learners. Observational cross-sectional study. Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi, from August 2011 to January 2012. One hundred and ninety-four students of final (5th) year class at Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi participated in this cross-sectional study. SDL ability of students was measured using Oddi's Continuing Learning Inventory (OCLI) whereas Attitude Towards Research (ATR) scale was used to measure their research attitudes. Spearman's rank-order analysis was performed to measure correlation between SDL scores on OCLI and all the 18 items on ATR scale. Statistically significant relationships with correlation coefficients ranging from +0.12 to +0.32 were found for the correlation between scores on the OCLI and eleven statements highlighting research use and positive attributes of research (14 items). Those students who participated in extra-curricular research projects (n=58, 29.9%) had relatively higher scores on OCLI as compared to those who did not participate (n=136, 70.1%, p=0.041). Self-directed learners show a positive attitude towards research, though the relationship is not strong.

  15. [Conflict of interest in medical practice and research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Ilhak

    2012-09-25

    In recent years, medical professionals are in charge with multiple roles. They have to work as an educator, researcher, and administrator, as well as medical practitioner. In addition, they experience a conflict between the primary responsibilities that each role requires of them. A conflict of interest (COI) is a set of circumstances that creates a risk that professional judgment or actions regarding a primary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest. It occurs when an individual or organization is involved in multiple interests, one of which could possibly corrupt the motivation for an act in the other. The COI should be managed appropriately to preserve the value of public trust, scientific objectivity, and the benefit and safety of patients. Primary interest of medical professionals refers to the principal goals of the medical profession, such as the health and safety of patients, and the integrity of research. Secondary interest includes not only financial gain but also such motives as the desire for professional advancement and the wish to do favors for family and friends, but COI rules usually focus on financial relationships because they are relatively more objective, fungible, and quantifiable. This article will briefly review the COI in medical practice and research, discuss about what is COI, why we should manage it, and how we can manage it.

  16. Medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics education perspectives in South East Europe in graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijaljica, Goran

    2014-03-01

    Ethics has an established place within the medical curriculum. However notable differences exist in the programme characteristics of different schools of medicine. This paper addresses the main differences in the curricula of medical schools in South East Europe regarding education in medical ethics and bioethics, with a special emphasis on research ethics, and proposes a model curriculum which incorporates significant topics in all three fields. Teaching curricula of Medical Schools in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro were acquired and a total of 14 were analyzed. Teaching hours for medical ethics and/or bioethics and year of study in which the course is taught were also analyzed. The average number of teaching hours in medical ethics and bioethics is 27.1 h per year. The highest national average number of teaching hours was in Croatia (47.5 h per year), and the lowest was in Serbia (14.8). In the countries of the European Union the mean number of hours given to ethics teaching throughout the complete curriculum was 44. In South East Europe, the maximum number of teaching hours is 60, while the minimum number is 10 teaching hours. Research ethics topics also show a considerable variance within the regional medical schools. Approaches to teaching research ethics vary, even within the same country. The proposed model for education in this area is based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Bioethics Core Curriculum. The model curriculum consists of topics in medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics, as a single course, over 30 teaching hours.

  17. [The relevance of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) for medical publishing and research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Humberto B

    2014-01-01

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors is a leading independent institution providing guidance for the report of biomedical research and health related topics in medical journals. Established in 1978, it is currently constituted by editors of fourteen general medical journals from different countries, plus one representative for the US National Library of Medicine and one representative for the World Association of Biomedical Journal Editors. Since 1978 the Committee provides a document, originally named "Uniform Requirements…", "to help authors, editors, and others involved in peer review and biomedical publishing create and distribute accurate, clear, unbiased medical journal articles". This document has been updated several times and the last version was released in August 2013, now renamed "Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals", available in www.icmje.org and citable as "ICMJE Recommendations". A vast proportion of medical journals, worldwide, have adopted these recommendations as rules. The ICMJE discusses and provides guidance on several relevant aspects including criteria on authorship, peer review, scientific misconduct, conflicts of interest, clinical trials registration, good editorial practices, the relations between editors and journal owners, the protection of individuals subject to medical research, the solvency of electronic publications, among others. The 2013 ICMJE Annual Meeting took place in Santiago, Chile, in November 4 and 5. The photograph shows attendants to the final session.

  18. Human toxocariasis: contribution by Brazilian researchers Toxocaríase humana: contribuição dos pesquisadores brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Chieffi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the main aspects of the natural history of human infection by Toxocara larvae that occasionally result in the occurrence of visceral and/or ocular larva migrans syndrome were reviewed. The contribution by Brazilian researchers was emphasized, especially the staff of the Tropical Medicine Institute of São Paulo (IMT.São abordados os principais aspectos da história natural da infecção humana por larvas de Toxocara que pode resultar na ocorrência da síndrome de larva migrans visceral e/ou ocular. Deu-se destaque, principalmente, à contribuição de pesquisadores brasileiros e, em especial, aos pertencentes ao quadro do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo.

  19. [Organisation of scientific and research work of Navy medical service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, V V; Myznikov, I L; Kuz'minov, O V; Shmelev, S V; Oparin, M Iu

    2013-03-01

    The main issues of organization of scientific and research work of medical service in the North Fleet are considered in the present article. Analysis of some paragraphs of documents, regulating this work at army level is given. The authors give an example of successful experience of such work in the North Fleet, table some suggestions which allow to improve the administration of scientific and research work in the navy and also on the district scale.

  20. Association between family history of mood disorders and clinical characteristics of bipolar disorder: results from the Brazilian bipolar research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berutti, Mariangeles; Nery, Fabiano G; Sato, Rodrigo; Scippa, Angela; Kapczinski, Flavio; Lafer, Beny

    2014-06-01

    To compare clinical characteristics of bipolar disorder (BD) in patients with and without a family history of mood disorders (FHMD) in a large sample from the Brazilian Research Network of Bipolar Disorders. Four-hundred eighty-eight DSM-IV BD patients participating in the Brazilian Research Network of Bipolar Disorders were included. Participants were divided between those with FHMD (n=230) and without FHMD (n=258). We compared these two groups on demographic and clinical variables and performed a logistic regression to identify which variables were most strongly associated with positive family history of mood disorders. BD patients with FHMD presented with significantly higher lifetime prevalence of any anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, substance abuse, and were more likely to present history of suicide attempts, family history of suicide attempts and suicide, and more psychiatric hospitalizations than BD patients without FHMD. Logistic regression showed that the variables most strongly associated with a positive FHMD were any comorbid anxiety disorder, comorbid substance abuse, and family history of suicide. Cross-sectional study and verification of FHMD by indirect information. BD patients with FHMD differ from BD patients without FHMD in rates of comorbid anxiety disorder and substance abuse, number of hospitalizations and suicide attempts. As FHMD is routinely assessed in clinical practice, these findings may help to identify patients at risk for particular manifestations of BD and may point to a common, genetically determined neurobiological substrate that increases the risk of conditions such as comorbidities and suicidality in BD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Brazilian Payment for Performance (PMAQ) Seen From a Global Health and Public Policy Perspective: What Does It Mean for Research and Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddi, Fabiana C; Peckham, Stephen

    This supplement of the Journal of Ambulatory Care Management on the Brazilian National Program for Improving Access and Quality of Primary Care (PMAQ) reveals a relevant gap in the Brazilian literature on pay for performance/PMAQ, and is therefore an opportunity to bring contributions from global health and public policy to the debate. We discuss the relevant gap in the light of developments in evaluation and policy analysis. We afterward present the state of knowledge regarding global health and public policy in pay for performance, giving attention to diverse themes, methods, types of analyses, theoretical contributions, and limitations. Finally, we suggest some possible implications for research and policy in Brazil.

  2. Medical Settings as a Context for Research on Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Karen; Brown, Deirdre A.

    2013-01-01

    Medical contexts provide a rich opportunity to study important theoretical questions in cognitive development and to investigate the influence of a range of interacting factors relating to the child, the experience, and the broader social context on children's cognition. In the context of examples of research investigating these issues, we…

  3. Research Trends in Post‑Graduate Medical Students, Pune

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    etc., by the panel of external and internal examiners who grade it after viva of ... Bayan P, Shachi A. Department of Community Medicine, Padmashree Dr. D Y Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Center, ... Adoption of such guidelines will also reduce chances of oversights and mistakes in reporting and dissertation ...

  4. Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice aims to promote and advance the practice and study of all fields of medicine in Nigeria in general as well as in other African countries and the rest of the world. We therefore welcome contributions relating to all aspects of medicine from workers ...

  5. Research Training in Medical Informatics: The Stanford Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortliffe, Edward H.; Fagan, Lawrence M.

    1989-01-01

    Stanford University created an interdisciplinary program to train researchers and academic leaders in the field of medical information sciences. The program is described, identifying experiences of interest to people developing such a program. The program's background and history, students, curriculum and philosophy, and lessons learned are…

  6. Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhoutte, E.K.; Faber, C.G.; van Nes, S.I.; Jacobs, B.C.; van Doorn, P.A.; van Koningsveld, R.; Cornblath, D.R.; van der Kooi, A.J.; Cats, E.A.; van den Berg, L.H.; Notermans, N.C.; van der Pol, W.L.; Hermans, M.C.E.; van der Beek, N.A.M.E.; Gorson, K.C.; Eurelings, M.; Engelsman, J.; Boot, H.; Meijer, R.J.; Lauria, G.; Tennant, A.; Merkies, I.S.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the unequal

  7. Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K. Vanhoutte (Els); C.G. Faber (Carin); S.I. van Nes (Sonja); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); R. van Koningsveld (Rinske); D.R. Cornblath (David); A.J. Kooj (Anneke); E.A. Cats (Elisabeth); L.H. van den Berg (Leonard); N.C. Notermans (Nicolette); W.L. van der Pol (Ludo); M.C.E. Hermans; N.A.M.E. van der Beek (Nadine); K.C. Gorson (Kenneth); M. Eurelings (Marijke); L. Engelsman (Lyda); H. Boot (Hendrik); R.J. Meijer (Ron); G. Lauria (Giuseppe); C. Tennant (Christopher); I.S.J. Merkies (Ingemar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the

  8. Research trends in post graduate medical students, Pune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Scientific writings provide a link between production of knowledge and its use. They guide to plan for necessary improvements in treatment and prevention modalities. Inadequate and incomplete reporting of research studies weakens the medical literature. Aim: The aim of the study was bibliometric analysis of ...

  9. Retreat from Nuremberg: can we prevent unethical medical research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, J S

    1999-09-01

    The prosecution of doctors guilty of appalling human rights abuses at Nuremberg was achieved on the mistaken premise that the research community already had a code of conduct which, if applied, would have made such abuses impossible. In fact, not only was there no such code but when the 'Nuremberg Code' was published after the trial it continued to be ignored by many doctors for some thirty years afterwards. Indeed its central principle of informed consent has itself been eroded by subsequent international agreements on the ethics of medical research. This review shows that the mechanisms for approval of medical research which have now been promulgated in England and Wales, in practice, are applied on a very variable basis. Research in vulnerable groups unable to give fully informed consent such as children, prisoners and the incompetent elderly require the application of more rigorous standards of ethical control than those currently in operation. The use of vulnerable populations in the developing world and the application of international standards to them is also considered. A number of suggestions for improvements in current procedures in all these areas are put forward. The proposals for the United Kingdom would meet the requirements of the European Convention on bioethical research and the recent government consultation paper on medical treatment and research in incompetent adults.

  10. Undergraduate Medical Education Research in Malaysia: Time for a Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus; Hamzah, Jemaima Che; Chin, Tan Geok; Siraj, Harlina Halizah; Idrus, Ruszymah; Mohamad, Nabishah; Raymond, Azman Ali

    2015-01-01

    Special Study Module (SSM) is a mandatory research module implemented in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). The objective of this paper is to provide a brief overview on the student research activities and to find out the outcome measures in terms of publication. It was a retrospective study done on SSM research projects at UKM. The SSM research is conducted from beginning of year-4 until 1(st) seven weeks of year-5. In year-4, students are assigned to a faculty-supervisor in small groups and spend every Thursday afternoon to plan and carry the research. Whole first seven weeks of year-5, students are placed with their supervisor continuously to collect data, do analysis, write report and present in the scientific conference. Outcomes of 5-years SSM research-projects starting from 2008/2009 to 2012/2013 academic session were analyzed. Total 257 projects were completed and presented in annual scientific meetings from which 57 (22.2%) articles were published in peer reviewed journals. Mandatory undergraduate student research project brings an opportunity to develop students' capacity building from conception to final report writing and thereby narrowing the gap between education and practice. Medical schools should implement research module to bring changes in research and publication culture of undergraduate medical education.

  11. Scientific psychology in Brazil in the 20th century: the dialogue with European researchers, a look at Brazilian culture and a successful process of professionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Regina Helena de Freitas

    2006-01-01

    The first laboratories of psychology established in Brazil were organized in the early twentieth century by professionals trained in medical schools or in education. These laboratories, linked to mental health hospitals or to normal schools, followed guidelines suggested by Edouard Claparède, from the Laboratory of Psychology of the University of Geneva, and by Alfred Binet, from the Laboratory of Psychology of the University of Paris (Sorbonne). Besides replicating experimental studies done in Europe, their purpose was to study the psychological characteristics of the population attended by the mental health or educational systems. The themes explored by the researchers were the comparison of psychological processes in normal and mentally troubled individuals, or the study of the mental development of school-age children. The meaning of the word "laboratory" became associated with applied psychology, and with the adaptation to the Brazilian population of mental tests elaborated in other countries (mainly in France). Around the 1940s and 1950s, with the establishment of the teaching of psychology in higher learning institutions, research in the area expanded. Two authors are mainly responsible for this expansion: Lourenço Filho (1897-1970), and Helena Antipoff (1892-1974). Their work, still inspired by Claparède and Binet, contributed to the development of important lines of research in psychology in Brazil, with a lasting influence on subsequent generations of psychologists. From the 1960s onwards, with the regulation of the profession of psychologist, formal university programs increased strongly, and, in the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive system of graduate programs in psychology was established, contributing to the professionalization of research in the field.

  12. Medical education research: a vibrant community of research and education practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Medical education research is thriving. In recent decades, numbers of journals and publications have increased enormously, as have the number and size of medical education meetings around the world. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the origins of this success. My central

  13. Autoethnography: introducing 'I' into medical education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Laura; Bourgeois-Law, Gisele; Regehr, Glenn; Ajjawi, Rola

    2015-10-01

    Autoethnography is a methodology that allows clinician-educators to research their own cultures, sharing insights about their own teaching and learning journeys in ways that will resonate with others. There are few examples of autoethnographic research in medical education, and many areas would benefit from this methodology to help improve understanding of, for example, teacher-learner interactions, transitions and interprofessional development. We wish to share this methodology so that others may consider it in their own education environments as a viable qualitative research approach to gain new insights and understandings. This paper introduces autoethnography, discusses important considerations in terms of data collection and analysis, explores ethical aspects of writing about others and considers the benefits and limitations of conducting research that includes self. Autoethnography allows medical educators to increasingly engage in self-reflective narration while analysing their own cultural biographies. It moves beyond simple autobiography through the inclusion of other voices and the analytical examination of the relationships between self and others. Autoethnography has achieved its goal if it results in new insights and improvements in personal teaching practices, and if it promotes broader reflection amongst readers about their own teaching and learning environments. Researchers should consider autoethnography as an important methodology to help advance our understanding of the culture and practices of medical education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A Bibliometric Analysis and Visualization of Medical Big Data Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huchang Liao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of “Internet plus”, medical care has entered the era of big data. However, there is little research on medical big data (MBD from the perspectives of bibliometrics and visualization. The substantive research on the basic aspects of MBD itself is also rare. This study aims to explore the current status of medical big data through visualization analysis on the journal papers related to MBD. We analyze a total of 988 references which were downloaded from the Science Citation Index Expanded and the Social Science Citation Index databases from Web of Science and the time span was defined as “all years”. The GraphPad Prism 5, VOSviewer and CiteSpace softwares are used for analysis. Many results concerning the annual trends, the top players in terms of journal and institute levels, the citations and H-index in terms of country level, the keywords distribution, the highly cited papers, the co-authorship status and the most influential journals and authors are presented in this paper. This study points out the development status and trends on MBD. It can help people in the medical profession to get comprehensive understanding on the state of the art of MBD. It also has reference values for the research and application of the MBD visualization methods.

  15. Fishermen's local ecological knowledge on Southeastern Brazilian coastal fishes: contributions to research, conservation, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato A. M. Silvano

    Full Text Available We analyzed fishermen's local ecological knowledge (LEK about the feeding habits, trophic interactions, habitats, fishing grounds, migration, and reproduction of nine coastal fishes in Búzios Island, southeastern Brazilian coast. We interviewed 39 fishermen using standardized questionnaires. Fishermen's LEK on habitat use and trophic interactions for the studied fishes agreed with the scientific literature, allowing the organization of reef and pelagic food webs. The interviewed fishermen mentioned that submerged rock formations would be important habitats for some large commercial fishes, such as Seriola spp., Caranx latus and Epinephelus marginatus. In some instances there was no scientific data to be compared with fishermen's LEK, and thus this kind of knowledge would be the only available source of information, such as for reproduction and migration of most of the studied fishes. We suggest herein ways to apply fishermen's LEK to develop and improve fisheries management measures, such as zoning of marine space, marine protected areas, and closed fishing seasons. Fishermen's LEK may be an important and feasible support to fisheries management and co-management.

  16. Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight infants: a Brazilian Neonatal Research Network Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Rugolo, Ligia Maria Suppo; Bentlin, Maria Regina; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa; de Almeida, Maria Fernanda Branco; Lopes, José Maria de Andrade; Marba, Sergio Tadeu Martins; Fiori, Humberto Holmer; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann; Leone, Clea Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Late-onset sepsis (LOS) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. To determine the incidence, risk factors and etiology of LOS. LOS was investigated in a multicenter prospective cohort of infants at eight public university neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Inclusion criteria included inborn, 23-33 weeks of gestational age, 400-1499 g birth weight, who survived >3 days. Of 1507 infants, 357 (24%) had proven LOS and 345 (23%) had clinical LOS. Infants with LOS were more likely to die. The majority of infections (76%) were caused by Gram-positive organisms. Independent risk factors for proven LOS were use of central venous catheter and mechanical ventilation, age at the first feeding and number of days on parenteral nutrition and on mechanical ventilation. LOS incidence and mortality are high in Brazilian VLBW infants. Most risk factors are associated with routine practices at NICU. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Participant-Centric Initiatives and Medical Research: Scoping Review Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coathup, Victoria; Hamakawa, Nao; Finlay, Teresa; Bell, Jessica; Kaye, Jane; Kato, Kazuto

    2017-12-12

    Significant advances in digital technologies have meant that health care data can be collected, stored, transferred, and analyzed for research purposes more easily than ever before. Participant-centric initiatives (PCI) are defined as "tools, programs, and projects that empower participants to engage in the research process" using digital technologies and have the potential to provide a number of benefits to both participants and researchers, including the promotion of public trust in medical research, improved quality of research, increased recruitment and retention, and improved health care delivery. The main objective of this scoping review is to describe the extent and range of PCIs across the United Kingdom, United States, and Japan that are designed to facilitate medical research. The methodological framework described by Levac et al will be applied to this scoping review. We will search electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing, and Allied Health Literature and CiNii), grey literature sources, Internet search engines (Google and Bing), and hand search key journals and reference lists of relevant articles. All digital tools and programs will be eligible for inclusion if there is a description of key features and functions that fall within the parameters of a PCI. Only those that play a role in medical research will be included. Preliminary searches conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE retrieved 1820 and 2322 results, respectively. The scoping review will be completed by January 2018. The scoping review will be the first to map the extent and range of PCIs currently available across the United Kingdom, United States, and Japan, and will be the first review to contribute to a better understanding of what PCIs patients may benefit from. Researchers and practitioners will be able to use information in this review as a guide for patients and also as a guide for the development of future tools and programs. The results will be

  18. Analysis of the Methods and Research Topics in a Sample of the Brazilian Distance Education Publications, 1992 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Neto, Jose Dutra; dos Santos, Elaine Maria

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the methodological approaches employed in a sample of Brazilian distance education scientific literature and compare with similar publications in the United States. Brazilian sample articles (N = 983) published in several journals and meetings were compared with a sample of articles published in…

  19. Understanding the debate on medical education research: a sociological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu

    2004-10-01

    Since the mid-1990s, a debate has taken place among medical education scholars regarding the forms that research should take and the roles it should play. Editors of major journals in medical education and prominent researchers in the domain have repeatedly addressed the issue and have attempted to define what medical education research should be. The goal of this article is to look at the debate from a sociological perspective and to outline the social factors shaping it. An analysis of the texts published since 1990 addressing the issue shows that the debates can be deconstructed in four topics: epistemology, methodology, the primary purpose of medical education research, and the "quality" of the projects carried out in the domain. However, the debates can also be amalgamated and synthesized using the concept of "field" as developed by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. A "field" refers to the configuration of power relations among individuals, social groups, or institutions within a domain of activities. Scientific fields are typically structured around a "bipolar" opposition pattern. At one pole stand those individuals who promote greater collaboration with nonscientists as well as research aimed at responding to practical needs. At the opposite pole stand those individuals who aspire to achieve independence of the field from such external constraints. The use of the concept of "field" allows us to understand the debate from a larger perspective and to establish parallels with similar debates in other scientific fields. In doing so, we will have the opportunity to learn from the experience of these other fields and be more reflective about the debate in which we engage.

  20. Summaries of research projects for fiscal years 1996 and 1997, medical applications and biophysical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Medical Applications and Biophysical Research Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research supports and manages research in several distinct areas of science and technology. The projects described in this book are grouped by the main budgetary areas: General Life Sciences (structural molecular biology), Medical Applications (primarily nuclear medicine) and Measurement Science (analytical chemistry instrumentation), Environmental Management Science Program, and the Small Business Innovation Research Program. The research funded by this division complements that of the other two divisions in the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER): Health Effects and Life Sciences Research, and Environmental Sciences. Most of the OBER programs are planned and administered jointly by the staff of two or all three of the divisions. This summary book provides information on research supported in these program areas during Fiscal Years 1996 and 1997.

  1. Screening for depression in medical research: ethical challenges and recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan Aisling M; McGee Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Due to the important role of depression in major illnesses, screening measures for depression are commonly used in medical research. The protocol for managing participants with positive screens is unclear and raises ethical concerns. The aim of this article is to identify and critically discuss the ethical issues that arise when a positive screen for depression is detected, and offer some guidance on managing these issues. Discussion Deciding on whether to report positive ...

  2. Naval Medical Research and Development News. Volume 8, Issue 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    the Naval Medical Research Center in Silver Spring, Maryland, and I’d like to offer you a brief, virtual introduction of our NREIP interns. NREIP...result of malaria alone. Generations before the microbe hunters and long before mosquito control was a preventative measure, military surgeons...12  The bark of the Cinchona Tree (commonly referred to as “Peruvian bark”) had been used against malaria by Dr. James Lind of British Royal Navy

  3. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    In the relatively short time that synchrotrons have been available to the scientific community, their characteristic beams of UV and X-ray radiation have been applied to virtually all areas of medical science which use ionizing radiation. The ability to tune intense monochromatic beams over wide energy ranges clearly differentiates these sources from standard clinical and research tools. The tunable spectrum, high intrinsic collimation of the beams, polarization and intensity of the beams make possible in-vitro and in-vivo research and therapeutic programs not otherwise possible. From the beginning of research operation at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), many programs have been carrying out basic biomedical research. At first, the research was limited to in-vitro programs such as the x-ray microscope, circular dichroism, XAFS, protein crystallography, micro-tomography and fluorescence analysis. Later, as the coronary angiography program made plans to move its experimental phase from SSRL to the NSLS, it became clear that other in-vivo projects could also be carried out at the synchrotron. The development of SMERF (Synchrotron Medical Research Facility) on beamline X17 became the home not only for angiography but also for the MECT (Multiple Energy Computed Tomography) project for cerebral and vascular imaging. The high energy spectrum on X17 is necessary for the MRT (Microplanar Radiation Therapy) experiments. Experience with these programs and the existence of the Medical Programs Group at the NSLS led to the development of a program in synchrotron based mammography. A recent adaptation of the angiography hardware has made it possible to image human lungs (bronchography). Fig. 1 schematically depicts the broad range of active programs at the NSLS.

  4. Accelerating Medical Research using the Swift Workflow System

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEF-PRAUN, Tiberiu; CLIFFORD, Benjamin; FOSTER, Ian; HASSON, Uri; HATEGAN, Mihael; SMALL, Steven L.; WILDE, Michael; ZHAO, Yong

    2009-01-01

    Both medical research and clinical practice are starting to involve large quantities of data and to require large-scale computation, as a result of the digitization of many areas of medicine. For example, in brain research – the domain that we consider here – a single research study may require the repeated processing, using computationally demanding and complex applications, of thousands of files corresponding to hundreds of functional MRI studies. Execution efficiency demands the use of parallel or distributed computing, but few medical researchers have the time or expertise to write the necessary parallel programs. The Swift system addresses these concerns. A simple scripting language, SwiftScript, provides for the concise high-level specification of workflows that invoke various application programs on potentially large quantities of data. The Swift engine provides for the efficient execution of these workflows on sequential computers, parallel computers, and/or distributed grids that federate the computing resources of many sites. Last but not least, the Swift provenance catalog keeps track of all actions performed, addressing vital bookkeeping functions that so often cause difficulties in large computations. To illustrate the use of Swift for medical research, we describe its use for the analysis of functional MRI data as part of a research project examining the neurological mechanisms of recovery from aphasia after stroke. We show how SwiftScript is used to encode an application workflow, and present performance results that demonstrate our ability to achieve significant speedups on both a local parallel computing cluster and multiple parallel clusters at distributed sites. PMID:17476063

  5. What does 'race' have to do with medical education research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzin, Linda; Mickleborough, Tim

    2013-08-01

    We live in a world of ethnoracial conflict. This is confirmed every day by opening and reading the newspaper. This everyday world seems far away in the pages of a medical education journal, but is it? The goal of this paper is to suggest that one need not look very far in medical education to encounter ethnoracial issues, and further, that research methods that are not ethnoracially biased must be employed to study these topics. We will draw attention to the relevance of employing an ethical conceptual approach to research involving 'race' by demonstrating how one author researching internationally educated health professionals has put 'race' front and centre in his analysis. He does this by using a postcolonial method of analysis termed a 'doubled-research' technique that sets up categories such as 'race' but then decolonizes them to avoid essentialism or stereotyping. We compare this method to another mainstream method employed for the same topic of inquiry which has sidelined 'race' in the analysis, potentially hiding findings about ethnoracial relations involving health professionals in our 'multicultural' society. This demonstration leads to the important question of whether research methods can be epistemologically racist-a question that has been raised about conventional research on education in general. Our argument is not meant to be the last word on this topic, but the first in this journal. We conclude that there is an internal ethics or axiology within research perspectives and methodologies that needs to be examined where ethnoracial issues are prominent. The use of mainstream approaches to undertake research can unintentionally 'leave unsaid' central aspects of what is researched while antiracist methods such as the one described in this article can open up the data to allow for a richer and deeper understanding of the problem. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Approaches of researches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantylej, Wiktoria

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical review of medical geography in the world, in Poland and in Ukraine. There are different approaches in medical geography: according to the research subject (ecological and economic approaches) and according to the current affairs of research (approach concerns sexuality, the age of the population and accordingly, accessibility of health care services to the population). To the author's mind, the most perspective approaches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine are as follows: - integrative - dedicated to the health status of the population in connection with the quality and life level; - mathematical-statistical - connected with the problem of synthetic indexes of health status of the populations and factors influencing it, and with the problem of economic value of health and life of the population; - social-economic - the analysis of the influence of socioeconomic factors (such as wealth measure, rate of unemployment, work conditions and others) on public health; - ecological - connected with the researches dedicated to the analysis of environmental impact on public health status of the population; - demographical - the analysis of demographical factors of forming public health status; - social-psychological - health culture of the population, perception of the own health/morbidity and health care systems existing in different countries.

  7. [Research advances on medical genetics in China in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-feng; Han, Yubo; Cao, Peng-bo; Meng, Jin-feng; Li, Hai-bei; Qin, Geng; Zhang, Feng; Jin, Guang-fu; Yang, Yong; Wu, Ling-qian; Ping, Jie; Zhou, Gang-qiao

    2016-05-01

    Steady progress has been achieved in the medical genetics in China in 2015, as numerous original researches were published in the world's leading journals. Chinese scientists have made significant contributions to various fields of medical genetics, such as pathogenicity of rare diseases, predisposition of common diseases, somatic mutations of cancer, new technologies and methods, disease-related microRNAs (miRNAs), disease-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), disease-related competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), disease-related RNA splicing and molecular evolution. In these fields, Chinese scientists have gradually formed the tendency, from common variants to rare variants, from single omic analyses to multipleomics integration analyses, from genetic discovery to functional confirmation, from basic research to clinical application. Meanwhile, the findings of Chinese scientists have been drawn great attentions of international peers. This review aims to provide an overall picture of the front in Chinese medical genetics, and highlights the important findings and their research strategy.

  8. Creating a medical education enterprise: leveling the playing fields of medical education vs. medical science research within core missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Ligon, B. Lee; Singhal, Geeta; Schutze, Gordon E.; Turner, Teri L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Unlike publications of medical science research that are more readily rewarded, clinician-educators’ scholarly achievements are more nebulous and under-recognized. Objective:Create an education enterprise that empowers clinician-educators to engage in a broad range of scholarly activities and produce educational scholarship using strategic approaches to level the playing fields within an organization. Design: The authors analyzed the advantages and disadvantages experienced by medical science researchers vs. clinician educators using Bolman and Deal’s (B&D) four frames of organization (structural, human resource, political, symbolic). The authors then identified organizational approaches and activities that align with each B&D frame and proposed practical strategies to empower clinician-educators in their scholarly endeavors. Results: Our medical education enterprise enhanced the structural frame by creating a decentralized medical education unit, incorporated the human resource component with an endowed chair to support faculty development, leveraged the political model by providing grant supports and expanding venues for scholarship, and enhanced the symbolic frame by endorsing the value of education and public recognition from leaderships. In five years, we saw an increased number of faculty interested in becoming clinician-educators, had an increased number of faculty winning Educational Awards for Excellence and delivering conference presentations, and received 12 of the 15 college-wide awards for educational scholarship. These satisfactory trends reflect early success of our educational enterprise. Conclusions: B&D’s organizational frames can be used to identify strategies for addressing the pressing need to promote and recognize clinician-educators’ scholarship. We realize that our situation is unique in several respects, but this approach is flexible within an institution and transferable to any other institution and its medical

  9. Brazilian research groups in nursing: comparison of 2006 and 2016 profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Peiter, Caroline Cechinel; Lanzoni, Gabriela Marcellino de Melo

    2017-07-13

    To compare the profile of nursing research groups registered at the CNPq Research Groups Directory in 2006 and 2016. Descriptive and documentary analysis, The data has been collected in 2006 and in 2016, with parameterized search with the term "nursing" at the CNPq Research Groups Directory. The selected variables have been organized in a Microsoft Office Exce spreadsheetl. The research groups have increased from 251 in 2006 to 617 in 2016, with important increase of the number of participants, among students and researchers. There was a decrease of the number of groups without students. However, 22% remain without undergraduate students' participation. It has been observed an important increase regarding the interest on research activities, when comparing both scenarios. The nursing research groups reflect structural and political advances in generation of science, technology and innovation, however, the undergraduate students' and the foreign researchers' participation should still be encouraged.

  10. Promoting translational research in human and veterinary medical virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Wei

    2013-07-26

    Translational research serves as a bench-to-field "translation" of basic scientific research into practical diagnostic procedures and therapies useful in human and veterinary clinical services. The productivity of translational research involving infectious diseases relevant to both human and animal health (e.g., influenza diagnosis and epidemiology using emerging molecular detection and identification methods) can be maximized when both human and veterinary medical virology disciplines are integrated. Influenza viruses are continually evolving through site-specific mutation and segment reassortment, and these processes occur in all potential carrier species - including birds, humans, and many agriculturally important animals. This evolutionary plasticity occasionally allows "novel" influenzas to move from animal hosts to humans, potentially causing destructive pandemics; therefore, a rapid laboratory technique that can detect and identify "novel" influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. A technique-focused translational research approach is pursued to enhance detection and characterization of emerging influenza viruses circulating in both humans and other animal hosts. The PLEX-ID System, which incorporates multi-locus PCR and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry, uses deliberately nonspecific primers that amplify all known variants (all H/N subtypes) of influenza virus, including human, other mammalian, and avian influenzas, and is therefore likely to generate analyzable amplicons from any novel influenza that might emerge in any host. Novel technology development and implementation such as the PLEX-ID System forms a key component of human and veterinary medical virology translational research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Deception in medical and behavioral research: is it ever acceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, D

    1996-01-01

    Ethicists argue that deception is unacceptable, whereas researchers regard it as a necessary part of (certain kinds of) research. This impasse could be resolved by establishing the specific conditions under which deception in medical and behavioral research can be tolerated. An approach based on a consideration of the "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct," one of the few writings on this topic, would satisfy the needs of both parties. It takes the form of a requirement that subjects be informed of the use of deception before enrolling in a deceptive study. This "second order consent" approach to acceptable deception represents our best chance for reconciling respect for subjects with the occasional scientific need for deceptive research.

  12. Conducting Research in a Medical Science Museum: Lessons Learned from Collaboration between Researchers and Museum Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durksen, Tracy L.; Martin, Andrew J.; Burns, Emma C.; Ginns, Paul; Williamson, Derek; Kiss, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Museums promote co-learning through the construction of a social community, one that involves personal, physical, and sociocultural contexts. As researchers and museum educators, we report some of our contextual reflections and recommendations that emerged from our collaborative learning experience of conducting research in a medical science…

  13. Integrating surveillance data on water-related diseases and drinking-water quality; action-research in a Brazilian municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Ana Carolina Lanza; Cardoso, Laís Santos de Magalhães; Heller, Léo; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-12-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Health proposed a research study involving municipal professional staff conducting both epidemiological and water quality surveillance to facilitate the integration of the data which they collected. It aimed to improve the intersectoral collaboration and health promotion activities in the municipalities, especially regarding drinking-water quality. We then conducted a study using the action-research approach. At its evaluation phase, a technique which we called 'the tree analogy' was applied in order to identify both possibilities and challenges related to the proposed interlinkage. Results showed that integrating the two data collection systems cannot be attained without prior institutional adjustments. It suggests therefore the necessity to unravel issues that go beyond the selection and the interrelation of indicators and compatibility of software, to include political, administrative and personal matters. The evaluation process led those involved to re-think their practice by sharing experiences encountered in everyday practice, and formulating constructive criticisms. All this inevitably unleashes a process of empowerment. From this perspective, we have certainly gathered some fruit from the Tree, but not necessarily the most visible.

  14. Perspectives on electronic medical records adoption: electronic medical records (EMR in outcomes research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Belletti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dan Belletti1, Christopher Zacker1, C Daniel Mullins21Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 2University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Health information technology (HIT is engineered to promote improved quality and efficiency of care, and reduce medical errors. Healthcare organizations have made significant investments in HIT tools and the electronic medical record (EMR is a major technological advance. The Department of Veterans Affairs was one of the first large healthcare systems to fully implement EMR. The Veterans Health Information System and Technology Architecture (VistA began by providing an interface to review and update a patient’s medical record with its computerized patient record system. However, since the implementation of the VistA system there has not been an overall substantial adoption of EMR in the ambulatory or inpatient setting. In fact, only 23.9% of physicians were using EMRs in their office-based practices in 2005. A sample from the American Medical Association revealed that EMRs were available in an office setting to 17% of physicians in late 2007 and early 2008. Of these, 17% of physicians with EMR, only 4% were considered to be fully functional EMR systems. With the exception of some large aggregate EMR databases the slow adoption of EMR has limited its use in outcomes research. This paper reviews the literature and presents the current status of and forces influencing the adoption of EMR in the office-based practice, and identifies the benefits, limitations, and overall value of EMR in the conduct of outcomes research in the US.Keywords: electronic medical records, health information technology, medical errors

  15. Medical education research: a vibrant community of research and education practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2014-08-01

    Medical education research is thriving. In recent decades, numbers of journals and publications have increased enormously, as have the number and size of medical education meetings around the world. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the origins of this success. My central argument is that dialogue between education practice (and its teachers) and education research (and its researchers) is indispensable. To illustrate how I have come to this perspective, I discuss two crucial developments of personal import to myself. The first is the development of assessment theory informed by both research findings and insights emerging from implementations conducted in collaboration with teachers and learners. The second is the establishment of a department of education that includes many members from the medical domain. Medical education is thriving because it is shaped and nourished within a community of practice of collaborating teachers, practitioners and researchers. This obviates the threat of a fissure between education research and education practice. The values of this community of practice - inclusiveness, openness, supportiveness, nurture and mentorship - are key elements for its sustainability. In pacing the development of our research in a manner that maintains this synergy, we should be mindful of the zone of proximal development of our community of practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual report 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    The research during 1978 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory, is summarized. Studies related to nuclear energy include responses of beagles to continuous low-level /sup 60/Co gamma radiation, and development of leukemic indicators; comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low-level neutron and /sup 60/Co gamma radiation; genetic effects of high LET radiations; and metabolic and therapeutic studies of heavy metals. Studies of nonnuclear energy sources deal with characterization and toxicological evaluation of effluents of fluidized bed combustion and coal gasification; electrical storage systems; electric fields associated with energy transmission; and development of population projection models and assessment of human risk. Basic research studies include fundamental structural and biophysical investigations; circadian rhythms; mutagenesis in bacteria and mammalian cells; cell killing, damage, and repair in mammalian cells; carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis; the use of liposomes as biological carriers; and studies of environmental influences on life-span, physiological performance, and circadian cycles. In the area of medical development, proteins in urine and tissues of normal and diseased humans are analyzed, and advanced analytical procedures for use of stable isotopes in clinical research and diagnosis are developed and applied. The final sections of the report cover support facilities, educational activities, the seminar program, staff talks, and staff publications.

  17. Medical teachers' attitudes towards science and motivational orientation for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvek, Mario; Hren, Darko; Sambunjak, Dario; Planinc, Mislav; Macković, Maja; Marusić, Ana; Marusić, Matko

    2009-01-01

    Research is an important motivating factor for pursuing a career in academic medicine, but the relation between motivation and other factors involved in scientific research are not clear. To explore the motivational orientation for doing research and its relation with attitudes towards science and publication practice among members of faculty at a medical school. We used a Science Attitude Survey and the Work Preference Inventory (intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientation using 4 Likert-type scales of motivation, possible range 1-5) to survey two groups of teachers at the Zagreb University School of Medicine (n = 327, 66% response rate): professors, elected to tenure-track positions (n = 150), and instructor/research fellows working on or just completing their thesis (n = 177). Overall, teachers scored highest on the Enjoyment subscale of intrinsic motivational orientation (mean score +/- standard deviation 4.3 +/- 0.42 for professors vs 4.1 +/- 0.42 for instructors/research fellows, P = 0.001, t-test). Professors also scored higher than instructors/research fellows on the Challenge subscale of intrinsic motivational orientation (3.8 +/- 0.55 vs. 3.5 +/- 0.64, P test), whereas instructors/research fellows scored higher on the Compensation subscale of extrinsic motivational orientation (3.5 +/- 0.74 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.71, P test). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the number of publications was positively associated with scores on the Science Attitude Survey and the Challenge subscale of intrinsic motivation, and negatively associated with scores on the Compensation subscale of extrinsic motivation. Members of the medical faculty differ in motivational orientation for research depending on their academic status, and their motivation is associated more with requirements for academic advancement than with research. These findings have important implications for developing strategies for enhancing academic research production.

  18. Archives of Medical Research: an historical and subject coverage overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoya, X; Rivera-Arce, E; Domínguez, F; Arellano, M L; Muñoz, O

    1995-01-01

    A bibliometric study about the subject content of the articles published in the Mexican scientific journal Archives of Medical Research is reported. The journal, published by the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), is comprised of 100 regular issues and 12 special supplements giving a total amount of 1,424 reports on medical research performed in Mexico during the last 25 years. According to the type of studies published during this period, we found that there is a similar percent of biomedical and clinical reports in the journal (47 and 42%, respectively) and a low proportion of epidemiological and medical educational reports (8 and 3%, respectively). Six thematic areas of research have been permanently published in this journal: investigations on infectious and neurological diseases being the areas mainly represented (34% of the total, corresponding to 17% in each area), followed by studies in reproductive biology (10%) and endocrine (7%), oncological (5%) and cardiovascular (3%) diseases. The tendency of the subjects covered by the journal during this period shows an increment in reports on infectious and parasitic disorders together with an increase in publications related to medicinal plant pharmacology; reproductive biology and endocrine studies show also an increasing tendency. On the other hand, a moderate decrease in studies related to neurological, oncological and cardiovascular diseases is observed. The origin of contributions during the last five years has balanced the proportion of papers published from IMSS scientists, other Mexican biomedical researchers and foreign contributions, thus reflecting favorably the recent changes in the journal's policies. This journal represents a clear example of a scientific publication edited in a developing country, originating as a national publication that evolved progressively into an international biomedical journal.

  19. Profile and scientific production of Brazilian National Council of Technological and Scientific Development researchers in Pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina L. Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the profile and the scientific production of researchers in Pediatrics with scholarship from the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development. METHODS: The Lattes curricula of 34 researchers in Pediatrics with active scholarships, from 2006 to 2008 were included in the analysis. The variables of interest were: gender, affiliation, time since PHD, tutoring of undergraduate students, mentorship of masters and doctors, scientific production and the papers' impact. RESULTS: In a total of 411 researchers in Medicine, 34 (8% belonged to Pediatrics. Males (77% and scholars in the category 2 of productivity (62% prevailed. Three states of Brazil were responsible for approximately 90% of the researchers: São Paulo (53%, Minas Gerais (21%, and Rio Grande do Sul (15%. During their academic career, the Pediatrics researchers have published 3,122 articles with a median of 89 articles per researcher (interquartile range - IQ=51-119. Of the total, 40 and 59% articles were indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus databases, respectively. The Pediatrics researchers have published papers in 599 journals with a median impact factor of 2.35 (IQ=1.37-3.73 for the 323 indexed journals. CONCLUSIONS: The Pediatrics researchers have a relevant scientific output from the quantity point of the view, but there is a need to improve quality.

  20. Profile and scientific production of Brazilian National Council of Technological and Scientific Development researchers in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria Christina L; Martelli, Daniella Reis B; Pinheiro, Sergio Veloso; Miranda, Debora Marques; Quirino, Isabel Gomes; Leite, Barbara Gusmão L; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; e Silva, Ana Cristina S; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio; Oliveira, Eduardo Araujo

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the profile and the scientific production of researchers in Pediatrics with scholarship from the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development. The Lattes curricula of 34 researchers in Pediatrics with active scholarships, from 2006 to 2008 were included in the analysis. The variables of interest were: gender, affiliation, time since PHD, tutoring of undergraduate students, mentorship of masters and doctors, scientific production and the papers' impact. In a total of 411 researchers in Medicine, 34 (8%) belonged to Pediatrics. Males (77%) and scholars in the category 2 of productivity (62%) prevailed. Three states of Brazil were responsible for approximately 90% of the researchers: São Paulo (53%), Minas Gerais (21%), and Rio Grande do Sul (15%). During their academic career, the Pediatrics researchers have published 3,122 articles with a median of 89 articles per researcher (interquartile range - IQ=51-119). Of the total, 40 and 59% articles were indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus databases, respectively. The Pediatrics researchers have published papers in 599 journals with a median impact factor of 2.35 (IQ=1.37-3.73) for the 323 indexed journals. The Pediatrics researchers have a relevant scientific output from the quantity point of the view, but there is a need to improve quality.

  1. Research Equity: A Capacity Building Workshop of Research Methodology for Medical Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research is a cornerstone for knowledge generation, which in turns requires capacity building for its tools and techniques. Despite having a vast infrastructure in India the research in medical science has been carried out in limited and focused institutions. In order to build the capacity in carrying out research activities a five-day planning workshop was conducted at state run medical college. Total 22 medical faculty members participated in the workshop with average public health experience of 12 years (range: 5–25 years. The knowledge was assessed objectively by multiple-choice questionnaire. The mean score increased from 6.7 to 7.9 from pre- to posttest. About seventy-percent participants showed improvement, whereas 21.0% showed deterioration in the knowledge and the rest showed the same score. Apart from knowledge skills also showed improvement as total 12 research projects were generated and eight were approved for funding by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, New Delhi. It can be concluded that a supportive environment for research can be built with the technical assistance.

  2. Brazilian research dedicated to nanotechnology and risks to health and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Alencar, Maria Simone de Menezes; Bochner, Rosany; Dias, Miriam Ferreira Freire

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has great potential to transform science and industry in a lot of areas. Despite the large interest in research in this area, the safety risks and the impact of the use of nanotechnology on health are still underexplored. This study aims to identify the research conducted in Brazil regarding the risks involving the use of nanotechnology. It was based on Directory of Research Groups and on Currículo Lattes. We detected 798 articles about nanotechnology and health, but only 41 of...

  3. Fake facts and alternative truths in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2018-01-27

    Fake news and alternative facts have become commonplace in these so-called "post-factual times." What about medical research - are scientific facts fake as well? Many recent disclosures have fueled the claim that scientific facts are suspect and that science is in crisis. Scientists appear to engage in facting interests instead of revealing interesting facts. This can be observed in terms of what has been called polarised research, where some researchers continuously publish positive results while others publish negative results on the same issue - even when based on the same data. In order to identify and address this challenge, the objective of this study is to investigate how polarised research produce "polarised facts." Mammography screening for breast cancer is applied as an example. The main benefit with mammography screening is the reduced breast cancer mortality, while the main harm is overdiagnosis and subsequent overtreatment. Accordingly, the Overdiagnosis to Mortality Reduction Ratio (OMRR) is an estimate of the risk-benefit-ratio for mammography screening. As there are intense interests involved as well as strong opinions in debates on mammography screening, one could expect polarisation in published results on OMRR. A literature search identifies 8 studies publishing results for OMRR and reveals that OMRR varies 25-fold, from 0.4 to 10. Two experts in polarised research were asked to rank the attitudes of the corresponding authors to mammography screening of the identified publications. The results show a strong correlation between the OMRR and the authors' attitudes to screening (R = 0.9). Mammography screening for breast cancer appears as an exemplary field of strongly polarised research. This is but one example of how scientists' strong professional interests can polarise research. Instead of revealing interesting facts researchers may come to fact interests. In order to avoid this and sustain trust in science, researchers should disclose

  4. The research questions and methodological adequacy of clinical studies of the voice and larynx published in Brazilian and international journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Vanessa Pedrosa; De Biase, Noemi; Peccin, Maria Stella; Atallah, Alvaro Nagib

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the methodological adequacy of voice and laryngeal study designs published in speech-language pathology and otorhinolaryngology journals indexed for the ISI Web of Knowledge (ISI Web) and the MEDLINE database. A cross-sectional study conducted at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Federal University of São Paulo). Two Brazilian speech-language pathology and otorhinolaryngology journals (Pró-Fono and Revista Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia) and two international speech-language pathology and otorhinolaryngology journals (Journal of Voice, Laryngoscope), all dated between 2000 and 2004, were hand-searched by specialists. Subsequently, voice and larynx publications were separated, and a speech-language pathologist and otorhinolaryngologist classified 374 articles from the four journals according to objective and study design. The predominant objective contained in the articles was that of primary diagnostic evaluation (27%), and the most frequent study design was case series (33.7%). A mere 7.8% of the studies were designed adequately with respect to the stated objectives. There was no statistical difference in the methodological quality of studies indexed for the ISI Web and the MEDLINE database. The studies published in both national journals, indexed for the MEDLINE database, and international journals, indexed for the ISI Web, demonstrate weak methodology, with research poorly designed to meet the proposed objectives. There is much scientific work to be done in order to decrease uncertainty in the field analysed.

  5. Division of Biological and Medical Research research summary 1984-1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, S.H. (ed.)

    1985-08-01

    The Division of Biological and Medical Research at Argonne National Laboratory conducts multidisciplinary research aimed at defining the biological and medical hazards to man from energy technologies and new energy options. These technically oriented studies have a strong base in fundamental research in a variety of scientific disciplines, including molecular and cellular biology, biophysics, genetics, radiobiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, chemistry, environmental toxicology, and epidemiology. This research summary is organized into six parts. The first five parts reflect the Divisional structure and contain the scientific program chapters, which summarize the activities of the individual groups during the calendar year 1984 and the first half of 1985. To provide better continuity and perspective, previous work is sometimes briefly described. Although the summaries are short, efforts have been made to indicate the range of research activities for each group.

  6. [Communication problems in medical historical research of the middle ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riha, O

    1994-01-01

    Although medieval medical research on scientific prose has a tradition of a hundred years, its results are largely ignored by the scientific community. The reason for this is not only a shift of interest towards the social history of medicine but, more important, a deficiency in the fields of systematology and terminology which makes communication difficult, if not impossible. Most regrettable is the lack of a comprehensive review of the texts and their topics which could serve as a basis for further methodological discussion.

  7. Some results of medical researches at Ulba Metallurgical Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemieva, G.I.; Novikov, V.G.; Savchuk, V.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The results of 45-years medical researches at beryllium production of Ulba Metallurgical Plant are summarized in this report. Statistic data on different kinds of occupational diseases, related to beryllium production and the dynamics of changing occupational diseases with the development of beryllium production, are given there. Data on average duration of life of occupational disease patients are presented in the report. It includes the description of problems, related to berylliosis diagnosis. Issues, connected to beryllium production effect on health of man, located nearby beryllium production are also discussed there as well. (author)

  8. Benefits and pitfalls of scientific research during undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnigk, Olaf; Böthern, Aenne M; Reimer, Jens; Schäfer, Ingo; Biegler, Astrid; Jueptner, Markus; Gelderblom, Mathias; Harendza, Sigrid

    2010-01-01

    The integration of scientific research into medical education is a widely discussed topic. Most research training programs are offered on a voluntary basis. In Germany, it is mandatory to complete a doctoral thesis to obtain the academic title "doctor". The reasons why students start a dissertation project and the influence of this project on their undergraduate studies and later career choices are not well known. This study was conducted at five German universities in 2003, with a total of 437 fifth-year students participating in it. A standardised questionnaire was used to ask participants about their current or finished dissertation (group A), a dissertation they had discontinued (group B) or why they had never started a dissertation project (group C). The two most important reasons for students from group A to start a dissertation were "interest in the topic" and "advantage for job applications". Compared with group B, they mentioned "improved ability to critically appraise scientific studies" and "doing scientific work independently" significantly more often as a result of working on their dissertation. Starting a dissertation project early during undergraduate studies was correlated with a less successful outcome. Moreover, working on a dissertation significantly reduced time spent on undergraduate studies. Students from group C named the "workload of undergraduate studies" and "no time" most frequently as reasons for not having started a dissertation. Students who have been working successfully on a dissertation rate items regarding the acquisition of scientific research skills significantly more positively, and participation in undergraduate studies seems to be negatively affected by working on a dissertation project. Therefore, basic training in scientific research methodology should become an integrated part of the medical undergraduate curriculum, while special programs should be offered for students with a particular interest in scientific research

  9. Mapping out the subject of Brazilian social psychology in the production of the national association of research and post-graduate studies in psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Adegas de Azambuja; Carolina dos Reis; Neuza Maria de Fátima Guareschi; Simone Maria Hüning

    2013-01-01

    This paper problematizes the Brazilian Social Psychology and its knowledge production on the registers of the Work Group (WG) of symposiums of the National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology (ANPEPP), during 1988 to 2010. Using Michel Foucault's archeo-genealogical perspective and the contributions by Ian Hacking about the historical ontology of subjects, we analyzed technologies of power and knowledge in the disciplines of Social Psychology. We selected the WG abstract...

  10. Bioastronautics: optimizing human performance through research and medical innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.

    2002-01-01

    A strategic use of resources is essential to achieving long-duration space travel and understanding the human physiological changes in space, including the roles of food and nutrition in space. To effectively address the challenges of space flight, the Bioastronautics Initiative, undertaken in 2001, expands extramural collaboration and leverages unique capabilities of the scientific community and the federal government, all the while applying this integrated knowledge to Earth-based problems. Integral to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's missions in space is the reduction of risk of medical complications, particularly during missions of long duration. Cumulative medical experience and research provide the ability to develop evidence-based medicine for prevention, countermeasures, and treatment modalities for space flight. The early approach applied terrestrial clinical judgment to predict medical problems in space. Space medicine has evolved to an evidence-based approach with the use of biomedical data gathered and lessons learned from previous space flight missions to systematically aid in decision making. This approach led, for example, to the determination of preliminary nutritional requirements for space flight, and it aids in the development of nutrition itself as a countermeasure to support nutritional mitigation of adaptation to space.

  11. Relations between Russia and Brazil in BRICS from the Russian and Brazilian Researchers Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I S Baryshev

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes conceptions of Russian and foreign researches towards the relations between the participating countries of BRICS, in particular, Russia and Brazil. It focuses on the advantages of the new association and its prospects in the future.

  12. Is Qualitative Research Second Class Science? A Quantitative Longitudinal Examination of Qualitative Research in Medical Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuval, Kerem; Harker, Karen; Roudsari, Bahman; Groce, Nora E.; Mills, Britain; Siddiqi, Zoveen; Shachak, Aviv

    2011-01-01

    Background Qualitative research appears to be gaining acceptability in medical journals. Yet, little is actually known about the proportion of qualitative research and factors affecting its publication. This study describes the proportion of qualitative research over a 10 year period and correlates associated with its publication. Design A quantitative longitudinal examination of the proportion of original qualitative research in 67 journals of general medicine during a 10 year period (1998–2007). The proportion of qualitative research was determined by dividing original qualitative studies published (numerator) by all original research articles published (denominator). We used a generalized estimating equations approach to assess the longitudinal association between the proportion of qualitative studies and independent variables (i.e. journals' country of publication and impact factor; editorial/methodological papers discussing qualitative research; and specific journal guidelines pertaining to qualitative research). Findings A 2.9% absolute increase and 3.4-fold relative increase in qualitative research publications occurred over a 10 year period (1.2% in 1998 vs. 4.1% in 2007). The proportion of original qualitative research was independently and significantly associated with the publication of editorial/methodological papers in the journal (b = 3.688, P = 0.012); and with qualitative research specifically mentioned in guidelines for authors (b = 6.847, Pqualitative research was associated only with journals published in the UK in comparison to other countries, yet with borderline statistical significance (b = 1.776, P = 0.075). The journals' impact factor was not associated with the publication of qualitative research. Conclusions Despite an increase in the proportion of qualitative research in medical journals over a 10 year period, the proportion remains low. Journals' policies pertaining to qualitative research, as expressed by the

  13. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1982-06-01

    This report summarizes research during 1981 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Low Level Radiation include comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, delineation of the responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, elucidation of mechanisms of radiation damage and repair in mammalian cells, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiations. Carcinogenesis research addresses mechanisms of tumor initiation and promotion in rat liver, chemical carcinogenesis in cultured mammalian cells, and molecular and genetic mechanisms of chemical and ultraviolet mutagenesis in bacteria. Research in Toxicology uses a variety of cellular, whole animal, and chronobiological end points, chemical separations, and statistical models to evaluate the hazards and mechanisms of actions of metals, coal gasification by products, and other energy-related pollutants. Human Protein Index studies develop two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other disease. Biophysics research includes fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and key biological molecules using NMR, crystallographic, and x-ray and neutron small-angle scattering techniques. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

  14. Global health diplomacy training for military medical researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; Blazes, David; Bae, Jennifer; Puntambekar, Nisha; Perdue, Christopher L; Fischer, Julie

    2014-04-01

    Given the unprecedented growth of global health initiatives in the past decade, informal diplomacy between technical partners plays an increasingly important role in shaping opportunities and outcomes. This article describes a course developed and executed specifically to equip U.S. military health professionals with core skills in practical diplomacy critical to help them successfully plan and implement public health surveillance, research, and capacity building programs with partner nation governments and organizations. We identified core competencies in practical diplomacy for laboratory and public health researchers, catalogued and evaluated existing training programs, and then developed a pilot course in global health diplomacy for military medical researchers. The pilot course was held in June 2012, and focused on analyzing contemporary issues related to global health diplomacy through the framework of actors, drivers, and policies that affect public health research and capacity-building, beginning at the level of global health governance and cooperation and moving progressively to regional (supranational), national, and institutional perspective. This course represents an approach geared toward meeting the needs specific to U.S. military public health personnel and researchers working in international settings. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. The anatomy of medical research: US and international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Hamilton; Matheson, David H M; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; George, Benjamin P; Palisch, Chase; Dorsey, E Ray

    2015-01-13

    Medical research is a prerequisite of clinical advances, while health service research supports improved delivery, access, and cost. Few previous analyses have compared the United States with other developed countries. To quantify total public and private investment and personnel (economic inputs) and to evaluate resulting patents, publications, drug and device approvals, and value created (economic outputs). Publicly available data from 1994 to 2012 were compiled showing trends in US and international research funding, productivity, and disease burden by source and industry type. Patents and publications (1981-2011) were evaluated using citation rates and impact factors. (1) Reduced science investment: Total US funding increased 6% per year (1994-2004), but rate of growth declined to 0.8% per year (2004-2012), reaching $117 billion (4.5%) of total health care expenditures. Private sources increased from 46% (1994) to 58% (2012). Industry reduced early-stage research, favoring medical devices, bioengineered drugs, and late-stage clinical trials, particularly for cancer and rare diseases. National Insitutes of Health allocations correlate imperfectly with disease burden, with cancer and HIV/AIDS receiving disproportionate support. (2) Underfunding of service innovation: Health services research receives $5.0 billion (0.3% of total health care expenditures) or only 1/20th of science funding. Private insurers ranked last (0.04% of revenue) and health systems 19th (0.1% of revenue) among 22 industries in their investment in innovation. An increment of $8 billion to $15 billion yearly would occur if service firms were to reach median research and development funding. (3) Globalization: US government research funding declined from 57% (2004) to 50% (2012) of the global total, as did that of US companies (50% to 41%), with the total US (public plus private) share of global research funding declining from 57% to 44%. Asia, particularly China, tripled investment from $2

  16. A research-oriented medical cost accounting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, R D; Wark, R; Schneiderman, L J; Kaplan, R M; Anderson, J P; Chen, M

    1991-01-01

    Prospective research into factors affecting health care costs for individual patients requires a hybrid information management system with some features usually associated with a medical billing package and other features common to research databases. Furthermore, data collection for such a project must often be done in the field where a portable computer is most convenient. A software program is described which has been developed to address these disparate needs. It allows classification by study protocol assignment and provides multiple summary formats for the assessment of costs. For example, charges can be stratified by specialty, by category of service (pharmacy, room, surgery, respiratory therapy, etc.), by magnitude of expense ('big' vs 'little' ticket items) and so forth. The system design described may prove useful to other investigators studying variation in health care costs.

  17. Profile and scientific output analysis of physical therapy researchers with research productivity fellowship from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturmer, Giovani; Viero, Carolina C M; Silveira, Matheus N; Lukrafka, Janice L; Plentz, Rodrigo D M

    2013-01-01

    To describe the profile and the scientific output of physical therapists researchers holding a research productivity fellowship (PQ) from the Brazilian National Council of Scientific and Technological Development (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico-CNPq). This is a cross-sectional study, which has evaluated the Lattes Curriculum of all PQ physiotherapy researchers registered at CNPq holding a research productivity fellowship in the period of 2010. The variables analyzed were: gender, geographic and institutional distribution, duration since doctorate defense, research productivity fellowship level, scientific output until 2010 and the H index in Scopus(®) and ISI databases. A total of 55 PQ from the CNPq were identified in the area of knowledge of Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy, being 81.8% from the Southeast region of Brazil. They were predominantly female (61.8%), with research productivity fellowship level PQ2 (74.5%), and with average time since doctorate defense of 10.1 (±4.1) years. A total of 2.381 articles were published, with average of 42.5 (±18.9) articles/researcher. The average of articles published after doctorate defense was 39.40 (±18.9) articles/researchers with a mean output of 4.2 (±2.0) articles/year. We found 304 articles indexed in the Scopus(®) database with 2.463 citations, and 222 articles indexed in the Web of Science with 1.805 citations. The articles were published in 481 journals, being 244 (50.7%) of them listed on JCR-web. The researchers presented a median 5 of the H index in the Scopus(®) database, and a median 3 in ISI. The scientific output of the researchers with research productivity fellowship in the field of physical therapy stands out in their indicators, since the figures are very promising for a relatively young area and as it can be observed by the amount of published articles and citations obtained by the national and international research community.

  18. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES TO BODY FLUIDS AND BEHAVIORS REGARDING THEIR PREVENTION AND POST-EXPOSURE AMONG MEDICAL AND NURSING STUDENTS AT A BRAZILIAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ribeiro Fagundes de Souza-Borges

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the frequencies and characteristics of occupational exposures among medical and nursing students at a Brazilian public university, in addition to their prevention and post-exposure behavior. During the second semester of 2010, a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was completed by 253/320 (79.1% medical students of the clinical course and 149/200 (74.5% nursing students who were already performing practical activities. Among medical students, 53 (20.9% suffered 73 injuries, which mainly occurred while performing extra-curricular activities (32.9%, with cutting and piercing objects (56.2%, in the emergency room (39.7%, and as a result of lack of technical preparation or distraction (54.8%. Among nursing students, 27 (18.1% suffered 37 injuries, which mainly occurred with hollow needles (67.6% in the operating room or wards (72.2%, and as a result of lack of technical preparation or distraction (62.1%. Among medical and nursing students, respectively, 96.4% and 48% were dissatisfied with the instructions on previously received exposure prevention; 48% and 18% did not always use personal protective equipment; 67.6% and 16.8% recapped used needles; 49.3% and 35.1% did not bother to find out the source patient's serological results post-exposure; and 1.4% and 18.9% officially reported injuries. In conclusion, this study found high frequencies of exposures among the assessed students, inadequate practices in prevention and post-exposure, and, consequently, the need for training in “standard precautions” to prevent such exposures.

  19. Occupational exposures to body fluids and behaviors regarding their prevention and post-exposure among medical and nursing students at a Brazilian public university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Borges, Fernanda Ribeiro Fagundes de; Ribeiro, Larissa Araújo; Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Marques de

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the frequencies and characteristics of occupational exposures among medical and nursing students at a Brazilian public university, in addition to their prevention and post-exposure behavior. During the second semester of 2010, a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was completed by 253/320 (79.1%) medical students of the clinical course and 149/200 (74.5%) nursing students who were already performing practical activities. Among medical students, 53 (20.9%) suffered 73 injuries, which mainly occurred while performing extra-curricular activities (32.9%), with cutting and piercing objects (56.2%), in the emergency room (39.7%), and as a result of lack of technical preparation or distraction (54.8%). Among nursing students, 27 (18.1%) suffered 37 injuries, which mainly occurred with hollow needles (67.6%) in the operating room or wards (72.2%), and as a result of lack of technical preparation or distraction (62.1%). Among medical and nursing students, respectively, 96.4% and 48% were dissatisfied with the instructions on previously received exposure prevention; 48% and 18% did not always use personal protective equipment; 67.6% and 16.8% recapped used needles; 49.3% and 35.1% did not bother to find out the source patient's serological results post-exposure; and 1.4% and 18.9% officially reported injuries. In conclusion, this study found high frequencies of exposures among the assessed students, inadequate practices in prevention and post-exposure, and, consequently, the need for training in "standard precautions" to prevent such exposures.

  20. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes research during 1982 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Carcinogenesis address mechanisms of chemical and radiation carcinogenesis including the processes of tumor initiation and promotion. The studies employ rat liver and mouse skin models as well as human rodent cell culture systems. The use of liposomes for metal mobilization is also explored. Low Level Radiation studies include delineation of the hematopoietic and other responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiation. Molecular Biology research develops two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other diseases. Fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and other key proteins are included, as are studies of cell growth, and of molecular and cellular effects of solar uv light. Research in Toxicology uses cellular, physiological, whole animal, and chronobiological end points and chemical separations to elucidate mechanisms and evaluate hazards of coal conversion by-products, actinides, and toxic metals. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

  1. The Unified Medical Language System: an informatics research collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, B L; Lindberg, D A; Schoolman, H M; Barnett, G O

    1998-01-01

    In 1986, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) assembled a large multidisciplinary, multisite team to work on the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), a collaborative research project aimed at reducing fundamental barriers to the application of computers to medicine. Beyond its tangible products, the UMLS Knowledge Sources, and its influence on the field of informatics, the UMLS project is an interesting case study in collaborative research and development. It illustrates the strengths and challenges of substantive collaboration among widely distributed research groups. Over the past decade, advances in computing and communications have minimized the technical difficulties associated with UMLS collaboration and also facilitated the development, dissemination, and use of the UMLS Knowledge Sources. The spread of the World Wide Web has increased the visibility of the information access problems caused by multiple vocabularies and many information sources which are the focus of UMLS work. The time is propitious for building on UMLS accomplishments and making more progress on the informatics research issues first highlighted by the UMLS project more than 10 years ago.

  2. Mapping out the subject of Brazilian social psychology in the production of the national association of research and post-graduate studies in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Adegas de Azambuja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper problematizes the Brazilian Social Psychology and its knowledge production on the registers of the Work Group (WG of symposiums of the National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology (ANPEPP, during 1988 to 2010. Using Michel Foucault's archeo-genealogical perspective and the contributions by Ian Hacking about the historical ontology of subjects, we analyzed technologies of power and knowledge in the disciplines of Social Psychology. We selected the WG abstracts in which circulate the utterances that make up the discursive field of Brazilian Social Psychology. Using the narrative of WGs we outlined a discursive formation of identities/technologies of the subject. The knowledges of Social Psychology in the history of the ANPEPP's WGs contribute to the constitution of categories and psychological classifications which objectivize subjects. We think Social Psychology, in its criticisms related to psychological and social concepts comprises practices and regimes of truth about the subject of Social Psychology.

  3. Screening for depression in medical research: ethical challenges and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheehan Aisling M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the important role of depression in major illnesses, screening measures for depression are commonly used in medical research. The protocol for managing participants with positive screens is unclear and raises ethical concerns. The aim of this article is to identify and critically discuss the ethical issues that arise when a positive screen for depression is detected, and offer some guidance on managing these issues. Discussion Deciding on whether to report positive screens to healthcare practitioners is both an ethical and a pragmatic dilemma. Evidence suggests that reporting positive depression screens should only be considered in the context of collaborative care. Possible adverse effects, such as the impact of false-positive results, potentially inappropriate labelling, and potentially inappropriate treatment also need to be considered. If possible, the psychometric properties of the selected screening measure should be determined in the target population, and a threshold for depression that minimises the rate of false-positive results should be chosen. It should be clearly communicated to practitioners that screening scores are not diagnostic for depression, and they should be informed about the diagnostic accuracy of the measure. Research participants need to be made aware of the consequences of the detection of high scores on screening measures, and to be fully informed about the implications of the research protocol. Summary Further research is needed and the experiences of researchers, participants, and practitioners need to be collated before the value of reporting positive screens for depression can be ascertained. In developing research protocols, the ethical challenges highlighted should be considered. Participants must be agreeable to the agreed protocol and efforts should be made to minimise potentially adverse effects.

  4. Screening for depression in medical research: ethical challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Aisling M; McGee, Hannah

    2013-01-08

    Due to the important role of depression in major illnesses, screening measures for depression are commonly used in medical research. The protocol for managing participants with positive screens is unclear and raises ethical concerns. The aim of this article is to identify and critically discuss the ethical issues that arise when a positive screen for depression is detected, and offer some guidance on managing these issues. Deciding on whether to report positive screens to healthcare practitioners is both an ethical and a pragmatic dilemma. Evidence suggests that reporting positive depression screens should only be considered in the context of collaborative care. Possible adverse effects, such as the impact of false-positive results, potentially inappropriate labelling, and potentially inappropriate treatment also need to be considered. If possible, the psychometric properties of the selected screening measure should be determined in the target population, and a threshold for depression that minimises the rate of false-positive results should be chosen. It should be clearly communicated to practitioners that screening scores are not diagnostic for depression, and they should be informed about the diagnostic accuracy of the measure. Research participants need to be made aware of the consequences of the detection of high scores on screening measures, and to be fully informed about the implications of the research protocol. Further research is needed and the experiences of researchers, participants, and practitioners need to be collated before the value of reporting positive screens for depression can be ascertained. In developing research protocols, the ethical challenges highlighted should be considered. Participants must be agreeable to the agreed protocol and efforts should be made to minimise potentially adverse effects.

  5. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Medical and Research Study Records of Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Medical & Research Study Records of Human Volunteers System collects demographic and medical information on subjects who participate in research. Learn how this data is collected, used, access to the data, and the purpose of data collection.

  6. Indigenous Brazilian Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandra Balbinot

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research seeks to understand to what extent companies in emerging countries, specifically, Brazilian, adopt dominant management practices, the so-called Euro-American practices, possess their one, or show a syncretism between the two. Methods: Mixed research. One phase was to collect data using a survey about cultural dimensions adopted from GLOBE (House 1998 management practices and also from Brazilian academy. Another was to collect data through interviews, which were analyzed in parallel. Results: Of the seven dominant cultural dimensions, indigenous practices influenced two. Another three were influenced by dominant management practices. Two of the local dimensions, even with internationalization, merged practices with Brazilian cultural traits. Even so, the practices derived from Jeitinho diminished relative to the international relations and experience of managers. Conclusions: The paper shows the existence of powerful Brazilian Indigenous Managerial Practices such as personalism and formalism. These practices have great influence on international business negotiations. On the other hand, it also shows that there are still dominant managerial practices specially in the case of more internationalized Brazilian managers

  7. Self-experimentation and its role in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisse, Allen B

    2012-01-01

    Although experimentation involving human volunteers has attracted intense study, the matter of self-experimentation among medical researchers has received much less attention. Many questions have been answered only in part, or have been left unanswered. How common is this practice? Is it more common among certain nationalities? What have been the predominant medical fields in which self-experimentation has occurred? How dangerous an act has this proved to be? What have been the trends over time? What is the future likely to bring?From the available literature, I identified and analyzed 465 documented instances of this practice, performed over the course of the past 2 centuries. Most instances occurred in the United States. The peak of self-experimentation occurred in the first half of the 20th century. Eight deaths were recorded. A number of the investigators enjoyed successful careers, including the receipt of Nobel Prizes. Although self-experimentation by physicians and other biological scientists appears to be in decline, the courage of those involved and the benefits to society cannot be denied.

  8. Seeing is believing: good graphic design principles for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Susan P; Bancken, Fabrice; Crowe, Brenda; Soukup, Mat; Botsis, Taxiarchis; Forshee, Richard

    2015-09-30

    Have you noticed when you browse a book, journal, study report, or product label how your eye is drawn to figures more than to words and tables? Statistical graphs are powerful ways to transparently and succinctly communicate the key points of medical research. Furthermore, the graphic design itself adds to the clarity of the messages in the data. The goal of this paper is to provide a mechanism for selecting the appropriate graph to thoughtfully construct quality deliverables using good graphic design principles. Examples are motivated by the efforts of a Safety Graphics Working Group that consisted of scientists from the pharmaceutical industry, Food and Drug Administration, and academic institutions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Comparison of frailty among Japanese, Brazilian Japanese descendants and Brazilian community-dwelling older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Priscila Yukari Sewo; Sampaio, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho; Yamada, Minoru; Ogita, Mihoko; Arai, Hidenori

    2015-06-01

    To investigate frailty in Japanese, Brazilian Japanese descendants and Brazilian older women. The collected data included sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, and the frailty index Kihon Checklist. We analyzed the differences between the mean scores of Kihon Checklist domains (using ancova) and the percentage of frail women (using χ(2)-test). We carried out a binary logistic regression with Kihon Checklist domains. A total of 211 participants (Japanese n = 84, Brazilian Japanese descendants n = 55, Brazilian n = 72) participated in this research. The Brazilian participants had the highest total Kihon Checklist scores (more frail), whereas the Brazilian Japanese descendants had the lowest scores (P Brazilian group had more participants with oral dysfunction (P Brazilian women were likely to be more frail than the participants in other groups. More than the environment itself, the lifestyle and sociodemographic conditions could affect the frailty of older Brazilian women. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. Plasma medicine—current state of research and medical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltmann, K.-D.; von Woedtke, Th

    2017-01-01

    Plasma medicine means the direct application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) on or in the human body for therapeutic purposes. Further, the field interacts strongly with results gained for biological decontamination. Experimental research as well as first practical application is realized using two basic principles of CAP sources: dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) and atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ). Originating from the fundamental insights that the biological effects of CAP are most probably caused by changes of the liquid environment of cells, and are dominated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS), basic mechanisms of biological plasma activity are identified. It was demonstrated that there is no increased risk of cold plasma application and, above all, there are no indications for genotoxic effects. The most important biological effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were identified: (1) inactivation of a broad spectrum of microorganisms including multidrug resistant ones; (2) stimulation of cell proliferation and tissue regeneration with lower plasma treatment intensity (treatment time); (3) inactivation of cells by initialization of programmed cell death (apoptosis) with higher plasma treatment intensity (treatment time). In recent years, the main focus of clinical applications was in the field of wound healing and treatment of infective skin diseases. First CAP sources are CE-certified as medical devices now which is the main precondition to start the introduction of plasma medicine into clinical reality. Plasma application in dentistry and, above all, CAP use for cancer treatment are becoming more and more important research fields in plasma medicine. A further in-depth knowledge of control and adaptation of plasma parameters and plasma geometries is needed to obtain suitable and reliable plasma sources for the different therapeutic indications and to open up new fields of medical application.

  11. Evaluation of the medical student research programme in Norwegian medical schools. A survey of students and supervisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tømmerås Karin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Student Research Programme is a national education and grant scheme for medical students who wish to carry out research in parallel with their studies. The purpose of the programme is to increase recruitment of people with a standard medical degree to medical research. The Research Programme was established in 2002 and underwent a thorough evaluation during the spring of 2007. The evaluation should investigate if the programme had fulfilled its objectives of increased recruitment to medical research, in addition to the students' and supervisors' satisfaction of the programme, and unwanted differences between the universities. Methods Data was collected from students, supervisors and administrative staff via web-based questionnaires. Information about admission, implementation, results achieved and satisfaction was analysed and compared between the four Norwegian medical schools. In addition, the position of the scheme in relation to the national Quality Reform of Higher Education was analysed. Results At the end of 2006, the Medical Student Research Programme had recruited 265 medical students to research. These consisted of 214 active students, 35 who had completed their studies and only 17 who had dropped out. Both students and supervisors were generally very satisfied with the scheme, including the curriculum, the results achieved and the administrative service. The majority of students wanted to continue their research towards a PhD and, of those who had completed the Medical Student Research Programme, practically all had published one or several scientific papers. The survey showed only small differences between the four medical schools, despite their choice of somewhat different solutions in terms of administration and organisation. The Medical Student Research Programme satisfies the majority of the demands of the Quality Reform, however as an integrated research programme aimed at a PhD it presupposes

  12. Evaluation of the medical student research programme in Norwegian medical schools. A survey of students and supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunskaar, Steinar; Breivik, Jarle; Siebke, Maje; Tømmerås, Karin; Figenschau, Kristian; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2009-07-14

    The Medical Student Research Programme is a national education and grant scheme for medical students who wish to carry out research in parallel with their studies. The purpose of the programme is to increase recruitment of people with a standard medical degree to medical research. The Research Programme was established in 2002 and underwent a thorough evaluation during the spring of 2007. The evaluation should investigate if the programme had fulfilled its objectives of increased recruitment to medical research, in addition to the students' and supervisors' satisfaction of the programme, and unwanted differences between the universities. Data was collected from students, supervisors and administrative staff via web-based questionnaires. Information about admission, implementation, results achieved and satisfaction was analysed and compared between the four Norwegian medical schools. In addition, the position of the scheme in relation to the national Quality Reform of Higher Education was analysed. At the end of 2006, the Medical Student Research Programme had recruited 265 medical students to research. These consisted of 214 active students, 35 who had completed their studies and only 17 who had dropped out. Both students and supervisors were generally very satisfied with the scheme, including the curriculum, the results achieved and the administrative service. The majority of students wanted to continue their research towards a PhD and, of those who had completed the Medical Student Research Programme, practically all had published one or several scientific papers. The survey showed only small differences between the four medical schools, despite their choice of somewhat different solutions in terms of administration and organisation. The Medical Student Research Programme satisfies the majority of the demands of the Quality Reform, however as an integrated research programme aimed at a PhD it presupposes access to PhD courses before the completion of medical

  13. [Exploring application of data mining technology in researching composition rules of Tibetan medical formulas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairang, Nanjia; Renzeng, Duojie; Duojie, Cairang; Luosang, Dongzhi; Li, Xianjia

    2012-08-01

    There are thousands of medicinal formulas in the ancient Tibetan medical texts. Researching the composition rules of Tibetan medical formulas is a very important step in the study and practice of Tibetan medicine. In order to explore the composition rules of Tibetan medical formulas this article draws on the research methods utilized in related fields of traditional Chinese medicine adapted to the unique characteristics of Tibetan medicine. This is the first time the utilization of data mining methods has been proposed for the research of Tibetan medical formulas. It is believed that data mining techniques can aid researchers in discovering the composition rules of Tibetan medical formulas in accordance with Tibetan medical theory.

  14. Choosing the scientific journal for publishing research work: perceptions of medical and dental researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandesh, Nagarajappa; Wahrekar, Shilpa

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing demand to publish due to 'publish or perish' culture among research and academic institutions, the choice of a journal for publishing scientific articles becomes very important. A publication with many citations and high impact factor can propel researchers in their academic careers. The aim of this study is to explore the perceptions of medical and dental researchers in India about the important criteria to consider while selecting scientific journals for publishing their research. 206 faculty staff members from three medical and five dental institutions were selected through convenience sampling. The study participants completed a questionnaire with 24 closed ended questions on various factors related to journal selection for publication. Factors such as publication frequency, journal citation, indexing, peer-review, impact factor, publication fees, acceptance or rejection rate, publishing house, previous submission and online submission process were considered. The responses were recorded using a Likert scale. Cronbach's alpha as a measure of internal consistency or homogeneity was 0.909. Descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U test were employed for comparison of responses among study participants. The mean weight of 24 criteria on a scale of 0 to 4 varied between 2.13 and 3.45. The results showed that indexing of journal (3.45±0.74), online submission (3.24±0.83), impact factor (3.11±0.91), peer-review process (3.0±1.02) and publication fees (2.99±1.11) were among the most important criteria to consider in journal selection. Of the 24 factors considered by health researchers for journal selection, the most important were Journal indexing, online submission, impact factor, peer-review and publication fees. Compared to dental researchers, medical researchers perceived open access and peer-review process as significantly more important criteria.

  15. The bibliometric behaviour of an expanding specialisation of medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelwall, M.; Levitt, J.

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates macular disease research and cataract research, which are both specialisations of Ophthalmology. Macular disease and cataracts are amongst the three leading causes of blindness in the world. Macular research expanded between 1992 and 2006 in that the proportion of Ophthalmology articles classified as macular increased by over 300% in that period. By contrast, during that same period the proportion of Ophthalmology articles classified as ‘cataract’ decreased by over 20%. This study investigates the bibliometric differences between the rapidly expanding specialisation of ‘macular’ and the slightly contracting specialisation of ‘cataract’. Our rationale for investigating these bibliometric differences is that previous researchers have suggested that articles in expanding specialisations are likely to be more highly cited than articles in relatively static specialisations, and it seems important, when comparing specialisations, to try to ensure that articles in a relatively static specialisation are not penalised. This study first identifies substantial macro-level bibliometric differences between the two specialisations and then gauges the extent to which these differences were associated with the expansion of Macular compared with Cataract. The initial investigation uses coarse-grained delineations of the specialisation, formed from search terms frequently associated with macular (and cataract). It finds that articles in the relatively expanding specialisation were substantially more highly cited and that these differences were associated with the expansion of the specialisation rather than the size of the specialisation (the Matthew effect). A major limitation of this study is that its coarse-grained delineation of specialisations fails to identify substantial numbers of articles in the specialisation. A more fine-grained delineation using PubMed’s Medical Subject Headings (MESH) has been piloted and additional articles

  16. Medical research in emergency research in the European Union member states: tensions between theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompanje, Erwin J O; Maas, Andrew I R; Menon, David K; Kesecioglu, Jozef

    2014-04-01

    In almost all of the European Union member states, prior consent by a legal representative is used as a substitute for informed patient consent for non-urgent medical research. Deferred (patient and/or proxy) consent is accepted as a substitute in acute emergency research in approximately half of the member states. In 12 European Union member states emergency research is not mentioned in national law. Medical research in the European Union is covered by the Clinical Trial Directive 2001/20/EC. A proposal for a regulation by the European Commission is currently being examined by the European Parliament and the Council and will replace Directive 2001/20/EC. Deferred patient and/or proxy consent is allowed in the proposed regulation, but does not fit completely in the practice of emergency research. For example, deferred consent is only possible when legal representatives are not available. This criterion will delay inclusion of patients in acute life-threatening conditions in short time frames. As the regulation shall be binding in its entirety in all member states, emergency research in acute situations is still not possible as it should be.

  17. Affirming our commitment to research: the Medical Library Association's research policy statement: the process and findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefsheim, Suzanne F; Rankin, Jocelyn A; Perry, Gerald J; McKibbon, K Ann

    2008-04-01

    Building on its 1995 research policy statement, the Medical Library Association (MLA) has issued a new research policy, The Research Imperative. This paper shares the background research that informed the new policy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifty-one key informants representing various library types, functions, geographic locations, ages, and ethnicities. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze the resulting textual database. Additionally, to gather input from the membership as a whole, two open forums were held at MLA annual meetings. Key informant data indicated that the policy should provide roles for MLA in leadership, advocacy, collaboration, services, education, publishing, and development of a research agenda. Evidence-based library and information practice was emphasized. Six themes emerged to center the new policy: creation of a research culture, challenges, domains of research, research skills set, roles of stakeholders, and measurement of progress. Reflecting the interests and beliefs of the membership, The Research Imperative challenges MLA members to build a supportive culture that values and contributes to a research base that is recognized as an essential tool for future practice.

  18. Symptoms of disease and psychological adaptation in Brazilian scleroderma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Catarina Correia; Maia, Ângela Costa

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the prevalence and impact of symptoms of scleroderma in Brazilian patients and to describe their satisfaction with medical care and psychological symptoms. One-hundred and twenty eight Brazilian scleroderma patients participated in an online survey by filling out a Portuguese version of the Canadian Scleroderma Patient Survey of Health Concerns and Research Priorities. The mean age of participants was 38 years old (SD = 12.33), and most of the participants were females (n = 108, 88%). Hardening/tightening of skin, itchy skin and joint pain were symptoms reported as being most frequent, whereas muscle pain and difficulty climbing stairs were symptoms reported as having a higher impact. Participants reported dissatisfaction regarding the medical care. Psychological evaluations suggested that participants who scored above clinical values for depression was significantly high (90%; n = 77). In addition, 48% (n = 42) of participants fit the clinical criteria for anxiety disorder, and 40% (n = 35) of participants fit the clinical criteria of social phobia. Finally, body image disturbance was reported by 69% (n = 88) of participants. The physical and psychological symptoms associated with scleroderma have a significant impact on patient quality of life. The Brazilian patients in the current sample report higher levels of dissatisfaction with medical care than patients from Canada and European countries. These Brazilian patients also report more psychopathology, particularly symptoms of depression. The current results suggest that there is a need for professionals to consider and attend to the individual problems of scleroderma patients.

  19. Medical researchers unite for study on cancer intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Drs. Antoine Snijders and Jian-Hua Mao, whose article is published in this issue of AMOR and discuss their views on cancer genetics, targeted therapy, and personalized medicine.Having worked together in numerous joint investigations that have yielded significant results, Dr. Snijders and Dr. Mao would most definitely agree that two heads are better than one. “Researchers these days need to have the ability to collaborate across many different disciplines,” said the duo in an exclusive interview with AMOR. Dr. Snijders and Dr. Mao, both with PhDs in cancer genetics and genomics, are currently based at the Biological Systems and Engineering Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California, which is a member of the national laboratory system supported by the U.S Department of Energy through its Office of Science. The Berkeley Lab is well known for producing excellent scholars, as thirteen Nobel Prize winners are affiliated with the Lab and seventy of its scientists are members of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS, one of the highest honors for a scientist in the United States. Dr. Snijders, a Dutch who has conducted his research at Berkeley Lab for the past eight years, did his Masters in Science (Medical Biology at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands – an institute with a strong focus on scientific research and is home to five Spinoza Prize (a.k.a. the “Dutch Nobel” winners. Dr. Snijders’s PhD (cum laude in cancer and molecular biology was awarded by University Utrecht in Netherlands, but his research work was carried out at the University of California San Francisco. Subsequently, he continued his postdoctoral research in molecular cytogenetics at the same institution. A prolific author of 114 publications (with 3,851 citations according to ResearchGate, Dr. Snijders – who also volunteers with California’s Contra Costa County Search and Rescue team for missing persons – has interests in

  20. Reporting bias in medical research - a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kölsch Heike

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reporting bias represents a major problem in the assessment of health care interventions. Several prominent cases have been described in the literature, for example, in the reporting of trials of antidepressants, Class I anti-arrhythmic drugs, and selective COX-2 inhibitors. The aim of this narrative review is to gain an overview of reporting bias in the medical literature, focussing on publication bias and selective outcome reporting. We explore whether these types of bias have been shown in areas beyond the well-known cases noted above, in order to gain an impression of how widespread the problem is. For this purpose, we screened relevant articles on reporting bias that had previously been obtained by the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care in the context of its health technology assessment reports and other research work, together with the reference lists of these articles. We identified reporting bias in 40 indications comprising around 50 different pharmacological, surgical (e.g. vacuum-assisted closure therapy, diagnostic (e.g. ultrasound, and preventive (e.g. cancer vaccines interventions. Regarding pharmacological interventions, cases of reporting bias were, for example, identified in the treatment of the following conditions: depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Alzheimer's disease, pain, migraine, cardiovascular disease, gastric ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, urinary incontinence, atopic dermatitis, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypercholesterolaemia, thyroid disorders, menopausal symptoms, various types of cancer (e.g. ovarian cancer and melanoma, various types of infections (e.g. HIV, influenza and Hepatitis B, and acute trauma. Many cases involved the withholding of study data by manufacturers and regulatory agencies or the active attempt by manufacturers to suppress publication. The ascertained effects of reporting bias included the

  1. [Business, politics, science, and visa versa: an institutional history of Brazilian medical journalism between 1827 and 1843].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luiz Otávio

    2004-01-01

    This analysis of Brazil's first medical newspapers - Propagador das Ciências Médicas (1827-28); Semanário de Saúde Pública (1831-33); Diário de Saúde (1835-36); Revista Médica Fluminense (1835-41); Revista Médica Brasileira (1841-43) - shows how Rio de Janeiro's socio-cultural context made it possible for this type of publication to emerge within the city's dynamic, troubled environment of the 1820s and 30s. I argue that the distinguishing feature of Brazil's early medical journalism was a symbiosis between business (local publishing houses' commercial interests), politics (struggles for political hegemony during the consolidation of the Imperial State), and science (the movement to institutionalize medicine and affirm it as a science).

  2. A literatura médica brasileira sobre a peste branca: 1870-1940 Brazilian medical literature about the white plague: 1870-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila de Sousa Sheppard

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available As teorias de Darwin constituem o paradigma escolhido pelos médicos do Sul dos Estados Unidos, quando se debruçaram sobre o tema de diferenças na morbidade e na mortalidade entre as raças após a abolição. Estes médicos teceram considerações sobre a crise de saúde que afetou a população descendente dos africanos naquela região. O mesmo não se deu com os médicos brasileiros ao tentarem entender e explicar a crise de saúde que afetou a população de descendência africana no seu país. Na verdade, em nenhum dos jornais médicos brasileiros, desde o final da abolição até a década de 1930, pode se encontrar um só artigo onde um médico atribuísse a morbilidade ou mortalidade de seus pacientes negros ou dos negros em geral, a qualquer fonte que usasse um paradigma racial como referência. Os psiquiatras e os médicos eugenistas foram exceção.The Darwinian theories compound the paradigm adopted by the physicians in Southern United States, when they turned to the subject of the differences in morbidity and mortality among the races after abolition. These physicians engaged in thoughts about the health crisis that assaulted the African-American population on that region. The Brazilian physicians, on the other hand, would not try to understand or explain the health crisis that overtook the population descended from Africans on their country. Actually, not a single Brazilian medical journal, since the end of abolition to the 1930s, published an article where a physician indicated the morbidity and mortality of his negro patients, or of negroes in general, as caused by any source related to a racial paradigm. The psychiatrists and eugenicist doctors were exceptions.

  3. Analysing the Research Articles Published in Three Periodicals of Medical Librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiqi, Zhang

    1995-01-01

    Reports findings from a bibliometric study of research articles published in the "Bulletin of the Medical Library Association," the "Journal of the Japan Medical Library Association," and the "Medical Information Services" from 1990 to 1992. Subject categories, length of articles, methods of research, and number of…

  4. Cannabidiol in medical marijuana: Research vistas and potential opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Carola; Lee, Yena; Carmona, Nicole E; Cha, Danielle S; Ragguett, Renee-Marie; Rosenblat, Joshua D; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Ho, Roger C; McIntyre, Roger S

    2017-07-01

    The high and increasing prevalence of medical marijuana consumption in the general population invites the need for quality evidence regarding its safety and efficacy. Herein, we synthesize extant literature pertaining to the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) and its brain effects. The principle phytocannabinoid Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) and CBD are the major pharmacologically active cannabinoids. The effect of CBD on brain systems as well as on phenomenological measures (e.g. cognitive function) are distinct and in many cases opposite to that of Δ 9 -THC. Cannabidiol is without euphoriant properties, and exerts antipsychotic, anxiolytic, anti-seizure, as well as anti-inflammatory properties. It is essential to parcellate phytocannabinoids into their constituent moieties as the most abundant cannabinoid have differential effects on physiologic systems in psychopathology measures. Disparate findings and reports related to effects of cannabis consumption reflect differential relative concentration of Δ 9 -THC and CBD. Existing literature, notwithstanding its deficiencies, provides empirical support for the hypothesis that CBD may exert beneficial effects on brain effector systems/substrates subserving domain-based phenomenology. Interventional studies with purified CBD are warranted with a call to target-engagement proof-of-principle studies using the research domain criteria (RDoC) framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sports genetics moving forward: lessons learned from medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, C Mikael; Wheeler, Matthew T; Waggott, Daryl; Caleshu, Colleen; Ashley, Euan A

    2016-03-01

    Sports genetics can take advantage of lessons learned from human disease genetics. By righting past mistakes and increasing scientific rigor, we can magnify the breadth and depth of knowledge in the field. We present an outline of challenges facing sports genetics in the light of experiences from medical research. Sports performance is complex, resulting from a combination of a wide variety of different traits and attributes. Improving sports genetics will foremost require analyses based on detailed phenotyping. To find widely valid, reproducible common variants associated with athletic phenotypes, study sample sizes must be dramatically increased. One paradox is that in order to confirm relevance, replications in specific populations must be undertaken. Family studies of athletes may facilitate the discovery of rare variants with large effects on athletic phenotypes. The complexity of the human genome, combined with the complexity of athletic phenotypes, will require additional metadata and biological validation to identify a comprehensive set of genes involved. Analysis of personal genetic and multiomic profiles contribute to our conceptualization of precision medicine; the same will be the case in precision sports science. In the refinement of sports genetics it is essential to evaluate similarities and differences between sexes and among ethnicities. Sports genetics to date have been hampered by small sample sizes and biased methodology, which can lead to erroneous associations and overestimation of effect sizes. Consequently, currently available genetic tests based on these inherently limited data cannot predict athletic performance with any accuracy. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for medical researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Indrayan, Abhaya

    2011-04-01

    Sensitivity and specificity are two components that measure the inherent validity of a diagnostic test for dichotomous outcomes against a gold standard. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is the plot that depicts the trade-off between the sensitivity and (1-specificity) across a series of cut-off points when the diagnostic test is continuous or on ordinal scale (minimum 5 categories). This is an effective method for assessing the performance of a diagnostic test. The aim of this article is to provide basic conceptual framework and interpretation of ROC analysis to help medical researchers to use it effectively. ROC curve and its important components like area under the curve, sensitivity at specified specificity and vice versa, and partial area under the curve are discussed. Various other issues such as choice between parametric and non-parametric methods, biases that affect the performance of a diagnostic test, sample size for estimating the sensitivity, specificity, and area under ROC curve, and details of commonly used softwares in ROC analysis are also presented.

  7. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses Evolução da pesquisa em aleitamento materno conduzida pela enfermagem brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Oliveira B. Oriá

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches of Portuguese-language sources. Articles were organized and analyzed chronologically by comparing the evolution of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Program. The incomplete research output of the Brazilian nursing profession in regard to breastfeeding research needs to be addressed. In addition, specific cultural, sociological, and anthropological characteristics of Brazilian regional settings remain to be explored. Emphasis on potential confounders and critical interrelations is warranted.Sabe-se que o aleitamento materno exclusivo é importante para a sobrevivência, crescimento e desenvolvimento infantil. Os objetivos desta revisão foram: apresentar uma síntese da produção intelectual da enfermagem brasileira na área do aleitamento materno nos últimos vinte anos, criticar questões teóricas e metodológicas dos estudos, e providenciar direções para futuras pesquisas e práticas de enfermagem em relação ao aleitamento materno. Os estudos incluídos nesta revisão foram identificados por meio de busca no LILACS para estudos publicados em português. Os artigos foram organizados e analisados cronologicamente, traçando uma comparação com a evolução do Programa Nacional de Aleitamento Materno. A lacuna da pesquisa em aleitamento materno pela enfermagem brasileira precisa ser preenchida como uma agenda prioritária. Além disso, as peculiaridades culturais, sociológicas e antropológicas que caracterizam cada região brasileira precisam ser

  8. Stem cell research and regenerative medicine at King Abdullah International Medical Research Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abumaree, Mohamed H; Al Askar, Ahmed S; Kalionis, Bill; Abomaray, Fawaz Mohamed; Jawdat, Dunia; Hajeer, Ali H; Fakhoury, Hana; Al Jumah, Mohammed A

    2014-12-01

    Translation of stem cell research from bench to bedside opens up exciting new therapeutic options for patients. Although stem cell research has progressed rapidly, its clinical applications have not kept pace. We report on the establishment of a stem cell research and regenerative medicine program at King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC). The purpose of this unit is to coordinate advanced stem cell research and translational outcomes with the goal of treating chronic human diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, neurological, immunological, and liver diseases. Our first step in achieving this goal was to integrate the stem cells and regenerative medicine unit with our umbilical cord blood bank and bone marrow registry. This organizational structure will provide different sources for stem cells for research and clinical purposes, and facilitate our stem cell research and stem cell transplantation program. We are at an early and exciting stage in our program, but we believe that our progress to the international stage will be rapid and have a significant impact.

  9. Founders hope new venture-capital fund will spur medical, biotechnology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Charlotte

    1995-01-01

    Lack of a coherent industrial strategy and venture capital have hindered scientific researchers in Canada, but the Canadian Medical Discoveries Fund (CMDF) Inc. hopes to change that. Under the leadership of Dr. Henry Friesen, president of the Medical Research Council of Canada, and Dr. Calvin Stiller, head of the multiorgan transplant unit at University Hospital, London, Ont., the new fund proposes to invest in promising medical and biotechnology research companies in Canada. The research council's peerreview system gives the new fund scientific credibility.

  10. The Medical Science Research and Development Supported by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Min, Tae-Sun; Han, Jin; Kim, Seong-Yong; Rhee, Byoung-Doo; Kim, Myung-Suk

    2005-01-01

    This study examined ways of promoting research in the medical sciences by evaluating trends in research funding, and the present status of research funding by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF...

  11. Statistical Problems In Medical Research | Okeh | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many medical specialties have reviewed the drawbacks of statistical methods in medical diagnosis in specialized areas in their journals. To my knowledge this has not been done in general practice. Given the main role of a general practitioner as a biostatistician, I thought it would be of interest to enumerate statistical ...

  12. Statistical problems in medical research | Okeh | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many medical specialties have reviewed the drawbacks of statistical methods in medical diagnosis in specialized areas in their journals. To my knowledge this has not been done in general practice. Given the main role of a general practitioner as a biostatistician, it would be of interest to enumerate statistical problems in ...

  13. [Design and research of hospital medical supplies management information system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hai-lin

    2009-03-01

    This paper introduces an advanced means to confirm management objective, analyze management need, reduce purchase and operating cost, optimize the flow management and establish a medical supplies management information system in purchasing, using, maintaining and disposing step. The system has advantage in realizing efficiency analyze, improving service and quality, guaranteeing safely use of medical supplies.

  14. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry applications in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, Jens; Amann, Anton

    2009-06-01

    Gathering information about a subject's physiological and pathophysiological condition from the `smell' of breath is an idea that dates back to antiquity. This intriguing concept of non-invasive diagnosis has been revitalized by `exhaled breath analysis' in recent decades. A main driving force was the development of sensitive and versatile gas-chromatographic and mass-spectrometric instruments for trace gas analysis. Ironically, only non-smelling constituents of breath, such as O(2), CO(2), H(2), and NO have so far been included in routine clinical breath analysis. The `smell' of human breath, on the other hand, arises through a combination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of which several hundred have been identified to date. Most of these volatiles are systemic and are released in the gas-exchange between blood and air in the alveoli. The concentration of these compounds in the alveolar breath is related to the respective concentrations in blood. Measuring VOCs in exhaled breath allows for screening of disease markers, studying the uptake and effect of medication (pharmacokinetics), or monitoring physiological processes. There is a range of requirements for instruments for the analysis of a complex matrix, such as human breath. Mass-spectrometric techniques are particularly well suited for this task since they offer the possibility of detecting a large variety of interesting compounds. A further requirement is the ability to measure accurately in the concentration range of breath VOCs, i.e. between parts-per-trillion (pptv) and parts-per-million (ppmv) range. In the mid 1990's proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was developed as a powerful and promising tool for the analysis of VOCs in gaseous media. Soon thereafter these instruments became commercially available to a still growing user community and have now become standard equipment in many fields including environmental research, food and flavour science, as well as life sciences. Their

  15. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  16. Quantitative and qualitative methods in medical education research: AMEE Guide No 90: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Sandars, John

    2014-09-01

    Medical educators need to understand and conduct medical education research in order to make informed decisions based on the best evidence, rather than rely on their own hunches. The purpose of this Guide is to provide medical educators, especially those who are new to medical education research, with a basic understanding of how quantitative and qualitative methods contribute to the medical education evidence base through their different inquiry approaches and also how to select the most appropriate inquiry approach to answer their research questions.

  17. Quantitative and qualitative methods in medical education research: AMEE Guide No 90: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Sandars, John

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Medical educators need to understand and conduct medical education research in order to make informed decisions based on the best evidence, rather than rely on their own hunches. The purpose of this Guide is to provide medical educators, especially those who are new to medical education research, with a basic understanding of how quantitative and qualitative methods contribute to the medical education evidence base through their different inquiry approaches and also how to select the most appropriate inquiry approach to answer their research questions.

  18. Role of non-government organizations in engaging medical students in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoranjan, Branavan; Dey, Ayan K; Wang, Xin; Kuzyk, Alexandra; Petticrew, Karen; Carruthers, Chris; Arnold, Ian

    2017-03-01

    The continued decline in medical trainees entering the workforce as clinician-scientists has elevated the need to engage medical students in research. While past studies have shown early exposure to generate interest among medical students for research and academic careers, financial constraints have limited the number of such formal research training programs. In light of recent government budget cuts to support research training for medical students, non-government organizations (NGOs) may play a progressively larger role in supporting the development of clinician-scientists. Since 2005, the Mach-Gaensslen Foundation has sponsored 621 Canadian medical student research projects, which represents the largest longitudinal data set of Canadian medical students engaged in research. We present the results of the pre- and post-research studentship questionnaires, program evaluation survey and the 5-year and 10-year follow-up questionnaires of past recipients. This paper provides insight into the role of NGOs as stakeholders in the training of clinician-scientists and evaluates the impact of such programs on the attitudes and career trajectory of medical students. While the problem of too few physicians entering academic and research-oriented careers continues to grow, alternative-funding strategies from NGOs may prove to be an effective approach in developing and maintaining medical student interest in research. Copyright © 2017 American Federation for Medical Research.

  19. 77 FR 41431 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Impact of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Research Training and Medical Education at the Clinical Center on Physician Careers in Academia and... Collection Title: The Impact of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education at the Clinical Center on... Office of Clinical Research Training and Education, and the Clinical Center Director. This information...

  20. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  1. Transcultural adaptation and initial validation of Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Basel assessment of adherence to immunosuppressive medications scale (BAASIS) in kidney transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsicano, Elisa de Oliveira; Fernandes, Neimar da Silva; Colugnati, Fernando; Grincenkov, Fabiane Rossi dos Santos; Fernandes, Natalia Maria da Silva; De Geest, Sabina; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady

    2013-05-21

    Transplant recipients are expected to adhere to a lifelong immunosuppressant therapeutic regimen. However, nonadherence to treatment is an underestimated problem for which no properly validated measurement tool is available for Portuguese-speaking patients. We aimed to initially validate the Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medications Scale (BAASIS®) to accurately estimate immunosuppressant nonadherence in Brazilian transplant patients. The BAASIS® (English version) was transculturally adapted and its psychometric properties were assessed. The transcultural adaptation was performed using the Guillemin protocol. Psychometric testing included reliability (intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility, agreement, Kappa coefficient, and the Cronbach's alpha) and validity (content, criterion, and construct validities). The final version of the transculturally adapted BAASIS® was pretested, and no difficulties in understanding its content were found. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility variances (0.007 and 0.003, respectively), the Cronbach's alpha (0.7), Kappa coefficient (0.88) and the agreement (95.2%) suggest accuracy, preciseness and reliability. For construct validity, exploratory factorial analysis demonstrated unidimensionality of the first three questions (r = 0.76, r = 0.80, and r = 0.68). For criterion validity, the adapted BAASIS® was correlated with another self-report instrument, the Measure of Adherence to Treatment, and showed good congruence (r = 0.65). The BAASIS® has adequate psychometric properties and may be employed in advance to measure adherence to posttransplant immunosuppressant treatments. This instrument will be the first one validated to use in this specific transplant population and in the Portuguese language.

  2. Case reports and research productivity among Syrian medical students: Review, reality, and suggested solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamid, Naji; Almounayer, Nawar; Alsabbagh, Bana; Atassi, Baseel

    2015-01-01

    Medical students are precious seeds for better future medical research. Case reports writing may represent a relatively simple first step for beginners. Only 47 case reports are published in the literature by Syrian Medical Institutions compared to more than 500 case reports in a comparable country in the last 5 years. Many obstacles stand against developing fruitful research environment in Syria. Increasing awareness to research productivity in Syria along with comparative analysis is discussed in this article.

  3. Medical Robotic and Telesurgical Simulation and Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    corresponding tools and Physical Model Annual Report, September 2016. Project W81XWH-11-2-0158 Medical Robotic and Telesurgical Simulation and Education ...performed over the last decade have come at a time when medical education and assessment are shifting to new standards. Therefore, the interested...Error bars refer to standard error of the mean 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Mental Demand Physical Demand Temporal Demand Performance Effort

  4. Association of learning styles with research self-efficacy: study of short-term research training program for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbauld, Jill; Black, Michelle; Depp, Colin A; Daly, Rebecca; Curran, Maureen A; Winegarden, Babbi; Jeste, Dilip V

    2014-12-01

    With a growing need for developing future physician scientists, identifying characteristics of medical students who are likely to benefit from research training programs is important. This study assessed if specific learning styles of medical students, participating in federally funded short-term research training programs, were associated with research self-efficacy, a potential predictor of research career success. Seventy-five first-year medical students from 28 medical schools, selected to participate in two competitive NIH-supported summer programs for research training in aging, completed rating scales to evaluate learning styles at baseline, and research self-efficacy before and after training. We examined associations of individual learning styles (visual-verbal, sequential-global, sensing-intuitive, and active-reflective) with students' gender, ranking of medical school, and research self-efficacy. Research self-efficacy improved significantly following the training programs. Students with a verbal learning style reported significantly greater research self-efficacy at baseline, while visual, sequential, and intuitive learners demonstrated significantly greater increases in research self-efficacy from baseline to posttraining. No significant relationships were found between learning styles and students' gender or ranking of their medical school. Assessments of learning styles may provide useful information to guide future training endeavors aimed at developing the next generation of physician-scientists. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Research priorities in medical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences: categories and subcategories in the Iranian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARISA NABEIEI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research in education is a globally significant issue without a long history. Due to the importance of the issue in Health System Development programs, this study intended to determine research priorities in medical education, considering their details and functions. By determining barriers existing in research in education progress, it is tried to make research priorities more functional by recommending acceptable strategies. Methods: This is a qualitative-descriptive study in two descriptive phases. The goal of these phases was to determine research priorities subcategories in medical education by Nominal Group Technique (NGT and two rounds of Delphi method. Through the first phase, subcategories of research priorities were determined, using Nominal Group Technique under medical education experts’ supervision. Through two rounds of Delphi, a questionnaire was constructed based on the subcategories. Eventually, research priorities were determined based on their highest score (scores more than 7 out of 10. Results: In the first phase (NGT, 35 priorities in 5 major fields of medical education were presented. In the second phase, priorities were scored, using Delphi method. Medical Ethics and professionalism gained the highest scores (7.63±1.26 and educational evaluation the lowest (7.28±1.52. In this stage, 7 items were omitted but 2 of them were added again after experts’ revision in the third round of Delphi. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study and based on previous studies, it really seems that the fields of “Learning and Teaching Approaches” and “Medical Ethics and Professionalism” were more important. Because of financial and resource limitations in our country and the importance of research priorities, it is recommended to frequently study “research priorities determination program” at universities.

  6. Model for Developing Educational Research Productivity: The Medical Education Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Marcia; Hopson, Laura; House, Joseph B; Fischer, Jonathan P; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne; Hauff, Samantha; Wolff, Margaret S; Sozener, Cemal; Nypaver, Michele; Moll, Joel; Losman, Eve D; Carney, Michele; Santen, Sally A

    2015-11-01

    Education research and scholarship are essential for promotion of faculty as well as dissemination of new educational practices. Educational faculty frequently spend the majority of their time on administrative and educational commitments and as a result educators often fall behind on scholarship and research. The objective of this educational advance is to promote scholarly productivity as a template for others to follow. We formed the Medical Education Research Group (MERG) of education leaders from our emergency medicine residency, fellowship, and clerkship programs, as well as residents with a focus on education. First, we incorporated scholarship into the required activities of our education missions by evaluating the impact of programmatic changes and then submitting the curricula or process as peer-reviewed work. Second, we worked as a team, sharing projects that led to improved motivation, accountability, and work completion. Third, our monthly meetings served as brainstorming sessions for new projects, research skill building, and tracking work completion. Lastly, we incorporated a work-study graduate student to assist with basic but time-consuming tasks of completing manuscripts. The MERG group has been highly productive, achieving the following scholarship over a three-year period: 102 abstract presentations, 46 journal article publications, 13 MedEd Portal publications, 35 national didactic presentations and five faculty promotions to the next academic level. An intentional focus on scholarship has led to a collaborative group of educators successfully improving their scholarship through team productivity, which ultimately leads to faculty promotions and dissemination of innovations in education.

  7. Peer-led live research demonstrations: challenging medical student misconceptions about research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Stuart; Clarke, Alexander Kenneth

    2016-02-01

    Modern health care provision is now fundamentally evidence based, meaning competency in academic medicine is integral to medical training. The Integrated Academic Training pathway provides focussed training in this area at a postgraduate level but no such provision exists at an undergraduate level. A number of peer-led academic societies have emerged across the UK to provide education and support for undergraduates but there is little evidence about the type of peer-led interventions that are effective. We report here the findings of one such peer-led organization, the Warwick Academic Medicine Society. We found that traditional educational interventions, including didactic lectures and small-group teaching, are effective at inspiring students regarding academic medicine but poor at translating this enthusiasm into sustained involvement in research. We find this disparity to be centred on misconceptions amongst students regarding the time and skills required to meaningfully contribute to a research project. Further, we introduce the concept of the Live Research Demonstration (LRD), a novel peer-led educational intervention which aims to address these misconceptions and improve involvement of students in research. Initial pilots of the LRD concept have shown significant promise and we recommend a larger trial across multiple localities to confirm its educational benefits.

  8. Statistical errors in medical research--a review of common pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasak, Alexander M; Zaman, Qamruz; Pfeiffer, Karl P; Göbel, Georg; Ulmer, Hanno

    2007-01-27

    standards in the use of statistics in medical research are generally low. A growing body of literature points to persistent statistical errors, flaws and deficiencies in most medical journals. in this paper we present a comprehensive review of common statistical pitfalls which can occur at different stages in the scientific research process, ranging from planning a study, through conducting statistical data analysis and documenting statistical methods applied, to the presentation of study data and interpretation of study results. 47 potential statistical errors and shortcomings, differentiated for the distinct phases of medical research are presented and discussed. statisticians should be involved early in study design, as mistakes at this point can have major repercussions, negatively affecting all subsequent stages of medical research. Consideration of issues discussed in this paper, when planning, conducting and preparing medical research manuscripts, should help further enhance statistical quality in medical journals.

  9. Evaluation of negative outcomes associated with medication (NOM) by pharmacists at a home assistance programme in a Brazilian teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, P S K; Sousa, A B; Storpirtis, S

    2011-01-01

    The concept of pharmaceutical care (PC) specifically refers to the pharmacist being able to identify, prevent and resolve negative outcomes associated with medication (NOM). According to the Third Consensus of Granada, these are patient health-related outcomes not consistent with pharmacotherapy objectives, and are associated with the proper or erroneous use of medicines. In this way, pharmacists might provide the pharmacist to provide the correct use of medicines to patients who are attended at home. This study aimed to detect, classify and quantify NOM, according to the Third Consensus of Granada, in patients treated at home, who were assisted by the Home Assistance Programme of the University Hospital of University of Paulo, Brazil. A descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study was conducted. The pharmacotherapy plan was filled during the interview with the patient or caregiver. The study included 87 patients with a mean age of 66 years old, adults (89%), children (11%), female (58%) and retired (62%). A total of 62% patients presented NOM, with an average of 1.13 NOM per patient. The NOM included untreated health problems (20.6%), effects from unnecessary medicines (9.1%), non-quantitative ineffectiveness (34.5%), quantitative ineffectiveness (3.4%), non-quantitative safety problems (11.4%) and quantitative safety problems (3.4%). Patients with the following characteristics were more prevalent than expected in the NOM effectiveness group: those aged between 65 and 74 years (p=0.0199), those with a low education level (p=0.0266), those with increased comorbidity (p=0.0461), those using medicine for the digestive tract and metabolism (p=0.0475) and those using medicine for blood and blood-forming organs (p=0.0466). For the NOM necessity group, patients with endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (p=0.0587) were in greater numbers than expected; and for the NOM safety group, only patients aged over 74 years (p=0.01809) were in greater numbers. For

  10. Symposium 'Methodology in Medical Education Research' organised by the Methodology in Medical Education Research Committee of the German Society of Medical Education May, 25th to 26th 2013 at Charité, Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttpelz-Brauns, Katrin; Kiessling, Claudia; Ahlers, Olaf; Hautz, Wolf E

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Methodology in Medical Education Research Committee ran a symposium on "Research in Medical Education" as part of its ongoing faculty development activities. The symposium aimed to introduce to participants educational research methods with a specific focus on research in medical education. Thirty-five participants were able to choose from workshops covering qualitative methods, quantitative methods and scientific writing throughout the one and a half days. The symposium's evaluation showed participant satisfaction with the format as well as suggestions for future improvement. Consequently, the committee will offer the symposium again in a modified form in proximity to the next annual Congress of the German Society of Medical Education.

  11. Evaluation of medical research performance--position paper of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Brunner, Edgar; Hildenbrand, Sibylle; Loew, Thomas H; Raupach, Tobias; Spies, Claudia; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of medical research performance is a key prerequisite for the systematic advancement of medical faculties, research foci, academic departments, and individual scientists' careers. However, it is often based on vaguely defined aims and questionable methods and can thereby lead to unwanted regulatory effects. The current paper aims at defining the position of German academic medicine toward the aims, methods, and consequences of its evaluation. During the Berlin Forum of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) held on 18 October 2013, international experts presented data on methods for evaluating medical research performance. Subsequent discussions among representatives of relevant scientific organizations and within three ad-hoc writing groups led to a first draft of this article. Further discussions within the AWMF Committee for Evaluation of Performance in Research and Teaching and the AWMF Executive Board resulted in the final consented version presented here. The AWMF recommends modifications to the current system of evaluating medical research performance. Evaluations should follow clearly defined and communicated aims and consist of both summative and formative components. Informed peer reviews are valuable but feasible in longer time intervals only. They can be complemented by objective indicators. However, the Journal Impact Factor is not an appropriate measure for evaluating individual publications or their authors. The scientific "impact" rather requires multidimensional evaluation. Indicators of potential relevance in this context may include, e.g., normalized citation rates of scientific publications, other forms of reception by the scientific community and the public, and activities in scientific organizations, research synthesis and science communication. In addition, differentiated recommendations are made for evaluating the acquisition of third-party funds and the promotion of junior scientists. With the

  12. 76 FR 59407 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Scientific and Medical Literature and Information on Non-Standardized Allergenic Extracts in the Diagnosis... scientific and medical literature and information concerning the use of non-standardized allergenic extracts... ``Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information...

  13. An Analysis of Research Trends in Articles on Video Usage in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslibeyaz, Elif; Aydemir, Melike; Karaman, Selcuk

    2017-01-01

    Using technology in medical education has drawn the attention of researchers in the last several years. Especially, videos have been found to promote effective learning in medical education. This study aims to examine general trends and results of articles investigating video usage in medical education and published in SSCI and ERIC journals from…

  14. Medical research - a of the situation in the certain other countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    niques, Medical Physics and Preventive Medicine institutes, a. Medical Biological Laboratory, and the Gaubius Institute for. Biological Problems. Two further institutes fall under the. Department of Health, an Institute for Cancer Research and an. Institute for Public Health ('Volksgesondheid'). There is one medically orientated ...

  15. Empirical research in medical ethics: how conceptual accounts on normative-empirical collaboration may improve research practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloch, Sabine; Schildmann, Jan; Vollmann, Jochen

    2012-04-13

    The methodology of medical ethics during the last few decades has shifted from a predominant use of normative-philosophical analyses to an increasing involvement of empirical methods. The articles which have been published in the course of this so-called 'empirical turn' can be divided into conceptual accounts of empirical-normative collaboration and studies which use socio-empirical methods to investigate ethically relevant issues in concrete social contexts. A considered reference to normative research questions can be expected from good quality empirical research in medical ethics. However, a significant proportion of empirical studies currently published in medical ethics lacks such linkage between the empirical research and the normative analysis. In the first part of this paper, we will outline two typical shortcomings of empirical studies in medical ethics with regard to a link between normative questions and empirical data: (1) The complete lack of normative analysis, and (2) cryptonormativity and a missing account with regard to the relationship between 'is' and 'ought' statements. Subsequently, two selected concepts of empirical-normative collaboration will be presented and how these concepts may contribute to improve the linkage between normative and empirical aspects of empirical research in medical ethics will be demonstrated. Based on our analysis, as well as our own practical experience with empirical research in medical ethics, we conclude with a sketch of concrete suggestions for the conduct of empirical research in medical ethics. High quality empirical research in medical ethics is in need of a considered reference to normative analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate how conceptual approaches of empirical-normative collaboration can enhance empirical research in medical ethics with regard to the link between empirical research and normative analysis.

  16. Medical Robotic and Telesurgical Simulation and Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    opportunity to learn from errors. Medical Teacher, 27(3), 193-199. • Ziv, A., Wolpe, P., Small, S., & Glick , S. (2003, August). Simulation-based medical...Roger Smith • Hooman Soltanian • Dimitrios Stefanidis • Chandru Sundaram • RobertSweet • Amir Szold • Raju Thomas • Oscar Traynor • Thomas Whalen...Schwaitzberg • Danny Scott • Roger Smith • Hooman Soltanian • Dimitrios Stefanidis • Chandru Sundaram • RobertSweet • Amir Szold • Raju Thomas • Oscar

  17. Attitudes and Perceived Barriers among Medical Students towards Clinical Research: A Cross-Sectional Study in an Egyptian Medical School

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Abushouk, Abdelrahman; Nazmy Hatata, Abdelrahman; Mahmoud Omran, Ibrahim; Mahmoud Youniss, Mohammed; Fayez Elmansy, Khaled; Gad Meawad, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite the key role played by physician-investigators in bridging basic and clinical sciences, their number has declined significantly in the last decades especially in developing countries. Thus, we aimed to investigate attitudes and perceived barriers towards participation in clinical research among medical students in an Egyptian medical school. Methods. We employed a cross-sectional design, in which 420 students from the Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University completed a s...

  18. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  19. Brazilian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Lima Crisóstomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work makes an analysis of the determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of Brazilian firms, as proxied by firm membership of the ISE Index of BM&FBOVESPA. Besides other proposed determinants of CSR present in the literature (firm size, profitability, growth opportunities, the work examines ownership concentration and the persistence on CSR status. Logit regression estimates have been run for a sample of 1649 firm-year observations in the period 2006-2011. The findings show that CSR of Brazilian firms is inversely correlated to its ownership concentration indicating that controlling voting shareholders may not see social concerns as a priority. Besides, firms tend to maintain their present CSR status. The results also indicate that leading CSR firms are larger, face more growth opportunities, and are persistent in their superior CSR situation.

  20. Programmatic Approach to Increasing Osteopathic Medical Student Participation in Research: The TCOM Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Barbaro, Peggy; O-Yurvati, Albert H

    2016-11-01

    Providing medical students with a meaningful research-based educational experience will help them become exemplary physicians and informed consumers of medical research outcomes in the practice of evidence-based medicine. By participating in research projects during medical school, students have the opportunity to study specific fields that interest them in greater depth and develop their written and oral presentation skills. Studies indicate that students who have participated in research and scholarly activities during medical school are at an advantage when matching to their preferred residency. In this article, the authors outline programs and projects that provide opportunities for osteopathic medical students at the University of North Texas Health Science Center Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine to research concepts and conduct hypothesis-driven, hands-on research projects.

  1. The Brazilian national system of forest permanent plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeda Maria Malheiros de Oliveira; Maria Augusta Doetzer Rosot; Patricia Povoa de Mottos; Joberto Veloso de Freitas; Guilherme Luis Augusto Gomide; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian National System of Forest Permanent Plots (SisPP) is a governmental initiative designed and being implemented in partnership by the Ministry of Environment (MMA), represented by the National Forest Programme (PNF) and the Brazilian Forest Service (SFB) and the Embrapa Forestry (a research center of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa...

  2. Global Health Education for Medical Students: When Learning Objectives Include Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Alison M; Oddo, Anthony R; Dennis, David J; Siska, Robert C; VanderWal, Echo; VanderWal, Harry; Dlamini, Nompumelelo; Markert, Ronald J; McCarthy, Mary C

    2017-10-05

    The Luke Commission, a provider of comprehensive mobile health outreach in rural Swaziland, focuses on human immunodeficiency virus testing and prevention, including the performance of over 100 circumcisions weekly. Educational objectives for medical student global health electives are essential. Learning research methodology while engaging in clinical activities reinforces curriculum goals. Medical care databases can produce clinically significant findings affecting international health policy. Engaging in academic research exponentially increased the educational value of student experiences during an international medical elective. Staff of the Luke Commission, a nongovernmental organization, collected and deidentified information from 1500 Swazi male patients undergoing circumcision from January through June of 2014. Medical students designed studies and analyzed these data to produce research projects on adverse event rates, pain perception, and penile malformations. Institutional review board approval was obtained from the home institution and accompanying senior surgical faculty provided mentorship. First-year medical students enrolled in an international medical elective to explore resource availability, cultural awareness, health care provision, and developing world endemic diseases. While in country, students learned research methodology, collected data, and engaged in research projects. Following the trip, students presented posters at over 10 regional and national meetings. All 4 articles are accepted or under consideration for publication by major journals. During international medical electives the combination of clinical experiences and access to databases from health aid organizations provides the foundation for productive medical student research. All participants benefit from the relationships formed by aid organizations, medical students, and patient populations. Global health research has many complexities, but through careful planning and

  3. Trend of knowledge production of research centers in the field of medical sciences in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahat, K; Eftekhari, Mb; Habibi, E; Djalalinia, Sh; Peykari, N; Owlia, P; Malekafzali, H; Ghanei, M; Mojarrab, Sh

    2013-01-01

    Establishment of medical research centers at universities and health-related organizations and annually evaluation of their research activities was one of the strategic policies which followed by governmental organization in last decade in order to strengthening the connections between health research system and health system. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the role of medical research centers in medical science production in Iran. This study is a cross sectional which has been performed based on existing reports on national scientometrics and evaluation results of research performance of medical research centers between years 2001 to 2010. During last decade number of medical research centers increased from 53 in 2001 to 359 in 2010. Simultaneous scientific output of medical research centers has been increased especially articles indexed in ISI (web of science). Proper policy implementation in the field of health research system during last decades led to improving capacity building and growth knowledge production of medical science in recent years in Iran. The process embedding research into the health systems requires planning up until research products improves health outcomes and health equity in country.

  4. Accession Medical Standards Analysis & Research Activity (AMSARA) 2013 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    sense organs ( smell and taste) Other and unspecified disorders of the sensory organs Infectious diseases, immune disorders , and nutritional...duty, reserve, and National Guard enlisted applicants were examined for medical fitness at Military Entrance Processing Stations (MEPS) in 2012...service, compared to 78% of fully qualified recruits who accessed. In 2012, disorders of refraction and accommodation (i.e. visual impairment) were the

  5. Tropical Journal of Medical Research - Vol 15, No 1 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stillbirths at a tertiary medical centre in Enugu, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. U Ukaegbe, EE Nwogu-Ikojo, HU Ezegwui, S Ekenze, LC Ikeako, 1-4. Evaluation of prognostic value of albumin and iron in symptomatic hiv/malaria co-infected subjects on art ...

  6. Research Ideas for the Journal of Health & Medical Economics: Opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this Opinion article is to discuss some ideas that might lead to papers that are suitable for publication in the Journal of Health and Medical Economics. The suggestions include the affordability and sustainability of universal health care insurance, monitoring and

  7. Metafunctional Practices in Medical Research Articles: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Nader; Ghassemi, Mojtaba; Madadi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore any possible difference among the verb types chosen in articles written in English by the non-natives and natives. In so doing, Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar (1994) was employed. 80 published articles from the medical sciences field of study were chosen from among which 40 were written by native…

  8. Highland Medical Research Journal - Vol 14, No 2 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of medical admissions in a tertiary health centre in Makurdi, north central Nigeria: A one year review · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JE Ojobi, JA Onuh, G Odoh, SS Gomerep, MO Ogiator, 67-70 ...

  9. Factors Influencing Research Activity among Medical Students at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-07-18

    Jul 18, 2010 ... The study was conducted at the School of Medicine in the University of Nairobi. The school has a student population of 2000, distributed equally in 5 academic levels. In the Intercalated Bachelor of Science in Human. Anatomy and Medical Physiology programmes offered by the school, students are ...

  10. Utilization of Web-Based Resources for Medical Research and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questionnaires were administered to the health professionals in various departments in the Hospital. The results showed a low level of use in spite of high awareness level. This was due inter-alia, to lack of information technology skills, fluctuation of electricity, non-access to useful medical information internet addresses.

  11. Brazilian energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil`s natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  12. Motivating medical students to do research: a mixed methods study using Self-Determination Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenkranz, Sara K; Wang, Shaoyu; Hu, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    .... Informed by Self-Determination Theory (SDT), quantitative and qualitative findings were integrated to develop a model for the factors associated with medical students' expressed motivation to do research, and related to clinical and research...

  13. Attracting, equipping and retaining young medical doctors in HIV vaccine science in South Africa : original research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallace, Melissa; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Flood, Danna; Kublin, James; Bloch, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    ...), a programme to identify, train and retain clinician scientists in HIV vaccine research in SA.Objectives : The present study sought to identify factors influencing the attraction and retention of South African medical doctors in HIV vaccine research...

  14. Space The New Medical Frontier / NASA Spinoffs Milestones in Space Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Space The New Medical Frontier Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... the occasion. Photo courtesy of NIH Long-Term Space Research Until the advent of the ISS, research ...

  15. Fostering research skills in undergraduate medical students through mentored students projects: example from an Indian medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, V; Abraham, R R; Adiga, A; Ramnarayan, K; Kamath, A

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare decision-making is largely reliant on evidence-based medicine; building skills in scientific reasoning and thinking among medical students becomes an important part of medical education. Medical students in India have no formal path to becoming physicians, scientists or academicians. This study examines students' perceptions regarding research skills improvement after participating in the Mentored Student Project programme at Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal Campus, India. Additionally, this paper describes the initiatives taken for the continual improvement of the Mentored Student Project programme based on faculty and student perspectives. At Melaka Manipal Medical College, Mentored Student Project was implemented in the curriculum during second year of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery programme with the intention of developing research skills essential to the career development of medical students. The study design was cross-sectional. To inculcate the spirit of team work students were grouped (n=3 to 5) and each group was asked to select a research project. The students' research projects were guided by their mentors. A questionnaire (Likert's five point scale) on students' perceptions regarding improvement in research skills after undertaking projects and guidance received from the mentor was administered to medical students after they had completed their Mentored Student Project. The responses of students were summarised using percentages. The median grade with inter-quartile range was reported for each item in the questionnaire. The median grade for all the items related to perceptions regarding improvement in research skills was 4 which reflected that the majority of the students felt that Mentored Student Project had improved their research skills. The problems encountered by the students during Mentored Student Project were related to time management for the Mentored Student Project and mentors. This study shows that students

  16. Ethics in action: Approving and improving medical research with human subjects

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, Jean Philippe de Jong presents a new understanding of ethical oversight on medical research with human subjects and proposes that two philosophies for ethical oversight exist: '(dis)approving' and 'improving'. Systems for ethical oversight on medical research have been in place for many years, with Research Ethics Committees as their cornerstone. Although these oversight systems aim to ensure that the ethical quality of research is in order, they have been criticized for imped...

  17. Pseudonymization in medical research - the generic data protection concept of the TMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pommerening, Klaus

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Using patient data in medical research nets is in conflict with the patients rights on privacy, in particular when data are collected from several sources and stored in long-term registries. The TMF (Telematics Platform for Medical Research Networks developed a "generic" data protection concept that specifies two models for building research data pools. The german data Protection Commissioners agreed with this concept which in the meantime is the basis for concretisations in several research networks.

  18. Evaluation of medical research performance – position paper of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available [english] Objective: The evaluation of medical research performance is a key prerequisite for the systematic advancement of medical faculties, research foci, academic departments, and individual scientists’ careers. However, it is often based on vaguely defined aims and questionable methods and can thereby lead to unwanted regulatory effects. The current paper aims at defining the position of German academic medicine toward the aims, methods, and consequences of its evaluation. Methods: During the Berlin Forum of the Association of the Scientific Societies in Germany (AWMF held on 18 October 2013, international experts presented data on methods for evaluating medical research performance. Subsequent discussions among representatives of relevant scientific organizations and within three ad-hoc writing groups led to a first draft of this article. Further discussions within the AWMF Committee for Evaluation of Performance in Research and Teaching and the AWMF Executive Board resulted in the final consented version presented here.Results: The AWMF recommends modifications to the current system of evaluating medical research performance. Evaluations should follow clearly defined and communicated aims and consist of both summative and formative components. Informed peer reviews are valuable but feasible in longer time intervals only. They can be complemented by objective indicators. However, the Journal Impact Factor is not an appropriate measure for evaluating individual publications or their authors. The scientific “impact” rather requires multidimensional evaluation. Indicators of potential relevance in this context may include, e.g., normalized citation rates of scientific publications, other forms of reception by the scientific community and the public, and activities in scientific organizations, research synthesis and science communication. In addition, differentiated recommendations are made for evaluating the acquisition of third

  19. [Medical practice and clinical research: keys to generate knowledge and improve care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Castuera-Gómez, Carla; Talavera, Juan O

    2013-01-01

    The increased quality in medical care may be immediately accomplished if clinical research is integrated into daily clinical practice. In the generation of medical knowledge are four steps: an unanswered question awakened from clinical practice, the critical analysis of specialized literature, the development of a research protocol, and, finally, the publication of outcomes. Decision making and continuous training are becoming part of an effective strategy of medical attention improvement.

  20. Factors contributing to lack of interest in research among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh AS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ali Sibtain Farooq Sheikh,1,2 Saman Ali Sheikh,3 Ahmad Kaleem,1,2 Ahmad Waqas1 1King Edward Medical University, Lahore, 2Mayo Hospital, Lahore, 3Ziauddin University, Karachi, Pakistan Background: Research experiences early in the medical student's education are an important factor for attracting a greater number of doctors to careers with a research component. Objective: To determine the factors contributing to a lack of enthusiasm about research activities among medical students, and to suggest ways to help students develop an interest in research. Design: A medical institution-based, case-control study was conducted. A case was defined as any fourth year medical student who believed that undertaking research was not interesting; controls were matched for age and sex. A pretested, structured, and self-administered questionnaire was used; the data were analyzed using statistical methods. Results: In all, 122 students (54% male, 46% female were recruited to the study. Factors found to be significant were lack of Internet facilities (odds ratio 0.218 and considering research useless (odds ratio 4.570. Conclusion: Measures should be taken at undergraduate level to involve students in research activities. Ensuring easy access to Internet facilities could be one positive step. Further research should be done to explore the reasons why some medical students consider research useless. Keywords: research, lack of interest, medical students, physician-scientists

  1. Ethics in action: Approving and improving medical research with human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, Jean Philippe de Jong presents a new understanding of ethical oversight on medical research with human subjects and proposes that two philosophies for ethical oversight exist: '(dis)approving' and 'improving'. Systems for ethical oversight on medical research have been in place for

  2. Molecules, magic and forgetful fruit flies: the supernatural science of medical gas research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mychaskiw, George

    2011-09-06

    Medical gas research often involves the study of molecules under extraphysiologic conditions, that is, conditions that do not exist in nature. This "supernatural" nature of medical gas research sometimes produces results that appear to be almost "magic" to those schooled in traditional physiology"Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic".-Arthur C. Clarke.

  3. Model for Developing Educational Research Productivity: The Medical Education Research Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Perry

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Education research and scholarship are essential for promotion of faculty as well as dissemination of new educational practices. Educational faculty frequently spend the majority of their time on administrative and educational commitments and as a result educators often fall behind on scholarship and research. The objective of this educational advance is to promote scholarly productivity as a template for others to follow. Methods: We formed the Medical Education Research Group (MERG of education leaders from our emergency medicine residency, fellowship, and clerkship programs, as well as residents with a focus on education. First, we incorporated scholarship into the required activities of our education missions by evaluating the impact of programmatic changes and then submitting the curricula or process as peer-reviewed work. Second, we worked as a team, sharing projects that led to improved motivation, accountability, and work completion. Third, our monthly meetings served as brainstorming sessions for new projects, research skill building, and tracking work completion. Lastly, we incorporated a workstudy graduate student to assist with basic but time-consuming tasks of completing manuscripts. Results: The MERG group has been highly productive, achieving the following scholarship over a three-year period: 102 abstract presentations, 46 journal article publications, 13 MedEd Portal publications, 35 national didactic presentations and five faculty promotions to the next academic level. Conclusion: An intentional focus on scholarship has led to a collaborative group of educators successfully improving their scholarship through team productivity, which ultimately leads to faculty promotions and dissemination of innovations in education.

  4. Lightweight Portable Plasma Medical Device - Plasma Engineering Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    widespread inactivation zones. The respiratory tract is covered with a mucous membrane that secretes mucous to lubricate and protect the membrane.[58...response against 80 host cell nitrosative stress.4,43 The presence of bacterial bio -physical mechanisms that may provide the capabilities to resist...excited nitrogen species, singlet oxygen and helium metastable that can be applied for bio -medical applications including inactivation of bacteria

  5. Naval Medical Research And Development News. Volume 7, Issue 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Ongoing projects include efforts to create novel dental resins to prevent decay around fillings through the incorporation of titanium nanoparticles ...face painting provided by Ms. Mireille Kamel. The perfect ending of the night, back by popular demand, was the “zalabia cart” which offered a pastry...material. After the prosthetic was fabricated, the medical illustrator was then tasked with painting the eye-complete with sclera, blood vessels

  6. Establishing a Libyan Medical Research Council is Urgently Needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benamer H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To the Editor: I read with interest the study by Bakoush et al addressing the issue of medical publication in Libya [1]. The number of published reports from Libya was compared with another three Arabic countries (Morocco, Tunisia and Yemen. I suggest to the authors the extention of their study to include all twenty-three Arabic countries. This would enhance our knowledge of the scientific productivity of the Arab world.

  7. Lightweight Portable Plasma Medical Device - Plasma Engineering Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    6. “Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi researcher fights drug -resistant researcher with plasma technology”, Operating Room Today – OR TODAY Magazine...June 2013. (Link: http://ortoday.com/texas-am-researcher-fights- drug - resistant-cold-plasma-technology/) 7. “Killer “Superbugs” are No Match for...Symposium: Course Design for the Millennial Student, Texas A&M University – Corpus Christi, 2011. (Showcased by the Center for Faculty Excellence

  8. Evaluating Scientific Research Knowledge and Attitude among Medical Representative in Jordan: A Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukattash, Tareq; Alattar, Meys; Farha, Rana Abu; Alsous, Mervat; Jarab, Anan; El-Hajii, Feras; Mukattash, Ibrahim L

    2017-08-28

    Pharmaceutical companies provide a broad range of different mandatory trainings to their medical representatives to keep the business running, however research related training has often been neglected by these companies. Thus, this study was developed to assess the amount of scientific research knowledge and interest among pharmacy medical representatives in Jordan. A cross sectional study was conducted in Jordan in 2016. During the study period, a questionnaire was administered to 250 medical representatives working in pharmaceutical companies to evaluate their scientific research knowledge and attitudes. The majority of medical representatives had positive attitudes towards clinical trials and research communication and believe that it will increase the value of their work, but a considerable number of medical representatives did not detail clinical trials on every visit and found difficulty in answering clinical trials and research related questions asked by health care professionals. Most of the medical representatives did not have a complete understanding of some basic research terminologies. Medical representatives working in multinational companies seemed to have a significantly better understanding of research and terminologies compared to local companies (P-value= 0.000). Also Medical representatives with higher educational degrees seemed to have significantly better understanding of basic research terminologies (P-value= 0.023). The majority of medical representatives had positive attitudes towards clinical trials and research communication and found that it will increase the value of their work, but still there is a gap in their frequency of detailing. Thus, local pharmaceutical companies need to invest more in research and clinical trials knowledge kind of training. Also, universities need to include research related courses and subject in their bachelors' program curriculum in order to make pharmacists equipped in terms of research knowledge

  9. [Effectiveness research of medicated γ intrauterine device and medicated genefix intrauterine device inserted immediately after abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K; Cheng, Y; Yang, H; Tang, Y H; Jiang, J; Ji, F; Li, L B; Wu, S C

    2016-03-01

    To compare the effectiveness of medicated γ intrauterine device (IUD) and medicated genefix IUD inserted immediately after abortion. A multicenter clinical trail was performed for the study from Mar. 2012 to Jan. 2013. Totally 840 women who volunteered to participate were randomly allocated to γ-group (medicated γ IUD) or genefix-group (medicated genefix IUD) immediately after abortion. While 464 abortion women who had not used IUD or steroids contraceptive methods were chosen as control group. The effectiveness of the IUD were followed up for 1 year. All women were required to record the number of vaginal bleeding days and blood volume of vaginal bleeding within 3 months after abortion. At the 12(th) month, the expulsion was the most common reason for termination. The expulsion rates of genefix-group and γ-group were 2.48/100 women years and 3.12/100 women years, respectively (P>0.05). For the expulsion reasons, IUD moving down could account for more than seventy percent. The removal rate for IUD usage of two IUD groups were almost equal (3.91/100 women years verus 4.35/100 women years), the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). At the 90(th) day after abortion, comparing with control group, the bleeding and (or) spotting days of genefix-group and γ-group extended by 3.9 and 2.6 days respectively, the differences had statistical significance between the three groups (P0.05). The insertion of medicated genefix IUD and medicated γ IUD immediately after abortion is safe, feasible, has slight side effects and could be effective contraception.

  10. Assessing the Awareness of Egyptian Medical Students about Responsible Conduct of Research and Research Ethics: Impact of an Educational Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Mohamed, Karim Osama; Fouad, Yousef Ahmed; Fahmy, Yara Mohamed; Asar, Hadeel Abdulwahed; Khalil, Mohamed Gomaa; Anestidou, Lida; El-Kamary, Samer S; Mohamed, Mona Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    This is a quasi-experimental pre-post assessment study utilizing an anonymous self-administered questionnaire to assess Egyptian medical students' awareness about responsible conduct of research (RCR) and research ethics. Students' were assessed before and after an RCR awareness campaign. Our results showed that most of the pre-campaign respondents were not familiar with the basic principles and terms of RCR. An increase in the awareness about RCR across all discussed topics was noted following the campaign. We concluded that an educational awareness campaign is effective in increasing medical students' awareness about RCR and should be incorporated into current medical school curricula in Egypt.

  11. Becoming a scientist: A qualitative study of the educational experience of undergraduates working in an American and a Brazilian research laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoa, Maria Beatriz Amorim

    Because the production of scientific and technological innovations has been at the center of debates for economic growth, scientists are recognized as important actors in the current global market. In this study, I will examine the undergraduate education of future scientists by focusing on students working in research projects of faculty members. This research activity has been promoted by American and Brazilian public agencies as an attempt to attract more college students to scientific careers as well as to improve their future performance in science. Evaluations of these programs have focused on important quantitative indicators focusing mainly on the amount of students that later choose to pursue scientific careers. However, these studies fail to address important educational aspects of undergraduates' experience. In this research, I explore the educational processes taking place as students are introduced to the making of science in order to understand how and what they are learning. Three bodies of literature illuminates the formulation and the analysis of the research questions: (1) theories of globalization situate the education of scientists within the dynamics of a broader social, economic, cultural, and historical framework; (2) the critical pedagogy of Paulo Freire is the basis for the understanding of the pedagogical processes shaping undergraduate students' experiences within the research site; (3) Critical and Cultural Studies of Science and Technology illuminate the analysis of the complex interactions and practices constructed within the laboratory. In order to understand the educational processes shaping the experiences of undergraduate students engaged in research activities, I conducted a qualitative investigation based on participant-observation and in-depth interviews in an American and a Brazilian laboratories. The two sites constituted insightful case studies that illuminated the understanding of inquires about the training of students in

  12. Perceptions about tissue donation for medical research among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tissue banking refers to a structured and organized resource collection of tissue. Recent advances in research technology and knowledge in the fields of human genetics/ genomics highlights the need to maintain a steady supply of tissue for researchers. Objective: To assess the perception and willingness of ...

  13. Advance directives in dementia research : a medical ethical inquiry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.R. Jongsma (Karin)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractDementia is highly prevalent and incurable. The participation of dementia patients in clinical research is indispensable if we want to find an effective treatment for dementia. However, one of the primary challenges in dementia research is the patients’ gradual loss of the capacity

  14. Ethical Medical and Biomedical Practice in Health Research in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African countries have an urgent need for research to battle the diseases that ravage their populations and hamper their economic and social development. This research entails both benefits and risks for the people involved. Particular effort must be made to respect their integrity, all the more so because they are poor and ...

  15. Between the abortion and research: the embryo in the Brazilian press / Entre o aborto e a pesquisa: o embrião na imprensa Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Lira dos Santos Aléssio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available After many debates in the public sphere, in 2005 Brazil approved embryo research. However, the polemic on the handling of the embryo remains in the center of a social agenda and causes controversies anchored in vast systems of values and thoughts. This work aims to analyze the social construction of the embryo object via social communication in the light of the theory of the social representations. 447 articles published in two Brazilian newspapers published in 2005 were analyzed by the software ALCESTE. The various standpoints seem to be anchored in a field of representations related to the question of the right to life. The data do not show a difference in approach between the two publications.

  16. Primary care careers among recent graduates of research-intensive private and public medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Phillip A; Xu, Shuai; Ayanian, John Z

    2013-06-01

    Despite a growing need for primary care physicians in the United States, the proportion of medical school graduates pursuing primary care careers has declined over the past decade. To assess the association of medical school research funding with graduates matching in family medicine residencies and practicing primary care. Observational study of United States medical schools. One hundred twenty-one allopathic medical schools. The primary outcomes included the proportion of each school's graduates from 1999 to 2001 who were primary care physicians in 2008, and the proportion of each school's graduates who entered family medicine residencies during 2007 through 2009. The 25 medical schools with the highest levels of research funding from the National Institutes of Health in 2010 were designated as "research-intensive." Among research-intensive medical schools, the 16 private medical schools produced significantly fewer practicing primary care physicians (median 24.1% vs. 33.4%, p careers (median 36.1% vs. 36.3%, p = 0.87) and matching in family medicine residencies (median 7.4% vs. 10.0%, p = 0.37) relative to the other 66 public medical schools. To meet the health care needs of the US population, research-intensive private medical schools should play a more active role in promoting primary care careers for their students and graduates.

  17. A Research of School Adaptation, Parent-child Relationship and Community Participation among Japanese-Brazilian Living in Japan : Comparative Study with Japanese

    OpenAIRE

    谷渕, 真也

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004, the author has been providing community psychological support for Japanese-Brazilian living in Japan. The purposes of this study were to investigate the association of school adaptation with parent-child relationship, and that of school adaptation with community participation. 60 Japanese-Brazilian families and 600 Japanese families participated in this questionnaire survey. Results were as follows: (a) Japanese-Brazilian children felt that parents were overprotective, (b) there w...

  18. An international basic science and clinical research summer program for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; Alkukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K

    2012-03-01

    An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to understand and grasp translational research as an important concept today. In addition, since medical training is often an international affair whereby a medical student/resident/fellow will likely train in many different countries during his/her early training years, it is important to provide a learning environment whereby a young medical student experiences the unique challenges and value of an international educational experience. This article describes a program that bridges the gap between the basic and clinical research concepts in a unique international educational experience. After completing two semester curricula at Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, six medical students undertook a summer program at St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, in Winnipeg, MB, Canada. The program lasted for 2 mo and addressed advanced training in basic science research topics in medicine such as cell isolation, functional assessment, and molecular techniques of analysis and manipulation as well as sessions on the conduct of clinical research trials, ethics, and intellectual property management. Programs such as these are essential to provide a base from which medical students can decide if research is an attractive career choice for them during their clinical practice in subsequent years. An innovative international summer research course for medical students is necessary to cater to the needs of the medical students in the 21st century.

  19. The U.S. Public's Investment in Medical Research: An Evolving Social Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinig, Stephen J; Dev, Anurupa; Bonham, Ann C

    2016-01-01

    Medical researchers and their institutions are operating under extraordinary financial stress. More than a decade after completion of the 5-year doubling of the National Institutes of Health budget, the medical research community must confront a significant loss in National Institutes of Health purchasing power and downward pressures in federal discretionary spending. In part, this trend results from a federal budget stalemate over the growth in entitlement programs, particularly spending on medical care. This article considers the changing nature of the federal investment in medical research and the potential for medical researchers and institutions conducting the full spectrum of research to improve health system performance and health equity. In our view, continued federal investments reflect an evolving social contract for research serving the public good; the term contract is used metaphorically to represent a figurative, implicit agreement between the scientific community and the public's representatives in government. Under this conceptual contract, the American people--who are ultimately the funders of research, research training and infrastructure--expect outcomes that lead to better health, security or other benefits. The evolving contract includes expectations for more accountability, transparency, sharing of results and resources, and better integration of research systems and cultures that used to take pride in boundaries and distinctions. We outline here some of the major movements of organizations realigning to social support, which are increasingly essential to sustain public investment in medical research. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Air Force Personalized Medicine Program Panel: Representative Research at the 59th Medical Wing San Antonio Military Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-18

    Graduate Health Sciences Education (GHSE) (SGS O&M); SGS R&D; Tri-Service Nursing Research Program (TSNRP); Defense Medical Research & Development...the utilization of genetics , genomics, pharmacogenomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics tools to optimize prevention, diagnosis, early intervention...prevention strategies tailored to the individual genetic characteristics of each patient On July 8. 2015 the White House released for public comment a

  1. Access to the Commonwealth electoral roll for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loff, Bebe; Campbell, Elissa A; Glass, Deborah C; Kelsall, Helen L; Slegers, Claudia; Zion, Deborah R; Brown, Ngaire J; Fritschi, Lin

    2013-07-22

    In the 2010-11 financial 2013, there was a dramatic reduction in the approvals granted by the Australian Electoral Commission for access to samples of the adult population derived from the electoral roll for the purposes of public health research. Much time and effort has been expended in making applications without success. Researchers refused access to electoral roll samples must rely on sampling methods that are not as robust and that may produce less reliable data. We outline a set of recommendations that, if adopted, will result in a fairer system for obtaining access to the electoral roll for public health research.

  2. Exploring the integration of the biomedical research component in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schravendijk, C; März, R; Garcia-Seoane, J

    2013-06-01

    A task force of MEDINE (Thematic Network on Medical Education in Europe) organized a survey of European Medical Schools. To investigate the link between education and biomedical research in the medical curriculum questioning university staff responsible for the curriculum. The survey was online between 10/2006 and 3/2007. Answers pertained to the situation in the academic year 2005/06. Ninety-one medical schools/faculties in 26 countries participated, but response rates to some questions were lower due to incomplete responses. In undergraduate programs, 3/4 of the schools offer research courses and in 2/3 students can do research themselves. However, in most schools, fewer than 10% students choose this option. In about half the medical schools writing a thesis is a requirement for graduation, although the term "thesis" is interpreted broadly. Color map analysis revealed the link between medical education and biomedical research: about 25% of the medical schools had little emphasis on research in their undergraduate curriculum. We identified the curriculum elements most suitable to improve the link between medical education and research for the initial stage (years 1-3) as literature search techniques, statistics and epidemiology, while for the advanced stage (years 4-6), writing a thesis was most relevant.

  3. Sample size determination in medical and surgical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flikkema, Robert M; Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2012-02-01

    One of the most critical yet frequently misunderstood principles of research is sample size determination. Obtaining an inadequate sample is a serious problem that can invalidate an entire study. Without an extensive background in statistics, the seemingly simple question of selecting a sample size can become quite a daunting task. This article aims to give a researcher with no background in statistics the basic tools needed for sample size determination. After reading this article, the researcher will be aware of all the factors involved in a power analysis and will be able to work more effectively with the statistician when determining sample size. This work also reviews the power of a statistical hypothesis, as well as how to estimate the effect size of a research study. These are the two key components of sample size determination. Several examples will be considered throughout the text.

  4. One health, one literature: Weaving together veterinary and medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Mary M

    2015-09-02

    Translating veterinary research to humans will require a "one literature" approach to break through species barriers in how we organize, retrieve, cite, and publish in biomedicine. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Stable isotopes: essential tools in biological and medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, P. D.; Hachey, D. L.; Kreek, M. J.; Schoeller, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of the stable isotopes, /sup 13/C, /sup 15/N, /sup 17/O, and /sup 18/O, as tracers in research studies in the fields of biology, medicine, pharmacology, and agriculture are briefly reviewed. (CH)

  6. chronicles of medical history the era of hiv cure research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HAART) has significantly transformed the natural history of the ... mentioned in the history HIV cure research. Similar cases of .... strategies that synergize with HIV prevention efforts. This workshop .... Lower HIV provirus levels are associated with.

  7. Animals in Medical Research | Kadima | Nigerian Journal of Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Scientific medical research and publication in Nigeria | Rahman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research Vol. 7(3&4) 2005: 244-250. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njsr.v7i3.12289 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  9. [Two research projects on infectious diseases conducted in Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana by Tokyo Medical and Dental University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ido, Eiji; Yamaoka, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Ghana-Tokyo Medical and Dental University Research Collaboration Center has been established since 2008 when our Program was chosen together with the Program in the Philippines proposed by Tohoku University as an additional small-scale research center of the Overseas Research Program on Emerging and Reemerging Diseases that is funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of the Japanese Government and started in 2005. This 5-year government-supported Program has changed its name to develop into a more active world-level program called Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-GRID) and entered the second 5-year phase in 2010, and our Program is playing an important role among other research centers located in Asia and Africa. Currently, two research projects are carried out in parallel in Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research by Tokyo Medical and Dental University: one is a J-GRID project and the other is the one of Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) which is a joint project between Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). This special article is describing what these two projects are all about.

  10. [Medical research-ethics applied to social sciences: relevance, limits, issues and necessary adjustments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desclaux, A

    2008-04-01

    Social sciences are concretely concerned by the ethics of medical research when they deal with topics related to health, since they are subjected to clearance procedures specific to this field. This raises at least three questions: - Are principles and practices of medical research ethics and social science research compatible? - Are "research subjects" protected by medical research ethics when they participate in social science research projects? - What can social sciences provide to on-going debates and reflexion in this field? The analysis of the comments coming from ethics committees about social science research projects, and of the experience of implementation of these projects, shows that the application of international ethics standards by institutional review boards or ethics committees raises many problems in particular for researches in ethnology anthropology and sociology. These problems may produce an impoverishment of research, pervert its meaning, even hinder any research. They are not only related to different norms, but also to epistemological divergences. Moreover, in the case of studies in social sciences, the immediate and differed risks, the costs, as well as the benefits for subjects, are very different from those related to medical research. These considerations are presently a matter of debates in several countries such as Canada, Brasil, and USA. From another hand, ethics committees seem to have developed without resorting in any manner to the reflexion carried out within social sciences and more particularly in anthropology Still, the stakes of the ethical debates in anthropology show that many important and relevant issues have been discussed. Considering this debate would provide openings for the reflexion in ethics of health research. Ethnographic studies of medical research ethics principles and practices in various sociocultural contexts may also contribute to the advancement of medical ethics. A "mutual adjustment" between ethics of

  11. Collaborative research in medical education: a discussion of theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Stoddard, Hugh A; Kalishman, Summers

    2010-12-01

    Medical education researchers are inherently collaborators. This paper presents a discussion of theoretical frameworks, issues and challenges around collaborative research to prepare medical education researchers to enter into successful collaborations. It gives emphasis to the conceptual issues associated with collaborative research and applies these to medical education research. Although not a systematic literature review, the paper provides a rich discussion of issues which medical education researchers might consider when undertaking collaborative studies. Building on the work of others, we have classified collaborative research in three dimensions according to: the number of administrative units represented; the number of academic fields present, and the manner in which knowledge is created. Although some literature on collaboration focuses on the more traditional positivist perspective and emphasises outcomes, other literature comes from the constructivist framework, in which research is not driven by hypotheses and the approaches emphasised, but by the interaction between investigator and subject. Collaborations are more effective when participants overtly clarify their motivations, values, definitions of appropriate data and accepted methodologies. These should be agreed upon prior to commencing a study. The way we currently educate researchers should be restructured if we want them to be able to undertake interdisciplinary research. Despite calls for researchers to be educated differently, most training programmes for developing researchers have demonstrated a limited, if not contrary, response to these calls. Collaborative research in medical education should be driven by the problem being investigated, by the new knowledge gained and by the interpersonal interactions that may be achieved. Success rests on recognising that many of the research problems we, as medical educators, address are fundamentally interdisciplinary in nature. This represents a

  12. Framework and Concrete Measures for Medical Ethics Compliance Carried out by Translational Research Coordinators

    OpenAIRE

    大木, 桃代; 遊佐, 希; 村山, 明美; 佐田, 礼子; 小瀧, 一; 田原, 秀晃

    2004-01-01

    Translational research involves the development of new treatments for currently incurable illnesses, based on cutting edge findings of scientific research. In order to conduct translational research maintaining the highest ethics and science, Translational Research Coordinators (TRCs) at the Research Hospital of the Institute of Medical Science of the University of Tokyo monitor research from an objective third-party perspective. The objectives of the present study were two-fold: 1) from the ...

  13. What do Islamic institutional fatwas say about medical and research confidentiality and breach of confidentiality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmad, Ghiath; Dierickx, Kris

    2012-08-01

    Protecting confidentiality is an essential value in all human relationships, no less in medical practice and research.(1) Doctor-patient and researcher-participant relationships are built on trust and on the understanding those patients' secrets will not be disclosed.(2) However, this confidentiality can be breached in some situations where it is necessary to meet a strong conflicting duty.(3) Confidentiality, in a general sense, has received much interest in Islamic resources including the Qur'an, Sunnah and juristic writings. However, medical and research confidentiality have not been explored deeply. There are few fatwas about the issue, despite an increased effort by both individuals and Islamic medical organizations to use these institutional fatwas in their research. Infringements on confidentiality make up a significant portion of institutional fatwas, yet they have never been thoroughly investigated. Moreover, the efforts of organizations and authors in this regard still require further exploration, especially on the issue of research confidentiality. In this article, we explore medical and research confidentiality and potential conflicts with this practice as a result of fatwas released by international, regional, and national Islamic Sunni juristic councils. We discuss how these fatwas affect research and publication by Muslim doctors, researchers, and Islamic medical organizations. We argue that more specialized fatwas are needed to clarify Islamic juristic views about medical and research confidentiality, especially the circumstances in which infringements on this confidentiality are justified. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Research trends in studies of medical students' characteristics: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung Soo; Park, Kwi Hwa; Roh, HyeRin; Yune, So Jung; Lee, Geon Ho; Chun, Kyunghee

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate domestic and international research trends in studies of medical students' characteristics by using the scoping review methods. This study adopted the scoping review to assess papers on the characteristics of medical students. The procedure of research was carried out according to the five steps of the scoping review. The full texts of 100 papers are obtained and are read closely, after which suitable 88 papers are extracted by us for this research. The review is mapped by the year of the study, source, location, author, research design, research subject, objective, and key results. The frequency is analyzed by using Microsoft Excel and SPSS. We found 70 papers (79.5%) on a single medical school, 15 (17.0%) on multiple medical schools, and three (3.4%) on mixed schools, including medical and nonmedical schools. Sixty-nine (79.5%) were cross-sectional studies and 18 (20.5%) were longitudinal studies. Eighty-two papers (93.2%) adopted questionnaire surveys. We summarized research trends of studies on medical students in Korea and overseas by topic, and mapped them into physical health, mental health, psychological characteristics, cognitive characteristics, social characteristics, and career. This study provides insights into the future directions of research for the characteristics of medical students.

  15. Barriers and challenges in researches by Iranian students of medical universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbari, Zohreh; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Jadidi, Rahmatollah

    2015-01-01

    Health sciences research (HSR) is an essential part of improving health care which plays a critical role in the field of medicine and clinical practice. The aim of the current study was to assess barriers to the research by students of medical sciences as well as to find out effective strategies for management of student researches in Iranian universities. This study utilized a hybrid design with quantitative and qualitative analytical approaches conducted on 627 students in six schools of medical sciences in two universities in Central Province in Iran from April to December, 2012. Questionnaires were distributed among researcher and non-researcher students to find barriers to the research. These barriers were approved and validated by similar studies and strategies using the Delphi technique on 36 students. The most important barriers among researcher students were institutional barriers (3.3 ± 1.3), but in non-researcher students they were individual barriers (3.6 ± 1.7). The majority of barriers to involvement in the research among researcher students appeared to be time, lack of access to electronic resources and prolongation of the process of buying equipment. In addition, the greatest barriers among non-researcher students included the lack of time, scientific writing skills, and access to trained assistants. The results showed the issue of attitudes towards compulsory research as a component of critical scholarship in the curriculum of medical courses. Moreover, employment of the research experts can be helpful for research training in schools of medical sciences.

  16. The Attitude of Medical and Pharmacy Students towards Research Activities: A Multicenter Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Bandari, Deepak Kumar; Tefera, Yonas Getaye; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla

    2017-10-11

    Aim: To assess the attitude of medical and pharmacy students in Asian and African universities towards scholarly research activities. Methods: An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported online survey questionnaire was administered to medical and pharmacy students studying in various Asian and African universities through social media between May and July 2016. A 68-item close-ended questionnaire consisting of Likert-scale options assessed the students' research-specific experiences, and their attitudes towards scholarly research publications. Results: A total of 512 questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 92% from Asia and 94% from Africa. More pharmacy students (70.8%) participated than medical students (29.2%). Overall 52.2% of the pharmacy students and 40% of medical students believed that research activities provided a means of gaining respect from their faculty members. Lack of encouragement, paucity of time, gaps in research activities and practices, and lack of research funding were some of the most common barriers acknowledged by the students. A nonparametric Mann-Whitney test showed that a statistically significant difference was observed, in that more than 80% of the pharmacy students viewed scientific writing and research activities as valuable experiences ( p = 0.001) and would like to involve their co-students in scholarly research activities ( p = 0.002); whereas the majority of the medical students desired to be involved more in scholarly research publications ( p = 0.033). Conclusion: Pharmacy students had good attitudes towards research activities and a higher number of medical students desired to be involved more in research publications. Faculties may consider taking special research initiatives to address the barriers and improve the involvement of medical and pharmacy students in scholarly research activities.

  17. The Attitude of Medical and Pharmacy Students towards Research Activities: A Multicenter Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the attitude of medical and pharmacy students in Asian and African universities towards scholarly research activities. Methods: An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported online survey questionnaire was administered to medical and pharmacy students studying in various Asian and African universities through social media between May and July 2016. A 68-item close-ended questionnaire consisting of Likert-scale options assessed the students’ research-specific experiences, and their attitudes towards scholarly research publications. Results: A total of 512 questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 92% from Asia and 94% from Africa. More pharmacy students (70.8% participated than medical students (29.2%. Overall 52.2% of the pharmacy students and 40% of medical students believed that research activities provided a means of gaining respect from their faculty members. Lack of encouragement, paucity of time, gaps in research activities and practices, and lack of research funding were some of the most common barriers acknowledged by the students. A nonparametric Mann-Whitney test showed that a statistically significant difference was observed, in that more than 80% of the pharmacy students viewed scientific writing and research activities as valuable experiences (p = 0.001 and would like to involve their co-students in scholarly research activities (p = 0.002; whereas the majority of the medical students desired to be involved more in scholarly research publications (p = 0.033. Conclusion: Pharmacy students had good attitudes towards research activities and a higher number of medical students desired to be involved more in research publications. Faculties may consider taking special research initiatives to address the barriers and improve the involvement of medical and pharmacy students in scholarly research activities.

  18. [Ethical problems of research on medical-assisted reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontali, N; Zucco, F

    1998-01-01

    Research in the field of assisted reproduction technologies (ART) is today very active internationally and is aimed both at improving success chances of already consolidated techniques (in fact these chances are still considerably low), and at elaborating new methods like ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection), oocyte cryoconservation, ovary tissue cultures. Some other techniques, connected to ART, are here considered, like preimplantation diagnosis, early sex determination, gene therapy in utero and cloning. All these subjects of research are here briefly mentioned in relation to the ethical debate which they have stirred or which they should stir according to the authors. These debates are in part mirrored in the different legislations.

  19. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  20. Mayo Clinic and Medical School Biodynamics Research Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritman, E L; Greenleaf, J F; Robb, R A; Gilbert, B K; Kinsey, J H; Harris, L D; Wood, E H

    1983-01-01

    The facilities that make up the Mayo Biodynamics Research Unit include the dynamic spatial reconstructor (DSR), which when fully operational will generate raw data at 200 million samples per second. Processing of these data will require a computer capable of several billion arithmetic operations per second.

  1. Research Trends in Post‑Graduate Medical Students, Pune

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E-mail: dr_pdkulkarni@yahoo.co.in. Introduction. Scientific writings in the particular field, based on international bibliographic data, are one of the most widely used methods to measure scientific achievement. Scientific writings like dissertations submitted by post-graduate students (PGs) based on research studies serve an ...

  2. Opinions of children about participation in medical genetic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, S.M. van der; Sozanska, B.; Madden, D.; Kosmeda, A.; Debinska, A.; Danielewicz, H.; Boznanski, A.; Detmar, S.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The objective was to evaluate children's opinions about their participation in a large research project. Methods: Polish children between 6 and 14 years of age completed a questionnaire about their participation in the Polish Gabriel study (which aims to identify genetic and environmental

  3. Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  4. From the NIH Director: The Value of Medical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... families since 1948. It established the correlation between cholesterol—from a high-fat diet of milk, cheese, and meat (thought to be good for you)—and heart disease. Back in the lab, to understand and try to prevent damage from cholesterol, researchers discovered an enzyme that is critical to ...

  5. Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Habeeb Omokanye (Journal Secretary) Phone: 234-803-501-2930. Email: habeebomokanye@yahoo.com. ISSN: 2276-6839. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

  6. Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice: Advanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  7. Lightweight Portable Plasma Medical Device - Plasma Engineering Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    data were collected for the analysis of post- treatment bacterial growth means over time. D. Messenger RNA analysis by quantitative real time-PCR...Engineering Research", Texas A&M University Corpus Christi. (September 2010). 29. Texas A&M University Corpus Christi - Facebook Page - Features DOD

  8. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publish contributions in clinical and basic science research, in all field of medicine. b. ... Editorial Assistants Dr Cajetan Onyedum Department of Internal Medicine University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus Dr Cyril Dim Department of Physiology/ Obstetrics and Gynecology University ... Department of Veterinary Biochemistry and

  9. Securing medical research: a cybersecurity point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneier, Bruce

    2012-06-22

    The problem of securing biological research data is a difficult and complicated one. Our ability to secure data on computers is not robust enough to ensure the security of existing data sets. Lessons from cryptography illustrate that neither secrecy measures, such as deleting technical details, nor national solutions, such as export controls, will work.

  10. Marijuana: A Review of Medical Research with Implications for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Robert; Popkin, Nancy

    1980-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that marijuana is more harmful than had previously been suspected. A review of research in the following areas is presented: tolerance and persistence, reproductive system, respiratory system, immune system, central nervous system, genetic and chromosomal effects, and behavioral effects. (Author)

  11. Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity (AMSARA), 2016 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Accession Medical Standards Analysis & Research Activity REPORT NUMBER Department of Epidemiology, Preventive Medicine ...to errors ), it is possible to have a three-digit code appear in the leading 20 medical conditions tables, even though the raw codes were examined... International Classification of Diseases, 9 th revision (ICD-9) or other medical failure (OMF) code listed in their US Military Entrance Processing Command

  12. Research during medical school: is it particularly difficult in developing countries compared to developed countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddaiah-Subramanya, Manjunath; Singh, Harveen; Tiang, Kor Woi

    2017-01-01

    Medical student involvement in research has been declining over the years. We reviewed the factors that hinder participation in research with a focus on developing countries. Literature search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library. Peer-reviewed articles published between 1995 and 2017 were screened for relevance to identify key factors affecting medical student involvement in research with a particular focus on developing world. Analytical review is presented here in this article in relation to commonly reported aspects related to research during medical school. This search revealed varied contributing factors that hinder students' growth and interest in research. It commonly highlighted few aspects in relation to research during medical school, and they were "variability in research uptake among students and issues related to them, their knowledge and attitude toward research and organizational input and its influence on students". While early introduction to research by inculcating a mindset aimed at research has been proposed, it has not been seen in practice during either the medical school or beyond to an extent that was expected. It appears that developing countries, while they share some of the reasons with developed countries, have their own set of difficulties, which are influenced by culture, beliefs and priorities.

  13. The human rights context for ethical requirements for involving people with intellectual disability in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, T; Carling-Jenkins, R

    2012-11-01

    The history of ethical guidelines addresses protection of human rights in the face of violations. Examples of such violations in research involving people with intellectual disabilities (ID) abound. We explore this history in an effort to understand the apparently stringent criteria for the inclusion of people with ID in research, and differences between medical and other research within a single jurisdiction. The history of the Helsinki Declaration and informed consent within medical research, and high-profile examples of ethical misconduct involving people with ID and other groups are reviewed. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is then examined for its research implications. This background is used to examine a current anomaly within an Australian context for the inclusion of people with ID without decisional capacity in medical versus other types of research. Ethical guidelines have often failed to protect the human rights of people with ID and other vulnerable groups. Contrasting requirements within an Australian jurisdiction for medical and other research would seem to have originated in early deference to medical authority for making decisions on behalf of patients. Stringent ethical requirements are likely to continue to challenge researchers in ID. A human rights perspective provides a framework for engaging both researchers and vulnerable participant groups. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Conceptualizing the Research Culture in Postgraduate Medical Education: Implications for Leading Culture Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer M

    2015-12-01

    By recognizing symbols of research culture in postgraduate medical education, educators and trainees can gain a deeper understanding of the existing culture and mechanisms for its transformation. First, I identify symbolic manifestations of the research culture through a case narrative of a single anesthesia residency program, and I offer a visual conceptualization of the research culture. In the second part, I theorize the application of Senge's (1994) disciplines of a learning organization and discuss leverage for enhancing research culture. This narrative account is offered to inform the work of enhancing the broader research culture in postgraduate medical education.

  15. Clinical Research of Mortality in Emergency Air Medical Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Lin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. EAMT in Taiwan has experienced increasing demand in the past few years. The objective is to analyze the trend of EAMT in the past six years and mortality rate within three days of patients undergoing interfacility transport in Taiwan. Material and Method. We conducted a retrospective review of patients who were airlifted from remote islands to main island between 2006 and 2011. Main outcome measures are EAMT number (EAMT-N, EAMT per thousand population (EAMT frequency, EAMT-F, number of mortality (Mor-N, and mortality rate within three days after EAMT (Mor-R. Results and Discussion. Overall mortality rate is 7.54% in 1684 airlifted patients. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI, 26.3% and traumatic brain injury (TBI, 25.8% comprise the majority in diagnosis (52.1%. However, Mor-R in these two categories is significantly low in AMI (3.5% and TBI (5.1%. Conclusion. The present study demonstrates that physician density is not related to EAMT-N but to physician number. As general population ages (10%, the average age of patient who underwent EAMT doubled (21%. This study also leaves room for discussion regarding futile medical care. The results can be used as a reference for increasing utilization of EAMT in current National Health Care Scheme.

  16. Pesquisas brasileiras biomédicas e epidemiológicas face às metas da UNGASS Brazilian biomedical and epidemiological research vis-à-vis the UNGASS targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Inácio Bastos

    2006-04-01

    main topics listed in these items were put into operation in the form of keywords, in order to guide systematic searches within the standard biomedicine databases, also including the subdivisions of the Web of Science relating to natural and social sciences. The success of Brazilian research within the field of characterization and isolation of HIV-1 is undeniable. Phase II/III vaccine studies have been developed in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte and São Paulo. Empirical studies on the monitoring of primary resistance have been developed in specific populations, through the Brazilian HIV Resistance Monitoring Network. Within the field of monitoring secondary resistance, initiatives such as the National Genotyping Network have been highlighted. Two national systems - the Mortality Information System and the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Aids - and some studies with wider coverage have given rise to work on trends within the epidemic. The production of high-quality generic medications and their free distribution to patients have been highlighted. Brazil has implemented a consistent and diversified response within the field of HIV/AIDS, with studies relating to the development of vaccines, new medications and monitoring of the epidemic.

  17. Transnational nurse migration: future directions for medical anthropological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Megan; Nichter, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Transnational nurse migration is a serious global health issue in which inequitably distributed shortages hinder health and development goals. This article selectively reviews the literature on nurse migration that has emerged from nursing, health planning, and the social sciences and offers productive directions for future anthropological research. The literature on global nurse migration has largely focused on push/pull economic logic and the concept of brain drain to understand the causes and effects of nurse migration. These concepts obscure political-economic, historical, and cultural factors that pattern nurse migration and influence the complex effects of nurse migration. Global nurse care chain analysis helps illuminate the numerous nodes in the production and migration of nurses, and management of this transnational process. Examples are provided from the Philippines and India to illustrate ways in which this analysis may be deepened, refined and rendered more critical by anthropological research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radioactive ion beams for biomedical research and nuclear medical application

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility at CERN is the world leading on On-Line Isotope Separator installation. The main aspects which makes ISOLDE produced radio-isotopes such valuable for use in biomedical research are: the availability of exotic or uncommon radioisotopes, the high purity and the ion beam quality. A short overview on research strategies, on experimental work and application of ISOLDE produced radionuclides used in the field of biomedicine over a period of more than 2 decades will be given. Special attention will be directed to the radio- lanthanides, because they can be seen as one single element providing the unique possibility to study systematically relationships between molecule parameters and a biological response without changes in the basic tracer molecule. Among those radionuclides we find any radiation properties we wish (single photon emission) suitable for SPECT, positron emission suitable for positron emission tomography (PET), alpha -, beta /sup -/- and Auger electron emission. (21 refs).

  19. Extracurricular research activities among senior medical students in Kuwait: experiences, attitudes, and barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Halabi, Becher; Marwan, Yousef; Hasan, Mohammad; Alkhadhari, Sulaiman

    2014-01-01

    Background Research is the foundation of scientific advancement and improvement in quality of health care, which ensures the good health of the community. The aim of this study is to explore experiences, attitudes, and barriers of medical students in Kuwait University (KU) in regards to extracurricular research. Methods A questionnaire about extracurricular research activities (ie, any research activity that is not part of the required undergraduate curriculum, such as publishing a paper, research elective, etc) was distributed to 175 senior medical students (years 6 and 7). Descriptive and chi-square analyses were used to analyze the responses, considering a P-value of extracurricular research activities. Results Of the 150 participants (response rate = 85.7%), 26 (17.3%), 68 (45.3%), 52 (34.7%), and 17 (11.3%) had published their required medical school research, presented abstracts in conferences, conducted extracurricular research, and completed a research elective/course, respectively; 99 (66.0%) took part in any of these activities. Participants who read medical journals regularly (81; 54%) reported higher participation in extracurricular research activities than those who did not read journals (P=0.003). Improving the availability of mentors for students’ extracurricular research was ranked by the participants as the most important factor to improve their participation in extracurricular research (4.05/5.00). Conclusion Despite the lack of adequate support, extracurricular research activities among medical students of KU were comparable to students from other countries. Barriers for these activities should be addressed by KU medical educators in order to enhance research activities among the students. PMID:24812535

  20. Extracurricular research activities among senior medical students in Kuwait: experiences, attitudes, and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Halabi, Becher; Marwan, Yousef; Hasan, Mohammad; Alkhadhari, Sulaiman

    2014-01-01

    Research is the foundation of scientific advancement and improvement in quality of health care, which ensures the good health of the community. The aim of this study is to explore experiences, attitudes, and barriers of medical students in Kuwait University (KU) in regards to extracurricular research. A questionnaire about extracurricular research activities (ie, any research activity that is not part of the required undergraduate curriculum, such as publishing a paper, research elective, etc) was distributed to 175 senior medical students (years 6 and 7). Descriptive and chi-square analyses were used to analyze the responses, considering a P-value of extracurricular research activities. Of the 150 participants (response rate = 85.7%), 26 (17.3%), 68 (45.3%), 52 (34.7%), and 17 (11.3%) had published their required medical school research, presented abstracts in conferences, conducted extracurricular research, and completed a research elective/course, respectively; 99 (66.0%) took part in any of these activities. Participants who read medical journals regularly (81; 54%) reported higher participation in extracurricular research activities than those who did not read journals (P=0.003). Improving the availability of mentors for students' extracurricular research was ranked by the participants as the most important factor to improve their participation in extracurricular research (4.05/5.00). Despite the lack of adequate support, extracurricular research activities among medical students of KU were comparable to students from other countries. Barriers for these activities should be addressed by KU medical educators in order to enhance research activities among the students.

  1. Naval Medical Research and Development News. Volume 7, Issue 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    waterborne disease, is characterized by fever, cramps and sometimes severe bloody diarrhea,” said Cmdr. Christopher Duplessis, lead researcher in...them with the command’s capabilities and prepare them for space flight. The astronauts spent two hours in NMRI’s low-pressure chamber and were...subjected to an atmosphere of three percent carbon dioxide. A NASA documentary film of this shows the astronauts huddled in the chamber dressed in

  2. A brief review of plagiarism in medical scientific research papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism refers to “adopting someone else’s words, work or ideas and passing them off as one’s own”. It is potentially considered as the most prevalent form of scientific dishonesty discovered in research papers. The present review aims to provide a thorough account of plagiarism to build awareness about all dimensions of plagiarism.The key words “plagiarism”, “types”, “detection” and “consequences” have been applied to retrieve the articles from electronic references such as MEDLINE database. Around five hundred articles have been retrieved. The articles have been subdivided, each group encompassed a dimension of plagiarism. The major findings and updates have been summarized for each topic. The most important reason behind plagiarism as spotted is lack of knowledge about the subject. And when the researchers are trapped with deficient time, in experienced writing skills and the pressure in order get their work published in some decent journals, the authors surreptitiously take access  others’ work and commit plagiarism. Before, detecting plagiarism used to be difficult; however, in recent years,   the journals have devised many plagiarism-detection services and software programs. The current article provides the details on how the journals use these services and software tool to effectively check for plagiarism in submitted manuscripts. In academic settings, plagiarism is a potential devastating offense.Plagiarism is taken as the most common problem in research writing. The most critical way to curb it is to build up awareness about how to cope with this ever increasing problem known as research misconduct.

  3. A brief review of plagiarism in medical scientific research papers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Karami; Gholam Hassan Danaei

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism refers to “adopting someone else’s words, work or ideas and passing them off as one’s own”. It is potentially considered as the most prevalent form of scientific dishonesty discovered in research papers. The present review aims to provide a thorough account of plagiarism to build awareness about all dimensions of plagiarism.The key words “plagiarism”, “types”, “detection” and “consequences” have been applied to...

  4. Naval Medical Research and Development News. Volume 8, Issue 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    day of the meeting there were presentations of ongoing research on the nutrition and energy expenditure of submariners from INM staff members, Lt...before an injury happens and how this has the potential to be a profoundly invaluable tool for clinical decision-making. “Your work extends the...dysfunction and the likelihood of poor cardiovascular health for post-deployment warfighters. We’ve argued that such an understanding will enhance

  5. Naval Medical Research and Development News. Volume 7, Issue 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-27

    receive an overview of NMRC efforts in battling infections such as Malaria and Dengue Fever. There were also in-depth discussions on the research...syndromes (especially dengue and malaria ), antimicrobial resistance and sexually transmitted infections. GEIS promotes, expands and executes strategic...promising results and showed that the body’s resistance to the disease was greater than the “natural or artificial introduction of an antigen.” Soon after

  6. The future of 'pure' medical science: the need for a new specialist professional research system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G; Andras, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Over recent decades, medical research has become mostly an 'applied' science which implicitly aims at steady progress by an accumulation of small improvements, each increment having a high probability of validity. Applied medical science is, therefore, a social system of communications for generating pre-publication peer-reviewed knowledge that is ready for implementation. However, the need for predictability makes modern medical science risk-averse and this is leading to a decline in major therapeutic breakthroughs where new treatments for new diseases are required. There is need for the evolution of a specialized professional research system of pure medial science, whose role would be to generate and critically evaluate radically novel and potentially important theories, techniques, therapies and technologies. Pure science ideas typically have a lower probability of being valid, but the possibility of much greater benefit if they turn out to be true. The domination of medical research by applied criteria means that even good ideas from pure medical science are typically ignored or summarily rejected as being too speculative. Of course, radical and potentially important ideas may currently be published, but at present there is no formal mechanism by which pure science publications may be received, critiqued, evaluated and extended to become suitable for 'application'. Pure medical science needs to evolve to constitute a typical specialized scientific system of formal communications among a professional community. The members of this putative profession would interact via close research groupings, journals, meetings, electronic and web communications--like any other science. Pure medical science units might arise as elite grouping linked to existing world-class applied medical research institutions. However, the pure medical science system would have its own separate aims, procedures for scientific evaluation, institutional organization, funding and support

  7. Medical research - a comparative study of the situation in the RSA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain aspects relating to medical research as seen in other countries could well be adapted to our own needs, such as the introduction of research work communities (as found in Holland), and the establishm,ent of priority research programmes in order to develop areas of neglect (as done in Germany). Adjustments can ...

  8. Supporting Medical Students to Do International Field Research: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Stephen; Parr, Jennifer; Ullah, Zafar; Omar, Maye

    2014-01-01

    Field research can benefit medical students' learning through experiential engagement with research and personal exposure to foreign health systems. However, the off-campus nature of the activity raises challenges for teachers. This article presents a case study that illustrates the benefits and challenges of organising a field research project…

  9. Fostering Educational Research among Medical Teachers: Evaluation of a Faculty Development Program in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Tripti K; Waghmare, Lalitbhushan S; Rawekar, Alka; Mishra, Ved Prakash

    2016-12-01

    Medical education can be enormously benefitted from research. Since clinicians/medical teachers are directly involved in teaching learning processes, they should participate in Educational Research (ER) practices to generate evidence and insights about teaching learning. Faculty Development Program (FDP) has a positive influence amongst health professionals and therefore can prove to be of consequence in instilling a strong educational research culture. Present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of a Faculty Development Fellowship Program in Medical Education to foster educational research culture amongst medical teachers. Study utilized the Kirkpatrick model of program evaluation for evaluating the fellowship program. It aimed to evaluate the third level of the model i.e., "Change in Behaviour" of participants (n=40) after completion of the course. The tool used was a pre-validated survey questionnaire consisting of five items. Study population was sparsely aware about educational research and had never attempted the same (100%) before joining the fellowship program. A 32.5% faculty with average professional experience of seven years undertook new educational projects after the fellowship and knowledge gained during fellowship program helped them in guiding educational research (coded into four categories) at their workplaces. There is a need, to direct effort towards focused training for educational research through FDPs for medical teachers. This will encourage academicians and clinicians to become active in ER and guide policies in Teaching Learning Practices in Medical Education.

  10. The landscape of research on smartphone medical apps: Coherent taxonomy, motivations, open challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muzammil; Al-Haiqi, Ahmed; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Kiah, M L M; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Abdulnabi, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    To survey researchers' efforts in response to the new and disruptive technology of smartphone medical apps, mapping the research landscape form the literature into a coherent taxonomy, and finding out basic characteristics of this emerging field represented on: motivation of using smartphone apps in medicine and healthcare, open challenges that hinder the utility, and the recommendations to improve the acceptance and use of medical apps in the literature. We performed a focused search for every article on (1) smartphone (2) medical or health-related (3) app, in four major databases: MEDLINE, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and IEEE Xplore. Those databases are deemed broad enough to cover both medical and technical literature. The final set included 133 articles. Most articles (68/133) are reviews and surveys that refer to actual apps or the literature to describe medical apps for a specific specialty, disease, or purpose; or to provide a general overview of the technology. Another group (43/133) carried various studies, from evaluation of apps to exploration of desired features when developing them. Few researchers (17/133) presented actual attempts to develop medical apps, or shared their experiences in doing so. The smallest portion (5/133) proposed general frameworks addressing the production or operation of apps. Since 2010, researchers followed the trend of medical apps in several ways, though leaving areas or aspect for further attention. Regardless of their category, articles focus on the challenges that hinder the full utility of medical apps and do recommend mitigations to them. Research on smartphone medical apps is active and various. We hope that this survey contribute to the understanding of the available options and gaps for other researchers to join this line of research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Safety Analysis Report: X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmuer, N.F.; Thomlinson, W.

    1990-02-01

    This report contains a safety analysis for the X17B2 beamline synchrotron medical research facility. Health hazards, risk assessment and building systems are discussed. Reference is made to transvenous coronary angiography. (LSP)

  12. Privacy Act System of Records: Medical and Research Study Records of Human Volunteers, EPA-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Medical and Research Study Records of Human Volunteers System, including who is covered in the system, the purpose of data collection, routine uses for the system's records, and other security procedures.

  13. The new research centre of the Brazilian Petroleum Company in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: The achievements in the thermal performance of air-conditioned buildings in the tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Rafael; Marcondes, Monica Pereira; De Benedetto, Gisele S.; Goncalves, Joana Carla Soares; Duarte, Denise Helena Silva; Ramos, Jose Ovidio [Laboratorio de Conforto Ambiental e Eficiencia Energetica (LABAUT), Departamento de Tecnologia da Arquitetura (AUT), Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo, Universidade de Sao Paulo (FAUUSP), Sao Paulo, Brasil, Rua do Lago, 876, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The study on the thermal performance of the air-conditioned buildings of the new research centre of the Brazilian Petroleum Company, in the tropical climate of Rio de Janeiro, was part of a bigger research and consultancy project involving environmental issues. The architectural design was the subject of a national competition in 2004, encompassing over 100,000 m{sup 2}. According to the design brief, out of the 10 buildings of the new research centre, 7 have to be either completely or partially air-conditioned, due to specific occupation requirements. The challenge for better thermal performance was related to systems' energy efficiency, to the introduction of natural ventilation and to the notion of adaptive comfort, which were verified with the support of thermal dynamic simulations. At the early stages of the assessments, the potential for natural ventilation in the working spaces considering the mixed-mode strategy achieved 30% of occupation hours. However, the development of the design project led to fully air-conditioned working spaces, due to users' references regarding the conventional culture of the office environment. Nevertheless, the overall architectural approach in accordance to the climatic conditions still showed a contribution to the buildings' energy efficiency. (author)

  14. [Research of regional medical consumables reagent logistics system in the modern hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjiong; Zhang, Yanwen; Luo, Xiaochen; Zhang, Qing; Zhu, Jianxin

    2013-09-01

    To explore the modern hospital and regional medical consumable reagents logistics system management. The characteristics of regional logistics, through cooperation between medical institutions within the region, and organize a wide range of special logistics activities, to make reasonable of the regional medical consumable reagents logistics. To set the regional management system, dynamic management systems, supply chain information management system, after-sales service system and assessment system. By the research of existing medical market and medical resources, to establish the regional medical supplies reagents directory and the initial data. The emphasis is centralized dispatch of medical supplies reagents, to introduce qualified logistics company for dispatching, to improve the modern hospital management efficiency, to costs down. Regional medical center and regional community health service centers constitute a regional logistics network, the introduction of medical consumable reagents logistics services, fully embodies integrity level, relevance, purpose, environmental adaptability of characteristics by the medical consumable reagents regional logistics distribution. Modern logistics distribution systems can increase the area of medical consumables reagent management efficiency and reduce costs.

  15. Plucked Human Hair Shafts and Biomolecular Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Schembri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair follicle is a skin integument at the boundary between an organism and its immediate environment. The biological role of the human hair follicle has lost some of its ancestral importance. However, an indepth investigation of this miniorgan reveals hidden complexity with huge research potential. An essential consideration when dealing with human research is the awareness of potential harm and thus the absolute need not to harm—a rule aptly qualified by the Latin term “primum non nocere” (first do no harm. The plucked hair shaft offers such advantages. The use of stem cells found in hair follicles cells is gaining momentum in the field of regenerative medicine. Furthermore, current diagnostic and clinical applications of plucked hair follicles include their use as autologous and/or three-dimensional epidermal equivalents, together with their utilization as surrogate tissue in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies. Consequently, the use of noninvasive diagnostic procedures on hair follicle shafts, posing as a surrogate molecular model for internal organs in the individual patient for a spectrum of human disease conditions, can possibly become a reality in the near future.

  16. Skills Decay in Military Medical Training: A Meta-synthesis of Research Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Amber S; Caridha, Jona; Kunkler, Kevin J

    2018-01-01

    In fiscal year 2012, the Medical Simulation and Information Sciences Research Program released two Skills Decay (SD) research program announcements (PAs) under the Medical Readiness Initiative entitled "Medical Practice Initiative Breadth of Medical Practice & Disease Frequency Exposure (MPI-BMP)" and the "Medical Practice Initiative Procedural Skill Decay and Maintenance (MPI-PSD)." The Office of Naval Research also released a PA entitled "Medical Modeling and Simulation (MM&S) for Military Training and Education." A total investment of $12 M was made. This article provides a meta-synthesis of the Skills Decay research conducted under these efforts. The MSIRRP Medical Simulation Portfolio collected, reviewed, and analyzed the final reports of the Skills Decay research efforts from the three PAs. This paper provides a meta-synthesis of the outcomes of those studies. Focus of this study was to determine if the anticipated goals of the Skills Decay PAs were met as well as to provide a summary of lessons learned to the research community. Fourteen research questions posed by the PAs were structured into four main goals: (1) Skills Decay identification, (2) creation/validity of Skills Decay tools and feasibility and viability of data extraction project, (3) refreshment training to prevent or alleviate Skills Decay project, and (4) Skills Decay education content. Using a combination of training styles, choosing variables known to have Skills Decay predication value, and developing better ways of mining available data that can, in turn, provide feedback to training needs, it is possible for accurate Skills Decay models to be developed. These technologies have the ability not only capture the learner's reaction during the simulation, but to capture the simulation outcomes to predict a medical professional's level of experience and background. Lessons learned from the investments made by the government are extremely important in order to ensure that the outcomes of the

  17. Machine learning, medical diagnosis, and biomedical engineering research - commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth R; Koprowski, Robert; Skufca, Joseph D

    2014-07-05

    A large number of papers are appearing in the biomedical engineering literature that describe the use of machine learning techniques to develop classifiers for detection or diagnosis of disease. However, the usefulness of this approach in developing clinically validated diagnostic techniques so far has been limited and the methods are prone to overfitting and other problems which may not be immediately apparent to the investigators. This commentary is intended to help sensitize investigators as well as readers and reviewers of papers to some potential pitfalls in the development of classifiers, and suggests steps that researchers can take to help avoid these problems. Building classifiers should be viewed not simply as an add-on statistical analysis, but as part and parcel of the experimental process. Validation of classifiers for diagnostic applications should be considered as part of a much larger process of establishing the clinical validity of the diagnostic technique.

  18. Use of Radioactive Beams for Bio-Medical Research

    CERN Multimedia

    Miederer, M; Allen, B

    2002-01-01

    %title\\\\ \\\\With this Proposal we wish to replace the two previous proposals P42 and P48 (corresponding to the ISOLDE Experiments IS330 and IS331, respectively, including the Addendum 1 dated 04.05.94). Based on experimental results obtained during the last four year's research in the framework of the two proposals and considering modern trends in radiopharmaceutical developments we propose as a first main direction to study systematically relationships between physico-chemical parameters, the concentration and specific activity of tracer molecules and the corresponding biological response. This kind of studies requires highest achievable quality and a universality of radio-tracers, available at ISOLDE. Special attention in this concern is paid to bio-specific tracers (receptor-binding ligands, bio-conjugates etc.) aiming to search for new and more efficient radiopharmaceuticals for radionuclide therapy. The second direction is to support clinical radionuclide therapy by a quantitative follow up of the radionu...

  19. Symposium 'methodology in medical education research' organised by the Methodology in Medical Education Research Committee of the German Society of Medical Education May, 25 to 26 2013 at Charité, Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schüttpelz-Brauns, Katrin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, the Methodology in Medical Education Research Committee ran a symposium on “Research in Medical Education” as part of its ongoing faculty development activities. The symposium aimed to introduce to participants educational research methods with a specific focus on research in medical education. Thirty-five participants were able to choose from workshops covering qualitative methods, quantitative methods and scientific writing throughout the one and a half days. The symposium’s evaluation showed participant satisfaction with the format as well as suggestions for future improvement. Consequently, the committee will offer the symposium again in a modified form in proximity to the next annual Congress of the German Society of Medical Education.

  20. Mode 2 Knowledge Production in the Context of Medical Research: A Call for Further Clarifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soofi, Hojjat

    2017-12-11

    The traditional researcher-driven environment of medical knowledge production is losing its dominance with the expansion of, for instance, community-based participatory or participant-led medical research. Over the past few decades, sociologists of science have debated a shift in the production of knowledge from traditional discipline-based (Mode 1) to more socially embedded and transdisciplinary frameworks (Mode 2). Recently, scholars have tried to show the relevance of Mode 2 knowledge production to medical research. However, the existing literature lacks detailed clarifications on how a model of Mode 2 knowledge production can be constructed in the context of medical research. This paper calls for such further clarifications. As a heuristic means, the advocacy for a controversial experimental stem cell therapy (Stamina) is examined. It is discussed that the example cannot be considered a step towards Mode 2 medical knowledge production. Nonetheless, the example brings to the fore some complexities of medical knowledge production that need to be further examined including: (1) the shifting landscape of defining and addressing vulnerability of research participants, (2) the emerging overlap between research and practice, and (3) public health implications of revising the standard notions of quality control and accountability.

  1. Integrating consumer engagement in health and medical research - an Australian framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Caroline L; Mott, Kathy; Cousins, Michael; Miller, Stephanie; Johnson, Anne; Lawson, Tony; Wesselingh, Steve

    2017-02-10

    Quality practice of consumer engagement is still in its infancy in many sectors of medical research. The South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI) identified, early in its development, the opportunity to integrate evidence-driven consumer and community engagement into its operations. SAHMRI partnered with Health Consumers Alliance and consumers in evidence generation. A Partnership Steering Committee of researchers and consumers was formed for the project. An iterative mixed-method qualitative process was used to generate a framework for consumer engagement. This process included a literature review followed by semi-structured interviews with experts in consumer engagement and lead medical researchers, group discussions and a consensus workshop with the Partnership Steering Committee, facilitated by Health Consumer Alliance. The literature revealed a dearth of evidence about effective consumer engagement methodologies. Four organisational dimensions are reported to contribute to success, namely governance, infrastructure, capacity and advocacy. Key themes identified through the stakeholder interviews included sustained leadership, tangible benefits, engagement strategies should be varied, resourcing, a moral dimension, and challenges. The consensus workshop produced a framework and tangible strategies. Comprehensive examples of consumer participation in health and medical research are limited. There are few documented studies of what techniques are effective. This evidence-driven framework, developed in collaboration with consumers, is being integrated in a health and medical research institute with diverse programs of research. This framework is offered as a contribution to the evidence base around meaningful consumer engagement and as a template for other research institutions to utilise.

  2. A data protection scheme for medical research networks. Review after five years of operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, K; Demiroglu, S Y; Rakebrandt, F; Pommerening, K; Rienhoff, O; Sax, U

    2010-01-01

    The data protection requirements matured in parallel to new clinical tests generating more personal data since the 1960s. About ten years ago it was recognized that a generic data protection scheme for medical research networks is required, which reinforces patient rights but also allows economically feasible medical research compared to "hand-carved" individual solutions. To give recommendations for more efficient IT infrastructures for medical research networks in compliance with data protection requirements. The IT infrastructures of three medical research networks were reviewed with respect to the relevant data management modules. Recommendations are derived to increase cost efficiency in research networks assessing the consequences of a service provider approach without lowering the data protection level. The existing data protection schemes are very complex. Smaller research networks cannot afford the implementation of such schemes. Larger networks struggle to keep them sustainable. Due to a modular redesign in the medical research network community, a new approach offers opportunities for an efficient sustainable IT infrastructure involving a service provider concept. For standard components 70-80% of the costs could be cut down, for open source components about 37% over a three-year period. Future research networks should switch to a service-oriented approach to achieve a sustainable, cost-efficient IT infrastructure.

  3. Dominance of foreign citations in Brazilian orthopedics journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Rosa, Rita de Cássia Rodrigues; de Barros, Rui Sergio Monteiro; Botelho, Nara Macedo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether there is any preference for citing journals from other countries to the detriment of Brazilian journals, in three Brazilian orthopedics journals. All the references of articles published in 2011 by the journals Acta Ortopédica Brasileira, Coluna/Columna and Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia were evaluated to as certain how many of these came from Brazilian journals and how many from foreign journals. 3813 references distributed among 187 articles were analyzed. Out of this total, 306 (8.02%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no difference between the three journals analyzed. There were 76 articles (40.64%) without any citations of articles in Brazilian journals and only two articles (1%) cited more Brazilian articles than articles published elsewhere. There is a need for Brazilian researchers to cite articles from Brazilian journals more often.

  4. Emerging medical informatics research trends detection based on MeSH terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Peng-Hui; Yao, Qiang; Mao, Jin; Zhang, Shi-Jing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the research trends of medical informatics over the last 12 years. A new method based on MeSH terms was proposed to identify emerging topics and trends of medical informatics research. Informetric methods and visualization technologies were applied to investigate research trends of medical informatics. The metric of perspective factor (PF) embedding MeSH terms was appropriately employed to assess the perspective quality for journals. The emerging MeSH terms have changed dramatically over the last 12 years, identifying two stages of medical informatics: the "medical imaging stage" and the "medical informatics stage". The focus of medical informatics has shifted from acquisition and storage of healthcare data by integrating computational, informational, cognitive and organizational sciences to semantic analysis for problem solving and clinical decision-making. About 30 core journals were determined by Bradford's Law in the last 3 years in this area. These journals, with high PF values, have relative high perspective quality and lead the trend of medical informatics.

  5. Foregrounding possibilities and backgrounding exploitation in transnational medical research projects in Lusaka, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Today medical research funded by resourceful commercial companies and philanthropic organizations increasingly takes place in much less resourceful settings across the globe. Recent academic studies of this trend have observed how global inequalities have shaped the movements of this research...... the projects. Concerns were often backgrounded in favor of pragmatic attention to—and active creation of—possibilities that might stretch well beyond the purpose and time limit of individual research projects. The article illuminates how intimately the ambiguities and possible scenarios of exploitation...... inherent in transnational medical research projects are intertwined with scenarios of possibility....

  6. Maori responsiveness in health and medical research: key issues for researchers (part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporle, Andrew; Koea, Jonathan

    2004-08-06

    Application for contestable government-research funding and ethical approval requires researchers to outline how their intended research project contributes to Maori development or advancement. When formulating their research proposals, the key issues for researchers are research utility, defining Maori, informed consent, confidentiality, issues with human tissues and genetic material, participant remuneration and recognition (koha), intellectual property, and involvement of local Maori health or social services. The most common Maori responsiveness issues in research applications can be readily approached by researchers who address straightforward methodological concerns, by working through precedents established by peers and colleagues, as well as by working with end-users of their research.

  7. Paucity of qualitative research in general medical and health services and policy research journals: analysis of publication rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Qualitative research has the potential to inform and improve health care decisions but a study based on one year of publications suggests that it is not published in prominent health care journals. A more detailed, longitudinal analysis of its availability is needed. The purpose of this study was to identify, count and compare the number of qualitative and non-qualitative research studies published in high impact health care journals, and explore trends in these data over the last decade. Methods A bibliometric approach was used to identify and quantify qualitative articles published in 20 top general medical and health services and policy research journals from 1999 to 2008. Eligible journals were selected based on performance in four different ranking systems reported in the 2008 ISI Journal Citation Reports. Qualitative and non-qualitative research published in these journals were identified by searching MEDLINE, and validated by hand-searching tables of contents for four journals. Results The total number of qualitative research articles published during 1999 to 2008 in ten general medical journals ranged from 0 to 41, and in ten health services and policy research journals from 0 to 39. Over this period the percentage of empirical research articles that were qualitative ranged from 0% to 0.6% for the general medical journals, and 0% to 6.4% for the health services and policy research journals. Conclusions This analysis suggests that qualitative research it is rarely published in high impact general medical and health services and policy research journals. The factors that contribute to this persistent marginalization need to be better understood. PMID:21992238

  8. Artificial gravity in space and in medical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardus, D.

    1994-01-01

    The history of manned space flight has repeatedly documented the fact that prolonged sojourn in space causes physiological deconditioning. Physiological deterioration has raised a legitimate concern about man's ability to adequately perform in the course of long missions and even the possibility of leading to circumstances threatening survival. One of the possible countermeasures of physiological deconditioning, theoretically more complete than others presently used since it affects all bodily systems, is artificial gravity. Space stations and spacecrafts can be equipped with artificial gravity, but is artificial gravity necessary? The term "necessary" must be qualified because a meaningful answer to the question depends entirely on further defining the purpose of space travel. If man intends to stay only temporarily in space, then he must keep himself in good physical condition so as to be able to return to earth or to land on any other planetary surface without undue exposure to major physiological problems resulting from transition through variable gravitational fields. Such a situation makes artificial gravity highly desirable, although perhaps not absolutely necessary in the case of relative short exposure to microgravity, but certainly necessary in interplanetary flight and planetary landings. If the intent is to remain indefinitely in space, to colonize space, then artificial gravity may not be necessary, but in this case the consequences of long term effects of adaptation to weightlessness will have to be weighed against the biological evolutionary outcomes that are to be expected. At the moment, plans for establishing permanent colonies in space seem still remote. More likely, the initial phase of exploration of the uncharted solar system will take place through successive, scope limited, research ventures ending with return to earth. This will require man to be ready to operate in gravitational fields of variable intensity. Equipping spacecrafts or space

  9. WORK EXPERIENCE OF THE OPERA TIVE INFORMATION SUPPORT SERVICE FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH A T THE MEDICAL RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH CENTER NAMED AFTER A.F . TSYB – BRANCH OF THE FEDERAL STATE BUDGET INSTITUTION "NATIONAL MEDICAL RESEARCH RADIOLOGICAL CENTER” OF T

    OpenAIRE

    N. P. Savina; V. A. Maznev; V. N. Galkin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:The Operative Information Support Service for Scientific Research of the Medical Radiological Research Center named after A. F. Tsyb — Branch of the FSBI «National Medical Research Radiological Center” of the RF Health Ministry presented a report on providing off-budget support for scientific activities over the period from 1993 to 2014 using domestic and foreign information resources. The dynamics of employee activities in institutional sectors with aim to receive financial support ...

  10. A Research Agenda to Advance the Coordination of Care for General Medical and Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Amity E; Rubinsky, Anna D; Fernandez, Anne C; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2017-04-01

    The separation of addiction care from the general medical care system has a negative impact on patients' receipt of high-quality medical care. Clinical and policy-level strategies to improve the coordination of addiction care and general medical care include identifying and engaging patients with unhealthy substance use in general medical settings, providing effective chronic disease management of substance use disorders in primary care, including patient and family perspectives in care coordination, and implementing pragmatic models to pay for the coordination of addiction and general medical care. This Open Forum discusses practice and research recommendations to advance the coordination of general medical and addiction care. The discussion is based on the proceedings of a national meeting of experts in 2014.

  11. Research during medical school: is it particularly difficult in developing countries compared to developed countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddaiah-Subramanya M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Manjunath Siddaiah-Subramanya,1,2 Harveen Singh,3 Kor Woi Tiang1,2 1Department of Surgery, Logan Hospital, 2Department of Medicine, Griffith University, 3Department of Gastroenterology, Lady Cilento Children’s Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Objectives: Medical student involvement in research has been declining over the years. We reviewed the factors that hinder participation in research with a focus on developing countries. Methods: Literature search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library. Peer-reviewed articles published between 1995 and 2017 were screened for relevance to identify key factors affecting medical student involvement in research with a particular focus on developing world. Analytical review is presented here in this article in relation to commonly reported aspects related to research during medical school. Results: This search revealed varied contributing factors that hinder students’ growth and interest in research. It commonly highlighted few aspects in relation to research during medical school, and they were “variability in research uptake among students and issues related to them, their knowledge and attitude toward research and organizational input and its influence on students”. Conclusion: While early introduction to research by inculcating a mindset aimed at research has been proposed, it has not been seen in practice during either the medical school or beyond to an extent that was expected. It appears that developing countries, while they share some of the reasons with developed countries, have their own set of difficulties, which are influenced by culture, beliefs and priorities. Keywords: developing country, developed country, medical student, undergraduate, research 

  12. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  13. Community action research track: Community-based participatory research and service-learning experiences for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimpel, Nora; Kindratt, Tiffany; Dawson, Alvin; Pagels, Patti

    2018-01-26

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) and service-learning are unique experiential approaches designed to train medical students how to provide individualized patient care from a population perspective. Medical schools in the US are required to provide support for service-learning and community projects. Despite this requirement, few medical schools offer structured service-learning. We developed the Community Action Research Track (CART) to integrate population medicine, health promotion/disease prevention and the social determinants of health into the medical school curriculum through CBPR and service-learning experiences. This article provides an overview of CART and reports the program impact based on students' participation, preliminary evaluations and accomplishments. CART is an optional 4‑year service-learning experience for medical students interested in community health. The curriculum includes a coordinated longitudinal program of electives, community service-learning and lecture-based instruction. From 2009-2015, 146 CART students participated. Interests in public health (93%), community service (73%), primary care (73%), CBPR (60%) and community medicine (60%) were the top reasons for enrolment. Significant improvements in mean knowledge were found when measuring the principles of CBPR, levels of prevention, determining health literacy and patient communication strategies (all p's community-responsive physicians. CART can be replicated by other medical schools interested in offering a longitudinal CBPR and service-learning track in an urban metropolitan setting.

  14. Conflicts of interest in medical research: how much conflict should exceed legal boundaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanica, Kaley

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the current plague of financially conflicted research from various perspectives including the research community, the medical community, patients/subjects, the Food and Drug Administration (F.D.A.), and other government agencies. Part one lays out the current conflicts of interest within medical research. Part two explains the actual and potential effects of these conflicts, highlighting the conflict of interest associated with the death of Jesse Gelsinger. Part three describes how conflicts of interest are currently regulated by government agencies and within individual institutions. Lastly, part four concludes by recommending a system of seven balanced reform measures that protect research subjects and the scientific integrity of medical research while encouraging scientific progress.

  15. What is a good medical decision? A research agenda guided by perspectives from multiple stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jada G.; Lillie, Sarah E.; Alden, Dana L.; Scherer, Laura; Oser, Megan; Rini, Christine; Tanaka, Miho; Baleix, John; Brewster, Mikki; Lee, Simon Craddock; Goldstein, Mary K.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Myers, Ronald E.; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J.; Waters, Erika A.

    2016-01-01

    Informed and shared decision making are critical aspects of patient-centered care, which has contributed to an emphasis on decision support interventions to promote good medical decision making. However, researchers and healthcare providers have not reached a consensus on what defines a good decision, nor how to evaluate it. This position paper, informed by conference sessions featuring diverse stakeholders held at the 2015 Society of Behavioral Medicine and Society for Medical Decision Making annual meetings, describes key concepts that influence the decision making process itself and that may change what it means to make a good decision: interpersonal factors, structural constraints, affective influences, and values clarification methods. This paper also proposes specific research questions within each of these priority areas, with the goal of moving medical decision making research to a more comprehensive definition of a good medical decision, and enhancing the ability to measure and improve the decision making process. PMID:27566316

  16. Important steps to improve translation from medical research to health policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Fan; Zhang Jun; Wang Xiangdong; Shen Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Translational medicine entails not only “from-bench-to-bedside” but also preventive medicine. The present article proposes a conceptual framework of translational research from scientific research to health care policy and public health policy. We highlight the importance of translational medicine to bridge between research and policy and share our experience of translating medical research to public health policy in China as well as obstacles and challenges we are facing in the tran...

  17. [The network organization of medical research in the US Armed Forces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golota, A S; Zubenko, A I; Ivchenko, E V; Krassiĭ, A B; Shalakhin, R A

    2014-03-01

    The current article is dedicated to the network mode of medical scientific research organization in the US Armed Forces exploring the Armed Forces Institute of Regenerative Medicine as an example. The following features of the institute are examined: the structure, definition of scientific research goals and tasks, financing, management, areas of research, the next generation of the institute. In conclusion some characteristic features of network scientific research establishment and required legal conditions are determined.

  18. Building and executing a research agenda toward conducting implementation science in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Carney

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Implementation science (IS is the study of methods that successfully integrate best evidence into practice. Although typically applied in healthcare settings to improve patient care and subsequent outcomes, IS also has immediate and practical applications to medical education toward improving physician training and educational outcomes. The objective of this article is to illustrate how to build a research agenda that focuses on applying IS principles in medical education. Approach: We examined the literature to construct a rationale for using IS to improve medical education. We then used a generalizable scenario to step through a process for applying IS to improve team-based care. Perspectives: IS provides a valuable approach to medical educators and researchers for making improvements in medical education and overcoming institution-based challenges. It encourages medical educators to systematically build upon the research outcomes of others to guide decision-making while evaluating the successes of best practices in individual environments and generate additional research questions and findings. Conclusions: IS can act as both a driver and a model for educational research to ensure that best educational practices are easier and faster to implement widely.

  19. Two h-index benchmarks for evaluating the publication performance of medical informatics researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Emam, Khaled; Arbuckle, Luk; Jonker, Elizabeth; Anderson, Kevin

    2012-10-18

    The h-index is a commonly used metric for evaluating the publication performance of researchers. However, in a multidisciplinary field such as medical informatics, interpreting the h-index is a challenge because researchers tend to have diverse home disciplines, ranging from clinical areas to computer science, basic science, and the social sciences, each with different publication performance profiles. To construct a reference standard for interpreting the h-index of medical informatics researchers based on the performance of their peers. Using a sample of authors with articles published over the 5-year period 2006-2011 in the 2 top journals in medical informatics (as determined by impact factor), we computed their h-index using the Scopus database. Percentiles were computed to create a 6-level benchmark, similar in scheme to one used by the US National Science Foundation, and a 10-level benchmark. The 2 benchmarks can be used to place medical informatics researchers in an ordered category based on the performance of their peers. A validation exercise mapped the benchmark levels to the ranks of medical informatics academic faculty in the United States. The 10-level benchmark tracked academic rank better (with no ties) and is therefore more suitable for practical use. Our 10-level benchmark provides an objective basis to evaluate and compare the publication performance of medical informatics researchers with that of their peers using the h-index.

  20. Building and executing a research agenda toward conducting implementation science in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Patricia A; Crites, Gerald E; Miller, Karen H; Haight, Michelle; Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Cichoskikelly, Eileen; Price, David W; Akinola, Modupeola O; Scott, Victoria C; Kalishman, Summers

    2016-01-01

    Implementation science (IS) is the study of methods that successfully integrate best evidence into practice. Although typically applied in healthcare settings to improve patient care and subsequent outcomes, IS also has immediate and practical applications to medical education toward improving physician training and educational outcomes. The objective of this article is to illustrate how to build a research agenda that focuses on applying IS principles in medical education. We examined the literature to construct a rationale for using IS to improve medical education. We then used a generalizable scenario to step through a process for applying IS to improve team-based care. IS provides a valuable approach to medical educators and researchers for making improvements in medical education and overcoming institution-based challenges. It encourages medical educators to systematically build upon the research outcomes of others to guide decision-making while evaluating the successes of best practices in individual environments and generate additional research questions and findings. IS can act as both a driver and a model for educational research to ensure that best educational practices are easier and faster to implement widely.